Science.gov

Sample records for modern diagnostic methods

  1. [Syndrome of diabetic foot: modern diagnostic methods].

    PubMed

    Plekhanov, A N; Markevich, P S

    2014-01-01

    We summarize the literature data on diagnostics of diabetic foot syndrome including clinical examination and special invasive and non-invasive studies of the vascular system. The main methods are ultrasound dopplerography, X-ray contrast angiography, and ultrasound duplex scanning. Special attention is given to instrumental diagnostics of diabetic neuropathies. The golden standard for the evaluation of the function of the peripheral nervous system is electroneuromyography. Methods for the study of diabetic foot complications, such as osteoarthropathy and trophic ulcers, are discussed. PMID:25782303

  2. [Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].

    PubMed

    Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Małgorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders. PMID:17471820

  3. [THE DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF MODERN METHODS OF MICROBIOLOGICAL VERIFICATION OF COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA IN CLINICAL PRACTICE].

    PubMed

    Mavzyutova, G A; Kuzovkina, O Z; Mirsayapova, I A

    2015-12-01

    The study was carried out to determine etiological structure and informativeness of different methods of detection of agents of community-acquired pneumonia, the sampling included 274 examined patients aged from 16 to 80 years with community-acquired pneumonia of different degree of severity and being under hospital treatment. Besides of standard laboratory and clinical methods of examination ofpatients with community-acquired pneumonia special techniques of etiological verification were applied: molecular genetic analysis (polymerase chain reaction) of phlegm, qualitative detection of antigen Legionella pneumophila of serogroup 1 and antigen Streptococcus pneumoniae in samples of urine using quick immune chromatographic test, detection of level of serum specific immunoglobulines class M and G to Chlamidophilia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pListeria monocytogenes in dynamics using immunoenzyme technique. The etiological structure of community-acquired pneumonia was established based of study results. The analysis of informativeness of different methods of etiological verification of diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia demonstrated that combination ofpolymerase chain reaction and serological method is the optimal one. PMID:27032250

  4. Modern Methods of Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seeber, F

    1939-01-01

    After a brief survey of the commonly used single-value test methods, the importance of the determination of the incipient knock for the octane number is discussed and improvements suggested for the knock testing in the CFR engine. The DVL supercharge test method with its superiority of direct determination of fuel knock in each single cylinder of an airplane engine without involving structural changes, is described and the advantages of a multiple-value method enumerated. A diagrammatic presentation of the knock characteristics is presented.

  5. Modern diagnostics of Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    PubMed

    Sta?czak, Janusz J; Majchrzak, Micha? J; Sta?czak, Grzegorz P

    2005-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is the most common agent of sexually transmitted infections. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranges from urethritis to infertility in women and to trachoma. Intracellular localisation of the pathogen creates a challenge for routine diagnostics. In this review possible diagnostic tests have been presented, varying from classic cell culture analysis and serodiagnostics (Enzyme-linked Immunoassays, Indirect Immunofluorescence) to the most sophisticated nucleic acid analyses (hybridisation, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Transcription Mediated Amplification, Ligase Chain Reaction), Advantages and disadvantages of the leading tests are discussed. Possible reasons of false positive as well as false negative results of genetic testing are presented. PMID:16082060

  6. Modernized active spectroscopic diagnostics (CXRS) of the T-10 tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Krupin, V. A. Klyuchnikov, L. A. Korobov, K. V. Nemets, A. R. Nurgaliev, M. R.; Gorbunov, A. V.; Naumenko, N. N.; Troynov, V. I.; Tugarinov, S. N.; Fomin, F. V.

    2015-12-15

    This work presents the results of modernization of the CXRS (charge exchange recombination spectroscopy) diagnostics [1] at the T-10 tokamak. The relevance of this work is due to the importance of measurements of the ion temperature and nuclei density of the working gas and impurities for analysis of transport processes in the plasma ion component. Measurements of radial profiles of the ion temperature are extremely important for investigating the geodesic acoustic mode behavior which is conducted at the T-10 [2]. The modernized scheme of CXRS measurements, as well as the design and operational features of the spectrometer created for the new diagnostics, is described. Principles of data recording and further processing are considered in detail; attention is given to the problem of calibration of the whole complex of equipment. The performed changes in diagnostics allow the measurements to be taken simultaneously in three spectral intervals: in the region of the beam line H{sub α}, the CXRS line of carbon ion C{sup 5+}, and the CXRS line of one of the hydrogen-like ions: He{sup 1+}, Li{sup 2+}, N{sup 6+}, O{sup 7+} or Ne{sup 9+}. This makes it possible to measure the density profiles of two plasma impurities simultaneously, as well as the ion temperature from CXRS lines of different elements. The modernized diagnostics significantly broadens the possibilities of studying the physics of transport processes and quasi-coherent modes of plasma oscillations at the T-10.

  7. Modernized active spectroscopic diagnostics (CXRS) of the T-10 tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupin, V. A.; Klyuchnikov, L. A.; Korobov, K. V.; Nemets, A. R.; Nurgaliev, M. R.; Gorbunov, A. V.; Naumenko, N. N.; Troynov, V. I.; Tugarinov, S. N.; Fomin, F. V.

    2015-12-01

    This work presents the results of modernization of the CXRS (charge exchange recombination spectroscopy) diagnostics [1] at the T-10 tokamak. The relevance of this work is due to the importance of measurements of the ion temperature and nuclei density of the working gas and impurities for analysis of transport processes in the plasma ion component. Measurements of radial profiles of the ion temperature are extremely important for investigating the geodesic acoustic mode behavior which is conducted at the T-10 [2]. The modernized scheme of CXRS measurements, as well as the design and operational features of the spectrometer created for the new diagnostics, is described. Principles of data recording and further processing are considered in detail; attention is given to the problem of calibration of the whole complex of equipment. The performed changes in diagnostics allow the measurements to be taken simultaneously in three spectral intervals: in the region of the beam line Hα, the CXRS line of carbon ion C5+, and the CXRS line of one of the hydrogen-like ions: He1+, Li2+, N6+, O7+ or Ne9+. This makes it possible to measure the density profiles of two plasma impurities simultaneously, as well as the ion temperature from CXRS lines of different elements. The modernized diagnostics significantly broadens the possibilities of studying the physics of transport processes and quasi-coherent modes of plasma oscillations at the T-10.

  8. Computational Chemistry Using Modern Electronic Structure Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Stephen; Dines, Trevor J.; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Withnall, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Various modern electronic structure methods are now days used to teach computational chemistry to undergraduate students. Such quantum calculations can now be easily used even for large size molecules.

  9. MODERN ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR MYCOTOXINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the early discovery of mycotoxins, the development of methods to detect these toxic secondary metabolites of fungi has progressed enormously. The wide variety of mycotoxins and the variety of commodities, foods, and feeds in which they can be found has necessitated the development of a large ...

  10. A Brief Introduction to Modern Amplitude Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Lance J.

    I provide a basic introduction to modern helicity amplitude methods, including color organization, the spinor helicity formalism, and factorization properties. I also describe the BCFW (on-shell) recursion relation at tree level, and explain how similar ideas -- unitarity and on-shell methods -- work at the loop level. These notes are based on lectures delivered at the 2012 CERN Summer School and at TASI 2013, and are close to the material Zvi Bern lectured on at TASI 2014.

  11. Basics, principles, techniques and modern methods in paediatric ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Riccabona, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is the mainstay of paediatric Radiology. This review aims at revisiting basic US principles, to list specific needs throughout childhood, and to discuss the application of new and modern US methods. The various sections elude to basic US physics, technical requisites and tips for handling, diagnostically valuable applications of modern techniques, and how to properly address hazards, risks and limitations. In conclusion, US holds vast potential throughout childhood in almost all body regions and many childhood specific queries - helping to reduce the need for or to optimize more invasive or irradiating imaging. Make the most of US and offerings a dedicated paediatric US service throughout the day, the week and the year thus is and will stay a major task of Paediatric Radiology. PMID:24932845

  12. [Real time diagnostics of instantaneous temperature of combustion and explosion process by modern spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-tie; Wang, Jun-de; Li, Yan; Liu, Da-bing

    2003-04-01

    The combustion temperature is one of the important parameters to express flame combustion and explosion characteristics. It will effectively guide the design and manufacture of new model explosives, industrial explosive materials, and weapons. The recent developments and applications of real time diagnostics of instantaneous temperature of combustion and explosion processes by modern spectroscopic methods, such as atomic absorption-emission method, atomic emission two-line spectroscopy, atomic emission multiline spectroscopy, molecular rotation-vibration spectroscopy, coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and plane laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), were reviewed in this paper. The maximum time resolution of atomic absorption-emission method is 25 microseconds. The time resolution of atomic emission two-line spectroscopy can reach 0.1 microsecond. These two methods can completely suit the need of real time and instantaneous temperature diagnostics of violent explosion and flame combustion. Other methods will also provide new effective research methods for the processes and characteristics of combustion, flame and explosion. PMID:12961909

  13. [Diabetic macular edema--modern diagnostics and treatment].

    PubMed

    Wylegała, Edward; Mańkowski, Wojciech; Pilat, Jarosław; Teper, Sławomir; Skupień-Mańkowska, Hanna

    2010-07-01

    Diabetic macular edema is very important medical and social problem and major cause of severe and permanent visual acuity depression in the working-age population. Rapid diagnostics with optical coherence tomography, color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography and appropriate treatment in patients with diabetes stops or retards progress of diabetic macular edema. PMID:20712253

  14. A modern diagnostic approach for automobile systems condition monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selig, M.; Shi, Z.; Ball, A.; Schmidt, K.

    2012-05-01

    An important topic in automotive research and development is the area of active and passive safety systems. In general, it is grouped in active safety systems to prevent accidents and passive systems to reduce the impact of a crash. An example for an active system is ABS while a seat belt tensioner represents the group of passive systems. Current developments in the automotive industry try to link active with passive system components to enable a complete event sequence, beginning with the warning of the driver about a critical situation till the automatic emergency call after an accident. The cross-linking has an impact on the current diagnostic approach, which is described in this paper. Therefore, this contribution introduces a new diagnostic approach for automotive mechatronic systems. The concept is based on monitoring the messages which are exchanged via the automotive communication systems, e.g. the CAN bus. According to the authors' assumption, the messages on the bus are changing between faultless and faulty vehicle condition. The transmitted messages of the sensors and control units are different depending on the condition of the car. First experiments are carried and in addition, the hardware design of a suitable diagnostic interface is presented. Finally, first results will be presented and discussed.

  15. Modern Methods for Interrogating the Human Connectome

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Mark J.; Sakaie, Ken E.; Beall, Erik B.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Bridwell, David A.; Rubinov, Mikail; Rao, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Connectionist theories of brain function took hold with the seminal contributions of Norman Geschwind a half century ago. Modern neuroimaging techniques have expanded the scientific interest in the study of brain connectivity to include the intact as well as disordered brain. Method In this review, we describe the most common techniques used to measure functional and structural connectivity, including resting state functional MRI, diffusion MRI, and electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography coherence. We also review the most common analytical approaches used for examining brain interconnectivity associated with these various imaging methods. Results This review presents a critical analysis of the assumptions, as well as methodological limitations, of each imaging and analysis approach. Conclusions The overall goal of this review is to provide the reader with an introduction to evaluating the scientific methods underlying investigations that probe the human connectome. PMID:26888611

  16. MODERN ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR CHEMICAL RESIDUE DETECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements in instrumentation and methodology in the past decade have made the detection of chemical residues in foods not only faster but also less expensive and more sensitive. These modern analytical tools provide an efficient and affordable means to monitor the food supply for chemical residu...

  17. Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice. PMID:17579968

  18. Overview of computational structural methods for modern military aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudva, J. N.

    1992-01-01

    Computational structural methods are essential for designing modern military aircraft. This briefing deals with computational structural methods (CSM) currently used. First a brief summary of modern day aircraft structural design procedures is presented. Following this, several ongoing CSM related projects at Northrop are discussed. Finally, shortcomings in this area, future requirements, and summary remarks are given.

  19. Tomographic methods in flow diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a viewpoint of tomography that should be well adapted to currently available optical measurement technology as well as the needs of computational and experimental fluid dynamists. The goals in mind are to record data with the fastest optical array sensors; process the data with the fastest parallel processing technology available for small computers; and generate results for both experimental and theoretical data. An in-depth example treats interferometric data as it might be recorded in an aeronautics test facility, but the results are applicable whenever fluid properties are to be measured or applied from projections of those properties. The paper discusses both computed and neural net calibration tomography. The report also contains an overview of key definitions and computational methods, key references, computational problems such as ill-posedness, artifacts, missing data, and some possible and current research topics.

  20. Leaf Histology--Two Modern Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    Two methods for examining leaf structure are presented; both methods involve use of "superglue." The first method uses the glue to form a thin, permanent, direct replica of a leaf surface on a microscope slide. The second method uses the glue to examine the three-dimensional structure of spongy mesophyll. (JN)

  1. [Clinical significance of modern methods of corneal assessment].

    PubMed

    Avetisov, S E; Egorova, G B; Kobzova, M V; Mitichkina, T S; Rogova, A Ia

    2013-01-01

    The article observes the application experience of modern methods of corneal refraction and structure evaluation. Comprehension of computer-assisted videokeratography is high enough to diagnose corneal astigmatism, keratoconus, early-stage corneal dystrophies, and corneal topography changes resulting from a variety of factors. Scanning projecting keratography provides information on both anterior and posterior corneal topography and elevation, as well as corneal thickness in each point of central area. Aberrometry can be used for estimation of the impact of different factors on corneal optical properties and assess the possibility for correction of resultant disturbances. Confocal microscopy allows to evaluate morphological changes in keratoconus and corneal dystrophies and also diagnose acanthamoeba keratitis. Optical coherence tomography provides the possibility of whole cornea assessment, however, with much less magnification in comparison to confocal microscopy. Improved tearscopy with computed analysis of interference digital images ("Lacrima" software) enables evaluation of lipid layer thickness and structure in normal and impaired tear film (like in dry eye syndrome), as well as the influence of different factors and therapeutic measures. Topographical pachymetry data is the most valuable for diagnostics and monitoring of keratoconus. PMID:24261277

  2. Low-pressure plasma diagnostic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnostic techniques have been recently developed that permit the determination of the deviation from local thermal equilibrium (LTE) in subatmospheric electric arcs and plasma jets. A review is presented of the methods that are applicable to MPD and arcjet thruster plasmas but that have not been used in space propulsion research. Appropriate plasma diagnostics can lead to increased thrust, better nozzle design, and improved modeling capabilities. These methods include nonintrusive techniques, and can determine the electron, gas, and total excitation, temperatures, as well as the electron and atom densities, without using LTE or partial LTE assumptions. General relations for analysis and experimental results for argon constricted arcs, an arc in a rotating magnetic field, and plasma torch jets are presented. The methods discussed can also be applied to plasma mixtures. 23 refs.

  3. PREFACE: IX International Conference on Modern Techniques of Plasma Diagnostics and their Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savjolov, A. S.; Dodulad, E. I.

    2016-01-01

    The IX Conference on ''Modern Techniques of Plasma Diagnosis and their Application'' was held on 5 - 7 November, 2014 at National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (NRNU MEPhI). The goal of the conference was an exchange of information on both high-temperature and low-temperature plasma diagnostics as well as deliberation and analysis of various diagnostic techniques and their applicability in science, industry, ecology, medicine and other fields. The Conference also provided young scientists from scientific centres and universities engaged in plasma diagnostics with an opportunity to attend the lectures given by the leading specialists in this field as well as present their own results and findings. The first workshop titled ''Modern problems of plasma diagnostics and their application for control of chemicals and the environment'' took place at Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute (MEPhI) in June 1998 with the support of the Section on Diagnostics of the Council of Russian Academic of Science on Plasma Physics and since then these forums have been held at MEPhI every two years. In 2008 the workshop was assigned a conference status. More than 150 specialists on plasma diagnostics and students took part in the last conference. They represented leading Russian scientific centres (such as Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Thermonuclear Research, National Research Centre ''Kurchatov Institute'', Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics and others) and universities from Belarus, Ukraine, Germany, USA, Belgium and Sweden. About 30 reports were made by young researchers, students and post-graduate students. All presentations during the conference were broadcasted online over the internet with viewers in Moscow, Prague, St. Petersburgh and other cities. The Conference was held within the framework of the Centre of Plasma, Laser Research and Technology supported by MEPhI Academic Excellence Project (Russian Ministry of Education and Science contract 02.•03.21.0005 of August 27th 2013). Papers selected by the Program Committee for publishing were reviewed under control of invited editors Prof. Andrey Kukushkin, Dr. Sci. Alexander Kukushkin, Dr. Sci. Elena Baronova, Dr. Emil Dodulad. We would like to thank heartily all of the speakers, participants and organizing committee members for their contribution to the conference

  4. [Historical survey of modern reversible contraceptive methods].

    PubMed

    Mbabajende, V

    1986-04-01

    Because of contraception, pregnancy need not be viewed by women as punishment for sexual activity but as a planned and desired event. Most of the contraceptive methods used in developing countries at present were introduced during the 1960s, but use of contraception has a long history and some methods date back to antiquity. Contraceptive pills were already used around 2000 BC in the form of mercury and arsenic tablets. Their effectiveness was questionable. The role of hormones in human reproduction began to be understood only in the early 1900s. The discovery of progesterone in a Mexican iguana in the 1940s permitted production of progesterone on a large scale. Estrogens had been identified around 1930. Human trials of a contraceptive pill beginning in 1956 in Puerto Rico demonstrated that progestins could prevent pregnancy by suppressing ovulation. Later on, estrogen was added to reduce menstrual irregularities. The 1st generation of combined oral contraceptives contained very high levels of hormones associated with high rates of side effects. Numerous formulations with lower hormonal contents became available beginning around 1970 and constitute the principal formulations in use today. A number of long acting hormonal methods based on progestins have been developed, including injectables, some IUDs and vaginal rings, and implants. The 1st commercially available injectable, norethisterone enanthate, did not acquire the wide distribution of medroxyprogesterone acetate, sold as Depo Provera and used to treat various pathological conditions as well as for contraception. The 1st true IUDs were small stones placed within the uteri of camels by nomads to prevent pregnancy during long caravans. An IUD was developed in 1909 by Richter, and the 2 most widely used models before 1960 were the Grafenberg and Ota silver rings. Use of the 2 rings became rare for medical reasons after 1935 despite their efficacy. Safe plastic IUDs which appeared beginning in the early 1960s were flexible and capable of returning to their original shape after insertion. The Lippes loop was the 1st highly successful IUD. Bioactive IUDs containing copper were developed in the 1970s. Research is underway to develop IUDs which will resist expulsion, reduce bleeding, be more appropriate for multiparas, and last longer. IUDs are used to treat intrauterine adhesions as well as for contraception. A gummy substance used to block the cervix was described in Egypt in 1850 BC. Japanese and Chinese prostitutes of antiquity placed oiled bamboo paper at the cervical opening for contraception. Diaphragms and cervical caps were developed in the 19th century in Germany. Large scale production became possible after 1880 with the development of better, more durable, and cheaper rubber. An Egyptian writing in 3500 BC began the study of spermicides. Numerous substances such as lemon juice and honey have been placed in the vagina to avoid pregnancy. Such substances are available to all women and some were reasonably effective. Current research is directed toward development of spermicides which will also prevent sexually transmitted diseases. The 1st condoms were made of animal skins by an English physician to prevent transmission of venereal diseases. Rubber condoms appeared in the early 20th century and are widely utilized in some family planning programs. Pregnancy vaccines and a reversible hormonal method for men are among methods under development. PMID:12268230

  5. Method and computer program product for maintenance and modernization backlogging

    DOEpatents

    Mattimore, Bernard G; Reynolds, Paul E; Farrell, Jill M

    2013-02-19

    According to one embodiment, a computer program product for determining future facility conditions includes a computer readable medium having computer readable program code stored therein. The computer readable program code includes computer readable program code for calculating a time period specific maintenance cost, for calculating a time period specific modernization factor, and for calculating a time period specific backlog factor. Future facility conditions equal the time period specific maintenance cost plus the time period specific modernization factor plus the time period specific backlog factor. In another embodiment, a computer-implemented method for calculating future facility conditions includes calculating a time period specific maintenance cost, calculating a time period specific modernization factor, and calculating a time period specific backlog factor. Future facility conditions equal the time period specific maintenance cost plus the time period specific modernization factor plus the time period specific backlog factor. Other embodiments are also presented.

  6. Rare manifestations of sarcoidosis in modern era of new diagnostic tools

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Surendra K; Soneja, Manish; Sharma, Abhishek; Sharma, Mehar C.; Hari, Smriti

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Growing body of literature on sarcoidosis in India has led to an increased awareness of the disease. With the advent of better imaging tools hitherto under-recognized manifestations of sarcoidosis are likely to be better recognized. We sought to study the rare clinical and radiological manifestations (<5%) in patients with sarcoidosis. Methods: Retrospective review of records of 164 patients with histopathologically proven sarcoidosis seen over six years in a tertiary care centre in north India, was done. Results: Fifty four rare manifestations were observed in 164 patients. Acute presentation in the form of Lofgren syndrome was seen in eight (4.9%) and Heerfordt's syndrome in two (1.2%) patients. Musculoskeletal manifestations included chronic sarcoid arthritis in three (1.8%), deforming arthritis and bone erosion in one (0.6%) each. Rare initial presentation with dilated cardiomyopathy in one (0.6%), complete heart block in two (1.2%), bilateral sequential facial nerve palsy in two (1.2%), and pyrexia of unknown origin was seen in one (0.6%) patient. Other rare manifestations included chronic respiratory failure in one (0.6%), dysphagia in one (0.6%), sicca syndrome in five (3%), massive splenomegaly in one (0.6%), portal hypertension in two (1.2%), hypersplenism, gastric sarcoidosis, ninth and tenth cranial nerve palsies, moderate pericardial effusion and nephrocalcinosis in one (0.6%) each, and pulmonary artery hypertension in two (1.2%) patients. Rare radiological manifestations included moderate pleural effusion in two (1.2%), pleural thickening in five (3%), calcification of intrathoracic lymph nodes in four (2.4%), alveolar (nodular) sarcoidosis in three (1.8%), and myocardial uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) in two (1.2%) patients. Fourteen patients had airways obstruction and behaved typically like seasonal bronchial asthma with excellent response to corticosteroids. Interpretation & conclusions: Increased awareness of rare manifestations will facilitate better management of these patients. With increasing use of modern diagnostic tools, manifestations hitherto considered rare, are likely to be recognized more frequently in the future. PMID:22771590

  7. Modern methods of repairing coke oven batteries (a survey)

    SciTech Connect

    Shteinberg, E.A.; Lobov, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    The analysis of modern methods of repairing ovens generate the following conclusions: (1) present methods of wet hot repair are rather effective. With proper organization and timely performance of the work, the coke batteries will operate for a long time subsequently; (2) dry hot repair methods should be considered promising: flame guniting and ceramic welding; and (3) the repair method should be chosen with consideration of the state of oven linings, the nature of the damage, and economic feasibility. 29 references.

  8. Bangladesh: modern methods are well known but not widely used.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    A follow-up to the 1985 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, this 1988 study of contraceptive use in Bangladesh revealed that although modern methods are well-know, contraceptive prevalence is low. This study reinterviewed 2586 women living in rural Bangladesh who had participated in the earlier survey. The study found a high level of knowledge about modern contraception, with nearly 95% of the women able to identify at least on modern method (94% mentioned oral contraceptives, 65% IUDs, 76% condoms, 64% injectables, 89% female sterilization, and 74% male sterilization). Concerning traditional family planning methods, only 40% could identify at least one. Despite knowing about modern methods, most women did not identify the advantages or disadvantages of the methods known, making informed choice problematic. Additionally, only 21% of the women interviewed were actually using method at the time of the survey. Contraceptive prevalence among women under 25 years of age and among women with only one child were 2% and 10%, respectively. The study also found that the level of the woman's education had a significant impact on her contraceptive behavior, with 65% of women with 10 or more years of schooling using a method, compared to 18% among women with no schooling. Among the women using contraception, younger women opted for birth spacing methods, while older women generally preferred sterilization. Over 90% of the women using contraception expressed satisfaction with the method they were using. The report regards the high level of contraceptive knowledge as a positive sign, adding that contraceptive prevalence could be increased by bringing services closer to the user, having each women of reproductive age visited by a family planning worker, and through careful follow-up. PMID:12284771

  9. The "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" as a Major Form of Dehumanization in the Modern World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    The "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) is one of the most successful technologies in modern times. In spite of well-argued critiques, the DSM and the idea of "mental illness" on which it is based flourish, with ever more (mis)behaviors labeled as brain diseases. Problems in living and related distress…

  10. Ultrasensitive microanalytical diagnostic methods for rickettsial pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, A. V.

    2012-03-01

    A strategic CRADA was established between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) at Galveston to address pressing needs for US protection against biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and emerging infectious diseases. The combination of unique expertise and facilities at UTMB and SNL enabled interdisciplinary research efforts in the development of rapid and accurate diagnostic methods for early detection of trace priority pathogen levels. Outstanding postdoctoral students were also trained at both institutions to help enable the next generation of scientists to tackle the challenging interdisciplinary problems in the area of biodefense and emerging infectious diseases. Novel approaches to diagnostics were developed and the both the speed of assays as well as the detection sensitivity were improved by over an order of magnitude compared to traditional methods. This is a significant step toward more timely and specific detection of dangerous infections. We developed in situ polymerized porous polymer monoliths that can be used as (1) size exclusion elements for capture and processing of rickettsial infected cells from a sample, (2) photopatternable framework for grafting high densities of functionalized antibodies/fluorescent particles using novel monolith chemistry. Grafting affinity reagents specific to rickettsial particles enables rapid, ultra-sensitive assays by overcoming transport limitations of traditional planar assay approaches. We have selectively trapped particles and bacteria at the cell trap and have also detected picomolar mouse IL-6 captured with only 20 minutes total incubation times using the densely patterned monolith framework. As predicted, the monolith exhibits >10x improvements in both capture speed and capture density compared to traditional planar approaches. The most significant advancements as part of this CRADA is the optimization of techniques allowing the detection of <10 rickettsial cells in a whole blood sample. This detection limit is over 2 orders of magnitude more sensitive that previously reported methods and overcomes a key hurdle in ability to sense dangerous infections before they are too late to treat and contain. We also showed that in the new format, cross-reactivity with interfering species is reduced thereby increasing the specificity of such tests. Promising options to treat whole blood and avoid clogging and non-specific fouling of sensors were also developed.

  11. Diagnostic Methods in Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Jane S; Paff, Tamara; Goggin, Patricia; Haarman, Eric

    2016-03-01

    Diagnosing primary ciliary dyskinesia is difficult. With no reference standard, a combination of tests is needed; most tests require expensive equipment and specialist scientists. We review the advances in diagnostic testing over the past hundred years, with emphasis on recent advances. We particularly focus on use of high-speed video analysis, transmission electron microscopy, nasal nitric oxide and genetic testing. We discuss the international efforts that are in place to advance the evidence base for diagnostic tests. PMID:26362507

  12. Electron-Beam Diagnostic Methods for Hypersonic Flow Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work was the evaluation of the use of electron-bean fluorescence for flow measurements during hypersonic flight. Both analytical and numerical models were developed in this investigation to evaluate quantitatively flow field imaging concepts based upon the electron beam fluorescence technique for use in flight research and wind tunnel applications. Specific models were developed for: (1) fluorescence excitation/emission for nitrogen, (2) rotational fluorescence spectrum for nitrogen, (3) single and multiple scattering of electrons in a variable density medium, (4) spatial and spectral distribution of fluorescence, (5) measurement of rotational temperature and density, (6) optical filter design for fluorescence imaging, and (7) temperature accuracy and signal acquisition time requirements. Application of these models to a typical hypersonic wind tunnel flow is presented. In particular, the capability of simulating the fluorescence resulting from electron impact ionization in a variable density nitrogen or air flow provides the capability to evaluate the design of imaging instruments for flow field mapping. The result of this analysis is a recommendation that quantitative measurements of hypersonic flow fields using electron-bean fluorescence is a tractable method with electron beam energies of 100 keV. With lower electron energies, electron scattering increases with significant beam divergence which makes quantitative imaging difficult. The potential application of the analytical and numerical models developed in this work is in the design of a flow field imaging instrument for use in hypersonic wind tunnels or onboard a flight research vehicle.

  13. Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, John S.

    1995-01-01

    A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image.

  14. Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, J.S.

    1995-04-25

    A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image. 3 figs.

  15. Optical imaging of intracranial hemorrhages in newborns: modern strategies in diagnostics and direction for future research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A. N.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Lychagov, V. V.; Bibikova, O. A.; Sindeev, S. S.; Pavlova, O. N.; Shuvalova, E. P.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2014-05-01

    Using Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) we study stress-related intracranial hemorrhages (ICHs) in newborn rats. We investigate a masked stage of ICH development that corresponds to the first 4 h after the stress. We show that this period is characterized by significant changes in the diameter of the sagittal vein and the velocity of the cerebral venous blood flow (CVBF). We discuss diagnostic abilities of wavelet-based methods and consider an adaptive technique allowing us to reveal clearest distinctions in the dynamics of CVBF between normal and stressed newborn rats. Finally, we conclude that the venous insufficiency in newborns and a reduced response of the sagittal vein to adrenaline are related to important prognostic markers of the risk of ICH development.

  16. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  17. Pertussis: the disease and new diagnostic methods.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, R L

    1988-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, produces an acute and chronic respiratory infection in infants and young children. B. pertussis is still a major health problem of young children throughout the world even though effective immunization against whooping cough is available. While predominantly a childhood disease, it has been reported also to be a cause of persistent cough in adults. This review discusses the numerous bacterial virulence factors that may play roles in the pathogenesis of pertussis and in immunity to infection. The present problems with pertussis diagnosis, recent advances, and future prospects for new and improved rapid diagnostics tests also are explored. PMID:2906814

  18. Diagnostic methods for CW laser damage testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Alan F.; Shah, Rashmi S.

    2004-06-01

    High performance optical coatings are an enabling technology for many applications - navigation systems, telecom, fusion, advanced measurement systems of many types as well as directed energy weapons. The results of recent testing of superior optical coatings conducted at high flux levels will be presented. The diagnostics used in this type of nondestructive testing and the analysis of the data demonstrates the evolution of test methodology. Comparison of performance data under load to the predictions of thermal and optical models shows excellent agreement. These tests serve to anchor the models and validate the performance of the materials and coatings.

  19. Modern wing flutter analysis by computational fluid dynamics methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Herbert J.; Batina, John T.; Bennett, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    The application and assessment of the recently developed CAP-TSD transonic small-disturbance code for flutter prediction is described. The CAP-TSD code has been developed for aeroelastic analysis of complete aircraft configurations and was previously applied to the calculation of steady and unsteady pressures with favorable results. Generalized aerodynamic forces and flutter characteristics are calculated and compared with linear theory results and with experimental data for a 45 deg sweptback wing. These results are in good agreement with the experimental flutter data which is the first step toward validating CAP-TSD for general transonic aeroelastic applications. The paper presents these results and comparisons along with general remarks regarding modern wing flutter analysis by computational fluid dynamics methods.

  20. Modern wing flutter analysis by computational fluid dynamics methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Herbert J.; Batina, John T.; Bennett, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    The application and assessment of the recently developed CAP-TSD transonic small-disturbance code for flutter prediction is described. The CAP-TSD code has been developed for aeroelastic analysis of complete aircraft configurations and was previously applied to the calculation of steady and unsteady pressures with favorable results. Generalized aerodynamic forces and flutter characteristics are calculated and compared with linear theory results and with experimental data for a 45 deg sweptback wing. These results are in good agreement with the experimental flutter data which is the first step toward validating CAP-TSD for general transonic aeroelastic applications. The paper presents these results and comparisons along with general remarks regarding modern wing flutter analysis by computational fluid dynamics methods.

  1. SAR imaging via modern 2-D spectral estimation methods.

    PubMed

    DeGraaf, S R

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of modern 2D spectral estimation algorithms for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging. The motivation for applying power spectrum estimation methods to SAR imaging is to improve resolution, remove sidelobe artifacts, and reduce speckle compared to what is possible with conventional Fourier transform SAR imaging techniques. This paper makes two principal contributions to the field of adaptive SAR imaging. First, it is a comprehensive comparison of 2D spectral estimation methods for SAR imaging. It provides a synopsis of the algorithms available, discusses their relative merits for SAR imaging, and illustrates their performance on simulated and collected SAR imagery. Some of the algorithms presented or their derivations are new, as are some of the insights into or analyses of the algorithms. Second, this work develops multichannel variants of four related algorithms, minimum variance method (MVM), reduced-rank MVM (RRMVM), adaptive sidelobe reduction (ASR) and space variant apodization (SVA) to estimate both reflectivity intensity and interferometric height from polarimetric displaced-aperture interferometric data. All of these interferometric variants are new. In the interferometric contest, adaptive spectral estimation can improve the height estimates through a combination of adaptive nulling and averaging. Examples illustrate that MVM, ASR, and SVA offer significant advantages over Fourier methods for estimating both scattering intensity and interferometric height, and allow empirical comparison of the accuracies of Fourier, MVM, ASR, and SVA interferometric height estimates. PMID:18276288

  2. [The modern state and improvement prospects of community-acquired pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis differential diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Dantsev, V V; Golota, A S; Karpuschenko, V G; Krassi, A B; Kuzin, A A

    2015-05-01

    The current article is dedicated to the modem state and improvement prospects of community-acquired pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis differential diagnostics. According to the official domestic statistics pulmonary tuberculosis continues to be a serious problem for the Russian Federation. One of the tuberculosis prevention most important factors is its early diagnostics. Unrecognized pulmonary tuberculosis is the leading factor of the in-hospital tuberculosis dissemination. On the basis of the current international and domestic guidelines it is shown that in order to improve the community-acquired pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis differential diagnostics it is necessary to introduce mandatory sputum specimens light-emitting diode microscopy and Xpert-testing of all patients admitted with pulmonary tuberculosis suspecion with airspace opacity/consolidation on chest x-ray as well as their isolation until tuberculosis exclusion. PMID:26513862

  3. Method and system for diagnostics of apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Proposed is a method, implemented in software, for estimating fault state of an apparatus outfitted with sensors. At each execution period the method processes sensor data from the apparatus to obtain a set of parity parameters, which are further used for estimating fault state. The estimation method formulates a convex optimization problem for each fault hypothesis and employs a convex solver to compute fault parameter estimates and fault likelihoods for each fault hypothesis. The highest likelihoods and corresponding parameter estimates are transmitted to a display device or an automated decision and control system. The obtained accurate estimate of fault state can be used to improve safety, performance, or maintenance processes for the apparatus.

  4. Nuclear Species-Diagnostic SNP Markers Mined from 454 Amplicon Sequencing Reveal Admixture Genomic Structure of Modern Citrus Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha) with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105) were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species-diagnostic SNP marker set will be useful for systematic estimation of admixture structure of citrus germplasm and for diverse genetic studies. PMID:25973611

  5. Signal processing methods for MFE plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.V.; Casper, T.; Kane, R.

    1985-02-01

    The application of various signal processing methods to extract energy storage information from plasma diamagnetism sensors occurring during physics experiments on the Tandom Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) is discussed. We show how these processing techniques can be used to decrease the uncertainty in the corresponding sensor measurements. The algorithms suggested are implemented using SIG, an interactive signal processing package developed at LLNL.

  6. Potentials and limitations of molecular diagnostic methods in food safety

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, Paola O.

    2008-01-01

    Molecular methods allow the detection of pathogen nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and, therefore, the detection of contamination in food is carried out with high selectivity and rapidity. In the last 2 decades molecular methods have accompanied traditional diagnostic methods in routine pathogen detection, and might replace them in the upcoming future. In this review the implementation in diagnostics of four of the most used molecular techniques (PCR, NASBA, microarray, LDR) are described and compared, highlighting advantages and limitations of each of them. Drawbacks of molecular methods with regard to traditional ones and the difficulties encountered in pathogen detection from food or clinical specimen are also discussed. Moreover, criteria for the choice of the target sequence for a secure detection and classification of pathogens and possible developments in molecular diagnostics are also proposed. PMID:19067016

  7. Differential temperature integrating diagnostic method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Doss, James D.; McCabe, Charles W.

    1976-01-01

    A method and device for detecting the presence of breast cancer in women by integrating the temperature difference between the temperature of a normal breast and that of a breast having a malignant tumor. The breast-receiving cups of a brassiere are each provided with thermally conductive material next to the skin, with a thermistor attached to the thermally conductive material in each cup. The thermistors are connected to adjacent arms of a Wheatstone bridge. Unbalance currents in the bridge are integrated with respect to time by means of an electrochemical integrator. In the absence of a tumor, both breasts maintain substantially the same temperature, and the bridge remains balanced. If the tumor is present in one breast, a higher temperature in that breast unbalances the bridge and the electrochemical cells integrate the temperature difference with respect to time.

  8. Modernizing the diagnostic and decision-making pathway for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Polascik, Thomas J; Passoni, Niccolo' M; Villers, Arnauld; Choyke, Peter L

    2014-12-15

    PSA has led to a drastic increase in the detection of prostate cancer, rendering this biomarker the gateway for the diagnostic pathway of prostatic neoplasms. However, the increase in incidence has not been mirrored by a similar reduction in mortality. Widespread PSA testing has facilitated the overdiagnosis and overtreatment of indolent disease. To reduce this phenomenon and avoid negative repercussions on the quality of life of men undergoing unnecessary therapies, the diagnostic pathway of prostate cancer needs to be improved. Multiparametric MRI (mp-MRI) can enhance the sensitivity and specificity of PSA, as well as the shortcomings of random biopsy sampling. This novel imaging technique has been proven to identify larger and more aggressive cancer foci, which should be targeted for treatment. New technological developments now allow for fusion of mp-MRI images with real-time ultrasound, opening the way to lesion-targeted biopsies. Furthermore, mp-MRI and targeted biopsies can also improve active surveillance protocols and permit more conservative focal therapy strategies. By implementing targeted biopsies, the diagnostic pathway will focus on clinically significant disease, consequently reducing overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Before this novel protocol becomes the new gold standard, mp-MRI acquisition and interpretation need to be standardized and targeted-biopsy strategies need to be further validated prior to abandoning random-sampling ones. Several multidisciplinary consortiums are already working on the standardization of prostate MRI, and there are ongoing prospective trials on targeted biopsies and MRI. Soon, imaging of prostatic lesions and selected biopsies will modify the diagnostic evaluation of prostate cancer, reducing overtreatment and therapy-derived complications that negatively affect quality of life. PMID:25316814

  9. A Modern Incarnation of Tycho's Diurnal Parallax Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchheim, Robert K.

    2011-05-01

    Tycho had rudimentary instrumentation (by modern standards), but he also had a first-rate mind (by any standard). With them, he was able to demonstrate that a comet and a nova were more distant than the Moon. I have investigated the feasibility of replicating similar measurements using very common modern equipment (a DSLR, a spreadsheet, and a star catalog). It appears to be feasible for a science student to replicate - and extend - the great scientist's observations and analysis. I'll describe how the distance to the Moon and the distance to an asteroid can be determined from a single fixed site, through the use of diurnal parallax.

  10. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, M.L.

    1991-04-30

    This patent describes a method for directly labeling proteins with radionuclides for use in diagnostic imaging and therapy. It comprises: the steps of incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein-containing solution and incubating.

  11. State of diagnostic quandary solved by modern technology: a rare case of Madelung's disease.

    PubMed

    Kyaw, Htoo; Grillo, Michael; Lin, Aung Naing; Kapp, David A

    2016-01-01

    Madelung's disease is a neglected metabolic disease characterised by generalised multiple fatty tissue deposits. A 64-year-old Caucasian woman presented with generalised weakness and symptomatic hypoglycaemia with altered mental status. Physical examination showed very distinct physical characteristics with multiple lumps distributed over the upper body. Her neurological symptoms were solved by giving intravenous glucose and optimisation of medical treatment. Even though she had unique characteristics of Madelung's disease, many physicians, on several occasions, failed to recognise her 'hidden diagnosis'. This diagnostic uncertainty was able to be solved by searching the Internet for similar clinical features and images. This case demonstrates characteristics and unique features of a rare disease that can be seen in a female patient even though it is mostly found in males. PMID:26851254

  12. Method of azimuthally stable Mueller-matrix diagnostics of blood plasma polycrystalline films in cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, Yu. A.; Prysyazhnyuk, V. P.; Gavrylyak, M. S.; Gorsky, M. P.; Bachinskiy, V. T.; Vanchuliak, O. Ya.

    2015-02-01

    A new information optical technique of diagnostics of the structure of polycrystalline films of blood plasma is proposed. The model of Mueller-matrix description of mechanisms of optical anisotropy of such objects as optical activity, birefringence, as well as linear and circular dichroism is suggested. The ensemble of informationally topical azimuthally stable Mueller-matrix invariants is determined. Within the statistical analysis of such parameters distributions the objective criteria of differentiation of films of blood plasma taken from healthy and patients with liver cirrhosis were determined. From the point of view of probative medicine the operational characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and accuracy) of the information-optical method of Mueller-matrix mapping of polycrystalline films of blood plasma were found and its efficiency in diagnostics of liver cirrhosis was demonstrated. Prospects of application of the method in experimental medicine to differentiate postmortem changes of the myocardial tissue was examined.

  13. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    DOEpatents

    Thakur, Mathew L.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form.

  14. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    DOEpatents

    Thakur, Mathew L.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form.

  15. Musculoskeletal symptoms and orthopaedic complications in pregnancy: pathophysiology, diagnostic approaches and modern management.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Amit; Nagandla, Kavitha

    2014-08-01

    Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal symptom in pregnancy that can present as lumbar pain or pelvic girdle pain, with significant physical and psychosocial implications. Pelvic girdle pain is more prevalent and results in greater disability than lumbar pain. It is possible to distinguish between these two conditions from a detailed history based on the site of the pain, its intensity, disability and pain provocation tests. Management of low back pain in pregnancy is conservative, with physical exercise for lumbar pain and minimising activities that exacerbate pain, analgesics and bed rest for pelvic girdle pain, as well as avoiding abduction beyond the pain-free zone in labour. There is evidence that stabilising exercises in patients with pelvic girdle pain postpartum have a beneficial effect. Other treatment modalities that have been shown to be safe and effective include pelvic belts, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, spinal manipulative therapy, acupuncture and complementary therapy with yoga. Other orthopaedic complications in pregnancy such as carpal tunnel syndrome, pubic symphysis rupture, transient osteoporosis and osteonecrosis are usually self-limiting with a satisfactory outcome. However, a lack of awareness and failure to recognise these complications can result in long-term morbidity. Knowledge of the preoperative diagnostic investigations, surgical approaches and intraoperative positioning of the mother to avoid gravid uterus compression is vital in orthopaedic emergencies such as lumbar disc herniation, cauda equina syndrome, fractures and acute compartment syndrome of the lower limb to ensure a safe maternal and fetal outcome and to prevent serious disability. Pregnancy is not contraindicated in women with pre-existing orthopaedic complications such as kyphoscoliosis and total hip arthroplasty as there is no evidence to suggest increased maternal or fetal risks. PMID:24904047

  16. Patenting genetic diagnostic methods: NGS, GWAS, SNPs and patents.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Charles

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the problems posed by patent claims to genetic diagnostic methods associated with genome-wide association studies (GWAS) adopting methodologies using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). These problems are essentially about experimental reproducibility and the credibility and veracity of reported developments. An analysis of the relevant law demonstrates that the current Australian and United States laws about suitable patentable subject matter differ, and that the current reproducibility (sufficiency, enablement and inutility) standards are unlikely to address these problems. The article concludes that following the United States approach excluding these genetic diagnostic method claims from patenting is one solution. Failing this, improving analysis and quality controls that are now being adopted in the basic research will reduce the nature of the problems, although this will remain problematic for patent examiners and the broader public. PMID:26349382

  17. [Malignant tumours of the eye: Epidemiology, diagnostic methods and radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Jardel, P; Caujolle, J-P; Gastaud, L; Maschi, C; Sauerwein, W; Thariat, J

    2015-12-01

    Malignant tumours of the eye are not common, barely representing 1 % of all cancers. This article aims to summarise, for each of the main eye malignant diseases, aspects of epidemiology, diagnostic methods and treatments, with a focus on radiation therapy techniques. The studied tumours are: eye metastasis, intraocular and ocular adnexal lymphomas, uveal melanomas, malignant tumours of the conjunctive, of the lids, and retinoblastomas. The last chapter outlines ocular complications of radiation therapy and their management. PMID:26508321

  18. Molecular and Nonmolecular Diagnostic Methods for Invasive Fungal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Arvanitis, Marios; Anagnostou, Theodora; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Caliendo, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Invasive fungal infections constitute a serious threat to an ever-growing population of immunocompromised individuals and other individuals at risk. Traditional diagnostic methods, such as histopathology and culture, which are still considered the gold standards, have low sensitivity, which underscores the need for the development of new means of detecting fungal infectious agents. Indeed, novel serologic and molecular techniques have been developed and are currently under clinical evaluation. Tests like the galactomannan antigen test for aspergillosis and the β-glucan test for invasive Candida spp. and molds, as well as other antigen and antibody tests, for Cryptococcus spp., Pneumocystis spp., and dimorphic fungi, have already been established as important diagnostic approaches and are implemented in routine clinical practice. On the other hand, PCR and other molecular approaches, such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), have proved promising in clinical trials but still need to undergo standardization before their clinical use can become widespread. The purpose of this review is to highlight the different diagnostic approaches that are currently utilized or under development for invasive fungal infections and to identify their performance characteristics and the challenges associated with their use. PMID:24982319

  19. [Clinical importance and diagnostic methods of minimal hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Stawicka, Agnieszka; Zbrzeźniak, Justyna; Świderska, Aleksandra; Kilisińska, Natalia; Świderska, Magdalena; Jaroszewicz, Jerzy; Flisiak, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) encompasses a number of neuropsychological and neurophysiological disorders in patients suffering from liver cirrhosis, who do not display abnormalities during a medical interview or physical examination. A negative influence of MHE on the quality of life of patients suffering from liver cirrhosis was confirmed, which include retardation of ability of operating motor vehicles and disruption of multiple health-related areas, as well as functioning in the society. The data on frequency of traffic offences and accidents amongst patients diagnosed with MHE in comparison to patients diagnosed with liver cirrhosis without MHE, as well as healthy persons is alarming. Those patients are unaware of their disorder and retardation of their ability to operate vehicles, therefore it is of utmost importance to define this group. The term minimal hepatic encephalopathy (formerly "subclinical" encephalopathy) erroneously suggested the unnecessity of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in patients with liver cirrhosis. Diagnosing MHE is an important predictive factor for occurrence of overt encephalopathy - more than 50% of patients with this diagnosis develop overt encephalopathy during a period of 30 months after. Early diagnosing MHE gives a chance to implement proper treatment which can be a prevention of overt encephalopathy. Due to continuing lack of clinical research there exist no commonly agreed-upon standards for definition, diagnostics, classification and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. This article introduces the newest findings regarding the importance of MHE, scientific recommendations and provides detailed descriptions of the most valuable diagnostic methods. PMID:27000818

  20. [Comparative diagnostic value of Helicobacter pylori infection testing methods].

    PubMed

    Girdalidze, A M; Elisabedashvili, G V; Sharvadze, L G; Dzhorbenadze, T A

    2013-12-01

    In 213 patients with gastric and duodenal pathology, including received surgery, comparative estimation of results of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection testing with invasive and noninvasive methods, were performed. Material for invasive endoscopic biopsy test (EBT), including rapid urease test (RUT) for rapid Hp identification by determination of urease activity, smear cytology and histology was extracted on endoscopy or intraoperationally. RUT was carried out with the help of URE-HP test kit. Serological test for Hp antibodies IgG and IgA class was performed by IFA using kit ELISA. 13С urea breath test (UBT) was made by determination of 13/12CO2 in breath samples on infrared spectroscope. Based on 5 different methods of Hp infection testing Hp positivity in 172 (80,8%) and Hp negativity in 41 (19,2%) from 213 examined patients was revealed. 13С-UBT revealed the highest diagnostic value (accuracy-97,5%, sensibility-97,0%, specificity-100%) in Hp infection diagnostics. In treatment efficiency control this parameters of 13С-UBT are also much high (96,7%, 90,0% and 100% respectively). In spite of high sensitivity of serological test (100%), it had comparative low specificity (71,0%) with high probability of false positive results in treated patients (antibodies titer to Hp after eradication retains for a long time). Thought, this test may be successfully used only in primary patients and in epidemiological studies. Among three methods of EBT, Hp infection detection with RUT revealed the best results (accuracy-94,8%, sensibility-95,0%, specificity-100%). Correlation of RUT and UBT results and much higher diagnostic value of UBT, necessitate RUT with histological study of stomach body mucosa to perform in patients over 45 year, with prolonged anamnesis and dangerous symptoms of disease. In Hp positive patients correlation of index DOB‰ of breath test with results of RUT was revealed. This can serve the index DOB‰ of 13С-UBT as a marker of Hp infection rate. The (accuracy, sensibility and specificity of breath test with local made 13С-urea (98,7%, 98,5% and 100% respectively) are the same as those for BT with standard 13С-urea (96,7%, 96,2% and 100% respectively). Above mentioned, 13С-UBT advantages (noninvasiveness, simplicity, rapidity, safety) and high diagnostic value exceeding same of other applied tests, give us opportunity to offer 13С-UBT as screening method of Hp infection diagnosis and a method of choise in control of Hp infection treatment efficiency. PMID:24423677

  1. FRP bolted flanged connections -- Modern design and fabrication methods

    SciTech Connect

    Blach, A.E.; Sun, L.

    1995-11-01

    Bolted flanged connections for fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) pipes and pressure vessels are of great importance for any user of FRP material in fluid containment applications. At present, no dimensional standards or design rules exist for FRP flanges. Most often, flanges are fabricated to dimensional standards for metallic flanges without questioning their applicability to FRP materials. This paper discusses simplified and exact design methods for composite flanges, based on isotropic material design and on laminate theory design. Both, exact and simplified methods are included. Results of various design methods are then compared with experimental results from strain gage measurements on test pressure vessels. Methods of flange fabrication such as hand lay-up, injection molding, filament winding, and others, are discussed for their relative merits in pressure vessel and piping applications. Both, integral and bonded flanges are covered as applicable to the various methods of fabrication, also the economic implications of these methods. Also treated are the problems of gasket selection, bolting and overbolting, gasket stresses, and leakage of flanged connections.

  2. Diagnosing borderline personality. A pilot study using multiple diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Kernberg, O F; Goldstein, E G; Carr, A C; Hunt, H F; Bauer, S F; Blumenthal, R

    1981-04-01

    The research described in this paper stemmed from the hypothesis that borderline personality organization can be differentiated from neurotic and psychotic levels of personality organization by means of three structural criteria: degree of identity integration, level of defensive operations, and capacity for reality testing. In order to elicit these criteria, the "structural" interview has been developed that focuses on the "here-and-now" patient-interviewer interaction. The patient's responses to the interviewer's attempts to clarify, confront, and interpret various aspects of the patient's interview behavior provide the basis for judgments as to the patient's structural diagnosis. Specifically, the paper reports a study of the differential diagnosis of 48 hospitalized patients in which structural diagnoses of borderline or psychotic personality organization were made according to this diagnostic interview approach. These diagnoses were compared with ones obtained from Gunderson's Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines, with psychological test diagnoses, and with clinical diagnoses based on past history and current illness. Results show substantial convergent agreement among all of the diagnostic methods and support the utility of the structural interview. In most discrepant cases, other methods reflected disagreement among themselves despite the diagnoses obtained from the structural interview, suggesting that there are some cases difficult to classify by any means. Further analysis suggests that the structural interview may be eliciting a different dimension of personality functioning in arriving at borderline diagnoses than do the other methods studied. The results also indicate that borderline structural diagnoses refer to patients described clinically as having severe character pathology, and do not overlap with patients described as having schizophrenic disorders. The structural interview appears to warrant further study, and, at the same time, shows promise as a research tool in further studies of structural diagnosis and its relevance for prognosis and treatment. PMID:7217928

  3. Traditional East Asian medicine: how to understand and approach diagnostic findings and patterns in a modern scientific framework?

    PubMed

    Birch, Stephen; Alraek, Terje

    2014-05-01

    Research into the diagnostic methods and patterns of traditional East Asian medical (TEAM) systems of practice such as acupuncture and herbal medicine face certain challenges due to the nature of thinking in TEAM and the subjective basis of judgments made in practice. The TEAM-based diagnosis can take into account various findings and signs such as the appearance of the tongue, palpable qualities of the radial pulses, palpable qualities and findings on the abdomen, the complexion of the patient and so on. Both diagnostic findings and the patterns of diagnosis cannot be assumed to have objective bases or to be causally related to the complaints of the patient. However, the diagnoses of TEAM based acupuncture and herbal medicine have tended to look at pictures of the whole patient and rather than focus on a particular symptom, they have looked across a myriad of signs and symptoms to decide or identify the 'pattern' of diagnosis according to the theory in question. Although open for selective and subjective biases each diagnosis pattern always comes with a prescribed treatment tailored to the pattern. Further, the same research requirements needed for the validation of the diagnoses are needed also for these clinical observations and judgments. Hence, it is necessary, albeit challenging for research on TEAM diagnoses to first address these issues before proceeding to more complex investigations such as the development of instruments for making diagnostic observations, instruments for forming diagnostic conclusions or studies investigating the physiological bases of the diagnostic patterns. Preliminary work has started and instruments have been made, but we suggest that any instrumentation must necessarily be first validated by matching of the calibrated or scaled observations or judgments to observations made and agreed upon by relevant experts. Reliability of all observations and judgments are needed before any other tool, technology or more advanced approach can proceed and also whenever the natural system of diagnosis-treatment is applied in clinical trials. In this paper the authors highlight the core problems and describe a step wise process for addressing them. PMID:24788086

  4. Modern methods of assessment of lung aeration during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Wierzejski, Wojciech; Adamski, Jan; Weigl, Wojciech; Gerega, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that several modes of ventilation are being used, it is not always possible to maintain adequate parameters of gas exchange. In order to provide proper ventilation, it is necessary to assess the lung function. The aim of this article is presentation of different methods of assesment of lung aerations including its advantages, disadvantages and possibilities for implementation in clinical practice. Computed tomography provides information regarding morphology and aeration of lung tissue, but has several limitations: necessity of patients transportation, it cannot be performed in a continuous manner, a quantitative assessment of picture seems to be rather complicated. Ultrasonography is widely used in intensive care and is a noninvasive and bedside method. It gives the opportunity to assess an investigated organ in real time. Its clinical utility in patients with ARDS was proved by Lichtenstein et al. Another technology which has been implemented for the purpose of lungs visualization is electrobioimpedancy (EIT). This new method consists of continuous monitoring of chest electrobioimpedancy changes due to its air content. Unlike to techniques mentioned above, lung images generated with EIT do not provide any information about morphology of affected tissue. The method which indirectly describes the sum of lung interactions is the assessment of quasi-static P/V curve. This method provides information allowing to draw conclusions regarding the usefulness of recruitment maneuvers, but does not provide information regarding the nature of morphologic changes and their location. In the search for the ideal method of lung aeration assessment, it is necessary to define its characteristics, such as noninvasiveness, availability and visualization of tissue morphologic changes in real time. PMID:23348492

  5. A Practical Guide to Modern Methods of Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Larry V.; And Others

    Methods for meta-analysis have evolved dramatically since Gene Glass first proposed the term in 1976. Since that time statistical and nonstatistical aspects of methodology for meta-analysis have been developing at a steady pace. This guide is an attempt to provide a practical introduction to rigorous procedures in the meta-analysis of social…

  6. Methods of comparative proteomic profiling for disease diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Steel, Laura F; Haab, Brian B; Hanash, Samir M

    2005-02-01

    The recent development of numerous technologies for proteome analysis holds the promise of new and more precise methods for disease diagnosis. In this review, we provide an overview of some of these technologies including two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), historically the workhorse of proteomic analysis, as well as some newer approaches such as liquid phase separations combined with mass spectrometry, and protein microarrays. It is evident that each method has its own strengths and weaknesses and no single method will be optimal in all applications. However, the continuing development of innovative strategies for protein separation and analysis is providing a wealth of new tools for multi-dimensional protein profiling that will advance our capabilities in disease diagnostics and our understanding of disease pathology. PMID:15652816

  7. Modern method and instrument for measuring psychic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hideg, Janos; Remes, Peter; Bognar, Laszlo; Agoston, Mihaly

    This paper shows that cortical processing of information quantity can be given in bits, while speed of information processing can be given in bit/sec; therefore the information processing ability can be denoted in algebraical expression. Changes of emotional tension can be objectified by galvanic skin reflex and pulse reaction. This method and device is suitable to measure psychic state of space station personnel and to predict psychic activity.

  8. Applying modern collaboration methods to distributed engineering projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Albert; Weiss, Jason L.; Honey, Allan

    2002-11-01

    Developing state of the art instrumentation for astronomy is often best done by geographically disparate teams that span several institutions. These efforts necessarily require costly face-to-face meetings and site visits. The benefits of the World Wide Web, video conferencing, and modular design techniques, however, have recently increased the efficiency and lowered the costs of these efforts. In this paper we discuss how these methods were applied during the development an emerging collaboration to produce common detector systems

  9. Designing arrays for modern high-resolution methods

    SciTech Connect

    Dowla, F.U.

    1987-10-01

    A bearing estimation study of seismic wavefields propagating from a strongly heterogeneous media shows that with the high-resolution MUSIC algorithm the bias of the direction estimate can be reduced by adopting a smaller aperture sub-array. Further, on this sub-array, the bias of the MUSIC algorithm is less than those of the MLM and Bartlett methods. On the full array, the performance for the three different methods are comparable. Improvement in bearing estimation in MUSIC with a reduced aperture might be attributed to increased signal coherency in the array. For methods with less resolution, the improved signal coherency in the smaller array is possible being offset by severe loss of resolution and the presence of weak secondary sources. Building upon the characteristics of real seismic wavefields, a design language has been developed to generate, modify, and test other arrays. Eigenstructures of wavefields and arrays have been studied empirically by simulation of a variety of realistic signals. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Methods in virus diagnostics: from ELISA to next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Boonham, Neil; Kreuze, Jan; Winter, Stephan; van der Vlugt, René; Bergervoet, Jan; Tomlinson, Jenny; Mumford, Rick

    2014-06-24

    Despite the seemingly continuous development of newer and ever more elaborate methods for detecting and identifying viruses, very few of these new methods get adopted for routine use in testing laboratories, often despite the many and varied claimed advantages they possess. To understand why the rate of uptake of new technologies is so low, requires a strong understanding of what makes a good routine diagnostic tool to begin. This can be done by looking at the two most successfully established plant virus detection methods: enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and more recently introduced real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By examining the characteristics of this pair of technologies, it becomes clear that they share many benefits, such as an industry standard format and high levels of repeatability and reproducibility. These combine to make methods that are accessible to testing labs, which are easy to establish and robust in their use, even with new and inexperienced users. Hence, to ensure the establishment of new techniques it is necessary to not only provide benefits not found with ELISA or real-time PCR, but also to provide a platform that is easy to establish and use. In plant virus diagnostics, recent developments can be clustered into three core areas: (1) techniques that can be performed in the field or resource poor locations (e.g., loop-mediated isothermal amplification LAMP); (2) multiplex methods that are able to detect many viruses in a single test (e.g., Luminex bead arrays); and (3) methods suited to virus discovery (e.g., next generation sequencing, NGS). Field based methods are not new, with Lateral Flow Devices (LFDs) for the detection being available for a number of years now. However, the widespread uptake of this technology remains poor. LAMP does offer significant advantages over LFDs, in terms of sensitivity and generic application, but still faces challenges in terms of establishment. It is likely that the main barrier to the uptake of field-based technologies is behavioural influences, rather than specific concerns about the performance of the technologies themselves. To overcome this, a new relationship will need to develop between centralised testing laboratories offering services and those requiring tests; a relationship which is currently in its infancy. Looking further into the future, virus discovery and multiplex methods seem to converge as NGS becomes ever cheaper, easier to perform and can provide high levels of multiplexing without the use of virus specific reagents. So ultimately the key challenge from a routine testing lab perspective will not be one of investment in platforms-which could even be outsourced to commercial sequencing services-but one of having the skills and expertise to analyse the large datasets generated and their subsequent interpretation. In conclusion, only time will tell which of the next-generation of methods currently in development will become the routine diagnostics of the future. This will be determined through a combination of factors. And while the technology itself will have to offer performance advantages over existing methods in order to supplant them, it is likely to be human factors e.g., the behaviours of end users, laboratories and policy makers, the availability of appropriate expertise, that ultimately determine which ones become established. Hence factors cannot be ignored and early engagement with diagnostic stakeholders is essential. PMID:24361981

  11. Use of Modern Family Planning Methods in Fishing Communities of Lake Victoria, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nanvubya, Annet; Ssempiira, Julius; Mpendo, Juliet; Ssetaala, Ali; Nalutaaya, Annet; Wambuzi, Mathias; Kitandwe, Paul; Bagaya, Bernard S.; Welsh, Sabrina; Asiimwe, Stephen; Nielsen, Leslie; Makumbi, Fredrick; Kiwanuka, Noah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fishing communities (FCs) in Uganda have high HIV infection rates but poor access to health services including family planning (FP). Although FP is a cost-effective public health intervention, there is a paucity of data on knowledge and use of modern FP in FCs. This study determined knowledge and use of modern FP methods in FCs of Uganda. Methods Data were accrued from a 12-month follow up of 1,688 HIV-uninfected individuals, 18–49 years from 8 FCs along Lake Victoria, between September 2011 and March 2013. Data on knowledge and use of modern FP were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire. Prevalence Risk Ratios with corresponding 95% CIs were used to determine factors associated with Modern FP knowledge and use. Results The mean age was 31.4 years, with nearly half (48.8%) being females while more than half (58.6%) had attained up to primary education level. Knowledge of modern FP was high, 87.5% (1477/1688); significantly higher among females [adj. PRR = 4.84 (95% CI; 3.08, 7.61)], among older respondents (25–29 years) [adj. PRR = 1.83 (95% CI; 1.12, 2.99)] compared to younger ones (18–24 years) and among those conducting business [adj. PRR = 2.42(95% CI; 1.02, 5.74)] relative to those primarily in fishing. Just over a third (35.2%, 595/1688) reported use of at least one modern FP method. Use of modern FP methods was significantly higher among females [adj. PRR = 2.04 (95% CI; 1.56, 2.65, and among those reporting multiple sexual partnerships [adj. PRR = 2.12, 95% CI; 1.63, 2.76)]. Nonuse of modern methods was mostly due to desire for more children (30.6%), fear of side effects (12.2%) and partner refusal (5.2%). Conclusion Despite their high knowledge of FP, FCs have low use of modern FP methods. Key barriers to use of modern FP methods were high fertility desires, fear of perceived side effects and partner refusal of methods. PMID:26512727

  12. Diagnostic methods and treatment modalities of dry eye conditions.

    PubMed

    Holly, F J

    1993-06-01

    One may view dry eye conditions as a group of diseases in which the ocular surface is adversely affected. Tear film instability invariably leads to some degree of cellular surface damage over the cornea and conjunctiva. In turn, ocular epitheliopathy may adversely affect tear film stability. The clinical presentation of the disease may not yield a clue as to its etiology. In recent years considerable progress was made both in the diagnosis and the treatment of the disease and promising studies are planned or are underway. The diagnostic techniques can be divided into four groups. The first is concerned with the clinical presentation. The second is concerned with the bulk properties of the aqueous tears including dynamic characteristics, composition, and colligative properties. The third is tear-film related and includes the film break-up time, evaporation rate, and lipid abnormality. The fourth is concerned with the ocular surface and includes vital staining, impression cytology, and surface microscopy. The most promising attempts are being made in the second group by attempting to elucidate the role of enzyme and enzyme activator activity and inhibitor contents as well as the tear protein profiles and correlating them with the specific disease states. The treatment modalities belong to three major groups aside from surgical intervention; the supplementation, preservation, and the stimulation of tears. The modern version of tear supplementation is expected to include the topical use of efficacious aqueous formulations that typically contain film stabilizing polymers, nutrients, and/or--in the future--biochemically active ingredients such as enzyme activators and inhibitors. PMID:8262709

  13. [Vaginoscopy--a modern method in pediatric-adolescent gynecology].

    PubMed

    Sirakov, M; Veltova, L

    1989-01-01

    Inspection of the vagina is a compulsory part of the examination of sexually mature woman. However, the intact hymen is assumed as a barrier, which could not be surmount without physical or psychic traumatization of a girl at the infant-adolescent age. Fear of hymen traumatization in practice is stronger than fear to miss some gynecological diseases. The necessary instruments as well as the basic indications for vaginoscopy are described. A review is made on the cases admitted in 1987 to the ward of the infant-adolescent gynecology at Institute of Obstetric and Gynecology, in whom vaginoscopy has been performed. The findings and the succeeding therapy are discussed. An inference is made for necessity of knowing and usage of the method as well as for its possibility to establish exact diagnosis and application of adequate therapy. PMID:2802086

  14. [Modern fetal autopsy oriented to clinical demands using technical information methods].

    PubMed

    Tennstedt, C; Hufnagl, P; Nguyen-Dobinsky, T N; Chaoui, R; Bollmann, R; Urban, M; Körner, H; Tietz, S; Tietz, P; Dietel, M

    1997-11-01

    Modern ultrasonic diagnostic instruments with high resolution and color Doppler sonography allow the obstetrician to describe pathological findings very precisely and at an early stage of pregnancy. The use of high-resolution ultrasound makes it possible to detect heart malformations already between the 8th and 10th week of gestation. This development has essentially changed the clinical requirements on fetal autopsy which in its traditional way no longer meets the increased demands. Unless the pathologists faces this challenge the importance of fetal autopsy will diminish. Modern image databases and communication techniques allow the pathologist to have direct access to text and images of pre-findings by other clinics. Great importance, however, must be attached to the interdisciplinary cooperation with obstetricians and geneticists. We report on routine fetal autopsy by using an interdisciplinary database an the Charité. PMID:9451733

  15. Plasma diagnostic method using intermodulation frequencies in a Langmuir probe

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kim, Yu-Sin; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2013-08-19

    A plasma diagnostic method using intermodulation frequencies is developed. When dual-frequency (ω{sub 1},ω{sub 2}) voltage signals are applied to a probe, the intermodulation frequencies (ω{sub 2}±ω{sub 1}, ω{sub 2}±2ω{sub 1}) between the signals are generated due to the nonlinearity of the sheath. From the analysis of the intermodulation frequencies, the plasma parameters, such as the electron temperature and the plasma density, can be obtained. The measured plasma parameters from this method are compared to the results from the measured electron energy distribution function, and they are in good agreement. Because the intermodulation currents originated from the plasma not from the stray component of the measurement system, an accurate measurement of the plasma parameters is achievable.

  16. New Methods and Transducer Designs for Ultrasonic Diagnostics and Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybyanets, A. N.; Naumenko, A. A.; Sapozhnikov, O. A.; Khokhlova, V. A.

    Recent advances in the field of physical acoustics, imaging technologies, piezoelectric materials, and ultrasonic transducer design have led to emerging of novel methods and apparatus for ultrasonic diagnostics, therapy and body aesthetics. The paper presents the results on development and experimental study of different high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducers. Technological peculiarities of the HIFU transducer design as well as theoretical and numerical models of such transducers and the corresponding HIFU fields are discussed. Several HIFU transducers of different design have been fabricated using different advanced piezoelectric materials. Acoustic field measurements for those transducers have been performed using a calibrated fiber optic hydrophone and an ultrasonic measurement system (UMS). The results of ex vivo experiments with different tissues as well as in vivo experiments with blood vessels are presented that prove the efficacy, safety and selectivity of the developed HIFU transducers and methods.

  17. Plasma diagnostic method using intermodulation frequencies in a Langmuir probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kim, Yu-Sin; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2013-08-01

    A plasma diagnostic method using intermodulation frequencies is developed. When dual-frequency (?1,?2) voltage signals are applied to a probe, the intermodulation frequencies (?2?1, ?22?1) between the signals are generated due to the nonlinearity of the sheath. From the analysis of the intermodulation frequencies, the plasma parameters, such as the electron temperature and the plasma density, can be obtained. The measured plasma parameters from this method are compared to the results from the measured electron energy distribution function, and they are in good agreement. Because the intermodulation currents originated from the plasma not from the stray component of the measurement system, an accurate measurement of the plasma parameters is achievable.

  18. A significant diagnostic method in torture investigation: bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Ozkalipci, Onder; Unuvar, Umit; Sahin, Umit; Irencin, Sukran; Fincanci, Sebnem Korur

    2013-03-10

    Torture appears to be a permanent feature in countries, which have experienced military coups or ruled by oppressive governments in the past, such as Turkey. The Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (HRFT) was established in 1990 to serve torture victims, mainly those who were the victims of the 1980 military regime. Since then the HRFT has been providing rehabilitation and documentation for torture survivors. Bone scintigraphy can be one of the diagnostic methods to reveal trauma, particularly after several years when it is challenging to find any physical or radiological evidence. The HRFT's Istanbul Branch referred 97 of their applicants for bone scintigraphy between 1992 and 2010. In this retrospective survey of 97 cases, 17 of them were female and 80 of them were male. Several aspects were evaluated, including working conditions, change of torture methods practiced in certain time periods, time since torture and duration of exposure to torture in comparison with findings of bone scintigraphies. The torture methods varied from beating to falanga, electric shock, suspension and several other types of torture within the period of practice, although beating was a common denominator among all. The findings were classified according to time since torture and duration of exposure to torture. More than half of the cases (59%) had a detectable bone lesion on bone scintigraphy, and the detectable bone lesion on scintigraphy increased significantly with the duration of exposure to torture, particularly among cases who had been subjected to torture for a longer period (8 days and more). Bone scintigraphy should be considered as a valuable non-invasive diagnostic method to assess and document long term torture practices and/or cases with no detectable marks upon physical examination. PMID:23332810

  19. Modern statistical methods for handling missing repeated measurements in obesity trial data: beyond LOCF.

    PubMed

    Gadbury, G L; Coffey, C S; Allison, D B

    2003-08-01

    This paper brings together some modern statistical methods to address the problem of missing data in obesity trials with repeated measurements. Such missing data occur when subjects miss one or more follow-up visits, or drop out early from an obesity trial. A common approach to dealing with missing data because of dropout is 'last observation carried forward' (LOCF). This method, although intuitively appealing, requires restrictive assumptions to produce valid statistical conclusions. We review the need for obesity trials, the assumptions that must be made regarding missing data in such trials, and some modern statistical methods for analysing data containing missing repeated measurements. These modern methods have fewer limitations and less restrictive assumptions than required for LOCF. Moreover, their recent introduction into current releases of statistical software and textbooks makes them more readily available to the applied data analyses. PMID:12916818

  20. SAMSAN- MODERN NUMERICAL METHODS FOR CLASSICAL SAMPLED SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    SAMSAN was developed to aid the control system analyst by providing a self consistent set of computer algorithms that support large order control system design and evaluation studies, with an emphasis placed on sampled system analysis. Control system analysts have access to a vast array of published algorithms to solve an equally large spectrum of controls related computational problems. The analyst usually spends considerable time and effort bringing these published algorithms to an integrated operational status and often finds them less general than desired. SAMSAN reduces the burden on the analyst by providing a set of algorithms that have been well tested and documented, and that can be readily integrated for solving control system problems. Algorithm selection for SAMSAN has been biased toward numerical accuracy for large order systems with computational speed and portability being considered important but not paramount. In addition to containing relevant subroutines from EISPAK for eigen-analysis and from LINPAK for the solution of linear systems and related problems, SAMSAN contains the following not so generally available capabilities: 1) Reduction of a real non-symmetric matrix to block diagonal form via a real similarity transformation matrix which is well conditioned with respect to inversion, 2) Solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem with balancing and grading, 3) Computation of all zeros of the determinant of a matrix of polynomials, 4) Matrix exponentiation and the evaluation of integrals involving the matrix exponential, with option to first block diagonalize, 5) Root locus and frequency response for single variable transfer functions in the S, Z, and W domains, 6) Several methods of computing zeros for linear systems, and 7) The ability to generate documentation "on demand". All matrix operations in the SAMSAN algorithms assume non-symmetric matrices with real double precision elements. There is no fixed size limit on any matrix in any SAMSAN algorithm; however, it is generally agreed by experienced users, and in the numerical error analysis literature, that computation with non-symmetric matrices of order greater than about 200 should be avoided or treated with extreme care. SAMSAN attempts to support the needs of application oriented analysis by providing: 1) a methodology with unlimited growth potential, 2) a methodology to insure that associated documentation is current and available "on demand", 3) a foundation of basic computational algorithms that most controls analysis procedures are based upon, 4) a set of check out and evaluation programs which demonstrate usage of the algorithms on a series of problems which are structured to expose the limits of each algorithm's applicability, and 5) capabilities which support both a priori and a posteriori error analysis for the computational algorithms provided. The SAMSAN algorithms are coded in FORTRAN 77 for batch or interactive execution and have been implemented on a DEC VAX computer under VMS 4.7. An effort was made to assure that the FORTRAN source code was portable and thus SAMSAN may be adaptable to other machine environments. The documentation is included on the distribution tape or can be purchased separately at the price below. SAMSAN version 2.0 was developed in 1982 and updated to version 3.0 in 1988.

  1. Diagnostics of photosynthesizing organisms by the method of nonlinear fluorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, D.; Ostroumov, E.

    2005-06-01

    Use of pulsed lasers opens new opportunities in diagnostics of photosynthetic organisms (PSO). Due to use of pico- and femtosecond laser spectroscopy-absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy-was achieved large progress in study of primary processes of photosynthesis. Orders of magnitudes of many photophysical parameters were determined. In this paper it is proposed for PSO diagnostics one more laser method: method of nonlinear fluorimetry (saturation fluorimetry). This method is based on measuring of nonlinear dependence of fluorescence intensity Ifl on exciting laser radiation intensity Iexc. Because of high local concentration of pigment molecules in PSO chloroplasts dependence Ifl(Iexc) deviates from linear one at sufficiently low values of intensity Iexc~1 kW/cm2. This effect on the one hand complicates the determination of chlorophyll a concentration from the fluorescence intensity; but on the other hand it opens up the possibility of determination of photophysical parameters. The procedure for the determination of the non-saturated fluorescence parameter Φ0 which is proportional to concentration of chlorophyll a molecules and the photophysical parameter A has been elaborated. Parameter A is given by A=στ2γn0, where σ is the excitation cross-section of chlorophyll a (Chl a) molecules, τ is the lifetime of the excited chlorophyll a molecules taking into account all processes of a deactivation of excitation except the singlet-singlet annihilation, and γn0 is the maximum rate of the singlet-singlet annihilation. In the paper investigations were carried out with aquatic PSO-phytoplankton (PP).

  2. [Reasearch on evolution and transition of processing method of fuzi in ancient and modern times].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chan-Chan; Cheng, Ming-En; Duan, Hai-Yan; Peng, Hua-Sheng

    2014-04-01

    Fuzi is a medicine used for rescuing from collapse by restoring yang as well as a famous toxic traditional Chinese medicine. In order to ensure the efficacy and safe medication, Fuzi has mostly been applied after being processed. There have been different Fuzi processing methods recorded by doctors of previous generations. Besides, there have also been differences in Fuzi processing methods recorded in modern pharmacopeia and ancient medical books. In this study, the authors traced back to medical books between the Han Dynasty and the period of Republic of China, and summarized Fuzi processing methods collected in ancient and modern literatures. According to the results, Fuzi processing methods and using methods have changed along with the evolution of dynasties, with differences in ancient and modern processing methods. Before the Tang Dynasty, Fuzi had been mostly processed and soaked. From Tang to Ming Dynasties, Fuzi had been mostly processed, soaked and stir-fried. During the Qing Dynasty, Fuzi had been mostly soaked and boiled. In the modem times, Fuzi is mostly processed by being boiled and soaked. Before the Tang Dynasty, a whole piece of Fuzi herbs or their fragments had been applied in medicines; Whereas their fragments are primarily used in the modern times. Because different processing methods have great impacts on the toxicity of Fuzi, it is suggested to study Fuzi processing methods. PMID:25011281

  3. Modern Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorrentino, Dominic

    2005-01-01

    Today's access-control and video-surveillance systems can work together to provide a holistic solution for educational environments. Keeping intruders off campus, limiting access to facilities that house expensive equipment, and remotely monitoring secluded areas can cut down significantly on crime and provide peace of mind to administrators,…

  4. Novel scanner characterization method for color measurement and diagnostics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bong-Sun; Bala, Raja; Sharma, Gaurav

    2006-02-01

    We propose a novel scanner characterization approach for applications requiring color measurement of hardcopy output in printer calibration, characterization, and diagnostic applications. It is assumed that a typical printed medium comprises the three basic colorants C, M, Y. The proposed method is particularly advantageous when additional colorants are used in the print (e.g. black (K)). A family of scanner characterization targets is constructed, each varying in C, M, Y and at a fixed level of K. A corresponding family of 3-D scanner characterizations is derived, one for each level of K. Each characterization maps scanner RGB to a colorimetric representation such as CIELAB, using standard characterization techniques. These are then combined into a single 4-D characterization mapping RGBK to CIELAB. A refinement of the technique improves performance significantly by using a function of the scanned values for K (e.g. the scanner's green channel response to printed K) instead of the digital K value directly. This makes this new approach more robust with respect to variations in printed K over time. Secondly it enables, with a single scanner characterization, accurate color measurement of prints from different printers within the same family. Results show that the 4-D characterization technique can significantly outperform standard 3-D approaches especially in cases where the image being scanned is a patch target made up of unconstrained CMYK combinations. Thus the algorithm finds particular use in printer characterization and diagnostic applications. The method readily generalizes to printed media containing other (e.g "hi-fi") colorants, and also to other image capture devices such as digital cameras.

  5. Diagnostic Methods for Platelet Bacteria Screening: Current Status and Developments

    PubMed Central

    Störmer, Melanie; Vollmer, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bacterial contamination of blood components and the prevention of transfusion-associated bacterial infection still remains a major challenge in transfusion medicine. Over the past few decades, a significant reduction in the transmission of viral infections has been achieved due to the introduction of mandatory virus screening. Platelet concentrates (PCs) represent one of the highest risks for bacterial infection. This is due to the required storage conditions for PCs in gas-permeable containers at room temperature with constant agitation, which support bacterial proliferation from low contamination levels to high titers. In contrast to virus screening, since 1997 in Germany bacterial testing of PCs is only performed as a routine quality control or, since 2008, to prolong the shelf life to 5 days. In general, bacterial screening of PCs by cultivation methods is implemented by the various blood services. Although these culturing systems will remain the gold standard, the significance of rapid methods for screening for bacterial contamination has increased over the last few years. These new methods provide powerful tools for increasing the bacterial safety of blood components. This article summarizes the course of policies and provisions introduced to increase bacterial safety of blood components in Germany. Furthermore, we give an overview of the different diagnostic methods for bacterial screening of PCs and their current applicability in routine screening processes. PMID:24659944

  6. Diagnostic methods for platelet bacteria screening: current status and developments.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Melanie; Vollmer, Tanja

    2014-02-01

    Bacterial contamination of blood components and the prevention of transfusion-associated bacterial infection still remains a major challenge in transfusion medicine. Over the past few decades, a significant reduction in the transmission of viral infections has been achieved due to the introduction of mandatory virus screening. Platelet concentrates (PCs) represent one of the highest risks for bacterial infection. This is due to the required storage conditions for PCs in gas-permeable containers at room temperature with constant agitation, which support bacterial proliferation from low contamination levels to high titers. In contrast to virus screening, since 1997 in Germany bacterial testing of PCs is only performed as a routine quality control or, since 2008, to prolong the shelf life to 5 days. In general, bacterial screening of PCs by cultivation methods is implemented by the various blood services. Although these culturing systems will remain the gold standard, the significance of rapid methods for screening for bacterial contamination has increased over the last few years. These new methods provide powerful tools for increasing the bacterial safety of blood components. This article summarizes the course of policies and provisions introduced to increase bacterial safety of blood components in Germany. Furthermore, we give an overview of the different diagnostic methods for bacterial screening of PCs and their current applicability in routine screening processes. PMID:24659944

  7. Diagnostic methods to assess inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength*

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Pedro; de Albuquerque, André Luis Pereira; Santana, Pauliane Vieira; Cardenas, Leticia Zumpano; Ferreira, Jeferson George; Prina, Elena; Trevizan, Patrícia Fernandes; Pereira, Mayra Caleffi; Iamonti, Vinicius; Pletsch, Renata; Macchione, Marcelo Ceneviva; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of (inspiratory and expiratory) respiratory muscles is a common clinical finding, not only in patients with neuromuscular disease but also in patients with primary disease of the lung parenchyma or airways. Although such impairment is common, its recognition is usually delayed because its signs and symptoms are nonspecific and late. This delayed recognition, or even the lack thereof, occurs because the diagnostic tests used in the assessment of respiratory muscle strength are not widely known and available. There are various methods of assessing respiratory muscle strength during the inspiratory and expiratory phases. These methods are divided into two categories: volitional tests (which require patient understanding and cooperation); and non-volitional tests. Volitional tests, such as those that measure maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, are the most commonly used because they are readily available. Non-volitional tests depend on magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerve accompanied by the measurement of inspiratory mouth pressure, inspiratory esophageal pressure, or inspiratory transdiaphragmatic pressure. Another method that has come to be widely used is ultrasound imaging of the diaphragm. We believe that pulmonologists involved in the care of patients with respiratory diseases should be familiar with the tests used in order to assess respiratory muscle function.Therefore, the aim of the present article is to describe the advantages, disadvantages, procedures, and clinical applicability of the main tests used in the assessment of respiratory muscle strength. PMID:25972965

  8. Computer methods for ITER-like materials LIBS diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łepek, Michał; Gąsior, Paweł

    2014-11-01

    Recent development of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) caused that this method is considered as the most promising for future diagnostic applications for characterization of the deposited materials in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which is currently under construction. In this article the basics of LIBS are shortly discussed and the software for spectra analyzing is presented. The main software function is to analyze measured spectra with respect to the certain element lines presence. Some program operation results are presented. Correct results for graphite and aluminum are obtained although identification of tungsten lines is a problem. The reason for this is low tungsten lines intensity, and thus low signal to noise ratio of the measured signal. In the second part artificial neural networks (ANNs) as the next step for LIBS spectra analyzing are proposed. The idea is focused on multilayer perceptron network (MLP) with backpropagation learning method. The potential of ANNs for data processing was proved through application in several LIBS-related domains, e.g. differentiating ancient Greek ceramics (discussed). The idea is to apply an ANN for determination of W, Al, C presence on ITER-like plasma-facing materials.

  9. Use of the Layer Analysis Method of the Yellow Emperor's Inner Classic in modern society.

    PubMed

    Goh, You Li; Liu, Juntian; Zhao, Baixiao

    2014-12-01

    This article introduces the Layer Analysis Method of the Yellow Emperor's Inner Classic text to revive its use in modern acupuncture and medicine. This is a crucial concept, especially for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases by acupuncture. First, the rise and decline of this method is explored. Second, the differentiation of this method is described by symptoms, the affected organs, and the stage of the disease. Third, the treatment method is summarized into four categories: (1) equipment, (2) technique, (3) acupoint, and (4) pathology. The resemblance of the Layer Analysis Method to modern clinical applications is worth examining. The sinew layer is especially fascinating with its similarity to the Anatomy Trains' track. The skin, vessel, muscle, and bone layers have their respective resemblances to their counterparts in modern medicine. The holism concept of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is demonstrated throughout the Layer Analysis Method theory. In addition, the Layer Analysis Method of the Yellow Emperor's Inner Classic should be reconsidered and complemented by channel-collateral pattern differentiation for acupuncturists to achieve better clinical results. Future research on acupuncture should consider this theory with the channel-collateral pattern differentiation theory. PMID:25499567

  10. Image processing methods and architectures in diagnostic pathology.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Gloria; Déniz, Oscar; Salido, Jesús; Rojo, Marcial García

    2009-01-01

    Grid technology has enabled the clustering and the efficient and secure access to and interaction among a wide variety of geographically distributed resources such as: supercomputers, storage systems, data sources, instruments and special devices and services. Their main applications include large-scale computational and data intensive problems in science and engineering. General grid structures and methodologies for both software and hardware in image analysis for virtual tissue-based diagnosis has been considered in this paper. This methods are focus on the user level middleware. The article describes the distributed programming system developed by the authors for virtual slide analysis in diagnostic pathology. The system supports different image analysis operations commonly done in anatomical pathology and it takes into account secured aspects and specialized infrastructures with high level services designed to meet application requirements. Grids are likely to have a deep impact on health related applications, and therefore they seem to be suitable for tissue-based diagnosis too. The implemented system is a joint application that mixes both Web and Grid Service Architecture around a distributed architecture for image processing. It has shown to be a successful solution to analyze a big and heterogeneous group of histological images under architecture of massively parallel processors using message passing and non-shared memory. PMID:20430740

  11. [A diagnostic method in acute pyelonephritis in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Spektor, G I; Poliakov, V M; Pavlova, L S; Fedorov, L S; Shapievskiĭ, B M

    1989-01-01

    A radiothermometer has made it possible to take deep temperature directly from the kidney. Comparison of temperatures, obtained from normal nonpregnant women, normal pregnant women and pregnant patients with acute pyelonephritis has demonstrated a significant drop in renal temperature during pregnancy. In acute pyelonephritis, renal temperature drops still further, with the temperature difference between the affected kidney and the contralateral one ranging from 0.5 degrees to 1.5 degrees. Deep temperature measurements of each kidney are taken from several sites, selected at ultrasonic scanning, which makes it possible to calculate temperature variance for the kidney. Variance increases significantly (more than two-fold) in the inflamed kidney, as compared to the intact one. Therefore, the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis can be made where deep temperature difference is between 0.5 degrees and 1.5 degrees and temperature variance is increased twofold or more in one kidney, as compared to the other, in a pregnant patient. The side of affection is also determined in this way. The proposed diagnostic method is perfectly safe for the mother and the fetus, and can be used for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy, along with other procedures. PMID:2773175

  12. Optical caries diagnostics: comparison of laser spectroscopic PNC method with method of laser integral fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masychev, Victor I.

    2000-11-01

    In this research we present the results of approbation of two methods of optical caries diagnostics: PNC-spectral diagnostics and caries detection by laser integral fluorescence. The research was conducted in a dental clinic. PNC-method analyses parameters of probing laser radiation and PNC-spectrums of stimulated secondary radiations: backscattering and endogenous fluorescence of caries-involved bacterias. He-Ne-laser ((lambda) =632,8 nm, 1-2mW) was used as a source of probing (stimulated) radiation. For registration of signals, received from intact and pathological teeth PDA-detector was applied. PNC-spectrums were processed by special algorithms, and were displayed on PC monitor. The method of laser integral fluorescence was used for comparison. In this case integral power of fluorescence of human teeth was measured. As a source of probing (stimulated) radiation diode lasers ((lambda) =655 nm, 0.1 mW and 630nm, 1mW) and He-Ne laser were applied. For registration of signals Si-photodetector was used. Integral power was shown in a digital indicator. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are described in this research. It is disclosed that the method of laser integral power of fluorescence has the following characteristics: simplicity of construction and schema-technical decisions. However the method of PNC-spectral diagnostics are characterized by considerably more sensitivity in diagnostics of initial caries and capability to differentiate pathologies of various stages (for example, calculus/initial caries). Estimation of spectral characteristics of PNC-signals allows eliminating a number of drawbacks, which are character for detection by method of laser integral fluorescence (for instance, detection of fluorescent fillings, plagues, calculus, discolorations generally, amalgam, gold fillings as if it were caries.

  13. Dental and dental hygiene students' diagnostic accuracy in oral radiology: effect of diagnostic strategy and instructional method.

    PubMed

    Baghdady, Mariam T; Carnahan, Heather; Lam, Ernest W N; Woods, Nicole N

    2014-09-01

    There has been much debate surrounding diagnostic strategies and the most appropriate training models for novices in oral radiology. It has been argued that an analytic approach, using a step-by-step analysis of the radiographic features of an abnormality, is ideal. Alternative research suggests that novices can successfully employ non-analytic reasoning. Many of these studies do not take instructional methodology into account. This study evaluated the effectiveness of non-analytic and analytic strategies in radiographic interpretation and explored the relationship between instructional methodology and diagnostic strategy. Second-year dental and dental hygiene students were taught four radiographic abnormalities using basic science instructions or a step-by-step algorithm. The students were tested on diagnostic accuracy and memory immediately after learning and one week later. A total of seventy-three students completed both immediate and delayed sessions and were included in the analysis. Students were randomly divided into two instructional conditions: one group provided a diagnostic hypothesis for the image and then identified specific features to support it, while the other group first identified features and then provided a diagnosis. Participants in the diagnosis-first condition (non-analytic reasoning) had higher diagnostic accuracy then those in the features-first condition (analytic reasoning), regardless of their learning condition. No main effect of learning condition or interaction with diagnostic strategy was observed. Educators should be mindful of the potential influence of analytic and non-analytic approaches on the effectiveness of the instructional method. PMID:25179924

  14. ANALOG: a program for estimating paleoclimate parameters using the method of modern analogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweitzer, Peter N.

    1994-01-01

    Beginning in the 1970s with CLIMAP, paleoclimatologists have been trying to derive quantitative estimates of climatic parameters from the sedimentary record. In general the procedure is to observe the modern distribution of some component of surface sediment that depends on climate, find an empirical relationship between climate and the character of sediments, then extrapolate past climate by studying older sediments in the same way. Initially the empirical relationship between climate and components of the sediment was determined using a multiple regression technique (Imbrie and Kipp, 1971). In these studies sea-floor sediments were examined to determine the percentage of various species of planktonic foraminifera present in them. Supposing that the distribution of foraminiferal assemblages depended strongly on the extremes of annual sea-surface temperature (SST), the foraminiferal assemblages (refined through use of varimax factor analysis) were regressed against the average SST during the coolest and warmest months of the year. The result was a set of transfer functions, equations that could be used to estimate cool and warm SST from the faunal composition of a sediment sample. Assuming that the ecological preference of the species had remained constant throughout the last several hundred thousand years, these transfer functions could be used to estimate SSTs during much of the late Pleistocene. Hutson (1980) and Overpeck, Webb, and Prentice (1985) proposed an alternative approach to estimating paleoclimatic parameters. Their 'method of modern analogs' revolved not around the existence of a few climatically-sensitive faunal assemblages but rather on the expectation that similar climatic regimes should foster similar faunal and floral assemblages. From a large pool of modern samples, those few are selected whose faunal compositions are most similar to a given fossil sample. Paleoclimate estimates are derived using the climatic character of only the most similar modern samples, the modern analogs of the fossil sample. This report describes how to use the program ANALOG to carry out the method of modern analogs. It is assumed that the user has faunal census estimates of one or more fossil samples, and one or more sets of faunal data from modern samples. Furthermore, the user must understand the taxonomic categories represented in the data sets, and be able to recognize taxa that are or may be considered equivalent in the analysis. ANALOG provides the user with flexibility in input data format, output data content, and choice of distance measure, and allows the user to determine which taxa from each modern and fossil data file are compared. Most of the memory required by the program is allocated dynamically, so that, on systems that permit program segments to grow, the program consumes only as many system resources as are needed to accomplish its task.

  15. Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots: Potential tools for new diagnostic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farias, P. M. A.; Santos, B. S.; Fontes, A.; Vieira, A. A. S.; Silva, D. C. N.; Castro-Neto, A. G.; Chaves, C. R.; Da Cunha, A. H. G. B.; Scordo, D.; Amaral, J. C. O. F.; Moura-Neto, V.

    2008-11-01

    We present and discuss the application of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots for diagnostic purposes, with special emphasis for cancer. We prepared and applied core-shell cadmium sulfide-cadmium hydroxide (CdS/Cd(OH) 2) semiconductor quantum dots in aqueous medium. Tissue and cells labeling was evaluated by laser scanning confocal microscopy as well as by conventional fluorescence microscopy. The procedure presented in this work, shown to be a promising tool for fast, low-cost and precise cancer diagnostic protocols.

  16. Multidimensional anatomy of 'modern type depression' in Japan: A proposal for a different diagnostic approach to depression beyond the DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takahiro A; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hayakawa, Kohei; Kubo, Hiroaki; Watabe, Motoki; Teo, Alan R; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2016-01-01

    Japan's prototype of depression was traditionally a melancholic depression based on the premorbid personality known as shūchaku-kishitsu proposed by Mitsuzo Shimoda in the 1930s. However, since around 2000, a novel form of depression has emerged among Japanese youth. Called 'modern type depression (MTD)' by the mass media, the term has quickly gained popularity among the general public, though it has not been regarded as an official medical term. Likewise, lack of consensus guidelines for its diagnosis and treatment, and a dearth of scientific literature on MTD has led to confusion when dealing with it in clinical practice in Japan. In this review article, we summarize and discuss the present situation and issues regarding MTD by focusing on historical, diagnostic, psychosocial, and cultural perspectives. We also draw on international perspectives that begin to suggest that MTD is a phenomenon that may exist not only in Japan but also in many other countries with different sociocultural and historical backgrounds. It is therefore of interest to establish whether MTD is a culture-specific phenomenon in Japan or a syndrome that can be classified using international diagnostic criteria as contained in the ICD or the DSM. We propose a novel diagnostic approach for depression that addresses MTD in order to combat the current confusion about depression under the present diagnostic systems. PMID:26350304

  17. Review of Dercum’s disease and proposal of diagnostic criteria, diagnostic methods, classification and management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Definition and clinical picture We propose the minimal definition of Dercum’s disease to be generalised overweight or obesity in combination with painful adipose tissue. The associated symptoms in Dercum’s disease include fatty deposits, easy bruisability, sleep disturbances, impaired memory, depression, difficulty concentrating, anxiety, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, diabetes, bloating, constipation, fatigue, weakness and joint aches. Classification We suggest that Dercum’s disease is classified into: I. Generalised diffuse form A form with diffusely widespread painful adipose tissue without clear lipomas, II. Generalised nodular form - a form with general pain in adipose tissue and intense pain in and around multiple lipomas, and III. Localised nodular form - a form with pain in and around multiple lipomas IV. Juxtaarticular form - a form with solitary deposits of excess fat for example at the medial aspect of the knee. Epidemiology Dercum’s disease most commonly appears between the ages of 35 and 50 years and is five to thirty times more common in women than in men. The prevalence of Dercum’s disease has not yet been exactly established. Aetiology Proposed, but unconfirmed aetiologies include: nervous system dysfunction, mechanical pressure on nerves, adipose tissue dysfunction and trauma. Diagnosis and diagnostic methods Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and should be made by systematic physical examination and thorough exclusion of differential diagnoses. Advisably, the diagnosis should be made by a physician with a broad experience of patients with painful conditions and knowledge of family medicine, internal medicine or pain management. The diagnosis should only be made when the differential diagnoses have been excluded. Differential diagnosis Differential diagnoses include: fibromyalgia, lipoedema, panniculitis, endocrine disorders, primary psychiatric disorders, multiple symmetric lipomatosis, familial multiple lipomatosis, and adipose tissue tumours. Genetic counselling The majority of the cases of Dercum’s disease occur sporadically. A to G mutation at position A8344 of mitochondrial DNA cannot be detected in patients with Dercum’s disease. HLA (human leukocyte antigen) typing has not revealed any correlation between typical antigens and the presence of the condition. Management and treatment The following treatments have lead to some pain reduction in patients with Dercum’s disease: Liposuction, analgesics, lidocaine, methotrexate and infliximab, interferon α-2b, corticosteroids, calcium-channel modulators and rapid cycling hypobaric pressure. As none of the treatments have led to long lasting complete pain reduction and revolutionary results, we propose that Dercum’s disease should be treated in multidisciplinary teams specialised in chronic pain. Prognosis The pain in Dercum’s disease seems to be relatively constant over time. PMID:22546240

  18. Modernization of AOAC Nutrient Methods by Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Darryl

    2016-01-01

    Infant formula is one of the most highly regulated products in the world. To comply with global regulations and to ensure the products are manufactured within product specifications, accurate analytical testing is required. Most of the AOAC INTERNATIONAL legacy test methods for infant formula were developed and validated in the 1980s and 1990s. Although these methods performed very well for many years, infant formulas have been updated, and today's products contain many new and novel ingredients. There were a number of cases in which the legacy AOAC methods began to result in problems with the analysis of modern infant formulas, and the use of these methods caused some disputes with regulatory agencies. In 2010, AOAC reached an agreement with the International Formula Council, which has changed its name to the Infant Nutrition Council of America, regarding a project to modernize these AOAC infant-formula test methods. This agreement led to the development of Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPRs(®)) for 28 nutrients. After SMPR approval, methods were collected, evaluated, validated, and approved through the AOAC Official Methods(SM) process. Forty-seven methods have been approved as AOAC First Action Methods, and eight have been approved as Final Action. PMID:26822860

  19. [The abuse of radiological diagnostic tests as a metaphor of the post-modern, new-media and consumerism society].

    PubMed

    Dimonte, Mariano

    2008-03-01

    Aim of this paper is to offer some cue of reflection about some sociological aspects on the emergent phenomenon of the abuse of Imaging tests, interpreting this issue in the light of general dynamics crossing the actual post-modern society, so well characterized from the consumerism and the dominion of information and communication technologies, as vectors of messages mainly transmitted in a graphic format. PMID:18488522

  20. Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2009-09-29

    A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

  1. Development of new methods in modern selective organic synthesis: preparation of functionalized molecules with atomic precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananikov, V. P.; Khemchyan, L. L.; Ivanova, Yu V.; Bukhtiyarov, V. I.; Sorokin, A. M.; Prosvirin, I. P.; Vatsadze, S. Z.; Medved'ko, A. V.; Nuriev, V. N.; Dilman, A. D.; Levin, V. V.; Koptyug, I. V.; Kovtunov, K. V.; Zhivonitko, V. V.; Likholobov, V. A.; Romanenko, A. V.; Simonov, P. A.; Nenajdenko, V. G.; Shmatova, O. I.; Muzalevskiy, V. M.; Nechaev, M. S.; Asachenko, A. F.; Morozov, O. S.; Dzhevakov, P. B.; Osipov, S. N.; Vorobyeva, D. V.; Topchiy, M. A.; Zotova, M. A.; Ponomarenko, S. A.; Borshchev, O. V.; Luponosov, Yu N.; Rempel, A. A.; Valeeva, A. A.; Stakheev, A. Yu; Turova, O. V.; Mashkovsky, I. S.; Sysolyatin, S. V.; Malykhin, V. V.; Bukhtiyarova, G. A.; Terent'ev, A. O.; Krylov, I. B.

    2014-10-01

    The challenges of the modern society and the growing demand of high-technology sectors of industrial production bring about a new phase in the development of organic synthesis. A cutting edge of modern synthetic methods is introduction of functional groups and more complex structural units into organic molecules with unprecedented control over the course of chemical transformation. Analysis of the state-of-the-art achievements in selective organic synthesis indicates the appearance of a new trend — the synthesis of organic molecules, biologically active compounds, pharmaceutical substances and smart materials with absolute selectivity. Most advanced approaches to organic synthesis anticipated in the near future can be defined as 'atomic precision' in chemical reactions. The present review considers selective methods of organic synthesis suitable for transformation of complex functionalized molecules under mild conditions. Selected key trends in the modern organic synthesis are considered including the preparation of organofluorine compounds, catalytic cross-coupling and oxidative cross-coupling reactions, atom-economic addition reactions, methathesis processes, oxidation and reduction reactions, synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, design of new homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic systems, application of photocatalysis, scaling up synthetic procedures to industrial level and development of new approaches to investigation of mechanisms of catalytic reactions. The bibliography includes 840 references.

  2. Big Data Analysis Using Modern Statistical and Machine Learning Methods in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Luis; Liuzzi, Juan

    2014-01-01

    In this article we introduce modern statistical machine learning and bioinformatics approaches that have been used in learning statistical relationships from big data in medicine and behavioral science that typically include clinical, genomic (and proteomic) and environmental variables. Every year, data collected from biomedical and behavioral science is getting larger and more complicated. Thus, in medicine, we also need to be aware of this trend and understand the statistical tools that are available to analyze these datasets. Many statistical analyses that are aimed to analyze such big datasets have been introduced recently. However, given many different types of clinical, genomic, and environmental data, it is rather uncommon to see statistical methods that combine knowledge resulting from those different data types. To this extent, we will introduce big data in terms of clinical data, single nucleotide polymorphism and gene expression studies and their interactions with environment. In this article, we will introduce the concept of well-known regression analyses such as linear and logistic regressions that has been widely used in clinical data analyses and modern statistical models such as Bayesian networks that has been introduced to analyze more complicated data. Also we will discuss how to represent the interaction among clinical, genomic, and environmental data in using modern statistical models. We conclude this article with a promising modern statistical method called Bayesian networks that is suitable in analyzing big data sets that consists with different type of large data from clinical, genomic, and environmental data. Such statistical model form big data will provide us with more comprehensive understanding of human physiology and disease. PMID:24987556

  3. Speckle methods for diagnostics of the human oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharish, Natalia A.; Sedykh, Alexey V.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Lepilin, Alexander V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    1999-11-01

    Possibility of application of speckle interferometry for diagnostics in dentistry has been analyzed. Problem of standardization of the measuring procedure has been studied. Deviation of output characteristics of Doppler system for blood microcirculation measurements has been investigated. Dependence of form of Doppler spectrum on the degree of seriousness of diseases has been studied in experiments in vivo. Behavior of spectral moments of measuring signal during the treatment of parodontitis has been analyzed.

  4. [Reporting studies of diagnostic accuracy according to a standard method; the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD)].

    PubMed

    Bossuyt, P M; Reitsma, J B; Bruns, D E; Gatsonis, C A; Glasziou, P P; Irwig, L M; Lijmer, J G; Moher, D; Rennie, D; de Vet, H C W

    2003-02-22

    The objective of the 'Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy' (STARD) initiative is to improve the reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy, so as to allow readers to assess the potential for bias in a study and to evaluate the generalibility of its results. The group searched the literature to identify publications on the appropriate conduct and reporting of diagnostic studies. This was used to draw up a list of potential items. During a consensus meeting, a group of researchers, medical journal editors, and members of professional organisations reduced this list to a usable checklist. Wherever possible, evidence from the literature was used to justify the decisions made. The search for published guidelines about diagnostic research yielded 33 previously published checklists, from which a list of 75 potential items was extracted. At the consensus meeting, participants shortened the list to a 25-item checklist. A generic flow diagram was drawn up to provide guidance on the method for including patients, the order in which tests were to be conducted and the number of patients to undergo the test being evaluated, the reference standard, or both. A scientific publication can only be assessed when the reporting is both correct and complete. Use of the checklist and flow diagram will improve the quality of reports produced, to the advantage of clinicians, researchers, reviewers, journal editors and other interested parties. PMID:12661118

  5. An objective method and measuring equipment for noise control and acoustic diagnostics of motorcars. [acoustic diagnostics on automobile engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacprowski, J.; Motylewski, J.; Miazga, J.

    1974-01-01

    An objective method and apparatus for noise control and acoustic diagnostics of motorcar engines are reported. The method and apparatus let us know whether the noisiness of the vehicle under test exceeds the admissible threshold levels given by appropriate standards and if so what is the main source of the excessive noise. The method consists in measuring both the overall noise level and the sound pressure levels in definite frequency bands while the engine speed is controlled as well and may be fixed at prescribed values. Whenever the individually adjusted threshold level has been exceeded in any frequency band, a self-sustaining control signal is sent.

  6. Jet Noise Diagnostics Supporting Statistical Noise Prediction Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2006-01-01

    The primary focus of my presentation is the development of the jet noise prediction code JeNo with most examples coming from the experimental work that drove the theoretical development and validation. JeNo is a statistical jet noise prediction code, based upon the Lilley acoustic analogy. Our approach uses time-average 2-D or 3-D mean and turbulent statistics of the flow as input. The output is source distributions and spectral directivity. NASA has been investing in development of statistical jet noise prediction tools because these seem to fit the middle ground that allows enough flexibility and fidelity for jet noise source diagnostics while having reasonable computational requirements. These tools rely on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions as input for computing far-field spectral directivity using an acoustic analogy. There are many ways acoustic analogies can be created, each with a series of assumptions and models, many often taken unknowingly. And the resulting prediction can be easily reverse-engineered by altering the models contained within. However, only an approach which is mathematically sound, with assumptions validated and modeled quantities checked against direct measurement will give consistently correct answers. Many quantities are modeled in acoustic analogies precisely because they have been impossible to measure or calculate, making this requirement a difficult task. The NASA team has spent considerable effort identifying all the assumptions and models used to take the Navier-Stokes equations to the point of a statistical calculation via an acoustic analogy very similar to that proposed by Lilley. Assumptions have been identified and experiments have been developed to test these assumptions. In some cases this has resulted in assumptions being changed. Beginning with the CFD used as input to the acoustic analogy, models for turbulence closure used in RANS CFD codes have been explored and compared against measurements of mean and rms velocity statistics over a range of jet speeds and temperatures. Models for flow parameters used in the acoustic analogy, most notably the space-time correlations of velocity, have been compared against direct measurements, and modified to better fit the observed data. These measurements have been extremely challenging for hot, high speed jets, and represent a sizeable investment in instrumentation development. As an intermediate check that the analysis is predicting the physics intended, phased arrays have been employed to measure source distributions for a wide range of jet cases. And finally, careful far-field spectral directivity measurements have been taken for final validation of the prediction code. Examples of each of these experimental efforts will be presented. The main result of these efforts is a noise prediction code, named JeNo, which is in middevelopment. JeNo is able to consistently predict spectral directivity, including aft angle directivity, for subsonic cold jets of most geometries. Current development on JeNo is focused on extending its capability to hot jets, requiring inclusion of a previously neglected second source associated with thermal fluctuations. A secondary result of the intensive experimentation is the archiving of various flow statistics applicable to other acoustic analogies and to development of time-resolved prediction methods. These will be of lasting value as we look ahead at future challenges to the aeroacoustic experimentalist.

  7. Improvement of the Management and Administration of Education Systems Through the Use of Modern Management Methods and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbulescu, Constantin

    The number and diversity of the parameters involved in the organization of modern education make it necessary to employ modern management methods and techniques to optimize decisions about the organization and improve the use of available material and financial resources. To accomplish these goals, a systems approach is advisable. A model of any…

  8. Development of wide area environment accelerator operation and diagnostics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Akito; Furukawa, Kazuro

    2015-08-01

    Remote operation and diagnostic systems for particle accelerators have been developed for beam operation and maintenance in various situations. Even though fully remote experiments are not necessary, the remote diagnosis and maintenance of the accelerator is required. Considering remote-operation operator interfaces (OPIs), the use of standard protocols such as the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) is advantageous, because system-dependent protocols are unnecessary between the remote client and the on-site server. Here, we have developed a client system based on WebSocket, which is a new protocol provided by the Internet Engineering Task Force for Web-based systems, as a next-generation Web-based OPI using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System Channel Access protocol. As a result of this implementation, WebSocket-based client systems have become available for remote operation. Also, as regards practical application, the remote operation of an accelerator via a wide area network (WAN) faces a number of challenges, e.g., the accelerator has both experimental device and radiation generator characteristics. Any error in remote control system operation could result in an immediate breakdown. Therefore, we propose the implementation of an operator intervention system for remote accelerator diagnostics and support that can obviate any differences between the local control room and remote locations. Here, remote-operation Web-based OPIs, which resolve security issues, are developed.

  9. Benchmarking Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: A Public Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Bird, Jeff; Davison, Craig; Volponi, Al; Iverson, R. Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of engine health management (EHM) technology. The need is two-fold: technology developers require relevant data and problems to design and validate new algorithms and techniques while engine system integrators and operators need practical tools to direct development and then evaluate the effectiveness of proposed solutions. This paper presents a publicly available gas path diagnostic benchmark problem that has been developed by the Propulsion and Power Systems Panel of The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) to help address these needs. The problem is coded in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc.) and coupled with a non-linear turbofan engine simulation to produce "snap-shot" measurements, with relevant noise levels, as if collected from a fleet of engines over their lifetime of use. Each engine within the fleet will experience unique operating and deterioration profiles, and may encounter randomly occurring relevant gas path faults including sensor, actuator and component faults. The challenge to the EHM community is to develop gas path diagnostic algorithms to reliably perform fault detection and isolation. An example solution to the benchmark problem is provided along with associated evaluation metrics. A plan is presented to disseminate this benchmark problem to the engine health management technical community and invite technology solutions.

  10. The Rapid-Heat LAMPellet Method: A Potential Diagnostic Method for Human Urogenital Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Vicente, Belén; López-Abán, Julio; Muro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Urogenital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium is a serious underestimated public health problem affecting 112 million people - particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Microscopic examination of urine samples to detect parasite eggs still remains as definitive diagnosis. This work was focussed on developing a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for detection of S. haematobium DNA in human urine samples as a high-throughput, simple, accurate and affordable diagnostic tool to use in diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis. Methodology/Principal Findings A LAMP assay targeting a species specific sequence of S. haematobium ribosomal intergenic spacer was designed. The effectiveness of our LAMP was assessed in a number of patients´ urine samples with microscopy confirmed S. haematobium infection. For potentially large-scale application in field conditions, different DNA extraction methods, including a commercial kit, a modified NaOH extraction method and a rapid heating method were tested using small volumes of urine fractions (whole urine, supernatants and pellets). The heating of pellets from clinical samples was the most efficient method to obtain good-quality DNA detectable by LAMP. The detection limit of our LAMP was 1 fg/µL of S. haematobium DNA in urine samples. When testing all patients´ urine samples included in our study, diagnostic parameters for sensitivity and specificity were calculated for LAMP assay, 100% sensitivity (95% CI: 81.32%-100%) and 86.67% specificity (95% CI: 75.40%-94.05%), and also for microscopy detection of eggs in urine samples, 69.23% sensitivity (95% CI: 48.21% -85.63%) and 100% specificity (95% CI: 93.08%-100%). Conclusions/Significance We have developed and evaluated, for the first time, a LAMP assay for detection of S. haematobium DNA in heated pellets from patients´ urine samples using no complicated requirement procedure for DNA extraction. The procedure has been named the Rapid-Heat LAMPellet method and has the potential to be developed further as a field diagnostic tool for use in urogenital schistosomiasis-endemic areas. PMID:26230990

  11. A Study of Successive Over-relaxation Method Parallelization over Modern HPC Languages

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2014-01-01

    Successive over-relaxation (SOR) is a computationally intensive, yet extremely important iterative solver for solving linear systems. Due to recent trends of exponential growth in amount of data generated and increasing problem sizes, serial platforms have proved to be insucient in providing the required computational power. In this paper, we present parallel implementations of red-black SOR method using three modern programming languages namely Chapel, D and Go. We employ SOR method for solving 2D steady-state heat conduction problem. We discuss the optimizations incorporated and the features of these languages which are crucial for improving the program performance. Experiments have been performed using 2, 4, and 8 threads and performance results are compared with serial execution. The analysis of results provides important insights into working of SOR method.

  12. A test of the revised auricular surface aging method on a modern European population.

    PubMed

    Moraitis, Konstantinos; Zorba, Eleni; Eliopoulos, Constantine; Fox, Sherry C

    2014-01-01

    The accurate age estimation of adults is an important step in the construction of the biological profile of skeletonized remains. The auricular surface of the ilium as it was developed in 1985 by Lovejoy et al., is one of the methods employed for age estimation. This study presents the results of a blind test of the revised auricular surface aging method developed by Buckberry and Chamberlain. A sample of 120 individuals from the Athens Collection was used to test this revised aging technique. Almost all features and composite score were positively correlated with known age-at-death. The calculation of bias demonstrated no obvious trend for either overestimation or underestimation of age when all individuals were pooled together. Inaccuracy showed that absolute errors of estimated ages against known ages are substantial. The data generated from this study suggest that the revised method can be reliable for age estimation on a modern European population. PMID:24148103

  13. [Comparison of calculation methods for diagnostic trials under different sample size].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Hu, Bo; Chen, Tao; Li, Wei

    2010-12-01

    To discuss the calculation methods under different sample size, used for diagnostic trials. The purpose of the diagnostic trial was to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the new method. Equations and results were directly compared. Monte Carlo random simulation was used to validate the results. Sample size obtained from the sampling method was always smaller than from the target value method. Results from simulation showed that the target value method could offer more and larger power. The two sample size determination method showed essential differences of the results, suggesting that the investigator should choose appropriate method in accordance with the study design. If the hypothesis of study was to demonstrate the new diagnostic method which could meet the clinical requirements, only if the target value method provides enough statistical power. PMID:21223674

  14. Diagnostic methods and recommendations for the cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes.

    PubMed

    Clark, Joseph F; Cecil, Kim M

    2015-03-01

    Primary care pediatricians and a variety of specialist physicians strive to define an accurate diagnosis for children presenting with impairment of expressive speech and delay in achieving developmental milestones. Within the past two decades, a group of disorders featuring this presentation have been identified as cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes (CCDS). Patients with these disorders were initially discerned using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain within a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. The objective of this review is to provide the clinician with an overview of the current information available on identifying and treating these conditions. We explain the salient features of creatine metabolism, synthesis, and transport required for normal development. We propose diagnostic approaches for confirming a CCDS diagnosis. Finally, we describe treatment approaches for managing patients with these conditions. PMID:25521922

  15. Non-Intrusive Optical Diagnostic Methods for Flowfield Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabibi, Bagher M.; Terrell, Charles A.; Spraggins, Darrell; Lee, Ja. H.; Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1997-01-01

    Non-intrusive optical diagnostic techniques such as Electron Beam Fluorescence (EBF), Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF), and Focusing Schlieren (FS) have been setup for high-speed flow characterization and large flowfield visualization, respectively. Fluorescence emission from the First Negative band of N2(+) with the (0,0) vibration transition (at lambda =391.44 nm) was obtained using the EBF technique and a quenching rate of N2(+)* molecules by argon gas was reported. A very high sensitivity FS system was built and applied in the High-Speed Flow Generator (HFG) at NASA LaRC. A LIF system is available at the Advanced Propulsion Laboratory (APL) on campus and a plume exhaust velocity measurement, measuring the Doppler shift from lambda = 728.7 nm of argon gas, is under way.

  16. Raman background photobleaching as a possible method of cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Nikolai N.; Brandt, Nikolai B.; Chikishev, Andrey Y.; Gangardt, Mihail G.; Karyakina, Nina F.

    2001-06-01

    Kinetics of photobleaching of background in Raman spectra of aqueous solutions of plant toxins ricin and ricin agglutinin, ricin binding subunit, and normal and malignant human blood serum were measured. For the excitation of the spectra cw and pulsed laser radiation were used. The spectra of Raman background change upon laser irradiation. Background intensity is lower for the samples with small molecular weight. The cyclization of amino acid residues in the toxin molecules as well as in human blood serum can be a reason of the Raman background. The model of the background photobleaching is proposed. The differences in photobleaching kinetics in the cases of cw and pulsed laser radiation are discussed. It is shown that Raman background photobleaching can be very informative for cancer diagnostics.

  17. Express diagnostic of anaerobic infection and disbacteriosis by optical PNC method in clinical dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Michail T.; Koz'ma, Sergey U.; Taubinsky, Ilia M.; Masychev, Victor I.

    2000-11-01

    In this research a new way of express (real time) diagnostics of anaerobic infection and disbacteriosis is suggested. The express diagnostics of anaerobic infection allows to perform quick assessment of the injury microbiocenosis, the state of gastroenteric tract, the disbacteriosis presence and the degree of its development, to follow up dynamics of microflora variations in the process of medication treatment. The research were performed with optical PNC-method. The basic of the method is in registration of stimulated (secondary) radiations and registration of their space fields, which occur in the process of probing radiation interaction with biological tissues and their active elements. The process is called Photon- undulatory Nonlinear Conversion or in short PNC-process (PNC- method, PNC-diagnostic). The optimal diagnostic PNC-method developed here allows detecting the presence of anaerobic microflora directly at the bed of a patient. It makes possible to control the dynamic of patient rehabilitation process, providing strictly individual assessments.

  18. Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Karra, Srinivasa Rao; Berning, Douglas E.; Smith, C. Jeffrey; Volkert, Wynn A.; Ketring, Alan R.

    1999-01-01

    A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand.

  19. Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Karra, Srinivasa Rao; Berning, Douglas E.; Smith, C. Jeffrey; Volkert, Wynn A.; Ketring, Alan R.

    2000-01-01

    A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand.

  20. Frequency-Domain Methods for Characterization of Pulsed Power Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    White, A D; Anderson, R A; Ferriera, T J; Goerz, D A

    2009-07-27

    This paper discusses methods of frequency-domain characterization of pulsed power sensors using vector network analyzer and spectrum analyzer techniques that offer significant simplification over time-domain methods, while mitigating or minimizing the effect of the difficulties present in time domain characterization. These methods are applicable to characterization of a wide variety of sensors.

  1. Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES) User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    This report is a User's Guide for the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES). ProDiMES is a standard benchmarking problem and a set of evaluation metrics to enable the comparison of candidate aircraft engine gas path diagnostic methods. This Matlab (The Mathworks, Inc.) based software tool enables users to independently develop and evaluate diagnostic methods. Additionally, a set of blind test case data is also distributed as part of the software. This will enable the side-by-side comparison of diagnostic approaches developed by multiple users. The Users Guide describes the various components of ProDiMES, and provides instructions for the installation and operation of the tool.

  2. The role of the Standard Days Method in modern family planning services in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The mere availability of family planning (FP) services is not sufficient to improve reproductive health; services must also be of adequate quality. The introduction of new contraceptive methods is a means of improving quality of care. The Standard Days Method (SDM) is a new fertility-awareness-based contraceptive method that has been successfully added to reproductive health care services around the world. Content Framed by the Bruce-Jain quality-of-care paradigm, this paper describes how the introduction of SDM in developing country settings can improve the six elements of quality while contributing to the intrinsic variety of available methods. SDM meets the needs of women and couples who opt not to use other modern methods. SDM providers are sensitised to the potential of fertility-awareness-based contraception as an appropriate choice for these clients. SDM requires the involvement of both partners and thus offers a natural entry point for providers to further explore partner communication, intimate partner violence, condoms, and HIV/STIs. Conclusion SDM introduction broadens the range of FP methods available to couples in developing countries. SDM counselling presents an opportunity for FP providers to discuss important interpersonal and reproductive health issues with potential users. PMID:22681177

  3. Tokamak physics studies using x-ray diagnostic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Fredrickson, E.; Hsuan, H.; McGuire, K.; Sauthoff, N.R.; Sesnic, S.; Stevens, J.E.

    1987-03-01

    X-ray diagnostic measurements have been used in a number of experiments to improve our understanding of important tokamak physics issues. The impurity content in TFTR plasmas, its sources and control have been clarified through soft x-ray pulse-height analysis (PHA) measurements. The dependence of intrinsic impurity concentrations and Z/sub eff/ on electron density, plasma current, limiter material and conditioning, and neutral-beam power have shown that the limiter is an important source of metal impurities. Neoclassical-like impurity peaking following hydrogen pellet injection into Alcator C and a strong effect of impurities on sawtooth behavior were demonstrated by x-ray imaging (XIS) measurements. Rapid inward motion of impurities and continuation of m = 1 activity following an internal disruption were demonstrated with XIS measurements on PLT using injected aluminum to enhance the signals. Ion temperatures up to 12 keV and a toroidal plasma rotation velocity up to 6 x 10/sup 5/ m/s have been measured by an x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) with up to 13 MW of 85-keV neutral-beam injection in TFTR. Precise wavelengths and relative intensities of x-ray lines in several helium-like ions and neon-like ions of silver have been measured in TFTR and PLT by the XCS. The data help to identify the important excitation processes predicted in atomic physics. Wavelengths of n = 3 to 2 silver lines of interest for x-ray lasers were measured, and precise instrument calibration techniques were developed. Electron thermal conductivity and sawtooth dynamics have been studied through XIS measurements on TFTR of heat-pulse propagation and compound sawteeth. A non-Maxwellian electron distribution function has been measured, and evidence of the Parail-Pogutse instability identified by hard x-ray PHA measurements on PLT during lower-hybrid current-drive experiments.

  4. A Simplified Diagnostic Method for Elastomer Bond Durability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A simplified method has been developed for determining bond durability under exposure to water or high humidity conditions. It uses a small number of test specimens with relatively short times of water exposure at elevated temperature. The method is also gravimetric; the only equipment being required is an oven, specimen jars, and a conventional laboratory balance.

  5. Clinical study on thermography, as modern investigation method for Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Iosif, Laura; Preoteasa, Cristina Teodora; Murariu-Măgureanu, Cătălina; Preoteasa, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis is an infectious inflammatory condition of the oral mucosa, with frequent recurrences. The aim of this study was to assess the use of infrared thermography as investigation method for Candida-associated denture stomatitis (as inflammatory disorder of the maxillary denture bearing area), by comparing disease and non-disease groups. An observational study was conducted on maxillary edentulous patients treated by acrylic dentures, with and without Candida-associated denture stomatitis. Diagnostic test methods used were clinical examination for denture stomatitis and conventional microbiological culture method for oral candidiasis. Thermography analysis of the maxillary denture bearing area was made using the ThermaCAM PM350 infrared camera (Inframetrics, Flir Systems) and ThermaGram Pro 95 software, data being acquired by usage of standard protocol of thermographic registrations. The sample included 52 patients, 21 with and 31 without Candida-associated denture stomatitis. The temperature of the maxillary mucosa corresponding to the denture bearing area was found to be statistically significantly higher in Candida-associated denture stomatitis (mean 36.20°C), compared to healthy oral mucosa (mean 34.85°C). The thermal threshold value of 35.44°C was identified as best differentiating a pathological from normal state of the maxillary mucosa corresponding to the denture bearing area. In conclusion, infrared thermography, a rapid non-invasive investigation method, has the premises to bring valuable data in inflammatory disorders of the maxillary denture bearing area, as Candida-associated denture stomatitis that may be used for screening, diagnostic or monitoring purposes. PMID:27151707

  6. Restrictive Stochastic Item Selection Methods in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Huebner, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes two new item selection methods for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing: the restrictive progressive method and the restrictive threshold method. They are built upon the posterior weighted Kullback-Leibler (KL) information index but include additional stochastic components either in the item selection index or in…

  7. Modern methods for investigating functional surfaces of advanced materials by mechanical contact testing

    SciTech Connect

    Petrzhik, M. I. Levashov, E. A.

    2007-11-15

    Modern methods for determining the hardness, Young's modulus, elastic recovery, adhesive/cohesive strength, friction coefficient, and wear resistance of thin films, coatings, multilayer materials, and bulk materials are considered. The experimental data obtained in instrumented indentation, instrumented scratching, and tribological tests of nanostructured and quasicrystalline coatings and composite materials are analyzed. It is noted that the elastic recovery of a number of advanced materials is higher than the elastic recovery of metal alloys by a factor of 2-3. The coefficients of sliding friction of sintered samples and thin films containing Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystals are found to be relatively low. An increase in the fraction of quasicrystalline particles to 30% in composites with an aluminum matrix leads to an increase in the wear resistance.

  8. Improving Resolution and Depth of Astronomical Observations via Modern Mathematical Methods for Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, M.; Ottaviani, D.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Pilo, S.; Falcone, M.

    2015-09-01

    In the past years modern mathematical methods for image analysis have led to a revolution in many fields, from computer vision to scientific imaging. However, some recently developed image processing techniques successfully exploited by other sectors have been rarely, if ever, experimented on astronomical observations. We present here tests of two classes of variational image enhancement techniques: "structure-texture decomposition" and "super-resolution" showing that they are effective in improving the quality of observations. Structure-texture decomposition allows to recover faint sources previously hidden by the background noise, effectively increasing the depth of available observations. Super-resolution yields an higher-resolution and a better sampled image out of a set of low resolution frames, thus mitigating problematics in data analysis arising from the difference in resolution/sampling between different instruments, as in the case of EUCLID VIS and NIR imagers.

  9. The Power of Sophisticated Phenotypic Screening and Modern Mechanism-of-Action Methods.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Bridget K; Schreiber, Stuart L

    2016-01-21

    The enthusiasm for phenotypic screening as an approach for small-molecule discovery has increased dramatically over the last several years. The recent increase in phenotype-based discoveries is in part due to advancements in phenotypic readouts in improved disease models that recapitulate clinically relevant biology in cell culture. Of course, a major historical barrier to using phenotypic assays in chemical biology has been the challenge in determining the mechanism of action (MoA) for compounds of interest. With the combination of medically inspired phenotypic screening and the development of modern MoA methods, we can now start implementing this approach in chemical probe and drug discovery. In this Perspective, we highlight recent advances in phenotypic readouts and MoA determination by discussing several case studies in which both activities were required for understanding the chemical biology involved and, in some cases, advancing toward clinical development. PMID:26933731

  10. Microseismic logging: A new hydraulic fracture diagnostic method

    SciTech Connect

    Mahrer, K.D. )

    1993-03-01

    Hydraulic fracture treatments and fluid injections into fractured wells induce cloud of microseismic sources in the fractured zone. This induced seismicity can last for hours after pumping and pervades the fracture. The source-size population distribution ranges from a countable (50 to 500) number of large, individually distinguishable event to a din of background events. Each source radiates wave motion, which can be recorded only in and near the fracture. A new method uses these motion data, recorded in the cased treatment well, to determine the fracture height and azimuth. The height is found by delineating the location and vertical extent of a spatial anomaly in the background-motion data. The azimuth is derived from the particle-motion polarization of the largest events of the microseismic event population. This paper describes the method, exemplary data sets, theory, and simulations that substantiate this method.

  11. A comparison of the modern Lie scaling method to classical scaling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsinelli, J.; Kavvas, M. L.

    2015-10-01

    In the past two decades a new modern scaling technique has emerged from the highly developed theory on the Lie group of transformations. This new method has been applied by engineers to several problems in hydrology and hydraulics including but not limited to groundwater dynamics, sediment transport, and open channel hydraulics. This study attempts to clarify the relationship this new technology has with the classical scaling method based on dimensional analysis, non dimensionalization, and the Buckingham Π theorem. Key points of the Lie group theory, and the application of the Lie scaling transformation, are outlined and a comparison is done with two classical scaling models through two examples: unconfined groundwater flow and contaminant transport. The Lie scaling method produces an invariant scaling transformation of the prototype variables which ensures the dynamics between the model and prototype systems will be preserved. Lie scaling can also be used to determine the conditions under which a complete model is dynamically, kinematically, and geometrically similar to the prototype phenomenon. Similarities between the Lie and classical scaling methods are explained, and the relative strengths and weaknesses of the techniques are discussed.

  12. Optical methods for diagnostic of cell-tissue grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timchenko, P. E.; Timchenko, E. V.; Volova, L. T.; Boltovskaya, V. V.; Zherdeva, L. A.; Belousov, N. V.; Pershutkina, S. V.

    2015-08-01

    In this work the results of cell-tissue grafts research with a complex of optical methods - confocal fluorescent microscopy and Raman spectroscopy are presented. It was established that coefficient M scatter is related to irregularity of demineralization process. It was microscopically shown that the quantity of integrated cells into these types of transplants amounts to 20% of its surface.

  13. Calreticulin Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Comparison of Three Diagnostic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Hye; Sevin, Margaux; Ramla, Selim; Truffot, Aurélie; Verrier, Tiffany; Bouchot, Dominique; Courtois, Martine; Bas, Mathilde; Benali, Sonia; Bailly, François; Favre, Bernardine; Guy, Julien; Martin, Laurent; Maynadié, Marc; Carillo, Serge; Girodon, François

    2015-01-01

    Calreticulin (CALR) mutations have recently been reported in 70–84% of JAK2V617F-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), and this detection has become necessary to improve the diagnosis of MPN. In a large single-centre cohort of 298 patients suffering from Essential Thrombocythemia (ET), the JAK2V617F, CALR and MPL mutations were noted in 179 (60%), 56 (18.5%) and 13 (4.5%) respectively. For the detection of the CALR mutations, three methods were compared in parallel: high-resolution melting-curve analysis (HRM), product-sizing analysis and Sanger sequencing. The sensitivity for the HRM, product-sizing analysis and Sanger sequencing was 96.4%, 98.2% and 89.3% respectively, whereas the specificity was 96.3%, 100% and 100%. In our cohort, the product-sizing analysis was the most sensitive method and was the easiest to interpret, while the HRM was sometimes difficult to interpret. In contrast, when large series of samples were tested, HRM provided results more quickly than did the other methods, which required more time. Finally, the sequencing method, which is the reference method, had the lowest sensitivity but can be used to describe the type of mutation precisely. Altogether, our results suggest that in routine laboratory practice, product-sizing analysis is globally similar to HRM for the detection of CALR mutations, and that both may be used as first-line screening tests. If the results are positive, Sanger sequencing can be used to confirm the mutation and to determine its type. Product-sizing analysis provides sensitive and specific results, moreover, with the quantitative measurement of CALR, which might be useful to monitor specific treatments. PMID:26501981

  14. Multiple light scattering methods for multiphase flow diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estevadeordal, Jordi

    2015-11-01

    Multiphase flows of gases and liquids containing droplets, bubbles, or particulates present light scattering imaging challenges due to the interference from each phase, such as secondary reflections, extinctions, absorptions, and refractions. These factors often prevent the unambiguous detection of each phase and also produce undesired beam steering. The effects can be especially complex in presence of dense phases, multispecies flows, and high pressure environments. This investigation reports new methods for overcoming these effects for quantitative measurements of velocity, density, and temperature fields. The methods are based on light scattering techniques combining Mie and filtered Rayleigh scattering and light extinction analyses and measurements. The optical layout is designed to perform multiple property measurements with improved signal from each phase via laser spectral and polarization characterization, etalon decontamination, and use of multiple wavelengths and imaging detectors.

  15. Fraley's syndrome: case report and update on current diagnostic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckier, L.S.; Patel, Y.D.; Fine, E.J.; Koenigsberg, M.

    1988-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman presented with fever, right flank pain, and a clinical diagnosis of pyelonephritis. Work-up revealed the presence of a crossing arterial branch causing obstruction of the superior infundibulum of the right kidney, which is an uncommon cause of nephralgia and urinary infection initially described by Fraley in 1966. Intravenous urography, retrograde pyelography, and angiography remain the mainstay of diagnosis, much as in the initial descriptions of this entity. (/sup 131/I)Hippuran imaging, with analysis of the upper and lower pole regions of interest, provides a simple yet powerful method of evaluating functional and excretory changes in the superior infundibulum, and has proved more efficacious than previously reported whole-kidney renograms. Renal scintigraphy represents a relatively noninvasive method of serial functional examination in this disorder. Ultrasound imaging, by monitoring upper-pole dilatation, may provide complementary morphologic information important for long-term follow-up.

  16. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Duan, Yixiang; Cao, Wenqing

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  17. [A brief history of resuscitation - the influence of previous experience on modern techniques and methods].

    PubMed

    Kucmin, Tomasz; P?owa?-Goral, Ma?gorzata; Nogalski, Adam

    2015-02-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is relatively novel branch of medical science, however first descriptions of mouth-to-mouth ventilation are to be found in the Bible and literature is full of descriptions of different resuscitation methods - from flagellation and ventilation with bellows through hanging the victims upside down and compressing the chest in order to stimulate ventilation to rectal fumigation with tobacco smoke. The modern history of CPR starts with Kouwenhoven et al. who in 1960 published a paper regarding heart massage through chest compressions. Shortly after that in 1961Peter Safar presented a paradigm promoting opening the airway, performing rescue breaths and chest compressions. First CPR guidelines were published in 1966. Since that time guidelines were modified and improved numerously by two leading world expert organizations ERC (European Resuscitation Council) and AHA (American Heart Association) and published in a new version every 5 years. Currently 2010 guidelines should be obliged. In this paper authors made an attempt to present history of development of resuscitation techniques and methods and assess the influence of previous lifesaving methods on nowadays technologies, equipment and guidelines which allow to help those women and men whose life is in danger due to sudden cardiac arrest. PMID:25771524

  18. Modern applications for a total sulfur reduction distillation method - what’s old is new again

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of a boiling mixture of hydriodic acid, hypophosphorous acid, and hydrochloric acid to reduce any variety of sulfur compounds has been in use in various applications since the first appearance of this method in the literature in the 1920’s. In the realm of sulfur geochemistry, this method remains a useful, but under-utilized technique. Presented here is a detailed description of the distillation set-up and procedure, as well as an overview of potential applications of this method for marine sulfur biogeochemistry/isotope studies. The presented applications include the sulfur isotope analysis of extremely low amounts of sulfate from saline water, the conversion of radiolabeled sulfate into sulfide, the extraction of refractory sulfur from marine sediments, and the use of this method to assess sulfur cycling in Aarhus Bay sediments. Results The STrongly Reducing hydrIodic/hypoPhosphorous/hydrochloric acid (STRIP) reagent is capable of rapidly reducing a wide range of sulfur compounds, including the most oxidized form, sulfate, to hydrogen sulfide. Conversion of as little as approximately 5 micromole sulfate is possible, with a sulfur isotope composition reproducibility of 0.3 permil. Conclusions Although developed many decades ago, this distillation method remains relevant for many modern applications. The STRIP distillation quickly and quantitatively converts sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide which can be readily collected in a silver nitrate trap for further use. An application of this method to a study of sulfur cycling in Aarhus Bay demonstrates that we account for all of the sulfur compounds in pore-water, effectively closing the mass balance of sulfur cycling. PMID:24808759

  19. Digital methods for diagnostics of longitudinal bunch parameters in synchrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhabitsky, V. M.

    2016-01-01

    Methods are discussed for processing a digital signal (proportional to a longitudinal intensity of bunches during their acceleration in the synchrotron) in order to identify the time dependences of (i) a bunch phase relative to a phase of accelerating voltage, (ii) the rms longitudinal dimension of a bunch, and (iii) the intensities of a bunch and a beam (as a batch of circulating bunches). Examples of the dependences obtained for a beam in the nuclotron at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research are presented.

  20. Assessment of diagnostic methods for solenoid-operated valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryter, R. C.; Farmer, W. S.

    Solenoid-operated valves (SOV's) were studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the USNRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The primary objective of the study was to identify, evaluate, and recommend methods for inspection, surveillance, monitoring, and maintenance of SOV's that can help ensure their operational readiness - that is, their ability to perform required safety functions under all anticipated operating conditions, since failure of one of these small and relatively inexpensive devices could have serious consequences under certain circumstances. Intrusive techniques requiring the addition of magnetic or acoustic sensors or the application of special test signals were investigated briefly, but major emphasis was placed on the examination of condition-indicating techniques that can be applied with minimal cost and impact on plant operation. These include monitoring coil mean temperature remotely by means of coil dc resistance or ac impedance, determining valve plunger position by means of coil ac impedance, verifying unrestricted SOV plunger movement by measuring current and voltage at their critical bistable (pull-in and drop-out) values, and detecting the presence of shorted turns or insulation breakdown within the solenoid coil using interrupted-current test methods. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the technical feasibility and practicality of the monitoring techniques assessed in the study, and recommendations for further work are provided.

  1. Modern methods for vancomycin determination in biological fluids by methods based on high-performance liquid chromatography - A review.

    PubMed

    Javorska, Lenka; Krcmova, Lenka Kujovska; Solichova, Dagmar; Solich, Petr; Kaska, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic used in the therapy of severe bacterial infection. The monitoring of vancomycin levels is recommended because of its narrow therapeutic index and toxicity. This measurement is especially appropriate in patients with unstable renal functions, who receive high doses of vancomycin or present serious bacterial infections accompanied by important sequestration of liquids when it could be difficult to achieve the optimal therapeutic dose. Most of the methods for vancomycin determination in routine practice are immunoassays. However, chromatography-based techniques in combination with UV or mass spectrometry detection provide results with greater accuracy and precision also in complicated biological matrices. This review provides a detailed overview of modern approaches for the chromatographic separation of vancomycin in various biological samples and useful sample preparation procedures for vancomycin determination in various biological fluids. PMID:26351070

  2. Using the Attribute Hierarchy Method to Make Diagnostic Inferences about Examinees' Cognitive Skills in Critical Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Changjiang; Gierl, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply the attribute hierarchy method (AHM) to a subset of SAT critical reading items and illustrate how the method can be used to promote cognitive diagnostic inferences. The AHM is a psychometric procedure for classifying examinees' test item responses into a set of attribute mastery patterns associated with…

  3. Laser-Produced Plasma Diagnostics by a Combination of Schlieren Method and Mach-Zehnder Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, O.; Süß, W.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Roth, M.; Stöckl, C.; Geissel, M.; Seelig, W.; Bock, R.

    1998-12-01

    An optical method for laser-produced plasma diagnostics, for which a crucial study is a shock-wave phenomena, is newly suggested as a combination of the well-known Schlieren method to study shock-wave phenomena and Mach-Zehnder interferometry for evaluating the electron density.

  4. Modern evaluation of liquisolid systems with varying amounts of liquid phase prepared using two different methods.

    PubMed

    Vraníková, Barbora; Gajdziok, Jan; Vetchý, David

    2015-01-01

    Liquisolid systems are an innovative dosage form used for enhancing dissolution rate and improving in vivo bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. These formulations require specific evaluation methods for their quality assurance (e.g., evaluation of angle of slide, contact angle, or water absorption ratio). The presented study is focused on the preparation, modern in vitro testing, and evaluation of differences of liquisolid systems containing varying amounts of a drug in liquid state (polyethylene glycol 400 solution of rosuvastatin) in relation to an aluminometasilicate carrier (Neusilin US2). Liquisolid powders used for the formulation of final tablets were prepared using two different methods: simple blending and spraying of drug solution onto a carrier in fluid bed equipment. The obtained results imply that the amount of liquid phase in relation to carrier material had an effect on the hardness, friability, and disintegration of tablets, as well as their height. The use of spraying technique enhanced flow properties of the prepared mixtures, increased hardness values, decreased friability, and improved homogeneity of the final dosage form. PMID:26075249

  5. Modern Evaluation of Liquisolid Systems with Varying Amounts of Liquid Phase Prepared Using Two Different Methods

    PubMed Central

    Vetchý, David

    2015-01-01

    Liquisolid systems are an innovative dosage form used for enhancing dissolution rate and improving in vivo bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. These formulations require specific evaluation methods for their quality assurance (e.g., evaluation of angle of slide, contact angle, or water absorption ratio). The presented study is focused on the preparation, modern in vitro testing, and evaluation of differences of liquisolid systems containing varying amounts of a drug in liquid state (polyethylene glycol 400 solution of rosuvastatin) in relation to an aluminometasilicate carrier (Neusilin US2). Liquisolid powders used for the formulation of final tablets were prepared using two different methods: simple blending and spraying of drug solution onto a carrier in fluid bed equipment. The obtained results imply that the amount of liquid phase in relation to carrier material had an effect on the hardness, friability, and disintegration of tablets, as well as their height. The use of spraying technique enhanced flow properties of the prepared mixtures, increased hardness values, decreased friability, and improved homogeneity of the final dosage form. PMID:26075249

  6. Characterization and diagnostic methods for geomagnetic auroral infrasound waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Justin J.

    Infrasonic perturbations resulting from auroral activity have been observed since the 1950's. In the last decade advances in infrasonic microphone sensitivity, high latitude sensor coverage, time series analysis methods and computational efficiency have elucidated new types of auroral infrasound. Persistent periods of infrasonic activity associated with geomagnetic sub-storms have been termed geomagnetic auroral infrasound waves [GAIW]. We consider 63 GAIW events recorded by the Fairbanks, AK infrasonic array I53US ranging from 2003 to 2014 and encompassing a complete solar cycle. We make observations of the acoustic features of these events alongside magnetometer, riometer, and all-sky camera data in an effort to quantify the ionospheric conditions suitable for infrasound generation. We find that, on average, the generation mechanism for GAIW is confined to a region centered about ~60 0 longitude east of the anti-Sun-Earth line and at ~770 North latitude. We note furthermore that in all cases considered wherein imaging riometer data are available, that dynamic regions of heightened ionospheric conductivity periodically cross the overhead zenith. Consistent features in concurrent magnetometer conditions are also noted, with irregular oscillations in the horizontal component of the field ubiquitous in all cases. In an effort to produce ionosphere based infrasound free from the clutter and unknowns typical of geophysical observations, an experiment was undertaken at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program [HAARP] facility in 2012. Infrasonic signals appearing to originate from a source region overhead were observed briefly on 9 August 2012. The signals were observed during a period when an electrojet current was presumed to have passed overhead and while the facilities radio transmitter was periodically heating the lower ionosphere. Our results suggest dynamic auroral electrojet currents as primary sources of much of the observed infrasound, with modulation of the electrojets due to energetic particle precipitation, dispersion due to coupling with gravity waves, and reflection and refraction effects in the intervening atmosphere all potential factors in the shaping of the waveforms observed.

  7. New method of acne disease fluorescent diagnostics in natural and fluorescent light and treatment control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimova, L. N.; Berezin, A. N.; Shevchik, S. A.; Kharnas, S. S.; Kusmin, S. G.; Loschenov, V. B.

    2005-08-01

    In the given research the new method of fluorescent diagnostics (FD) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) control of acne disease is submitted. Method is based on simultaneous diagnostics in natural and fluorescent light. PDT was based on using 5-ALA (5- aminolevulinic acid) preparation and 600-730 nanometers radiation. If the examined site of a skin possessed a high endogenous porphyrin fluorescence level, PDT was carried out without 5-ALA. For FD and treatment control a dot spectroscopy and the fluorescent imaging of the affected skin were used.

  8. [Thinking of importance of increasing clinical diagnostic level of acupuncture and moxibustion and the methods].

    PubMed

    Sha, Yan

    2007-09-01

    It is indicated that at the present, paying attention to treatment and underestimating diagnosis exit in acupuncture and moxibustion clinic, with the tendency of simplification in acupuncture and moxibustion treatment. The importance of TCM diagnosis and combined diagnosis of TCM clinic and western medicine, and the methods for increasing clinically diagnostic level were studies. It is put forward that increasing clinical diagnostic level of acupuncture and moxibustion is very important, which directly influences development of acupuncture and moxibustion sciences and increase of the therapeutic effect of acupuncture and moxibustion, so ought to pay great attention to and actively probe effective resolving methods. PMID:17926626

  9. Diagnostic test accuracy: methods for systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jared M; Klugar, Miloslav; Ding, Sandrine; Carmody, Dennis P; Hakonsen, Sasja J; Jadotte, Yuri T; White, Sarahlouise; Munn, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    Systematic reviews are carried out to provide an answer to a clinical question based on all available evidence (published and unpublished), to critically appraise the quality of studies, and account for and explain variations between the results of studies. The Joanna Briggs Institute specializes in providing methodological guidance for the conduct of systematic reviews and has developed methods and guidance for reviewers conducting systematic reviews of studies of diagnostic test accuracy. Diagnostic tests are used to identify the presence or absence of a condition for the purpose of developing an appropriate treatment plan. Owing to demands for improvements in speed, cost, ease of performance, patient safety, and accuracy, new diagnostic tests are continuously developed, and there are often several tests available for the diagnosis of a particular condition. In order to provide the evidence necessary for clinicians and other healthcare professionals to make informed decisions regarding the optimum test to use, primary studies need to be carried out on the accuracy of diagnostic tests and the results of these studies synthesized through systematic review. The Joanna Briggs Institute and its international collaboration have updated, revised, and developed new guidance for systematic reviews, including systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy. This methodological article summarizes that guidance and provides detailed advice on the effective conduct of systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy. PMID:26355602

  10. [Methodical features of the molding of diagnostic competences in medical parasitology workers].

    PubMed

    Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Iu; Avdiukhina, T I; Serdiuk, A P; Imamkuliev, K D

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides a rationale for a procedure to mold diagnostic competences in medical workers of the laboratories of therapeutic-and-prophylactic institutions and hygiene and epidemiology centers, Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare. The methodical features of molding diagnostic competences in the above contingents are the design and organization of an educational process by applying systems integration and competence-based approaches; increased active self-directed learning of audience; a procedure to organize its unsupervised extracurricular activities. Professional habits and skills in laboratory specialists should be molded on the basis of didactic principles and in compliance with the found methodical patterns. The eventual result (molded competences) and its compliance with the practical health care requirements is assessed using all control types (incoming, running, intermediate, and ultimate ones). This ensures the stability and predictability of molding diagnostic competences in parasitology specialists. PMID:25850323

  11. A Modern Syllogistic Method in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Logic with Realistic Tautology

    PubMed Central

    Rushdi, Ali Muhammad; Zarouan, Mohamed; Alshehri, Taleb Mansour; Rushdi, Muhammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The Modern Syllogistic Method (MSM) of propositional logic ferrets out from a set of premises all that can be concluded from it in the most compact form. The MSM combines the premises into a single function equated to 1 and then produces the complete product of this function. Two fuzzy versions of MSM are developed in Ordinary Fuzzy Logic (OFL) and in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Logic (IFL) with these logics augmented by the concept of Realistic Fuzzy Tautology (RFT) which is a variable whose truth exceeds 0.5. The paper formally proves each of the steps needed in the conversion of the ordinary MSM into a fuzzy one. The proofs rely mainly on the successful replacement of logic 1 (or ordinary tautology) by an RFT. An improved version of Blake-Tison algorithm for generating the complete product of a logical function is also presented and shown to be applicable to both crisp and fuzzy versions of the MSM. The fuzzy MSM methodology is illustrated by three specific examples, which delineate differences with the crisp MSM, address the question of validity values of consequences, tackle the problem of inconsistency when it arises, and demonstrate the utility of the concept of Realistic Fuzzy Tautology. PMID:26380357

  12. Modern Methods of Real-Time Gamma Radiation Monitoring for General Personal Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

    Real-time radiation detectors become an essential part of emergency personnel who may have to respond to unknown accidents, incidents or terrorist attacks, which could involve radioactive material. More and more ordinary citizens are interested in personal radiation protection as well. Reasons include lost sources, nuclear industrial accidents, nuclear or radiological terrorism and the possibility of nuclear weapons being used in a war. People want to have the ability to measure it for themselves and they want to be notified when the radiation levels are increased. To meet this demand, considerable research into new sensors is underway, including efforts to enhance the sensor performance through both the material properties and manufacturing technologies. Deep understanding of physical properties of the materials under the influence of radiation exposure is vital for the effective design of dosimeter devices. Detection of radiation is based on the fact that both the electrical and the optical properties of the materials undergo changes upon the exposure to ionizing radiation. It is believed that radiation causes structural defects. The influence of radiation depends on both the dose and the parameters of the films including their thickness: the degradation is more severe for the higher dose and the thinner films. This paper presents overview of modern methods of real-time gamma radiation monitoring for personal protection of radiation workers and general public and suggests further developments in this area.

  13. Damage diagnosis for SHM of existing civil structure with statistical diagnostic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Atsushi; Todoroki, Akira; Sugiya, Tsuneya; Sakai, Shinsuke

    2004-07-01

    The present research proposes a new automatic damage diagnostic method that does not require data of damaged state. Structural health monitoring is a noticeable technology for civil structures. Multiple damage diagnostic method for has been proposed, and most of them employ parametric method based on modeling or non-parametric method such as artificial neural networks. These methods demand much costs, and first of all, it is impossible to obtain data for training of damaged existing structures. That causes importance of development of the method, which diagnoses damage just from data of the intact state structure for existing structures. Therefore we purpose new statistical diagnostic method for structural damage detection. In the present method, system identification using a response surface is performed and damage is diagnosed by testing the change of this identified system by statistical test. The new method requires data of non-damaged state and does not require the complicated modeling and data of damaged state structure. As an example, the present study deals damage diagnosis of a jet-fan which installed to a tunnel on an expressway as a ventilator fan. Damages are detected from load of turnbuckles. As a result, the damage is successfully diagnosed with the method.

  14. Difference of Diagnostic Rates and Analytical Methods in the Test Positions of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Mee; Yong, Sang Yeol; Kim, Jong Heon; Kim, Hee; Park, Sang-Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the differences of diagnostic rates, of the two widely used test positions, in measuring vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) and selecting the most appropriate analytical method for diagnostic criteria for the patients with vertigo. Methods Thirty-two patients with vertigo were tested in two comparative testing positions: turning the head to the opposite side of the evaluating side and bowing while in seated position, and bowing while in supine positions. Abnormalities were determined by prolonged latency of p13 or n23, shortening of the interpeak latency, and absence of VEMP formation. Results Using the three criteria above for determining abnormalities, both the seated and supine positions showed no significant differences in diagnostic rates, however, the concordance correlation of the two positions was low. When using only the prolonged latency of p13 or n23 in the two positions, diagnostic rates were not significantly different and their concordance correlation was high. On the other hand, using only the shortened interpeak latency in both positions showed no significant difference of diagnostic rates, and the degree of agreement between two positions was low. Conclusion Bowing while in seated position with the head turned in the opposite direction to the area being evaluated is found to be the best VEMP test position due to the consistent level of sternocleidomastoid muscle tension and the high level of compliance. Also, among other diagnostic analysis methods, using prolonged latency of p13 or n23 as the criterion is found to be the most appropriate method of analysis for the VEMP test. PMID:24855617

  15. [A method for calibration of spectrozonal X-ray diagnostic system].

    PubMed

    Leliukhin, A S; Kornev, E A; Adzhieva, M D

    2006-01-01

    A method for calibration of X-ray diagnostic system equipped with a spectrozonal X-ray detector is described. Analytic expressions for calculation of the effective atomic number of the substance of inclusion tissue revealed in spectrozonal X-ray images are obtained. PMID:17133941

  16. Hydroxyalkyl phosphine gold complexes for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Katti, K.V.; Berning, D.E.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.

    1998-12-01

    A complex and method for making a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical includes a ligand comprising at least one hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group bound to a gold atom to form a gold-ligand complex that is stable in aqueous solutions containing oxygen, serum and other body fluids. 20 figs.

  17. Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Katti, K.V.; Karra, S.R.; Berning, D.E.; Smith, C.J.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.

    1999-01-05

    A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand. 21 figs.

  18. Hydroxyalkyl phosphine gold complexes for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Berning, Douglas E.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Ketring, Alan R.

    1998-01-01

    A complex and method for making same for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical includes a ligand comprising at least one hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group bound to a gold atom to form a gold-ligand complex that is stable in aqueous solutions containing oxygen, serum and other body fluids.

  19. Depression and Spinal Cord Injury: A Review of Diagnostic Methods for Depression, 1985 to 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Amy L.; Armstrong, Kevin J.; Rich, John

    2003-01-01

    Studies of depression in individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI) over a 15-year period were examined to determine if researchers used consistent diagnostic measures. The Beck Depression Inventory was the most frequently used instrument, but there was inconsistency among methods employed and disagreement regarding the inclusion of somatic…

  20. Study on Fault Diagnostics of a Turboprop Engine Using Inverse Performance Model and Artificial Intelligent Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Changduk; Lim, Semyeong

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the health monitoring system of major gas path components of gas turbine uses mostly the model based method like the Gas Path Analysis (GPA). This method is to find quantity changes of component performance characteristic parameters such as isentropic efficiency and mass flow parameter by comparing between measured engine performance parameters such as temperatures, pressures, rotational speeds, fuel consumption, etc. and clean engine performance parameters without any engine faults which are calculated by the base engine performance model. Currently, the expert engine diagnostic systems using the artificial intelligent methods such as Neural Networks (NNs), Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithms (GAs) have been studied to improve the model based method. Among them the NNs are mostly used to the engine fault diagnostic system due to its good learning performance, but it has a drawback due to low accuracy and long learning time to build learning data base if there are large amount of learning data. In addition, it has a very complex structure for finding effectively single type faults or multiple type faults of gas path components. This work builds inversely a base performance model of a turboprop engine to be used for a high altitude operation UAV using measured performance data, and proposes a fault diagnostic system using the base engine performance model and the artificial intelligent methods such as Fuzzy logic and Neural Network. The proposed diagnostic system isolates firstly the faulted components using Fuzzy Logic, then quantifies faults of the identified components using the NN leaned by fault learning data base, which are obtained from the developed base performance model. In leaning the NN, the Feed Forward Back Propagation (FFBP) method is used. Finally, it is verified through several test examples that the component faults implanted arbitrarily in the engine are well isolated and quantified by the proposed diagnostic system.

  1. Estimation of diagnostic test accuracy without full verification: a review of latent class methods

    PubMed Central

    Collins, John; Huynh, Minh

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a diagnostic test is best evaluated against a reference test that is without error. For many diseases, this is not possible, and an imperfect reference test must be used. However, diagnostic accuracy estimates may be biased if inaccurately verified status is used as the truth. Statistical models have been developed to handle this situation by treating disease as a latent variable. In this paper, we conduct a systematized review of statistical methods using latent class models for estimating test accuracy and disease prevalence in the absence of complete verification. PMID:24910172

  2. Molecular diagnostic methods for invasive fungal disease: the horizon draws nearer?

    PubMed

    Halliday, C L; Kidd, S E; Sorrell, T C; Chen, S C-A

    2015-04-01

    Rapid, accurate diagnostic laboratory tests are needed to improve clinical outcomes of invasive fungal disease (IFD). Traditional direct microscopy, culture and histological techniques constitute the 'gold standard' against which newer tests are judged. Molecular diagnostic methods, whether broad-range or fungal-specific, have great potential to enhance sensitivity and speed of IFD diagnosis, but have varying specificities. The use of PCR-based assays, DNA sequencing, and other molecular methods including those incorporating proteomic approaches such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS) have shown promising results. These are used mainly to complement conventional methods since they require standardisation before widespread implementation can be recommended. None are incorporated into diagnostic criteria for defining IFD. Commercial assays may assist standardisation. This review provides an update of molecular-based diagnostic approaches applicable to biological specimens and fungal cultures in microbiology laboratories. We focus on the most common pathogens, Candida and Aspergillus, and the mucormycetes. The position of molecular-based approaches in the detection of azole and echinocandin antifungal resistance is also discussed. PMID:25719852

  3. A real-time PCR diagnostic method for detection of Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Madarová, Lucia; Trnková, Katarína; Feiková, Sona; Klement, Cyril; Obernauerová, Margita

    2010-09-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba that can cause primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). While, traditional methods for diagnosing PAM still rely on culture, more current laboratory diagnoses exist based on conventional PCR methods; however, only a few real-time PCR processes have been described as yet. Here, we describe a real-time PCR-based diagnostic method using hybridization fluorescent labelled probes, with a LightCycler instrument and accompanying software (Roche), targeting the Naegleria fowleriMp2Cl5 gene sequence. Using this method, no cross reactivity with other tested epidemiologically relevant prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms was found. The reaction detection limit was 1 copy of the Mp2Cl5 DNA sequence. This assay could become useful in the rapid laboratory diagnostic assessment of the presence or absence of Naegleria fowleri. PMID:19919836

  4. Development of a Cast Iron Fatigue Properties Database for use with Modern Design Methods

    SciTech Connect

    DeLa'O, James, D.; Gundlach, Richard, B.; Tartaglia, John, M.

    2003-09-18

    A reliable and comprehensive database of design properties for cast iron is key to full and efficient utilization of this versatile family of high production-volume engineering materials. A database of strain-life fatigue properties and supporting data for a wide range of structural cast irons representing industry standard quality was developed in this program. The database primarily covers ASTM/SAE standard structural grades of ADI, CGI, ductile iron and gray iron as well as an austempered gray iron. Twenty-two carefully chosen materials provided by commercial foundries were tested and fifteen additional datasets were contributed by private industry. The test materials are principally distinguished on the basis of grade designation; most grades were tested in a 25 mm section size and in a single material condition common for the particular grade. Selected grades were tested in multiple sections-sizes and/or material conditions to delineate the properties associated with a range of materials for the given grade. The cyclic properties are presented in terms of the conventional strain-life formalism (e.g., SAE J1099). Additionally, cyclic properties for gray iron and CGI are presented in terms of the Downing Model, which was specifically developed to treat the unique stress-strain response associated with gray iron (and to a lesser extent with CGI). The test materials were fully characterized in terms of alloy composition, microstructure and monotonic properties. The CDROM database presents the data in various levels of detail including property summaries for each material, detailed data analyses for each specimen and raw monotonic and cyclic stress-strain data. The CDROM database has been published by the American Foundry Society (AFS) as an AFS Research Publication entitled ''Development of a Cast Iron Fatigue Properties Database for Use in Modern Design Methods'' (ISDN 0-87433-267-2).

  5. Comparison of laser spectroscopic PNC method with laser integral fluorescence in optical caries diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masychev, Victor I.

    2001-05-01

    In this research we represent the results of approbation of two methods of optical caries diagnostics: PNC-spectral diagnostics and caries detection by laser integral fluorescence. The research was conducted in a dental clinic. PNC-method analyzes parameters of probing laser radiation and PNC-spectrums of stimulated secondary radiations: backscattering and endogenous fluorescence of caries- involved bacteria. Ia-Ne laser ((lambda) equals632.8 nm, 1-2 mW) was used as a source of probing (stimulated) radiation. For registration of signals, received from intact and pathological teeth PDA-detector was applied. PNC-spectrums were processed by special algorithms, and were displayed on PC monitor. The method of laser integral fluorescence was used for comparison. In this case integral power of fluorescence of human teeth was measured. As a source of probing (stimulated) radiation diode lasers ((lambda) equals655 nm, 0.1 mW and 630 nm, 1 mW) and Ia-Na laser were applied. For registration of signals Si-photodetector was used. Integral power was shown in a digital indicator. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are described in this research. It is disclosed that the method of laser integral power of fluorescence has the following characteristics: simplicity of construction and schema-technical decisions. However the method of PNC-spectral diagnostics are characterized by considerably more sensitivity in diagnostics of initial caries and capability to differentiate pathologies of various stages (for example, calculus/initial caries). Estimation of spectral characteristics of PNC-signals allows eliminating a number of drawbacks, which are character for detection by method of laser integral fluorescence (for instance, detection of fluorescent fillings, plagues, calculus, discolorations generally, amalgam, gold fillings as if it were caries).

  6. Development of nuclear power plant noise diagnostics into a processmeasuring method

    SciTech Connect

    Hessel, G.; Koppen, H.E.; Liewers, P.; Schumann, P.; Weib, F.P.

    1985-01-01

    Until now, the fact that specialists were necessary for performing noise diagnostic measurements as well as for interpreting the results has been the main impediment to a large-scale routine application of noise diagnostics to pressurized water reactors (PWRs). In order to develop noise diagnostics into a process-measuring method that can also be used by the operating crew, a higher degree of automation based on objective measuring and processing procedures is especially needed. At a working nuclear power plant with a PWR, a noise diagnostics system is being tested that largely meets these requirements. Well-known disturbances capable of causing damage to critical plant components are carefully tracked by automated devices, so-called monitors. Such disturbances are, e.g., occurrence of loose parts in the primary circuit, anomalously working coolant pumps, or impacting of control rods. An overall surveillance not dedicated to special processes and therefore with a lower degree of sensitivity is performed by means of pattern recognition methods on a computer.

  7. Instrumentation for noninvasive express-diagnostics bacteriophages and viruses by optical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moguilnaia, Tatiana A.; Andreev, Gleb I.; Agibalov, Andrey A.; Botikov, Andrey G.; Kosenkov, Evgeniy; Saguitova, Elena

    2004-03-01

    The theoretical and the experimental researches of spectra of absent-minded radiation in medium containing viruses were carried out. The information on spectra luminescence 31 viruses was written down.The new method the express - analysis of viruses in organism of the man was developed. It shall be mentioned that the proposed method of express diagnostics allows detection of infection agent in the organism several hours after infection. It makes it suitable for high efficient testing in blood services for detection and rejection of potential donors infected with such viruses as hepatitis, herpes, Epstein-Barre, cytomegalovirus, and immunodeficiency. Methods of serum diagnostics used for that purpose can detect antibodies to virus only 1-3 months after the person has been infected. The device for the express analysis of 31 viruses of the man was created.

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of immunological methods in patients with tuberculous pleural effusion from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Larrea, Carlos; Duplat, Aglae; Giampietro, Francesca; de Waard, Jacobus H; Luna, Julieta; Singh, Mahavir; Araujo, Zaida

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, better diagnostics for tuberculosis (TB) has received increasing attention, especially the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion, which is difficult and at present the main tool in TPE diagnostic is pleural effusion smear and culture, but unfortunately, sensitivities are low, therefore better TPE diagnostic tools are needed. The aim of this study was to find a diagnostic algorithm to assess the progress in TPE diagnostic at the Hospital Vargas de Caracas, that permits identification of the majority of patients, at a satisfactory cost-benefit ratio, evaluating the levels of IFN-gamma and IL-12p40 in pleural effusion and serum, as well as the antibody reactivity in order to compare it with microbiological tests. A total of 60 individuals with pleural effusion were studied; 20 patients with tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) formed the patient group and 40 patients with non-tuberculous pleural effusion (NTPE) formed the control group. The levels of IFN-gamma and IL-12p40 in effusion and serum and class and subclasses of IgG reactivity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens were measured by ELISA. The utility of these methods for diagnosis of TPE was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The results of the 11 immunological methods evaluated showed that the anti-PPD IgG2 method was able to reach the highest specificity of 95% (CI: 88.3-101.8), positive predictive value (PPV) = 75 (at 30% sensitivity); while that the overall sensitivity of methods was between 95% and 30%, of these, two methods reached higher sensitivities; increased levels of pleural IFN-gamma, with a sensitivity of 95% (CI: 85.5-104.5) with the highest negative predictive value (NPV) = 97, (at 82.5% specificity), followed by decreased levels of serum IL-12p40 with a sensitivity of 95% (CI: 85.5-104.5), NPV = 95.2 (at 50% specificity). In contrast, microbiological methods showed that smear had a sensitivity of only 20%, while smear plus culture had, a sensitivity of 70%. Considering that TPE represents approximately 15 percent of all the TB clinically diagnosed at the Hospital Vargas de Caracas, in those patients with preliminary microbiology negativity in the effusion, the combined analysis of pleural IFN-gamma and anti-PPD IgG2 could represent a fast and effective diagnostic algorithm for improving the diagnosis previous to obtain culture results. In this way treatment against TB could be initiated or the need to cytological and pleural biopsy could be considered. PMID:21612137

  9. India's Modern Slaves: Bonded Labor in India and Methods of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutros, Heidi

    2005-01-01

    Slavery flourishes in the modern world. In nations plagued by debilitating poverty, individuals unable to afford food, clothing, and shelter may be compelled to make a devastating decision: to sell themselves or their children into slavery. Nowhere in the world is this more common than India. Conservative estimates suggest that there are 10…

  10. Adaptation of LASCA method for diagnostics of malignant tumours in laboratory animals

    SciTech Connect

    Ul'yanov, S S; Laskavyi, V N; Glova, Alina B; Polyanina, T I; Ul'yanova, O V; Fedorova, V A; Ul'yanov, A S

    2012-05-31

    The LASCA method is adapted for diagnostics of malignant neoplasms in laboratory animals. Tumours are studied in mice of Balb/c inbred line after inoculation of cells of syngeneic myeloma cell line Sp.2/0 Ag.8. The appropriateness of using the tLASCA method in tumour investigations is substantiated; its advantages in comparison with the sLASCA method are demonstrated. It is found that the most informative characteristic, indicating the presence of a tumour, is the fractal dimension of LASCA images.

  11. Intermediate processes and critical phenomena: Theory, method and progress of fractional operators and their applications to modern mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingyu; Tan, Wenchang

    2006-06-01

    From point of view of physics, especially of mechanics, we briefly introduce fractional operators (with emphasis on fractional calculus and fractional differential equations) used for describing intermediate processes and critical phenomena in physics and mechanics, their progress in theory and methods and their applications to modern mechanics. Some authors’ researches in this area in recent years are included. Finally, prospects and evaluation for this subject are made.

  12. The Use Potential of Traditional Building Materials for the Realization of Structures by Modern Methods of Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spišáková, Marcela; Mačková, Daniela

    2015-11-01

    The sustainable building has taken off in recent years with many investors looking for new and different methods of construction. The traditional building materials can be made out of natural materials, while others can help to lower energy costs of the occupant once built. Regardless of what the goal of the investor is, traditional building materials and their use is on the rise. The submitted paper provides an overview of natural building materials and possible modern building systems using these construction materials. Based on the questionnaire survey is defined the use potential of traditional building materials for the realization of the construction by methods of modern constructions and then are determined the drivers and barriers of traditional materials through using modern methods of construction. Considering the analysis of the achieved results, we can identify the gaps in the construction market in Slovakia and also to assess the perception of potential investors in the field of traditional building materials use, which is the purpose of submitted paper.

  13. The role of ultrasound and nuclear medicine methods in the preoperative diagnostics of primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Cacko, Marek; Królicki, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PH) represents one of the most common endocrine diseases. In most cases, the disorder is caused by parathyroid adenomas. Bilateral neck exploration has been a widely used treatment method for adenomas since the 20's of the twentieth century. In the last decade, however, it has been increasingly replaced by a minimally invasive surgical treatment. Smaller extent, shorter duration and lower complication rate of such a procedure are emphasized. Its efficacy depends on a precise location of parathyroid tissue during the preoperative imaging. Scintigraphy and ultrasound play a major role in the diagnostic algorithms. The efficacy of both methods has been repeatedly verified and compared. The still-current guidelines of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (2009) emphasize the complementary role of scintigraphy and ultrasonography in the preoperative diagnostics in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. At the same time, attempts are made to improve both these techniques by implementing new study protocols or innovative technologies. Publications have emerged in the recent years in the field of ultrasonography, whose authors pointed out the usefulness of elastography and contrast media. Nuclear medicine studies, on the other hand, focus mainly on the assessment of new radiotracers used in the positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this article is to present, based on literature data, the possibilities of ultrasound and scintigraphy in the preoperative diagnostics in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Furthermore, the main directions in the development of imaging techniques in PH patients were evaluated. PMID:26807297

  14. A novel diagnostic method to detect truncated neurofibromin in neurofibromatosis 1.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Teresa; Piluso, Giulio; Saracino, Dario; Uccello, Rossella; Schettino, Carla; Dato, Clemente; Capaldo, Guglielmo; Giugliano, Teresa; Varriale, Bruno; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Melone, Mariarosa A B

    2015-12-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant genetic condition caused by dominant loss-of-function mutations of the tumor suppressor gene NF1 that encodes neurofibromin, a negative regulator of RAS activity. Mutation analysis of NF1 located at 17q11.2 has been hampered by the large size of the gene, the high rate of new mutations, the lack of mutational clustering, and the presence of several homologous loci. To date, about 80% of the reported NF1 mutations are predicted to result in protein truncation, but very few studies have correlated the causative NF1 mutation with its effect at the protein level. We evaluated a novel diagnostic method to detect truncated forms of neurofibromin in a large cohort of unrelated subjects suspected of having NF1, according to the NIH consensus criteria. Western blot analysis was carried out on protein extracts from patients' leukocytes to highlight the possible presence of altered neurofibromin as a result of mutations in NF1. Truncated neurofibromin was identified in 274/336 patients (81%), confirming the usefulness and reproducibility of the proposed diagnostic approach. Our methodology can be routinely applied in the diagnostic setting, thanks to its simplicity and reliability. Combined with molecular approaches, it may increase the accuracy and efficiency of NF1 genetic testing. We evaluated a novel diagnostic method to detect truncated forms of neurofibromin in patients fulfilling the clinical criteria for Neurofibromatosis 1. Western blot analysis identified truncated neurofibromin in 274/336 patients (81%). Our results indicate that the proposed technique is cheap and reliable, and could ideally be performed as a preliminary biochemical screening before molecular analysis of the NF1 gene. PMID:26478990

  15. A method to detect intercenter differences in the application of contemporary diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M; Coryell, W; Black, D W

    1993-02-01

    The use of specified diagnostic criteria is part of routine psychiatric practice and research. However, there is evidence that the same criteria may be interpreted and applied differently at different research centers. The next question is whether it is possible to detect these systematic intercenter differences in diagnostic practices. An inexpensive, nonlaborious, standardized method is needed that can easily be used at any site. In the present report, we demonstrate how self-report questionnaires can provide a method of detecting systematic differences in the application of contemporary diagnostic criteria. Sixty consecutively admitted inpatients with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder were interviewed with standardized schedules and diagnosed according to two interpretations of the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) and DSM-III endogenous/melancholia criteria. The patients also completed the Inventory to Diagnose Depression, a self-report scale designed to diagnose major depression and subtype patients according to RDC and DSM-III endogenous/melancholia criteria. The interview to self-report ratio for diagnosing endogenous depression and melancholia was associated with diagnosticians' interpretation of the criteria. A broader application of the criteria resulted in a higher ratio. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire could be useful in detecting systematic interinvestigator differences in the broadness or narrowness with which criteria are applied. The advantage of a self-report scale is that it is free from systematic biases and tendencies of clinician raters. Of course, ratings on questionnaires are not free of bias; however, it is less likely that differences between samples will reflect a systematic variation in response set. PMID:8426170

  16. Reviews in Modern Astronomy 12, Astronomical Instruments and Methods at the turn of the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schielicke, Reinhard E.

    The yearbook series Reviews in Modern Astronomy of the Astronomische Gesellschaft (AG) was established in 1988 in order to bring the scientific events of the meetings of the society to the attention of the worldwide astronomical community. Reviews in Modern Astronomy is devoted exclusively to the invited Reviews, the Karl Schwarzschild Lectures, the Ludwig Biermann Award Lectures, and the highlight contributions from leading scientists reporting on recent progress and scientific achievements at their respective research institutes. Volume 12 continues the yearbook series with 16 contributions which were presented during the International Scientific Conference of the AG on ``Astronomical Instruments and Methods at the Turn of the 21st Century'' at Heidelberg from September 14 to 19, 1998

  17. Inversion methods for the measurements of MHD-like density fluctuations by Heavy Ion Beam Diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaquias, A.; Henriques, R. B.; Nedzelsky, I. S.

    2015-09-01

    We report here on the recent developments in the deconvolution of the path integral effects for the study of MHD pressure-like fluctuations measured by Heavy Ion Beam Diagnostic. In particular, we develop improved methods to account for and remove the path integral effect on the determination of the ionization generation factors, including the double ionization of the primary beam. We test the method using the HIBD simulation code which computes the real beam trajectories and attenuations due to electron impact ionization for any selected synthetic profiles of plasma current, plasma potential, electron temperature and density. Simulations have shown the numerical method to be highly effective in ISTTOK within an overall accuracy of a few percent (< 3%). The method here presented can effectively reduce the path integral effects and may serve as the basis to develop improved retrieving techniques for plasma devices working even in higher density ranges. The method is applied to retrieve the time evolution and spatial structure of m=1 and m=2 modes. The 2D MHD mode-like structure is reconstructed by means of a spatial projection of all 1D measurements obtained during one full rotation of the mode. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  18. Advanced Optical Diagnostic Methods for Describing Fuel Injection and Combustion Flowfield Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade advanced optical diagnostic techniques have evolved and matured to a point where they are now widely applied in the interrogation of high pressure combusting flows. At NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), imaging techniques have been used successfully in on-going work to develop the next generation of commercial aircraft gas turbine combustors. This work has centered on providing a means by which researchers and designers can obtain direct visual observation and measurements of the fuel injection/mixing/combustion processes and combustor flowfield in two- and three-dimensional views at actual operational conditions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the chemical and physical processes at the extreme operating conditions of the next generation of combustors is critical to reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency. To accomplish this and other tasks, the diagnostic team at GRC has designed and constructed optically accessible, high pressurer high temperature flame tubes and sectar rigs capable of optically probing the 20-60 atm flowfields of these aero-combustors. Among the techniques employed at GRC are planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) for imaging molecular species as well as liquid and gaseous fuel; planar light scattering (PLS) for imaging fuel sprays and droplets; and spontaneous Raman scattering for species and temperature measurement. Using these techniques, optical measurements never before possible have been made in the actual environments of liquid fueled gas turbines. 2-D mapping of such parameters as species (e.g. OH-, NO and kerosene-based jet fuel) distribution, injector spray angle, and fuel/air distribution are just some of the measurements that are now routinely made. Optical imaging has also provided prompt feedback to researchers regarding the effects of changes in the fuel injector configuration on both combustor performance and flowfield character. Several injector design modifications and improvements have resulted from this feedback. Alternate diagnostic methods are constantly being evaluated as to their suitability as a diagnostic tool in these environments. A new method currently under examination is background oriented Schlieren (BOS) for examining the fuel/air mixing processes. While ratioing the Stokes and anti-Stokes nitrogen lines obtained from spontaneous Raman is being refined for temperature measurement. While the primary focus of the GRC diagnostic work remains optical species measurement and flow stream characterization, an increased emphasis has been placed on our involvement in flame code validation efforts. A functional combustor code should shorten and streamline future combustor design. Quantitative measurements of flow parameters such as temperature, species concentration, drop size and velocity using such methods as Raman and phase Doppler anemometry will provide data necessary in this effort.

  19. Personality Assessment in the Diagnostic Manuals: On Mindfulness, Multiple Methods, and Test Score Discontinuities

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent controversies have illuminated the strengths and limitations of different frameworks for conceptualizing personality pathology (e.g., trait perspectives, categorical models), and stimulated debate regarding how best to diagnose personality disorders (PDs) in DSM-5, and in other diagnostic systems (i.e., the International Classification of Diseases, the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual). In this article I argue that regardless of how PDs are conceptualized and which diagnostic system is employed, multi-method assessment must play a central role in PD diagnosis. By complementing self-reports with evidence from other domains (e.g., performance-based tests), a broader range of psychological processes are engaged in the patient, and the impact of self-perception and self-presentation biases may be better understood. By providing the assessor with evidence drawn from multiple modalities, some of which provide converging patterns and some of which yield divergent results, the assessor is compelled to engage this evidence more deeply. The mindful processing that ensues can help minimize the deleterious impact of naturally occurring information processing bias and distortion on the part of the clinician (e.g., heuristics, attribution errors), bringing greater clarity to the synthesis and integration of assessment data. PMID:25856565

  20. Quantitative Diagnostic Method for Biceps Long Head Tendinitis by Using Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Wang, Wei-Te

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the feasibility of grayscale quantitative diagnostic method for biceps tendinitis and determine the cut-off points of a quantitative biceps ultrasound (US) method to diagnose biceps tendinitis. Design. Prospective cross-sectional case controlled study. Setting. Outpatient rehabilitation service. Methods. A total of 336 shoulder pain patients with suspected biceps tendinitis were recruited in this prospective observational study. The grayscale pixel data of the range of interest (ROI) were obtained for both the transverse and longitudinal views of the biceps US. Results. A total of 136 patients were classified with biceps tendinitis, and 200 patients were classified as not having biceps tendinitis based on the diagnostic criteria. Based on the Youden index, the cut-off points were determined as 26.85 for the transverse view and 21.25 for the longitudinal view of the standard deviation (StdDev) of the ROI values, respectively. When the ROI evaluation of the US surpassed the cut-off point, the sensitivity was 68% and the specificity was 90% in the StdDev of the transverse view, and the sensitivity was 81% and the specificity was 73% in the StdDev of the longitudinal view to diagnose biceps tendinitis. Conclusion. For equivocal cases or inexperienced sonographers, our study provides a more objective method for diagnosing biceps tendinitis in shoulder pain patients. PMID:24385888

  1. An In Vivo Comparison of Two Diagnostic Methods in Secondary Caries Detection

    PubMed Central

    Hamishaki, Kazem Saber; Chiniforush, Nasim; Monzavi, Abbas; Khazarazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the level of agreement between four operators with different levels of experience for two methods of detecting secondary enamel and dentin carious lesions in composite restored teeth. Materials and Methods: Sixty teeth of 40 patients with with secondary carious lesions in the composite resin were selected. The teeth were examined by two methods; visual inspection and a laser fluorescence device (DIAGNO dent pen 2190) by four operators including an undergraduate student, a dentist with 5 years of clinical experience, a general dentist with 12 years of clinical experience and an oral and maxillofacial radiologist. Cohen's kappa statistic was applied in order to assess the agreement between the diagnoses performed by the four operators with each diagnostic method. Results: The diagnosis performed by different operators achieved an excellent agreement with high ICC. Conclusion: DIAGNOdent can be a useful device for secondary caries detection in posterior teeth as an adjunct to visual examination. PMID:24910672

  2. Evaluation of avian influenza serologic and virologic diagnostic methods in wild Anseriformes and Charadriiformes.

    PubMed

    Curran, John M; Robertson, Ian D; Ellis, Trevor M; Selleck, Paul W

    2014-03-01

    Evaluation of avian influenza virus (AIV) diagnostic methods, including a nucleoprotein (NP) competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA), hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, type A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR), and embryonating chicken egg (ECE) virus isolation (VI), suggested validity of these tests in wild birds comparable to that reported in poultry. This was determined by analyzing the results from experimental inoculation of three species of wild birds with a low-pathogenicity AIV and from field surveillance data. The NP c-ELISA in a high-AIV prevalence setting had 100% diagnostic sensitivity (Se; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 81.5%-100%) and 91% diagnostic specificity (Sp; 95% CI: 70.8%-98.9%) in negative controls compared with the RRT-PCR. In low-AIV prevalence flocks using a > 60% inhibition positivity threshold, relative to the HI test, c-ELISA performed with 90.5% Se (95% CI: 86.2%-93.8%) and 41.2% Sp (95% CI: 38.1%-44.5%). Assessment of HI suggests a titer > or = 8 is a positive test result in wild-bird sera, and using this titer had 83.3% Se (95% CI: 58.6%-96.4%) in experimentally infected birds. The RRT-PCR diagnostic performance compared with VI in cloacal swabs varied over 2-6 days postinoculation, having high Se (83.3%-100%) and Sp (94.1%-100%) with substantial agreement (kappa = 0.8). The cycle thresholds (C(t)) for the RRT-PCR of C(t) < 37 for positivity and C(t) = 37-40 as indeterminate were found to be valid for the species included in this study. In view of the interpretative diagnostic difficulties in heterogeneous populations of wild birds, this evaluation in three species of wild birds and in surveillance data should provide greater confidence in the application of these methods routinely used in poultry. PMID:24758113

  3. [Modern methods of prehospital bleeding management based on the experience and standards of tactical medicine].

    PubMed

    Kluj, Przemysław; Aleksandrowicz, Dawid; Machała, Waldemar; Gaszyński, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    Isolated limb hemorrhage represents 60% of avoidable deaths and remains the leading cause of death in combat zone. Ideal tourniquet must be light, durable and cheap. They should completely stop the flow of arterial blood in the limb, and their attachment should be quick and easy. Tourniquets applied in correct location save lives by stopping the bleeding. Their use in civil environment appear to be particularly relevant in the mass casualties events. Modern bandages used by the military, were designed mostly in the form of an elastic bandage, which attachment has to be easy and quick. Sequential wrapping of elastic dressing around the wound produces compressive force which aim is to stem the bleeding by pressing vessel from the outside. Dressings are made of materials which adhere well to the wound, causing the seal and leave no fragments in the injured tissue. The combination of all components enables fast and effective application of the dressing in the most demanding conditions. PMID:25771513

  4. Diagnostic technology in cardiovascular disease: review of noninvasive methods for population studies

    PubMed Central

    Gillum, R. F.

    1988-01-01

    To aid the selection of appropriate diagnostic technologies, the literature on noninvasive methods for population studies of cardiovascular diseases was reviewed. Indications, limitations and cost-effectiveness are discussed. Most widely applicable are the standardized medical history, blood pressure and other measurements, resting electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, and selected tests of blood and urine. Useful in specialized studies are exercise testing, ambulatory monitoring, and peripheral arterial flow measurements. Ultrasound is valuable in the study of hypertensive and other myocardial diseases. Further methodological research is needed. PMID:3293829

  5. New diagnostic methods for laser plasma- and microwave-enhanced combustion.

    PubMed

    Miles, Richard B; Michael, James B; Limbach, Christopher M; McGuire, Sean D; Chng, Tat Loon; Edwards, Matthew R; DeLuca, Nicholas J; Shneider, Mikhail N; Dogariu, Arthur

    2015-08-13

    The study of pulsed laser- and microwave-induced plasma interactions with atmospheric and higher pressure combusting gases requires rapid diagnostic methods that are capable of determining the mechanisms by which these interactions are taking place. New rapid diagnostics are presented here extending the capabilities of Rayleigh and Thomson scattering and resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) detection and introducing femtosecond laser-induced velocity and temperature profile imaging. Spectrally filtered Rayleigh scattering provides a method for the planar imaging of temperature fields for constant pressure interactions and line imaging of velocity, temperature and density profiles. Depolarization of Rayleigh scattering provides a measure of the dissociation fraction, and multi-wavelength line imaging enables the separation of Thomson scattering from Rayleigh scattering. Radar REMPI takes advantage of high-frequency microwave scattering from the region of laser-selected species ionization to extend REMPI to atmospheric pressures and implement it as a stand-off detection method for atomic and molecular species in combusting environments. Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) generates highly excited molecular species and dissociation through the focal zone of the laser. The prompt fluorescence from excited molecular species yields temperature profiles, and the delayed fluorescence from recombining atomic fragments yields velocity profiles. PMID:26170432

  6. White-Nose Syndrome Disease Severity and a Comparison of Diagnostic Methods.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Liam P; Turner, James M; Warnecke, Lisa; McGregor, Glenna; Bollinger, Trent K; Misra, Vikram; Foster, Jeffrey T; Frick, Winifred F; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Willis, Craig K R

    2016-03-01

    White-nose syndrome is caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans and has killed millions of hibernating bats in North America but the pathophysiology of the disease remains poorly understood. Our objectives were to (1) assess non-destructive diagnostic methods for P. destructans infection compared to histopathology, the current gold-standard, and (2) to evaluate potential metrics of disease severity. We used data from three captive inoculation experiments involving 181 little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) to compare histopathology, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and ultraviolet fluorescence as diagnostic methods of P. destructans infection. To assess disease severity, we considered two histology metrics (wing area with fungal hyphae, area of dermal necrosis), P. destructans fungal load (qPCR), ultraviolet fluorescence, and blood chemistry (hematocrit, sodium, glucose, pCO2, and bicarbonate). Quantitative PCR was most effective for early detection of P. destructans, while all three methods were comparable in severe infections. Correlations among hyphae and necrosis scores, qPCR, ultraviolet fluorescence, blood chemistry, and hibernation duration indicate a multi-stage pattern of disease. Disruptions of homeostasis occurred rapidly in late hibernation. Our results provide valuable information about the use of non-destructive techniques for monitoring, and provide novel insight into the pathophysiology of white-nose syndrome, with implications for developing and implementing potential mitigation strategies. PMID:26957435

  7. Combined Use of Cytogenetic and Molecular Methods in Prenatal Diagnostics of Chromosomal Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Stomornjak-Vukadin, Meliha; Kurtovic-Basic, Ilvana; Mehinovic, Lejla; Konjhodzic, Rijad

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of prenatal diagnostics is to provide information of the genetic abnormalities of the fetus early enough for the termination of pregnancy to be possible. Chromosomal abnormalities can be detected in an unborn child through the use of cytogenetic, molecular- cytogenetic and molecular methods. In between them, central spot is still occupied by cytogenetic methods. In cases where use of such methods is not informative enough, one or more molecular cytogenetic methods can be used for further clarification. Combined use of the mentioned methods improves the quality of the final findings in the diagnostics of chromosomal abnormalities, with classical cytogenetic methods still occupying the central spot. Material and methods: Conducted research represent retrospective-prospective study of a four year period, from 2008 through 2011. In the period stated, 1319 karyotyping from amniotic fluid were conducted, along with 146 FISH analysis. Results: Karyotyping had detected 20 numerical and 18 structural aberrations in that period. Most common observed numerical aberration were Down syndrome (75%), Klinefelter syndrome (10%), Edwards syndrome, double Y syndrome and triploidy (5% each). Within observed structural aberrations more common were balanced chromosomal aberrations then non balanced ones. Most common balanced structural aberrations were as follows: reciprocal translocations (60%), Robertson translocations (13.3%), chromosomal inversions, duplications and balanced de novo chromosomal rearrangements (6.6% each). Conclusion: With non- balanced aberrations observed in the samples of amniotic fluid, non- balanced translocations, deletions and derived chromosomes were equally represented. Number of detected aneuploidies with FISH, prior to obtaining results with karyotyping, were 6. PMID:26005269

  8. DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF AIR QUALITY MODELS USING ADVANCED METHODS WITH SPECIALIZED OBSERVATIONS OF SELECTED AMBIENT SPECIES -PART II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is Part 2 of "Diagnostic Evaluation of Air Quality Models Using Advanced Methods with Specialized Observations of Selected Ambient Species". A limited field campaign to make specialized observations of selected ambient species using advanced and innovative instrumentation f...

  9. Reliability of diagnostic methods based on low-frequency noise analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gorlov, M. I.; Smirnov, D. Yu. Koz'yakov, N. N.

    2009-12-15

    Various methods for separating an integrated circuit (IC) batch were considered using noise parameters for the purpose of determining their reliability. The existing methods for screening semiconductor products using low-frequency (LF) noise were tested on transistors, as well as both digital and analog ICs, and showed good results. Selection criteria for semiconductor products were determined based on the statistics of a representative sample; however, their reliability was not estimated. The calculation of the correlation coefficient of determined LF noise parameters and reference reliability testing results was taken as the basis of the determination of reliability of diagnostic methods. For the experiment, KR142EN5A ICs made by bipolar technology were selected, which represent three-pin stabilizers with a fixed output voltage from 5 V and are used in many radio-electronic devices.

  10. [Diagnostic imaging methods of cardiac dysfunction caused by cardiotoxicity of oncological therapy].

    PubMed

    Lelakowska-Pieła, Maria; Słowik, Agnieszka; Kozynacka, Anna; Panek, Maciej; Konduracka, Ewa; Nessler, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Cardiotoxicity of chemotherapy is a serious complication of oncological treatment. Assessment of cardiac function before, during and after cardiotoxic chemotherapy course should be a standard procedure in oncology. There are several methods for evaluation of the changes in myocardium such as: electrocardiography, radiology techniques (RTG, CT, MRI, PET-CT, PET-MRI), echocardiography, radioisotope imaging techniques (scyntygraphy, MUGA, PET), and ultra-structure evaluation in biopsy samples. Nevertheless, there is a continuous need for new diagnostic methods of cardiac dysfunction of great predictive and prognostic importance. Unfortunately advanced imaging techniques are still not available in many oncological centers in Poland. Nowadays to evaluate potential cardiotoxicity of drugs in oncology it is postulated to perform serial echocardiographic examinations as a basal imaging method. Thus constant cooperation between cardiologist and oncologist plays crucial role during chemotherapy. PMID:26891435

  11. Investigation of opportunities of the optical non-invasive diagnostics method for the blood sugar control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastovskaia, Elena A.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Korotaev, Valery V.

    2015-03-01

    The relevance of noninvasive method for determining the blood sugar is caused by necessity of regular monitoring of glucose levels in diabetic patients blood. Traditional invasive method is painful, because it requires a finger pricking. Despite the active studies in the field of non-invasive medical diagnostics, to date the painless and inexpensive instrument for blood sugar control for personal use doesn't exist. It's possible to measure the concentration of glucose in the blood with help of spectrophotometry method. It consists of registering and analyzing the spectral characteristics of the radiation which missed, reflected or absorbed by the object. The authors proposed a measuring scheme for studying the spectral characteristics of the radiation, missed by earlobe. Ultra-violet, visible and near infrared spectral ranges are considered. The paper presents the description of construction and working principles of the proposed special retaining clip and results of experiment with real patient.

  12. Fluorescent-spectroscopic and imaging methods of investigations for diagnostics of head and neck tumors and control of PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edinak, N. J.; Shental, Victor V.; Komov, D. V.; Vacoulovskaia, E. G.; Tabolinovskaia, T. D.; Abdullin, N. A.; Pustynsky, I.; Chatikchine, V. H.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Agafonov, Vladimir I.; Zuravleva, V.; Lukjanets, Eugeny A.

    1996-01-01

    Methodics of PDT control and fluorescent-spectroscopic diagnostic of head and neck tumors and mammary gland cancer (nodular) with the use of Kr, He-Ne and semiconductor lasers and photosensitizer (PS) -- Al phtalocyanin (Photosense) are discussed. The results show that applied diagnostic methods permit us not only to identify the topology and malignancy of a tumor but also to correct PDT process directly during irradiation.

  13. Application of Diagnostic/Prognostic Methods to Critical Equipment for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Cleanup Program

    SciTech Connect

    Casazza, Lawrence O.; Jarrell, Donald B.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Meador, Richard J.; Wallace, Dale E.

    2002-02-28

    The management of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project at the Hanford K-Basin in the 100 N Area has successfully restructured the preventive maintenance, spare parts inventory requirements, and the operator rounds data requirements. In this investigation, they continue to examine the different facets of the operations and maintenance (O&M) of the K-Basin cleanup project in search of additional reliability and cost savings. This report focuses on the initial findings of a team of PNNL engineers engaged to identify potential opportunities for reducing the cost of O&M through the application of advanced diagnostics (fault determination) and prognostics (residual life/reliability determination). The objective is to introduce predictive technologies to eliminate or reduce high impact equipment failures. The PNNL team in conjunction with the SNF engineers found the following major opportunities for cost reduction and/or enhancing reliability: (1) Provide data routing and automated analysis from existing detection systems to a display center that will engage the operations and engineering team. This display will be operator intuitive with system alarms and integrated diagnostic capability. (2) Change operating methods to reduce major transients induced in critical equipment. This would reduce stress levels on critical equipment. (3) Install a limited sensor set on failure prone critical equipment to allow degradation or stressor levels to be monitored and alarmed. This would provide operators and engineers with advance guidance and warning of failure events. Specific methods for implementation of the above improvement opportunities are provided in the recommendations. They include an Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) decision support system, introduction of variable frequency drives on certain pump motors, and the addition of limited diagnostic instrumentation on specified critical equipment.

  14. Evaluation of Three Rapid Diagnostic Methods for Direct Identification of Microorganisms in Positive Blood Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Raquel M.; Bauerle, Elizabeth R.; Fang, Ferric C.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of organisms from positive blood cultures generally takes several days. However, recently developed rapid diagnostic methods offer the potential for organism identification within only a few hours of blood culture positivity. In this study, we evaluated the performance of three commercial methods to rapidly identify organisms directly from positive blood cultures: QuickFISH (AdvanDx, Wolburn, MA), Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture (BC-GP; Nanosphere, Northbrook, IL), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with Sepsityper processing (Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, MA). A total of 159 blood cultures (VersaTREK Trek Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, OH) positive for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as yeast were analyzed with QuickFISH and MALDI-TOF MS. In all, 102 blood cultures were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. For monomicrobial cultures, we observed 98.0% concordance with routine methods for both QuickFISH (143/146) and the BC-GP assay (93/95). MALDI-TOF MS demonstrated 80.1% (117/146) and 87.7% (128/146) concordance with routine methods to the genus and species levels, respectively. None of the methods tested were capable of consistently identifying polymicrobial cultures in their entirety or reliably differentiating Streptococcus pneumoniae from viridans streptococci. Nevertheless, the methods evaluated in this study are convenient and accurate for the most commonly encountered pathogens and have the potential to dramatically reduce turnaround time for the provision of results to the treating physician. PMID:24808235

  15. Developing and applying modern methods of leakage monitoring and state estimation of fuel at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povarov, V. P.; Tereshchenko, A. B.; Kravchenko, Yu. N.; Pozychanyuk, I. V.; Gorobtsov, L. I.; Golubev, E. I.; Bykov, V. I.; Likhanskii, V. V.; Evdokimov, I. A.; Zborovskii, V. G.; Sorokin, A. A.; Kanyukova, V. D.; Aliev, T. N.

    2014-02-01

    The results of developing and implementing the modernized fuel leakage monitoring methods at the shut-down and running reactor of the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant (NPP) are presented. An automated computerized expert system integrated with an in-core monitoring system (ICMS) and installed at the Novovoronezh NPP unit no. 5 is described. If leaky fuel elements appear in the core, the system allows one to perform on-line assessment of the parameters of leaky fuel assemblies (FAs). The computer expert system units designed for optimizing the operating regimes and enhancing the fuel usage efficiency at the Novovoronezh NPP unit no. 5 are now being developed.

  16. Regional content-based image retrieval for solar images: Traditional versus modern methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banda, J. M.; Angryk, R. A.

    2015-11-01

    This work presents an extensive evaluation between conventional (distance-based) and modern (search-engine) information retrieval techniques in the context of finding similar Solar image regions within the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission image repository. We compare pre-computed image descriptors (image features) extracted from the SDO mission images in two very different ways: (1) similarity retrieval using multiple distance-based metrics and (2) retrieval using Lucene, a general purpose scalable retrieval engine. By transforming image descriptors into histogram-like signatures and into Lucene-compatible text strings, we are able to effectively evaluate the retrieval capabilities of both methodologies. Using the image descriptors alongside a labeled image dataset, we present an extensive evaluation under the criteria of performance, scalability and retrieval precision of experimental retrieval systems in order to determine which implementation would be ideal for a production level system. In our analysis we performed key transformations to our sample datasets to properly evaluate rotation invariance and scalability. At the end of this work we conclude which technique is the most robust and would yield the best performing system after an extensive experimental evaluation, we also point out the strengths and weaknesses of each approach and theorize on potential improvements.

  17. Modern geodetic methods for high-accuracy survey coordination on the example of magnetic exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnoperov, R. I.; Sidorov, R. V.; Soloviev, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    The purposes and problems of the international network of geomagnetic observatories INTERMAGNET are briefly described in the work. The importance of the development of the Russian segment of the network as a part of a system for monitoring and estimating geomagnetic conditions on the Russian territory is emphasized. An example of the use of modern high-precision geodetic equipment for coor-dinate referencing of field geophysical observation is described. Factors that distort the referencing of field observations in problems of survey, engineering, and technical geophysics are listed, as well as those related to detail and high-resolution geophysical surveying and those that require a corresponding accuracy of observation point coordination. The magnetic exploration at the site of the Yamal INTERMAGNET-standard observatory serves an example to describe a technique for geodetic provision of a detailed geophysical survey by means of joint use of differential GNSS measurements and electronic tacheometry. The main advantages and disadvantages of the technique suggested are listed.

  18. Molecular IR Spectroscopy: New Trends and Methods of Noninvasive Diagnostics of Tissue IN VIVO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyeva, Natalia; Bruch, Reinhard

    1998-05-01

    Fiberoptic evanescent wave Fourier transform infrared (FEW-FTIR) spectroscopy using fiberoptic sensors operated in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) regime in the middle infrared (IR) region of the spectrum (850-1850 cm-1) has recently been applied to the diagnostics of tissues. The method is suitable for noninvasive and rapid (seconds) direct measurements of the spectra of normal and pathological tissues in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. The aim of our studies is the express testing of various tumor tissues at the early stages of their development. The method is expected to be further developed for endoscopic and biopsy applications. We measured the normal skin and malignant tissues in vivo on the surface (directly on patients) in various cases of basaloma, melanoma and nevus. The experiments were performed in the operating room to measure the skin in the depth (under/in the layers of epidermis) of human breast, stomach, lung, and kidney tissues. The breast and skin tissues at different stages of tumor or cancer were distinguished very clearly in spectra of amide, side cyclic and noncyclic hydrogen bonded fragments of aminoacid residuals, phosphate groups and sugars. Computer monitoring is being developed for diagnostics.

  19. A method for fine positioning of diagnostic packages in inertial confinement fusion experiments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Tielin; Lee, Kok-Meng

    2011-12-01

    A method based on binocular vision servoing for positioning of a diagnostic package in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments is presented. The general diagnostic instrument manipulator will provide precision three dimension positioning and alignment-to-target capability in ICF experiments. In this work, we focus on the final precise automatic positioning with a binocular vision system. A three dimension image projection vector (IPV), which has an almost linear relationship with the target position in 3D space under the condition of weak perspective, is introduced to extract target position information from binocular image. The difference of the IPV between the current image and the desired image will be used as the input of servo controller. A differential motion model was found for the hybrid manipulator with three degrees of freedom. With this model and the said IPV, the servo strategy will be dramatically simplified compare with general image based visual servo in which the image Jacobian matrix needs estimated online. The experiment result implies that the locating accuracy of the manipulator is less than two pixels. This method can also be used in micromanipulation visual servo field. PMID:22225255

  20. A method for fine positioning of diagnostic packages in inertial confinement fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Tielin; Lee, Kok-Meng

    2011-12-01

    A method based on binocular vision servoing for positioning of a diagnostic package in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments is presented. The general diagnostic instrument manipulator will provide precision three dimension positioning and alignment-to-target capability in ICF experiments. In this work, we focus on the final precise automatic positioning with a binocular vision system. A three dimension image projection vector (IPV), which has an almost linear relationship with the target position in 3D space under the condition of weak perspective, is introduced to extract target position information from binocular image. The difference of the IPV between the current image and the desired image will be used as the input of servo controller. A differential motion model was found for the hybrid manipulator with three degrees of freedom. With this model and the said IPV, the servo strategy will be dramatically simplified compare with general image based visual servo in which the image Jacobian matrix needs estimated online. The experiment result implies that the locating accuracy of the manipulator is less than two pixels. This method can also be used in micromanipulation visual servo field.

  1. BREAST: a novel method to improve the diagnostic efficacy of mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, P. C.; Tapia, K.; Ryan, J.; Lee, W.

    2013-03-01

    High quality breast imaging and accurate image assessment are critical to the early diagnoses, treatment and management of women with breast cancer. Breast Screen Reader Assessment Strategy (BREAST) provides a platform, accessible by researchers and clinicians world-wide, which will contain image data bases, algorithms to assess reader performance and on-line systems for image evaluation. The platform will contribute to the diagnostic efficacy of breast imaging in Australia and beyond on two fronts: reducing errors in mammography, and transforming our assessment of novel technologies and techniques. Mammography is the primary diagnostic tool for detecting breast cancer with over 800,000 women X-rayed each year in Australia, however, it fails to detect 30% of breast cancers with a number of missed cancers being visible on the image [1-6]. BREAST will monitor the mistakes, identify reasons for mammographic errors, and facilitate innovative solutions to reduce error rates. The BREAST platform has the potential to enable expert assessment of breast imaging innovations, anywhere in the world where experts or innovations are located. Currently, innovations are often being assessed by limited numbers of individuals who happen to be geographically located close to the innovation, resulting in equivocal studies with low statistical power. BREAST will transform this current paradigm by enabling large numbers of experts to assess any new method or technology using our embedded evaluation methods. We are confident that this world-first system will play an important part in the future efficacy of breast imaging.

  2. [Invasive and non-invasive diagnostic methods for evaluation of hypovolemia in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Gundling, F; Teich, N; Pehl, C; Schepp, W

    2006-12-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis leads to a dramatic fluid loss in the intraperitoneal space which may result in circulatory decompensation. Sequestration of fluid can amount up to 40 percent of the circulating blood volume. The amount of fluid and electrolyte replacement is often misjudged leading to a higher rate of complications and a higher mortality rate of the disease. Furthermore, subsequent and adequate fluid resuscitation seems to influence the prognostic course of the disease by improving the perfusion and oxygenation of the pancreas. Otherwise volume overload may cause cardiopulmonary decompensation in the case of synchronous cardiopulmonary comorbidities. Therefore, an important part of treatment relies on careful haemodynamic monitoring, if necessary managed in an intensive care unit. Usually most patients with acute pancreatitis will be treated on a non-intensive medical ward which allows a differentiated and continuous haemodynamic monitoring only to a limited extent. Apart from monitoring circulatory parameters and measuring central venous pressure, there are other clinical methods, laboratory tests and radiological diagnostic procedures to determine the amount of intravascular fluid deficit and the individual volume demand of patients with acute pancreatitis. Prospective clinical trials for evaluation of pancreatitis-specific volume management do not exist so far. The aim of this review is to provide background information on invasive and non-invasive diagnostic methods for detection of circulatory hypovolemia in acute pancreatitis. PMID:17163376

  3. Bayesian and maximum entropy methods for fusion diagnostic measurements with compact neutron spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Reginatto, Marcel; Zimbal, Andreas

    2008-02-01

    In applications of neutron spectrometry to fusion diagnostics, it is advantageous to use methods of data analysis which can extract information from the spectrum that is directly related to the parameters of interest that describe the plasma. We present here methods of data analysis which were developed with this goal in mind, and which were applied to spectrometric measurements made with an organic liquid scintillation detector (type NE213). In our approach, we combine Bayesian parameter estimation methods and unfolding methods based on the maximum entropy principle. This two-step method allows us to optimize the analysis of the data depending on the type of information that we want to extract from the measurements. To illustrate these methods, we analyze neutron measurements made at the PTB accelerator under controlled conditions, using accelerator-produced neutron beams. Although the methods have been chosen with a specific application in mind, they are general enough to be useful for many other types of measurements. PMID:18315297

  4. Reliability studies of diagnostic methods in Indian traditional Ayurveda medicine: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Kurande, Vrinda Hitendra; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Toft, Egon; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a need to develop supportive new scientific evidence for contemporary Ayurveda has emerged. One of the research objectives is an assessment of the reliability of diagnoses and treatment. Reliability is a quantitative measure of consistency. It is a crucial issue in classification (such as prakriti classification), method development (pulse diagnosis), quality assurance for diagnosis and treatment and in the conduct of clinical studies. Several reliability studies are conducted in western medicine. The investigation of the reliability of traditional Chinese, Japanese and Sasang medicine diagnoses is in the formative stage. However, reliability studies in Ayurveda are in the preliminary stage. In this paper, examples are provided to illustrate relevant concepts of reliability studies of diagnostic methods and their implication in practice, education, and training. An introduction to reliability estimates and different study designs and statistical analysis is given for future studies in Ayurveda. PMID:23930037

  5. Reliability studies of diagnostic methods in Indian traditional Ayurveda medicine: An overview.

    PubMed

    Kurande, Vrinda Hitendra; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Toft, Egon; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-04-01

    Recently, a need to develop supportive new scientific evidence for contemporary Ayurveda has emerged. One of the research objectives is an assessment of the reliability of diagnoses and treatment. Reliability is a quantitative measure of consistency. It is a crucial issue in classification (such as prakriti classification), method development (pulse diagnosis), quality assurance for diagnosis and treatment and in the conduct of clinical studies. Several reliability studies are conducted in western medicine. The investigation of the reliability of traditional Chinese, Japanese and Sasang medicine diagnoses is in the formative stage. However, reliability studies in Ayurveda are in the preliminary stage. In this paper, examples are provided to illustrate relevant concepts of reliability studies of diagnostic methods and their implication in practice, education, and training. An introduction to reliability estimates and different study designs and statistical analysis is given for future studies in Ayurveda. PMID:23930037

  6. Crystallo-optic diagnostics method of the soft laser-induced effects in biological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skopinov, S. A.; Yakovleva, S. V.

    1991-05-01

    Presently, it is well known that individual cells"2 and higher organisms3'4 exhibit a marked response to soft laser irradiation in certain parts of the visible and near infrared spectral ranges. Broad clinical applications of laser therapy and slow progress in understanding of the physical, chemical and biological mechanisms of this phenomenon make the task to search new methods of objectivisation of laser-induces bioeffects very insistent. In this paper we give a short review of the methods of structural-optical diagnostics of the soft laser-induced effects in biofluids (blood and its fractions, saliva, juices, mucuses, exudations, etc.) and suggest their applications in experimental and clinical studies of the soft laser bioeffects.

  7. Technical note: CT-guided biopsy: A new diagnostic method for paleopathological research.

    PubMed

    Rühli, Frank J; Hodler, Jürg; Böni, Thomas

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the application of computerized tomographic (CT)-guided biopsy in a paleopathological examination. Researchers dealing with such special tasks should be aware of this method. We performed a CT-guided percutaneous biopsy of an ancient Egyptian child mummy, which allowed us to revise its initial diagnosis. Based on this experience, extended preinterventional planning and the choice of equipment (needle type) preferred by performing radiologists are strongly recommended, since they will influence diagnostic outcome. Easy documentation, suitable approaches according to the object's condition, and a reliable anatomical orientation without superposition effects during the procedure are some of the advantages of this method. It its already widely established in clinical practice. This technique is recommended for future tissue-sampling of human paleopathologic remains like mummies that are still wrapped within their original bandages, or any small bone lesion of unclear etiology. PMID:11842406

  8. Modern Carbonate Field Studies Designed to Direct Inquiry-Based Learning That Teaches Research Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L. E.; Eves, R. L.

    2006-12-01

    Transitioning students from learner to investigator is best accomplished by incorporating research into the undergraduate classroom as a collaborative enterprise between students and faculty. Our course is a two-part design with a focus on a modern carbonate ecosystem and depositional environment on San Salvador Island, Bahamas in order to integrate geology, biology, and environmental science. Content background is provided in the classroom, which focuses on the geology of the Bahamian platform; the biological aspects of Caribbean island marine ecosystems; and the impact of human development on tropical islands. Application of course content is focused during an integrated field study of a specific carbonate environment, e.g. carbonate production in a tidal lagoon. The ultimate goals of the course are (1) identifying and acquiring both disciplinary and interdisciplinary research methodologies, (2) defining a specific investigative problem, (3) conducting `real' [meaningful] research, and (4) communicating research findings in the form of presentations at national meetings and publication in research journals. Assessment is based on specific criteria to be achieved during the research project. Criteria are determined through collaboration between faculty mentors and student researchers. Students are evaluated throughout the research phase with particular attention paid to an understanding of appropriate planning and background research, originality of thought; use of project-specific and appropriate data collection and sampling techniques; and analysis and interpretation of data. Students are expected to submit a final written report containing appropriate conclusions from data analysis and recommendations for further studies. Each student is also required to complete a self-assessment. The interdisciplinary experiences gained by faculty and students have already been incorporated into other courses and have led to publication of results. The course stimulates both faculty and students due to higher than usual levels of faculty-student interaction.

  9. Comparison of five diagnostic methods for detecting bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in calves.

    PubMed

    Hilbe, Monika; Stalder, Hanspeter; Peterhans, Ernst; Haessig, Michael; Nussbaumer, Marlies; Egli, Christoph; Schelp, Christian; Zlinszky, Kati; Ehrensperger, Felix

    2007-01-01

    Five diagnostic techniques performed on skin biopsies (shoulder region) and/or serum were compared for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in 224 calves 0-3 months of age, 23 calves older than 3 months but younger than 7 months, and 11 cattle older than 7 months. The diagnostic methods used were immunohistochemistry (IHC), 2 commercial antigen ELISAs, 1 commercial antibody ELISA, and real-time RT-PCR. Results of 249 out of 258 skin and serum samples were identical and correlated within the 3 antigen detection methods and the real-time RT-PCR used. Twenty-six of these 249 samples were BVDV-positive with all antigen detection methods and the real-time RT-PCR. Nine out of 258 samples yielding discordant results were additionally examined by RT-PCR, RT-PCR Reamplification (ReA), and antigen ELISA I on serum and by immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed and paraffin-embedded skin biopsies. Virus isolation and genotyping was performed as well on these discordant samples. In 3 cases, transiently infected animals were identified. Two samples positive by real-time RT-PCR were interpreted as false positive and were ascribed to cross-contamination. The antigen ELISA II failed to detect 2 BVDV-positive calves due to the presence of maternal antibodies; the cause of 2 false-positive cases in this ELISA remained undetermined. Only persistently infected animals were identified in skin samples by IHC or antigen ELISA I. The 3 antigen detection methods and the real-time RT-PCR used in parallel had a high correlation rate (96.5%) and similar sensitivity and specificity values. PMID:17459829

  10. Adaptation of an ethnographic method for investigation of the task domain in diagnostic radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramey, Judith A.; Rowberg, Alan H.; Robinson, Carol

    1992-07-01

    A number of user-centered methods for designing radiology workstations have been described by researchers at Carleton University (Ottawa), Georgetown University, George Washington University, and University of Arizona, among others. The approach described here differs in that it enriches standard human-factors practices with methods adapted from ethnography to study users (in this case, diagnostic radiologists) as members of a distinct culture. The overall approach combines several methods; the core method, based on ethnographic ''stream of behavior chronicles'' and their analysis, has four phases: (1) first, we gather the stream of behavior by videotaping a radiologist as he or she works; (2) we view the tape ourselves and formulate questions and hypothesis about the work; and then (3) in a second videotaped session, we show the radiologist the original tape and ask for a running commentary on the work, into which, at the appropriate points, we interject our questions for clarification. We then (4) categorize/index the behavior on the ''raw data'' tapes for various kinds of follow-on analysis. We describe and illustrate this method in detail, describe how we analyze the ''raw data'' videotapes and the commentary tapes, and explain how the method can be integrated into an overall user-centered design process based on standard human-factors techniques.

  11. Diagnostic methods to cutaneous leishmaniasis detection in domestic dogs and cats*

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Daliah Alves Coelho; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. In domestic animals such as dogs and cats, the diagnostic consists of clinical, epidemiological and serological tests, which changes among countries all around the world. Because of this diversity in the methods selected, we propose this systematic literature review to identify the methods of laboratory diagnosis used to detect cutaneous leishmaniasis in domestic dogs and cats in the Americas. Articles published in the last 5 years were searched in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, LILACS and Scielo, and we selected 10 papers about cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs and cats in the Americas. In Brazil, often the indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) have been applied. Other countries like United States and Mexico have been using antigenic fractions for antibodies detections by Western blot. ELISA and Western blot showed a higher sensitivity and efficacy in the detection of leishmaniasis. Analysis of sensibility and specificity of the methods was rarely used. Although confirmatory to leishmaniasis, direct methods for parasites detection and polymerase chain reaction showed low positivity in disease detection. We suggested that more than one method should be used for the detection of feline and canine leishmaniasis. Serological methods such as Western blot and enzyme immunoassay have a high efficacy in the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:26734869

  12. Interobserver Reliability of Four Diagnostic Methods Using Traditional Korean Medicine for Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Ah; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Alraek, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate the consistency of pattern identification (PI), a set of diagnostic indicators used by traditional Korean medicine (TKM) clinicians. Methods. A total of 168 stroke patients who were admitted into oriental medical university hospitals from June 2012 through January 2013 were included in the study. Using the PI indicators, each patient was independently diagnosed by two experts from the same department. Interobserver consistency was assessed by simple percentage agreement as well as by kappa and AC1 statistics. Results. Interobserver agreement on the PI indicators (for all patients) was generally high: pulse diagnosis signs (AC1 = 0.66–0.89); inspection signs (AC1 = 0.66–0.95); listening/smelling signs (AC1 = 0.67–0.88); and inquiry signs (AC1 = 0.62–0.94). Conclusion. In four examinations, there was moderate agreement between the clinicians on the PI indicators. To improve clinician consistency (e.g., in the diagnostic criteria used), it is necessary to analyze the reasons for inconsistency and to improve clinician training. PMID:25574181

  13. Diagnostic Assessment of Childhood Apraxia of Speech Using Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) Methods

    PubMed Central

    Hosom, John-Paul; Shriberg, Lawrence; Green, Jordan R.

    2005-01-01

    We report findings from two feasibility studies using automatic speech recognition (ASR) methods in childhood speech sound disorders. The studies evaluated and implemented the automation of two recently proposed diagnostic markers for suspected Apraxia of Speech (AOS) termed the Lexical Stress Ratio (LSR) and the Coefficient of Variation Ratio (CVR). The LSR is a weighted composite of amplitude area, frequency area , and duration in the stressed compared to the unstressed vowel as obtained from a speaker’s productions of eight trochaic word forms. Composite weightings for the three stress parameters were determined from a principal components analysis. The CVR expresses the average normalized variability of durations of pause and speech events that were obtained from a conversational speech sample. We describe the automation procedures used to obtain LSR and CVR scores for four children with suspected AOS and report comparative findings. The LSR values obtained with ASR were within 1.2% to 6.7% of the LSR values obtained manually using Computerized Speech Lab (CSL). The CVR values obtained with ASR were within 0.7% to 2.7% of the CVR values obtained manually using Matlab. These results indicate the potential of ASR-based techniques to process these and other diagnostic markers of childhood speech sound disorders. PMID:17066124

  14. Improving Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing by Balancing Attribute Coverage: The Modified Maximum Global Discrimination Index Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a new item selection method, namely, the modified maximum global discrimination index (MMGDI) method, for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT). The new method captures two aspects of the appeal of an item: (a) the amount of contribution it can make toward adequate coverage of every attribute and (b) the…

  15. [Place of reflexotherapy and some other methods of alternative medicine in modern medical practice].

    PubMed

    Boĭchak, M P; Sobetskiĭ, V V

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of the role and place of nontraditional methods of treatment and reflexotherapy, widely applied in hospitals is presented in the article. Besides, we become alerted regarding not serious approach of some scientists and health service managers to reflexotherapy as a whole and to one of its methods--acupuncture. An analysis of the situation developed in the legislation concerning training of reflexotherapy specialists for last 15-20 years not only in Ukraine, but also abroad was done. The article presents a historical parallel between the use of medicamentous and nonmedicamentous methods of treatment. PMID:20608024

  16. Development and realization methods for the study of local magnetic and transport characteristics of modern nanostructured superconducting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovskiy, S. V.; Rudnev, I. A.; Podlivaev, A. I.

    2011-04-01

    It is well known that the Hall probe magnetic imaging represents a powerful technique for the investigation of the magnetic field distribution in nanostructured superconducting materials of many different types and geometries. We present a new method of the evaluation of current distributions in thin nanostructured superconducting tapes and films from the data of two-dimensional magnetic field profiles measured over the sample surface. We have analyzed the different conditions of magnetic flux trap of external magnetic field and the magnetic field distribution of a superconductor at the flow of transport current. Based on the standard algorithm was developed original method of non-contact investigation of local transport properties of modern nanostructured superconducting materials.

  17. Assessment of modern methods in numerical simulations of high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pindera, M. Z.; Yang, H. Q.; Przekwas, A. J.; Tucker, K.

    1992-01-01

    Results of extensive studies on CFD algorithms for 2D inviscid flows in Cartesian and body fitted coordinates geometries are reviewed. These studies represent part of an ongoing investigation of combustion instabilities involving the interactions of high-speed nonlinear acoustic waves. Four numerical methods for the treatment of high speed flows are compared, namely, Roe-Sweby TVD, Yee symmetric TVD; Osher-Chakravarthy TVD; and the Colella's multi-dimensional Godunov method.

  18. Development of an HPTLC-based diagnostic method for invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Puri, Alka; Ahmad, Ajaz; Panda, Bibhu Prasad

    2010-08-01

    A rapid, sensitive and specific high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for determination of gliotoxin in Aspergillus infected immunocompromised patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA). Densitometric analysis of gliotoxin was carried out in the absorbance mode at 254 nm after single-step extraction with chloroform. The method uses TLC aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F-254 as a stationary phase and toluene-isoamyl alcohol-methanol (10:0.5:0.5, v/v/v) as mobile phase, which gives compact spot of gliotoxin (R(f) = 0.51). The calibration curve was linear (r(2) > or = 0.994) between peak area and concentration in the tested range of 100-1000 ng spot(-1) with minimum detectable range 0.025 ng mu(-1) of serum sample. The mean +/- SD value of slope and intercept of the standard chromatogram of gliotoxin were found to be 523.2 +/- 1.555635 and 915.8 +/- 30.68843, respectively. The developed method is simple, rapid, precise and less costly than earlier diagnostic methods, and different serum samples can be run on a single TLC plate for comparative analysis. The proposed method can be used to analyze gliotoxin in patient serum for easy, rapid and cost-effective diagnosis of IA. PMID:20033890

  19. A new, modern, cost-saving micro/macro method for the determination of serum fructosamine.

    PubMed

    Oppel, K; Kulcsár, M; Bárdos, L; Ferencz, A; Lakner, H; Simon, J; Temesváry, K; Karchesz, K

    2000-01-01

    Serum/plasma fructosamine (SeFa) concentration is a reliable indicator used in human diabetic control. Tests for monitoring the carbohydrate/energy metabolism of (farm) animals are less commonly performed in veterinary laboratories, since most of the reliable determinations, both automated and manual, are relatively expensive. The aim of this study was to develop a precise, money- (and time-) saving automated micro method for measuring SeFa. ELISA microplates (20 microL samples and 200 microL reagents) and an automatic microplate autoreader were used. The classical nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) stain reagent solution of Johnson et al. (1982) was modified using a SIGMA reagent to render it stable for up to one year. SeFa concentrations measured by the new method in 30 human blood plasma samples were compared with values obtained by the standard (generally used) LaRoche kit procedure. Fifteen cow, 13 dog and 18 chicken plasma samples were assayed by the new automated 'micro' method as well as by the manual test tube 'macro' method commonly used earlier. The modified reagent was applied for both methods. The coefficient of correlation (r) between the results obtained by the two methods was consistently between 0.94 and 0.98 (p < 0.001). PMID:11402712

  20. Application possibilities of several modern methods of microscopy and microanalysis in forensic science field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotrly, Marek; Turkova, Ivana

    2011-06-01

    The methods of optical and electron microscopy and microanalysis are the linchpin of forensic inorganic analysis. However, their capacity is limited as for the exact identification of pigments and colour layers, and therefore it is essential that they be complemented by other methods of phase microanalysis - powder X-ray microdiffraction (micro pXRD) and FTIR in transmission mode. The classic way of sample division for different methods is not suitable with regard to the inhomogeneity of the sequence of strata. That is why a method was tested that would allow performance of optical microscopy, SEM/EDS(WDS), micro pXRD and FTIR in a nondestructive manner, from an identical spot of a single fragment. The solution can be polished sections - embedded samples and microtome sections. Conductive zerobackground single-crystal silicon plates were developed and tested for sample fixation in SEM, micro pXRD and transmission FTIR. Methods using a focused ion beam - FIB have recently gained importance in the field of electron microscopy. In the forensic sphere they can be employed in examinations of metal materials, technical analyses of documents, post-blast and gunshot residues.

  1. Comparison between Amnisure Placental Alpha Microglobulin-1 Rapid Immunoassay and Standard Diagnostic Methods for Detection of Rupture of Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Beng Kwang; Lim, Pei Shan; Shafiee, Mohamad Nasir; Abdul Ghani, Nur Azurah; Mohamed Ismail, Nor Azlin; Omar, Mohd Hashim; Muhammad Yassin, Muhammad Abdul Jamil

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of placental alpha microglobulin-1 assay and standard diagnostic methods for detecting rupture of membrane. Study Design. Prospective diagnostic study, between June 2011 to November 2011 at a tertiary centre. Initial evaluation included both the standard diagnostic methods for rupture of membranes and placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay. The actual rupture of membranes was diagnosed on review of the medical records after delivery (absence of membrane or a positive pad chart). Main Outcome Measures. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay and standard diagnostic methods for diagnosis of rupture of membrane. Results. A total of 211 patients were recruited. At initial presentation, 187 patients (88.6%) had ruptured membranes, while 24 patients (11.4%) had intact membranes. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay confirmed rupture of membranes at initial presentation with a sensitivity of 95.7% (179 of 187), specificity of 100% (24 of 24), positive predictive value of 100% (179 of 179), and negative predictive value of 75.0% (24 of 32). By comparison, the conventional standard diagnostic methods had a sensitivity of 78.1% (146 of 187), specificity of 100% (24 of 24), positive predictive value of 100% (146 of 146), and negative predictive value of 36.9% (24 of 65) in diagnosing rupture of membrane. Conclusion. Placental alpha-microglobulin-1 immunoassay is a rapid and accurate method for confirming the diagnosis of rupture of membrane. It was superior to conventional standard diagnostic methods (pooling, nitrazine, and ferning), the nitrazine test alone or fern test alone. PMID:24073412

  2. Experience with local rectal cancer excision in light of two recent preoperative diagnostic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Accarpio, G.; Scopinaro, G.; Claudiani, F.; Davini, D.; Mallarini, G.; Saitta, S.

    1987-04-01

    This study analyzes the usefulness of two diagnostic methods: endorectal echotomography and adenolymphoscintigraphy. Echotomography is an important means for determining the extent of a tumor beyond the rectal wall, whereas lymphoscintigraphy is useful in demonstrating the metastatic locations in lymph nodes. These two modes of evaluation may permit an evaluation of the extent of the tumor and the possible involvement of regional lymph nodes before a surgical operation. Although the case material is limited, the statistical data can lead one to believe that, in the near future, a reasoned choice will be possible between local excision and abdominoperineal resection. The study includes 60 endorectal echotomographies and 26 lymphoscintigraphies (20 with /sup 99m/Tc colloid and six with /sup 201/Tl colloid).

  3. Embedded diagnostic, prognostic, and health management system and method for a humanoid robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barajas, Leandro G. (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a humanoid robot with multiple compliant joints, each moveable using one or more of the actuators, and having sensors for measuring control and feedback data. A distributed controller controls the joints and other integrated system components over multiple high-speed communication networks. Diagnostic, prognostic, and health management (DPHM) modules are embedded within the robot at the various control levels. Each DPHM module measures, controls, and records DPHM data for the respective control level/connected device in a location that is accessible over the networks or via an external device. A method of controlling the robot includes embedding a plurality of the DPHM modules within multiple control levels of the distributed controller, using the DPHM modules to measure DPHM data within each of the control levels, and recording the DPHM data in a location that is accessible over at least one of the high-speed communication networks.

  4. A new method for tracking organ motion on diagnostic ultrasound images

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Yoshiki Matsumura, Akihiko; Fukahori, Mai; Minohara, Shin-ichi; Yasuda, Shigeo; Nagahashi, Hiroshi

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Respiratory-gated irradiation is effective in reducing the margins of a target in the case of abdominal organs, such as the liver, that change their position as a result of respiratory motion. However, existing technologies are incapable of directly measuring organ motion in real-time during radiation beam delivery. Hence, the authors proposed a novel quantitative organ motion tracking method involving the use of diagnostic ultrasound images; it is noninvasive and does not entail radiation exposure. In the present study, the authors have prospectively evaluated this proposed method. Methods: The method involved real-time processing of clinical ultrasound imaging data rather than organ monitoring; it comprised a three-dimensional ultrasound device, a respiratory sensing system, and two PCs for data storage and analysis. The study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method by tracking the gallbladder in one subject and a liver vein in another subject. To track a moving target organ, the method involved the control of a region of interest (ROI) that delineated the target. A tracking algorithm was used to control the ROI, and a large number of feature points and an error correction algorithm were used to achieve long-term tracking of the target. Tracking accuracy was assessed in terms of how well the ROI matched the center of the target. Results: The effectiveness of using a large number of feature points and the error correction algorithm in the proposed method was verified by comparing it with two simple tracking methods. The ROI could capture the center of the target for about 5 min in a cross-sectional image with changing position. Indeed, using the proposed method, it was possible to accurately track a target with a center deviation of 1.54 ± 0.9 mm. The computing time for one frame image using our proposed method was 8 ms. It is expected that it would be possible to track any soft-tissue organ or tumor with large deformations and changing cross-sectional position using this method. Conclusions: The proposed method achieved real-time processing and continuous tracking of the target organ for about 5 min. It is expected that our method will enable more accurate radiation treatment than is the case using indirect observational methods, such as the respiratory sensor method, because of direct visualization of the tumor. Results show that this tracking system facilitates safe treatment in clinical practice.

  5. Psychology and Mathematical Method: A Capsule History and a Modern View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses histories of three current issues in the psychology and pedagogy of mathematical thinking: (1) the notion of a "prescriptive method"; (2) "associationism" as an explanation for learning; and (3) Gestaltism. Reviews theoretical perspectives that emerged starting in the mid-twentieth century, including behaviorism, artificial intelligence…

  6. [Comparative study of diagnostic methods for visceral leishmaniasis in dogs from Ilha Solteira, SP].

    PubMed

    de Assis, Juliana; de Queiroz, Nina Marí Gual Pimenta; da Silveira, Rita de Cássia Vieira; Nunes, Cáris Maroni; Oliveira, Trícia Maria Ferreira de Sousa; Junior, Antonio Carlos Faconti de Noronha; Neves, Maria Francisca; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida Starke

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was a comparative study of diagnostic methods for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) using serological methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), histochemical (HE) and immunohistochemical (IMHC) tests using spleen, lymph node and liver canine tissues. In addition, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was done in blood and in tissues in order to compare and confirm no conclusive and negative diagnosis by the methods above. For this study, 34 dogs were divided according to clinical signs in asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic and polisymptomatic Leishmania-infected dogs euthanized by Zoonotic Disease Control Center (CCZ) from Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. The positivism indexes of ELISA, IMHC, IFAT and HE were 65.0, 62.0, 56.0 and 56.0%, respectively with the highest numbers of positive dogs in polisymptomatic (92.0%) followed by oligosymptomatic (57.0%) and asymptomatic dogs (12.5%). Furthermore, PCR confirmed the positive results and detected DNA in tissues from 100% of negative dogs and 89.0% suspects raising the animal positivism index up to 97.0%. In conclusion, PCR was the most sensitive and a valuable method for a definitive CVL diagnosis. PMID:20385055

  7. Cross method for analysis of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and aggregation coefficient in medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaikina, Irene V.; Furmanchuk, Dmitryi A.

    1998-06-01

    Method of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) measurement is non-specific one. The ESR are tightly correlated to increase or decrease of aggregation coefficient (N). The variations of N could happen due to two main reasons: either changes in concentration of plasma proteins (first of all of fibrinogen) or changes of erythrocyte membrane characteristics (surface charge, transmembrane potential). The cross-method of ESR analysis has been proposed, using blood samples from patient and healthy donor of the same ABO blood groups and Rh-factors. The hematocrit (Ho)-ESR dependencies were measured in four variants: (1) patient's erythrocytes in patient's plasma; (2) patient's erythrocytes in donor's plasma; (3) donor's erythrocytes in donor's plasma; (4) donor's erythrocytes in patient's plasma. On presenting the ESR data for more than 100 patients with different bone marrow disorders after chemotherapy in the coordinates Ho-ESR three conventional zones could be marked out: high-ESR zone, medium zone and zone of low level of Ho. Proposed cross-method allows to estimate which of the two aforementioned reasons results in ESR variation. Some patients revealed not only changed fibrinogen level but additional changes in membrane affinity to fibrinogen. The modificated ESR cross-method opens us some new capacities in medical diagnostics.

  8. Hybrid digital signal processing and neural networks for automated diagnostics using NDE methods

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Yan, W.

    1993-11-01

    The primary purpose of the current research was to develop an integrated approach by combining information compression methods and artificial neural networks for the monitoring of plant components using nondestructive examination data. Specifically, data from eddy current inspection of heat exchanger tubing were utilized to evaluate this technology. The focus of the research was to develop and test various data compression methods (for eddy current data) and the performance of different neural network paradigms for defect classification and defect parameter estimation. Feedforward, fully-connected neural networks, that use the back-propagation algorithm for network training, were implemented for defect classification and defect parameter estimation using a modular network architecture. A large eddy current tube inspection database was acquired from the Metals and Ceramics Division of ORNL. These data were used to study the performance of artificial neural networks for defect type classification and for estimating defect parameters. A PC-based data preprocessing and display program was also developed as part of an expert system for data management and decision making. The results of the analysis showed that for effective (low-error) defect classification and estimation of parameters, it is necessary to identify proper feature vectors using different data representation methods. The integration of data compression and artificial neural networks for information processing was established as an effective technique for automation of diagnostics using nondestructive examination methods.

  9. Diagnostic Methods of Helicobacter pylori Infection for Epidemiological Studies: Critical Importance of Indirect Test Validation

    PubMed Central

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Among the methods developed to detect H. pylori infection, determining the gold standard remains debatable, especially for epidemiological studies. Due to the decreasing sensitivity of direct diagnostic tests (histopathology and/or immunohistochemistry [IHC], rapid urease test [RUT], and culture), several indirect tests, including antibody-based tests (serology and urine test), urea breath test (UBT), and stool antigen test (SAT) have been developed to diagnose H. pylori infection. Among the indirect tests, UBT and SAT became the best methods to determine active infection. While antibody-based tests, especially serology, are widely available and relatively sensitive, their specificity is low. Guidelines indicated that no single test can be considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and that one should consider the method's advantages and disadvantages. Based on four epidemiological studies, culture and RUT present a sensitivity of 74.2–90.8% and 83.3–86.9% and a specificity of 97.7–98.8% and 95.1–97.2%, respectively, when using IHC as a gold standard. The sensitivity of serology is quite high, but that of the urine test was lower compared with that of the other methods. Thus, indirect test validation is important although some commercial kits propose universal cut-off values. PMID:26904678

  10. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome: the influence of modern diagnostic criteria on epidemiology and on Internet search activity by the public

    PubMed Central

    Gnanappiragasam, Sanjith; Thornhill, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic debilitating condition that is characterised by suprapubic pain and urinary symptoms such as urgency, nocturia and urinary frequency. The prevalence of the condition is increasing due to more inclusive diagnostic criteria. Herein, we review the evolving epidemiology of IC/PBS and investigate health seeking behaviour for the condition through Internet search activity. Study selection was performed in accordance with PRISMA. In addition, global search trends for the terms ‘Interstitial Cystitis’ and ‘Painful Bladder Syndrome’ from 2005 to 2015 were also evaluated using the ‘Google Trends’ search application. The mean search activity per month was recorded and mean activity at annual intervals calculated. Regional search activity by country and city was also measured. Prevalence rates for IC/PBS vary according to diagnostic criteria and range from 2% to 17.3% among the general population. Increased prevalence is associated with female gender and females with one first-degree relative affected. There has been an increase in global mean search activity for IC/PBS on an annual basis since 2005. The greatest increase in search activity was in USA, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, Ireland and India respectively. The top five cities for search activity for IC/PBS were in the USA. As diagnostic criteria for IC/PBS continues to become more inclusive it is likely that the prevalence will continue to increase. This is particularly true for the USA and Canada as these regions have demonstrated the greatest increase in Internet search activity for IC/ PBS. PMID:26816850

  11. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome: the influence of modern diagnostic criteria on epidemiology and on Internet search activity by the public.

    PubMed

    Davis, Niall F; Gnanappiragasam, Sanjith; Thornhill, John A

    2015-10-01

    Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic debilitating condition that is characterised by suprapubic pain and urinary symptoms such as urgency, nocturia and urinary frequency. The prevalence of the condition is increasing due to more inclusive diagnostic criteria. Herein, we review the evolving epidemiology of IC/PBS and investigate health seeking behaviour for the condition through Internet search activity. Study selection was performed in accordance with PRISMA. In addition, global search trends for the terms 'Interstitial Cystitis' and 'Painful Bladder Syndrome' from 2005 to 2015 were also evaluated using the 'Google Trends' search application. The mean search activity per month was recorded and mean activity at annual intervals calculated. Regional search activity by country and city was also measured. Prevalence rates for IC/PBS vary according to diagnostic criteria and range from 2% to 17.3% among the general population. Increased prevalence is associated with female gender and females with one first-degree relative affected. There has been an increase in global mean search activity for IC/PBS on an annual basis since 2005. The greatest increase in search activity was in USA, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, Ireland and India respectively. The top five cities for search activity for IC/PBS were in the USA. As diagnostic criteria for IC/PBS continues to become more inclusive it is likely that the prevalence will continue to increase. This is particularly true for the USA and Canada as these regions have demonstrated the greatest increase in Internet search activity for IC/ PBS. PMID:26816850

  12. Fast and precise computation of electrostatic fields with a charge simulation method using modern programming techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, S.; Zech, G.; Otto, W.

    1996-05-01

    A precise computation of the electrostatic field is of considerable importance for the optimization of devices with electrooptical imaging. Another field of interest is the development of particle detectors like wire chambers or microstrip chambers. Inside a gas volume of such a detector a high electrostatic field is produced at small electrodes. Particles passing the detector ionize a certain number of gas molecules. The electrons produced by this process are moving along the field lines. When they reach a high field region they are accelerated and in turn ionize the gas. This leads to a charge avalanche that induces a signal on the electrodes that can be measured. To simulate these detectors the field has to be computed to high precision, especially in regions where the field is large, since the gas gain depends exponentially on the field strength. For signal simulation also the drift velocity of the positive ions which is proportional to the field, the induced charges on the electrodes, and the capacitances are of interest. Here a method to reduce the computational effort for numerical calculation of electrostatic fields by a Charge Simulation Method is introduced. By simplifying complex charge configurations for the evaluation of the field at large distances, the computation time can be reduced considerably preserving high precision. Since the method is ideally suited to object-oriented programming it has been implemented in C++.

  13. Traditional and modern plant breeding methods with examples in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Breseghello, Flavio; Coelho, Alexandre Siqueira Guedes

    2013-09-01

    Plant breeding can be broadly defined as alterations caused in plants as a result of their use by humans, ranging from unintentional changes resulting from the advent of agriculture to the application of molecular tools for precision breeding. The vast diversity of breeding methods can be simplified into three categories: (i) plant breeding based on observed variation by selection of plants based on natural variants appearing in nature or within traditional varieties; (ii) plant breeding based on controlled mating by selection of plants presenting recombination of desirable genes from different parents; and (iii) plant breeding based on monitored recombination by selection of specific genes or marker profiles, using molecular tools for tracking within-genome variation. The continuous application of traditional breeding methods in a given species could lead to the narrowing of the gene pool from which cultivars are drawn, rendering crops vulnerable to biotic and abiotic stresses and hampering future progress. Several methods have been devised for introducing exotic variation into elite germplasm without undesirable effects. Cases in rice are given to illustrate the potential and limitations of different breeding approaches. PMID:23551250

  14. Modern architectures for intelligent systems: reusable ontologies and problem-solving methods.

    PubMed Central

    Musen, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    When interest in intelligent systems for clinical medicine soared in the 1970s, workers in medical informatics became particularly attracted to rule-based systems. Although many successful rule-based applications were constructed, development and maintenance of large rule bases remained quite problematic. In the 1980s, an entire industry dedicated to the marketing of tools for creating rule-based systems rose and fell, as workers in medical informatics began to appreciate deeply why knowledge acquisition and maintenance for such systems are difficult problems. During this time period, investigators began to explore alternative programming abstractions that could be used to develop intelligent systems. The notions of "generic tasks" and of reusable problem-solving methods became extremely influential. By the 1990s, academic centers were experimenting with architectures for intelligent systems based on two classes of reusable components: (1) domain-independent problem-solving methods-standard algorithms for automating stereotypical tasks--and (2) domain ontologies that captured the essential concepts (and relationships among those concepts) in particular application areas. This paper will highlight how intelligent systems for diverse tasks can be efficiently automated using these kinds of building blocks. The creation of domain ontologies and problem-solving methods is the fundamental end product of basic research in medical informatics. Consequently, these concepts need more attention by our scientific community. PMID:9929181

  15. Complementary approaches to diagnosing marine diseases: a union of the modern and the classic.

    PubMed

    Burge, Colleen A; Friedman, Carolyn S; Getchell, Rodman; House, Marcia; Lafferty, Kevin D; Mydlarz, Laura D; Prager, Katherine C; Sutherland, Kathryn P; Renault, Tristan; Kiryu, Ikunari; Vega-Thurber, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    Linking marine epizootics to a specific aetiology is notoriously difficult. Recent diagnostic successes show that marine disease diagnosis requires both modern, cutting-edge technology (e.g. metagenomics, quantitative real-time PCR) and more classic methods (e.g. transect surveys, histopathology and cell culture). Here, we discuss how this combination of traditional and modern approaches is necessary for rapid and accurate identification of marine diseases, and emphasize how sole reliance on any one technology or technique may lead disease investigations astray. We present diagnostic approaches at different scales, from the macro (environment, community, population and organismal scales) to the micro (tissue, organ, cell and genomic scales). We use disease case studies from a broad range of taxa to illustrate diagnostic successes from combining traditional and modern diagnostic methods. Finally, we recognize the need for increased capacity of centralized databases, networks, data repositories and contingency plans for diagnosis and management of marine disease. PMID:26880839

  16. Complementary approaches to diagnosing marine diseases: a union of the modern and the classic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burge, Colleen A.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Getchell, Rodman G.; House, Marcia; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Mydlarz, Laura D.; Prager, Katherine C.; Sutherland, Kathryn P.; Renault, Tristan; Kiryu, Ikunari; Vega-Thurber, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Linking marine epizootics to a specific aetiology is notoriously difficult. Recent diagnostic successes show that marine disease diagnosis requires both modern, cutting-edge technology (e.g. metagenomics, quantitative real-time PCR) and more classic methods (e.g. transect surveys, histopathology and cell culture). Here, we discuss how this combination of traditional and modern approaches is necessary for rapid and accurate identification of marine diseases, and emphasize how sole reliance on any one technology or technique may lead disease investigations astray. We present diagnostic approaches at different scales, from the macro (environment, community, population and organismal scales) to the micro (tissue, organ, cell and genomic scales). We use disease case studies from a broad range of taxa to illustrate diagnostic successes from combining traditional and modern diagnostic methods. Finally, we recognize the need for increased capacity of centralized databases, networks, data repositories and contingency plans for diagnosis and management of marine disease.

  17. A modern method for analyzing thermal energy system with system state equation and analytical formula of performance index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunfa; Li, Liping; Wang, Huijie; Zhao, Ning

    2007-03-01

    This paper addresses overall performance analysis of coal-fired power unit. From the point of view of system engineering, a general steam-water distribution equation of the thermal plant system is presented. This system state equation is an exact expression combining system topological structure and system properties. Through proper mathematic transform, the inner relationship and interaction between the main system and auxiliary system are revealed and its general form is given. An analytical formula for the heat consumption rate of thermal power plant is one direct fruit of the equation, which greatly facilitate the online analyzing and optimizing of complex thermal system. The new approach, with the aid of modern data acquiring technology, is a perfect extension of the traditional analysis method based on the First Law of Thermodynamics.

  18. Fog forecasting: ``old fashioned'' semi-empirical methods from radio sounding observations versus ``modern'' numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtslag, M. C.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Holtslag, A. A. M.

    2010-07-01

    Fog forecasting is a very challenging task due to the local and small-scale nature of the relevant physical processes and land surface heterogeneities. Despite the many research efforts, numerical models remain to have difficulties with fog forecasting, and forecast skill from direct model output is relatively poor. In order to put the progress of fog forecasting in the last decades into a historical perspective, we compare the fog forecasting skill of a semi-empirical method based on radio sounding observations (developed in the 60s and 70s) with the forecasting skill of a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction model (MM5) for The Netherlands. The semi-empirical method under investigation, the Fog Stability Index, depends solely on the temperature difference between the surface and 850 hPa, the surface dew point depression and the wind speed at 850 hPa, and a threshold value to indicate the probability of fog in the coming hours. Using the critical success index (CSI) as a criterion for forecast quality, we find that the Fog Stability Index is a rather successful predictor for fog, with similar performance as MM5. The FSI could even been optimized for different observational stations in the Netherlands. Also, it appears that adding the 10 m wind as a predictor did not increase the CSI score for all stations. The results of the current study clearly indicate that the current state of knowledge requires improvement of the physical insight in different physical processes in order to beat simple semi-empirical methods.

  19. Foucault's method for measuring the speed of light with modern apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vörös, Zoltán; Weihs, Gregor

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce two simple and inexpensive, yet quite accurate versions of the well-known Foucault method for measuring the speed of light. In a compact footprint of just 20 cm by 270 cm with readily available laboratory items, a rotating mirror taken from a laser printer, and a webcam, we obtained c=296\\720+/- 3000 km s-1, and c=302\\295+/- 3000 km s-1, respectively, both within less than a per cent of the defined value. The experiment also prepares students for extracting data through image processing.

  20. Intelligent Condition Diagnosis Method Based on Adaptive Statistic Test Filter and Diagnostic Bayesian Network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Qiuju; Wang, Kun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-01-01

    A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF) and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN) is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal) and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO). To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs) for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26761006

  1. Intelligent Condition Diagnosis Method Based on Adaptive Statistic Test Filter and Diagnostic Bayesian Network.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Qiuju; Wang, Kun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-01-01

    A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF) and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN) is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal) and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO). To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs) for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26761006

  2. Flowfield analysis of modern helicopter rotors in hover by Navier-Stokes method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, G. R.; Raghavan, V.; Duque, E. P. N.

    1991-01-01

    The viscous, three-dimensional, flowfields of UH60 and BERP rotors are calculated for lifting hover configurations using a Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics method with a view to understand the importance of planform effects on the airloads. In this method, the induced effects of the wake, including the interaction of tip vortices with successive blades, are captured as a part of the overall flowfield solution without prescribing any wake models. Numerical results in the form of surface pressures, hover performance parameters, surface skin friction and tip vortex patterns, and vortex wake trajectory are presented at two thrust conditions for UH60 and BERP rotors. Comparison of results for the UH60 model rotor show good agreement with experiments at moderate thrust conditions. Comparison of results with equivalent rectangular UH60 blade and BERP blade indicates that the BERP blade, with an unconventional planform, gives more thrust at the cost of more power and a reduced figure of merit. The high thrust conditions considered produce severe shock-induced flow separation for UH60 blade, while the BERP blade develops more thrust and minimal separation. The BERP blade produces a tighter tip vortex structure compared with the UH60 blade. These results and the discussion presented bring out the similarities and differences between the two rotors.

  3. Transition from the Lactational Amenorrhea Method to other modern family planning methods in rural Bangladesh: barrier analysis and implications for behavior change communication program intervention design.

    PubMed

    Kouyaté, Robin Anthony; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Haver, Jaime; McKaig, Catharine; Akter, Nargis; Nash-Mercado, Angela; Baqui, Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    The timely transition from Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)(2) to another modern family planning method contributes to healthy spacing of pregnancies by increasing the adoption of family planning during the first year postpartum. Yet, literature suggests challenges in completing a timely LAM transition. To guide program implementation in Bangladesh, this study identified factors influencing women's transition decisions. Eighty postpartum women, comprising 40 who transitioned from LAM(3) and 40 who did not,(4) participated. Half of each group participated in in-depth interviews to explore the decision-making process. All participants responded to a "Barrier Analysis" questionnaire to identify differences in eight behavioral determinants. More than half of transitioners switched to another modern method before or within the same month that LAM ended. Of the 18 transitioners who delayed,(5) 15 waited for menses to return. For non-transitioners, key barriers included waiting for menses to return, misconceptions on return to fertility, and perceived lack of familial support. The LAM transition can help women prevent unintended pregnancy during the first year postpartum. Increased emphasis on counseling women about the risk of pregnancy, and misconceptions about personal fertility patterns are critical for facilitating the transition. Strategies should also include interventions that train health workers and improve social support. PMID:25710895

  4. Multicenter Evaluation of Clinical Diagnostic Methods for Detection and Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from Stool.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Collette; Patrick, Mary; Gonzalez, Anthony; Akin, Joshua; Polage, Christopher R; Wymore, Kate; Gillim-Ross, Laura; Xavier, Karen; Sadlowski, Jennifer; Monahan, Jan; Hurd, Sharon; Dahlberg, Suzanne; Jerris, Robert; Watson, Renee; Santovenia, Monica; Mitchell, David; Harrison, Cassandra; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; DeMartino, Mary; Pentella, Michael; Razeq, Jafar; Leonard, Celere; Jung, Carrianne; Achong-Bowe, Ria; Evans, Yaaqobah; Jain, Damini; Juni, Billie; Leano, Fe; Robinson, Trisha; Smith, Kirk; Gittelman, Rachel M; Garrigan, Charles; Nachamkin, Irving

    2016-05-01

    The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs), such as stool antigen tests, as standalone tests for the detection of Campylobacter in stool is increasing. We conducted a prospective, multicenter study to evaluate the performance of stool antigen CIDTs compared to culture and PCR for Campylobacter detection. Between July and October 2010, we tested 2,767 stool specimens from patients with gastrointestinal illness with the following methods: four types of Campylobacter selective media, four commercial stool antigen assays, and a commercial PCR assay. Illnesses from which specimens were positive by one or more culture media or at least one CIDT and PCR were designated "cases." A total of 95 specimens (3.4%) met the case definition. The stool antigen CIDTs ranged from 79.6% to 87.6% in sensitivity, 95.9 to 99.5% in specificity, and 41.3 to 84.3% in positive predictive value. Culture alone detected 80/89 (89.9% sensitivity) Campylobacter jejuni/Campylobacter coli-positive cases. Of the 209 noncases that were positive by at least one CIDT, only one (0.48%) was positive by all four stool antigen tests, and 73% were positive by just one stool antigen test. The questionable relevance of unconfirmed positive stool antigen CIDT results was supported by the finding that noncases were less likely than cases to have gastrointestinal symptoms. Thus, while the tests were convenient to use, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of Campylobacter stool antigen tests were highly variable. Given the relatively low incidence of Campylobacter disease and the generally poor diagnostic test characteristics, this study calls into question the use of commercially available stool antigen CIDTs as standalone tests for direct detection of Campylobacter in stool. PMID:26962088

  5. HEART Pathway Accelerated Diagnostic Protocol Implementation: Prospective Pre-Post Interrupted Time Series Design and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    Background Most patients presenting to US Emergency Departments (ED) with chest pain are hospitalized for comprehensive testing. These evaluations cost the US health system >$10 billion annually, but have a diagnostic yield for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) of <10%. The history/ECG/age/risk factors/troponin (HEART) Pathway is an accelerated diagnostic protocol (ADP), designed to improve care for patients with acute chest pain by identifying patients for early ED discharge. Prior efficacy studies demonstrate that the HEART Pathway safely reduces cardiac testing, while maintaining an acceptably low adverse event rate. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of HEART Pathway ADP implementation within a health system. Methods This controlled before-after study will accrue adult patients with acute chest pain, but without ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction on electrocardiogram for two years and is expected to include approximately 10,000 patients. Outcomes measures include hospitalization rate, objective cardiac testing rates (stress testing and angiography), length of stay, and rates of recurrent cardiac care for participants. Results In pilot data, the HEART Pathway decreased hospitalizations by 21%, decreased hospital length (median of 12 hour reduction), without increasing adverse events or recurrent care. At the writing of this paper, data has been collected on >5000 patient encounters. The HEART Pathway has been fully integrated into health system electronic medical records, providing real-time decision support to our providers. Conclusions We hypothesize that the HEART Pathway will safely reduce healthcare utilization. This study could provide a model for delivering high-value care to the 8-10 million US ED patients with acute chest pain each year. ClinicalTrial Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02056964; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02056964 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6ccajsgyu) PMID:26800789

  6. Diagnostic imaging methods applied in long-term surveillance after EVAR. Will computed tomography angiography be replaced by other methods?

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Karolina; Stanisic, Michal; Gabriel, Marcin; Oszkinis, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular implantation of a stent graft in the abdominal aorta (endovascular aneurysm repair - EVAR) is a widely accepted alternative to open surgery in treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Although EVAR is connected with a significant reduction in the risk of peri- and post-operative complications, it does not eliminate them totally. Long-term surveillance of post-EVAR patients is aimed at early detection of and fast reaction to a group of complications called endovascular leaks. Currently, the gold standard in leak diagnostics is computed tomography angiography (CTA). The other methods are ultrasonography, magnetic resonance (MR) angiography, intra-aneurysm sac pressure measurement, X-ray, and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Despite many analyses based on long-term research, emphasising the high value and competitiveness of less invasive tests such as US or X-ray compared to CTA, it is still difficult for them to win the trust and acceptance of clinicians. The persisting view is that computed tomography is the test that finally resolves any inaccuracies. Consequently, a patient with a number of concurrent diseases is subject to absurdly high radiation exposure and effects of a radiocontrast agent within a short time. It is therefore logical to acknowledge that the EVAR-related risk is catching up with the open surgery risk, while the endovascular procedure is much more costly. Nevertheless, the status of CTA as the gold standard ultimately seems to be unthreatened. This paper presents a description of the diagnostic imaging tests that make it possible to detect any vascular leaks and to develop strategies for therapeutic processes. PMID:26966443

  7. Diagnostic imaging methods applied in long-term surveillance after EVAR. Will computed tomography angiography be replaced by other methods?

    PubMed Central

    Stefaniak, Karolina; Gabriel, Marcin; Oszkinis, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular implantation of a stent graft in the abdominal aorta (endovascular aneurysm repair – EVAR) is a widely accepted alternative to open surgery in treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Although EVAR is connected with a significant reduction in the risk of peri- and post-operative complications, it does not eliminate them totally. Long-term surveillance of post-EVAR patients is aimed at early detection of and fast reaction to a group of complications called endovascular leaks. Currently, the gold standard in leak diagnostics is computed tomography angiography (CTA). The other methods are ultrasonography, magnetic resonance (MR) angiography, intra-aneurysm sac pressure measurement, X-ray, and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Despite many analyses based on long-term research, emphasising the high value and competitiveness of less invasive tests such as US or X-ray compared to CTA, it is still difficult for them to win the trust and acceptance of clinicians. The persisting view is that computed tomography is the test that finally resolves any inaccuracies. Consequently, a patient with a number of concurrent diseases is subject to absurdly high radiation exposure and effects of a radiocontrast agent within a short time. It is therefore logical to acknowledge that the EVAR-related risk is catching up with the open surgery risk, while the endovascular procedure is much more costly. Nevertheless, the status of CTA as the gold standard ultimately seems to be unthreatened. This paper presents a description of the diagnostic imaging tests that make it possible to detect any vascular leaks and to develop strategies for therapeutic processes. PMID:26966443

  8. A study of radioactivity in modern stream gravels and its possible application as a prospecting method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chew, Randall T., III

    1955-01-01

    Traverses along some streams of the Colorado Plateau in areas known to contain minable uranium deposits show that anomalous radiation in the stream gravels can be detected with a suitable counter downstream from the deposits. The amount of radiation is influenced by the size of the uranium deposit, the size of the drainage area of the stream, the grain size of the sediments, and the lithology of the rocks over which the stream flows. The spacing of the stations where readings are taken is controlled by the size of the stream, and special readings are also taken directly downstream from important tributaries. An anomaly is empirically defined as a 10 percent rise over background. Radioactive material from large uranium deposits has been detected as much as 1 mile downstream. Radioactive material from smaller deposits is detachable over shorter distances. The method is slow but appears to be a useful prospecting tool under restricted conditions.

  9. Modern methods and systems for precise control of the quality of agricultural and food production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarjevsky, Sergey S.; Veryasov, Yuri V.; Akinina, Evgeniya V.; Smirnov, Gennady I.

    1999-01-01

    The results on the modeling of non-linear dynamics of strong continuous and impulse radiation in the laser nephelometry of polydisperse biological systems, important from the viewpoint of applications in biotechnologies, are presented. The processes of nonlinear self-action of the laser radiation by the multiple scattering in the disperse biological agro-media are considered. The simplified algorithms of the calculation of the parameters of the biological media under investigation are indicated and the estimates of the errors of the laser-nephelometric measurements are given. The universal high-informative optical analyzers and the standard etalon specimens of agro- objects make the technological foundation of the considered methods and systems.

  10. A Novel Method for Determining the Phase of T-Wave Alternans: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Sayadi, Omid; Merchant, Faisal M.; Puppala, Dheeraj; Mela, Theofanie; Singh, Jagmeet P.; Heist, E. Kevin; Owen, Chris; Armoundas, Antonis A.

    2013-01-01

    Background T-wave alternans (TWA) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, in order to effectively estimate and suppress TWA, the phase of TWA must be accurately determined. Methods and Results We developed a method that computes the beat-by-beat integral of the T-wave morphology, over time points within the T-wave with positive alternans. Then, we estimated the signed derivative of the T-wave integral sequence which allows the classification of each beat to a binary phase index. In animal studies, we found that this method was able to accurately identify the T-wave phase in artificially induced alternans (p<0.0001). The coherence of the phase increased consistently after acute ischemia induction in all body-surface and intracardiac leads (p<0.0001). Also, we developed a phase resetting detection algorithm that enhances the diagnostic utility of TWA. We further established an algorithm that employs the phase of TWA in order to deliver appropriate polarity pacing pulses (all interventions compared to baseline, p<0.0001 for alternans voltage; p<0.0001 for Kscore), to suppress TWA. Finally, we demonstrated that using the phase of TWA we can suppress spontaneous TWA during acute ischemia; 77.6% for alternans voltage (p<0.0001) and 92.5% for Kscore (p<0.0001). Conclusions We developed a method to quantify the temporal variability of the TWA phase. This method is expected to enhance the utility of TWA in predicting ventricular arrhythmias and SCD and raises the possibility of using upstream therapies to abort a ventricular tachyarrhythmia prior to its onset. PMID:23884196

  11. On the role of ion-based imaging methods in modern ion beam therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magallanes, L.; Brons, S.; Marcelos, T.; Takechi, M.; Voss, B.; Jäkel, O.; Rinaldi, I.; Parodi, K.

    2014-11-01

    External beam radiotherapy techniques have the common aim to maximize the radiation dose to the target while sparing the surrounding healthy tissues. The inverted and finite depth-dose profile of ion beams (Bragg peak) allows for precise dose delivery and conformai dose distribution. Furthermore, increased radiobiological effectiveness of ions enhances the capability to battle radioresistant tumors. Ion beam therapy requires a precise determination of the ion range, which is particularly sensitive to range uncertainties. Therefore, novel imaging techniques are currently investigated as a tool to improve the quality of ion beam treatments. Approaches already clinically available or under development are based on the detection of secondary particles emitted as a result of nuclear reactions (e.g., positron-annihilation or prompt gammas, charged particles) or transmitted high energy primary ion beams. Transmission imaging techniques make use of the beams exiting the patient, which have higher initial energy and lower fluence than the therapeutic ones. At the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center, actively scanned energetic proton and carbon ion beams provide an ideal environment for the investigation of ion-based radiography and tomography. This contribution presents the rationale of ion beam therapy, focusing on the role of ion-based transmission imaging methods towards the reduction of range uncertainties and potential improvement of treatment planning.

  12. On the role of ion-based imaging methods in modern ion beam therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Magallanes, L. Rinaldi, I.; Brons, S.; Marcelos, T. Parodi, K.; Takechi, M.; Voss, B.; Jäkel, O.

    2014-11-07

    External beam radiotherapy techniques have the common aim to maximize the radiation dose to the target while sparing the surrounding healthy tissues. The inverted and finite depth-dose profile of ion beams (Bragg peak) allows for precise dose delivery and conformai dose distribution. Furthermore, increased radiobiological effectiveness of ions enhances the capability to battle radioresistant tumors. Ion beam therapy requires a precise determination of the ion range, which is particularly sensitive to range uncertainties. Therefore, novel imaging techniques are currently investigated as a tool to improve the quality of ion beam treatments. Approaches already clinically available or under development are based on the detection of secondary particles emitted as a result of nuclear reactions (e.g., positron-annihilation or prompt gammas, charged particles) or transmitted high energy primary ion beams. Transmission imaging techniques make use of the beams exiting the patient, which have higher initial energy and lower fluence than the therapeutic ones. At the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center, actively scanned energetic proton and carbon ion beams provide an ideal environment for the investigation of ion-based radiography and tomography. This contribution presents the rationale of ion beam therapy, focusing on the role of ion-based transmission imaging methods towards the reduction of range uncertainties and potential improvement of treatment planning.

  13. The Accuracy of Diagnostic Methods for Diabetic Retinopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Cavero-Redondo, Iván; Álvarez-Bueno, Celia; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the recommended glycemic measures for diagnosing diabetic retinopathy. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science databases from inception to July 2015 for observational studies comparing the diagnostic accuracy of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and 2-hour plasma glucose (2h-PG). Random effects models for the diagnostic odds ratio (dOR) value computed by Moses’ constant for a linear model and 95% CIs were used to calculate the accuracy of the test. Hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curves (HSROC) were used to summarize the overall test performance. Results Eleven published studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled dOR values for the diagnosis of retinopathy were 16.32 (95% CI 13.86–19.22) for HbA1c and 4.87 (95% CI 4.39–5.40) for FPG. The area under the HSROC was 0.837 (95% CI 0.781–0.892) for HbA1c and 0.735 (95% CI 0.657–0.813) for FPG. The 95% confidence region for the point that summarizes the overall test performance of the included studies occurs where the cut-offs ranged from 6.1% (43.2 mmol/mol) to 7.8% (61.7 mmol/mol) for HbA1c and from 7.8 to 9.3 mmol/L for FPG. In the four studies that provided information regarding 2h-PG, the pooled accuracy estimates for HbA1c were similar to those of 2h-PG; the overall performance for HbA1c was superior to that for FPG. Conclusions The three recommended tests for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in nonpregnant adults showed sufficient accuracy for their use in clinical settings, although the overall accuracy for the diagnosis of retinopathy was similar for HbA1c and 2h-PG, which were both more accurate than for FPG. Due to the variability and inconveniences of the glucose level-based methods, HbA1c appears to be the most appropriate method for the diagnosis diabetic retinopathy. PMID:27123641

  14. A Recalibration of Strong Line Oxygen Abundance Diagnostics via the Direct Method and Implications for the High Redshift Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jonathan S.; Martini, Paul; Andrews, Brett H.

    2016-02-01

    We use direct method oxygen abundances in combination with strong optical emission lines, stellar masses (M?), and star formation rates (SFRs) to recalibrate the N2, O3N2, and N2O2 oxygen abundance diagnostics. We stack spectra of 200,000 star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in bins of M? and SFR offset from the star forming main sequence (? log(SSFR)) to measure the weak emission lines needed to apply the direct method. All three new calibrations are reliable to within 0.10 dex from log (M?/M?) 7.5 - 10.5 and up to at least 200~M? yr-1 in SFR. The N2O2 diagnostic is the least subject to systematic biases. We apply the diagnostics to galaxies in the local universe and investigate the M?-Z-SFR relation. The N2 and O3N2 diagnostics suggest the SFR dependence of the M?-Z-SFR relation varies with both M? and ? log(SSFR), whereas the N2O2 diagnostic suggests a nearly constant dependence on SFR. We apply our calibrations to a sample of high redshift galaxies from the literature, and find them to be metal poor relative to local galaxies with similar M? and SFR. The calibrations do reproduce direct method abundances of the local analogs. We conclude that the M?-Z-SFR relation evolves with redshift.

  15. A modified time reversal method for Lamb wave based diagnostics of composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Ryan; Jha, Ratneshwar

    2012-08-01

    This experimental study presents Lamb wave based diagnostics of damage in a composite plate using time reversal of signals for baseline-free damage detection. A modified time reversal method (MTRM) is developed which requires only one transducer to actuate signals and the other transducer acts as a sensor for any signal path. An 8-layer symmetric cross-ply carbon-epoxy composite plate is fabricated and four PZT actuators/sensors are surface bonded at the corners of the plate. A 20 kHz, 9.5 cycle tone burst signal is used to generate fundamental asymmetric Lamb waves with high signal-to-noise ratio and low dispersion. Theoretical analysis and experimental measurements show that conventional time reversal method (TRM) and the MTRM yield identical signals at the end of time reversal. The composite plate is impacted incrementally with a steel ball to cause three levels of damage and MTRM is applied for prediction of damage severity. Results show that magnitudes of the two damage indices used are directly correlated to the severity of damage along any signal path. The development of MTRM paves the way for implementing time reversal of signals using a single actuator and multiple sensors, including non-contact sensor such as a laser vibrometer.

  16. Rapid diagnostic methods for influenza virus in clinical specimens - A comparative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, A. S.; Olson, B.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of five rapid viral diagnostic techniques for identifying influenza virus in nasopharyngeal aspirates has been made on patients with influenza-like illnesses. Initial results with immune electron microscopy were positive in only one of 11 specimens from which virus was isolated and further work abandoned. Four other rapid tests were carried out on 39 specimens from which influenza virus had been isolated in tissue culture in 28. Of these 28 specimens yielding virus, 24 (85.7 percent) were positive by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) on nasopharyngeal cells, 18 (64.3 percent) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 19 (67.8 percent) by enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA), and 26 (92.8 percent) by a rapid tissue culture amplification method (TCA) in a continuous Rhesus monkey kidney line (LLC-MK2) with identification of virus by fluorescent antibody. In terms of sensitivity, simplicity, and rapidity, a combination of the IFAT and TCA methods seems to be very useful.

  17. Absolute calibration method for laser megajoule neutron yield measurement by activation diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Landoas, Olivier; Glebov, Vladimir Yu; Rossé, Bertrand; Briat, Michelle; Disdier, Laurent; Sangster, Thomas C; Duffy, Tim; Marmouget, Jean Gabriel; Varignon, Cyril; Ledoux, Xavier; Caillaud, Tony; Thfoin, Isabelle; Bourgade, Jean-Luc

    2011-07-01

    The laser megajoule (LMJ) and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) plan to demonstrate thermonuclear ignition using inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The neutron yield is one of the most important parameters to characterize ICF experiment performance. For decades, the activation diagnostic was chosen as a reference at ICF facilities and is now planned to be the first nuclear diagnostic on LMJ, measuring both 2.45 MeV and 14.1 MeV neutron yields. Challenges for the activation diagnostic development are absolute calibration, accuracy, range requirement, and harsh environment. At this time, copper and zirconium material are identified for 14.1 MeV neutron yield measurement and indium material for 2.45 MeV neutrons. A series of calibrations were performed at Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) on a Van de Graff facility to determine activation diagnostics efficiencies and to compare them with results from calculations. The CEA copper activation diagnostic was tested on the OMEGA facility during DT implosion. Experiments showed that CEA and Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) diagnostics agree to better than 1% on the neutron yield measurement, with an independent calibration for each system. Also, experimental sensitivities are in good agreement with simulations and allow us to scale activation diagnostics for the LMJ measurement range. PMID:21806179

  18. Absolute calibration method for laser megajoule neutron yield measurement by activation diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Landoas, Olivier; Rosse, Bertrand; Briat, Michelle; Marmouget, Jean Gabriel; Varignon, Cyril; Ledoux, Xavier; Caillaud, Tony; Thfoin, Isabelle; Bourgade, Jean-Luc; Glebov, Vladimir Yu; Sangster, Thomas C.; Duffy, Tim; Disdier, Laurent

    2011-07-15

    The laser megajoule (LMJ) and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) plan to demonstrate thermonuclear ignition using inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The neutron yield is one of the most important parameters to characterize ICF experiment performance. For decades, the activation diagnostic was chosen as a reference at ICF facilities and is now planned to be the first nuclear diagnostic on LMJ, measuring both 2.45 MeV and 14.1 MeV neutron yields. Challenges for the activation diagnostic development are absolute calibration, accuracy, range requirement, and harsh environment. At this time, copper and zirconium material are identified for 14.1 MeV neutron yield measurement and indium material for 2.45 MeV neutrons. A series of calibrations were performed at Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) on a Van de Graff facility to determine activation diagnostics efficiencies and to compare them with results from calculations. The CEA copper activation diagnostic was tested on the OMEGA facility during DT implosion. Experiments showed that CEA and Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) diagnostics agree to better than 1% on the neutron yield measurement, with an independent calibration for each system. Also, experimental sensitivities are in good agreement with simulations and allow us to scale activation diagnostics for the LMJ measurement range.

  19. [Is the introduction of innovative methods in cardiovascular diagnostics and therapy to quick?].

    PubMed

    Erbel, R

    2016-03-01

    Andreas Grüntzig can be regarded as the pioneer of modern cardiology. Based on the previous experiences of Charles Dotter in Portland, Oregon, and after many years of preparation as a young 38-year-old physician and consultant he carried out the first percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in a 38-year-old patient in Zurich in 1977, supported by the cardiac surgeons A. Senning and M. Turina. Despite high ranking publications and early preparedness to share his experiences the development of PTCA stagnated and was met with great scepticism. The technique was new, technically difficult and aimed at aortocoronary bypass surgery, which was itself still in its infancy 10 years after the introduction in Cleveland in 1968. Even after several years only two patients per week were admitted for treatment in Zurich. In a similar way the young cardiac surgeon H.R. Andersen was a pioneer in Denmark whose ideas and own experiments with a balloon catheter-assisted aortic valve implantation were not initially taken up by the leading companies of the time and publication of the data suffered lengthy delays. It took 10 years before Prof. A. Cribier in Rouen followed up his ideas and carried out the first valve implantation again in pioneer work after many years of preparation in 2002. Again, the new method for treatment of very old and high risk patients needed many years before it was accepted. The breakthrough only became possible when this new technique began to be used in cardiac surgery after the introduction of hybrid cardiac catheter operating rooms. Despite evidence-based studies innovative methods are not subject to the same criteria throughout Europe with respect to the timely introduction of innovative and validated procedures also in consideration of reimbursement and this has become an important initiative of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). PMID:26873914

  20. A method for the production of composite scintillators for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Nowotny, R; Taubeck, A

    2009-03-21

    Plastic scintillators are used in the dosimetry of photons in radiotherapy. Their use in diagnostic radiology is affected by the drop in response at lower photon energies due to inadequate composition (effective atomic number) and chemical quenching. To compensate for this deficiency, a method for the production of composite polystyrene-based plastic scintillators was devised allowing the incorporation of inorganic scintillation powder. Disks of 10 mm diameter and 1 mm thickness optimized for a flat energy response referred to kerma in air were produced using CaWO(4), ZnS:Ag and CaF(2):Eu as additives. In an HVL range of 2.26-13.69 mmAl, the response was within an interval of +/-2.8% for CaF(2):Eu as additive, +/-3.2% for CaWO(4) and +/-10.9% for ZnS:Ag, respectively. The response of a commercial plastic scintillator (BC470) stays within +/-13.6%. The temperature dependence of the composite scintillator using CaF(2):Eu is lowest with a variation of +3.7% to -3.6% in an interval from 5 degrees C to 45 degrees C. The deficiency in photon absorption at lower energies due to the effective atomic number is reduced but not fully compensated by the additive scintillators. The optimized concentrations were established for the scintillator dimensions used. PMID:19218738

  1. Electroencephalogram analysis: an early diagnostic method for assessing cognitive impairment after cerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-tang; Zhang, Su-xia; Wu, Song-di

    2014-04-01

    Cerebral hemorrhage may cause cognitive dysfunction. Electroencephalogram (EEG) is a noninvasive diagnostic tool for assessment of cerebral function. A total of 174 patients (including cognitively impaired and cognitively normal) with cerebral hemorrhage, and 120 healthy persons (CN), were recruited between August 2008 and July 2012 at the Department of Neurology. EEG was used to analyze cerebral function of patients and normal persons. Correlation, clustering and concordance analyses were performed to analyze the relationship between EEG power and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores. Cognitively impaired patients had a significantly decreased EEG beta power (0.793 ± 0.176 µV(2)) compared with cognitively normal patients (1.589 ± 0.205 µV(2), P < .01) or healthy persons (1.651 ± 0.185 µV(2), P < .01). Significantly negative correlations between beta power and hemorrhage region, size, amount, and patients' age were apparent (r = -0.91888, -0.78569, -0.84961, and -0.80365, respectively, all Ps < .001). There was good concordance between the K-means clustering algorithm calculating beta power and MoCA scoring (κ = .904, P < .001). In conclusion, the analysis method of EEG (beta power) abnormalities holds considerable promise to assess cognitive impairment after cerebral hemorrhage. Cognitive impairment was negatively correlated to hemorrhage region, size, amount, and age. PMID:24004490

  2. [Characteristics of a diagnostic method for tuberculosis infection based on whole blood interferon-gamma assay].

    PubMed

    Harada, Nobuyuki

    2006-11-01

    It is assumed that about 10% of individuals infected with M. tuberculosis (Mtb) develop tuberculosis (Tb), and the remaining 90% suppress contain Mtb through their immune systems, but have a latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). To effectively control Tb, it is essential to detect individuals with LTBI in a Tb outbreak and provide chemoprophylaxis for them. Until recently, the tuberculin skin test (TST) has been the only diagnostic method for LTBI. However, the specificity of TST is low, because the purified protein derivative (PPD) used for TST contains numerous Mtb antigens that are almost identical to BCG antigens or similar to non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) antigens. For this reason, TST may produce positive results in BCG-vaccinated individuals or NTM-infected individuals without Mtb infection. Therefore, it is very difficult to diagnose LTBI in Japan, where BCG vaccination is widely administered. In addition to this, TST has other defects, such as technical variations for injecting PPD or measuring the TST response, the necessity of a return visit to the doctor to measure the TST response 2 days after PPD injection, and the booster effect through reinjection of PPD. More recently, a new diagnostic method that can overcome these defects in TST, QuantiFERON TB-2G (QFT-2G), has been developed. In QFT-2G, two Mtb-specific antigens, ESAT-6 and CFP-10, are used to stimulate whole blood, and based on produced interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), Mtb infection is diagnosed. Since ESAT-6 and CFP-10 are absent from all M. bovis BCG substrains and most of NTM including M. avium, M. intracellulare, but are present in tuberculosis complex (M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum) and only a few strains of NTM, QFT-2G is not affected by prior BCG vaccination nor most of NTM infections. Moreover, as measurement of IFN-gamma can be carried out by machines on the next day following the blood draw, more objective results are obtained more quickly than with TST. It is not necessary to consider the booster effect in QFT-2G as PPD is not injected, nor to revisit the doctor. Thus, QFT-2G overcomes the defects of TST described here. From a clinical trial of QFT-2G in which the subjects were smear-positive, untreated Tb patients and BCG-vaccinated healthy individuals, it has been demonstrated that the specificity and sensitivity of QFT-2G are 98.1% and 89.0%, respectively, and QFT-2G is an excellent diagnostic method. Furthermore, many contact investigations have shown that QFT-2G detects not only active Tb but also LTBI. Several data indicate that frequency of contact with Tb patients correlates well with QFT-2G positive rates in contact investigations. The validity and usefulness of diagnosing LTBI by QFT-2G have been suggested in other countries. In many contact investigations, it has been shown that most contacts who had been diagnosed as LTBI based on TST results were QFT-2G negative, suggesting that as a result, many unnecessary chemoprophylaxes were indicated. On the contrary, many QFT-2G positives were identified in those who were diagnosed to be uninfected with Mtb based on TST. Therefore, as the wide spread of QFT-2G testing in contact investigations would prevent unnecessary chemoprophylaxes and detect true infected individuals more accurately, we hope that more effective Tb control could be performed. Although QFT-2G is an excellent diagnostic method, it is still new, and some questions remain to be answered. For example, the period of converting QFT-2G positive after Mtb infection, alteration of long-term QFT-2G responses after Mtb infection, and the effects of treatment for Tb or LTBI are not fully understood. The behavior of QFT-2G in infants or children is not understood either. Especially in infants, the problem of the blood volume required for the QFT-2G test is the major issue. We are working on these issues to provide more appropriate directions for QFT-2G users, and hope that we can contribute to Tb control. PMID:17154047

  3. Spectrophotometric Method for Differentiation of Human Skin Melanoma. II. Diagnostic Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruk, V. G.; Ivanov, A. P.; Kvaternyuk, S. M.; Barunb, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    Experimental data on the spectral dependences of the optical diffuse reflection coefficient for skin from different people with melanoma or nevus are presented in the form of the probability density of the diffuse reflection coefficient for the corresponding pigmented lesions. We propose a noninvasive technique for differentiating between malignant and benign tumors, based on measuring the diffuse reflection coefficient for a specific patient and comparing the value obtained with a pre-set threshold. If the experimental result is below the threshold, then it is concluded that the person has melanoma; otherwise, no melanoma is present. As an example, we consider the wavelength 870 nm. We determine the risk of malignant transformation of a nevus (its transition to melanoma) for different measured diffuse reflection coefficients. We have studied the errors in the method, its operating characteristics and probability characteristics as the threshold diffuse reflection coefficient is varied. We find that the diagnostic confidence, sensitivity, specificity, and effectiveness (accuracy) parameters are maximum (>0.82) for a threshold of 0.45-0.47. The operating characteristics for the proposed technique exceed the corresponding parameters for other familiar optical approaches to melanoma diagnosis. Its distinguishing feature is operation at only one wavelength, and consequently implementation of the experimental technique is simplified and made less expensive.

  4. [Capsule endoscopy is better than other methods. 66 examinations performed at Sodersjukhuset prove a high diagnostic yield].

    PubMed

    Höög, Charlotte; Antfolk, Anna; Wirlöf, Carina; Sjöqvist, Urban

    2004-12-01

    Capsule endoscopy is a non-invasive method to investigate the small intestine by means of a swallowable videocapsule that takes pictures during its passage throughout the gut. The method has been proven to have a high diagnostic yield in obscure GI bleeding and suspected small bowel Crohn's disease in cases where traditional methods have failed. In 63 patients consecutively evaluated by capsule endoscopy pathological lesions were found in 39 (62%), of which angiodysplasias were the most common (33%). Inflammatory changes including Crohn's disease constituted 40% of the findings. Malignant tumors were found in two patients (5%). Half of the patients with patological findings were either medically treated or referred to surgery. Capsule endoscopy is a new method for small bowel examination that has a great potential to replace some older methods with lower diagnostic yield. PMID:15631264

  5. Autoimmune diagnostics: the technology, the strategy and the clinical governance.

    PubMed

    Bizzaro, Nicola; Tozzoli, Renato; Villalta, Danilo

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, there has been a profound change in autoimmune diagnostics. From long, tiring and inaccurate manual methods, the art of diagnostics has turned to modern, rapid and automated technology. New antibody tests have been developed, and almost all autoimmune diseases now have some specific diagnostic markers. The current need to make the most of available economic and human resources has led to the production of diagnostic algorithms and guidelines designated for optimal strategic use of the tests and to increase the diagnostic appropriateness. An important role in this scenario was assumed by the laboratory autoimmunologist, whose task is not only to govern the analytical phase, but also to help clinicians in correctly choosing the most suitable test for each clinical situation and provide consultancy support. In this review, we summarize recent advances in technology, describe the diagnostic strategies and highlight the current role of the laboratory autoimmunologist in the clinical governance of autoimmune diagnostics. PMID:25398640

  6. Development of a benchtop baking method for chemically leavened crackers. I. Identification of a diagnostic formula and procedure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. In order to identify a diagnostic cracker formula, the effects of leavening system (sodium bicarbonate, monocalcium phosphate, and ammonium b...

  7. Self-Instructional Methods of Teaching Diagnostic Problem Solving to Automotive Students. Vocational-Industrial Education Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Curtis R.

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of three methods of teaching diagnostic problem-solving (troubleshooting) to automotive students. The sample consisted of 45 community college students enrolled in automotive courses. Initially, all students received a presentation on ignition principles, and the Otis Mental Ability Test…

  8. Development of practical diagnostic methods for monitoring rice bacterial panicle blight disease and evaluation of rice germplasm for resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was initiated to understand Burkholderia glumae (major causal agent for bacterial panicle blight disease of rice) to develop practical diagnostic methods for monitoring the disease; and to evaluate rice germplasm for resistance. B. glumae was frequently isolated from symptomatic panicles on...

  9. Development of practical diagnostic methods for monitoring rice bacterial panicle blight disease and evaluation of rice germplasm for resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was initiated to understand Burkholderia glumae, the major causal agent for bacterial panicle blight disease of rice; to develop practical diagnostic methods for monitoring the disease; and to evaluate rice germplasm for resistance. Burkholderia glumae was frequently isolated from infected p...

  10. A Comparison of US and Korean Students' Mathematics Skills Using a Cognitive Diagnostic Testing Method: Linkage to Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im, Seongah; Park, Hye Jin

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were (a) to compare US and Korean 8th graders' mastery of knowledge and skills in the mathematics test of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 using a cognitive diagnostic testing method and (b) to find links between teachers' instruction and students' mastery of mathematics…

  11. Development of Monitoring and Diagnostic Methods for Robots Used In Remediation of Waste Sites - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.

    2000-04-01

    This project is the first evaluation of model-based diagnostics to hydraulic robot systems. A greater understanding of fault detection for hydraulic robots has been gained, and a new theoretical fault detection model developed and evaluated.

  12. Physics-Based Methods of Failure Analysis and Diagnostics in Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Luchinsky, Dmitry Georgievich; Hafiychuk, Vasyl Nmn; Osipov, Viatcheslav V.; Patterson-Hine, F. Ann

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Health Management (IHM) for the future aerospace systems requires to interface models of multiple subsystems in an efficient and accurate information environment at the earlier stages of system design. The complexity of modern aeronautic and aircraft systems (including e.g. the power distribution, flight control, solid and liquid motors) dictates employment of hybrid models and high-level reasoners for analysing mixed continuous and discrete information flow involving multiple modes of operation in uncertain environments, unknown state variables, heterogeneous software and hardware components. To provide the information link between key design/performance parameters and high-level reasoners we rely on development of multi-physics performance models, distributed sensors networks, and fault diagnostic and prognostic (FD&P) technologies in close collaboration with system designers. The main challenges of our research are related to the in-flight assessment of the structural stability, engine performance, and trajectory control. The main goal is to develop an intelligent IHM that not only enhances components and system reliability, but also provides a post-flight feedback helping to optimize design of the next generation of aerospace systems. Our efforts are concentrated on several directions of the research. One of the key components of our strategy is an innovative approach to the diagnostics/prognostics based on the real time dynamical inference (DI) technologies extended to encompass hybrid systems with hidden state trajectories. The major investments are into the multiphysics performance modelling that provides an access of the FD&P technologies to the main performance parameters of e.g. solid and liquid rocket motors and composite materials of the nozzle and case. Some of the recent results of our research are discussed in this chapter. We begin by introducing the problem of dynamical inference of stochastic nonlinear models and reviewing earlier results. Next, we present our analytical approach to the solution of this problem based on the path integral formulation. The resulting algorithm does not require an extensive global search for the model parameters, provides optimal compensation for the effects of dynamical noise, and is robust for a broad range of dynamical models. In the following Section the strengths of the algorithm are illustrated illustrated by inferring the parameters of the stochastic Lorenz system and comparing the results with those of earlier research. Next, we discuss a number of recent results in application to the development of the IHM for aerospace system. Firstly, we apply dynamical inference approach to a solution of classical three tank problems with mixed unknown continuous and binary parameters. The problem is considered in the context of ground support system for filling fuel tanks of liquid rocket motors. It is shown that the DI algorithm is well suited for successful solution of a hybrid version of this benchmark problem even in the presence of additional periodic and stochastic perturbation of unknown strength. Secondly, we illustrate our approach by its application to an analysis of the nozzle fault in a solid rocket motor (SRM). The internal ballistics of the SRM is modelled as a set of one-dimensional partial differential equations coupled to the dynamics of the propellant regression. In this example we are specifically focussed on the inference of discrete and continuous parameters of the nozzle blocking fault and on the possibility of an application of the DI algorithm to reducing the probability of "misses" of an on-board FD&P for SRM. In the next section re-contact problem caused by first stage/upper stage separation failure is discussed. The reaction forces imposed on the nozzle of the upper stage during the re-contact and their connection to the nozzle damage and to the thrust vector control (TVC) signal are obtained. It is shown that transient impact induced torquean be modelled as a response of an effective damped oscillator. A possible application of the DI algorithm to the inference of damage parameters and predicting fault dynamics ahead of time using the actuator signal is discussed. Finally, we formulate Bayesian inferential framework for development of the IHM system for in-flight structural health monitoring (SHM) of composite materials. We consider the signal generated by piezoelectric actuator mounted on composite structure generating elastic waves in it. The signal received by the sensor is than compared with the baseline signal. The possibility of damage inference is discussed in the context of development of the SHM.

  13. Evaluation of modern DFT functionals and G3n-RAD composite methods in the modelization of organic singlet diradicals.

    PubMed

    López-Carballeira, Diego; Ruipérez, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The evaluation of four high-level composite methods based on the modification of Gaussian-3 (G3) theory for radicals and 18 exchange-correlation density functionals, including modern long-range and dispersion-corrected functionals, in the modelization of singlet diradicals has been performed in this work. Structural parameters and properties such as singlet-triplet gaps, electron affinities, ionization potentials, dipole moments, enthalpies of formation, and bond dissociation energies have been calculated in a set of six well-characterized singlet diradicals, and benchmarked against experimental data and wavefunction-based CASSCF/CASPT2 calculations. The complexity of the open-shell singlet ground state is revealed in the difficulties to properly represent the diradical character reported by some DFT functionals, specially those that do not comprise a certain amount of Hartree-Fock exchange in their formulation. We find that STGs, EAs, dipole moments, and thermochemical properties are, in general, satisfactorily calculated, while for IPs larger deviations with respect to the experiments are found in all cases. The best overall performance is accounted for by hybrid functionals, including some of the long-range corrected functionals, but also pure functionals, comprising the kinetic energy density in their formulation, are found to be competent. Composite methods perform satisfactorily, especially G3(MP2)-RAD and G3X(MP2)-RAD, which calculate singlet-triplet gaps and electron affinities more accurately. On the other hand, G3-RAD and G3X-RAD provide better ionization potentials. This study emphasizes that the use of recently developed functionals, within the broken symmetry approximation, is an appropriate tool for the simulation of organic singlet diradicals, with similar accuracy compared to more expensive composite methods. Nevertheless, suitable selection of the methodology is still crucial for the accomplishment of accurate results. PMID:26970954

  14. Thermodynamic evaluation and restoration of volcanic gas analyses: an example based on modern collection and analytical methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerlach, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    Thermodynamic evaluation and restoration procedures are applied to a set of 10 volcanic gas analyses obtained by modern collection and analytical methods. The samples were collected from a vigorously fuming fissure during episode 1 of the Puu Oo eruption of Kilauea Volcano in 1983. A variety of analytical techniques were used to determine the gas compositions. In most samples, the combined amounts of N2 + Ar + O2 are far less abundant than H2, CO, or H2S, suggesting little or no contamination or reaction with atmospheric gases. Thermodynamic evaluation shows that 6 of the 10 analyses are equilibrium compositions, and 4 analyses are disequilibrium compositions. Three of the disequilibrium analyses involve samples affected by minor spilling of NaOH solution from the sample bottles during collection. The deviation of these analyses from equilibrium is dominated by the effects of disequilibrium water-loss. The fourth disequilibrium analysis is contaminated with meteoric water. In all 4 cases, the restoration procedures retrieve the original equilibrium compositions. -from Author

  15. Diagnostic Comparisons of Near-Earth Object Identification using Slit Spectroscopy and Slitless Grating Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, E.; Ryan, W.

    2014-09-01

    Space object identification and characterization is an important component of Space Situational Awareness (SSA). Through an Air Force collaboration that has provided a visible wavelength, low-resolution spectrometer, researchers at the Magdalena Ridge Observatory 2.4-meter telescope (located in New Mexico) have been investigating the advantages and disadvantages of using slit spectroscopy versus slitless grating methods to characterize artificial Earth-orbiting objects. The objective is to develop a method that returns useful diagnostic information with a minimal investment in observational monitoring time. However, spectral measurements are a desirable component of characterization studies of natural objects in near-Earth orbit as well. Therefore, in 2012, we began to extend this instrumentation beyond its SSA applications to the study of Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). The typical lifetimes of NEAs are up to three orders of magnitude shorter than the typical timescales associated with the main asteroid belt. Therefore, the current NEA population is a relatively recent product that has to be continually re-supplied. Spectroscopic analysis of NEAs helps characterize their taxonomic distribution and identify potential source regions which would then enhance our understanding of the origin of the current population. Although this is of interest scientifically, it can also help estimate the magnitude of the hazard threat from still undiscovered asteroids as well as provide guidance to optimize ground-based telescope search strategies. Slit-based spectroscopy is time consuming and has limitations on how faint an object can be studied. Therefore, the goal of this current project is to determine whether a lower resolution (by a factor of 10 with respect to the slit-based spectrometer), readily available slitless grating is sufficient for rough taxonomic classification in the study of fainter target-of-opportunity NEAs. The grating provides spectral information in 20nm wavelength bands that has proven useful for material identifications of relatively bright geostationary satellites (Dao, et al. 2013). However, this arrangement results in a higher background noise. Therefore, we are testing this method among a range of lunar phases to examine the limitations of slitless spectroscopy for faint asteroid targets.

  16. The diagnostic method has a strong influence on classification of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Escourrou, Pierre; Grote, Ludger; Penzel, Thomas; Mcnicholas, Walter T; Verbraecken, Johan; Tkacova, Rosa; Riha, Renata L; Hedner, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Polygraphy (PG) and polysomnography (PSG) are used in clinical settings in Europe for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but their equivalence in unselected clinical cohorts is unknown. We hypothesized that the method would affect both diagnostic outcomes and disease severity stratification. Data from 11 049 patients in the multi-centre European Sleep Apnea Cohort (ESADA) with suspected OSA (male and female, aged 18-80 years) were used in two groups of patients to compare PG (n = 5745) and PSG (n = 5304). Respiratory events were scored using the 2007 American Association of Sleep Medicine (AASM) criteria. In subjects who underwent PSG, mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) using sleep time (AHIPSG 31.0 ± 26.1 h(-1) ) and total analysed time (TAT) (AHITAT 24.7 ± 22.0 h(-1) ) were higher than in subjects who underwent PG (AHIPG 22.0 ± 23.5 h(-1) ) (P < 0.0001). The oxygen desaturation index (ODI) was lower in subjects investigated with PG (ODIPG 18.4 ± 21.7 h(-1) ) compared to subjects investigated with PSG (ODIPSG 23.0 ± 25.3 h(-1) ) but not different when the PSG was indexed by TAT (ODITAT 18.6 ± 21.4 h(-1) , P < 0.65). The proportion of patients with an AHI ≥ 15 was 64% in the subjects who underwent PSG and 47% in the subjects who underwent PG (P < 0.001). Overall, patients investigated using PG are likely to have a 30% lower AHI on average, compared to patients investigated by PSG. This study suggests that PG interpreted using standard guidelines results in underdiagnosis and misclassification of OSA. We advocate the development of PG-specific guidelines for the management of OSA patients. PMID:26511017

  17. [Psychogenic mutation of the voice. Comparative analysis of objective and subjective methods of diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Chernobel'skiĭ, S I

    2011-01-01

    The present work had the following objectives: 1) to determine (using a computer program) the fundamental frequency or F0 of the colloquial speech and sonorous cough in the patients with psychogenic mutation of the voice, 2) to obtain subjective (audile) estimation of the quality of their voice, and 3) to develop relevant diagnostic criteria. The study included 10 men aged from 14 to 40 years diagnosed with mutational falsetto (n=5) and incomplete mutation of the voice (n=5). The quality of the voice was independently estimated by three experts. All the patients were exmined using laryngoscopy and laryngostroboscopy. It was demonstrated that mutational falsetto can be diagnosed by subjective estimation of the quality of voice whereas diagnostics of partial voice mutation is possible only with the use of a computer. The author concludes that the fundamental frequency (F0) of sonorous cough is an important diagnostic criterion for psychogenic voice mutation. PMID:21983669

  18. How Do Zoos "Talk" to Their General Visitors? Do Visitors "Listen"? A Mixed Method Investigation of the Communication between Modern Zoos and Their General Visitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Katie; McConney, Andrew; Mansfield, Caroline F.

    2014-01-01

    Modern zoos utilise a variety of education tools for communicating with visitors. Previous research has discussed the benefits of providing multiple education communications, yet little research provides an indication of what communications are being employed within zoos today. This research is a two-phased, mixed-methods investigation into the…

  19. Modern Analytical Methods Applied to Earth and Planetary Sciences for Micro, Nano and Pico Space Devices and Robots in Landing Site Selection and Surface Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizi, P. G.; Bérczi, Sz.; Horváth, I.; Horváth, A. F.; Vizi, J. Cs.

    2014-11-01

    Fleet of Nano and Pico Sized Space Devices and Robots (NPSDR) are deployable to realize and accomplish in situ modern analytical methods in wide range of Earth and planetary sciences. Shorter time and bigger field of surfaces and volumes of space.

  20. How Do Zoos "Talk" to Their General Visitors? Do Visitors "Listen"? A Mixed Method Investigation of the Communication between Modern Zoos and Their General Visitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Katie; McConney, Andrew; Mansfield, Caroline F.

    2014-01-01

    Modern zoos utilise a variety of education tools for communicating with visitors. Previous research has discussed the benefits of providing multiple education communications, yet little research provides an indication of what communications are being employed within zoos today. This research is a two-phased, mixed-methods investigation into the

  1. Studies of the physical aspects of intumescence using advance diagnostics methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Hussain; Huang, Hua Wei; Zhang, Yang

    2014-04-01

    The use of intumescent paints as an active fire protection method has gained immense interest in recent years. A significant aspect of research has focused on studying the chemical aspects of the system to improve performance. The dynamics and physical aspects of intumescence in real time fire conditions are still unclear. The present research uses an experimental approach where diagnostics techniques such as thermal imaging camera was used to study intumescent characteristics that have been not been reported in great detail. T-panels are a substitute to the most commonly used part in construction, the I-beam. Studies were conducted using a cone calorimeter that provided a uniform heat flux through radiation on steel T-panel samples. The complex nature of char movement was recorded and a novel algorithm was used to track the growing char laye07r. The samples are designed to cater to different fire conditions. Therefore, the degree of intumescence was observed to be very different in the samples. The samples designed for low temperature cellulosic fires focus on high degree of intumesce. Whereas, mechanical strength is the focus for samples used in high temperature turbulent hydrocarbon fire conditions. The variation in the internal structure of the sample is presented. Furthermore, the phenomenon is phase shift is discussed. The phase shift is an essential part of the process of intumescence when the majority of intumescence occurs. It was observed to be different in all the samples. The movement of the samples is a property of great interest. This is because if any part of the substrate is exposed then the formulation does not meet strict commercialisation criterion. The movement was diagonal in nature as compared to flat panels where it is perpendicular. This is due tot the heating pattern of the plate that results in the web part of the panel to influence the growth of char on the flange part of the panel. A special case of char cracking is also highlighted and using image processing algorithm on the thermal imaging data. A quantitative method of analsysis is presented to an otherwise commonly qualitative nature of experimental study in this field.

  2. Studies of the physical aspects of intumescence using advance diagnostics methods

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, Hussain Huang, Hua Wei Zhang, Yang

    2014-04-11

    The use of intumescent paints as an active fire protection method has gained immense interest in recent years. A significant aspect of research has focused on studying the chemical aspects of the system to improve performance. The dynamics and physical aspects of intumescence in real time fire conditions are still unclear. The present research uses an experimental approach where diagnostics techniques such as thermal imaging camera was used to study intumescent characteristics that have been not been reported in great detail. T-panels are a substitute to the most commonly used part in construction, the I-beam. Studies were conducted using a cone calorimeter that provided a uniform heat flux through radiation on steel T-panel samples. The complex nature of char movement was recorded and a novel algorithm was used to track the growing char laye07r. The samples are designed to cater to different fire conditions. Therefore, the degree of intumescence was observed to be very different in the samples. The samples designed for low temperature cellulosic fires focus on high degree of intumesce. Whereas, mechanical strength is the focus for samples used in high temperature turbulent hydrocarbon fire conditions. The variation in the internal structure of the sample is presented. Furthermore, the phenomenon is phase shift is discussed. The phase shift is an essential part of the process of intumescence when the majority of intumescence occurs. It was observed to be different in all the samples. The movement of the samples is a property of great interest. This is because if any part of the substrate is exposed then the formulation does not meet strict commercialisation criterion. The movement was diagonal in nature as compared to flat panels where it is perpendicular. This is due tot the heating pattern of the plate that results in the web part of the panel to influence the growth of char on the flange part of the panel. A special case of char cracking is also highlighted and using image processing algorithm on the thermal imaging data. A quantitative method of analsysis is presented to an otherwise commonly qualitative nature of experimental study in this field.

  3. Atomic Resonance Radiation Energetics Investigation as a Diagnostic Method for Non-Equilibrium Hypervelocity Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Scott A.; Bershader, Daniel; Sharma, Surendra P.; Deiwert, George S.

    1996-01-01

    Absorption measurements with a tunable vacuum ultraviolet light source have been proposed as a concentration diagnostic for atomic oxygen, and the viability of this technique is assessed in light of recent measurements. The instrumentation, as well as initial calibration measurements, have been reported previously. We report here additional calibration measurements performed to study the resonance broadening line shape for atomic oxygen. The application of this diagnostic is evaluated by considering the range of suitable test conditions and requirements, and by identifying issues that remain to be addressed.

  4. Diagnostic methods for mastitis in cows are not appropriate for use in humans: commentary.

    PubMed

    Kvist, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare workers are now being targeted for marketing of diagnostic tools for mastitis that were developed for the dairy industry and which aim to provide information regarding choice of antibiotic treatment. Meanwhile, scientists are striving to understand how the human microbiome affects health and wellbeing and the importance of maintenance of bacterial balance in the human body. Breast milk supplies a multitude of bacteria to populate the baby's intestinal tract and kick-start the immune system. Researchers propose a paradigm shift in the understanding of bacterial content in breast milk and an alternative paradigm for the understanding of lactational mastitis: there is the beginning of evidence that many cases of lactational mastitis will resolve spontaneously. An international group of researchers is attempting to answer how dietary habits, birth mode, genetics and environmental factors may impact the bacterial content of breast milk. Until we have more comprehensive knowledge about the human milk microbiome, diagnostic aids for identification of women in need of antibiotic therapy for mastitis remain unreliable. Diagnostic aids could lead to the injudicious use of antibiotic therapy, which in turn may rob the infant of bacteria valuable for development of its immune system. The marketing of diagnostic aids for use in human medicine, that were originally developed for use in cows, is neither evidence-based nor good ethical practice. PMID:26877759

  5. An Informal Reading Readiness Inventory: A Diagnostic Method of Predicting First Grade Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carolyn C.; Koenke, Karl

    A study was undertaken to create and validate a diagnostic, task-based Informal Reading Readiness Inventory (IRRI). IRRI subtests were created to reflect four areas found to be important in reading readiness: awareness of self and media, language experience, reasoning, and phonics. Prereading curriculum components formed the basis for test item…

  6. Mutual Information Item Selection Method in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing with Short Test Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) purports to combine the strengths of both CAT and cognitive diagnosis. Cognitive diagnosis models aim at classifying examinees into the correct mastery profile group so as to pinpoint the strengths and weakness of each examinee whereas CAT algorithms choose items to determine those…

  7. Mutual Information Item Selection Method in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing with Short Test Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) purports to combine the strengths of both CAT and cognitive diagnosis. Cognitive diagnosis models aim at classifying examinees into the correct mastery profile group so as to pinpoint the strengths and weakness of each examinee whereas CAT algorithms choose items to determine those

  8. An integrated medical record and data system for primary care. Part 3: the diagnostic index manual and computer methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Froom, J; Culpepper, L; Boisseau, V

    1977-07-01

    Manual and computer versions of the diagnostic of the index-E-Book are described. Methods for establisment and maintenance of both indexes are given and the relative merits of each are delineated. Uses of diagnostic indexes are presented which are appropriate to solo and group practices. The role of the diagnostic index in curriculum development within a family practice training setting is also illustrated. PMID:886284

  9. Philanthropy: A Method for Teaching Counselors to Be Social Advocates in the Age of Modern Behavioral Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, William; Shupe, Margery

    2007-01-01

    Graduate counseling programs are proficient in training direct service providers but less able to teach the business of sustaining a community agency's services. Modern philanthropy emphasizes social advocacy by investing in change that benefits the local community and respects the diverse cultural experiences of potential clients and…

  10. A REFINED QSO SELECTION METHOD USING DIAGNOSTICS TESTS: 663 QSO CANDIDATES IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dae-Won; Protopapas, Pavlos; Trichas, Markos; Alcock, Charles; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Khardon, Roni; Byun, Yong-Ik

    2012-03-10

    We present 663 QSO candidates in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) selected using multiple diagnostics. We started with a set of 2566 QSO candidates selected using the methodology presented in our previous work based on time variability of the MACHO LMC light curves. We then obtained additional information for the candidates by crossmatching them with the Spitzer SAGE, the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Chandra, the XMM, and an LMC UBVI catalog. Using this information, we specified six diagnostic features based on mid-IR colors, photometric redshifts using spectral energy distribution template fitting, and X-ray luminosities in order to further discriminate high-confidence QSO candidates in the absence of spectra information. We then trained a one-class Support Vector Machine model using the diagnostics features of the confirmed 58 MACHO QSOs. We applied the trained model to the original candidates and finally selected 663 high-confidence QSO candidates. Furthermore, we crossmatched these 663 QSO candidates with the newly confirmed 151 QSOs and 275 non-QSOs in the LMC fields. On the basis of the counterpart analysis, we found that the false positive rate is less than 1%.

  11. Tools for Evaluating Fault Detection and Diagnostic Methods for HVAC Secondary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourarian, Shokouh

    Although modern buildings are using increasingly sophisticated energy management and control systems that have tremendous control and monitoring capabilities, building systems routinely fail to perform as designed. More advanced building control, operation, and automated fault detection and diagnosis (AFDD) technologies are needed to achieve the goal of net-zero energy commercial buildings. Much effort has been devoted to develop such technologies for primary heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, and some secondary systems. However, secondary systems, such as fan coil units and dual duct systems, although widely used in commercial, industrial, and multifamily residential buildings, have received very little attention. This research study aims at developing tools that could provide simulation capabilities to develop and evaluate advanced control, operation, and AFDD technologies for these less studied secondary systems. In this study, HVACSIM+ is selected as the simulation environment. Besides developing dynamic models for the above-mentioned secondary systems, two other issues related to the HVACSIM+ environment are also investigated. One issue is the nonlinear equation solver used in HVACSIM+ (Powell's Hybrid method in subroutine SNSQ). It has been found from several previous research projects (ASRHAE RP 825 and 1312) that SNSQ is especially unstable at the beginning of a simulation and sometimes unable to converge to a solution. Another issue is related to the zone model in the HVACSIM+ library of components. Dynamic simulation of secondary HVAC systems unavoidably requires an interacting zone model which is systematically and dynamically interacting with building surrounding. Therefore, the accuracy and reliability of the building zone model affects operational data generated by the developed dynamic tool to predict HVAC secondary systems function. The available model does not simulate the impact of direct solar radiation that enters a zone through glazing and the study of zone model is conducted in this direction to modify the existing zone model. In this research project, the following tasks are completed and summarized in this report: 1. Develop dynamic simulation models in the HVACSIM+ environment for common fan coil unit and dual duct system configurations. The developed simulation models are able to produce both fault-free and faulty operational data under a wide variety of faults and severity levels for advanced control, operation, and AFDD technology development and evaluation purposes; 2. Develop a model structure, which includes the grouping of blocks and superblocks, treatment of state variables, initial and boundary conditions, and selection of equation solver, that can simulate a dual duct system efficiently with satisfactory stability; 3. Design and conduct a comprehensive and systematic validation procedure using collected experimental data to validate the developed simulation models under both fault-free and faulty operational conditions; 4. Conduct a numerical study to compare two solution techniques: Powell's Hybrid (PH) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) in terms of their robustness and accuracy. 5. Modification of the thermal state of the existing building zone model in HVACSIM+ library of component. This component is revised to consider the transmitted heat through glazing as a heat source for transient building zone load prediction In this report, literature, including existing HVAC dynamic modeling environment and models, HVAC model validation methodologies, and fault modeling and validation methodologies, are reviewed. The overall methodologies used for fault free and fault model development and validation are introduced. Detailed model development and validation results for the two secondary systems, i.e., fan coil unit and dual duct system are summarized. Experimental data mostly from the Iowa Energy Center Energy Resource Station are used to validate the models developed in this project. Satisfactory model performance in both fault free and fault simulation studies is observed for all studied systems.

  12. Update on diabetes diagnosis: a historical review of the dilemma of the diagnostic utility of glycohemoglobin A1c and a proposal for a combined glucose-A1c diagnostic method.

    PubMed

    Aldasouqi, Saleh A; Gossain, Ved V

    2012-01-01

    The role of glycohemoglobin A1c (A1c) for the diagnosis of diabetes has been debated for over three decades. Recently, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) has recommended adding A1c as an additional criterion for diabetes diagnosis. In view of the continued debate about the diagnostic utility of A1c, and in view of the unabated burden of undiagnosed diabetes, the search for alternative diagnostic methods is discussed. A historical literature review is provided, in view of the new ADA diagnostic guidelines, and a proposal is provided for combining A1c and a glucose measurement as a diagnostic alternative/adjunct to the use of a single criterion. This proposal is based on the non-overlapping of the advantages and disadvantages of these individual tests. The cost-effectiveness of this method remains to be tested. PMID:22588455

  13. Trichomoniasis: a brief review of diagnostic methods and our experience with real-time PCR for detecting infection.

    PubMed

    Šoba, Barbara; Skvarč, Miha; Matičič, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection, and it is caused by the protozoan flagellate Trichomonas vaginalis. Although highly prevalent in sexually active women, it has long been overlooked in other groups of potentially infected people. Recently, studies have shown that trichomoniasis increases the risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus and can cause adverse outcomes of pregnancy, which has increased interest in T. vaginalis and increased the need for highly sensitive diagnostic tests. This article summarizes the diagnostic methods most commonly used in the diagnosis of trichomoniasis, including the most sensitive and specific nucleic acid amplification tests. It also presents the results of our study comparing the performance of wet mount microscopy and culture to real-time PCR for detecting the parasite. PMID:25770306

  14. Modern optical diagnostics in engine research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leipertz, A.; Wensing, M.

    2007-10-01

    Different optical diagnistic techniques are used to gain insight into the single steps forming the functioning chain of the engine combustion process and the complex interplay between these single steps. Examples are given for the application of Mie scattering, laser-induced fluorescence, Raman scattering, CARS and laser-induced incandescence to study diesel engine, SI engine and HCCI combustion processes. The careful adaptation of each optical tool to one part of the engine process makes it possible to get valuable information with minimum change of the process investigated. The paper demonstrates that in addition to conventional engine measurement techniques, a number of different optical techniques must be applied -- and sometimes simultaneously -- to successfully determine the critical parameters of the processes and to investigate their influences on the performance and the quality of real engine combustion.

  15. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Studies Evaluating Diagnostic Test Accuracy: A Practical Review for Clinical Researchers-Part II. Statistical Methods of Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juneyoung; Kim, Kyung Won; Choi, Sang Hyun; Huh, Jimi

    2015-01-01

    Meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies differs from the usual meta-analysis of therapeutic/interventional studies in that, it is required to simultaneously analyze a pair of two outcome measures such as sensitivity and specificity, instead of a single outcome. Since sensitivity and specificity are generally inversely correlated and could be affected by a threshold effect, more sophisticated statistical methods are required for the meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy. Hierarchical models including the bivariate model and the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic model are increasingly being accepted as standard methods for meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. We provide a conceptual review of statistical methods currently used and recommended for meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. This article could serve as a methodological reference for those who perform systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. PMID:26576107

  16. Performance factors as a basis of practical fault detection and diagnostic methods for air-handling units

    SciTech Connect

    Kaerki, S.H.; Karjalainen, S.J.

    1999-07-01

    The technical term performance is defined as how well a system fulfills its intended purpose in different operational circumstances. This paper describes the process of establishing the performance factors of air-handling units (AHUs), defining the performance requirements, and connecting them to fault detection and diagnosis methods. The most important performance requirements of AHUs are related to heating and cooling energy, the supply airflow rate and purity, energy efficiency, and control quality. Many solutions made during different life-cycle phases affect the final system performance. These solutions are discussed in this paper. Diagnostic tools and methods can be developed for monitoring the defined performance criteria. Practical FDD methods have been developed for the system considered here. The methods are simple and easy to apply in practice. Methods for monitoring the heat recovery unit and the AHU energy use are presented. Examples of utilizing characteristic curves and fault-symptom trees are also described.

  17. ORF virus infection in children: clinical characteristics, transmission, diagnostic methods, and future therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Edith R; Austin, Connie; Trevino, Ingrid; Reynolds, Mary G; Swanson, Holly; Cherry, Bryan; Ragsdale, Jennifer; Dunn, John; Meidl, Susan; Zhao, Hui; Li, Yu; Pue, Howard; Damon, Inger K

    2007-08-01

    Orf virus leads to self-limited, subacute cutaneous infections in children who have occupational or recreational contact with infected small ruminants. Breaches in the integument and contact with animals recently vaccinated for orf may be important risk factors in transmission. Common childhood behaviors are likely important factors in the provocation of significant contact (ie, bites) or in unusual lesion location (eg, facial lesions). Clinician recognition is important in distinguishing orf infection from life-threatening cutaneous zoonoses. Recently developed molecular techniques provide diagnostic precision and newer topical therapeutics may hasten healing. PMID:17848888

  18. A multi-center comparison of diagnostic methods for the biochemical evaluation of suspected mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, R J T; Schoonderwoerd, G C; Tiranti, V; Taylor, R W; Rötig, A; Valente, L; Invernizzi, F; Chretien, D; He, L; Backx, G P B M; Janssen, K J G M; Chinnery, P F; Smeets, H J; de Coo, I F; van den Heuvel, L P

    2013-01-01

    A multicenter comparison of mitochondrial respiratory chain and complex V enzyme activity tests was performed. The average reproducibility of the enzyme assays is 16% in human muscle samples. In a blinded diagnostic accuracy test in patient fibroblasts and SURF1 knock-out mouse muscle, each lab made the correct diagnosis except for two complex I results. We recommend that enzyme activities be evaluated based on ratios, e.g. with complex IV or citrate synthase activity. In spite of large variations in observed enzyme activities, we show that inter-laboratory comparison of patient sample test results is possible by using normalization against a control sample. PMID:23164799

  19. Genetic mutation underlying orthostatic intolerance and diagnostic and therapeutic methods relating thereto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, David (Inventor); Blakely, Randy D. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Isolated polynucleotide molecules and peptides encoded by these molecules are used in the analysis of human norepinephrine (NE) transporter variants, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, relating to a human NE transporter polymorphism. By analyzing genomic DNA or amplified genomic DNA, or amplified cDNA derived from mRNA, it is possible to type a human NE transporter with regard to the human NE transporter polymorphism, for example, in the context of diagnosing and treating NE transport impairments, and disorders associated with NE transport impairments, such as orthostatic intolerance.

  20. Application Research of Two Real-Time Fault Diagnostic Methods in the Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chun-Li Xie; Yong-Kuo Liu; Hong Xia

    2006-07-01

    In order to guarantee the safety of nuclear power plants (NPP), we built two real-time fault diagnosis systems adopting VISUAL BAS6.0 programming language, which apply neural network technology and data fusion technology respectively. The fault diagnosis systems interchange data with the simulator timely utilizing communication interface. We insert faults on simulator to test the two systems on line. The advantages and disadvantages are illuminated and contrasted through analyzing the faults diagnostic results off- line, which establish the foundation for the further research and application to the fault diagnosis system of the nuclear power plants. (authors)

  1. Use of Expert Panels to Define the Reference Standard in Diagnostic Research: A Systematic Review of Published Methods and Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Bertens, Loes C. M.; Broekhuizen, Berna D. L.; Naaktgeboren, Christiana A.; Rutten, Frans H.; Hoes, Arno W.; van Mourik, Yvonne; Moons, Karel G. M.; Reitsma, Johannes B.

    2013-01-01

    Background In diagnostic studies, a single and error-free test that can be used as the reference (gold) standard often does not exist. One solution is the use of panel diagnosis, i.e., a group of experts who assess the results from multiple tests to reach a final diagnosis in each patient. Although panel diagnosis, also known as consensus or expert diagnosis, is frequently used as the reference standard, guidance on preferred methodology is lacking. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of methods used in panel diagnoses and to provide initial guidance on the use and reporting of panel diagnosis as reference standard. Methods and Findings PubMed was systematically searched for diagnostic studies applying a panel diagnosis as reference standard published up to May 31, 2012. We included diagnostic studies in which the final diagnosis was made by two or more persons based on results from multiple tests. General study characteristics and details of panel methodology were extracted. Eighty-one studies were included, of which most reported on psychiatry (37%) and cardiovascular (21%) diseases. Data extraction was hampered by incomplete reporting; one or more pieces of critical information about panel reference standard methodology was missing in 83% of studies. In most studies (75%), the panel consisted of three or fewer members. Panel members were blinded to the results of the index test results in 31% of studies. Reproducibility of the decision process was assessed in 17 (21%) studies. Reported details on panel constitution, information for diagnosis and methods of decision making varied considerably between studies. Conclusions Methods of panel diagnosis varied substantially across studies and many aspects of the procedure were either unclear or not reported. On the basis of our review, we identified areas for improvement and developed a checklist and flow chart for initial guidance for researchers conducting and reporting of studies involving panel diagnosis. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24143138

  2. Method for assessing the reliability of molecular diagnostics based on multiplexed SERS-coded nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Steven Y; Som, Madhura; Liu, Jonathan T C

    2013-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles have been engineered to generate unique fingerprint spectra and are potentially useful as bright contrast agents for molecular diagnostics. One promising strategy for biomedical diagnostics and imaging is to functionalize various particle types ("flavors"), each emitting a unique spectral signature, to target a large multiplexed panel of molecular biomarkers. While SERS particles emit narrow spectral features that allow them to be easily separable under ideal conditions, the presence of competing noise sources and background signals such as detector noise, laser background, and autofluorescence confounds the reliability of demultiplexing algorithms. Results obtained during time-constrained in vivo imaging experiments may not be reproducible or accurate. Therefore, our goal is to provide experimentalists with a metric that may be monitored to enforce a desired bound on accuracy within a user-defined confidence level. We have defined a spectral reliability index (SRI), based on the output of a direct classical least-squares (DCLS) demultiplexing routine, which provides a measure of the reliability of the computed nanoparticle concentrations and ratios. We present simulations and experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of this strategy, which can potentially be utilized for a range of instruments and biomedical applications involving multiplexed SERS nanoparticles. PMID:23620806

  3. Modernization of the Method of Line-Line Intersection Using Rtn Gnss Technology for Determining the Position of Corners of Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzyżek, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Carrying out measurements of buildings with RTN GNSS technology in difficult environmental conditions appears to be a major challenge for many surveyors. Achieving the required accuracy of the position of a building structure is often a difficult, and sometimes even an impossible task to perform. This paper presents an innovative solution to increase the reliability of determining the coordinates of building corners, by modernizing the results obtained from the indirect method of measurement of line-line intersection by the socalled half-angle method. Generally speaking, the half-angle method is to verify the angular values in determined points (corners of buildings) from the method of intersection of the base point lines. Optimization of this method involves reducing deformation of a building, which has been determined in real time, taking into account only the classical method of line-line intersection. In order to obtain optimized measurement results, the conversion of the obtained results to the convergent values relative to the most probable coordinates is performed. Based on a detailed comparative and statistical analyses, it can be concluded that the modernized method of line intersection, employed in the RTN GNSS mode with the half-angle method, greatly improves the reliability of determining corners of buildings (X and Y coordinates), as well as provides an exact reflection of the geometric shape of a structure.

  4. The new regulation to investigate potentially beneficial diagnostic and therapeutic methods in Germany: up to international standard?

    PubMed

    Olberg, Britta; Perleth, Matthias; Busse, Reinhard

    2014-08-01

    Funding of diagnostic and therapeutic methods in Germany's statutory health insurance (SHI) follows a dichotomy: in outpatient care, only methods with proven benefit are reimbursed while in inpatient care, all methods may be provided unless they are excluded due to proven harm or lack of benefit. In January 2012, a new section 137e was added to the Social Code Book V (SGB V), allowing for the inclusion of innovative and potentially beneficial diagnostic or therapeutic methods in the SHI benefit basket, while additional evidence regarding their effectiveness and safety must be gathered. In 2013, the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) has specified the details of this new approach, which can be considered a variety of "Coverage with Evidence Development" (CED). Our comparison with CED schemes in selected countries reveals a dependence of the CED implementation on the encompassing healthcare system. However, we identify a clear legislative foundation, a definitive decision-making body, the possibility to obtain public funding, and the preference for high quality study designs as constituting factors of an emerging international standard for CED. In addition, it is necessary to ensure the suitability of circumstances and technologies for the successful application of CED in a clear and transparent way. PMID:24880719

  5. Biogeosystem technique as a method to overcome the Biological and Environmental Hazards of modern Agricultural, Irrigational and Technological Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinitchenko, Valery; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Zinchenko, Vladimir; Zarmaev, Ali; Magomadov, Ali; Chernenko, Vladimir; Startsev, Viktor; Bakoev, Serojdin; Dikaev, Zaurbek

    2014-05-01

    Modern challenge for humanity is to replace the paradigm of nature use and overcome environmental hazards of agronomy, irrigation, industry, and other human activities in biosphere. It is utterly reasonable to stop dividing biosphere on shares - the human habitat and the environment. In the 21st century it is an outdated anthropocentrism. Contradicting himself to biosphere Humankind has the problems. The new paradigm of biosphere control by methods of Biogeosystem technique is on agenda of Humankind. Key directions of Biogeosystem technique. Tillage. Single rotary milling 20…30-50…60 sm soil layer optimizes the evolution and environment of soil, creates a favorable conditions for the rhizosphere, increases the biological productivity of biosphere by 30-50% compared to the standard agricultural practices for the period up to 40 years. Recycle material. Recycling of mineral and organic substances in soil layer of 20…30-50…60 sm in rotary milling soil processing provides wastes clean return to biosphere. Direct intrasoil substances synthesis. Environmentally friendly robot wasteless nanotechnology provides direct substances synthesis, including fertilizers, inside the soil. It eliminates the prerequisites of the wastes formation under standard industrial technologies. Selective substance's extraction from soil. Electrochemical robotic nanotechnology provides selective substances extraction from soil. The technology provides recovery, collection and subsequent safe industrial use of extracted substances out of landscape. Saving fresh water. An important task is to save fresh water in biosphere. Irrigation spends water 4-5 times more of biological requirements of plants, leads to degradation of soil and landscape. The intrasoil pulse continuous-discrete paradigm of irrigation is proposed. It provides the soil and landscape conservation, increases the biological productivity, save the fresh water up to 10-20 times. The subsurface soil rotary processing and intrasoil pulsed continuous-discrete irrigation provide environmentally safe disposal of municipal, industrial, biological and agricultural wastes. Hazardous chemical and biological agents are under the soil surface. It provided a medical and veterinary safety of environment. Biogeosystem technic controls the equilibria in the soil and soil solution, prevents excessive mineralization of organic matter in the surface layers of soil. Simultaneously a soil chemical reduction excluded, biological substance do not degrade to gases. Products of organic matter decomposition are directed to the food chain, 100% waste recycling is obtained. Biogeosystems technique allows producing more biological products hence to recycle excessive amount of man-made CO2 and other substances. Biogeosystems technique increases the rate of photosynthesis of the biosphere, the degree of air ionization. This enhances the formation of rains over land, ensures stability of the ionosphere, magnetosphere and atmosphere of Earth. The nowadays technologies allow applying technical solutions based on Biogeosystem technique, there is unique opportunity to accelerate the noosphere new technological platform.

  6. [Laboratory and instrumental diagnostics of pancreatic diseases].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The review focuses on the potential of modern laboratory and instrumental diagnostics ofpancreatic diseases including various forms of chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, cysts and pseudocysts, calcificators and concrements, abscesses, neuroendocrine tumours, etc. Diagnostic criteria for exocrine pancreatic disorders, such as hyper- and hyposecretory (hyper- and hypoenzymatic) forms of chronic pancreatitis are described along with direct and indirect, invasive and non-invasive, probe-based and probe-free methods for their study. Special attention is given to instrumental visualization of structural and morphological changes in the pancreas under different pathological conditions. The description of methods for the study of pancreatic endocrine functions and diagnostics of pancreatic diseases is preceded by a brief anatomo-physiologic essay. PMID:22420188

  7. Modern NMR Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelinski, Lynn W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses direct chemical information that can be obtained from modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, concentrating on the types of problems that can be solved. Shows how selected methods provide information about polymers, bipolymers, biochemistry, small organic molecules, inorganic compounds, and compounds oriented in a magnetic…

  8. Modern vs. Traditional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhenhui, Rao

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses traditional methods, such as the grammar-translation, and modern methods, the communicative approach, for teaching English-as-a-foreign-language in China. The relationship between linguistic accuracy and communicative competence, student-centered orientation, and the role of the teacher are highlighted. (Author/VWL)

  9. Modern NMR Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelinski, Lynn W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses direct chemical information that can be obtained from modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, concentrating on the types of problems that can be solved. Shows how selected methods provide information about polymers, bipolymers, biochemistry, small organic molecules, inorganic compounds, and compounds oriented in a magnetic

  10. Cyberspace modernization :

    SciTech Connect

    Keliiaa, Curtis M.; McLane, Victor N.

    2014-07-01

    A common challenge across the communications and information technology (IT) sectors is Internet + modernization + complexity + risk + cost. Cyberspace modernization and cyber security risks, issues, and concerns impact service providers, their customers, and the industry at large. Public and private sectors are struggling to solve the problem. New service opportunities lie in mobile voice, video, and data, and machine-to-machine (M2M) information and communication technologies that are migrating not only to predominant Internet Protocol (IP) communications, but also concurrently integrating IP, version 4 (IPv4) and IP, version 6 (IPv6). With reference to the Second Internet and the Internet of Things, next generation information services portend business survivability in the changing global market. The planning, architecture, and design information herein is intended to increase infrastructure preparedness, security, interoperability, resilience, and trust in the midst of such unprecedented change and opportunity. This document is a product of Sandia National Laboratories Tribal Cyber and IPv6 project work. It is a Cyberspace Modernization objective advisory in support of bridging the digital divide through strategic partnership and an informed path forward.

  11. Validity of Optical Coherence Tomography as a Diagnostic Method for Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Azrak, Cesar; Baeza-Díaz, Manuel Vicente; Palazón-Bru, Antonio; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Navarro-Navarro, Aída; Martínez-Toldos, José Juan; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To validate optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the diagnosis of referable retinopathy (severe, very severe or proliferative retinopathy, and macular edema) in diabetic patients. We performed a cross-sectional observational study. A random sample was analyzed comprising 136 eyes of diabetic patients referred to the hospital in Elche (Spain) with suspected referable retinopathy between October 2012 and June 2013. Primary variable: Referable retinopathy measured by ophthalmological examination of the retina. OCT data included: central foveal thickness, presence of intraretinal fluid, and fundus photographs. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated to determine the minimum thickness value with a positive likelihood ratio >10. To determine the validity of OCT, the following diagnostic test was defined: Positive: if the patient had at least 1 of these criteria: foveal thickness greater than the point obtained on the previously defined ROC curve, intraretinal fluid, abnormal fundus photographs; Negative: none of the above criteria. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and Kappa statistic were determined. Of the 136 eyes, 48 had referable retinopathy (35.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.3–43.3). The minimum thickness value with a positive likelihood ratio >10 was 275 μm. The diagnostic test constructed showed: sensitivity, 91.67% (95% CI: 79.13–97.30); specificity, 93.18% (95% CI: 85.19–97.20); positive predictive value, 88.00% (95% CI: 75.00–95.03); negative predictive value, 95.35% (95% CI: 87.87–98.50); positive likelihood ratio, 13.44 (95% CI: 6.18–29.24); negative likelihood ratio, 0.09 (95% CI: 0.03–0.23). The Kappa value was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.75–0.94, P < 0.001. This study constructed a diagnostic test for referable diabetic retinopathy with type A evidence. Nevertheless, studies are needed to determine the validity of this test in the general diabetic population. PMID:26402819

  12. Prevalence of Giardia spp. in young dogs using a combination of two diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Alves, João; Santos, Ana

    2016-06-01

    In this study, prevalence of the protozoan parasites from the genus Giardia spp, with zoonotic potential and worldwide dissemination, was accessed in young dogs, which are reported as having higher prevalence rates. With that purpose, 49 animals from the Grupo de Intervenção Cinotécnico of the Guarda Nacional Republicana (Portuguese Gendarmerie Canine Unit) were chosen. They were housed individually in areas with a high number of kennels (up to 100), with ages ragging from newborns to 10 years old. Dogs were divided in four groups, according their age: under 6 months (n = 16), 6-12 months (n = 6), 12-18 months (n = 13) and 18-24 months (n = 14), comprising 22 females and 27 males. Fecal samples were collected from every animal and all were submitted to two different diagnostic tests, a passive flotation technique with a ZnSO4 solution and a detection of fecal antigen using a commercially available ELISA test (Witness® Giardia - Zoetis). From the 49 samples, 5 (10.2%) were considered positive with ZnSO4 flotation technique and 6 (12.24%) with the Witness® Giardia test. When considering the combination of both tests, 5 animals (10.2%) were considered positive. Of these, 3 (60%) were from the group under 6 months old, 1 (20%) from the 6-12 months and 1 from the 18-24 (20%) months. Within each group, in the under 6 months group 18.75% (n = 16) were considered positive, 16.67% in the 6-12 month group (n = 6), 0% in the 12-18 month group (n=13) and 7.14% in 18-24 month group (n = 14). None of the animals had clinical signs and no significant differences were found when comparing prevalence according to age, breed or gender. A combination of fecal flotation and antigen ELISA tests have good sensitivity and are easy to perform in practice and, therefore, could be a good choice to perform a diagnostic and small animal veterinarians should have this possible diagnostic in mind when in the present of clinical signs, particularly in young dogs. PMID:27078649

  13. Improved Data Acquisition Methods for Uninterrupted Signal Monitoring and Ultra-Fast Plasma Diagnostics in LHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Hideya; Imazu, Setsuo; Ohsuna, Masaki; Kojima, Mamoru; Nonomura, Miki; Shoji, Mamoru; Emoto, Masahiko; Yoshida, Masanobu; Iwata, Chie; Miyake, Hitoshi; Nagayama, Yoshio; Kawahata, Kazuo

    To deal with endless data streams acquired in LHD steady-state experiments, the LHD data acquisition system was designed with a simple concept that divides a long pulse into a consecutive series of 10-s “subshots”. Latest digitizers applying high-speed PCI-Express technology, however, output nonstop gigabyte per second data streams whose subshot intervals would be extremely long if 10-s rule was applied. These digitizers need shorter subshot intervals, less than 10-s long. In contrast, steady-state fusion plants need uninterrupted monitoring of the environment and device soundness. They adopt longer subshot lengths of either 10 min or 1 day. To cope with both uninterrupted monitoring and ultra-fast diagnostics, the ability to vary the subshot length according to the type of operation is required. In this study, a design modification that enables variable subshot lengths was implemented and its practical effectiveness in LHD was verified.

  14. DIAGNOSTIC CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION USING THE MEDRAD AVANTA FLUID MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AS COMPARED TO THE TRADITIONAL MANUAL INJECTION METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    Winniford, Michael D

    2013-02-08

    Nearly 4 million patient procedures performed annually in US cardiac catheterization laboratories utilize contrast media to achieve vessel opacification. The amount of contrast media used is variable and depends on the complexity of the procedure, the method of contrast delivery as well as the skill-level of the operator. Since the total amount of contrast used for each procedure can have both patient safety and economic implications, it is essential for cardiologists to have the ability to control contrast delivery such that optimal angiographic image quality is achieved using the least amount of contrast. Although the complication rate associated with cardiac catheterization remains low, the most common serious complication, contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), is associated with poor prognosis and a high mortality rate. Numerous interventional strategies for preventing and reducing the severity of CIN have demonstrated varying degrees of clinical benefit, but none has been shown to reliably prevent this serious complication. To date, the most effective approach for reducing the risk of CIN is to properly hydrate the patient and to minimize the amount of contrast media administered. Automated injection systems are intended for use in virtually all cardiac catheterization procedures and have numerous features which can provide potential advantages over traditional methods. With automated injection technology the operator is able to control and precisely monitor contrast delivery. Additionally, the MEDRAD Avanta Fluid Management Injection System utilizes a sterile contrast reservoir which eliminates the need to discard unused contrast in individual opened containers following each procedure. Considering that an average of 50% of opened contrast media is wasted using manual injection methods, this savings can provide a substantial economic benefit. Automated systems also facilitate the use of smaller (5 French) catheter sizes. Precise flow control and the use of smaller diameter catheters have both been shown to reduce the volume of contrast administered. The use of smaller size catheters also permits more rapid hemostasis, thus allowing shorter ambulation time without the need for costly wound closure devices. These factors can result in enhanced patient satisfaction as well as more efficient management of post-procedure rooms. The intent of this study was to demonstrate that using the MEDRAD Avanta Fluid Management Injection System (MEDRAD, INC., Pittsburgh, PA) for coronary diagnostic procedures can produce a reduction in the volume of contrast administered without loss of operational quality or efficiency. In addition, this study will explore procedure time and efficiency in an effort to minimize the amount of ionizing radiation delivered to the patient as well as the diagnostic team members. Study Design This is a post-market study designed to collect data during diagnostic cardiac catheterization when utilizing 5FR or 6FR catheters in conjunction with the Avanta Fluid Management System or a manual manifold injection method control group. A minimum of 420 patients scheduled for diagnostic cardiac catheterization will be enrolled in the study cohort. Patients will be assigned into the following two groups. Group 1: Catheterization with 5FR or 6FR catheters, using the traditional manual manifold injection method for contrast media delivery which is defined as manual hand injection of contrast media through a 3 or 4 port manifold and left ventriculography performed via standard fixed rate power injection. Group 2: Catheterization with 5FR or 6FR catheters, using the MEDRAD Avanta system for contrast media delivery. Study endpoints include volume of contrast media administered during diagnostic cardiac catheterization, volume of contrast media wasted post-procedure, procedure time (defined as the time from first catheter insertion to last diagnostic catheter removal), fluoroscopy time and angiographic image quality. The study demonstrated that use of the Advanta system reduced overall contrast utilization by decreasing the amount of contrast administered to the patient and reducing the amount of contrast wasted during preparation and post-procedure clean-up. The quality of the angiographic images and the radiation expsure to the patient ere not affected.

  15. Medical diagnosis aboard submarines. Use of a computer-based Bayesian method of analysis in an abdominal pain diagnostic program.

    PubMed

    Osborne, S F

    1984-02-01

    The medical issues that arise in the isolated environment of a submarine can occasionally be grave. While crewmembers are carefully screened for health problems, they are still susceptible to serious acute illness. Currently, the submarine medical department representative, the hospital corpsman, utilizes a history and physical examination, clinical acumen, and limited laboratory testing in diagnosis. The application of a Bayesian method of analysis to an abdominal pain diagnostic system utilizing an onboard microcomputer is described herein. Early results from sea trials show an appropriate diagnosis in eight of 10 cases of abdominal pain, but the program should still be viewed as an extended "laboratory test" until proved effective at sea. PMID:6368770

  16. Determination of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtypes by a Rapid Method Useful for the Routine Diagnostic Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Harald H.; Deuretzbacher, Doris; Stelzl, Evelyn; Daghofer, Elisabeth; Santner, Brigitte I.; Marth, Egon

    2001-01-01

    The existence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes has many important implications for the global evolution of HIV and for the evaluation of pathogenicity, transmissibility, and candidate HIV vaccines. The aim of this study was to establish a rapid method for determination of HIV-1 subtypes useful for a routine diagnostic laboratory and to investigate the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes in Austrian patients. Samples were tested by a subtyping method based on a 1.3-kb sequence of the polymerase gene generated by a commercially available drug resistance assay. The generated sequence was subtyped by means of an HIV sequence database. Results of 74 routine samples revealed subtype B (71.6%) as the predominant subtype, followed by subtype A (13.5%) and subtype C (6.8%). Subtypes E, F, G, and AE (CM240) were also detected. This subtyping method was found to be very easy to handle, rapid, and inexpensive and has proved suitable for high-throughput routine diagnostic laboratories. The specific polymerase gene sequence, however, must be existent. PMID:11527821

  17. Development of monitoring and diagnostic methods for robots used in remediation of waste sites. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Tecza, J.

    1998-06-01

    'Safe and efficient clean up of hazardous and radioactive waste sites throughout the DOE complex will require extensive use of robots. This research effort focuses on developing Monitoring and Diagnostic (M and D) methods for robots that will provide early detection, isolation, and tracking of impending faults before they result in serious failure. The utility and effectiveness of applying M and D methods to hydraulic robots has never been proven. The present research program is utilizing seeded faults in a laboratory test rig that is representative of an existing hydraulically-powered remediation robot. This report summarizes activity conducted in the first 9 months of the project. The research team has analyzed the Rosie Mobile Worksystem as a representative hydraulic robot, developed a test rig for implanted fault testing, developed a test plan and agenda, and established methods for acquiring and analyzing the test data.'

  18. Oxygen-atom concentrations measured in flames: a method to improve the accuracy of laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Myhr, F H; Driscoll, J F

    2001-10-20

    A procedure is proposed, denoted as the corrected laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method, that reduces the error associated with the unavoidable photodissociation of O(2) molecules that has limited the measurement of oxygen-atom concentrations in the past. Two different laser intensities are employed, and the two signals that are obtained with two-photon LIF diagnostics are used to correct for the photolysis error. We measured oxygen-atom concentrations using this method at 33 locations in lean and rich flames. Results are compared with values determined by use of two independent techniques: the partial equilibrium method and equilibrium calculations. The measurements also quantify the shot noise, the photolysis errors, and the critical laser intensity required to avoid photolysis errors. PMID:18364818

  19. Medical diagnostic system based on image receivers of various spectral ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siniakova, Olga G.; Ishmuhametov, Airat I.

    1996-04-01

    The medical diagnostics is one of the most important spheres of application of measuring and diagnostic systems based on introscopy methods. The modern medical introscopy diagnostics has in its arsenal many various devices using x-ray radiation with energy from 10 to 100 keV (roentgenological diagnostics, x-ray computer tomography), gamma radiation of radionuclides with energy 10 - 300 keV (radionuclide diagnostics), infrared radiation of human body (thermovision), optical radiation range (endoscopic diagnostics). The application of high- frequency sound fluctuations (ultrasonography) is also effective for tasks of medical diagnostics. The microwave sources based on nuclear magnetic resonance (magnetic resonance imaging) are used for reception the images of internal structures of human body. The prompt development of modern medical introscopy diagnostics observable in last years is connected first of all with wide application of computer facilities for receiving, processing, restoration and analysis of images. It gives the additional opportunity to increase the reliability, accuracy, sensitivity and timeliness of diagnostic decisions. The images received both by scintillation gamma camera and by specialized x-ray or gamma radiation video camera based on charge- coupled devices can be used for evaluation of structural and functional state of vital organs and systems. One of the main tasks at development of medical diagnostic systems is the reduction of optical image to form that maximally facilitates its analysis to the doctor. The article considers the diagnostic system oriented on receiving, processing and evaluating data of radionuclide imaging studies.

  20. Cellphone camera imaging of a periodically patterned chip as a potential method for point-of-care diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ritu; Reifenberger, Ronald G; Kulkarni, Giridhar U

    2014-03-26

    In this study, we demonstrate that a disposable chip periodically patterned with suitable ligands, an ordinary cellphone camera, and a simple pattern recognition software, can potentially be used for quantitative diagnostics. A key factor in this demonstration is the design of a calibration grid around the chip that, through a contrast transfer process, enables reliable analysis of the images collected under variable ambient lighting conditions. After exposure to a dispersion of amine terminated silica beads used as analyte mimicking pathogens, an epoxy-terminated glass substrate microcontact printed with octadecyltrichlorosilane (250 ?m periodicity) developed a characteristic pattern of beads which could be easily imaged with a cellphone camera of 3.2 MP pixels. A simple pattern recognition algorithm using fast Fourier transform produced a quantitative estimate of the analyte concentration present in the test solution. In this method importantly, neither the chip fabrication process nor the fill-factor of the periodic pattern need be perfect to arrive at a conclusive diagnosis. The method suggests a viable platform that may potentially find use in fault-tolerant and robust point-of-care diagnostic applications. PMID:24564576

  1. Modern concepts of caries measurement.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N B

    2004-01-01

    Following the consideration of several recent systematic and other reviews, there is a growing professional and scientific consensus that caries measurement methodology in caries clinical trials (CCT) should be updated to reflect progress made elsewhere in cariology. In this paper, therefore, "modern" means accepted in contemporary dental research and dental practice on the basis of sound research evidence--not necessarily new or requiring the use of new technology. Caries measurement should be seen in the context of the objectives of modern clinical caries management and the continuum of disease states, ranging from sub-surface carious changes through to more advanced lesions. Measurement concepts can be applied to at least three levels: the tooth surface, the individual, or the group/population. All are relevant to CCTs. Modern clinical caries management can be seen as comprised of seven discrete but linked steps (Steps 2, 3, and 4 are directly concerned with measurement.): (1) 'Caries detection' represents a yes/no decision as to whether caries is present; (2) lesion measurement assesses defined stages of the caries process, taking into account the histopatholgical morphology and appearance of different sizes and types of lesion and the diagnostic threshold(s) being used; (3) lesion monitoring by repeated measures at a series of examinations is used when lesions are less advanced than the stage judged to require operative intervention (A comparison of serial measurements permits the efficacy of preventive care aiming either to arrest or to reverse the lesion to be assessed.); (4) caries activity measures would be very valuable, but are relatively poorly developed and tested at present; (5) diagnosis, prognosis, and clinical decision-making are the important human processes in which all the information obtained from steps 1 to 4 is synthesised; (6) interventions/treatments, both preventive and operative, are now routinely used for caries management; and (7) outcome of caries control/management assesses caries management by examining evidence on the long-term outcomes. A challenge for the future is to define a range of optimal caries measurement methods--in use or in development in recent trials, in clinical practice, and/or in caries epidemiology--that will best contribute to more efficient, modern caries clinical trials. PMID:15286121

  2. Molecular method for the detection of Andes hantavirus infection: validation for clinical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Vial, Cecilia; Martinez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Rios, Susana; Martinez, Jessica; Vial, Pablo A; Ferres, Marcela; Rivera, Juan C; Perez, Ruth; Valdivieso, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is a severe disease caused by exposure to New World hantaviruses. Early diagnosis is difficult due to the lack of specific initial symptoms. Antihantavirus antibodies are usually negative until late in the febrile prodrome or the beginning of cardiopulmonary phase, while Andes hantavirus (ANDV) RNA genome can be detected before symptoms onset. We analyzed the effectiveness of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) as a diagnostic tool detecting ANDV-Sout genome in peripheral blood cells from 78 confirmed hantavirus patients and 166 negative controls. Our results indicate that RT-qPCR had a low detection limit (~10 copies), with a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 94.9%. This suggests the potential for establishing RT-qPCR as the assay of choice for early diagnosis, promoting early effective care of patients, and improving other important aspects of ANDV infection management, such as compliance of biosafety recommendations for health personnel in order to avoid nosocomial transmission. PMID:26508102

  3. Recent observations on leptospirosis in Northern Ireland and their bearing on current diagnostic methods

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, T. S.

    1966-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to assess the present importance of leptospiral infections in Northern Ireland, and in particular to look for evidence of infection by leptospiral serotypes other than L. icterohaemorrhagiae and L. canicola. Blood samples from 335 patients, sent to the laboratory for a variety of tests, were examined. After initial screening with five groups of pooled antigens, tests for leptospiral agglutinins were completed with formolized antigens prepared from 13 different serotypes. In seven patients a diagnosis of acute leptospirosis was made while nine others showed serological evidence of previous leptospiral infection. Attempts to isolate leptospirae by culture from 29 blood samples were unsuccessful. The serological results indicate that two additional leptospiral serotypes, namely L. ballum and L. bratislava, are causing human infection in Northern Ireland, and presumably also in other parts of the British Isles. Some clinical and epidemiological features associated with different types of leptospiral infection are described. It is stressed that leptospirosis is essentially a febrile illness, that meningeal symptoms are common, and that (contrary to popular belief) jaundice is by no means a constant occurrence. The implications of these findings are discussed, with special reference to the diagnosis of leptospiral infections. Laboratory diagnostic procedures are briefly reviewed, and the possible deficiencies of the agglutination test commonly used in Britain are pointed out. Some suggestions are made concerning both clinical and laboratory aspects of diagnosis, and the need for a reliable screening test for all forms of leptospiral infection is emphasized. PMID:5919352

  4. Novel readout method for molecular diagnostic assays based on optical measurements of magnetic nanobead dynamics.

    PubMed

    Donolato, Marco; Antunes, Paula; Bejhed, Rebecca S; Zardán Gómez de la Torre, Teresa; Østerberg, Frederik W; Strömberg, Mattias; Nilsson, Mats; Strømme, Maria; Svedlindh, Peter; Hansen, Mikkel F; Vavassori, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate detection of DNA coils formed from a Vibrio cholerae DNA target at picomolar concentrations using a novel optomagnetic approach exploiting the dynamic behavior and optical anisotropy of magnetic nanobead (MNB) assemblies. We establish that the complex second harmonic optical transmission spectra of MNB suspensions measured upon application of a weak uniaxial AC magnetic field correlate well with the rotation dynamics of the individual MNBs. Adding a target analyte to the solution leads to the formation of permanent MNB clusters, namely, to the suppression of the dynamic MNB behavior. We prove that the optical transmission spectra are highly sensitive to the formation of permanent MNB clusters and, thereby to the target analyte concentration. As a specific clinically relevant diagnostic case, we detect DNA coils formed via padlock probe recognition and isothermal rolling circle amplification and benchmark against a commercial equipment. The results demonstrate the fast optomagnetic readout of rolling circle products from bacterial DNA utilizing the dynamic properties of MNBs in a miniaturized and low-cost platform requiring only a transparent window in the chip. PMID:25539065

  5. Comparison of Resource Requirements for a Wind Tunnel Test Designed with Conventional vs. Modern Design of Experiments Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLoach, Richard; Micol, John R.

    2011-01-01

    The factors that determine data volume requirements in a typical wind tunnel test are identified. It is suggested that productivity in wind tunnel testing can be enhanced by managing the inference error risk associated with evaluating residuals in a response surface modeling experiment. The relationship between minimum data volume requirements and the factors upon which they depend is described and certain simplifications to this relationship are realized when specific model adequacy criteria are adopted. The question of response model residual evaluation is treated and certain practical aspects of response surface modeling are considered, including inference subspace truncation. A wind tunnel test plan developed by using the Modern Design of Experiments illustrates the advantages of an early estimate of data volume requirements. Comparisons are made with a representative One Factor At a Time (OFAT) wind tunnel test matrix developed to evaluate a surface to air missile.

  6. [MODERN METHODS OF PROGNOSTICATION OF THE RECURRENCES OCCURRENCE AFTER SURGICAL TREATMENT OF THE MAMMARY GLAND BENIGN TUMORS].

    PubMed

    Usenko, O Yu; Romak, R P

    2015-05-01

    Modern schemes of the recurrences predicting after surgical treatment of benign tumors of mammary gland (BTMG) were estimated. In accordance to data of retrospective investigation obtained, the recurrences occurrence rate through a five-year period of observation have constituted 2.3%. While doing prospective observation, the recurrences after treatment have occurred in 12 (24.0%) patients, suffering phylloid histologic form of tumor. The BTMG recurrences were noted predominantly in women--carriers of mutant alleles with polymorphism rs8190924 of gene GSR and AA rs3763511--of gene DKK4. Nethertheless, there are no data, which confirm the recurrence occurrence risk to be considered genetically determinated, the possibilities ratio for this kind of polymorphism have costituted 12.0 (trustworthy interval 95% 0.8 - 14.9). PMID:26419038

  7. Diagnostic methods of a bladed disc mode shape evaluation used for shrouded blades in steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strnad, Jaromir; Liska, Jindrich

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with advanced methods for the evaluation of a bladed disc behavior in terms of the wheel vibration and blade service time consumption. These methods are developed as parts of the noncontact vibration monitoring system of the steam turbine shrouded blades. The proposed methods utilize the time-frequency processing (cross spectra) and the method using least squares to analyse the data from the optical and magnetoresistive sensors, which are mounted in the stator radially above the rotor blades. Fundamentally, the blade vibrations are detected during the blade passages under the sensors and the following signal processing, which covers also the proposed methods, leads to the estimation of the blade residual service life. The prototype system implementing above mentioned techniques was installed into the last stage of the new steam turbine (LP part). The methods for bladed disc mode shape evaluation were successfully verified on the signals, which were obtained during the commission operation of the turbine.

  8. ICALEO '89 - Optical methods in flow and particle diagnostics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Oct. 15-20, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Long, M.B. )

    1989-01-01

    Various papers on optical methods in flow and particle diagnostics are presented. Individual topics addressed include: swirl effects on confined flows in a model of a dump combustor, new analog optical method for data evaluation in laser Doppler anemometry, catadioptric optics for laser Doppler velocimeter applications, mapping of velocity flow field using the laser two-focus technique, engineering applications of particle image velocimeters, quantitative fluid flow analysis by laser velocimetry and numerical processing, optical analysis of particle image velocimetry data. Also discussed are: measuring turbulence in reversing flows by particle image velocimeter, two-color particle velocimetry, data evaluation in particle image velocimetry using spatial light modulator, statistical investigation of errors in particle image velocimetry, optimization of particle image velocimeters, visualization of internal structure in volumetric data, scalar measurements in two, three, and four dimensions.

  9. Diagnostic Criteria for Problematic Internet Use among U.S. University Students: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; O'Brien, Jennifer E; Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O

    2016-01-01

    Empirical studies have identified increasing rates of problematic Internet use worldwide and a host of related negative consequences. However, researchers disagree as to whether problematic Internet use is a subtype of behavioral addiction. Thus, there are not yet widely accepted and validated diagnostic criteria for problematic Internet use. To address this gap, we used mixed-methods to examine the extent to which signs and symptoms of problematic Internet use mirror DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for substance use disorder, gambling disorder, and Internet gaming disorder. A total of 27 university students, who self-identified as intensive Internet users and who reported Internet-use-associated health and/or psychosocial problems were recruited. Students completed two measures that assess problematic Internet use (Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire and the Compulsive Internet Use Scale) and participated in focus groups exploring their experiences with problematic Internet use. Results of standardized measures and focus group discussions indicated substantial overlap between students' experiences of problematic Internet use and the signs and symptoms reflected in the DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorder, gambling disorder, and Internet gaming disorder. These signs and symptoms included: a) use Internet longer than intended, b) preoccupation with the Internet, c) withdrawal symptoms when unable to access the Internet, d) unsuccessful attempts to stop or reduce Internet use, e) craving, f) loss of interest in hobbies or activities other than the Internet, g) excessive Internet use despite the knowledge of related problems, g) use of the Internet to escape or relieve a negative mood, and h) lying about Internet use. Tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, and recurrent Internet use in hazardous situations were uniquely manifested in the context of problematic Internet use. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:26751569

  10. Diagnostic Criteria for Problematic Internet Use among U.S. University Students: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen; O’Brien, Jennifer E.; Snyder, Susan M.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2016-01-01

    Empirical studies have identified increasing rates of problematic Internet use worldwide and a host of related negative consequences. However, researchers disagree as to whether problematic Internet use is a subtype of behavioral addiction. Thus, there are not yet widely accepted and validated diagnostic criteria for problematic Internet use. To address this gap, we used mixed-methods to examine the extent to which signs and symptoms of problematic Internet use mirror DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for substance use disorder, gambling disorder, and Internet gaming disorder. A total of 27 university students, who self-identified as intensive Internet users and who reported Internet-use-associated health and/or psychosocial problems were recruited. Students completed two measures that assess problematic Internet use (Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire and the Compulsive Internet Use Scale) and participated in focus groups exploring their experiences with problematic Internet use. Results of standardized measures and focus group discussions indicated substantial overlap between students’ experiences of problematic Internet use and the signs and symptoms reflected in the DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorder, gambling disorder, and Internet gaming disorder. These signs and symptoms included: a) use Internet longer than intended, b) preoccupation with the Internet, c) withdrawal symptoms when unable to access the Internet, d) unsuccessful attempts to stop or reduce Internet use, e) craving, f) loss of interest in hobbies or activities other than the Internet, g) excessive Internet use despite the knowledge of related problems, g) use of the Internet to escape or relieve a negative mood, and h) lying about Internet use. Tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, and recurrent Internet use in hazardous situations were uniquely manifested in the context of problematic Internet use. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:26751569

  11. [Evaluation of NMR relaxation method as a diagnostic tool for donor blood analysis and patients with hematologic diseases and burns].

    PubMed

    Gangardt, M G; Popova, O V; Shmarov, D A; Kariakina, N F; Papish, E A; Kozinets, G I

    2002-08-01

    Diagnostic value of the NMR-relaxation method in the blood plasma was estimated in the patients with different pathologies. The time of hydrogen nuclei longitudinal relaxation (T1) in the health donors of the blood, in the patients with oncopathology (hemoblastoses) and in the cases with anemia and burning disease were investigated. The time of the longitudinal relaxation (T1) was measured by automated NMR-relaxometer "Palma" (Russia). The working frequency was equal to 35 MHz, the temperature was 45 +/- 0.1 degrees C. For the single measurement 0.2 ml of blood obtained from heparinized venous blood 1.5 hours after its taking was used. The time of the longitudinal relaxation (T1) was shown to be 1.78 +/- 0.02 in the health donors, 1.70 +/- 0.06 s in cases with anemia, 1.97 +/- 0.48 c in patients with leucosis, 2.40 +/- 0.12 s in patients with burns. The sensitivity and the specificity of diagnostics of leucosis based upon the results of the only single T1 measurement in blood plasma were concluded to be 75%. It proves the significant T1 change both in patients with anemia and burning disease of the II-III degree. However it is evidently insufficient for selective use of NMR-relaxation blood plasma (serum) in the diagnostics of anemia and leucosis. The data obtained prove also the possibility of use of NMR-relaxation blood plasma (serum) for control of the hemostasis state during treatment or remission. PMID:12362635

  12. Methods Developed by the Tools for Engine Diagnostics Task to Monitor and Predict Rotor Damage in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Smith, Kevin; Raulerson, David; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Brasche, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Tools for Engine Diagnostics is a major task in the Propulsion System Health Management area of the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention project under NASA s Aviation Safety Program. The major goal of the Aviation Safety Program is to reduce fatal aircraft accidents by 80 percent within 10 years and by 90 percent within 25 years. The goal of the Propulsion System Health Management area is to eliminate propulsion system malfunctions as a primary or contributing factor to the cause of aircraft accidents. The purpose of Tools for Engine Diagnostics, a 2-yr-old task, is to establish and improve tools for engine diagnostics and prognostics that measure the deformation and damage of rotating engine components at the ground level and that perform intermittent or continuous monitoring on the engine wing. In this work, nondestructive-evaluation- (NDE-) based technology is combined with model-dependent disk spin experimental simulation systems, like finite element modeling (FEM) and modal norms, to monitor and predict rotor damage in real time. Fracture mechanics time-dependent fatigue crack growth and damage-mechanics-based life estimation are being developed, and their potential use investigated. In addition, wireless eddy current and advanced acoustics are being developed for on-wing and just-in-time NDE engine inspection to provide deeper access and higher sensitivity to extend on-wing capabilities and improve inspection readiness. In the long run, these methods could establish a base for prognostic sensing while an engine is running, without any overt actions, like inspections. This damage-detection strategy includes experimentally acquired vibration-, eddy-current- and capacitance-based displacement measurements and analytically computed FEM-, modal norms-, and conventional rotordynamics-based models of well-defined damages and critical mass imbalances in rotating disks and rotors.

  13. Microbial food safety: Potential of DNA extraction methods for use in diagnostic metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Josefsen, Mathilde H; Andersen, Sandra C; Christensen, Julia; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    The efficiency of ten widely applied DNA extraction protocols was evaluated for suitability for diagnostic metagenomics. The protocols were selected based on a thorough literature study. Chicken fecal samples inoculated with about 1×10(3) and 1×10(6) CFU/g Campylobacter jejuni were used as a model. The evaluation was performed based on total DNA yield measured by fluorometry, and quality and quantity of C. jejuni DNA measured by real-time PCR. There was up to a 25-fold variance between the lowest (NucliSens miniMAG, BIOMÉRIEUX) and highest (PowerLyzer PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit, MO BIO Laboratories) yielding protocols. The PowerLyzer PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit performed significantly better than all other protocols tested. Selected protocols were modified, i.e., extended heating and homogenization, resulting in increased yields of total DNA. For QIAamp Fast DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen) a 7-fold increase in total DNA was observed following the protocol for human DNA analysis and including a 5 min heating step at 70°C. For the PowerLyzer PowerSoil and the PowerFecal DNA Isolation Kit (MO BIO Laboratories) the total DNA fold increase was 1.6 to 1.8 when including an extra 10 min of bead-vortexing. There was no correlation between the yield of total DNA and the amount of PCR-amplifiable DNA from C. jejuni. The protocols resulting in the highest yield of total DNA did not show correspondingly increased levels of C. jejuni DNA as determined by PCR. In conclusion, substantial variation in the efficiency of the protocols to extract DNA was observed. The highest DNA yield was obtained with the PowerLyzer PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit, whereas the FastDNA SPIN Kit for Feces (MP Biomedicals) resulted in the highest amount of PCR-amplifiable C. jejuni DNA. PMID:25937085

  14. Rapid diagnostic method for the identification of Mycoplasma pneumoniae respiratory tract infection.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Naoyuki; Kawai, Yasuhiro; Kato, Tadashi; Tanaka, Takaaki; Akaike, Hiroto; Teranishi, Hideto; Nakano, Takashi; Ouchi, Kazunobu; Okimoto, Niro

    2016-05-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests are useful tools in the early diagnosis of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) caused by a specific pathogens. We investigated the sensitivity and specificity of a rapid and simple antigen test for the detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Ribotest Mycoplasma(®) in adolescent and adult patients with RTIs. In addition, we evaluated the accuracy of clinical and laboratory findings for the early presumptive diagnosis of M. pneumoniae RTI. We compared 55 cases with laboratory-confirmed M. pneumoniae infection using serology, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 346 cases without laboratory-confirmed M. pneumoniae infection. Pneumonia cases were excluded in this study. Among patients with M. pneumoniae infection, the incidences of cough, sore throat, and sputum production were high, with rates of 98%, 61%, and 67%, respectively, but the specificity was low. The prevalence of nasal symptoms was significantly lower in patients with M. pneumoniae infection (9%) than in non-M. pneumoniae infection (70%; p < 0.0001). When PCR was used as the control test, the sensitivity, specificity, and overall agreement rates with Ribotest(®) were 71%, 89%, and 87%, respectively. Clinical symptoms and laboratory data were of limited value in making the diagnosis of M. pneumoniae RTI in adolescent and adult patients. Our results suggested that Ribotest(®) may be helpful in distinguishing M. pneumoniae RTI patients from those without the disease. Physicians should consider the use of Ribotest(®) when patients have a persistent cough without nasal symptoms. PMID:26993174

  15. Application of molecular diagnostic methods to penaeid shrimp diseases: advances of the past 10 years for control of viral diseases in farmed shrimp.

    PubMed

    Lightner, D V; Poulos, B T; Tang-Nelson, K F J; Pantoja, C R; Nunan, L M; Navarro, S A; Redman, R M; Mohney, L L

    2006-01-01

    The most important diseases of farmed penaeid shrimp have infectious aetiologies. Among these are diseases with viral, rickettsial, bacterial, fungal and parasitic aetiologies. Diagnostic methods for these pathogens include the traditional methods of gross pathology, histopathology, classical microbiology, animal bioassay, antibody-based methods, and molecular methods using DNA probes and DNA amplification. While methods using clinical chemistry and tissue culture are standard methods in veterinary and human diagnostic laboratories, the former has not been routinely applied to the diagnosis of penaeid shrimp diseases and the latter has yet to be developed, despite considerable research and development efforts that have spanned the past 40 years. No continuous shrimp cell lines, or lines from other crustaceans, have been developed. Hence, when molecular methods began to be routinely applied to the diagnosis of infectious diseases in humans and domestic animals in the mid- to late 1980s, the technology was applied to the diagnosis of certain important diseases of penaeid shrimp for which only classical diagnostic methods were previously available. A DNA hybridization assay for the parvovirus IHHNV was the first molecular test developed for a shrimp disease. This was followed within a year by the first PCR test for MBV, an important baculovirus disease of shrimp. Today, shrimp disease diagnostic laboratories routinely use molecular tests for diagnostic and surveillance purposes for most of the important penaeid shrimp diseases. PMID:17058487

  16. Combustion diagnostics by nonintrusive methods; Thermophysics Conference, 18th, Montreal, Canada, June 1-3, 1983, Selected Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccay, T. D. (Editor); Roux, J. A. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is outlined, and current diagnostic capabilities in particle and combustion diagnostics are demonstrated. The development and application of CARS to combustion systems is discussed, and the use of LIF for flow diagnostics is addressed. Nonintrusive particle diagnostics is treated, and a variety of nonintrusive techniques applied to combustion environments is considered.

  17. Comparisons among the diagnostic methods used for the detection of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Saurab Kishore; Rahman, Farjana; Mostofa Kamal, S M; Noor, Rashed

    2012-12-01

    The present study was an attempt to establish a suitable method for the effective diagnosis of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Bangladesh. In this regard, detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from 390 different extra-pulmonary specimens was performed by Bright-Field microscopy, light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy and Lowenstein-Jensen culture methods, followed by an extensive comparison among these methods. M. tuberculosis was detected in 53 cases through the conventional Lowenstein-Jensen culture method; 49 cases were detected under Bright-Field microscope, whereas the light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy detected 64 cases. Out of 53 culture-positive isolates, 12 were found to be multi-drug resistant. Light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy was found to be more sensitive and effective than both the Bright-Field microscopy and the Lowenstein-Jensen culture methods. Incidentally, light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy appeared imperative to detecting the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. PMID:26785622

  18. Evaluation of three different methods of distance learning for postgraduate diagnostic imaging education: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Jean-Nicolas; Cooley, Jeffrey R; Wessely, Michelle; Guebert, Gary M; Petrocco-Napuli, Kristina

    2014-10-01

    Objective : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceived effectiveness and learning potential of 3 Web-based educational methods in a postgraduate radiology setting. Methods : Three chiropractic radiology faculty from diverse geographic locations led mini-courses using asynchronous discussion boards, synchronous Web conferencing, and asynchronous voice-over case presentations formatted for Web viewing. At the conclusion of each course, participants filled out a 14-question survey (using a 5-point Likert scale) designed to evaluate the effectiveness of each method in achieving specified course objectives and goals and their satisfaction when considering the learning potential of each method. The mean, standard deviation, and percentage agreements were tabulated. Results : Twenty, 15, and 10 participants completed the discussion board, Web conferencing, and case presentation surveys, respectively. All educational methods demonstrated a high level of agreement regarding the course objective (total mean rating >4.1). The case presentations had the highest overall rating for achieving the course goals; however, all but one method still had total mean ratings >4.0 and overall agreement levels of 70%-100%. The strongest potential for interactive learning was found with Web conferencing and discussion boards, while case presentations rated very low in this regard. Conclusions : The perceived effectiveness in achieving the course objective and goals was high for each method. Residency-based distance education may be a beneficial adjunct to current methods of training, allowing for international collaboration. When considering all aspects tested, there does not appear to be a clear advantage to any one method. Utilizing various methods may be most appropriate. PMID:24779546

  19. Teaching Modern Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, G., Ed.

    Key areas of modern language teaching are addressed in 10 articles. In addition to a general overview of methods and aims of foreign language teaching, attention is directed to the audiolingual and audiovisual revolution, language study for the slow-learning child and for the child with above average ability, imaginative learning activities for…

  20. Satellite-bound ultraviolet spectroscopy of interstellar absorption lines using digital image evaluation - an example of modern research methods in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuppin, R.

    Four aspects of modern research methods in astronomy are discussed. They include: (1) the study of interstellar material, using stellar light as background illumination; (2) the study of radiation not visible to the naked eye; (3) the use of outer space detectors to study certain types of radiation; and (4) the use of computers in observations and data processing. The UV part of the nonoptical spectrum is stressed. The evaluation of data from the IUE satellite is discussed, and research results on interstellar elemental abundances are reviewed.

  1. CONCEPTUAL MODELS AND METHODS TO GUIDE DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH INTO CAUSES OF IMPAIRMENT TO AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods and conceptual models to guide the development of tools for diagnosing the causes of biological impairment within aquatic ecosystems of the United States are described in this report. The conceptual models developed here address nutrients, suspended and bedded sediments (...

  2. Essential Experimental Methods for Identifying Bonghan Systems as a Basis for Korean Medicine: Focusing on Visual Materials from Original Papers and Modern Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hoon-Gi; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Lee, Ki-Bog

    2015-01-01

    In the 1960s, through studies on Korean Medicine, Bonghan Kim proposed the Bonghan systems (BS) as the anatomical reality of the acupuncture meridians based on various experimental data. Since 2002, several groups, mainly led by a team at Seoul National University, who renamed the BS as the primo vascular system (PVS), have published around 70 papers showing biological structures corresponding to the BS. However, it is still difficult for other researchers to find them, especially under the skin, which Bonghan Kim first reported as acupuncture points, due to similar-looking biological tissues, for example, the lymphatic vessels, and such artifacts as blood clots or fascia debris. To solve these drawbacks, we examined the main methods for identifying the BS by comparing the original papers with the modern outcomes in terms of the common physical/chemical characteristics of the BS. In addition, effective methods of staining and microscopic observations discovered by modern teams are synthetically explained using visual materials such as diagrams and photos. Through the essentially organized methods in this review paper, we suggest that one can find the BS under the skin as putative acupuncture points by tracing the intraexternal BS, from which a new Korean Medicine will be born. PMID:26539230

  3. Essential Experimental Methods for Identifying Bonghan Systems as a Basis for Korean Medicine: Focusing on Visual Materials from Original Papers and Modern Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon-Gi; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Lee, Ki-Bog

    2015-01-01

    In the 1960s, through studies on Korean Medicine, Bonghan Kim proposed the Bonghan systems (BS) as the anatomical reality of the acupuncture meridians based on various experimental data. Since 2002, several groups, mainly led by a team at Seoul National University, who renamed the BS as the primo vascular system (PVS), have published around 70 papers showing biological structures corresponding to the BS. However, it is still difficult for other researchers to find them, especially under the skin, which Bonghan Kim first reported as acupuncture points, due to similar-looking biological tissues, for example, the lymphatic vessels, and such artifacts as blood clots or fascia debris. To solve these drawbacks, we examined the main methods for identifying the BS by comparing the original papers with the modern outcomes in terms of the common physical/chemical characteristics of the BS. In addition, effective methods of staining and microscopic observations discovered by modern teams are synthetically explained using visual materials such as diagrams and photos. Through the essentially organized methods in this review paper, we suggest that one can find the BS under the skin as putative acupuncture points by tracing the intraexternal BS, from which a new Korean Medicine will be born. PMID:26539230

  4. Diagnostic and treatment methods used by chiropractors: A random sample survey of Canada’s English-speaking provinces

    PubMed Central

    Puhl, Aaron A.; Reinhart, Christine J; Injeyan, H. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It is important to understand how chiropractors practice beyond their formal education. The objective of this analysis was to assess the diagnostic and treatment methods used by chiropractors in English-speaking Canadian provinces. Methods: A questionnaire was created that examined practice patterns amongst chiropractors. This was sent by mail to 749 chiropractors, randomly selected and stratified proportionally across the nine English-speaking Canadian provinces. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. Data were entered into an Excel spreadsheet, and descriptive statistics were calculated. Results: The response rate was 68.0%. Almost all (95.1%) of respondents reported performing differential diagnosis procedures with their new patients; most commonly orthopaedic testing, palpation, history taking, range of motion testing and neurological examination. Palpation and painful joint findings were the most commonly used methods to determine the appropriate joint to apply manipulation. The most common treatment methods were manual joint manipulation/mobilization, stretching and exercise, posture/ergonomic advice and soft-tissue therapies. Conclusions: Differential diagnosis is a standard part of the assessment of new chiropractic patients in English-speaking Canadian provinces and the most common methods used to determine the site to apply manipulation are consistent with current scientific literature. Patients are treated with a combination of manual and/or manipulative interventions directed towards the joints and/or soft-tissues, as well as exercise instruction and postural/ergonomic advice. PMID:26500362

  5. Diagnostic Methods for Detection of Cotinine Level in Tobacco Users: A Review.

    PubMed

    Raja, Mitali; Garg, Aarti; Yadav, Pramod; Jha, Kunal; Handa, Sahil

    2016-03-01

    The greatest disease-producing product known to man is tobacco. It is a cause of many oral diseases and adverse oral conditions. In India, tobacco is available in smokeless and smoking form. Tobacco contains nicotine which metabolises to form a toxic alkaloid i.e. cotinine. It stimulates autonomic ganglia and central nervous system. Cotinine is the best indicator of tobacco smoke exposure. Various methods are used to measure cotinine level in blood, saliva and urine such as high performance liquid chromatography, colorimetric assay, gas chromatography, NicAlert saliva test, etc. Thus such wide range of methods for cotinine detection in tobacco users requires a detailed discussion regarding their utility. This review will help readers to compare various methods for cotinine detection and enable them to make scientifically informative decision. PMID:27135020

  6. Diagnostic Methods for Detection of Cotinine Level in Tobacco Users: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Aarti; Yadav, Pramod; Jha, Kunal; Handa, Sahil

    2016-01-01

    The greatest disease-producing product known to man is tobacco. It is a cause of many oral diseases and adverse oral conditions. In India, tobacco is available in smokeless and smoking form. Tobacco contains nicotine which metabolises to form a toxic alkaloid i.e. cotinine. It stimulates autonomic ganglia and central nervous system. Cotinine is the best indicator of tobacco smoke exposure. Various methods are used to measure cotinine level in blood, saliva and urine such as high performance liquid chromatography, colorimetric assay, gas chromatography, NicAlert saliva test, etc. Thus such wide range of methods for cotinine detection in tobacco users requires a detailed discussion regarding their utility. This review will help readers to compare various methods for cotinine detection and enable them to make scientifically informative decision. PMID:27135020

  7. A high-throughput diagnostic method for measuring human exposure to organophosphorus nerve agents.

    PubMed

    Knaack, Jennifer S; Zhou, Yingtao; Abney, Carter W; Jacob, Justin T; Prezioso, Samantha M; Hardy, Katelyn; Lemire, Sharon W; Thomas, Jerry; Johnson, Rudolph C

    2012-11-01

    An automated high-throughput immunomagnetic separation (IMS) method for diagnosing exposure to the organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNAs) sarin (GB), cyclohexylsarin (GF), VX, and Russian VX (RVX) was developed to increase sample processing capacity for emergency response applications. Diagnosis of exposure to OPNAs was based on the formation of OPNA adducts to butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Data reported with this method represent a ratio of the agent-specific BuChE adduct concentration, relative to the total BuChE peptide concentration that provides a nonactivity measurement expressed as percent adducted. All magnetic bead transfer steps and washes were performed using instrumentation in a 96-well format allowing for simultaneous extraction of 86 clinical samples plus reference materials. Automating extractions increased sample throughput 50-fold, as compared to a previously reported manual method. The limits of detection, determined using synthetic peptides, were 1 ng/mL for unadducted BuChE and GB-, GF-, VX-, and RVX-adducted BuChE. The automated method was characterized using unexposed serum and serum pools exposed to GB, GF, VX, or RVX. Variation for the measurement of percent adducted was <12% for all characterized quality control serum pools. Twenty-six (26) serum samples from individuals asymptomatic for cholinesterase inhibitor exposure were analyzed using this method, and no background levels of OPNA exposure were observed. Unexposed BuChE serum concentrations measured using this method ranged from 2.8 μg/mL to 10.6 μg/mL, with an average concentration of 6.4 μg/mL. PMID:23083472

  8. A method for developing integrated numeric and symbolic models for fault diagnostic reasoning

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.C.; Jarrell, D.B.

    1990-07-01

    Model-based reasoning is a developing area of study in the artificial intelligence community. We believe that a model-based reasoner consists of two major elements; a cognitive element and an artifact element. The cognitive element models and provides for the cognitive activities and inference methods ascribed to the reasoning task. The artifact element models information about the artifact, such as structure and function. This paper discusses our methodology for developing and integrating numeric and symbolic models for reasoning about physical system faults. In this paper we only discuss our method for developing the artifact model which we designate the system-process model.

  9. Some Recent Advances of Ultrasonic Diagnostic Methods Applied to Materials and Structures (Including Biological Ones)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Lucio; Nobile, Stefano

    This paper gives an overview of some recent advances of ultrasonic methods applied to materials and structures (including biological ones), exploring typical applications of these emerging inspection technologies to civil engineering and medicine. In confirmation of this trend, some results of an experimental research carried out involving both destructive and non-destructive testing methods for the evaluation of structural performance of existing reinforced concrete (RC) structures are discussed in terms of reliability. As a result, Ultrasonic testing can usefully supplement coring thus permitting less expensive and more representative evaluation of the concrete strength throughout the whole structure under examination.

  10. Laser Diagnostic Methods to Characterize Soot Evolution in Diesel-relevant Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overheim, Steven; Fisher, Brian

    2014-11-01

    Soot particles are a harmful byproduct of diesel combustion and can be detrimental to the environment and our health. The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of how the soot formation, growth, and oxidation are directly related to the chemical structure of the fuel in a diffusion flame. Such understanding is expected to help with soot reduction methods in the future. A new method to analyze soot concentrations was developed combining previous successful methods of experimentation. The new method employs combined elastic scattering and extinction to characterize soot formation, growth, and oxidation throughout the flame. These concentrations are quantifiable through the use of a 532-nm Nd:YAG laser and carefully calibrated photodetectors as optical measuring tools. This study focused on the doping of the diffusion flame with toluene, which has an aromatic molecular structure. The diffusion flame is doped with a low concentration of toluene, 1000 ppm, in its fuel stream and compared to a methane-fueled base flame. By comparing the doped flame to the methane/oxygen base flame, the higher level of active soot formation in the doped flame was clearly observed. Future work on the project will entail further data analysis to convert measured signals into quantitative soot size and concentration information. NSF ECE Grant #1358991 supported the first author as an REU student.

  11. An evaluation of poultry avian influenza diagnostic methods with domestic duck specimens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring of poultry, including domestic ducks, for avian influenza virus (AI) virus has increased considerably in recent years. However, the current methods validated for the diagnosis and detection of AI virus infection in chickens and turkeys have not been evaluated for performance with samples...

  12. Development and trial of a new method of image enhancement for ultrasonic medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulberg, N. S.; Yakovleva, T. V.; Kamalov, Yu. R.; Sandrikov, V. A.; Osipov, L. V.; Belov, P. A.

    2009-10-01

    The subject of this work is the problem of separation of noise from informative texture elements taking into account special features of the ultrasonic image. A mathematical model is developed that describes statistical and spectral properties of different elements of image texture. A noise-suppression procedure based on the developed mathematical model is implemented. The method passed clinical trials that proved its efficiency.

  13. New analysis methods to push the boundaries of diagnostic techniques in the environmental sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lungaroni, M.; Murari, A.; Peluso, E.; Gelfusa, M.; Malizia, A.; Vega, J.; Talebzadeh, S.; Gaudio, P.

    2016-04-01

    In the last years, new and more sophisticated measurements have been at the basis of the major progress in various disciplines related to the environment, such as remote sensing and thermonuclear fusion. To maximize the effectiveness of the measurements, new data analysis techniques are required. First data processing tasks, such as filtering and fitting, are of primary importance, since they can have a strong influence on the rest of the analysis. Even if Support Vector Regression is a method devised and refined at the end of the 90s, a systematic comparison with more traditional non parametric regression methods has never been reported. In this paper, a series of systematic tests is described, which indicates how SVR is a very competitive method of non-parametric regression that can usefully complement and often outperform more consolidated approaches. The performance of Support Vector Regression as a method of filtering is investigated first, comparing it with the most popular alternative techniques. Then Support Vector Regression is applied to the problem of non-parametric regression to analyse Lidar surveys for the environments measurement of particulate matter due to wildfires. The proposed approach has given very positive results and provides new perspectives to the interpretation of the data.

  14. Approach for Wide Use of Diagnostic Method for XLPE Cables Using Harmonics in AC Loss Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, Tomiyuki; Nakade, Masahiko; Yagi, Yukihiro; Ishii, Noboru

    Water tree is one of the degradation aspects of XLPE cables used for under-ground distribution or transmission lines. We have developed the loss current method using 3rd harmonic in AC loss current for cable diagnosis. Harmonic components in loss current arise as a result of the non-linear voltage-current characteristics of water trees. We confirmed that the 3rd harmonic in AC loss current had good correlation with water tree growth and break down strength. After that, we have applied this method to the actual 66kV XLPE cable lines. Up to now, the number of the application results is more than 130 lines. In case of cable lines terminated at gas-insulated switchgear (GIS), we have to remove the lightning arrestor (LA) and the potential transformer (PT) out of the test circuit. The reason is that we are afraid that each of LA and PT disturbs the degradation signal from cable lines. It takes extra time (1 or 2 days) and costs more to remove LA and PT in GIS out of a circuit. In order to achieve easy and reasonable diagnosis, we have developed a new method for cable lines terminated at GIS, by utilizing a technique, which enables to reduce signal of LA and PT from disturbed signal of cable lines. We confirmed the effect of the new method by experiments with actual cables.

  15. Plasma diagnostics using floating harmonics method and recent results in processing plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chinwook

    2009-10-01

    Recently, a floating harmonics method for processing plasma has been developed [1]. When a sinusoidal voltage is applied on a probe at a floating potential, the current flowing through the probe has many harmonics due to the nonlinearity of sheath. From the harmonic current components, plasma densities and electron temperatures can be found. There are many advantages of this method such as relative low voltages (a few V), good time resolution (msec), no perturbation (no net current), immune to rf interference, strong to contamination on probes. In this presentation, some improvement of this method and some measurements in various processing plasma reactors (SF6, CF4, N2, Ar, etc) as well as relevant physics will be given. Electron energy distribution function (EEDF) measurement based on the harmonic method and refinement technique for the EEDF will be given. A 2D wafer type probe array for 2D plasma density profile was developed and 2D plasma density profiles in an ICP at various conditions will be presented. [4pt] [1] MH Lee, SH Jang and CW Chung, J. Appl. Phys, 101, 033305 (2007)

  16. Holocene core logs and site methods for modern reef and head-coral cores - Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, Todd D.; Reich, Christopher D.; DeLong, Kristine L.; Poore, Richard Z.; Brock, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The Dry Tortugas are a series of islands, banks, and channels on a carbonate platform off the west end of the Florida Keys. Antecedent topography of the Dry Tortugas reflects carbonate accumulations of the last interglacial (marine isotope substage 5e, ~ 125,000 years ago, ka) when sea level was ~ 6 to 7 meters (m) higher than present (Schrag and others, 2002). The substage 5e surface was subsequently lithified and modified during subaerial exposure associated with lower sea level from ~ 120 ka to 8 ka. The lithified late Pleistocene carbonates are known as the Key Largo Limestone, a coral reef (Hoffmeister and Multer, 1964; Multer and others, 2002), and the Miami Limestone, a tidal-bar oolite (Sanford, 1909; Hoffmeister, 1974). The Holocene and modern sediments and reefs of the Dry Tortugas then accreted during the rise of sea level associated with the end of the last glacial and the start of the current interglacial (marine isotope Stage 1). With the exception of a half dozen or so islands, the Dry Tortugas region has been submerged for approximately 8,000 years, allowing conditions suitable for coral reef formation once again. The Holocene reef accumulation varies in thickness due to the antecedent topography. The reefs are composed of massive head corals such as species of Montastraea, Siderastrea, and Diploria (Swart and others, 1996; Cohen and McConnaughey, 2003) and rest atop the Pleistocene Key Largo Limestone high (Shinn and others, 1977). The coral reefs within the Dry Tortugas represent a windward reef margin relative to dominant wind and wave energies (Hine and Mullins, 1983; Mallinson and others, 1997; Mallinson and others, 2003).

  17. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Small Membrane Filtration Method for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a High-HIV-Prevalence Setting.

    PubMed

    Boum, Yap; Kim, Soyeon; Orikiriza, Patrick; Acuña-Villaorduña, Carlos; Vinhas, Solange; Bonnet, Maryline; Nyehangane, Dan; Mwanga-Amumpaire, Juliet; Fennelly, Kevin P; Jones-López, Edward C

    2016-06-01

    Sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy has suboptimal sensitivity but remains the most commonly used laboratory test to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). We prospectively evaluated the small membrane filtration (SMF) method that concentrates AFB in a smaller area to facilitate detection to improve the diagnostic performance of microscopy. We enrolled adults with suspicion of pulmonary TB from health facilities in southwestern Uganda. Clinical history, physical examination, and 3 sputum samples were obtained for direct fluorescent AFB smear, SMF, Xpert MTB/RIF, and MGIT culture media. Sensitivity and specificity were estimated for SMF, AFB smear, and Xpert MTB/RIF, using MGIT as the reference standard. The analysis was stratified according to HIV status. From September 2012 to April 2014, 737 participants were included in the HIV-infected stratum (146 [20.5%] were culture positive) and 313 were in the HIV-uninfected stratum (85 [28%] were culture positive). In HIV-infected patients, the sensitivity of a single SMF was 67.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 59.9% to 74.1%); for AFB, 68.0% (95% CI, 60.6% to 74.6%); and for Xpert MTB/RIF, 91.0% (95% CI, 85.0% to 94.8%). In HIV-uninfected patients, the corresponding sensitivities were 72.5% (95% CI, 62.1% to 80.9%), 80.3% (95% CI, 70.8% to 87.2%), and 93.5% (95% CI, 85.7% to 97.2%). The specificity for all 3 tests in both HIV groups was ≥96%. In this setting, the SMF method did not improve the diagnostic accuracy of sputum AFB. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay performed well in both HIV-infected and -uninfected groups. PMID:27030493

  18. [Pleural puncture biopsy--a diagnostic method in serofibrinous tuberculous pleurisy in children].

    PubMed

    Murgoci, G; Galbenu, P

    1989-01-01

    The biopsy of the parietal biopsy with the help of a needle has become an essential method of diagnosis in the adult patients with a pleural malady of an unknown etiology and may become a complementary paraclinical method in children. A sure diagnosis in the tubercular serofibrinous pleurisy with children is made by rendering evident the Koch bacillus on the direct test or in culture and by rendering evident the tubercular lesions on fragments of pleural biopsy puncture. The study is supported on the results obtained at the pleural biopsy puncture performed on a number of 6 children. In four cases out of six the histological test of the pleural fragment has rendered evident the presence of tubercular lymphoepithelioid nodulus with central necrosis, thus carrying the argument of certitude. The pleural biopsy puncture allows an early and sure diagnosis in over two-thirds of the pleurisies of a tubercular etiology. PMID:2554468

  19. [Pleural puncture biopsy--a diagnostic method in tuberculous serofibrinous pleurisy in children].

    PubMed

    Murgoci, G; Galbenu, P

    1991-01-01

    The biopsy of the parietal pleura with a special needle has become an essential diagnosis method in the adult patients with pleural disease of unknown etiology, and might become a complementary paraclinical method for children also. The certitude diagnosis in tuberculous serous fibrinous pleurisy of the child is laid on evidencing Koch's bacillus at the direct examination or in culture, and on fragments of pleural biopsy puncture, in evidencing the lesions. The study is based on the results obtained in the pleural biopsy puncture made on 6 children. The histologic examination of the pleural fragment showed, in 4 cases of 6, the presence of tuberculous lymphoepithelioid nodules, with central caseous necrosis thus granting certitude to the diagnosis. The pleural biopsy puncture permits an early and certain diagnosis in more than 2/3 of the pleurisies of tuberculous etiology. PMID:1667594

  20. Diagnostics of Susabi-nori (Porphyra Yezoensis) by Laser-Induced Fluorescence Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Tamotsu; Nakamura, Yuki; Takahashi, Kunio; Kaneko, Shohei; Shimada, Yuji

    Susabi-nori (Porphyra yezoensis) was diagnosed by means of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method. Fluorescence peaks located at approximately 580, 660, 685 and 720 nm were observed in the LIF spectra of Susabi-nori. In the spectrum of the sample infected with the red rot disease, the intensity of 580 nm peak was relatively high as compared with that of the control sample. On the other hand, the intensities of 580 nm and 660 nm peaks drastically decreased by the influence of the chytrid disease. Furthermore, the intensity of the 580 nm peak increased by dipping into fresh water. These results indicate that LIF spectra of Susabi-nori are affected by the diseases and the stress of fresh water and that the diseases and the stress of Susabi-nori can be diagnosed by the LIF method.

  1. Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents

    DOEpatents

    Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G.; Dees, H.C.

    1998-11-10

    A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. 13 figs.

  2. Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents

    DOEpatents

    Wachter, Eric A.; Fisher, Walter G.; Dees, H. Craig

    1998-01-01

    A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent.

  3. Methods for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents

    DOEpatents

    Wachter, Eric A.; Fisher, Walter G.; Dees, H. Craig

    2008-03-18

    A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method comprises the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention also provides a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent.

  4. Target detection in diagnostic ultrasound: Evaluation of a method based on the CLEAN algorithm.

    PubMed

    Masoom, Hassan; Adve, Raviraj S; Cobbold, Richard S C

    2013-02-01

    A technique is proposed for the detection of abnormalities (targets) in ultrasound images using little or no a priori information and requiring little operator intervention. The scheme is a combination of the CLEAN algorithm, originally proposed for radio astronomy, and constant false alarm rate (CFAR) processing, as developed for use in radar systems. The CLEAN algorithm identifies areas in the ultrasound image that stand out above a threshold in relation to the background; CFAR techniques allow for an adaptive, semi-automated, selection of the threshold. Neither appears to have been previously used for target detection in ultrasound images and never together in any context. As a first step towards assessing the potential of this method we used a widely used method of simulating B-mode images (Field II). We assumed the use of a 256 element linear array operating at 3.0MHz into a water-like medium containing a density of point scatterers sufficient to simulate a background of fully developed speckle. Spherical targets with diameters ranging from 0.25 to 6.0mm and contrasts ranging from 0 to 12dB relative to the background were used as test objects. Using a contrast-detail analysis, the probability of detection curves indicate these targets can be consistently detected within a speckle background. Our results indicate that the method has considerable promise for the semi-automated detection of abnormalities with diameters greater than a few millimeters, depending on the contrast. PMID:22853949

  5. Guide waves-based multi-damage identification using a local probability-based diagnostic imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dongyue; Wu, Zhanjun; Yang, Lei; Zheng, Yuebin

    2016-04-01

    Multi-damage identification is an important and challenging task in the research of guide waves-based structural health monitoring. In this paper, a multi-damage identification method is presented using a guide waves-based local probability-based diagnostic imaging (PDI) method. The method includes a path damage judgment stage, a multi-damage judgment stage and a multi-damage imaging stage. First, damage imaging was performed by partition. The damage imaging regions are divided into beside damage signal paths. The difference in guide waves propagation characteristics between cross and beside damage paths is proposed by theoretical analysis of the guide wave signal feature. The time-of-flight difference of paths is used as a factor to distinguish between cross and beside damage paths. Then, a global PDI method (damage identification using all paths in the sensor network) is performed using the beside damage path network. If the global PDI damage zone crosses the beside damage path, it means that the discrete multi-damage model (such as a group of holes or cracks) has been misjudged as a continuum single-damage model (such as a single hole or crack) by the global PDI method. Subsequently, damage imaging regions are separated by beside damage path and local PDI (damage identification using paths in the damage imaging regions) is performed in each damage imaging region. Finally, multi-damage identification results are obtained by superimposing the local damage imaging results and the marked cross damage paths. The method is employed to inspect the multi-damage in an aluminum plate with a surface-mounted piezoelectric ceramic sensors network. The results show that the guide waves-based multi-damage identification method is capable of visualizing the presence, quantity and location of structural damage.

  6. Coronal diagnostics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Kenneth R.

    1986-01-01

    This is an introduction to this part of the proceedings and an overview of coronal diagnostics. The current understanding of coronal loops is summarized. Included are observations from ground-based radio telescopes and from X ray telescopes lofted above the atmosphere, as well as theoretical interpretations of these observations. Also included in these introductory remarks is a discussion of the three dimensional structure of coronal loops. Alternative radiation mechanisms are then described within the context of both the radio and X ray emission. Various methods of determining the strength and structure of the coronal magnetic field are then described, followed by the coronae of nearby stars and future prospects for radio diagnostic of coronal loops.

  7. [Assessment of diagnostic methods for the catheter-related bloodstream infections in intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Ataman Hatipoğlu, Ciğdem; Ipekkan, Korhan; Oral, Behiç; Onde, Ufuk; Bulut, Cemal; Demiröz, Ali Pekcan

    2011-01-01

    The majority of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) are associated with central venous catheters (CVCs) and most of them develop in patients staying at intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of this study was to assess the performance of different methods for the diagnosis of CR-BSI in neurology and neurosurgery ICUs of our hospital. This prospective study was carried out between January 2007 and January 2008 and all of the patients were followed daily for CR-BSI after the insertion of CVCs. Blood cultures were taken simultaneously from the catheter lumen and from at least one peripheral vein when there was a suspicion of CR-BSI. Additionally, from patients whose CVCs were removed, catheter tip cultures were taken and from patients with exit site infection, cultures of the skin surrounding the catheter entrance were taken. Catheter tip cultures were done by using quantitative and semiquantitative culture methods. Blood cultures taken from the catheter lumen and peripheral vein were incubated in the BACTEC 9050 (Becton Dickinson, USA) automated blood culture system. Gram and acridine orange (AO) staining were used for the smears prepared from the catheter tips and blood cultures. To evaluate the value of culture and staining methods in the diagnosis of CR-BSI; sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) of each method were determined. A total of 148 patients (66 male, 82 female; age range: 1-94 years, mean age: 58.7 ± 21.8 years) were included in the study, of whom 67 (45.3%) were from neurology and 81 (54.7%) were from neurosurgery ICUs. One hundred ninety-nine CVC application performed in 148 patients were evaluated. Mean duration of catheterization was 8.5 ± 5.2 days. Thirty-two episodes of CR-BSI among 199 catheterizations (16%) in 29 patients among a total of 148 patients (19.6%) were determined. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (8/32; 25%), penicillin-resistant Enterococcus spp. (8/32; 25%) and Candida albicans (4/32; 12.5%). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPVs of the quantitative and semiquantitative culture methods of the catheter tip and the differential time to positivity (positive result obtained at least two hours earlier in blood cultures drawn through the catheter than the peripheral blood cultures which were taken simultaneously) between blood cultures drawn through the catheter and those drawn from the peripheral vein were 100% for the diagnosis of CR-BSI. Sensitivity and NPV of the isolation method of the same microorganism from blood culture drawn through the catheter and drawn from the peripheral vein were 100%, specificity was 85% and PPV was 88% for the diagnosis of CR-BSI. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPVs of Gram and drawn simultaneously from the peripheral vein and quantitative and semiquantitative cultures of the catheter tip in patients with removed catheter, were important factors in terms of diagnosis of CR-BSI. It was also concluded that AO staining could provide additional benefit in the diagnosis of CR-BSI since it has higher sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPVs for peripheral blood cultures and catheter tip cultures compared to Gram staining. PMID:21341162

  8. Estimation of Instantaneous Gas Exchange in Flow-Through Respirometry Systems: A Modern Revision of Bartholomew's Z-Transform Method

    PubMed Central

    Pendar, Hodjat; Socha, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Flow-through respirometry systems provide accurate measurement of gas exchange over long periods of time. However, these systems have limitations in tracking rapid changes. When an animal infuses a metabolic gas into the respirometry chamber in a short burst, diffusion and airflow in the chamber gradually alter the original signal before it arrives at the gas analyzer. For single or multiple bursts, the recorded signal is smeared or mixed, which may result in dramatically altered recordings compared to the emitted signal. Recovering the original metabolic signal is a difficult task because of the inherent ill conditioning problem. Here, we present two new methods to recover the fast dynamics of metabolic patterns from recorded data. We first re-derive the equations of the well-known Z-transform method (ZT method) to show the source of imprecision in this method. Then, we develop a new model of analysis for respirometry systems based on the experimentally determined impulse response, which is the response of the system to a very short unit input. As a result, we present a major modification of the ZT method (dubbed the ‘EZT method’) by using a new model for the impulse response, enhancing its precision to recover the true metabolic signals. The second method, the generalized Z-transform (GZT) method, was then developed by generalizing the EZT method; it can be applied to any flow-through respirometry system with any arbitrary impulse response. Experiments verified that the accuracy of recovering the true metabolic signals is significantly improved by the new methods. These new methods can be used more broadly for input estimation in variety of physiological systems. PMID:26466361

  9. Liver fibrosis in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfection: Diagnostic methods and clinical impact

    PubMed Central

    Sagnelli, Caterina; Martini, Salvatore; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Pasquale, Giuseppe; Macera, Margherita; Zampino, Rosa; Coppola, Nicola; Sagnelli, Evangelista

    2015-01-01

    Several non-invasive surrogate methods have recently challenged the main role of liver biopsy in assessing liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-monoinfected and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected patients, applied to avoid the well-known side effects of liver puncture. Serological tests involve the determination of biochemical markers of synthesis or degradation of fibrosis, tests not readily available in clinical practice, or combinations of routine tests used in chronic hepatitis and HIV/HCV coinfection. Several radiologic techniques have also been proposed, some of which commonly used in clinical practice. The studies performed to compare the prognostic value of non-invasive surrogate methods with that of the degree of liver fibrosis assessed on liver tissue have not as yet provided conclusive results. Each surrogate technique has shown some limitations, including the risk of over- or under-estimating the extent of liver fibrosis. The current knowledge on liver fibrosis in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients will be summarized in this review article, which is addressed in particular to physicians involved in this setting in their clinical practice. PMID:26523204

  10. Model-based performance monitoring: Review of diagnostic methods and chiller case study

    SciTech Connect

    Haves, Phil; Khalsa, Sat Kartar

    2000-05-01

    The paper commences by reviewing the variety of technical approaches to the problem of detecting and diagnosing faulty operation in order to improve the actual performance of buildings. The review covers manual and automated methods, active testing and passive monitoring, the different classes of models used in fault detection, and methods of diagnosis. The process of model-based fault detection is then illustrated by describing the use of relatively simple empirical models of chiller energy performance to monitor equipment degradation and control problems. The CoolTools(trademark) chiller model identification package is used to fit the DOE-2 chiller model to on-site measurements from a building instrumented with high quality sensors. The need for simple algorithms to reject transient data, detect power surges and identify control problems is discussed, as is the use of energy balance checks to detect sensor problems. The accuracy with which the chiller model can be expected! to predict performance is assessed from the goodness of fit obtained and the implications for fault detection sensitivity and sensor accuracy requirements are discussed. A case study is described in which the model was applied retroactively to high-quality data collected in a San Francisco office building as part of a related project (Piette et al. 1999).

  11. Evaluation of Diagnostic Methods in the Differentiation of Heart Murmurs in Children

    PubMed Central

    Begic, Zijo; Dinarevic, Senka Mesihovic; Pesto, Senad; Begic, Edin; Dobraca, Amra; Masic, Izet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The most common clinical sign in pediatric cardiology is a heart murmur (organic and inorganic). Organic are sign of heart disease, while inorganic (basically divided into accidental and functional) murmurs occur on anatomically healthy heart. Aim: To determine the justification of the application of the methods of cardiac treatment. Patients and methods: Study included 116 children aged from 1 to 15 years, who were referred due to cardiac treatment to Pediatric Clinic, of Sarajevo University Clinical Center. Results: The first group consisted of children with innocent heart murmur, 97 (53 males). The second group consisted of patients with organic murmur, 19 (13 males). The average age of the first group was 7.69 (1.01–15.01) years old, and of the second group 3.15 (1.01- 8.06) years old, and there is a significant difference between these two groups (p <0.001). Medical history questions about potentially harmful habits of mother in pregnancy, found significant differences in the frequency of the existence of habits between the first and second groups of subjects (14.44% vs. 85.1%, p = 0.013). The values of the pulse of patients showed statistically significant difference (p = 0.012). The most common place of the murmurs’ appearance is the second left intercostal space. In the first group, the most common were vibratory (32.3%) and ejection (31.9%) and in the second the most common were holosystolic (73.7%) murmur. Analyzing the R/S ratio of V1, a significant difference among the two groups was found (mean 0.78 vs. the values for 1.45, p = 0.003). There is a significance in terms of developed hypertrophy of the heart cavities (BVH) between the two groups. The most common accidental murmur was classic vibratory Still’s murmurs (55.43%) and the most common congenital heart defects was ASD (36.8%). Conclusions: A heart murmur itself, should not be the purpose of auscultation. One of the tasks of pediatricians, pediatric cardiologists in particular would be to improve auscultation, as a sovereign method of heart murmurs assessment. Heart murmur assessment should be adapted to recognize whether heart murmur is innocent, or there is suspected or probable congenital heart defect. PMID:27147798

  12. A rapid method for the simulation of filtered X-ray spectra in diagnostic imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, Charles W., III

    The introduction and rapid growth of various digital and computed radiography systems and their application to traditional projection radiography, tomography, fluoroscopy, and dual energy imaging, makes it desirable to accurately simulate these systems, in order to provide the best clinical images possible. This work presents methods for predicting Bremsstrahlung and Characteristic x-ray spectra and the corresponding energy deposited by those spectra, packaged in a FORTRAN95 program dubbed XSPECT version 4. The primary difference between this and other commonly available analytical models is XSPECT version 4's ability to account for electron distributions (depth, angular orientation, and number as a function of electron energy) within the target. These improvements give XSPECT version 4 an accuracy level similar to that of Monte Carlo methods, but with a significant computational savings. This savings in processing time is required in system optimizations given the large number of spectra generated in optimizing a single x-ray tube. Given an accurate x-ray spectra, that spectra can be attenuated through a subject, patient doses can be determined, the appropriate detector response can be applied and one can determine optimal radiographic techniques for particular systems and images. One proposed innovation of this method is to measure the exposure of an individual x-ray tube through several attenuator thicknesses and compare plots of those exposures to those of computed estimates. Then by iteratively adding and subtracting attenuator thickness in the computed estimates the plot of measured and computed exposures can be aligned. This then minimizes the small errors resulting from unknown intrinsic and added filtration thicknesses in the x-ray tube. The results from these simulations are verified by direct comparison to existing measured x-ray spectra and the Monte Carlo routine PENELOPE. The matching of XSPECT version 4 to PENELOPE was excellent. Matching to the measured Mercier data was also quite good, in general within 5% of the peak measured x-ray intensity. The last dataset, that of the FDA, showed much poorer matching in general to about 80% of the measured peak values. However, a consistent offset of the peak intensity (lower in energy and higher in intensity) may indicate that the FDA spectra had a small amount of intrinsic filtration included which was not included in initial FDA estimates.

  13. Measurement and Analysis of Olfactory Responses with the Aim of Establishing an Objective Diagnostic Method for Central Olfactory Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Tominori; Wang, Li-Qun; Miwakeichi, Fumikazu; Tonoike, Mitsuo; Kaneda, Teruo

    In order to establish a new diagnostic method for central olfactory disorders and to identify objective indicators, we measured and analyzed brain activities in the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus, region of responsibility for central olfactory disorders. The relationship between olfactory stimulation and brain response at region of responsibility can be examined in terms of fitted responses (FR). FR in these regions may be individual indicators of changes in brain olfactory responses. In the present study, in order to non-invasively and objectively measure olfactory responses, an odor oddball task was conducted on four healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a odorant stimulator with blast-method. The results showed favorable FR and activation in the parahippocampal gyrus or uncus in all subjects. In some subjects, both the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus were activated. Furthermore, activation was also confirmed in the cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and insula. The hippocampus and uncus are known to be involved in the olfactory disorders associated with early-stage Alzheimer's disease and other olfactory disorders. In the future, it will be necessary to further develop the present measurement and analysis method to clarify the relationship between central olfactory disorders and brain activities and establish objective indicators that are useful for diagnosis.

  14. Methods and means of measuring control and diagnostics of biological tissues in vivo based on measurements of color coordinates and multispectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruk, Vasil; Kvaternyuk, S. Olena; Kvaternyuk, Sergii; Mokanyuk, Olexander; Yekenina, Lesya; Wójcik, Waldemar; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Baglan, Imanbek

    2015-12-01

    The method and a diagnostic tool based on a digital colorimetry and multispectral images of biological tissues are improved and developed. The method consists of measuring the color coordinates in the biological tissue, or XYZ coordinates in n-dimensional multispectral space in a diffuse light from the standard light source.

  15. Discrepant diagnostic results using two genotyping methods in a chronic hepatitis C patient in serogroup 1.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Toru; Abe, Satoshi; Kojima, Yuichi; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Yoshida, Toshiaki

    2016-04-01

    We present the case of a chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patient who was originally diagnosed with genotype 2a on serogroup 1 CHC genotype testing, but who was subsequently confirmed to have genotype 1b when using the hepatitis C virus (HCV) monitor genotype assay. The genotype 2a diagnosis was attributed to the fact that the type 2a-specific primer used in Okamoto et al.'s method (HCV genotype primer kit) has relatively high homology, which caused the amplification reaction to proceed, rendering a HCV RNA genotype test result of 2a. Genotype testing is important in determining whether a patient is indicated for concomitant dual oral therapy; however, the potential for different diagnoses such as described in this report highlights the importance of serogroup confirmation. PMID:26011571

  16. Does restorer need a scanner? Optical methods in canvas painting diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górecka, Katarzyna; Rzeszutek, Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    The principal rule of the conservation process is an individual approach to every piece of art. Easel paintings are varying regarding their forms (shape), technique and technology and behave differently in various conditions. In order to carry out initial researches of the particular object several noninvasive analyzes are performed. However, none of these methods give information about geometric shape of the object and metric analysis of its surface. This gap in the field of initial optical analysis, may be filled with optical 3D scanning. From conservators' point of view, we may say that a laser scanner slowly becomes an indispensable and daily work tool in the diagnosis and conservation methodology of the canvas paintings.

  17. Probing the Sun's inner core using solar neutrinos: A new diagnostic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Ilídio

    2013-08-01

    The electronic density in the Sun’s inner core is inferred from the B8, Be7 and pep neutrino flux measurements of the Super-Kamiokande, SNO and Borexino experiments. We have developed a new method in which we use the KamLAND detector determinations of the neutrino fundamental oscillation parameters: the mass difference and the vacuum oscillation angle. Our results suggest that the solar electronic density in the Sun’s inner core (for a radius smaller than 10% of the solar radius) is well above the current prediction of the standard solar model, and by as much as 25%. A potential confirmation of these preliminary findings can be achieved when neutrino detectors are able to reduce the error of the electron-neutrino survival probability by a factor of 15.

  18. Infective Arthritis: Bacterial 23S rRNA Gene Sequencing as a Supplementary Diagnostic Method.

    PubMed

    Moser, Claus; Andresen, Keld; Kjerulf, Anne; Salamon, Suheil; Kemp, Michael; Christensen, Jens Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Consecutively collected synovial fluids were examined for presence of bacterial DNA (a 700-bp fragment of the bacterial 23S rRNA gene) followed by DNA sequencing of amplicons, and by conventional bacteriological methods. One or more microorganisms were identified in 22 of the 227 synovial fluids (9,7%) originating from 17 patients. Sixteen of the patients had clinical signs of arthritis. For 11 patients molecular and conventional bacterial examinations were in agreement. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, were detected in synovial fluids from 6, 2 and 2 patients, respectively. In 3 patients only 23S rRNA analysis was positive; 2 synovial fluids contained S. dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis and 1 S. pneumoniae). The present study indicates a significant contribution by PCR with subsequent DNA sequencing of the 23S rRNA gene analysis in recognizing and identification of microorganisms from synovial fluids. PMID:19088916

  19. Prevalence and comparison of diagnostic methods for Trichomonas vaginalis infection in pregnant women in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Perazzi, Beatriz E; Menghi, Claudia I; Coppolillo, Enrique F; Gatta, Claudia; Eliseth, Martha Cora; de Torres, Ramón A; Vay, Carlos A; Famiglietti, Angela M R

    2010-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to conduct a prevalence survey of trichomoniasis in pregnant women and to evaluate the utility of different methods for its diagnosis. A total of 597 vaginal exudates from pregnant women who were examined at the Hospital de Clinicas in Buenos Aires, Argentina from 1 August 2005 to 31 January 2007, were prospectively and consecutively evaluated. The investigation of Trichomonas vaginalis was made by different microscopic examinations, and culture on liquid medium. The sensitivity and specificity of the microscopic examinations were assessed considering culture on liquid medium as the "gold standard". The prevalence of T. vaginalis obtained by culture on liquid medium was 4.0% (24/597). The prevalence of T. vaginalis obtained by direct wet smear, prolonged May-Grunwald Giemsa staining, and sodium acetate-formalin (SAF)/methylene blue staining-fixing technique was 1.8%, 2.3% and 2.5%, respectively. The sensitivity of the direct wet smear was 45.8%, that of the prolonged May-Grunwald Giemsa staining was 58.3%, and that of the SAF/methylene blue method was 62.5%. Considering the 3 microscopic examinations altogether, the sensitivity rose to 66.7% and the specificity was 100% for all of them. This is the first time that the prevalence data of T. vaginalis by culture in pregnant women are published in Argentina. Due to the low sensitivity obtained by microscopy in asymptomatic pregnant women, the use of the liquid medium is recommended during pregnancy, in order to provide an early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20333287

  20. Diagnostic Applications and Methods to Isolate Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) from Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Cha-Mei

    2013-03-01

    Each year a million new cancer cases are diagnosed in the United States. Ninety percent of the deaths will be the result of metastasis, not from the primary tumor. Tissue biopsy is a universally accepted tool for cancer diagnosis and determination of treatment. The procedure varies, but is invasive, costly, and can be fatal, and for these reasons is seldom repeated after initial diagnosis. Monitoring of treatment response and for possible relapse is usually done by CT or MRI scan, both of which are expensive and require the tumor to change size perceptibly. Further, cancer can mutate or develop resistance to therapeutics and require modification of the treatment regimen. The initial tissue biopsy often cannot reflect the disease as it progresses, requiring new biopsy samples to determine a change of treatment. All carcinomas, about 80% of all cancer, shed tumor cells into the circulation, most often at the later stages when treatment is more critical. These circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are the cause of metastasis, and can be isolated from patient blood to serve as ``liquid biopsy''. These CTCs contain a valuable trove of information that help both patient and clinician understand disease status. In addition to counting the number of CTCs (known to be a prognostic indicator of survival), CTCs can provide biomarker information such as protein expressions and gene mutations, amplifications, and translocations. This information can be used to determine treatment. During treatment, the number of intact and apoptotic CTCs can be measured on a repeated basis to measure the patient's response to treatment and disease progression. Following treatment, liquid biopsy can be repeated at regular intervals to watch for relapse. Methods to isolate CTCs can be grouped into three categories: i) immunocapture based on surface markers of CTCs, ii) size exclusion based on CTC size, typically larger than blood cells, and iii) negative selection utilizing red blood cell lysis, white blood cell depletion or FICOLL. Various implementations of the CTC isolation methods will be presented.

  1. Applying Automated MR-Based Diagnostic Methods to the Memory Clinic: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Klöppel, Stefan; Peter, Jessica; Ludl, Anna; Pilatus, Anne; Maier, Sabrina; Mader, Irina; Heimbach, Bernhard; Frings, Lars; Egger, Karl; Dukart, Juergen; Schroeter, Matthias L; Perneczky, Robert; Häussermann, Peter; Vach, Werner; Urbach, Horst; Teipel, Stefan; Hüll, Michael; Abdulkadir, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that fully automated pattern recognition methods applied to structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) aid in the diagnosis of dementia, but these conclusions are based on highly preselected samples that significantly differ from that seen in a dementia clinic. At a single dementia clinic, we evaluated the ability of a linear support vector machine trained with completely unrelated data to differentiate between Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Lewy body dementia, and healthy aging based on 3D-T1 weighted MRI data sets. Furthermore, we predicted progression to AD in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at baseline and automatically quantified white matter hyperintensities from FLAIR-images. Separating additionally recruited healthy elderly from those with dementia was accurate with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.97 (according to Fig. 4). Multi-class separation of patients with either AD or FTD from other included groups was good on the training set (AUC >  0.9) but substantially less accurate (AUC = 0.76 for AD, AUC = 0.78 for FTD) on 134 cases from the local clinic. Longitudinal data from 28 cases with MCI at baseline and appropriate follow-up data were available. The computer tool discriminated progressive from stable MCI with AUC = 0.73, compared to AUC = 0.80 for the training set. A relatively low accuracy by clinicians (AUC = 0.81) illustrates the difficulties of predicting conversion in this heterogeneous cohort. This first application of a MRI-based pattern recognition method to a routine sample demonstrates feasibility, but also illustrates that automated multi-class differential diagnoses have to be the focus of future methodological developments and application studies. PMID:26401773

  2. The Diagnostic Method of Inner Parts of Welded Joints at Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bednarova, O.; Janovec, J.

    2010-06-22

    There is no possibility to check any inner part at real welded joint at nuclear power station (NPS) during operation because any destructive test cannot be used. In practice there is checked surface of weld. There are used four methodical instructions for the check of real welds: 1. The visual inspection, 2. The measurement of hardness, 3. The chemical composition checking and 4. The microstructure replica analysis. It is necessary to know how these information of weld surface are in accordance with characteristics of inner parts of weld. If there is not any difference between surface weld microstructure and internal weld microstructure of experimental weld it is supposed to that there is not any difference in other measured properties of welds. If is changed structural characteristics of microstructure, it is changed also hardness, chemical analysis etc. It was observed that the microstructure of real welds is almost the same with simulated weld and also the surface microstructure of experimental weld is in accordance with microstructure of inner parts of this weld. It can be supposed extension of lifetime of NPS if there is not any difference between replicas microstructure taken after six year operation of NPS and microstructure of inner parts of simulated weld is almost the same with surface microstructure.

  3. Time-resolved immunofluorimetic assay (TRIFMA): diagnostic method of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missler, U.; Gaida, U.; Li, Hong; Wood, W. G.

    1993-05-01

    This article describes the development and clinical evaluation of two-site immunometric assays for ferritin, thyrotropin (TSH), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF(alpha) ) using time resolved fluorescent measurement with streptavidin-europium (STAV-Eu+3) as a label. The liquid phase antibodies were labeled with amidocaproylbiotin-N- hydroxysuccinimide ester. All three assays were based on microtiterplate technology and could be completed within a working day (incubation times less than 4 h). The ferritin assay was compared with luminescent and enzyme labeled assays using identical components. The TSH assay was compared with a commercial immunoluminometric assay whereas the TNF assay was unable to be compared with another method, only with standards from an independent source. The performance data was excellent with lower detection limits for TSH from < 0.003 mU/l and for TNF(alpha) under 10 ng/l. Intra-assay precision was acceptable within the range of interest with TSH < 4% (0.2 - 50 mU/l), TNF(alpha) < 15% (70 - 8000 ng/l and ferritin < 8% (10 - 500 g/l). Inter-assay precision was < 6% for TSH, < 16% for TNF(alpha) and < 8.5% for ferritin. All assays were performed using commercially available components and proved suitable for routine use.

  4. Diagnostics of 3D Scaffolds by the Method of X-Ray Phase Contrast Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al'tapova, V. R.; Khlusov, I. A.; Karpov, D. A.; Chen, F.; Baumbach, T.; Pichugin, V. F.

    2014-02-01

    Polymers are one of the most interesting classes of materials for bioengineering due to their high biocompatibility and the possibility of regulating their strength and degradation. In bioengineering, the design of a polymer scaffold determines the functional possibilities of the scaffold and its possible medical applications. Traditionally, the design of polymer scaffolds is analyzed with the help of two-dimensional visualization methods, such as optical and electron microscopy, and computer tomography. However, the x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum is only insignificantly absorbed by polymers and soft tissue, which means that it does not support computer tomography with sufficient contrast. The present work investigates visualization with the help of an interferometer based on the Talbot effect for three-dimensional visualization of a polymer scaffold in absorption, phase, and dark-field contrasts. A comparison of images obtained by x-ray visualization with histological sections of the scaffold is made. Phase contrast has made it possible to visualize the polymer structure and growth of soft tissues in the volume of the scaffold. In the future, it will be possible to use phase contrast for three-dimensional visualization of polymer scaffolds and soft tissues in vivo as well as in vitro.

  5. Non-invasive diagnostic methods for investigating the quality of Žilina airport's runway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slabej, Martin; Grinč, Michal; Kováč, Matúš; Decký, Martin; Šedivý, Štefan

    2015-09-01

    The Žilina airport was after almost 50 years of use measured by non-invasive methods including GPR and Profilograph GE in order to investigate the quality of the runway pavement at the chosen spots. Since it was just a pilot action, a sample of survey was carried out. The testing spots were placed where the geologic drill core J02 have been drilled out. The measurements performed by Profilograph GE were used to verify the quality of the pavement surface in term longitudinal unevenness by means of index IRI and C. The GPR survey was performed in 3D geometry, hence in the x- and y-direction. A horn type antenna with central frequency of 2 GHz was used on the test field in order to verify the thicknesses of pavement construction layers. Here, the result of a 3D survey is presented. The investigation confirms two sub-horizontal construction layers of the runway pavement. In some areas the GPR interpretation was not possible due to the signal attenuation. This significant signal attenuation is found mainly in the areas where the linear cracks are situated.

  6. Proximal caries lesion detection in primary teeth: does this justify the association of diagnostic methods?

    PubMed

    Bussaneli, D G; Restrepo, M; Boldieri, T; Albertoni, T H; Santos-Pinto, L; Cordeiro, R C L

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate and compare the performance of visual exam with use of the Nyvad criteria (visual examination - (VE)), interproximal radiography (BW), laser fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent Pen-DDPen), and their association in the diagnosis of proximal lesions in primary teeth. For this purpose, 45 children (n = 59 surfaces) of both sexes, aged between 5 and 9 years were selected, who presented healthy primary molars or primary molars with signs suggestive of the presence of caries lesions. The surfaces were clinically evaluated and coded according to the Nyvad criteria and immediately afterwards with the DDPen. Radiographic exam was performed only on the surfaces coded with Nyvad scores 2, 3, 5, or 6. Active caries lesions and/or those with discontinuous surfaces were restored, considering the depth of lesion as reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under ROC curve were calculated for each technique and its associations. Visual exam with Nyvad criteria presented the highest specificity, accuracy, and area under ROC curve values. The DDPen presented the highest sensitivity values. Association with one or more methods resulted in an increase in specificity. The performance of visual, radiographic, and DDpen exams and their associations were good; however, the clinical examination with the Nyvad criteria was sufficient for the diagnosis of interproximal lesions in primary teeth. PMID:26286856

  7. Clinical diagnostic of pleural effusions using a high-speed viscosity measurement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurth, Cedric; Klein, Katherine; van Nimwegen, Lena; Korn, Ronald; Vijayaraghavan, Krishnaswami; Zenhausern, Frederic

    2011-08-01

    We present a novel bio-analytical method to discriminate between transudative and exudative pleural effusions based on a high-speed video analysis of a solid glass sphere impacting a liquid. Since the result depends on the solution viscosity, it can ultimately replace the battery of biochemical assays currently used. We present results obtained on a series of 7 pleural effusions obtained from consenting patients by analyzing both the splash observed after the glass impactor hits the liquid surface, and in a configuration reminiscent of the drop ball viscometer with added sensitivity and throughput provided by the high-speed camera. The results demonstrate distinction between the pleural effusions and good correlation with the fluid chemistry analysis to accurately differentiate exudates and transudates for clinical purpose. The exudative effusions display a viscosity around 1.39 ± 0.08 cP whereas the transudative effusion was measured at 0.89 ± 0.09 cP, in good agreement with previous reports.

  8. Neuroimaging of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis (CVT) – Old Dilemma and the New Diagnostic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Walecki, Jerzy; Mruk, Bartosz; Nawrocka-Laskus, Ewa; Piliszek, Agnieszka; Przelaskowski, Artur; Sklinda, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Cerebral venous thrombosis is a relatively uncommon neurologic disorder that is potentially reversible with prompt diagnosis and appropriate medical care. The pathogenesis is multifactorial and the disease may occur at any age. CVT is often associated with nonspecific symptoms. Radiologists play a crucial role in patient care by providing early diagnosis through interpretation of imaging studies. Underdiagnosis or misdiagnosis can increase the risk of severe complications, including hemorrhagic stroke or death. The purpose of this study is to investigate radiological and clinical characteristics of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) based on material from 34 patients under care of our hospital. Material/Methods A total of 34 patients were diagnosed with CVT from August 2009 until March 2015. A clinical and radiological database of patients with final diagnosis of CVT was analyzed. Results Patient group included 22 women and 12 men at a mean age of 48.7 years (ranging from 27 to 77 years). In the study group 8 patients (23.5%) suffered from hemorrhagic infarction, whereas 16 patients (47%) were diagnosed with venous infarction without hemorrhage. Thirty patients (88%) had transverse sinus thrombosis. Conclusions According to our study, CVT was more prevalent in women. Transverse sinus was the most common location. Among all age groups, the highest prevalence was seen in the fifth decade (n=14). Contrast-enhanced CT and MR venography were the most sensitive imaging modalities. PMID:26251677

  9. Evidence of increased mass fraction of NO 2 within real-world NO x emissions of modern light vehicles — derived from a reliable online measuring method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Robert; Weilenmann, Martin; Favez, Jean-Yves

    Ambient roadside concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) have stabilized in recent years while concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NO x) decline. Oxidation catalytic converters of modern vehicles facilitating the formation of NO 2 in the exhaust line, especially in diesel cars equipped with original equipment manufacturer (OEM) particle filters, are assumed to be responsible. NO 2 is toxic and increased proportions of NO 2 in total NO x in the atmosphere cause higher ambient ozone concentrations. These observations lead to a need for reliable emission factors for NO and NO 2 for road vehicles, while only NO x is recorded in standard emission measurements. In this regard, it was recently shown that NO 2 needs to be detected by an adequate online measuring method. The present work provides novel insight into these topics gained from an experimental campaign carried out with modern gasoline and diesel vehicles of certification categories Euro 3 and Euro 4. Reliable emission factors for NO and NO 2 are presented for different driving situations, such as real-world driving, cold start and statutory tests, together with corresponding particle emission data. Highest emissions of NO x are recorded for diesel cars equipped with OEM particle filters with mass ratios of NO 2 within NO x of up to 70%. The NO x emissions exceed the statutory emission limit and real-world emissions are even more pronounced, especially in urban driving conditions. Their particle emissions are greatly reduced, but the contribution of NO 2 to soot oxidation is thought to be minor.

  10. [Modern methods for the evaluation of qualitative and quantitative changes in the characteristics of intestinal and vaginal microflora].

    PubMed

    Efimov, B A; Kafarskaia, L I; Korshunov, V M

    2002-01-01

    Disturbances in normal intestinal and vaginal microflora in women have recently become quite frequent. This accounts for the need of bacteriological laboratories for introduction of reliable methods for the diagnosis of such disturbances. Correct methodological approaches to objective evaluation of the state of intestinal and vaginal microflora are described. The methods used in the study of anaerobic microflora (lacto- and bifidobacteria, eubacteria, peptostreptococci, clostridia, bacteriods, fusobacteria) and facultative anaerobic microorganisms (enterobacteria, staphylococci, streptococci, Gardnerella, fungi of the genus Candida) have been analyzed. All stages of the study are described in consecutive order: the transportation of the material under study, its treatment in a laboratory, the spectrum of selective nutrient media for the isolation of microorganisms, methods of their identification. PMID:12449705

  11. Computer-aided diagnostic method for classification of Alzheimer's disease with atrophic image features on MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Yoshiura, Takashi; Kumazawa, Seiji; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Koga, Hiroshi; Mihara, Futoshi; Honda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Shuji; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2008-03-01

    Our goal for this study was to attempt to develop a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) method for classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with atrophic image features derived from specific anatomical regions in three-dimensional (3-D) T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. Specific regions related to the cerebral atrophy of AD were white matter and gray matter regions, and CSF regions in this study. Cerebral cortical gray matter regions were determined by extracting a brain and white matter regions based on a level set based method, whose speed function depended on gradient vectors in an original image and pixel values in grown regions. The CSF regions in cerebral sulci and lateral ventricles were extracted by wrapping the brain tightly with a zero level set determined from a level set function. Volumes of the specific regions and the cortical thickness were determined as atrophic image features. Average cortical thickness was calculated in 32 subregions, which were obtained by dividing each brain region. Finally, AD patients were classified by using a support vector machine, which was trained by the image features of AD and non-AD cases. We applied our CAD method to MR images of whole brains obtained from 29 clinically diagnosed AD cases and 25 non-AD cases. As a result, the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve obtained by our computerized method was 0.901 based on a leave-one-out test in identification of AD cases among 54 cases including 8 AD patients at early stages. The accuracy for discrimination between 29 AD patients and 25 non-AD subjects was 0.840, which was determined at the point where the sensitivity was the same as the specificity on the ROC curve. This result showed that our CAD method based on atrophic image features may be promising for detecting AD patients by using 3-D MR images.

  12. Comparison of three diagnostic methods for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free range chickens.

    PubMed

    Hamidinejat, H; Nabavi, L; Mayahi, M; Ghourbanpoor, M; Pourmehdi Borojeni, M; Norollahi Fard, S; Shokrollahi, M

    2014-09-01

    Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free range chickens is an indicator of the prevalence and distribution pattern of T. gondii in the environment. For this purpose, serologic assays especially modified agglutination test (MAT) is the main approach in the literature. The main goal of this study was to compare the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on amplification of first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) of ribosomal DNA gene, ELISA, and MAT to demonstrate T. gondii infection in free range chicken. A total of 106 adult free - range chickens were killed. Blood, whole heart and brain samples were taken. Sera were examined for the presence of T. gondii antibodies by ELISA and MAT as well. Selected tissues were used for PCR and bioassay in mice. The results revealed that 48.11%, 51.89%, 46.23% and 27.36% of chickens were positive in ELISA, MAT, PCR and bioassay in mice respectively. Good correlation between the results of PCR, ELISA and MAT were detected, but not with bioassay in mice. Compared with PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 92.16% and 96.36% respectively and also for MAT, the sensitivity was 81.81% and the specificity was 92.15%. The specific diagnosis of T. gondii infection in chickens is central to a better understanding of the epidemiology and dynamics of transmission among the various host population and is particularly important for planning effective optimal prevention and control programs. Our data in the present study demonstrated that PCR, ELISA and the MAT are helpful and precise methods to detect T. gondii in naturally infected free-range chickens. PMID:25382478

  13. Studies on trachoma. 11. Evaluation of laboratory diagnostic methods under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Tarizzo, M L; Nabli, B; Labonne, J

    1968-01-01

    The severity of trachoma in endemic areas has, in general, a tendency to decrease as a consequence of control measures and gradual improvements in sanitation and living conditions. The number of mild cases seen where the disease is prevalent is thus increasing and it is becoming more difficult to establish a differential diagnosis in certain cases, and to determine the degree of endemicity of the disease in a given area or community.In order to ascertain whether available laboratory methods could contribute useful data from this point of view, a clinical and laboratory study was carried out on the school population of the island of Djerba, off the south coast of Tunisia, during the school year 1963-64.The ophthalmological findings confirmed that, notwithstanding the large-scale treatment campaigns which had been in operation for 10 years, trachoma was then still highly endemic in the island, but relatively mild.The laboratory studies included microscopical examination of conjunctival scrapings for inclusion bodies, complement-fixation tests on serum specimens and-on a subsample of the populations studied-attempts to isolate the trachoma agent. The results indicated that the tests are more likely to be positive when the clinical signs are more pronounced. In individual cases, laboratory tests can at best confirm an already established clinical diagnosis and contribute little to the differential diagnosis of borderline cases.However, this study also indicated that the laboratory tests may provide useful quantitative indications on the endemicity of the disease in a community or in an area, from the point of view of the density of the agent and of the response to its presence. The techniques used must obviously be uniform enough to allow for a comparison with results obtained elsewhere or at different times. PMID:4881895

  14. Accuracy of Colposcopically Guided Diagnostic Methods for the Detection of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Müller, K.; Soergel, P.; Hillemanns, P.; Jentschke, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Many factors can affect the accuracy of colposcopically guided biopsy, endocervical curettage (ECC) and differential cytology, all of which are standard, minimally invasive procedures used to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Method: All conizations carried out between 2007 and 2013 in the gynecological department of Hannover Medical School were retrospectively reviewed. The agreement between colposcopic diagnosis and histology was evaluated retrospectively. The analysis included 593 complete datasets out of a total of 717 cases treated. Results: The overall agreement was 85.5 %; the accuracy was significantly higher (p = 0.029) when three biopsy specimens were taken rather than just one. The agreement between diagnosis and histological findings from conization was highest for women < 30 years (90.7 %) and lowest for women > 50 years (72.1 %; p = 0.008). The agreement between preoperative differential cytology and histology results after conization was 86.7 % and improved as patient age increased (p = 0.035). The agreement between ECC findings and the results of conization was only 49.1 % irrespective of patient age, transformation zone or the patientʼs menopausal status. Conclusion: The accuracy of colposcopically guided biopsy appears to increase when three biopsy specimens are taken and is particularly high for younger patients. Differential cytology was also found to be highly accurate and is particularly useful for patients aged more than 50 years. The accuracy of ECC was significantly lower; however ECC can provide important additional information in selected cases. PMID:26941452

  15. Transition metal-catalyzed couplings of alkynes to 1,3-enynes: modern methods and synthetic applications.

    PubMed

    Trost, Barry M; Masters, James T

    2016-04-21

    The metal-catalyzed coupling of alkynes is a powerful method for the preparation of 1,3-enynes, compounds that are of broad interest in organic synthesis. Numerous strategies have been developed for the homo- and cross coupling of alkynes to enynes via transition metal catalysis. In such reactions, a major issue is the control of regio-, stereo-, and, where applicable, chemoselectivity. Herein, we highlight prominent methods for the selective synthesis of these valuable compounds. Further, we illustrate the utility of these processes through specific examples of their application in carbocycle, heterocycle, and natural product syntheses. PMID:27086769

  16. Capacity-loss diagnostic and life-time prediction in lithium-ion batteries: Part 1. Development of a capacity-loss diagnostic method based on open-circuit voltage analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tiansi; Pei, Lei; Wang, Tingting; Lu, Rengui; Zhu, Chunbo

    2016-01-01

    Effective capacity-loss diagnosis and life-time prediction are the foundations of battery second-use technology and will play an important role in the development of the new energy industry. Of the two, the capacity-loss diagnostic, as a precondition of the life-time prediction, needs to be studied first. Performing a capacity-loss diagnosis for an aging cell consists of finding the decisive degradation mechanisms for the cell's capacity degradation. Because a cell's capacity just equals the span of the open-circuit voltage (OCV), when suspect degradation mechanisms affect a cell's capacity, they will leave corresponding and particular clues in the OCV curve. Taking a cell's OCV as the diagnostic indicator, a multi-mechanistic and non-destructive diagnostic method is developed in this paper. To establish an unambiguous relationship between OCV changes and the combinations of the decisive mechanisms, all the possible OCV changes under various aging situations are systematically analyzed based on a novel simultaneous coordinate system, in which the effects of each suspect capacity-loss mechanism on the OCV curve can be clearly represented. As a summary of the analysis results, a straightforward diagnostic flowchart is presented. By following the flowchart, an aging cell can be diagnosed within three steps by observation of the OCV changes.

  17. Noninvasive express diagnostics of pulmonary diseases based on control of patient's gas emission using methods of IR and terahertz laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikova, M. K.; Bulanova, A. A.; Bukreeva, E. B.; Karapuzikov, A. A.; Karapuzikov, A. I.; Kistenev, Y. V.; Klementyev, V. M.; Kolker, D. B.; Kuzmin, D. A.; Nikiforova, O. Y.; Ponomarev, Yu. N.; Sherstov, I. V.; Boyko, A. A.

    2013-11-01

    Pulmonary diseases diagnostics always occupies one of the key positions in medicine practices. A large variety of high technology methods are used today, but none of them cannot be used for early screening of pulmonary diseases. We discuss abilities of methods of IR and terahertz laser spectroscopy for noninvasive express diagnostics of pulmonary diseases on a base of analysis of absorption spectra of patient's gas emission, in particular, exhaled air. Experience in the field of approaches to experimental data analysis and hard-ware realization of gas analyzers for medical applications is also discussed.

  18. A recalibration of strong-line oxygen abundance diagnostics via the direct method and implications for the high-redshift universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jonathan S.; Martini, Paul; Andrews, Brett H.

    2016-05-01

    We use direct method oxygen abundances in combination with strong optical emission lines, stellar masses (M⋆), and star formation rates (SFRs) to recalibrate the N2, O3N2, and N2O2 oxygen abundance diagnostics. We stack spectra of ˜200 000 star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in bins of M⋆ and SFR offset from the star-forming main sequence ( {Δ log (SSFR)}) to measure the weak emission lines needed to apply the direct method. All three new calibrations are reliable to within ±0.10 dex from log (M⋆/M⊙) ˜ 7.5-10.5 and up to at least 200 M⊙ yr-1 in SFR. The N2O2 diagnostic is the least subject to systematic biases. We apply the diagnostics to galaxies in the local Universe and investigate the M⋆-Z-SFR relation. The N2 and O3N2 diagnostics suggest the SFR dependence of the M⋆-Z-SFR relation varies with both M⋆ and {Δ log (SSFR)}, whereas the N2O2 diagnostic suggests a nearly constant dependence on SFR. We apply our calibrations to a sample of high-redshift galaxies from the literature, and find them to be metal-poor relative to local galaxies with similar M⋆ and SFR. The calibrations do reproduce direct method abundances of the local analogues. We conclude that the M⋆-Z-SFR relation evolves with redshift.

  19. Estimating the diagnostic accuracy of three culture-dependent methods for the Listeria monocytogenes detection from a Bayesian perspective.

    PubMed

    Andritsos, Nikolaos D; Mataragas, Marios; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Nychas, George-John E; Drosinos, Eleftherios H

    2012-05-15

    The objective of this study was to estimate the test accuracy measures (classification probabilities [CPs], predictive values [PVs], likelihood ratios [LRs] and area under receiving operating characteristic curve [AUC]) of three different culture-dependent methods, commonly used during routine analysis for the detection of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, from a Bayesian perspective. Data from a previous study by Andritsos et al. (2010) were used to define measures of accuracy for the diagnostic tests. Samples of minced pork meat obtained from local markets were tested for L. monocytogenes presence by parallel testing using selective media (PALCAM, ALOA and RAPID'L.mono). Dirichlet distribution, which is the multivariate expression of a Beta distribution, was used to analyze the data. Bayesian analysis determines characteristics of the posterior distribution from available prior information. Results showed that all methods were best at ruling in L. monocytogenes presence than ruling it out. PALCAM seemed to have better performance based on positive PV, positive LR and AUC, but it was not so sensitive as RAPID'L.mono was. Results also showed that none of the media were perfect in detecting L. monocytogenes, i.e. sensitivity and specificity equal to one. Besides, the problem of observing zero counts may be overcome by applying Bayesian analysis, making the determination of a test performance feasible. PMID:22507629

  20. Fighting an old disease with modern tools: characteristics and molecular detection methods of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Engström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient disease, but not a disease of the past. The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of TB, demands new measures to combat the situation. Rapid and accurate detection of the pathogen, and its drug susceptibility pattern, is essential for timely initiation of treatment, and ultimately, control of the disease. Molecular-based methods offer a great chance to improve detection of drug-resistant TB; however, their development and usage should be accompanied with a profound understanding of drug resistance mechanisms and circulating M. tuberculosis strains in specific settings, as otherwise, the usefulness of such tests may be limited. This review gives an overview of the history of TB treatment and drug resistance, drug resistance mechanisms for the most commonly used drugs and molecular methods designed to detect drug-resistant strains. PMID:26167849

  1. [Methods of study of the effects of modern administration (management) on the autonomy and satisfaction of physicians in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Bjegović, V; Dokić-Stefanović, D; Kocev, N; Marinković, J

    1993-01-01

    Marketing principles in health care delivery systems, reducing financial funds for health institutions and permanently increasing costs of medical equipment are responsible for the growing influence of management on physician's autonomy and working satisfaction. A questionnaire research was carried out in order to determine the best method of examination of this influence in Belgrade. All tested persons were medical doctors working in a primary health centers for 7 hours per day, who examined about 26 patients every day. More than a half of physician improved their knowledge by reading professional publications 6 hours per week. In spite of the fact that they all worked in the same institution, they expressed different opinions regarding the organisation. In the physicians' opinion clinical freedom and working satisfaction were at the high level, and partly connected with management practice. At the same time they were very unsatisfactory with personal income and budgetary distribution in the institution. It is evident that the method described in this article is useful in the analysis of the present situation related to management and physician's practice in the country. PMID:7716644

  2. Investigation of the Utilization of Modern Industrial Methods, Processes, Ergonomics, and the Internet in the Scientific Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myer, Spencer S., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    On Oct. 1, 2001 Cleveland State University and NASA Glenn Research Center embarked on the above named cooperative agreement. Because NASA's research facilities often exhibit instances where the failure to use state-of-the-art technologies and methods to improve on outmoded systems of interface and control, and this runs contrary to the NASA philosophy of "faster, better, and cheaper", it was deemed an ideal opportunity for this collaboration. The main objectives of the proposed effort were to research and investigate the use of the latest technologies, methods, techniques, etc. which pertain to control and interface with industrial and research systems and facilities. The work was done in large part at NASA Glenn Research Center, using selected research facilities as real-world laboratories; such as certain Microgravity Science Division and Space Station projects. Microgravity Science Division at Glenn Research Center designs and builds experiments to be flown on the Space Shuttle and eventually on the International Space Station. Economy of space, weight, complexity, data storage, ergonomics, and many other factors present problems that also exist in industry. Many of the solutions can come from the same areas of study mentioned above.

  3. Comparison of diagnostic potential of serological, molecular and cell culture methods for detection of Q fever in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Szymańska-Czerwińska, Monika; Śmietanka, Krzysztof; Bocian, Łukasz

    2014-06-25

    Q fever is an infectious disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. Diagnosis of Q fever based on clinical symptoms is unattainable; thus, different laboratory techniques are used to detect the infection. The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic potential of ELISA, CFT, conventional PCR, real-time PCR and cell culture. The tests were carried out on 2251 serum samples from ruminants. Moreover, 668 placentas, 1277 vaginal swabs and 306 specimens of the internal organs of aborted foetuses were examined by PCR and cell culture. Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare the results obtained by ELISA, CFT, PCR, real-time PCR and isolation in cell culture. The χ(2) test confirmed that in most cases the results obtained by means of the different methods were correlated with each other (P<0.05). The highest correlation coefficients (r=0.76-0.87) were observed in the case of real-time PCR and conventional PCR. ELISA and CFT were moderately correlated (r=0.43-0.45). When the comparison was made between the results of tests run on samples from swabs and aborted foetuses, the r values between ELISA and CFT were lower than those between ELISA and PCRs. A negligible, or weak to moderate relationship was mostly observed when the method of cell culture isolation was compared with all the other analytical techniques investigated. The use of a combination of different laboratory methods, preferably ELISA for serology and polymerase chain reactions for the agent detection, is suggested to achieve the correct diagnosis of Q fever. PMID:24725446

  4. Sinusitis. Diagnostic methods.

    PubMed Central

    Revonta, M.; Blokmanis, A.

    1994-01-01

    Sinusitis, which primarily involves the anterior ethmoid air cells, can spread to the larger sinus cavities to cause acute and chronic secondary infection. Endoscopic and computed tomographic techniques enable earlier diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and permanent cure. Primary care physicians should try to identify the disease before it reaches a stage where endoscopic control becomes difficult. Ultrasonography is now used in Europe to diagnose sinusitis and initiate treatment. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7841828

  5. Diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection and diagnosis of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in animals requires a laboratory test since disease from IAV presents no pathognomonic signs. Diagnosis and surveillance of animal influenza focuses on the detection of virus or type specific antibodies. Whether one targets the virus or ...

  6. Review of diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography using several endoscopic methods in patients with surgically altered gastrointestinal anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Shimatani, Masaaki; Takaoka, Makoto; Tokuhara, Mitsuo; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Ikeura, Tsukasa; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2015-01-01

    The endoscopic approach for biliary diseases in patients with surgically altered gastrointestinal anatomy (SAGA) had been generally deemed impractical. However, it was radically made feasible by the introduction of double balloon endoscopy (DBE) that was originally developed for diagnosis and treatments for small-bowel diseases. Followed by the subsequent development of single-balloon endoscopy (SBE) and spiral endoscopy (SE), interventions using several endoscopes for biliary disease in patients with SAGA widely gained an acceptance as a new modality. Many studies have been made on this new technique. Yet, some problems are to be solved. For instance, the mutual unavailability among devices due to different working lengths and channels, and unestablished standardization of procedural techniques can be raised. Additionally, in an attempt to standardize endoscopic procedures, it is important to evaluate biliary cannulating methods by case with existence of papilla or not. A full comprehension of the features of respective scope types is also required. However there are not many papers written as a review. In our manuscript, we would like to evaluate and make a review of the present status of diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography applying DBE, SBE and SE for biliary diseases in patients with SAGA for establishment of these modalities as a new technology and further improvement of the scopes and devices. PMID:26078830

  7. Development of a laser cleaning method for the first mirror surface of the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostics on ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, A. P.; Buzinskij, O. I.; Gubsky, K. L.; Nikitina, E. A.; Savchenkov, A. V.; Tarasov, B. A.; Tugarinov, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    A set of optical diagnostics is expected for measuring the plasma characteristics in ITER. Optical elements located inside discharge chambers are exposed to an intense radiation load, sputtering due to collisions with energetic atoms formed in the charge transfer processes, and contamination due to recondensation of materials sputtered from different parts of the construction of the chamber. Removing the films of the sputtered materials from the mirrors with the aid of pulsed laser radiation is an efficient cleaning method enabling recovery of the optical properties of the mirrors. In this work, we studied the efficiency of removal of metal oxide films by pulsed radiation of a fiber laser. Optimization of the laser cleaning conditions was carried out on samples representing metal substrates polished with optical quality with deposition of films on them imitating the chemical composition and conditions expected in ITER. It is shown that, by a proper selection of modes of radiation exposure to the surface with a deposited film, it is feasible to restore the original high reflection characteristics of optical elements.

  8. Patient accounts of diagnostic testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia: comparing responses to genetic and non-genetic testing methods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Continuing developments in genetic testing technology together with research revealing gene-disease associations have brought closer the potential for genetic screening of populations. A major concern, as with any screening programme, is the response of the patient to the findings of screening, whether the outcome is positive or negative. Such concern is heightened for genetic testing, which it is feared may elicit stronger reactions than non-genetic testing. Methods This paper draws on thematic analysis of 113 semi-structured interviews with 39 patients being tested for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), an inherited predisposition to early-onset heart disease. It examines the impact of disease risk assessments based on both genetic and non-genetic information, or solely non-genetic information. Results The impact of diagnostic testing did not seem to vary according to whether or not genetic information was used. More generally, being given a positive or negative diagnosis of FH had minimal discernible impact on people's lives as they maintained the continuity of their beliefs and behaviour. Conclusions The results suggest that concerns about the use of genetic testing in this context are unfounded, a conclusion that echoes findings from studies in this and other health contexts. PMID:22994377

  9. A molecular method to assess bioburden embedded within silicon-based resins used on modern spacecraft materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stam, Christina N.; Bruckner, James; Spry, J. Andy; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; La Duc, Myron T.

    2012-07-01

    Current assessments of bioburden embedded in spacecraft materials are based on work performed in the Viking era (1970s), and the ability to culture organisms extracted from such materials. To circumvent the limitations of such approaches, DNA-based techniques were evaluated alongside established culturing techniques to determine the recovery and survival of bacterial spores encapsulated in spacecraft-qualified polymer materials. Varying concentrations of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores were completely embedded in silicone epoxy. An organic dimethylacetamide-based solvent was used to digest the epoxy and spore recovery was evaluated via gyrB-targeted qPCR, direct agar plating, most probably number analysis, and microscopy. Although full-strength solvent was shown to inhibit the germination and/or outgrowth of spores, dilution in excess of 100-fold allowed recovery with no significant decrease in cultivability. Similarly, qPCR (quantitative PCR) detection sensitivities as low as ~103 CFU ml-1 were achieved upon removal of inhibitory substances associated with the epoxy and/or solvent. These detection and enumeration methods show promise for use in assessing the embedded bioburden of spacecraft hardware.

  10. On the understanding and development of modern physical neurorehabilitation methods: robotics and non-invasive brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Dylan J

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of physical disability in the community resulting from neurological dysfunction is predicted to increase in the coming years. The impetus for immediate and critical evaluation of physical neurorehabilitation strategies stems from the largely incomplete recovery following neurological damage, questionable efficacy of individual rehabilitation techniques, and the progressive acceptance of evidence-based medicine. The emergent technologies of non-invasive brain stimulation (NBS) and rehabilitation robotics enable a better understanding of the recovery process, as well as the mechanisms and effectiveness of intervention. With a more precise grasp of the relationship between dysfunctional and treatment-related plasticity, we can anticipate a move toward highly controlled and individualised prescription of rehabilitation. Both robotics and NBS can also be used to enhance motor control and learning in patients with neurological dysfunction. The merit of these contemporary methods as investigative and rehabilitation tools requires clarification and discussion. In this thematic series, five cohesive and eloquent papers address this issue from leading clinicians and scientists in the fields of robotics, NBS, plasticity and motor learning. PMID:19183466

  11. Choice of a Spectral Range for Measuring Temperature Fields in a Flame and Recording High-temperature Objects Screened by the Flame Using IR Diagnostic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboda, E. L.; Reino, V. V.; Agafontsev, M. V.

    2015-06-01

    Results of experimental investigations of radiation spectra of flame produced from combustion of different fuels are presented. Based on an analysis of the spectra, the well-founded choice of spectral ranges for IR diagnostic methods is performed to measure temperature fields in the flame and to record high-temperature objects screened by the flame.

  12. Development of a quantitative diagnostic method of estrogen receptor expression levels by immunohistochemistry using organic fluorescent material-assembled nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Gonda, Kohsuke; Miyashita, Minoru; Watanabe, Mika; Takahashi, Yayoi; Goda, Hideki; Okada, Hisatake; Nakano, Yasushi; Tada, Hiroshi; Amari, Masakazu; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic fluorescent material-assembled nanoparticles for IHC were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New nanoparticle fluorescent intensity was 10.2-fold greater than Qdot655. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticle staining analyzed a wide range of ER expression levels in tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticle staining enhanced the quantitative sensitivity for ER diagnosis. -- Abstract: The detection of estrogen receptors (ERs) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using 3,3 Prime -diaminobenzidine (DAB) is slightly weak as a prognostic marker, but it is essential to the application of endocrine therapy, such as antiestrogen tamoxifen-based therapy. IHC using DAB is a poor quantitative method because horseradish peroxidase (HRP) activity depends on reaction time, temperature and substrate concentration. However, IHC using fluorescent material provides an effective method to quantitatively use IHC because the signal intensity is proportional to the intensity of the photon excitation energy. However, the high level of autofluorescence has impeded the development of quantitative IHC using fluorescence. We developed organic fluorescent material (tetramethylrhodamine)-assembled nanoparticles for IHC. Tissue autofluorescence is comparable to the fluorescence intensity of quantum dots, which are the most representative fluorescent nanoparticles. The fluorescent intensity of our novel nanoparticles was 10.2-fold greater than quantum dots, and they did not bind non-specifically to breast cancer tissues due to the polyethylene glycol chain that coated their surfaces. Therefore, the fluorescent intensity of our nanoparticles significantly exceeded autofluorescence, which produced a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio on IHC-imaged cancer tissues than previous methods. Moreover, immunostaining data from our nanoparticle fluorescent IHC and IHC with DAB were compared in the same region of adjacent tissues sections to quantitatively examine the two methods. The results demonstrated that our nanoparticle staining analyzed a wide range of ER expression levels with higher accuracy and quantitative sensitivity than DAB staining. This enhancement in the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity for ERs using our immunostaining method will improve the prediction of responses to therapies that target ERs and progesterone receptors that are induced by a downstream ER signal.

  13. Anthropometric and Biochemical Characteristics of Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Diagnosed by Non-Invasive Diagnostic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Novakovic, Tatjana; Mekic, Mevludin; Smilic, Ljiljana; Smilic, Tanja; Inić-Kostic, Biljana; Jovicevic, Ljiljana; Mirkovic, Zlatica; Milinic, Srbislava

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Non-alcoholic (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of disease states, from steatosis (fatty liver) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (also called NASH steatosis with inflammatory changes) followed by progression to fibrosis and cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma Excess liver fat is believed to be a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and not surprisingly NASH is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes in humans. Aim of the study: is to establish anthropometric and biochemical specificities in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis diagnosed with non-invasive diagnostic methods Material and methods: Study enrolled 170 participants, 130 with NASH steatosis. The non-alcoholic group (control), consisted of 40 normal weight patients without metabolic syndrome. Alcohol intake was estimated with established protocol. Routine biochemistry analysis were performed by standard laboratory procedures; serum levels of serum levels of fasting cholesterol and triglycerides, fasting glucose and insulin, insulin resistance estimated by HOMA index (Homeostasis model assessment), biochemistry tests and a liver ultrasound examination. Results: In study participants group, patients were more obese comparing with controls p < 0, 01, waist line extent also was of greater statistical significance in the non-alcoholic group fatty liver (p < 0, 01). Comparing biochemical parameter values, significant statistical deference has been noted in glaucosis and insulin levels, total cholesterol and gama-glutamil transferase levels, between groups (p<0, 01). Fasting glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR were significantly greater in study cohort group patients, as was significantly positive correlation between BMI and waist line extent. Conclusion: Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver are excessively obese, have greater waist line extent, consequently insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, risk factors known to be associated with the development of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24783906

  14. Numerical simulations used for a validity check on the laser induced photo-detachment diagnostic method in electronegative plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Oudini, N.; Taccogna, F.; Aanesland, A.

    2014-06-15

    Laser photo-detachment is used as a method to measure or determine the negative ion density and temperature in electronegative plasmas. In essence, the method consists of producing an electropositive channel (negative ion free region) via pulsed laser photo-detachment within an electronegative plasma bulk. Electrostatic probes placed in this channel measure the change in the electron density. A second pulse might be used to track the negative ion recovery. From this, the negative ion density and temperature can be determined. We study the formation and relaxation of the electropositive channel via a two-dimensional Particle-In-Cell/Mote Carlo collision model. The simulation is mainly carried out in a Hydrogen plasma with an electronegativity of α = 1, with a parametric study for α up to 20. The temporal and spatial evolution of the plasma potential and the electron densities shows the formation of a double layer (DL) confining the photo-detached electrons within the electropositive channel. This DL evolves into two fronts that move in the opposite directions inside and outside of the laser spot region. As a consequence, within the laser spot region, the background and photo-detached electron energy distribution function relaxes/thermalizes via collisionless effects such as Fermi acceleration and Landau damping. Moreover, the simulations show that collisional effects and the DL electric field strength might play a non-negligible role in the negative ion recovery within the laser spot region, leading to a two-temperature negative ion distribution. The latter result might have important effects in the determination of the negative ion density and temperature from laser photo detachment diagnostic.

  15. Numerical simulations used for a validity check on the laser induced photo-detachment diagnostic method in electronegative plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudini, N.; Taccogna, F.; Bendib, A.; Aanesland, A.

    2014-06-01

    Laser photo-detachment is used as a method to measure or determine the negative ion density and temperature in electronegative plasmas. In essence, the method consists of producing an electropositive channel (negative ion free region) via pulsed laser photo-detachment within an electronegative plasma bulk. Electrostatic probes placed in this channel measure the change in the electron density. A second pulse might be used to track the negative ion recovery. From this, the negative ion density and temperature can be determined. We study the formation and relaxation of the electropositive channel via a two-dimensional Particle-In-Cell/Mote Carlo collision model. The simulation is mainly carried out in a Hydrogen plasma with an electronegativity of ? = 1, with a parametric study for ? up to 20. The temporal and spatial evolution of the plasma potential and the electron densities shows the formation of a double layer (DL) confining the photo-detached electrons within the electropositive channel. This DL evolves into two fronts that move in the opposite directions inside and outside of the laser spot region. As a consequence, within the laser spot region, the background and photo-detached electron energy distribution function relaxes/thermalizes via collisionless effects such as Fermi acceleration and Landau damping. Moreover, the simulations show that collisional effects and the DL electric field strength might play a non-negligible role in the negative ion recovery within the laser spot region, leading to a two-temperature negative ion distribution. The latter result might have important effects in the determination of the negative ion density and temperature from laser photo detachment diagnostic.

  16. Molecular diagnostics in genodermatoses.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Julie V

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, there has been tremendous progress in elucidating the molecular bases of genodermatoses. The interface between genetics and dermatology has broadened with the identification of "new" heritable disorders, improved recognition of phenotypic spectrums, and integration of molecular and clinical data to simplify disease categorization and highlight relationships between conditions. With the advent of next-generation sequencing and other technological advances, dermatologists have promising new tools for diagnosis of genodermatoses. This article first addresses phenotypic characterization and classification with the use of online databases, considering concepts of clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Indications for genetic testing related to medical care and patient/family decision making are discussed. Standard genetic testing is reviewed, including resources for finding specialized laboratories, methods of gene analysis, and patient/family counseling. The benefits and challenges associated with multigene panels, array-based analysis (eg, copy number variation, linkage, and homozygosity), and whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing are then examined. Specific issues relating to molecular analysis of mosaic skin conditions and prenatal/preimplantation diagnosis are also presented. Use of the modern molecular diagnostics described herein enhance our ability to counsel, monitor, and treat patients and families affected by genodermatoses, with broader benefits of providing insights into cutaneous physiology and multifactorial skin disorders. PMID:23174491

  17. A novel and rapid diagnostic method for discriminating between feces of sika deer and Japanese serow by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, T; Horino, S; Ichihara, Y

    2015-08-01

    Severe damages to natural vegetation, agriculture, and forestry caused by overpopulation of sika deer (Cervus nippon) have markedly increased in Japan in recent years. To devise a population management plan of sika deer, information on the distribution and population size of the animal in each region is indispensable. An easy and effective method to obtain this information is to count the fecal pellets in the field. However, the habitat of sika deer in Japan overlaps that of Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus). Additionally, it is difficult to discriminate between the feces of both animals. Here, we present a rapid and precise diagnostic method for discriminating between the feces of sika deer and Japanese serow using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeting cytochrome b gene in the mitochondrial DNA. Our results showed that the LAMP can discriminate between the feces of sika deer and Japanese serow, and the method is simpler and more sensitive than the conventional molecular diagnostic method. Since LAMP method does not require special skills for molecular biology techniques, even the field researchers who have never done a molecular experiment can easily carry out the protocol. In addition, the entire protocol, from DNA extraction from fecal pellet to identification of species, takes only about 75 min and does not require expensive equipment. Hence, this diagnostic method is simple, fast, and accessible to anyone. As such, the method can be a useful tool to estimate distribution and population size of sika deer. PMID:26084704

  18. Integrated diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunthausen, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

  19. Modern sports eye injuries

    PubMed Central

    Capão Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcão-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Methods: Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Results: Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Conclusions: Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory. PMID:14609827

  20. Modern Method for Preventive Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Howard D.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a system at Michigan State University that comprises 16 separate programs and schedules 25,000 manhours of preventive maintenance. With information about preventive maintenance for over 100,000 units stored in its computer, the university saves personnel, time, and energy. (Author/MLF)

  1. An overview of the applied definitions and diagnostic methods to assess exercise oscillatory ventilation--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Justien; Beckers, Paul; Vanroy, Christel; Volckaerts, Tess; Vrints, Christiaan; Vissers, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The variable "exercise oscillatory ventilation" (EOV), assessed during cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), recently became a fundamental prognostic parameter in patients with heart failure. In literature, various definitions are suggested, but an uniformly accepted description to identify EOV still lacks. We performed a systematic review of the literature in order to determine the different definitions and diagnostic techniques to assess EOV. A systematic search strategy was established and executed in seven databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Clinical Trials, Science Direct, Pedro, Web Of Science library and Medline (Ovid)) resulting in 605 citations after de-duplication. Full-text articles (n=124) were assessed for eligibility, resulting in 75 citations. The review accounted 17,440 patients of whom 4,638 subjects presented EOV. Seven studies described EOV in a non-heart failure population accounting 168 EOV subjects. The definitions could be categorized in nine subdivisions of which four (n=43) referred to an original description. The other subdivisions were combinations of the original definitions (n=11), quantifications (n=4), computational (n=3), vaguely described (n=8) or not defined (n=6). Symptom limited maximal exercise tests were conducted to assess EOV, however the modes, protocols, software and data sampling were divers. Heterogeneity in the numerous definitions to identify EOV and the vaguely described assessment methods are hindering the evolution to a standardized uniformly accepted definition and technique to identify this abnormal breathing pattern. Unity in definition and international adopted assessment is warranted to strengthen its validity as a prognostic marker and could promote communication. It may facilitate clinical trials on pathophysiology and origin of EOV. PMID:25918072

  2. Diagnostic Accuracy and Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Methods for Detection of Soil-Transmitted Helminths in a Post-Treatment Setting in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kepha, Stella; Kihara, Jimmy H.; Njenga, Sammy M.; Pullan, Rachel L.; Brooker, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC methods for detection of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in a post-treatment setting in western Kenya. A cost analysis also explores the cost implications of collecting samples during school surveys when compared to household surveys. Methods Stool samples were collected from children (n = 652) attending 18 schools in Bungoma County and diagnosed by the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC coprological methods. Sensitivity and additional diagnostic performance measures were analyzed using Bayesian latent class modeling. Financial and economic costs were calculated for all survey and diagnostic activities, and cost per child tested, cost per case detected and cost per STH infection correctly classified were estimated. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the impact of various survey parameters on cost estimates. Results Both diagnostic methods exhibited comparable sensitivity for detection of any STH species over single and consecutive day sampling: 52.0% for single day Kato-Katz; 49.1% for single-day Mini-FLOTAC; 76.9% for consecutive day Kato-Katz; and 74.1% for consecutive day Mini-FLOTAC. Diagnostic performance did not differ significantly between methods for the different STH species. Use of Kato-Katz with school-based sampling was the lowest cost scenario for cost per child tested ($10.14) and cost per case correctly classified ($12.84). Cost per case detected was lowest for Kato-Katz used in community-based sampling ($128.24). Sensitivity analysis revealed the cost of case detection for any STH decreased non-linearly as prevalence rates increased and was influenced by the number of samples collected. Conclusions The Kato-Katz method was comparable in diagnostic sensitivity to the Mini-FLOTAC method, but afforded greater cost-effectiveness. Future work is required to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of STH surveillance in different settings. PMID:24810593

  3. Evaluation of Unbiased Next-Generation Sequencing of RNA (RNA-seq) as a Diagnostic Method in Influenza Virus-Positive Respiratory Samples

    PubMed Central

    Indenbirken, Daniela; Meyer, Thomas; Lütgehetmann, Marc; Lellek, Heinrich; Spohn, Michael; Aepfelbacher, Martin; Alawi, Malik; Grundhoff, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Unbiased nontargeted metagenomic RNA sequencing (UMERS) has the advantage to detect known as well as unknown pathogens and, thus, can significantly improve the detection of viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal sequences in public health settings. In particular, conventional diagnostic methods successfully identify the putative pathogenic agent in only 30% to 40% of respiratory specimens from patients with acute respiratory illness. Here, we applied UMERS to 24 diagnostic respiratory specimens (bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL] fluid, sputum samples, and a swab) from patients with seasonal influenza infection and 5 BAL fluid samples from patients with pneumonia that tested negative for influenza to validate RNA sequencing as an unbiased diagnostic tool in comparison to conventional diagnostic methods. In addition to our comparison to PCR, we evaluated the potential to retrieve comprehensive influenza virus genomic information and the capability to detect known superinfecting pathogens. Compared to quantitative real-time PCR for influenza viral sequences, UMERS detected influenza viral sequences in 18 of 24 samples. Complete influenza virus genomes could be assembled from 8 samples. Furthermore, in 3 of 24 influenza-positive samples, additional viral pathogens could be detected, and 2 of 24 samples showed a significantly increased abundance of individual bacterial species known to cause superinfections during an influenza virus infection. Thus, analysis of respiratory samples from known or suspected influenza patients by UMERS provides valuable information that is relevant for clinical investigation. PMID:25972420

  4. Exploiting the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring via chronobiometric and chaosbiometric methods for a more exhaustive diagnostic approach to arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Cugini, P

    2008-01-01

    Presently, the ambulatory (A) blood (B) pressure (P) monitoring (M) is mainly used for diagnosing arterial hypertension (AH) in some special clinical conditions in which the causal sphygmomanometry appears not to be enough exhaustive. However, it must be pointed out that the actual approach to ABPM is almost simplistic, only consisting in a biometric analysis of discrete raw temporal values for systolic (S) and diastolic (D) BP and heart rate (HR). It must be stressed that BP and HR are hemodynamic variables characterized by a well established circadian rhythm (C) in their 24-h physiological values. Therefore, an appropriate chronobiometric approach, via Single Cosinor method, can improve the diagnostic value, its optimal oscillatory curve reducing all the biometric information to three parameters, i.e., MESOR (M, mean level of oscillation), Amplitude (A, extent of oscillation from M) and Acrophase (phi, timing of A with respect to local midnight). Accordingly, one can detect whether the BP CR is still manifest, as it is in essential hypertension (EH), or altered , as it is in secondary hypertension (SH). Therefore, by using the discriminant analysis for the three multivariate parameters, M, A, phi, of the BP cosine curve, one can statistically predict whether a new monitored hypertensive patient has a significant probability to be affected by EH or SH. Interestingly, by applying a further chronobiometric integration analysis, i.e., the Cosint analysis, it is possible to estimate the area under the BP oscillatory curve, for calculating the overall, diurnal, nocturnal, hourly pressure load (Baric Impact, BI) in terms respectively of mm2 Hg/24-h, mm2 Hg/16-h, mm2Hg/8-h, mm2 Hg/1-h. By comparing the overall BI of the new monitored hypertensive patient to its upper reference limit, one can estimate how much is the Baric Excess (Hyperbaric Impact, HI) caused by the personal hypertensive regimen. Finally, by using the chaos method of fractal interpolation to BP 24-h values, it is possible to establish whether or not the monitored hypertensive subject is presumably at risk of unpredictable high BP values (presumable risk of hypertensive crisis). PMID:19169597

  5. Use of the Attribute Hierarchy Method for Development of Student Cognitive Models and Diagnostic Assessments in Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrigan, S.; Brodsky, L. M.; Loper, S.; Brown, N.; Curley, J.; Baker, J.; Goss, M.; Castek, J.; Barber, J.

    2010-12-01

    There is a recognized need to better understand student learning in the geosciences (Stofflet, 1994; Zalles, Quallmalz, Gobert and Pallant, 2007). Educators, cognitive psychologists and practicing scientists have also called for instructional approaches that support deep conceptual development (Manduca, Mogk and Stillings, 2004, Libarkin and Kurdziel, 2006). In both cases there is an important role for educational measures that can generate descriptions of how student understanding develops over time and inform instruction. The presenters will suggest one way of responding to these needs by describing the Attribute Hierarchy Method (AHM) of assessment (Leighton, Gierl and Hunka, 2004; Gierl, Cui, Wang and Zhou, 2008) as enacted in a large-scale earth science curriculum development project funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The AHM is one approach to criterion referenced, diagnostic assessment that ties measure design to cognitive models of student learning in order to support justified inferences about students’ understanding and the knowledge required for continued development. The Attribute Hierarchy Method bears potential for researchers and practitioners interested in learning progressions and solves many problems associated with making meaningful, justified inferences about students’ understanding based on their assessment performances. The process followed to design and develop the project’s cognitive models as well as a description of how they are used in subsequent assessment task design will be emphasized in order to demonstrate how the AHM may be applied in the context of geoscience education. Results from over twenty student cognitive interviews, and two hypothesized cognitive models -- one describing a student pathway for understanding rock formation and a second describing a student pathway for increasingly sophisticated use of maps and models in the geosciences - are also described. Sample assessment items will be provided as indications of the final assessment measures. The project’s efforts to create an on-line geoscience curriculum for use in the middle school grades that adapts to student performances by customizing whole lessons, grouping assignments or student feedback will provide a broader context for the discussion.

  6. Physical diagnosis versus modern technology. A review.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, F. T.

    1990-01-01

    The role of physical diagnosis in an age of modern diagnostic technology has been evaluated by investigators assessing specific techniques in a number of areas, though there has been no systematic comprehensive study of the sensitivity, specificity, cost-benefit ratio, and reliability of physical diagnosis relative to technologic diagnostic tools. In a review of published studies comparing physical with nonphysical diagnostic techniques, the startling accuracy of physical diagnosticians in some areas contrasts sharply with the extremely poor correlation of physical findings with autopsy or imaging studies in others. In a time of constricting financial resources, physicians-and those who teach or judge physicians' skills-must begin to compare physical and nonphysical diagnostic techniques rigorously so that the best, safest, and least expensive diagnostic test is chosen in each clinical situation. PMID:2190412

  7. A budget impact analysis comparing use of a modern fecal management system to traditional fecal management methods in two canadian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Langill, Mike; Yan, Songkai; Kommala, Dheerendra; Michenko, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Research suggests that fecal management systems (FMS) offer advantages, including potential cost savings, over traditional methods of caring for patients with little or no bowel control and liquid or semi-liquid stool. A budget impact model accounting for material costs of managing fecal incontinence was developed, and 1 year of experiential data from two hospitals' ICUs were applied to it. Material costs were estimated for traditional methods (ie, use of absorbent briefs/pads, skin cleansers, moisturizers) and compared with material costs of using a modern FMS for both average (normal-range weight) and complex (bariatric with wounds) ICU patients at hospital 1 and any ICU patient at hospital 2. Reductions in daily material costs per ICU patient using FMS versus traditional methods were reported by hospital 1 ($93.74 versus $143.89, average patient; $150.55 versus $476.41, complex patient) and by hospital 2 ($61.15 versus $104.85 per patient). When extrapolated to the total number of patients expected to use FMS at each institution, substantial annual cost savings were projected (hospital 1: $57,216; hospital 2: $627,095). In addition, total nursing time per day for managing fecal incontinence (ie, changing, cleaning, repositioning patients, changing pads, linens, and the like) was estimated at hospital 1, showing substantial reductions with FMS (120 minutes versus 348 minutes for average patients; 240 minutes versus 760 minutes for complex). Nursing time was not included in cost calculations to keep the analysis conservative. Results of this study suggest the materials cost of using the FMS in ICU patients was substantially lower than the cost of traditional fecal incontinence management protocols of care in both hospitals. Comparative studies using patient level data, materials, and nursing time costs, as well as complication rates, are warranted. PMID:23221016

  8. Tear-off patterning: a simple method for patterning nitrocellulose membranes to improve the performance of point-of-care diagnostic biosensors.

    PubMed

    Song, Mun-Bum; Joung, Hyou-Arm; Oh, Young Kyoung; Jung, Kwonyoung; Ahn, Young Deok; Kim, Min-Gon

    2015-07-21

    This article describes a new method, referred to as "tear-off patterning," for patterning nitrocellulose (NC) membranes in order to fabricate NC-based point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices. Paper-based microfluidic sensors usually employ hydrophobic barrier coatings such as paraffin wax on either paper or membranes. Herein, complex patterns were fabricated by stamping the target area with dimethyl sulfoxide before tearing off the stamped area. Fluid flow and morphological analyses were performed in order to characterize the patterned membranes. Furthermore, the myoglobin and creatine kinase-MB levels in human serum were measured simultaneously using a dual-fluidic-channel-patterned NC membrane in order to confirm the usefulness of the patterning method for fabricating POC biosensors. The proposed method for patterning NC membranes offers clear advantages, such as the ability to fabricate complex designs and patterns without a hydrophobic barrier after protein immobilization in a laboratory and in a simple, low-cost manner. We believe that this method can be used to develop various POC diagnostic biosensors at the research and development stage and can help improve the performance and features of POC diagnostic devices. PMID:26062104

  9. Diagnosing Examinees' Attributes-Mastery Using the Bayesian Inference for Binomial Proportion: A New Method for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun Seok John

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA) is a new theoretical framework for psychological and educational testing that is designed to provide detailed information about examinees' strengths and weaknesses in specific knowledge structures and processing skills. During the last three decades, more than a dozen psychometric models have been developed…

  10. Effect of gamma-irradiation on serum samples on the diagnostic performance of ELISA methods for the detection of trypanosomal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Rebeski, D E; Winger, E M; Gabler, C M; Dwinger, R H; Crowther, J R

    2001-08-01

    The study investigated the effect of gamma-irradiation on bovine serum samples on the ability of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods to detect trypanosomal antibodies. The serum samples were analysed using two standardised indirect ELISA systems. Higher measurement values were observed for most gamma-irradiated antibody positive and negative test samples. Using cut-off points, determined from the analysis of a non-irradiated trypanosomal antibody-negative population, the gamma-irradiated sera data showed that there was an increased risk of misclassifying samples as false positive or cross-reactive due to increased analytical sensitivity and decreased analytical specificity. The intraplate precision and agreement between tested and expected values of measurements were not altered throughout. The impact on the assays' diagnostic performance was estimated by analysing diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic specificity and related parameters. The data demonstrated that although there was a bias of higher measurement values after gamma-irradiation, this could be compensated after readjustment of the cut-off points to obtain best separation of antibody-positive and -negative samples. Thus, for each assay, no significant difference of the diagnostic proficiency was found before and after gamma-irradiation. The practical implications are discussed of a serum sterilisation procedure using (60)Co gamma-rays for routine sample testing, assay validation and trypanosomosis monitoring and tsetse-fly control and eradication programmes. PMID:11470177

  11. Probe diagnostics in the far scrape-off layer plasma of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak using a sideband harmonic method

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hong, Suk-Ho; Park, Il-Seo; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kang, Hyun-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-15

    Plasma characteristics in the far scrape-off layer region of tokamak play a crucial role in the stable plasma operation and its sustainability. Due to the huge facility, electrical diagnostic systems to measure plasma properties have extremely long cable length resulting in large stray current. To overcome this problem, a sideband harmonic method was applied to the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak plasma. The sideband method allows the measurement of the electron temperature and the plasma density without the effect of the stray current. The measured plasma densities are compared with those from the interferometer, and the results show reliability of the method.

  12. Probe diagnostics in the far scrape-off layer plasma of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak using a sideband harmonic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hong, Suk-Ho; Park, Il-Seo; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kang, Hyun-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-01

    Plasma characteristics in the far scrape-off layer region of tokamak play a crucial role in the stable plasma operation and its sustainability. Due to the huge facility, electrical diagnostic systems to measure plasma properties have extremely long cable length resulting in large stray current. To overcome this problem, a sideband harmonic method was applied to the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak plasma. The sideband method allows the measurement of the electron temperature and the plasma density without the effect of the stray current. The measured plasma densities are compared with those from the interferometer, and the results show reliability of the method.

  13. Probe diagnostics in the far scrape-off layer plasma of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak using a sideband harmonic method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hong, Suk-Ho; Park, Il-Seo; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kang, Hyun-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-01

    Plasma characteristics in the far scrape-off layer region of tokamak play a crucial role in the stable plasma operation and its sustainability. Due to the huge facility, electrical diagnostic systems to measure plasma properties have extremely long cable length resulting in large stray current. To overcome this problem, a sideband harmonic method was applied to the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak plasma. The sideband method allows the measurement of the electron temperature and the plasma density without the effect of the stray current. The measured plasma densities are compared with those from the interferometer, and the results show reliability of the method. PMID:26724028

  14. Sedimentology of rocky shorelines: 1. A review of the problem, with analytical methods, and insights gained from the Hulopoe Gravel and the modern rocky shoreline of Lanai, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felton, E. Anne

    2002-10-01

    Hypotheses advanced concerning the origin of the Pleistocene Hulopoe Gravel on Lanai include mega-tsunami, abandoned beach, 'multiple event,' rocky shoreline, and for parts of the deposit, Native Hawaiian constructions and degraded lava flow fronts. Uplift of Lanai shorelines has been suggested for deposits occurring up to at least 190 m. These conflicting hypotheses highlight problems with the interpretation of coarse gravel deposits containing marine biotic remains. The geological records of the processes implied by these hypotheses should look very different. Discrimination among these or any other hypotheses for the origins of the Hulopoe Gravel will require careful study of vertical and lateral variations in litho- and biofacies, facies architecture, contact relationships and stratal geometries of this deposit. Observations of modern rocky shorelines, particularly on Lanai adjacent to Hulopoe Gravel outcrops, have shown that distinctive coarse gravel facies are present, several of which occur in specific geomorphic settings. Tectonic, isostatic and eustatic changes which cause rapid shoreline translations on steep slopes favour preservation of former rocky shorelines and associated sedimentary deposits both above and below sea level. The sedimentary record of those shorelines is likely to be complex. The modern rocky shoreline sedimentary environment is a hostile one, largely neglected by sedimentologists. A range of high-energy processes characterize these shorelines. Long-period swell, tsunami and storm waves can erode hard bedrock and generate coarse gravel. They also erode older deposits, depositing fresh ones containing mixtures of materials of different ages. Additional gravelly material may be contributed by rivers draining steep hinterlands. To fully evaluate rocky shoreline deposition in the broadest sense, for both the Hulopoe Gravel and other deposits, sedimentary facies models are needed for rocky shorelines occurring in a range of settings. Recognition and description of rocky shoreline deposits are crucial for correctly interpreting the geological history of oceanic and volcanic arc islands, for distinguishing between ancient tsunami and storm deposits, and for interpreting coarse-grained deposits preserved on high energy coasts of continents. Problems include not only the absence of appropriate sedimentary facies models linking rocky shoreline deposits and environments but also, until recently, lack of a systematic descriptive scheme applicable to coarse gravel deposits generally. Two complementary methods serve to integrate the wide range of bed and clast attributes and parameters which characterize complex coarse gravel deposits. The composition and fabric (CAF) method has a materials focus, providing detailed description of attributes of the constituent clasts, petrology, the proportions of gravel, sand and mud, and the ways in which these materials are organized. The sedimentary facies model building (FMB) method emphasizes the organization of a deposit on a bed-by-bed basis to identify facies and infer depositional processes. The systematic use of a comprehensive gravel fabric and petrography log (GFPL), in conjunction with detailed vertical profiles, provides visual representations of a range of deposit characteristics. Criteria useful for distinguishing sedimentary facies in the Hulopoe Gravel are: grain-size modes, amount of matrix, bed geometry, sedimentary structures, bed fabric and clast roundness.

  15. Diagnostic apparatus and method for use in the alignment of one or more laser means onto a fiber optics interface

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Steve A.; Shannon, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Diagnostic apparatus for use in determining the proper alignment of a plurality of laser beams onto a fiber optics interface is disclosed. The apparatus includes a lens assembly which serves two functions, first to focus a plurality of laser beams onto the fiber optics interface, and secondly to reflect and image the interface using scattered light to a monitor means. The monitor means permits indirect observation of the alignment or focusing of the laser beams onto the fiber optics interface.

  16. Diagnostic apparatus and method for use in the alignment of one or more laser means onto a fiber optics interface

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, S.A.; Shannon, R.R.

    1985-01-18

    Diagnostic apparatus for use in determining the proper alignment of a plurality of laser beams onto a fiber optics interface is disclosed. The apparatus includes a lens assembly which serves two functions, first to focus a plurality of laser beams onto the fiber optics interface, and secondly to reflect and image the interface using scattered light to a monitor means. The monitor means permits indirect observation of the alignment or focusing of the laser beams onto the fiber optics interface.

  17. Methods of optical diagnostics of electron-positron beams and interaction between plasma and high-current electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyacheslavov, L. N.; Ivantsivskii, M. V.; Meshkov, O. I.; Popov, S. S.; Smaluk, V. V.

    2012-03-01

    Optical diagnostics is widely used, both in plasma-physics experiments and in measuring parameters of electron and positron beams in accelerators. In doing so, the approaches with the same methodological base are often applied, which is explained by similarity of certain properties of objects under study despite the fact that these fields of physics are absolutely specific and require using the specialized techniques. The possibility of close contacts and cooperation among scientists concerned with similar problems in different fields of physics contributes to the fruitful exchange of ideas and helps to overcome these problems. It is especially characteristic of the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, which is famous for pioneering works in the field of electron-positron colliders and controlled thermonuclear fusion. The first part of this paper presents a review of optical diagnostics of the stationary beam parameters in cyclic accelerators of electrons and positrons. The only techniques considered are those that became the recognized tools at colliders and storage rings of the latest generation, without which the routine operation of the facility is difficult to imagine. The second part of the paper describes optical diagnostics used in experiments of heating the plasma by a high-current electron beam.

  18. Modern problems of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    The role of energy and methods of its saving for the development of human society and life are analyzed. The importance of future use of space energy flows and energy of water and air oceans is emphasized. The authors consider the idea of the unit for production of electric energy and pure substances using sodium chloride which reserves are limitless on the planet. Looking retrospectively at the development of power engineering from the elementary fire to modern electric power station, we see that the used method of heat production, namely by direct interaction of fuel and oxidizer, is the simplest. However, it may be possible to combust coal, i.e., carbon in salt melt, for instance, sodium chloride that would be more rational and efficient. If the stated problems are solved positively, we would master all energy properties of the substance; and this is the main problem of thermodynamics being one of the sciences on energy.

  19. [Methods of mathematical modeling in morphological diagnostics of Chernobyl factor influence on the testes of coal miners of Donbas--the Chernobyl disaster fighters].

    PubMed

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2014-01-01

    The morphometric estimation of parenchyma and stroma condition included the determination of 29 parameters in testicles at 27 persons. The mathematical model of morphogenesis of testicles was created by Bayes' method. The method of differential diagnosis of testicles tissues' changes conditioned by the influence of the Chernobyl factor and/or unfavorable terms of the work in underground coal mines have been worked out. Its practical use provides exactness and reliability of the diagnosis (not less than 95%), independence from the level of the qualification and personal experience of the doctor, allows us to unify, optimize and individualize the diagnostic algorithms, answer the requirements of evidential medicine. PMID:24908955

  20. Evaluating College Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Modern Physics: Test of Understanding on Concepts of Modern Physics (TUCO-MP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akarsu, Bayram

    2011-01-01

    In present paper, we propose a new diagnostic test to measure students' conceptual knowledge of principles of modern physics topics. Over few decades since born of physics education research (PER), many diagnostic instruments that measure students' conceptual understanding of various topics in physics, the earliest tests developed in PER are Force…

  1. Computerized method for evaluating diagnostic image quality of calcified plaque images in cardiac CT: Validation on a physical dynamic cardiac phantom

    SciTech Connect

    King, Martin; Rodgers, Zachary; Giger, Maryellen L.; Bardo, Dianna M. E.; Patel, Amit R.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: In cardiac computed tomography (CT), important clinical indices, such as the coronary calcium score and the percentage of coronary artery stenosis, are often adversely affected by motion artifacts. As a result, the expert observer must decide whether or not to use these indices during image interpretation. Computerized methods potentially can be used to assist in these decisions. In a previous study, an artificial neural network (ANN) regression model provided assessability (image quality) indices of calcified plaque images from the software NCAT phantom that were highly agreeable with those provided by expert observers. The method predicted assessability indices based on computer-extracted features of the plaque. In the current study, the ANN-predicted assessability indices were used to identify calcified plaque images with diagnostic calcium scores (based on mass) from a physical dynamic cardiac phantom. The basic assumption was that better quality images were associated with more accurate calcium scores. Methods: A 64-channel CT scanner was used to obtain 500 calcified plaque images from a physical dynamic cardiac phantom at different heart rates, cardiac phases, and plaque locations. Two expert observers independently provided separate sets of assessability indices for each of these images. Separate sets of ANN-predicted assessability indices tailored to each observer were then generated within the framework of a bootstrap resampling scheme. For each resampling iteration, the absolute calcium score error between the calcium scores of the motion-contaminated plaque image and its corresponding stationary image served as the ground truth in terms of indicating images with diagnostic calcium scores. The performances of the ANN-predicted and observer-assigned indices in identifying images with diagnostic calcium scores were then evaluated using ROC analysis. Results: Assessability indices provided by the first observer and the corresponding ANN performed similarly (AUC{sub OBS1}=0.80 [0.73,0.86] vs AUC{sub ANN1}=0.88 [0.82,0.92]) as that of the second observer and the corresponding ANN (AUC{sub OBS2}=0.87 [0.83,0.91] vs AUC{sub ANN2}=0.90 [0.85,0.94]). Moreover, the ANN-predicted indices were generated in a fraction of the time required to obtain the observer-assigned indices. Conclusions: ANN-predicted assessability indices performed similar to observer-assigned assessability indices in identifying images with diagnostic calcium scores from the physical dynamic cardiac phantom. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of using computerized methods for identifying images with diagnostic clinical indices in cardiac CT images.

  2. Nanodevices in diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ye; Fine, Daniel H.; Tasciotti, Ennio; Bouamrani, Ali; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    The real-time, personalized and highly sensitive early-stage diagnosis of disease remains an important challenge in modern medicine. With the ability to interact with matter at the nanoscale, the development of nanotechnology architectures and materials could potentially extend subcellular and molecular detection beyond the limits of conventional diagnostic modalities. At the very least, nanotechnology should be able to dramatically accelerate biomarker discovery, as well as facilitate disease monitoring, especially of maladies presenting a high degree of molecular and compositional heterogeneity. This article gives an overview of several of the most promising nanodevices and nanomaterials along with their applications in clinical practice. Significant work to adapt nanoscale materials and devices to clinical applications involving large interdisciplinary collaborations is already underway with the potential for nanotechnology to become an important enabling diagnostic technology. PMID:20229595

  3. [Diagnostic criteria of ultrasonographic methods of the study of cerebral venous circulatory failure in initial manifestations of cerebrovascular disorders].

    PubMed

    Eninia, G I; Egere, D A; Robule, V Kh

    1990-01-01

    Altogether 94 patients with initial manifestations of brain blood supply failure (IMBBSF) consequent on vegetative vascular dystonia and atherosclerosis of the cerebral vessels were examined. Clinical, echopulsographic and dopplerographic examinations demonstrated that 54 patients had cerebral venous discirculation. The main diagnostic criteria for cerebral venous discirculation in patients with IMBBSF lie in an increase of the configuration of the diastolic part of the echoPG of the cerebral arteries, possibility of recording echoPG of the cerebral veins, a rise of the linear velocity of the blood flow in the jugular veins under head-down test during dopplerography. PMID:2175094

  4. Modern Brain Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Ramon F.; Cha, Soonmee

    2015-01-01

    The imaging and clinical management of patients with brain tumor continue to evolve over time and now heavily rely on physiologic imaging in addition to high-resolution structural imaging. Imaging remains a powerful noninvasive tool to positively impact the management of patients with brain tumor. This article provides an overview of the current state-of-the art clinical brain tumor imaging. In this review, we discuss general magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods and their application to the diagnosis of, treatment planning and navigation, and disease monitoring in patients with brain tumor. We review the strengths, limitations, and pitfalls of structural imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging techniques, MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography/MR, and functional imaging. Overall this review provides a basis for understudying the role of modern imaging in the care of brain tumor patients. PMID:25977902

  5. Molecular Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Hyonmin; Deirmengian, Carl A.; Hickok, Noreen J.; Morrison, Tiffany N.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic infections are complex conditions that require immediate diagnosis and accurate identification of the causative organisms to facilitate appropriate management. Conventional methodologies for diagnosis of these infections sometimes lack accuracy or sufficient rapidity. Current molecular diagnostics are an emerging area of bench-to-bedside research in orthopaedic infections. Examples of promising molecular diagnostics include measurement of a specific biomarker in the synovial fluid, polymerase chain reaction–based detection of bacterial genes, and metabolomic determination of responses to orthopaedic infection. PMID:25808967

  6. Modern technology calls for a modern approach to classification of epileptic seizures and the epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Lders, Hans O; Amina, Shahram; Baumgartner, Christopher; Benbadis, Selim; Bermeo-Ovalle, Adriana; Devereaux, Michael; Diehl, Beate; Edwards, Jonathan; Baca-Vaca, Guadalupe Fernandez; Hamer, Hajo; Ikeda, Akio; Kaiboriboon, Kitti; Kellinghaus, Christoph; Koubeissi, Mohamad; Lardizabal, David; Lhatoo, Samden; Lders, Jrgen; Mani, Jayanti; Mayor, Luis Carlos; Miller, Jonathan; Noachtar, Soheyl; Pestana, Elia; Rosenow, Felix; Sakamoto, Americo; Shahid, Asim; Steinhoff, Bernhard J; Syed, Tanvir; Tanner, Adriana; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2012-03-01

    In the last 10-15 years the ILAE Commission on Classification and Terminology has been presenting proposals to modernize the current ILAE Classification of Epileptic Seizures and Epilepsies. These proposals were discussed extensively in a series of articles published recently in Epilepsia and Epilepsy Currents. There is almost universal consensus that the availability of new diagnostic techniques as also of a modern understanding of epilepsy calls for a complete revision of the Classification of Epileptic Seizures and Epilepsies. Unfortunately, however, the Commission is still not prepared to take a bold step ahead and completely revisit our approach to classification of epileptic seizures and epilepsies. In this manuscript we critically analyze the current proposals of the Commission and make suggestions for a classification system that reflects modern diagnostic techniques and our current understanding of epilepsy. PMID:22332669

  7. [Pathology diagnostics by human breath analyze].

    PubMed

    Kopylov, F Iu; Syrkin, A L; Chomakhidze, P Sh; Bykova, A A; Shaltaeva, Iu R; Beliakov, V V; Pershenkov, V S; Samotaev, N N; Golovin, A V; Vasil'ev, V K; Malkin, E K; Gromov, E A; Ivanov, I A; Lipatov, D Iu; Iakovlev, D Iu

    2013-01-01

    Modern medicine experiences deficit of inexpensive rapid screening technologies despite progress in the development of diagnostic methods for various diseases. A promising approach is the analysis of exhaled air known to contain thousands of volatile organic substances whose composition differs considerably in health and disease. We isolated certain compounds that may be used as biomarkers of cardiovascular pathology (nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, pentane, isoprene, acetone). There is a variety of methods for the detection of substances in the exhaled air; such as gas spectrography, mass spectrometry, etc. However, ion mobility spectrometry appears the most suitable technique for the purpose of screening studies due to its high speed and sensitivity, small size of the apparatus, and possibility to measure trace amounts of the substances of interest. Possibilities to diagnose lung cancer based on exhaled air composition are considered. PMID:25696945

  8. ID Learning Unit—Diagnostics Update: Current Laboratory Methods for Rapid Pathogen Identification in Patients With Bloodstream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Rubach, Matthew P.; Hanson, Kimberly E.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic assays that rapidly identify bloodstream pathogens have the potential to improve patient outcomes and antibiotic stewardship efforts. Current tests are based on the detection of nucleic acids that are specific to a targeted pathogen or based on organism identification using mass spectrometry. Most rapid assays require a positive blood culture as their sample input and expedite pathogen identification by 24–72 hours. For those assays that also report detection of drug resistance markers, information on antimicrobial resistance is expedited by 48–96 hours. This learning unit reviews the basic principles of rapid microorganism identification assays for bloodstream infections with the aim of assisting clinicians in the interpretation and optimal utilization of test results. PMID:26719845

  9. Predictive research methods of enamel and dentine for initial caries detection.

    PubMed

    Kunin, Anatoly A; Belenova, Irina A; Ippolitov, Yury A; Moiseeva, Natalia S; Kunin, Dmitry A

    2013-01-01

    Currently, various research methods of enamel and dentine for precautionary diagnostics of initial caries forms are developed; however, the vast majority of these do not provide objective criteria of caries diagnostics or are very difficult to perform. Therefore, the search of diagnostics and enamel research methods, which will allow predicting caries emergence and to carry out personalised prevention of this pathology, is necessary. In this review, modern diagnostic methods that allow understanding the main aspects of caries process, assess the risk of its development, and also suggest the possibility of emergency prevention of caries progression in the nearest future are presented. PMID:23800183

  10. Predictive research methods of enamel and dentine for initial caries detection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Currently, various research methods of enamel and dentine for precautionary diagnostics of initial caries forms are developed; however, the vast majority of these do not provide objective criteria of caries diagnostics or are very difficult to perform. Therefore, the search of diagnostics and enamel research methods, which will allow predicting caries emergence and to carry out personalised prevention of this pathology, is necessary. In this review, modern diagnostic methods that allow understanding the main aspects of caries process, assess the risk of its development, and also suggest the possibility of emergency prevention of caries progression in the nearest future are presented. PMID:23800183

  11. Evolving diagnostic criteria for multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy historically defined by the presence of end-organ damage, specifically, hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia, and bone lesions (CRAB features) that can be attributed to the neoplastic process. In 2014, the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) updated the diagnostic criteria for MM to add specific biomarkers that can be used to make the diagnosis of the disease in patients who did not have CRAB features. In addition, the update allows modern imaging methods including computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography-CT to diagnose MM bone disease. These changes enable early diagnosis, and allow the initiation of effective therapy to prevent the development of end-organ damage in patients who are at the highest risk. This article reviews these and several other clarifications and revisions that were made to the diagnostic criteria for MM and related disorders. The updated disease definition for MM also automatically resulted in a revision to the diagnostic criteria for the asymptomatic phase of the disease termed smoldering MM (SMM). Thus the current diagnosis and risk-stratification of SMM is also reviewed in this article. Using specific prognostic factors, it is possible to identify a subset of patients with SMM who have a risk of progression to MM of 25% per year (high-risk SMM). An approach to the management of patients with low- and high-risk SMM is discussed. PMID:26637733

  12. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  13. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  14. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography as a Diagnostic Method for Determination of Gingival Thickness and Distance between Gingival Margin and Bone Crest

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Germana Jayme; Ruiz, Luis Fernando Naldi; de Alencar, Ana Helena Gonçalves; Porto, Olavo César Lyra; Estrela, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a diagnostic method for determination of gingival thickness (GT) and distance between gingival margin and vestibular (GMBC-V) and interproximal bone crests (GMBC-I). GT and GMBC-V were measured in 348 teeth and GMBC-I was measured in 377 tooth regions of 29 patients with gummy smile. GT was assessed using transgingival probing (TP), ultrasound (US), and CBCT, whereas GMBC-V and GMBC-I were assessed by transsurgical clinical evaluation (TCE) and CBCT. Statistical analyses used independent t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and simple linear regression. Difference was observed for GT: between TP, CBCT, and US considering all teeth; between TP and CBCT and between TP and US in incisors and canines; between TP and US in premolars and first molars. TP presented the highest means for GT. Positive correlation and linear regression were observed between TP and CBCT, TP and US, and CBCT and US. Difference was observed for GMBC-V and GMBC-I using TCE and CBCT, considering all teeth. Correlation and linear regression results were significant for GMBC-V and GMBC-I in incisors, canines, and premolars. CBCT is an effective diagnostic method to visualize and measure GT, GMBC-V, and GMBC-I. PMID:25918737

  15. Isolation and identification of Duck tembusu virus strain lH and development of latex-agglutination diagnostic method for rapid detection of antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanxi; Wen, Yaping; Yifan Huang; Wu, Yijian; Cai, Yilong; Xu, Lihui; Wang, Changkang; Li, Ang; Wu, Baocheng; Chen, Jilong

    2014-12-01

    SUMMARY. An outbreak of egg-drop syndrome occurred on a Sheldrake duck farm in Longhai in Fujian Province, China, in 2012. The main clinical symptoms were sharply reduced egg production, crooked necks, and death. We isolated the virus from the sick ducks, identified it, and observed the histopathologic changes after viral infection. We detected viral RNA in the blood and feces of the infected ducks and developed a latex-agglutination diagnostic method to detect anti-Tembusu-virus antibodies. Our results show that the pathogenic virus is a Tembusu virus. The histopathologic changes included follicular cell degeneration and necrosis, follicular cavity filled with blood cells, massive necrosis in the brain, and degeneration and necrosis of the nerve and glial cells. When the transmission of the virus in the infected ducks was studied, the duck blood was positive for viral nucleic acid for up to 29 days, and the feces were positive for viral nucleic acid for up to 13 days. We successfully established a simple, rapid, and easy- to-use latex-agglutination diagnostic method for the detection of antibodies against duck Tembusu virus. PMID:25619007

  16. MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JACKSON, R. GRAHAM

    CHOICES AND ISSUES IN SELECTING MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS ARE DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT. BACKGROUND INFORMATION IS INTRODUCED IN TERMS OF REASONS FOR ABANDONMENT, THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SCHOOL BUILDING OBSOLESCENCE, AND PROBLEMS IN THE MODERNIZATION PROCESS. INTERIOR PARTITIONS ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF BUILDING MATERIALS,…

  17. Myth and Modern Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patai, Raphael

    Various theories about the purpose of myth are described briefly, and then the place of myth in modern life is explored. Modern man is found to still create his own myths, and his life is still influenced by mythical prototypes and images. Myths, mythical beliefs, and mythical thinking are discovered in socialist, Communist, and totalitarian…

  18. Fungal Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, Thomas R.; Wickes, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of fungal infection is critical to effective treatment. There are many impediments to diagnosis such as a diminishing number of clinical mycologists, cost, time to result, and requirements for sensitivity and specificity. In addition, fungal diagnostics must meet the contrasting needs presented by the increasing diversity of fungi found in association with the use of immunosuppressive agents in countries with high levels of medical care and the need for diagnostics in resource-limited countries where large numbers of opportunistic infections occur in patients with AIDS. Traditional approaches to diagnosis include direct microscopic examination of clinical samples, histopathology, culture, and serology. Emerging technologies include molecular diagnostics and antigen detection in clinical samples. Innovative new technologies that use molecular and immunoassay platforms have the potential to meet the needs of both resource-rich and resource-limited clinical environments. PMID:24692193

  19. Non-invasive probe diagnostic method for electron temperature and ion current density in atmospheric pressure plasma jet source

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young-Cheol; Kim, Yu-Sin; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Moon, Jun-Hyeon; Chung, Chin-Wook; Kim, Yunjung; Cho, Guangsup

    2015-08-15

    The electrical probe diagnostics are very hard to be applied to atmospheric plasmas due to severe perturbation by the electrical probes. To overcome this, the probe for measuring electron temperature and ion current density is indirectly contacted with an atmospheric jet source. The plasma parameters are obtained by using floating harmonic analysis. The probe is mounted on the quartz tube that surrounds plasma. When a sinusoidal voltage is applied to a probe contacting on a quartz tube, the electrons near the sheath at dielectric tube are collected and the probe current has harmonic components due to probe sheath nonlinearity. From the relation of the harmonic currents and amplitude of the sheath voltage, the electron temperature near the wall can be obtained with collisional sheath model. The electron temperatures and ion current densities measured at the discharge region are in the ranges of 2.7–3.4 eV and 1.7–5.2 mA/cm{sup 2} at various flow rates and input powers.

  20. A diagnostic study on folium and orchil dyes with non-invasive and micro-destructive methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Arrais, Aldo; Marsano, Francesco; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Idone, Ambra; Gulmini, Monica

    2015-05-01

    Folium and orchil are dyes of vegetal origin. Folium is obtained from Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) A. Juss., whereas orchil is obtained from Roccella and other genera of lichens. These dyes were used in the past to impart purple hue to paintings and textiles as substitutes for the more prised Tyrian purple dye, obtained from shellfish. Despite several citations in ancient technical treatises dating back at least to the Greek-Roman age, the identification of these dyes in artworks is rare. In the case of folium, an additional drawback is that its composition is presently unknown. In this work different non-invasive (FT-IR, FT-Raman, fibre optic reflectance spectrophotometry, spectrofluorimetry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and micro-invasive (surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) techniques were used in order to increase the diagnostic information available on these dyes. Measurements were carried out on the dyes extracted from raw materials and on painted or dyed parchments. The possibility to distinguish between folium and orchil by chemical analysis is discussed.

  1. The Use of Image-Spectroscopy Technology as a Diagnostic Method for Seed Health Testing and Variety Identification

    PubMed Central

    Vrešak, Martina; Halkjaer Olesen, Merete; Gislum, René; Bavec, Franc; Ravn Jørgensen, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Application of rapid and time-efficient health diagnostic and identification technology in the seed industry chain could accelerate required analysis, characteristic description and also ultimately availability of new desired varieties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of multispectral imaging and single kernel near-infrared spectroscopy (SKNIR) for determination of seed health and variety separation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm. & Camus). The analysis, carried out in autumn 2013 at AU-Flakkebjerg, Denmark, included nine winter triticale varieties and 27 wheat varieties provided by the Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences Maribor, Slovenia. Fusarium sp. and black point disease-infected parts of the seed surface could successfully be distinguished from uninfected parts with use of a multispectral imaging device (405–970 nm wavelengths). SKNIR was applied in this research to differentiate all 36 involved varieties based on spectral differences due to variation in the chemical composition. The study produced an interesting result of successful distinguishing between the infected and uninfected parts of the seed surface. Furthermore, the study was able to distinguish between varieties. Together these components could be used in further studies for the development of a sorting model by combining data from multispectral imaging and SKNIR for identifying disease(s) and varieties. PMID:27010656

  2. The usefulness of the leuprolide stimulation test as a diagnostic method of idiopathic central precocious puberty in girls.

    PubMed

    Carretto, F; Salinas-Vert, I; Granada-Yvern, M L; Murillo-Vallés, M; Gómez-Gómez, C; Puig-Domingo, M; Bel, J

    2014-12-01

    Central precocious puberty (CPP) diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation, but hormonal evaluation is crucial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of the leuprolide stimulation test for diagnosis of idiopathic CPP. Sixty-one girls, aged 5-8 years, were evaluated retrospectively for premature breast development. According to clinical evolution, 28 had progressive puberty and 33 nonprogressive puberty. All underwent a leuprolide stimulation test. Cutoff points, sensitivity, and specificity for gonadotropins and estradiol were determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Cutoff points for CPP were: baseline LH: > 0.1 mUI/l, FSH: > 2.3 mUI/l, LH/FSH ratio: > 0.23, estradiol: > 12 pg/ml; and stimulated LH: > 5.5 mUI/l, LH/FSH ratio: > 0.24, estradiol: > 79.67 pg/ml. The best diagnostic efficiency for progressive puberty were stimulated LH/FSH ratio (sensitivity: 100%, specificity 94%) followed by stimulated LH (sensitivity: 93%, specificity: 100%). Stimulated LH/FSH ratio and LH resulted in the most useful parameters for the diagnosis of CPP. Stimulated estradiol did not add more information. PMID:25295414

  3. The Use of Image-Spectroscopy Technology as a Diagnostic Method for Seed Health Testing and Variety Identification.

    PubMed

    Vrešak, Martina; Halkjaer Olesen, Merete; Gislum, René; Bavec, Franc; Ravn Jørgensen, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Application of rapid and time-efficient health diagnostic and identification technology in the seed industry chain could accelerate required analysis, characteristic description and also ultimately availability of new desired varieties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of multispectral imaging and single kernel near-infrared spectroscopy (SKNIR) for determination of seed health and variety separation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm. & Camus). The analysis, carried out in autumn 2013 at AU-Flakkebjerg, Denmark, included nine winter triticale varieties and 27 wheat varieties provided by the Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences Maribor, Slovenia. Fusarium sp. and black point disease-infected parts of the seed surface could successfully be distinguished from uninfected parts with use of a multispectral imaging device (405-970 nm wavelengths). SKNIR was applied in this research to differentiate all 36 involved varieties based on spectral differences due to variation in the chemical composition. The study produced an interesting result of successful distinguishing between the infected and uninfected parts of the seed surface. Furthermore, the study was able to distinguish between varieties. Together these components could be used in further studies for the development of a sorting model by combining data from multispectral imaging and SKNIR for identifying disease(s) and varieties. PMID:27010656

  4. A diagnostic study on folium and orchil dyes with non-invasive and micro-destructive methods.

    PubMed

    Aceto, Maurizio; Arrais, Aldo; Marsano, Francesco; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Idone, Ambra; Gulmini, Monica

    2015-05-01

    Folium and orchil are dyes of vegetal origin. Folium is obtained from Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) A. Juss., whereas orchil is obtained from Roccella and other genera of lichens. These dyes were used in the past to impart purple hue to paintings and textiles as substitutes for the more prised Tyrian purple dye, obtained from shellfish. Despite several citations in ancient technical treatises dating back at least to the Greek-Roman age, the identification of these dyes in artworks is rare. In the case of folium, an additional drawback is that its composition is presently unknown. In this work different non-invasive (FT-IR, FT-Raman, fibre optic reflectance spectrophotometry, spectrofluorimetry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and micro-invasive (surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) techniques were used in order to increase the diagnostic information available on these dyes. Measurements were carried out on the dyes extracted from raw materials and on painted or dyed parchments. The possibility to distinguish between folium and orchil by chemical analysis is discussed. PMID:25703360

  5. Development of Monitoring and Diagnostic Methods for Robots Used in Remediation of Waste Sites 1999 Technical Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Michael

    1999-06-01

    The final assembly of the test rig was completed in January 1999 (see Figure 1). The test rig incorporated a wheel motor typical of those used for hydraulic robots, and allowed wheel motor loading at expected operating conditions. The rig included instrumentation, as shown in Figure 2, for acquisition of key parameters for both unfaulted baseline and inserted fault runs. Checkout of the test rig was accomplished in two phases. In the first phase, only the wheel motor was connected to the hydraulic supply and the driven pump disconnected. With the rig in this configuration, operation of the wheel motor control loop and the monitoring and diagnostic (M&D) data acquisition system was verified. In the second phase, the driven pump was connected to the wheel motor and the operation of the rig under load was confirmed and unfaulted baseline data were acquired. A list of 13 faults was developed (see Table 1). All faults were inserted and data were acquired. The data files were electronically transmitted to Rice University for analysis using Analytical Redundancy (AR), a model-based static space technique that derives the maximum number of independent tests of the consistency of sensor data with the linearized system model and past sensor and control inputs.

  6. Comparison of the time behavior in the separation of light and heavy materials in X-ray backscattered method as a diagnostic tool in inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faezeh, Rahmani; Sepideh Sadat, Azimi; Esmaiel, Bayat; Vahid, Dost Mohammadi

    2016-03-01

    X-ray backscattered method based on Compton backscattering is used in the inspection field. In contrast to transmission method, source and detectors are positioned on one side of the target, so in the situation that transmission inspection is difficult, X-ray backscattered method can be provided suitable data in the inspection field. Also, detection of hidden explosives and narcotic materials are very difficult or impossible in transmission methods. High intensity backscattered beam from light materials (low-Z), such as explosives and narcotics, in comparison to the heavy materials (high-Z), made this method as the strong technique in inspection. X-ray and gamma photons scattered by the light material (such as PE and PTFE) as well as heavy material (such as Fe and Cu) were studied using MCNPX2.6 Monte Carlo code. The results showed that rise time of pulse from light materials are slower than that of from heavy materials due to multi scattering of low energy photons in the light ones, so time expansion would occur in signals from light elements. If measurement is possible, the difference in time behavior can be used as a novel method in complementary diagnostic tool beside the use of pulse height in X-ray backscattered method.

  7. [METHODS OF MATHEMATICAL MODELING IN MORPHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF CHORNOBYL FACTOR INFLUENCE ON PROSTATE GLAND OF COAL MINERS-- THE CHERNOBYL DISASTER FIGHTERS].

    PubMed

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2014-01-01

    The morphometric estimation of parenchyma and stroma condition included the determination of 25 parameters in a prostate gland at 27 persons. The mathematical model of morphogenesis of prostate gland was created by Bayes' method. The method of differential diagnosis of a prostate gland tissues' changes conditioned by the influence of the Chernobyl factor and/or unfavorable terms of the work in underground coal mines have been worked out. Its practical use provides exactness and reliability of the diagnosis (not less than 95%), independence from the level of the qualification and personal experience of the doctor, allows us to unify, optimize and individualize the diagnostic algorithms, answer the requirements of evidential medicine. PMID:26118078

  8. Method for estimating the propagation direction of a coherent plasma structure using a one-dimensional diagnostic array

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, T.; Birkenmeier, G.; Wolfrum, E.; Stroth, U.; Laggner, F. M.; Willensdorfer, M.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.

    2014-08-15

    This article proposes a new method to evaluate basic characteristics of the dynamics of a coherent plasma structure (blob). With this method, one can evaluate the propagation angle of a blob in a two-dimensional plasma cross section as well as the blob velocity, size, and amplitude from one-dimensional data. The method is applied to blob measurements from the Lithium beam emission spectroscopy system in ASDEX-Upgrade. Statistical features of the observed blob velocities, angles of propagation, blob sizes, and amplitudes are discussed. The validity of the method is examined by comparing two values of the propagation angle that are evaluated in an independent manner.

  9. Using the Attribute Hierarchy Method to Make Diagnostic Inferences about Examinees' Cognitive Skills in Algebra on the SAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Wang, Changjiang; Zhou, Jiawen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply the attribute hierarchy method (AHM) to a sample of SAT algebra items administered in March 2005. The AHM is a psychometric method for classifying examinees' test item responses into a set of structured attribute patterns associated with different components from a cognitive model of task performance. An…

  10. [The role of physiology in modern surgery].

    PubMed

    2006-04-01

    Through the analysis of recent achievements in the field of surgery we have demonstrated convincingly that physiological studies in both humans and animal models are the keystone of modern surgery. Physiological studies of blood circulation, respiration, digestion and other functions have laid the foundations for major fields of surgery. Their role is the most evident in the development of cardiac surgery. Notably, one of the outstanding breakthroughs in the medical science of the 20th century--the extracorporeal blood circulation--was made by the Russian physiologist S. S. Bryukhovenko. We have shown that noninvasive diagnostic procedures such as echocardiography are of outmost significance on all stages of the surgical treatment (pre- and intraoperational diagnostics and medical rehabilitation). The great impact of physiology on the development of surgery has also led to the progress of related fields of medicine--anesthesiology, intensive care, functional diagnostics, transplantation, rehabilitation, and many others. PMID:16813153

  11. Diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Morris, Peter; Perkins, Alan

    2012-04-21

    Physical techniques have always had a key role in medicine, and the second half of the 20th century in particular saw a revolution in medical diagnostic techniques with the development of key imaging instruments: x-ray imaging and emission tomography (nuclear imaging and PET), MRI, and ultrasound. These techniques use the full width of the electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma rays to radio waves, and sound. In most cases, the development of a medical imaging device was opportunistic; many scientists in physics laboratories were experimenting with simple x-ray images within the first year of the discovery of such rays, the development of the cyclotron and later nuclear reactors created the opportunity for nuclear medicine, and one of the co-inventors of MRI was initially attempting to develop an alternative to x-ray diffraction for the analysis of crystal structures. What all these techniques have in common is the brilliant insight of a few pioneering physical scientists and engineers who had the tenacity to develop their inventions, followed by a series of technical innovations that enabled the full diagnostic potential of these instruments to be realised. In this report, we focus on the key part played by these scientists and engineers and the new imaging instruments and diagnostic procedures that they developed. By bringing the key developments and applications together we hope to show the true legacy of physics and engineering in diagnostic medicine. PMID:22516558

  12. Diagnostic Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    Diagnostic imaging lets doctors look inside your body for clues about a medical condition. A variety of machines and techniques can create pictures of the structures and activities inside your body. The type of imaging your doctor uses depends on your symptoms and the part of your body being ...

  13. Registration and identification of pulse signal for medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldakova, Tatyana I.; Suyatinov, Sergey I.

    2002-07-01

    Registration and identification of pulse signal requires the development and the use of special diagnostic equipment and modern methods of processing of the registered data. There are recognized that photoelectric and piezoelectric gauges are the most perspective converters for measurement of pulse signal. In this paper the approach to registration of pulse curves on the basis of the optical gauge is developed. The problem of identification of pulse signal is considered as the problem of recognition of images. The system of identification of pulse waves is offered. It is functioning as a visual system of recognition of images of the man and is based on artificial neural networks.

  14. The modern trends of the evolution laser information technology in oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikov, A. A.; Svirin, V. N.

    2008-04-01

    Laser-optical information technologies and devices develop since the 70- years at the end of 20 century and are broadly used for diagnostics and treatment of oncological diseases to date. Although such methods as photodynamic therapy (PDT), laser-induce thermotherapy (LITT), fluorescent diagnostics and spectrophotometry already more than 30 years are used for treatment and diagnostics of oncological diseases, nevertheless, they are enough new methods and, as a rule, are used in large scientific centers and medical institutions. This is bound, first of all, with lack of information on modern method of cancer treatment, the absence of widely available laser procedures and corresponding devices in the polyclinics and even in district hospitals, as well as insufficient understanding of application areas, where laser methods has an advantage by comparison, for instance, with beam or chemotherapy. At present day laser methods are fast upcoming direction of the treatment oncological diseases. This is explained by progress in development essentially laser, particularly diode, improvement electronic and computing components and broad introduction software-algorithmic methods of control the undertaking therapeutic and diagnostic procedures. In article are considered new laser methods of the undertaking diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and is shown that introduction multiwave laser radiation for probe and influences on tissue, the different methods of the determination of the functional state of tissues, realization of the on-line diagnostics when carrying out the therapeutic procedures, automatic control systems of the power laser radiation, which depends on state patient tissue, as well as software-algorithmic methods of management session therapeutic and diagnostic procedures greatly raises efficiency of the treatment oncological diseases. On an example of the multipurpose laser therapeutic devices("MLTA") developed and introduced in clinical practice and multipurpose laser diagnostic complexes ("MLDC"), the realizing offered methods, are shown the basic tendencies of development laser methods in oncology, concrete technical decisions and the experimental clinical material showing increase of efficiency of treatment of a cancer at their realization are resulted. It is shown, that realization of the offered methods and technical technologies opens new competitive advantages laser technologies in comparison with beam and chemical-therapy at treatment of oncological diseases.

  15. A robust method, based on a novel source, for performance and diagnostic capabilities assessment of the positron emission tomography system.

    PubMed

    Samartzis, Alexandros P; Fountos, George P; Kandarakis, Ioannis S; Kounadi, Evangelia P; Zoros, Emmanuel N; Skoura, Evangelia; Datseris, Ioannis E; Nikiforides, George H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our work was to provide a robust method for evaluating imaging performance of positron emission tomography (PET) systems and particularly to estimate the modulation transfer function (MTF) using the line spread function (LSF) method. A novel plane source was prepared using thin layer chromatography (TLC) of a fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) solution. The source was placed within a phantom, and imaged using the whole body (WB) two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) standard imaging protocols in a GE Discovery ST hybrid PET/CT scanner. Modulation transfer function was evaluated by determining the LSF, for various reconstruction methods and filters. The proposed MTF measurement method was validated against the conventional method, based on point spread function (PSF). Higher MTF values were obtained with 3D scanning protocol and 3D iterative reconstruction algorithm. All MTF obtained using 3D reconstruction algorithms showed better preservation of higher frequencies than the 2D algorithms. They also exhibited better contrast and resolution. MTF derived from LSF were more precise compared with those obtained from PSF since their reproducibility was better in all cases, providing a mean standard deviation of 0.0043, in contrary to the PSF method which gave 0.0405. In conclusion, the proposed method is novel and easy to implement for characterization of the signal transfer properties and image quality of PET/computed tomography (CT) systems. It provides an easy way to evaluate the frequency response of each kernel available. The proposed method requires cheap and easily accessible materials, available to the medical physicist in the nuclear medicine department. Furthermore, it is robust to aliasing and since this method is based on the LSF, is more resilient to noise due to greater data averaging than conventional PSF-integration techniques. PMID:25097895

  16. Method of Moments Applied to the Analysis of Precision Spectra from the Neutron Time-of- flight Diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatarik, Robert; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D.; Casey, D.; Clark, D.; Doeppner, T.; Eckart, M.; Field, J.; Frenje, J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G.; Hartouni, E.; Hurricane, O.; Kilkenny, J.; Knauer, J.; Ma, T.; Mannion, O.; Munro, D.; Sayre, D.; Spears, B.

    2015-11-01

    The method of moments was introduced by Pearson as a process for estimating the population distributions from which a set of ``random variables'' are measured. These moments are compared with a parameterization of the distributions, or of the same quantities generated by simulations of the process. Most diagnostics processes extract scalar parameters depending on the moments of spectra derived from analytic solutions to the fusion rate, necessarily based on simplifying assumptions of the confined plasma. The precision of the TOF spectra, and the nature of the implosions at the NIF require the inclusion of factors beyond the traditional analysis and require the addition of higher order moments to describe the data. This talk will present a diagnostic process for extracting the moments of the neutron energy spectrum for a comparison with theoretical considerations as well as simulations of the implosions. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. A real-time laser feedback control method for the three-wave laser source used in the polarimeter-interferometer diagnostic on Joint-TEXT tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, C. Y.; Chen, J. Li, Q.; Liu, Y.; Gao, L.

    2014-12-15

    A three-wave laser polarimeter-interferometer, equipped with three independent far-infrared laser sources, has been developed on Joint-TEXT (J-TEXT) tokamak. The diagnostic system is capable of high-resolution temporal and phase measurement of the Faraday angle and line-integrated density. However, for long-term operation (>10 min), the free-running lasers can lead to large drifts of the intermediate frequencies (∼100–∼500 kHz/10 min) and decay of laser power (∼10%–∼20%/10 min), which act to degrade diagnostic performance. In addition, these effects lead to increased maintenance cost and limit measurement applicability to long pulse/steady state experiments. To solve this problem, a real-time feedback control method of the laser source is proposed. By accurately controlling the length of each laser cavity, both the intermediate frequencies and laser power can be simultaneously controlled: the intermediate frequencies are controlled according to the pre-set values, while the laser powers are maintained at an optimal level. Based on this approach, a real-time feedback control system has been developed and applied on J-TEXT polarimeter-interferometer. Long-term (theoretically no time limit) feedback of intermediate frequencies (maximum change less than ±12 kHz) and laser powers (maximum relative power change less than ±7%) has been successfully achieved.

  18. A modern trends retrospective.

    PubMed

    Wallach, Edward E

    2011-06-01

    Editorship of the Modern Trends section has been a great ride. The section raised the level of interest and readership of Fertility and Sterility, while providing important, up-to-date material for students, scientists and practitioners. PMID:21496803

  19. Method to correct the distortion caused by amplified stimulated emission as motivated by LIF-based flow diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuesong; Zhao, Yan; Ma, Lin

    2012-04-20

    Amplified stimulated emission (ASE) represents a significant issue in two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (TPLIF). The ASE effects are nonlinear and nonlocal, i.e., the ASE effects distort the LIF signal nonlinearly, and the distortion at one location depends on conditions at other locations. In this sense, the ASE effects pose a greater challenge to quantitative TPLIF than quenching and ionization. This work therefore seeks a method to correct such distortion. The method uses two LIF measurements, one with low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and negligible ASE distortion and another with high SNR but significant distortion, to generate a faithful measurement with high SNR. Extensive simulations were performed to evaluate the performance of this method for practical applications. PMID:22534923

  20. Diagnostic Efficiency of Several Methods of Identifying Socially Rejected Children and Effect of Participation Rate on Classification Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark; Gumbiner, Laura M.; Johnson, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Social rejection is associated with a wide variety of negative outcomes. Early identification of social rejection and intervention to minimize its negative impact is thus important. However, sociometric methods, which are considered high in validity for identifying socially rejected children, are frequently not used because of (a) procedural…

  1. Application of different atomic force microscopy methods for detailed diagnostics of gold nanocoatings on a single-crystal sapphire surface

    SciTech Connect

    Muslimov, A. E. Volkov, Yu. O.; Asadchikov, V. E.; Kanevskii, V. M.; Roshchin, B. S.; Vlasov, V. P.

    2011-05-15

    Gold nanodots and clusters deposited on sapphire substrates with a regular nanorelief have been investigated by atomic force microscopy. It is shown that the phase-contrast method combined with contact force spectroscopy makes it possible to identify these nanostructures and describe some of their physical properties.

  2. Diagnostic Instability of "DSM-IV" ADHD Subtypes: Effects of Informant Source, Instrumentation, and Methods for Combining Symptom Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valo, Shana; Tannock, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    Using data from 123 children (aged 6-12 years) referred consecutively to a pediatric neuropsychiatry clinic by community physicians for assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and related problems, we investigated the effects of informant (parent, teacher), tool (interview, rating scale), and method for combining symptom…

  3. A study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations and source identifications by methods of diagnostic ratio and principal component analysis at Taichung chemical Harbor near Taiwan Strait.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Ho, Tse-Tsung

    2006-08-01

    Fine (PM(2.5)) and Coarse (PM(2.5-10)) particulates concentrations of ambient air particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured simultaneously from February 2004 to January 2005 at the Taichung Harbor (TH) sampling site near Taiwan of central Taiwan. Particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were collected on quartz filters, the collected sample used soxhlet analytical method extracted with a dichloromethane (DCM)/n-hexane mixture (50/50, v/v) for 24h, and then the extracts were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. The results indicated that vehicle emissions, coal combustion, incomplete combustion and pyrolysis of fuel and oil burning were the main source of PAHs near Taiwan Strait of central Taiwan. Diagnostic ratio and principal component analysis (PCA) were also used to characterize and identify PAHs emission source in this study. PMID:16406483

  4. Diagnostics and Microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Balch, J.W.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses activities of the Diagnostics and Microelectronics thrust area which conducts activities in semiconductor devices and semiconductor fabrication technology for programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our multidisciplinary engineering and scientific staff use modern computational tools and semi-conductor microfabrication equipment to develop high-performance devices. Our work concentrates on three broad technologies of semiconductor microdevices: (1) silicon on III-V semiconductor microeletronics, (2) lithium niobate-based and III-V semiconductor-based photonics, and (3) silicon-based micromaching for application to microstructures and microinstruments. In FY-92, we worked on projects in seven areas, described in this report: novel photonic detectors; a wideband phase modulator; an optoelectronic terahertz beam system; the fabrication of microelectrode electrochemical sensors; diamond heatsinks; advanced micromachining technologies; and electrophoresis using silicon microchannels.

  5. Local anisotropy of muon flux - The basis of the method of muon diagnostics of extra-terrestrial space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astapov, I. I.; Barbashina, N. S.; Dmitrieva, A. N.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Shutenko, V. V.; Yakovleva, E. I.; Yashin, I. I.

    2015-12-01

    A new method for the analysis of spatial and angular characteristics of the cosmic ray muon flux registered in the hodoscopic mode using a single setup - the muon hodoscope - is presented. Various parameters of the muon flux anisotropy and methods of calculation of these parameters are discussed. It is shown that the horizontal projection of the muon flux relative anisotropy vector which characterizes lateral (horizontal) displacement of the muon flux angular distribution is the sensitive parameter to a variety of nonstationary processes in the heliosphere. The experimental data on the variation of the muon flux anisotropy during the passage of various irregularities in the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field in the Earth's vicinity are presented.

  6. Swab Sample Transfer for Point-Of-Care Diagnostics: Characterization of Swab Types and Manual Agitation Methods

    PubMed Central

    Panpradist, Nuttada; Toley, Bhushan J.; Zhang, Xiaohong; Byrnes, Samantha; Buser, Joshua R.; Englund, Janet A.; Lutz, Barry R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The global need for disease detection and control has increased effort to engineer point-of-care (POC) tests that are simple, robust, affordable, and non-instrumented. In many POC tests, sample collection involves swabbing the site (e.g., nose, skin), agitating the swab in a fluid to release the sample, and transferring the fluid to a device for analysis. Poor performance in sample transfer can reduce sensitivity and reproducibility. Methods In this study, we compared bacterial release efficiency of seven swab types using manual-agitation methods typical of POC devices. Transfer efficiency was measured using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Staphylococcus aureus under conditions representing a range of sampling scenarios: 1) spiking low-volume samples onto the swab, 2) submerging the swab in excess-volume samples, and 3) swabbing dried sample from a surface. Results Excess-volume samples gave the expected recovery for most swabs (based on tip fluid capacity); a polyurethane swab showed enhanced recovery, suggesting an ability to accumulate organisms during sampling. Dry samples led to recovery of ∼20–30% for all swabs tested, suggesting that swab structure and volume is less important when organisms are applied to the outer swab surface. Low-volume samples led to the widest range of transfer efficiencies between swab types. Rayon swabs (63 µL capacity) performed well for excess-volume samples, but showed poor recovery for low-volume samples. Nylon (100 µL) and polyester swabs (27 µL) showed intermediate recovery for low-volume and excess-volume samples. Polyurethane swabs (16 µL) showed excellent recovery for all sample types. This work demonstrates that swab transfer efficiency can be affected by swab material, structure, and fluid capacity and details of the sample. Results and quantitative analysis methods from this study will assist POC assay developers in selecting appropriate swab types and transfer methods. PMID:25181250

  7. Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization as a plume diagnostic tool in laser evaporation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, John H.; Galicia, Marsha C.; Vertes, Akos

    2002-09-01

    Laser evaporation techniques, including matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), are attracting increasing attention due to their ability to deposit thin layers of undegraded synthetic and biopolymers. Laser evaporation methods can be implemented in reflection geometry with the laser and the substrate positioned on the same side of the target. In some applications (e.g. direct write, DW), however, transmission geometry is used, i.e. the thin target is placed between the laser and the substrate. In this case, the laser pulse perforates the target and transfers some target material to the substrate. In order to optimize evaporation processes it is important to know the composition of the target plume and the material deposited from the plume. We used a recently introduced analytical method, atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (AP-MALDI) to characterize the ionic components of the plume both in reflection and in transmission geometry. This technique can also be used to directly probe materials deposited on surfaces (such as glass slides) by laser evaporation methods. The test compound (small peptides, e.g. Angiotensin I, ATI or Substance P) was mixed with a MALDI matrix (α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), sinapinic acid (SA) or 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB)) and applied to the stainless steel (reflection geometry) or transparent conducting (transmission geometry) target holder. In addition to the classical dried droplet method, we also used electrospray target deposition to gain better control of crystallite size, thickness and homogeneity. The target was mounted in front of the inlet orifice of an ion trap mass spectrometer (IT-MS) that sampled the ionic components of the plume generated by a nitrogen laser. We studied the effect of several parameters, such as, the orifice to target distance, illumination geometry, extracting voltage distribution and sample preparation on the generated ions. Various analyte-matrix and matrix-matrix cluster ions were observed with relatively low abundance of the matrix ions.

  8. Trichomonas vaginalis: investigation of a novel diagnostic method in urine samples using cysteine proteinase 4 gene and PCR technique.

    PubMed

    Vatanshenassan, Mansoureh; Rezaie, Sassan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Niromand, Nasrin; Kazemi, Bahram; Babaei, Zahra; Rezaeian, Mostafa

    2010-10-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the agent of a highly prevalent sexually transmitted disease that leads to vaginitis, urethritis, ectocervicitis and has been associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Detection of T. vaginalis based on wet-mount microscopy and culture methods is insensitive and time consuming, respectively. Thus the quest for reliable PCR techniques of T. vaginalis in vaginal discharge and urine sample is more importance. In this study, 500 urine and vaginal-discharge samples were collected from women referred to Sexual Transmitted Disease Clinic of Mirzakuchakkhan Hospital in Tehran, Iran between May 2008 and March 2009. Wet-mount and culture methods were done on the vaginal discharges, and PCR assay targeting cysteine proteinase 4 (CP4) was performed on the urine samples. The present study demonstrated 16 (3.2%) of patients were infected with T. vaginalis using culture and wet-mount, whereas PCR assay using CP4 could detect 12 (2.4%) positivity. Sensitivity and specificity of urine PCR assay compared to culture were 80% (95% CI, 54-96) and 99.6% (95% CI, 98.96-100), respectively. These results indicate that using urine-based detection method for T. vaginalis may not be appropriate in women. PMID:20434441

  9. Evaluation of MALDI-ToF as a method for the identification of bacteria in the veterinary diagnostic laboratory.

    PubMed

    Randall, Luke P; Lemma, Fabrizio; Koylass, Mark; Rogers, Jon; Ayling, Roger D; Worth, Danny; Klita, Monika; Steventon, Andrew; Line, Kirsty; Wragg, Peter; Muchowski, Jakub; Kostrzewa, Markus; Whatmore, Adrian M

    2015-08-01

    Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation-Time of Flight (MALDI-ToF) Mass Spectrometry with Bruker MALDI Biotyper software was evaluated as a method for identifying veterinary bacteria. For 620 isolates (~100 bacterial species), identification by MALDI-ToF and non-16S rDNA methods (mainly phenotypic/biochemical) agreed to species-level (95.3%) and to species/genus-level (100%), but in the absence of 16S rDNA as a gold standard. For a further panel of 107 anaerobes and 234 aerobes (~100 bacteria species) using 16S rDNA results as the gold standard, MALDI-ToF/biochemical tests showed 97.8/96.6% species-level and 99.6/93.5% genus-level agreement for aerobes and 95.3/93.6% species-level and 100/95.3% genus-level agreement for anaerobes compared to the gold standard. Where results were obtained from direct spots, direct spots overlaid with formic acid and extracts, 89.4% of 180 aerobes and 90.1% of 152 anaerobes were identified by MALDI-ToF. MALDI-ToF was shown to be a rapid and reliable method to identify veterinary bacteria. PMID:26267088

  10. [Development of diagnostic test system based on fluorescent polarization immunoassay method for detection of antibodies to HCV nucleocapsid protein].

    PubMed

    Sharyshev, A A; Bazhenov, A I; Shibnev, V A

    2013-01-01

    The antigen activity of the synthetic fluorescently labeled peptides, overlapping immunoresponsive epitops a.a. 7-19, 20-34 from N-end part and a.a. 73-85 from the central area of the nucleocapsid protein of C hepatitis virus, was tested using the method of fluorescent polarization immunoassay (FPIA) with 40 samples of the blood serum of patients with viral C hepatitis. A comparative study of analytic characteristics of FPIA method was performed, based on the application of synthesized peptides, as well as of the commercial ELISA test system (BEST anti-HCV-test 4, Vector Best Ltd.). The performed research revealed that the developed method has a high specificity and sensitivity level. The comparability of summary FPIA results with the commercial ELISA test system was 85%, which evidences the prospects of further research in this direction. The principal possibility of the application of the polarization fluorescent immunoassay for the determination of antibodies to the nucleocapsid protein of the C hepatitis virus in clinical serum samples was demonstrated. PMID:23785770

  11. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of four odontological methods for age evaluation in Italian children at the age threshold of 14 years using ROC curves.

    PubMed

    Pinchi, Vilma; Pradella, Francesco; Vitale, Giulia; Rugo, Dario; Nieri, Michele; Norelli, Gian-Aristide

    2016-01-01

    The age threshold of 14 years is relevant in Italy as the minimum age for criminal responsibility. It is of utmost importance to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of every odontological method for age evaluation considering the sensitivity, or the ability to estimate the true positive cases, and the specificity, or the ability to estimate the true negative cases. The research aims to compare the specificity and sensitivity of four commonly adopted methods of dental age estimation - Demirjian, Haavikko, Willems and Cameriere - in a sample of Italian children aged between 11 and 16 years, with an age threshold of 14 years, using receiver operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC). In addition, new decision criteria are developed to increase the accuracy of the methods. Among the four odontological methods for age estimation adopted in the research, the Cameriere method showed the highest AUC in both female and male cohorts. The Cameriere method shows a high degree of accuracy at the age threshold of 14 years. To adopt the Cameriere method to estimate the 14-year age threshold more accurately, however, it is suggested - according to the Youden index - that the decision criterion be set at the lower value of 12.928 for females and 13.258 years for males, obtaining a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 88% in females, and a sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 92% in males. If a specificity level >90% is needed, the cut-off point should be set at 12.959 years (82% sensitivity) for females. PMID:25748440

  12. Development of Companion Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Mankoff, David A.; Edmonds, Christine E.; Farwell, Michael D.; Pryma, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient’s cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods as companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has “hit” the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2–targeted therapy. The review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic. PMID:26687857

  13. Correlation of Parathormone and the Serum Values of Acidum Uricum with Calcium Nephrolithiasis Examined by Three Different Methods of Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Milicevic, Snjezana; Bijelic, Radojka; Jakovljevic, Branislava

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Urolithiasis is a multifactorial disease. Changes in social and economic living conditions have generated changes in chemical composition of urolith too. Although calcium is a predominant crystalline constituent of kidney stones in 80% of cases, metabolic disorders are not the main reason for their formation. Hyperparathyroidism may be a cause of occurrence of calcium lithiasis, however, the biggest number of its occurrence is not a consequence of elevated values of parathormone. Acid uric has a pervasive presence in all body fluids. The serum level of acid uric is determined by its rate of synthesis, rate of excretion by kidney and gastrointestinal tract, and metabolism. Goal. The goal of our study is to determine a correlation of calcium lithiasis of the upper part of the urinary tract with the parathormone values and the concomitant values of acidum uricum. Material and methods. The study was prospective and included 120 patients with calcium lithiasis of the upper part of urinary tract, divided in three age categories, 20-40 years, 40-60 years and older than 60 years. The diagnosis of calcium lithiasis of the upper part of the urinary tract was made on the basis of urinary tract ultrasonography, and kidney-ureter-bladder radiography (KUB) /intravenous urography (IVU), urine culture and chemical analysis of stone with patients who had a spontaneous emission of stone or following some of the methods for active removal of stone; with some patients non-contrast (NCCT) was carried out too. All patients were subjected to the laboratory analysis of the serum level of acidum uricum and parathormone. Results. With observed 120 patients suffering from calcium urolithiasis, who belonged to adult population, no patient had an elevated value of parathormone, while three patients (2.5%) had the values of acidum uricum higher than the reference values. The average value (for both parameters) was the lowest with the youngest patients and vice versa, and only in the group of 40 to 60 years of age there were patients whose values of the acidum uricum parameter was outside the interval of reference values; the other age groups did not have such values. Based on the analysis of the variance, as a statistical method, it was determined that the average values of acidum uricum in different age groups were statistically significantly different, which is not the case for the parameter parathormone. (p>0,05). Conclusion. The biggest number of nephrolithiasis is not a consequence of elevated values of parathormone. Hyperuricosemia may be present with calcium urolithiasis, without participation in forming kidney stones, most probably as an indirect sign of the existence of the initial insulin resistance and metabolic disease. PMID:26236076

  14. Molecular diagnostics for tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Noor, K M; Shephard, L; Bastian, I

    2015-04-01

    The phenotypic methods of smear microscopy, culture and indirect drug susceptibility testing (DST) remain the 'gold standard' diagnostics for tuberculosis (TB) in 2015. However, this review demonstrates that genotypic methods are in the ascendancy. Current-generation nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are important supplementary tests for the rapid direct detection of (multidrug-resistant) TB in specific clinical settings. Genotypic detection is already the preferred method of detecting rifampicin and pyrazinamide resistance. Next-generation NAATs able to detect about 10 colony forming units/mL of sputum could replace culture as the initial test for detecting TB. Whole genome sequencing could also plausibly replace phenotypic DST but much work is required in method standardisation, database development and elucidation of all resistance gene determinants. The challenge then will be to rollout these increasingly complex and expensive diagnostics in the low-income countries where TB is prevalent. PMID:25719854

  15. Snapshot Mueller polarimetry for biomedical diagnostic related to human liver fibrosis: evaluation of the method for biomedical assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babilotte, P.; Dubreuil, M.; Rivet, S.; Lijour, Y.; Sevrain, D.; Martin, L.; Le Brun, G.; Le Grand, Y.; Le Jeune, B.

    2011-10-01

    Human liver biopsy samples, consisting into a 16 μm thickness biomaterial chemically fixed into a formaldehyde matrix, and stained by red picrosirius dye, are analysed for different states of fibrosis degeneration. Polarimetric methods, and specially Mueller polarimetry based on wavelength coding, have been qualified as an efficient tool to describe many different biological aspects. The polarimetric characteristics of the media, extracted from a Lu and Chipman decomposition1, 2 of their Mueller Matrix (MM), are correlated with the degeneracy level of tissue. Different works and results linked to the clinical analysis will be presented and compared to previous performed works.3 Polarimetric imaging will be presented and compared with SHG measurements. A statistical analysis of the distribution of polarimetric parameters (such as the retardance R and depolarisation Pd) will be presented too, in order to characterise the liver fibrosis level into the biomaterial under study.

  16. Development of a rapid diagnostic method for identification of Staphylococcus aureus and antimicrobial resistance in positive blood culture bottles using a PCR-DNA-chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Ohshiro, Takeya; Miyagi, Chihiro; Tamaki, Yoshikazu; Mizuno, Takuya; Ezaki, Takayuki

    2016-06-01

    Blood culturing and the rapid reporting of results are essential for infectious disease clinics to obtain bacterial information that can affect patient prognosis. When gram-positive coccoid cells are observed in blood culture bottles, it is important to determine whether the strain is Staphylococcus aureus and whether the strain has resistance genes, such as mecA and blaZ, for proper antibiotic selection. Previous work led to the development of a PCR method that is useful for rapid identification of bacterial species and antimicrobial susceptibility. However, that method has not yet been adopted in community hospitals due to the high cost and methodological complexity. We report here the development of a quick PCR and DNA-chromatography test, based on single-tag hybridization chromatography, that permits detection of S. aureus and the mecA and blaZ genes; results can be obtained within 1 h for positive blood culture bottles. We evaluated this method using 42 clinical isolates. Detection of S. aureus and the resistance genes by the PCR-DNA-chromatography method was compared with that obtained via the conventional identification method and actual antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Our method had a sensitivity of 97.0% and a specificity of 100% for the identification of the bacterial species. For the detection of the mecA gene of S. aureus, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 95.2%. For the detection of the blaZ gene of S. aureus, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 88.9%. The speed and simplicity of this PCR-DNA-chromatography method suggest that our method will facilitate rapid diagnoses. PMID:27056092

  17. Perspectives in Intraoperative Diagnostics of Human Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Tyurikova, O.; Dembitskaya, Y.; Yashin, K.; Mishchenko, M.; Vedunova, M.; Medyanik, I.; Kazantsev, V.

    2015-01-01

    Amongst large a variety of oncological diseases, malignant gliomas represent one of the most severe types of tumors. They are also the most common type of the brain tumors and account for over half of the astrocytic tumors. According to different sources, the average life expectancy of patients with various glioblastomas varies between 10 and 12 months and that of patients with anaplastic astrocytic tumors between 20 and 24 months. Therefore, studies of the physiology of transformed glial cells are critical for the development of treatment methods. Modern medical approaches offer complex procedures, including the microsurgical tumor removal, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, supplemented with photodynamic therapy and immunotherapy. The most radical of them is surgical resection, which allows removing the largest part of the tumor, reduces the intracranial hypertension, and minimizes the degree of neurological deficit. However, complete removal of the tumor remains impossible. The main limitations are insufficient visualization of glioma boundaries, due to its infiltrative growth, and the necessity to preserve healthy tissue. This review is devoted to the description of advantages and disadvantages of modern intraoperative diagnostics of human gliomas and highlights potential perspectives for development of their treatment. PMID:26543495

  18. Perspectives in Intraoperative Diagnostics of Human Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Tyurikova, O; Dembitskaya, Y; Yashin, K; Mishchenko, M; Vedunova, M; Medyanik, I; Kazantsev, V

    2015-01-01

    Amongst large a variety of oncological diseases, malignant gliomas represent one of the most severe types of tumors. They are also the most common type of the brain tumors and account for over half of the astrocytic tumors. According to different sources, the average life expectancy of patients with various glioblastomas varies between 10 and 12 months and that of patients with anaplastic astrocytic tumors between 20 and 24 months. Therefore, studies of the physiology of transformed glial cells are critical for the development of treatment methods. Modern medical approaches offer complex procedures, including the microsurgical tumor removal, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, supplemented with photodynamic therapy and immunotherapy. The most radical of them is surgical resection, which allows removing the largest part of the tumor, reduces the intracranial hypertension, and minimizes the degree of neurological deficit. However, complete removal of the tumor remains impossible. The main limitations are insufficient visualization of glioma boundaries, due to its infiltrative growth, and the necessity to preserve healthy tissue. This review is devoted to the description of advantages and disadvantages of modern intraoperative diagnostics of human gliomas and highlights potential perspectives for development of their treatment. PMID:26543495

  19. A back projection dosimetry method for diagnostic and orthovoltage x-ray from 40 to 140 kVp for patients and phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afrashteh, Hossein

    2005-07-01

    Patient dosimetry in practice is involved with time consuming, tedious calculations during the measurement process. There is a need for a straight forward and accurate method to perform patient dosimetry when required. A back projection dosimetry method for patient/phantom using Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) and its corresponding Exit Surface Dose with an average value for attenuation coefficient (mu), (e.g., mean effective attenuation coefficient (mu`)), was developed. The method focused on low energy X-ray units (40--140 kVp), primarily for conventional diagnostic radiography and low energy radiation therapy procedures. The assumption is that it may be used for similar concepts and modalities within the same energy range, (e.g., fluoroscopy, where the skin injuries have been common in the past, or mammography, where the radiation carcinogenesis has been a matter of concern). A new Gafchromic film, XR-QA, as a precision dosimeter was assessed and used with this algorithm. Due to the fact that the dose range often seen in conventional radiography exams in most cases is not high enough to activate the sensitive layer of this film sufficiently, the measured net Optical Density (OD) changes were not substantial enough. Therefore, a conventional and relatively low speed dental film, DF58 Ultra, was used. Various thicknesses of Acrylic, a tissue equivalent material, were used with the algorithm. When compared with the other sources and reference data, the results from the developed mathematical algorithm are in a reasonable agreement with these values. The developed method is straight forward, and within the acceptable accuracy range. The back projection dosimetry method is effective and may be used individually for the desired body parts or fetus areas, depending on the clinical practice and interests.

  20. Determining similarity in histological images using graph-theoretic description and matching methods for content-based image retrieval in medical diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Computer-based analysis of digitalized histological images has been gaining increasing attention, due to their extensive use in research and routine practice. The article aims to contribute towards the description and retrieval of histological images by employing a structural method using graphs. Due to their expressive ability, graphs are considered as a powerful and versatile representation formalism and have obtained a growing consideration especially by the image processing and computer vision community. Methods The article describes a novel method for determining similarity between histological images through graph-theoretic description and matching, for the purpose of content-based retrieval. A higher order (region-based) graph-based representation of breast biopsy images has been attained and a tree-search based inexact graph matching technique has been employed that facilitates the automatic retrieval of images structurally similar to a given image from large databases. Results The results obtained and evaluation performed demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of graph-based image retrieval over a common histogram-based technique. The employed graph matching complexity has been reduced compared to the state-of-the-art optimal inexact matching methods by applying a pre-requisite criterion for matching of nodes and a sophisticated design of the estimation function, especially the prognosis function. Conclusion The proposed method is suitable for the retrieval of similar histological images, as suggested by the experimental and evaluation results obtained in the study. It is intended for the use in Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR)-requiring applications in the areas of medical diagnostics and research, and can also be generalized for retrieval of different types of complex images. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1224798882787923. PMID:23035717