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1

[Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].  

PubMed

Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders. PMID:17471820

Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Ma?gorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

2006-01-01

2

Experimental Physics - Modern Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designed for physics students treating the underlying basis for modern techniques and the devices used, this timely survey describes current experimental methods in a clear and accessible text. This up-to-date volume provides an essential part of undergraduate physics training; until now, students were often expected to learn many of these methods in the laboratory without proper introduction. The broad coverage of available techniques includes discussion of state-of-the-art electronic equipment, as well as such topics as discrete semiconductor devices, signal processing, thermometry, optical components, nuclear instrumentation, and x-ray diffraction methods. Professor Dunlap's text will serve not only as a complete introduction for majors but also as a reference work for technicians throughout a professional career. In addition to tutorial discussions presented, tables of numerical data and constants are included, further enhancing the book as a permanent reference.

Dunlap, R. A.

1988-10-01

3

[Modern approaches to diagnostics and treatment of chronic pancreatitis].  

PubMed

This review expounds modern views of diagnostic and treatment of chronic hepatitis (CH). Diagnosis of CH is possible only by precise methods of non-invasive morphological study, such as multispiral CT and/or endoscopic ultrasonography. Severe pain syndrome in CH requires the use of analgesics, pancreatin, tricyclic antidepressants, and anti-oxidant vitamin-mineral complexes. Low effectiveness of such therapy is an indication for surgical and endoscopic treatment. PMID:24437148

Maev, I V; Kucheriawy?, Iu A

2013-01-01

4

[Modern angiographic diagnostic techniques in the catheter laboratory].  

PubMed

Even at the beginning of the twenty-first century angiography still is the gold standard for imaging coronary arteries. Many limitations of this technique have facilitated advancements, such as quantitative coronary angiography and 3-dimensional reconstruction. The use of intravascular ultrasound has enabled a transmural in vivo imaging of the coronary arteries while creating cross-sectional images of the vessel wall. This led to a better evaluation of vascular plaques and the surrounding structures of the vessel. Optical coherence tomography is a new modality based on infrared light, which provides intraluminal and extraluminal imaging of vessels with a resolution of 10-20 µm, which is better than intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). However even this modern diagnostic tool is limited in the assessment of the relevance of an epicardial stenosis. Evaluation of the fractional flow reserve is a pathophysiological test, which measures the pressure before and after an epicardial stenosis and is able to assess the functional condition of a vessel with a high sensitivity and specificity. The so-called C-arm computed tomography (CACT; DynaCT Cardiac; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) is a new application of an intraprocedural technique based on rotation of an x-ray source around a patient. It is able to generate information similar to that created by conventional computed tomography (CT) scans and offers the possibility to significantly enhance angiographic diagnostic modalities. PMID:21720795

Rittger, H; Sinha, A-M; Brachmann, J

2011-08-01

5

Computational Chemistry Using Modern Electronic Structure Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various modern electronic structure methods are now days used to teach computational chemistry to undergraduate students. Such quantum calculations can now be easily used even for large size molecules.

Bell, Stephen; Dines, Trevor J.; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Withnall, Robert

2007-01-01

6

Standing footprint diagnostic method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Center of pressure is commonly used to evaluate standing balance. Even though it is incomplete, no better evaluation method has been presented. We designed our experiment with three standing postures: standing with feet together, standing with feet shoulder width apart, and standing with feet slightly wider than shoulder width. Our platform-based pressure system collected the instantaneous plantar pressure (standing footprint). A physical quantity of instantaneous standing footprint principal axis was defined, and it was used to construct an index to evaluate standing balance. Comparison between results from our newly established index and those from the center of pressure index to evaluate the stability of different standing postures revealed that the standing footprint principal axis index could better respond to the standing posture change than the existing one. Analysis indicated that the insensitive response to the relative position between feet and to the standing posture change from the center of pressure could be better detected by the standing footprint principal axis index. This predicts a wide application of standing footprint principal axis index when evaluating standing balance.

Fan, Y. F.; Fan, Y. B.; Li, Z. Y.; Newman, T.; Lv, C. S.; Fan, Y. Z.

2013-10-01

7

Modern statistical methods in respiratory medicine.  

PubMed

Statistics sits right at the heart of scientific endeavour in respiratory medicine and many other disciplines. In this introductory article, some key epidemiological concepts such as representativeness, random sampling, association and causation, and confounding are reviewed. A brief introduction to basic statistics covering topics such as frequentist methods, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, P values and Type II error is provided. Subsequent articles in this series will cover some modern statistical methods including regression models, analysis of repeated measures, causal diagrams, propensity scores, multiple imputation, accounting for measurement error, survival analysis, risk prediction, latent class analysis and meta-analysis. PMID:24372633

Wolfe, Rory; Abramson, Michael J

2014-01-01

8

Modern Methods in Celestial Mechanics Moderne Verfahren der Himmelsmechanik.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods for satellite orbit determination based on celestial mechanics are discussed. Numerical and analytical methods for solution of the motion problems are outlined. The analytical methods described include method of intermediary solutions, situation m...

M. Schneider

1977-01-01

9

[Real time diagnostics of instantaneous temperature of combustion and explosion process by modern spectroscopy].  

PubMed

The combustion temperature is one of the important parameters to express flame combustion and explosion characteristics. It will effectively guide the design and manufacture of new model explosives, industrial explosive materials, and weapons. The recent developments and applications of real time diagnostics of instantaneous temperature of combustion and explosion processes by modern spectroscopic methods, such as atomic absorption-emission method, atomic emission two-line spectroscopy, atomic emission multiline spectroscopy, molecular rotation-vibration spectroscopy, coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and plane laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), were reviewed in this paper. The maximum time resolution of atomic absorption-emission method is 25 microseconds. The time resolution of atomic emission two-line spectroscopy can reach 0.1 microsecond. These two methods can completely suit the need of real time and instantaneous temperature diagnostics of violent explosion and flame combustion. Other methods will also provide new effective research methods for the processes and characteristics of combustion, flame and explosion. PMID:12961909

Zhou, Xue-tie; Wang, Jun-de; Li, Yan; Liu, Da-bing

2003-04-01

10

A modern diagnostic approach for automobile systems condition monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important topic in automotive research and development is the area of active and passive safety systems. In general, it is grouped in active safety systems to prevent accidents and passive systems to reduce the impact of a crash. An example for an active system is ABS while a seat belt tensioner represents the group of passive systems. Current developments in the automotive industry try to link active with passive system components to enable a complete event sequence, beginning with the warning of the driver about a critical situation till the automatic emergency call after an accident. The cross-linking has an impact on the current diagnostic approach, which is described in this paper. Therefore, this contribution introduces a new diagnostic approach for automotive mechatronic systems. The concept is based on monitoring the messages which are exchanged via the automotive communication systems, e.g. the CAN bus. According to the authors' assumption, the messages on the bus are changing between faultless and faulty vehicle condition. The transmitted messages of the sensors and control units are different depending on the condition of the car. First experiments are carried and in addition, the hardware design of a suitable diagnostic interface is presented. Finally, first results will be presented and discussed.

Selig, M.; Shi, Z.; Ball, A.; Schmidt, K.

2012-05-01

11

Performance-Oriented Electric Motors Diagnostics in Modern Energy Conversion Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the analysis of a performance- oriented electric motors diagnostics in modern energy conversion system. With increased demand for electrical energy in world industries, the population of energy conversion devices such as generators\\/motors has greatly increased. As emerging and not being a mature enough technology in the application of renewable energy conversion or electric-drive transportation, the protection and

Seungdeog Choi; Bilal Akin; Mina M. Rahimian; Hamid A. Toliyat

2012-01-01

12

Mathematical methods of plasma vertical stabilization in modern tokamaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the application of modern computational methods for tokamak plasma control system analysis. Several different approaches for feedback controller synthesis are described. General positions of the modern robust analysis theory are briefly formulated. The technique of robust features comparative analysis for feedback controllers is presented. The application of these computational methods is illustrated by the example of the

D. A. Ovsyannikov; E. I. Veremey; A. P. Zhabko; A. D. Ovsyannikov; I. V. Makeev; V. A. Belyakov; A. A. Kavin; M. P. Gryaznevich; G. J. McArdle

2006-01-01

13

Doppler Shift Methods for Plasma Diagnostics,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work to develop novel advanced laser spectroscopy plasma diagnostic methods is described. The methods are based on observing the doppler shift in the absorption liners of ionic species. Two methods under study are Velocity Modulated Laser Spectroscopy and...

M. Sassi J. W. Daily

1987-01-01

14

Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*  

PubMed Central

This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice.

Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2009-01-01

15

Comparison of Modern Methods for Shock Hydrodynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The accuracy and efficiency of several methods are compared for simulating multi-fluid compressible flows. The methods include a Godunov scheme (Colella, 1985), a Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory method (Jiang and Shu, 1996), an Arbitrary Lagrangian E...

A. W. Cook

2005-01-01

16

Leaf Histology--Two Modern Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two methods for examining leaf structure are presented; both methods involve use of "superglue." The first method uses the glue to form a thin, permanent, direct replica of a leaf surface on a microscope slide. The second method uses the glue to examine the three-dimensional structure of spongy mesophyll. (JN)

Freeman, H. E.

1984-01-01

17

Comparison of Modern Methods for Shock Hydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

The accuracy and efficiency of several methods are compared for simulating multifluid compressible flows. The methods include a Godunov scheme (Colella, 1985), a Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory method (Jiang and Shu, 1996), an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian algorithm (Marinak et al., 2001) and a compact scheme (Cook and Cabot, 2005). Test problems include a compressible breaking wave, the Shu-Osher problem, the Taylor-Green vortex and decaying turbulence. The compact method employs an artificial bulk viscosity for treating shocks and an artificial shear viscosity for modeling turbulence. The compact method is demonstrated to capture shocks as well as the other schemes, while providing superior resolution of post-shock features.

Cook, A W

2005-06-13

18

Comparison of Modern Methods for Shock Hydrodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy and efficiency of several methods are compared for simulating multi-fluid compressible flows. The methods include a Godunov scheme, a Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) method, an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) algorithm and a Spectral\\/Compact (S\\/C) scheme. Test problems include a compressible breaking wave, Shu's problem, Noh's problem, the Taylor-Green vortex, decaying turbulence, Rayleigh-Taylor instability and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. The S\\/C

Andrew Cook

2005-01-01

19

Comparison of Modern Methods for Shock Hydrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy and efficiency of several methods are compared for simulating multi-fluid compressible flows. The methods include a Godunov scheme, a Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) method, an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) algorithm and a Spectral/Compact (S/C) scheme. Test problems include a compressible breaking wave, Shu's problem, Noh's problem, the Taylor-Green vortex, decaying turbulence, Rayleigh-Taylor instability and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. The S/C method employs an artificial bulk viscosity for treating shocks and an artificial shear viscosity for modeling turbulence. A polyharmonic operator, applied to the strain rate, imparts spectral-like behavior to the viscosities, thus eliminating the need for ad hoc limiters and/or switches to turn them off in smooth regions, e.g., expansion, uniform compression, solid-body rotation etc. A low-pass filter is applied to the flow variables to reduce aliasing errors. The S/C method is demonstrated to capture shocks as well as the other schemes, while providing superior resolution of small features.

Cook, Andrew

2005-11-01

20

Modern Analytical Methods for Monitoring Workplace Atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since measurements of exposure to hazardous substances were made obligatory in Germany under the Hazardous Material Regulation and Regulations for Accident Prevention there has been a need for widely-applicable, economic methods for determining airborne organic substance concentrations at workplaces. The relevant limits, which are based on toxicological and industrial hygiene data, are drawn up annually by the German Science Foundation

W. Merz; H. J. Neu; H. Panzel

1985-01-01

21

A survey of modern authorship attribution methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Authorship attribution supported by statistical or computational methods has a long history starting from 19th century and marked by the seminal study of Mosteller and Wallace (1964) on the authorship of the disputed Federalist Papers. During the last decade, this scientific field has been developed substantially taking advantage of research advances in areas such as machine learning, information retrieval, and

Efstathios Stamatatos

2009-01-01

22

Modern Statistical Methods for GLAST Event Analysis  

SciTech Connect

We describe a statistical reconstruction methodology for the GLAST LAT. The methodology incorporates in detail the statistics of the interactions of photons and charged particles with the tungsten layers in the LAT, and uses the scattering distributions to compute the full probability distribution over the energy and direction of the incident photons. It uses model selection methods to estimate the probabilities of the possible geometrical configurations of the particles produced in the detector, and numerical marginalization over the energy loss and scattering angles at each layer. Preliminary results show that it can improve on the tracker-only energy estimates for muons and electrons incident on the LAT.

Morris, Robin D.; /RIACS, Mtn. View; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park

2007-04-10

23

Method and computer program product for maintenance and modernization backlogging  

SciTech Connect

According to one embodiment, a computer program product for determining future facility conditions includes a computer readable medium having computer readable program code stored therein. The computer readable program code includes computer readable program code for calculating a time period specific maintenance cost, for calculating a time period specific modernization factor, and for calculating a time period specific backlog factor. Future facility conditions equal the time period specific maintenance cost plus the time period specific modernization factor plus the time period specific backlog factor. In another embodiment, a computer-implemented method for calculating future facility conditions includes calculating a time period specific maintenance cost, calculating a time period specific modernization factor, and calculating a time period specific backlog factor. Future facility conditions equal the time period specific maintenance cost plus the time period specific modernization factor plus the time period specific backlog factor. Other embodiments are also presented.

Mattimore, Bernard G; Reynolds, Paul E; Farrell, Jill M

2013-02-19

24

[Historical survey of modern reversible contraceptive methods].  

PubMed

Because of contraception, pregnancy need not be viewed by women as punishment for sexual activity but as a planned and desired event. Most of the contraceptive methods used in developing countries at present were introduced during the 1960s, but use of contraception has a long history and some methods date back to antiquity. Contraceptive pills were already used around 2000 BC in the form of mercury and arsenic tablets. Their effectiveness was questionable. The role of hormones in human reproduction began to be understood only in the early 1900s. The discovery of progesterone in a Mexican iguana in the 1940s permitted production of progesterone on a large scale. Estrogens had been identified around 1930. Human trials of a contraceptive pill beginning in 1956 in Puerto Rico demonstrated that progestins could prevent pregnancy by suppressing ovulation. Later on, estrogen was added to reduce menstrual irregularities. The 1st generation of combined oral contraceptives contained very high levels of hormones associated with high rates of side effects. Numerous formulations with lower hormonal contents became available beginning around 1970 and constitute the principal formulations in use today. A number of long acting hormonal methods based on progestins have been developed, including injectables, some IUDs and vaginal rings, and implants. The 1st commercially available injectable, norethisterone enanthate, did not acquire the wide distribution of medroxyprogesterone acetate, sold as Depo Provera and used to treat various pathological conditions as well as for contraception. The 1st true IUDs were small stones placed within the uteri of camels by nomads to prevent pregnancy during long caravans. An IUD was developed in 1909 by Richter, and the 2 most widely used models before 1960 were the Grafenberg and Ota silver rings. Use of the 2 rings became rare for medical reasons after 1935 despite their efficacy. Safe plastic IUDs which appeared beginning in the early 1960s were flexible and capable of returning to their original shape after insertion. The Lippes loop was the 1st highly successful IUD. Bioactive IUDs containing copper were developed in the 1970s. Research is underway to develop IUDs which will resist expulsion, reduce bleeding, be more appropriate for multiparas, and last longer. IUDs are used to treat intrauterine adhesions as well as for contraception. A gummy substance used to block the cervix was described in Egypt in 1850 BC. Japanese and Chinese prostitutes of antiquity placed oiled bamboo paper at the cervical opening for contraception. Diaphragms and cervical caps were developed in the 19th century in Germany. Large scale production became possible after 1880 with the development of better, more durable, and cheaper rubber. An Egyptian writing in 3500 BC began the study of spermicides. Numerous substances such as lemon juice and honey have been placed in the vagina to avoid pregnancy. Such substances are available to all women and some were reasonably effective. Current research is directed toward development of spermicides which will also prevent sexually transmitted diseases. The 1st condoms were made of animal skins by an English physician to prevent transmission of venereal diseases. Rubber condoms appeared in the early 20th century and are widely utilized in some family planning programs. Pregnancy vaccines and a reversible hormonal method for men are among methods under development. PMID:12268230

Mbabajende, V

1986-04-01

25

Modern numerical methods for plasma tomography optimisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tomography is a technique which is widely applied to fusion plasmas as it can provide improved understanding of plasma emissivity distributions. It is challenging because of the sparse nature of data available from the measured plasma projections. An optimised version of robust and fast tomographic algorithm based on the Tikhonov regularisation constrained to Minimum Fisher Information is presented in this contribution. A new regularisation matrix enforcing preferential emissivity smoothness along magnetic flux surfaces is introduced. The paper also details application of advanced numerical methods which lead to a substantial decrease in computation time. Subsequent implementation of fast presolvers of the inverse problem further contributes to the algorithm's efficiency and also an improved stability of the tomography reconstruction. Finally, reliability and performance of the tomography algorithm is exemplified by the reconstruction of soft X-ray data evolution following tungsten ablation into a JET plasma. The resulting speed of reconstruction is compared to other referenced tomographic algorithms.

Odstrcil, M.; Mlynar, J.; Odstrcil, T.; Alper, B.; Murari, A.; JET EFDA Contributors

26

Tomographic methods in flow diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a viewpoint of tomography that should be well adapted to currently available optical measurement technology as well as the needs of computational and experimental fluid dynamists. The goals in mind are to record data with the fastest optical array sensors; process the data with the fastest parallel processing technology available for small computers; and generate results for both experimental and theoretical data. An in-depth example treats interferometric data as it might be recorded in an aeronautics test facility, but the results are applicable whenever fluid properties are to be measured or applied from projections of those properties. The paper discusses both computed and neural net calibration tomography. The report also contains an overview of key definitions and computational methods, key references, computational problems such as ill-posedness, artifacts, missing data, and some possible and current research topics.

Decker, Arthur J.

1993-01-01

27

Rare manifestations of sarcoidosis in modern era of new diagnostic tools  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Growing body of literature on sarcoidosis in India has led to an increased awareness of the disease. With the advent of better imaging tools hitherto under-recognized manifestations of sarcoidosis are likely to be better recognized. We sought to study the rare clinical and radiological manifestations (<5%) in patients with sarcoidosis. Methods: Retrospective review of records of 164 patients with histopathologically proven sarcoidosis seen over six years in a tertiary care centre in north India, was done. Results: Fifty four rare manifestations were observed in 164 patients. Acute presentation in the form of Lofgren syndrome was seen in eight (4.9%) and Heerfordt's syndrome in two (1.2%) patients. Musculoskeletal manifestations included chronic sarcoid arthritis in three (1.8%), deforming arthritis and bone erosion in one (0.6%) each. Rare initial presentation with dilated cardiomyopathy in one (0.6%), complete heart block in two (1.2%), bilateral sequential facial nerve palsy in two (1.2%), and pyrexia of unknown origin was seen in one (0.6%) patient. Other rare manifestations included chronic respiratory failure in one (0.6%), dysphagia in one (0.6%), sicca syndrome in five (3%), massive splenomegaly in one (0.6%), portal hypertension in two (1.2%), hypersplenism, gastric sarcoidosis, ninth and tenth cranial nerve palsies, moderate pericardial effusion and nephrocalcinosis in one (0.6%) each, and pulmonary artery hypertension in two (1.2%) patients. Rare radiological manifestations included moderate pleural effusion in two (1.2%), pleural thickening in five (3%), calcification of intrathoracic lymph nodes in four (2.4%), alveolar (nodular) sarcoidosis in three (1.8%), and myocardial uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) in two (1.2%) patients. Fourteen patients had airways obstruction and behaved typically like seasonal bronchial asthma with excellent response to corticosteroids. Interpretation & conclusions: Increased awareness of rare manifestations will facilitate better management of these patients. With increasing use of modern diagnostic tools, manifestations hitherto considered rare, are likely to be recognized more frequently in the future.

Sharma, Surendra K; Soneja, Manish; Sharma, Abhishek; Sharma, Mehar C.; Hari, Smriti

2012-01-01

28

Methods of optoacoustic diagnostics of biological tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser optoacoustic diagnostics is based on thermoelastic excitation of ultrasonic signals in a medium due to absorption of pulsed laser radiation. The pressure profile of such an ultrasonic (or optoacoustic) signal contains information on the distribution of heat sources in the medium. Hence, detection of optoacoustic signals reveals the distribution of absorbing inhomogeneities in the medium under investigation. Application of optoacoustic diagnostics in various fields of biology and medicine (e.g., for visualization of blood vessels and malignant tumors) has been much discussed in literature. Research in optoacoustic diagnostics is mainly concerned with the development of systems for optoacoustic signal detection, methods of signal processing, and algorithms for optoacoustic image reconstruction. The present paper reviews the latest achievements in this field of research and discusses its prospects.

Khokhlova, T. D.; Pelivanov, I. M.; Karabutov, A. A.

2009-10-01

29

The "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" as a Major Form of Dehumanization in the Modern World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) is one of the most successful technologies in modern times. In spite of well-argued critiques, the DSM and the idea of "mental illness" on which it is based flourish, with ever more (mis)behaviors labeled as brain diseases. Problems in living and related distress…

Gambrill, Eileen

2014-01-01

30

[Arthroscopy as a diagnostic and surgical method].  

PubMed

The use of the arthroscopic technique has dramatically changed and still does the orthopedic surgery. Arthroscopy has developed as a diagnostic method, particularly in the knee joint. In 1970 the era of surgical arthroscopic procedure has begun, again on the knee joint. The possibilities of surgical arthroscopies of the knee are best described by L. L. Johnson when he said for fun, but today almost true, that practically all surgeries except that of the knee endoprosthesis may be done by means of arthroscopy or, if performed together with it, are much more better. Following arthroscopy in the knee, arthroscopies of other joints of the human body have developed in the same way, first the diagnostic and then the surgical one. Today, arthroscopy is being used even in the temporomandibular joint and those of the spine. However, arthroscopy is currently most usually applied in the knee, shoulder, elbow and upper leg joints. Although arthroscopy means in the literal sense looking into the joints, today it is not limited only to joints. We shall mention arthroscopy of the carpal canal of wrist. With the development of MRI the use of diagnostic arthroscopy will be certainly reduced, but the surgical arthroscopy will be subjected to further developments. The authors report on the experience of the Department of Orthopedics, Medical School University of Zagreb in applying diagnostic and surgical arthroscopies, stressing the basic understandings being significant for general practitioners. PMID:1961081

Haspl, M; Pe?ina, M; Bojani?, I

1991-01-01

31

Oxygen abundance methods in SDSS: View from modern statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our purpose is to find which is the most reliable one among various oxygen abundance determination methods. We will test the validity of several different oxygen abundance determination methods using methods of modern statistics. These methods include Bayesian analysis and information scoring. We will analyze a sample of ˜ 6000 Hii galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic observations data release four. All methods that we used drew the same conclusion that the T e method is a more reliable oxygen abundance determination method than the Bayesian metallicity method under the existing telescope ability. The ratios of the likelihoods between the different kinds of methods tell us that the T e , P, and O3 N2 methods are consistent with each other because the P and O3 N2 methods are calibrated by T e method. The Bayesian and R 23 methods are consistent with each other because both are calibrated by a galaxy model. In either case, the N2 method is an unreliable method.

Shi, Fei; Zhao, Gang; Wicker, James

2010-09-01

32

Genetic Diagnostic Methods for Inherited Eye Diseases  

PubMed Central

Accurate molecular diagnosis of genetic eye diseases has proven to be of great importance because of the prognostic and therapeutic value of an accurate ascertainment of the underlying genetic mutation. Efforts continue in diagnostic laboratories to develop strategies that allow the discovery of responsible gene/mutations in the individual patient using the least number of assays and economizing on the expenses and time involved in the process. Once the ophthalmologist has made the best possible clinical diagnosis, blood samples are obtained for genetic testing. In this paper we will review the basic laboratory methods utilized to identify the chromosomal or mutational etiology of genetic diseases that affect the eye.

Gabriel, Luis A. R.; Traboulsi, Elias I.

2011-01-01

33

[Diagnostic methods considering tubal factors in infertility].  

PubMed

The diagnostic methods of tubal factor in infertility have been presented in this paper. In details have been discussed PJ, PK, HSG and pelvic examination. These examinations themselves constitute the basic ones in infertility. We turned our attention into technical details and possible mistakes which may occur at the time of performing them, these misinterpretations may lead to absolutely wrong conclusion and diagnosis. Authors have wide experience in performing the discussed examinations and this allows them to share their opinions. Over the years several thousand of PK and HSG examinations have been carried out and also 1000 laparoscopies. PMID:8112631

Korzon, T; Mielnik, J; Go?ciniak, W; Muczy?ska, I; Lozyk, J

1993-11-01

34

Contemporary Chinese pulse diagnosis: a modern interpretation of an ancient and traditional method.  

PubMed

Contemporary Chinese pulse diagnosis™ (CCPD) is a system of pulse diagnosis utilized by Dr. John He Feng Shen, OMD, and documented by Dr. Leon Hammer, MD, in the book Chinese Pulse Diagnosis, A Contemporary Approach. It is the traditional method of the Ding medical lineage from the Shanghai region and dates to the 15th century in Chinese language texts. The fundamentals of this system are, however, much older and can be directly traced to the Neijing Suwen. Having been passed from the last direct inheritor of Ding knowledge (Dr. Shen) to modern practitioners of Chinese medicine by way of Dr. Hammer and his students, it represents an important system of advanced diagnosis. Although modern diagnostic technology provides very sophisticated diagnoses, for these instruments to be effective, the disease process must already have a physical manifestation. CCPD, on the other hand, provides the earliest warnings of physiological processes, which if left unchecked may result in the subsequent appearance of a disease. This article describes the derivation and the principles of this system of pulse diagnosis and explores its successful integration into the modern practice of Chinese medicine. PMID:24139459

Bilton, Karen; Hammer, Leon; Zaslawski, Chris

2013-10-01

35

Modern wing flutter analysis by computational fluid dynamics methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application and assessment of the recently developed CAP-TSD transonic small-disturbance code for flutter prediction is described. The CAP-TSD code has been developed for aeroelastic analysis of complete aircraft configurations and was previously applied to the calculation of steady and unsteady pressures with favorable results. Generalized aerodynamic forces and flutter characteristics are calculated and compared with linear theory results and with experimental data for a 45 deg sweptback wing. These results are in good agreement with the experimental flutter data which is the first step toward validating CAP-TSD for general transonic aeroelastic applications. The paper presents these results and comparisons along with general remarks regarding modern wing flutter analysis by computational fluid dynamics methods.

Cunningham, Herbert J.; Batina, John T.; Bennett, Robert M.

1987-01-01

36

Modern wing flutter analysis by computational fluid dynamics methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application and assessment of the recently developed CAP-TSD transonic small-disturbance code for flutter prediction is described. The CAP-TSD code has been developed for aeroelastic analysis of complete aircraft configurations and was previously applied to the calculation of steady and unsteady pressures with favorable results. Generalized aerodynamic forces and flutter characteristics are calculated and compared with linear theory results and with experimental data for a 45 deg sweptback wing. These results are in good agreement with the experimental flutter data which is the first step toward validating CAP-TSD for general transonic aeroelastic applications. The paper presents these results and comparisons along with general remarks regarding modern wing flutter analysis by computational fluid dynamics methods.

Cunningham, Herbert J.; Batina, John T.; Bennett, Robert M.

1988-01-01

37

[New molecular methods in prenatal invasive diagnostics].  

PubMed

New diagnostic techniques employed in laboratories all over the world enable to create new tests for prenatal genetic diagnosis. They include cytogenetics, molecular-cytogenetics and molecular methods. Chromosomal numerical aberrations (aneuploidies) remain to be the most frequent genetic changes diagnosed prenatally Therefore, our paper presents the latest methods used mainly in prenatal diagnosis of the most common chromosome numerical changes, as well as other methods applicable in detecting chromosome structural changes or gene mutations. One of the main advantages of these new approaches is the short period of time needed to obtain a result. Some of these techniques are used world-wide: QF-PCR (Fluorescence Quantitive Polymerase Chain Reaction)--based on the analysis of the short polymorphic sequences characteristic for each individual; MLPA (Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification)--based on the probes ligation to complementary genomic fragments in patient DNA; microarray CGH (Comparative Genomic Hybridization)--based on genomic hybridization to microarray, which enables analysis of the entire genome. Other new methods are also gradually introduced to invasive prenatal diagnosis: NGS (Next-generation DNA sequencing)--for the analysis of the whole genome at the DNA level; BoBs (BACS-on-Beads)--molecular-cytogenetic technique based on hybridization of probes immobilized on polystyrene microspheres with fetal DNA. Nowadays, rapid diagnosis of the most common chromosomal aneuploidies is not a standard procedure in Poland, as opposed to cytogenetics (karyotyping). However, for specific clinical indications, fast and reliable methods of genetic analysis present are likely to become standard procedures in prenatal diagnosis. PMID:24273910

?aczma?ska, Izabela; Stembalska, Agnieszka

2013-10-01

38

Multicolor FISH methods in current clinical diagnostics.  

PubMed

Multicolor FISH (mFISH) assays are currently indispensable for a precise description of derivative chromosomes. Routine application of such techniques on human chromosomes started in 1996 with the simultaneous use of all 24 human whole-chromosome painting probes in multiplex-FISH and spectral karyotyping. Since then, multiple approaches for chromosomal differentiation based on multicolor-FISH (MFISH) assays have been developed. Predominantly, they are applied to characterize marker or derivative chromosomes identified in conventional banding analysis. Since the introduction of array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), mFISH is also applied to verify and further delineate aCGH-detected aberrations. For the latter, it is important to consider the fact that aCGH cannot detect or characterize balanced rearrangements, which are important to be resolved in detail in infertility diagnostics. In addition, mFISH is necessary to distinguish different imbalanced situations detectable in aCGH; small supernumerary marker chromosomes have to be differentiated from insertions or unbalanced translocations. This review presents an overview on the available mFISH methods and their applications in pre- and post-natal clinical genetics. PMID:23570403

Liehr, Thomas; Weise, Anja; Hamid, Ahmed B; Fan, Xiaobo; Klein, Elisabeth; Aust, Nadine; Othman, Moneeb Ak; Mrasek, Kristin; Kosyakova, Nadezda

2013-04-01

39

Methods of making a diagnostic device by interweaving hydrophobic and hydrophilic fibers, and diagnostic device therefrom  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

In one aspect, the invention provides a method for making a hydrophilic-silk composition. The method includes providing at least one strand of silk fiber, treating the silk fiber with an alkaline solution to provide at least one strand of degummed silk fiber, and treating the degummed silk fiber with a treatment solution to provide a hydrophilic-silk composition. The degummed silk fiber or the hydrophilic-silk composition is further immobilized with at least one reagent to make a silk-based diagnostic composition. The invention provides a silk-based diagnostic composition made by the method of the invention, and a diagnostic device that comprises the silk-based diagnostic composition. In another aspect, the invention provides a method of making a diagnostic device. The method includes providing at least one strand of a diagnostic-fiber composition, providing at least one strand of a hydrophobic-fiber composition, inter-weaving the at least one strand of the diagnostic-fiber composition and the at least one strand of the hydrophobic-fiber composition. In one embodiment, the diagnostic-fiber composition and the hydrophobic-fiber composition are both based on silk.

2014-04-29

40

Electron-Beam Diagnostic Methods for Hypersonic Flow Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this work was the evaluation of the use of electron-bean fluorescence for flow measurements during hypersonic flight. Both analytical and numerical models were developed in this investigation to evaluate quantitatively flow field imaging concepts based upon the electron beam fluorescence technique for use in flight research and wind tunnel applications. Specific models were developed for: (1) fluorescence excitation/emission for nitrogen, (2) rotational fluorescence spectrum for nitrogen, (3) single and multiple scattering of electrons in a variable density medium, (4) spatial and spectral distribution of fluorescence, (5) measurement of rotational temperature and density, (6) optical filter design for fluorescence imaging, and (7) temperature accuracy and signal acquisition time requirements. Application of these models to a typical hypersonic wind tunnel flow is presented. In particular, the capability of simulating the fluorescence resulting from electron impact ionization in a variable density nitrogen or air flow provides the capability to evaluate the design of imaging instruments for flow field mapping. The result of this analysis is a recommendation that quantitative measurements of hypersonic flow fields using electron-bean fluorescence is a tractable method with electron beam energies of 100 keV. With lower electron energies, electron scattering increases with significant beam divergence which makes quantitative imaging difficult. The potential application of the analytical and numerical models developed in this work is in the design of a flow field imaging instrument for use in hypersonic wind tunnels or onboard a flight research vehicle.

1994-01-01

41

Comparison of diagnostic methods for asperger syndrome.  

PubMed

Several different diagnostic sets of criteria exist for Asperger syndrome (AS), but there is no agreement on a gold standard. The aim of this study was to compare four diagnostic sets of criteria for AS: the ICD-10, the DSM-IV, the Gillberg & Gillberg, and the Szatmari criteria. The series consists of 36 children who had been referred to two centers with a tentative diagnosis of AS. The best agreement was between the ICD-10 and the DSM-IV criteria (Kappa coefficient 0.48), and the lowest between the Gillberg & Gillberg and Szatmari criteria (Kappa coefficient -0.21). The poor agreement between these sets of diagnostic criteria compromises the comparability of studies on AS. PMID:18324466

Kopra, Kristiina; von Wendt, Lennart; Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; Paavonen, E Juulia

2008-09-01

42

SIOExplorer: Modern IT Methods and Tools for Digital Library Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With more geoscience disciplines becoming data-driven it is increasingly important to utilize modern techniques for data, information and knowledge management. SIOExplorer is a new digital library project with 2 terabytes of oceanographic data collected over the last 50 years on 700 cruises by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. It is built using a suite of information technology tools and methods that allow for an efficient and effective digital library management system. The library consists of a number of independent collections, each with corresponding metadata formats. The system architecture allows each collection to be built and uploaded based on a collection dependent metadata template file (MTF). This file is used to create the hierarchical structure of the collection, create metadata tables in a relational database, and to populate object metadata files and the collection as a whole. Collections are comprised of arbitrary digital objects stored at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) High Performance Storage System (HPSS) and managed using the Storage Resource Broker (SRB), data handling middle ware developed at SDSC. SIOExplorer interoperates with other collections as a data provider through the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) protocol. The user services for SIOExplorer are accessed from CruiseViewer, a Java application served using Java Web Start from the SIOExplorer home page. CruiseViewer is an advanced tool for data discovery and access. It implements general keyword and interactive geospatial search methods for the collections. It uses a basemap to georeference search results on user selected basemaps such as global topography or crustal age. User services include metadata viewing, opening of selective mime type digital objects (such as images, documents and grid files), and downloading of objects (including the brokering of proprietary hold restrictions).

Sutton, D. W.; Helly, J.; Miller, S.; Chase, A.; Clarck, D.

2003-12-01

43

[Modern algorithms for diagnostics and treatment of anorectal fistulas in clinical practice--case reviews].  

PubMed

Authors present three case reports of perianal fistules with review of contemporary literature. The obligatory nature of this disease is defined by its behaviour, tendency to relace, a social taboos and handicap, that affects patients with perianal fistule. In introduction there is descripted aethiology, morphology, standard diagnostic procedures and therapy of anorectal fistules and fistule form of idiopatic bowel diseases. In discussion there is a review of the new trends of diagnostic and treatment procedures of these diseases, that reflect domestic and international expert literature. Standard procedures are summarized in conclusion. PMID:20514919

Liska, V; Novák, P; Treska, V; Holubec, L; Manasová, M

2010-03-01

44

Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics  

DOEpatents

A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image. 3 figs.

Toeppen, J.S.

1995-04-25

45

Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics  

DOEpatents

A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image.

Toeppen, John S. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01

46

[A modern look at benign stenosing lesions. Etiology and pathogenesis of diagnostic capabilities. A systematic review].  

PubMed

The problem of nonneoplastic stenosis of major duodenal papilla is on joint of gastroenterology and surgery and present a challenge for physicians. This article reviews what is known about the pathogenesis, epidemiology and diagnostics of papillostenosis and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. PMID:23402195

Pakhabova, E Iu; Belova, G V

2012-01-01

47

Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

2013-01-01

48

LOCAPHONY - NEW ACOUSTICAL METHOD OF EXPRESS FUNCTIONAL MEDICINE DIAGNOSTICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locaphony is a new developed method of quick functional medicine diagnostics, based on objective acoustical percussion of human internal organs. Locaphony permits to determine the acoustical projections of organs on the skin, estimate the safety of tissue and detect the inflammation processes. The 2D- images are the result of such diagnostics and these images contain new information in comparison with

V. Svet; J. Blinkov; S. Nikolaev; V. Murashev

49

[Research progress on diagnostic methods for Babesia microti infection].  

PubMed

Human babesiosis, a malaria-like zoonosis transmitted by the tick, is mainly distributed in Europe, USA and some Asian countries. There are various kinds of diagnostic methods for babesiosis caused by Babesia microti, but many of them are still in the preliminary stage. This article reviewes the main diagnostic techniques and the existing problems. PMID:24812866

Sun, Jia-Hui; Han, Jian-Ping; Feng, Zheng; Hu, Wei

2013-06-01

50

Diagnostic methods for CW laser damage testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High performance optical coatings are an enabling technology for many applications - navigation systems, telecom, fusion, advanced measurement systems of many types as well as directed energy weapons. The results of recent testing of superior optical coatings conducted at high flux levels will be presented. The diagnostics used in this type of nondestructive testing and the analysis of the data demonstrates the evolution of test methodology. Comparison of performance data under load to the predictions of thermal and optical models shows excellent agreement. These tests serve to anchor the models and validate the performance of the materials and coatings.

Stewart, Alan F.; Shah, Rashmi S.

2004-06-01

51

[The role of ductoscopy in the modern diagnostics and therapy of breast diseases].  

PubMed

Mammary ductoscopy is a modern, minimally invasive procedure that enables direct, in vivo observation of the mammary ductal system, primarily by nipple discharge. The rapidly developing device is suitable for aimed biopsy for further cytological or molecular examinations. High-tech equipments facilitate polypectomy or laser vaporization of certain intraluminal lesions, and play an important role in the direct surgical excision of the duct or the so-called terminal duct-lobular unit. The above listed facilitate the early diagnosis of malignancies even before imaging could detect them, and the control of high risk patients. Ductoscopy can foster surgical removal of ductal in situ tumors as anatomical units, thus enabling the optimization of radicality of breast conserving surgeries. Authors give a detailed description of the surgical techniques, and provide a wide review of the literature, for the first time in the Hungarian language. Orv. Hetil., 2011, 152, 1284-1293. PMID:21803726

Mátrai, Zoltán; Tóth, László; Bidlek, Mária; Szabó, Éva; Farkas, Emil; Sávolt, Ákos; Góbor, László; Bartal, Alexandra; Kásler, Miklós

2011-08-01

52

PocketECG: a new continuous and real-time ambulatory arrhythmia diagnostic method.  

PubMed

This article presents a new approach to ambulatory arrhythmia monitoring, one which can be viewed as a natural evolution of the existing non-invasive methods for diagnosing heart rhythm abnormalities. This new method combines the real-time capabilities of modern mobile cardiovascular telemetry systems with a quantitative way of reporting measured findings and continuous storage of the ECG data typical of Holter monitoring systems. It further combines this with a symptom-reporting capability typical of event monitoring applications. Combining all these features produces a single device which could be described as the ultimate arrhythmia diagnostic tool. PMID:21769831

Dziubi?ski, Marek

2011-01-01

53

Method and system for diagnostics of apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed is a method, implemented in software, for estimating fault state of an apparatus outfitted with sensors. At each execution period the method processes sensor data from the apparatus to obtain a set of parity parameters, which are further used for estimating fault state. The estimation method formulates a convex optimization problem for each fault hypothesis and employs a convex solver to compute fault parameter estimates and fault likelihoods for each fault hypothesis. The highest likelihoods and corresponding parameter estimates are transmitted to a display device or an automated decision and control system. The obtained accurate estimate of fault state can be used to improve safety, performance, or maintenance processes for the apparatus.

Gorinevsky, Dimitry (Inventor)

2012-01-01

54

Differential Temperature Integrating Diagnostic Method and Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method and device for detecting the presence of breast cancer in women by integrating the temperature difference between the temperature of a normal breast and that of a breast having a malignant tumor. The breast-receiving cups of a brassiere are each ...

J. D. Doss C. W. McCabe

1976-01-01

55

Differential temperature integrating diagnostic method and apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and device for detecting the presence of breast cancer in women by integrating the temperature difference between the temperature of a normal breast and that of a breast having a malignant tumor. The breast-receiving cups of a brassiere are each provided with thermally conductive material next to the skin, with a thermistor attached to the thermally conductive material

James D. Doss; Charles W. McCabe

1976-01-01

56

X-Ray Diagnostic Methods for Laser Imploded Targets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some recently developed x-ray diagnostic methods for laser irradiated targets are described. The first section deals with a method based on the observation of absorption x-ray lines formed when a continuum from a hot imploded core traverses a cooler surro...

B. Yaakobi

1985-01-01

57

Basic Concepts in Modern Methods of Test Equating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes some of the basic concepts in test equating. Various types of equating methods, as well as data collection designs, are outlined, with attempts to provide insight into preferred methods and techniques. Test equating describes a group of methods that enable test constructors and users to compare scores from two different forms…

Woldbeck, Tanya

58

[Historical records and modern studies on agarwood production method and overall agarwood production method].  

PubMed

Agarwood is a precious traditional Chinese medicine with the efficacy of promoting qi circulation and relieving pain, warming middle-jiao, controlling nausea and vomiting, governing inspiration and relieving asthma, therefore it is widely applied in the clinic. Meanwhile, agarwood is also a precious spice. Aquilaria sinensis is the only source of agarwood production in China. Under natural conditions, a healthy A. sinensis tree produces no agarwood. Only if being wounded or infected with fungus can it synthetize and accumulate agarwood. It takes a decade or even several decades to produce agarwood, thus natural agarwood can not meet market demands. The essay summarizes historical records of agarwood production method and modern agarwood production method, in order to provide basis and reference for large-scale production of agarwood. PMID:23667998

Huang, Jun-Qing; Wei, Jian-He; Zhang, Zheng; Yang, Yun; Liu, Yang-Yang; Meng, Hui; Zhang, Xing-Li; Zhang, Jin-Lian

2013-02-01

59

Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for directly labeling proteins with radionuclides for use in diagnostic imaging and therapy. It comprises: the steps of incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein-containing solution and incubating.

Thakur, M.L.

1991-04-30

60

Erwinia amylovora: modern methods for detection and differentiation.  

PubMed

Erwinia amylovora is the causative agent of fire blight, a very destructive disease of numerous members of the rosaceae. The primary route of infection for host species, including commercially grown apple and pear, is the newly opened blossom. Susceptibility of flowers to infection for only a few days creates narrow window for infection. Not surprisingly, the risk of disease is related to E. amylovora population size. As a result, methods that supply quick, accurate and sensitive quantification of the pathogen population are important tools for determining the need for and the efficacy of disease control intervention. Plating samples and assessing colony-forming units constitutes an accurate and sensitive but slow method. Endpoint PCR is quick and sensitive but is not particularly amenable to quantification. We describe a real-time PCR procedure that provides all requirements. This method is based on chromosomal genes rather than on the pEa29 plasmid and so can be used to measure isolates that have been cured of the plasmid. The method has been used very successfully in directly quantify whole E. amylovora cells, in a variety of tissues from the orchard environment. PMID:19301751

Svircev, Antonet M; Kim, Won-Sik; Lehman, Susan M; Castle, Alan J

2009-01-01

61

MODERN DAY PLASTINATION TECHNIQUES - SUCCESSOR OF ANCIENT EMBALMMENT METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to find, analyse and systematise the basic ways of embalmment and their application in contemporary methods of plastination. In most of the ancient mummies the internal organs and the brain were removed. Usually the best-preserved samples were under additional protective circumstances - low temperatures, dry air, draught, or isolating cover of the body. Chinchoros

D. Sivrev; M. Miklosova; A. Georgieva; N. Dimitrov

2005-01-01

62

Modern Language Teaching by the Correspondence Method: One University's Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of an investigation of correspondence teaching methods and of a series of interviews with University of Waterloo faculty suggest that correspondence language instruction should be an integral part of continuing education and has a significant untapped market among adults. Recent technological advancements will serve this endeavor well.…

Karpiak, Robert

1982-01-01

63

Value of information methods for assessing a new diagnostic test.  

PubMed

Value-of-information methods are applied to assess the evidence in support of a new diagnostic test and, where the evidence is insufficient for decision making, to determine the optimal sample size for future studies. Net benefit formulations are derived under various diagnostic and treatment scenarios. The expressions for the expected opportunity loss of adopting strategies that include the new test are given. Expressions for the expected value of information from future studies are derived. One-sample and two-sample designs, with or without known prevalence, are considered. An example is given. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24403241

Chen, Maggie Hong; Willan, Andrew R

2014-05-20

64

New Clinical Method for Distinguishing DIBS from Other Gastrointestinal Conditions Causing Diarrhea: The LA\\/IBS Diagnostic Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern methods of diagnosing diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) require a “diagnosis of exclusion” approach.\\u000a In this study we aim to test the diagnostic ability of using the fluctuation of frequency and consistency of bowel patterns\\u000a in IBS to discriminate it from other causes of diarrhea. Eligible subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire on the changes\\u000a in form and

Mark Pimentel; Laura Hwang; Gil Y. Melmed; Kimberly Low; Eric Vasiliauskas; Andrew Ippoliti; Janet Yang; Sheila Lezcano; Jeffrey L. Conklin; Ara Sahakian

2010-01-01

65

Designing arrays for modern high-resolution methods  

SciTech Connect

A bearing estimation study of seismic wavefields propagating from a strongly heterogeneous media shows that with the high-resolution MUSIC algorithm the bias of the direction estimate can be reduced by adopting a smaller aperture sub-array. Further, on this sub-array, the bias of the MUSIC algorithm is less than those of the MLM and Bartlett methods. On the full array, the performance for the three different methods are comparable. Improvement in bearing estimation in MUSIC with a reduced aperture might be attributed to increased signal coherency in the array. For methods with less resolution, the improved signal coherency in the smaller array is possible being offset by severe loss of resolution and the presence of weak secondary sources. Building upon the characteristics of real seismic wavefields, a design language has been developed to generate, modify, and test other arrays. Eigenstructures of wavefields and arrays have been studied empirically by simulation of a variety of realistic signals. 6 refs., 5 figs.

Dowla, F.U.

1987-10-01

66

A fuzzy information approach to integrating different transformer diagnostic methods  

SciTech Connect

Methods to identify transformer fault conditions before they deteriorate to a severe state include dissolved gas analysis, liquid chromatography, acoustic analysis, and transfer function techniques. All of these methods require some experience in order to correctly interpret observations. Researchers have applied artificial intelligence concepts in order to encode these diagnostic techniques. These attempts have concentrated on only a single technique and have failed to fully manage the inherent uncertainty in the various methods. In this paper, a theoretic fuzzy information model is introduced. An inference scheme which yields the most consistent conclusion is proposed. A framework is established that allows various diagnostic methods to be combined in a systematic way. Numerical examples demonstrate the developed system.

Tomsovic, K. (Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Electrical Energy Systems); Tapper, M.; Ingvarsson, T. (Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

1993-07-01

67

Traditional East Asian medicine: How to understand and approach diagnostic findings and patterns in a modern scientific framework?  

PubMed

Research into the diagnostic methods and patterns of traditional East Asian medical (TEAM) systems of practice such as acupuncture and herbal medicine face certain challenges due to the nature of thinking in TEAM and the subjective basis of judgments made in practice. The TEAM-based diagnosis can take into account various findings and signs such as the appearance of the tongue, palpable qualities of the radial pulses, palpable qualities and findings on the abdomen, the complexion of the patient and so on. Both diagnostic findings and the patterns of diagnosis cannot be assumed to have objective bases or to be causally related to the complaints of the patient. However, the diagnoses of TEAM based acupuncture and herbal medicine have tended to look at pictures of the whole patient and rather than focus on a particular symptom, they have looked across a myriad of signs and symptoms to decide or identify the 'pattern' of diagnosis according to the theory in question. Although open for selective and subjective biases each diagnosis pattern always comes with a prescribed treatment tailored to the pattern. Further, the same research requirements needed for the validation of the diagnoses are needed also for these clinical observations and judgments. Hence, it is necessary, albeit challenging for research on TEAM diagnoses to first address these issues before proceeding to more complex investigations such as the development of instruments for making diagnostic observations, instruments for forming diagnostic conclusions or studies investigating the physiological bases of the diagnostic patterns. Preliminary work has started and instruments have been made, but we suggest that any instrumentation must necessarily be first validated by matching of the calibrated or scaled observations or judgments to observations made and agreed upon by relevant experts. Reliability of all observations and judgments are needed before any other tool, technology or more advanced approach can proceed and also whenever the natural system of diagnosis-treatment is applied in clinical trials. In this paper the authors highlight the core problems and describe a step wise process for addressing them. PMID:24788086

Birch, Stephen; Alraek, Terje

2014-05-01

68

MODERN REGRESSION METHODS THAT CAN SUBSTANTIALLY INCREASE POWER AND PROVIDE A MORE ACCURATE UNDERSTANDING OF ASSOCIATIONS.  

PubMed

During the last half century hundreds of papers published in statistical journals have documented general conditions where reliance on least squares regression and Pearson's correlation can result in missing even strong associations between variables. Moreover, highly misleading conclusions can be made, even when the sample size is large. There are, in fact, several fundamental concerns related to non-normality, outliers, heteroscedasticity, and curvature that can result in missing a strong association. Simultaneously, a vast array of new methods have been derived for effectively dealing with these concerns. The paper (1) reviews why least squares regression and classic inferential methods can fail, (2) provides an overview of the many modern strategies for dealing with known problems, including some recent advances, and (3) illustrates that modern robust methods can make a practical difference in our understanding of data. Included are some general recommendations regarding how modern methods might be used. PMID:23626402

Wilcox, Rand R; Keselman, H J

2012-05-01

69

Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy  

DOEpatents

The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form.

Thakur, Mathew L. (Cherry Hill, NJ)

1994-01-01

70

Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy  

DOEpatents

The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form.

Thakur, Mathew L. (Cherry Hill, NJ)

1991-01-01

71

Diagnostic methods used for atmospheric pressure thermal arc plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diagnostic methods used for atmospheric pressure thermal arc plasmas are presented in this paper. An experimental direct current arc plasma torch was used as a source for plasma generation at atmospheric pressure. Overheated water vapor was employed as a plasma-forming gas with an admixture of argon as a shielding gas. A couple of plasma diagnostic methods were invoked to perform the analysis of the generated plasma jet at the nozzle exhaust of the torch. Firstly, an optical emission spectroscopy method was used to determine the chemical composition of the water vapor plasma, and from the obtained spectra, the rotational and excitation temperatures were calculated roughly. Secondly, an enthalpy probe measurement was performed in order to measure the mean temperature and the velocity lengthwise and crosswise in the plasma stream.

Tamoši?nas, A.; Valatkevi?ius, P.; Valin?ius, V.; Grigaitien?, V.; Kavaliauskas, Ž.

2014-05-01

72

[Reasearch on evolution and transition of processing method of fuzi in ancient and modern times].  

PubMed

Fuzi is a medicine used for rescuing from collapse by restoring yang as well as a famous toxic traditional Chinese medicine. In order to ensure the efficacy and safe medication, Fuzi has mostly been applied after being processed. There have been different Fuzi processing methods recorded by doctors of previous generations. Besides, there have also been differences in Fuzi processing methods recorded in modern pharmacopeia and ancient medical books. In this study, the authors traced back to medical books between the Han Dynasty and the period of Republic of China, and summarized Fuzi processing methods collected in ancient and modern literatures. According to the results, Fuzi processing methods and using methods have changed along with the evolution of dynasties, with differences in ancient and modern processing methods. Before the Tang Dynasty, Fuzi had been mostly processed and soaked. From Tang to Ming Dynasties, Fuzi had been mostly processed, soaked and stir-fried. During the Qing Dynasty, Fuzi had been mostly soaked and boiled. In the modem times, Fuzi is mostly processed by being boiled and soaked. Before the Tang Dynasty, a whole piece of Fuzi herbs or their fragments had been applied in medicines; Whereas their fragments are primarily used in the modern times. Because different processing methods have great impacts on the toxicity of Fuzi, it is suggested to study Fuzi processing methods. PMID:25011281

Liu, Chan-Chan; Cheng, Ming-En; Duan, Hai-Yan; Peng, Hua-Sheng

2014-04-01

73

SAMSAN- MODERN NUMERICAL METHODS FOR CLASSICAL SAMPLED SYSTEM ANALYSIS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SAMSAN was developed to aid the control system analyst by providing a self consistent set of computer algorithms that support large order control system design and evaluation studies, with an emphasis placed on sampled system analysis. Control system analysts have access to a vast array of published algorithms to solve an equally large spectrum of controls related computational problems. The analyst usually spends considerable time and effort bringing these published algorithms to an integrated operational status and often finds them less general than desired. SAMSAN reduces the burden on the analyst by providing a set of algorithms that have been well tested and documented, and that can be readily integrated for solving control system problems. Algorithm selection for SAMSAN has been biased toward numerical accuracy for large order systems with computational speed and portability being considered important but not paramount. In addition to containing relevant subroutines from EISPAK for eigen-analysis and from LINPAK for the solution of linear systems and related problems, SAMSAN contains the following not so generally available capabilities: 1) Reduction of a real non-symmetric matrix to block diagonal form via a real similarity transformation matrix which is well conditioned with respect to inversion, 2) Solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem with balancing and grading, 3) Computation of all zeros of the determinant of a matrix of polynomials, 4) Matrix exponentiation and the evaluation of integrals involving the matrix exponential, with option to first block diagonalize, 5) Root locus and frequency response for single variable transfer functions in the S, Z, and W domains, 6) Several methods of computing zeros for linear systems, and 7) The ability to generate documentation "on demand". All matrix operations in the SAMSAN algorithms assume non-symmetric matrices with real double precision elements. There is no fixed size limit on any matrix in any SAMSAN algorithm; however, it is generally agreed by experienced users, and in the numerical error analysis literature, that computation with non-symmetric matrices of order greater than about 200 should be avoided or treated with extreme care. SAMSAN attempts to support the needs of application oriented analysis by providing: 1) a methodology with unlimited growth potential, 2) a methodology to insure that associated documentation is current and available "on demand", 3) a foundation of basic computational algorithms that most controls analysis procedures are based upon, 4) a set of check out and evaluation programs which demonstrate usage of the algorithms on a series of problems which are structured to expose the limits of each algorithm's applicability, and 5) capabilities which support both a priori and a posteriori error analysis for the computational algorithms provided. The SAMSAN algorithms are coded in FORTRAN 77 for batch or interactive execution and have been implemented on a DEC VAX computer under VMS 4.7. An effort was made to assure that the FORTRAN source code was portable and thus SAMSAN may be adaptable to other machine environments. The documentation is included on the distribution tape or can be purchased separately at the price below. SAMSAN version 2.0 was developed in 1982 and updated to version 3.0 in 1988.

Frisch, H. P.

1994-01-01

74

Strategic health care demands modern NDE processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the goal is to improve either aviation or shuttle safety and systems reliability then modern methods of wire systems diagnostics, prognostics, mediation, repair, and validation are a must. This requires using modern non-destructive evaluation (NDE) procedures and equipment which yields information that supports the operator's wire health management program and feeds into his aging aircraft or shuttle containment processes.

Christopher Teal; William Larsen

2003-01-01

75

Logic code transformation and minimization algorithm for fault diagnostic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern paper winders have hundreds of actuators and thousands of lines of programmable logic controller code. The complex structure of winder and its control software requires also new kinds of diagnostic methods. With modern fault diagnostic systems, the operator can quickly and accurately identify the cause of a fault. Building up a fault diagnostic system requires usually a lot of

Timo Virtanen

2004-01-01

76

Instrumental methods in the diagnostics of locked-in syndrome.  

PubMed

The locked-in syndrome (LiS) is typically characterized by a paralysis of almost all body muscles combined with intact cognitive functions. In practice, there are often additional brain damages besides the one directly causing LiS. These damages can lead to cognitive impairment, which substantially complicates the diagnosis of LiS. At the level of behavior, therefore, the disease can be confused with akinetic mutism, vegetative state (syn. unresponsive wakefulness state) and some other conditions. Using instrumental methods in addition to behavioral diagnostics helps to avoid diagnostic errors and to improve prognosis of rehabilitation of such patients. These methods, which include measurements of brain electric or magnetic fields, electrical potential of muscles, blood flow and oxygen consumption in the brain, are reviewed in this paper. PMID:23168499

Kotchoubey, Boris; Lotze, Martin

2013-01-01

77

Modern Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's access-control and video-surveillance systems can work together to provide a holistic solution for educational environments. Keeping intruders off campus, limiting access to facilities that house expensive equipment, and remotely monitoring secluded areas can cut down significantly on crime and provide peace of mind to administrators,…

Sorrentino, Dominic

2005-01-01

78

How Many Discoveries Have Been Lost by Ignoring Modern Statistical Methods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hundreds of articles in statistical journals have pointed out that standard analysis of variance, Pearson product–moment correlations, and least squares regression can be highly misleading and can have relatively low power even under very small departures from normality. In practical terms, psychology journals are littered with nonsignificant results that would have been significant if a more modern method had been

Rand R. Wilcox

1998-01-01

79

ANALOG: a program for estimating paleoclimate parameters using the method of modern analogs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beginning in the 1970s with CLIMAP, paleoclimatologists have been trying to derive quantitative estimates of climatic parameters from the sedimentary record. In general the procedure is to observe the modern distribution of some component of surface sediment that depends on climate, find an empirical relationship between climate and the character of sediments, then extrapolate past climate by studying older sediments in the same way. Initially the empirical relationship between climate and components of the sediment was determined using a multiple regression technique (Imbrie and Kipp, 1971). In these studies sea-floor sediments were examined to determine the percentage of various species of planktonic foraminifera present in them. Supposing that the distribution of foraminiferal assemblages depended strongly on the extremes of annual sea-surface temperature (SST), the foraminiferal assemblages (refined through use of varimax factor analysis) were regressed against the average SST during the coolest and warmest months of the year. The result was a set of transfer functions, equations that could be used to estimate cool and warm SST from the faunal composition of a sediment sample. Assuming that the ecological preference of the species had remained constant throughout the last several hundred thousand years, these transfer functions could be used to estimate SSTs during much of the late Pleistocene. Hutson (1980) and Overpeck, Webb, and Prentice (1985) proposed an alternative approach to estimating paleoclimatic parameters. Their 'method of modern analogs' revolved not around the existence of a few climatically-sensitive faunal assemblages but rather on the expectation that similar climatic regimes should foster similar faunal and floral assemblages. From a large pool of modern samples, those few are selected whose faunal compositions are most similar to a given fossil sample. Paleoclimate estimates are derived using the climatic character of only the most similar modern samples, the modern analogs of the fossil sample. This report describes how to use the program ANALOG to carry out the method of modern analogs. It is assumed that the user has faunal census estimates of one or more fossil samples, and one or more sets of faunal data from modern samples. Furthermore, the user must understand the taxonomic categories represented in the data sets, and be able to recognize taxa that are or may be considered equivalent in the analysis. ANALOG provides the user with flexibility in input data format, output data content, and choice of distance measure, and allows the user to determine which taxa from each modern and fossil data file are compared. Most of the memory required by the program is allocated dynamically, so that, on systems that permit program segments to grow, the program consumes only as many system resources as are needed to accomplish its task.

Schweitzer, Peter N.

1994-01-01

80

[Comparative diagnostic value of Helicobacter pylori infection testing methods].  

PubMed

In 213 patients with gastric and duodenal pathology, including received surgery, comparative estimation of results of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection testing with invasive and noninvasive methods, were performed. Material for invasive endoscopic biopsy test (EBT), including rapid urease test (RUT) for rapid Hp identification by determination of urease activity, smear cytology and histology was extracted on endoscopy or intraoperationally. RUT was carried out with the help of URE-HP test kit. Serological test for Hp antibodies IgG and IgA class was performed by IFA using kit ELISA. 13? urea breath test (UBT) was made by determination of 13/12CO2 in breath samples on infrared spectroscope. Based on 5 different methods of Hp infection testing Hp positivity in 172 (80,8%) and Hp negativity in 41 (19,2%) from 213 examined patients was revealed. 13?-UBT revealed the highest diagnostic value (accuracy-97,5%, sensibility-97,0%, specificity-100%) in Hp infection diagnostics. In treatment efficiency control this parameters of 13?-UBT are also much high (96,7%, 90,0% and 100% respectively). In spite of high sensitivity of serological test (100%), it had comparative low specificity (71,0%) with high probability of false positive results in treated patients (antibodies titer to Hp after eradication retains for a long time). Thought, this test may be successfully used only in primary patients and in epidemiological studies. Among three methods of EBT, Hp infection detection with RUT revealed the best results (accuracy-94,8%, sensibility-95,0%, specificity-100%). Correlation of RUT and UBT results and much higher diagnostic value of UBT, necessitate RUT with histological study of stomach body mucosa to perform in patients over 45 year, with prolonged anamnesis and dangerous symptoms of disease. In Hp positive patients correlation of index DOB‰ of breath test with results of RUT was revealed. This can serve the index DOB‰ of 13?-UBT as a marker of Hp infection rate. The (accuracy, sensibility and specificity of breath test with local made 13?-urea (98,7%, 98,5% and 100% respectively) are the same as those for BT with standard 13?-urea (96,7%, 96,2% and 100% respectively). Above mentioned, 13?-UBT advantages (noninvasiveness, simplicity, rapidity, safety) and high diagnostic value exceeding same of other applied tests, give us opportunity to offer 13?-UBT as screening method of Hp infection diagnosis and a method of choise in control of Hp infection treatment efficiency. PMID:24423677

2013-12-01

81

Real-time caries diagnostics by optical PNC method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of hard tooth tissues research by the optical PNC- method in experimental and clinical conditions are presented. In the experiment under 90 test-sample of tooth slices with thickness about 1mm (enamel, dentine and cement) were researched. The results of the experiment were processed by the method of correlation analyze. Clinical researches were executed on teeth of 210 patients. The regions of tooth tissue diseases with initial, moderate and deep caries were investigated. Spectral characteristics of intact and pathologically changed tooth tissues are presented and their peculiar features are discussed. The results the optical PNC-method application while processing tooth carious cavities are presented in order to estimate efficiency of the mechanical and antiseptic processing of teeth. It is revealed that the PNC-method can be sued as for differential diagnostics of a degree dental carious stage, as for estimating of carefulness of tooth cavity processing before filling.

Masychev, Victor I.; Alexandrov, Michail T.

2000-11-01

82

Metabolomics-Based Methods for Early Disease Diagnostics: A Review  

PubMed Central

The emerging field of “metabolomics,” in which a large number of small molecule metabolites from body fluids or tissues are detected quantitatively in a single step, promises immense potential for early diagnosis, therapy monitoring and for understanding the pathogenesis of many diseases. Metabolomics methods are mostly focused on the information rich analytical techniques of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). Analysis of the data from these high-resolution methods using advanced chemometric approaches provides a powerful platform for translational and clinical research, and diagnostic applications. In this review, the current trends and recent advances in NMR- and MS-based metabolomics are described with a focus on the development of advanced NMR and MS methods, improved multivariate statistical data analysis and recent applications in the area of cancer, diabetes, inborn errors of metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases.

Nagana Gowda, G. A.; Zhang, Shucha; Gu, Haiwei; Asiago, Vincent; Shanaiah, Narasimhamurthy; Raftery, Daniel

2013-01-01

83

Mammary carcinoma - current diagnostic methods and symptomatology in imaging studies  

PubMed Central

Summary Breast cancer is the most common neoplasm of the female population and its incidence is constantly rising. Social campaigns educating the public about the importance of the problem have been conducted for the past several years. Women are encouraged to self-examine on a monthly basis. Women aged 50–69 years can have an x-ray mammography performed once every 2 years as part of a prophylactic screening program. Ultrasound studies or MR mammography are adjuvant or, in some cases, alternative to x-ray mammography. Nuclear medicine techniques with application of oncophilic markers and receptor studies (this publication will not cover nuclear medicine methods) are not routinely used. Other techniques, such as computed tomography and conventional radiography are of no significance in the diagnostics of mammary cancer. However, together with isotopic methods, they are helpful in staging of the disease. X-ray mammography is, up to date, the only method with proven value in decreasing mortality. It is also the best available method for visualization of microcalicifications. Ultrasound examination is complementary to x-ray mammography as it is a cheap, easily available method of imaging mammary glands with higher glandular tissue content. It is also the most commonly used modality aiding in targeted biopsy of mammary gland. To date, MR mammography, characterized by the highest sensitivity in cancer diagnostics, remained a method reserved for “special tasks”. MR is used for prophylaxis mainly in a population of women with particularly high risk of the disease and in cases where x-ray and ultrasound examinations are insufficient. Picture of mammary carcinoma in imaging studies is heterogeneous. However, it most often presents as an irregularly demarcated mass. Moreover, each modality can aid in visualization of additional features of a lesion such as typical shape of microcalcifications in x-ray mammography, characteristic pattern of contrast enhancement in MR examination or less strain in elastography.

Popiel, Monika; Mroz-Klimas, Danuta; Kasprzak, Renata; Furmanek, Mariusz

2012-01-01

84

Mammary carcinoma - current diagnostic methods and symptomatology in imaging studies.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common neoplasm of the female population and its incidence is constantly rising. Social campaigns educating the public about the importance of the problem have been conducted for the past several years. Women are encouraged to self-examine on a monthly basis. Women aged 50-69 years can have an x-ray mammography performed once every 2 years as part of a prophylactic screening program. Ultrasound studies or MR mammography are adjuvant or, in some cases, alternative to x-ray mammography. Nuclear medicine techniques with application of oncophilic markers and receptor studies (this publication will not cover nuclear medicine methods) are not routinely used. Other techniques, such as computed tomography and conventional radiography are of no significance in the diagnostics of mammary cancer. However, together with isotopic methods, they are helpful in staging of the disease.X-ray mammography is, up to date, the only method with proven value in decreasing mortality. It is also the best available method for visualization of microcalicifications. Ultrasound examination is complementary to x-ray mammography as it is a cheap, easily available method of imaging mammary glands with higher glandular tissue content. It is also the most commonly used modality aiding in targeted biopsy of mammary gland. To date, MR mammography, characterized by the highest sensitivity in cancer diagnostics, remained a method reserved for "special tasks". MR is used for prophylaxis mainly in a population of women with particularly high risk of the disease and in cases where x-ray and ultrasound examinations are insufficient.Picture of mammary carcinoma in imaging studies is heterogeneous. However, it most often presents as an irregularly demarcated mass. Moreover, each modality can aid in visualization of additional features of a lesion such as typical shape of microcalcifications in x-ray mammography, characteristic pattern of contrast enhancement in MR examination or less strain in elastography. PMID:23269935

Popiel, Monika; Mróz-Klimas, Danuta; Kasprzak, Renata; Furmanek, Mariusz

2012-10-01

85

Methods in virus diagnostics: From ELISA to next generation sequencing.  

PubMed

Despite the seemingly continuous development of newer and ever more elaborate methods for detecting and identifying viruses, very few of these new methods get adopted for routine use in testing laboratories, often despite the many and varied claimed advantages they possess. To understand why the rate of uptake of new technologies is so low, requires a strong understanding of what makes a good routine diagnostic tool to begin. This can be done by looking at the two most successfully established plant virus detection methods: enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and more recently introduced real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By examining the characteristics of this pair of technologies, it becomes clear that they share many benefits, such as an industry standard format and high levels of repeatability and reproducibility. These combine to make methods that are accessible to testing labs, which are easy to establish and robust in their use, even with new and inexperienced users. Hence, to ensure the establishment of new techniques it is necessary to not only provide benefits not found with ELISA or real-time PCR, but also to provide a platform that is easy to establish and use. In plant virus diagnostics, recent developments can be clustered into three core areas: (1) techniques that can be performed in the field or resource poor locations (e.g., loop-mediated isothermal amplification LAMP); (2) multiplex methods that are able to detect many viruses in a single test (e.g., Luminex bead arrays); and (3) methods suited to virus discovery (e.g., next generation sequencing, NGS). Field based methods are not new, with Lateral Flow Devices (LFDs) for the detection being available for a number of years now. However, the widespread uptake of this technology remains poor. LAMP does offer significant advantages over LFDs, in terms of sensitivity and generic application, but still faces challenges in terms of establishment. It is likely that the main barrier to the uptake of field-based technologies is behavioural influences, rather than specific concerns about the performance of the technologies themselves. To overcome this, a new relationship will need to develop between centralised testing laboratories offering services and those requiring tests; a relationship which is currently in its infancy. Looking further into the future, virus discovery and multiplex methods seem to converge as NGS becomes ever cheaper, easier to perform and can provide high levels of multiplexing without the use of virus specific reagents. So ultimately the key challenge from a routine testing lab perspective will not be one of investment in platforms-which could even be outsourced to commercial sequencing services-but one of having the skills and expertise to analyse the large datasets generated and their subsequent interpretation. In conclusion, only time will tell which of the next-generation of methods currently in development will become the routine diagnostics of the future. This will be determined through a combination of factors. And while the technology itself will have to offer performance advantages over existing methods in order to supplant them, it is likely to be human factors e.g., the behaviours of end users, laboratories and policy makers, the availability of appropriate expertise, that ultimately determine which ones become established. Hence factors cannot be ignored and early engagement with diagnostic stakeholders is essential. PMID:24361981

Boonham, Neil; Kreuze, Jan; Winter, Stephan; van der Vlugt, René; Bergervoet, Jan; Tomlinson, Jenny; Mumford, Rick

2014-06-24

86

Comparison of diagnostic methods in the evaluation of onychomycosis.  

PubMed

Onychomycosis is a common nail problem, accounting for up to half of all nail diseases. Several nail disorders may mimic the onychomycosis clinically. Therefore, a sensitive, quick, and inexpensive test is essential for screening nail specimens for the administration of the proper drug. The aim of this study was to compare 4 different diagnostic methods in the evaluation of onychomycosis and to determine their sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. In a cross-sectional study, nail specimens were collected from 101 patients suspected to have onychomycosis during a 14-month period. The nail specimens were examined using potassium hydroxide (KOH) 20 %, KOH-treated nail clipping stained with periodic acid-Schiff (KONCPA), and calcofluor white (CFW) stain, and grew a fungal culture. The culture was chosen as the gold standard for statistical analysis using the McNemar and chi-square tests. Out of 101 patients, 100 (99 %) patients had at least 1 of the 4 diagnostic methods positive for the presence of organisms. The positive rates for the fungal culture, KOH preparation, CFW, and KONCPA were 74.2, 85.1, 91.09, and 99.01 %, respectively. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of KONCPA was 100 %. KONCPA was the most sensitive among the tests and was also superior to other methods in its negative predictive value. KONCPA was easy to perform, rapid, and gave significantly higher rates of detection of onychomycosis compared to the standard methods of KOH preparation and fungal culture. Therefore, KONCPA should be the single method of choice for the evaluation of onychomycosis. PMID:23371413

Haghani, Iman; Shokohi, Tahereh; Hajheidari, Zohreh; Khalilian, Alireza; Aghili, Seyed Reza

2013-04-01

87

Plasma diagnostic method using intermodulation frequencies in a Langmuir probe  

SciTech Connect

A plasma diagnostic method using intermodulation frequencies is developed. When dual-frequency (?{sub 1},?{sub 2}) voltage signals are applied to a probe, the intermodulation frequencies (?{sub 2}±?{sub 1}, ?{sub 2}±2?{sub 1}) between the signals are generated due to the nonlinearity of the sheath. From the analysis of the intermodulation frequencies, the plasma parameters, such as the electron temperature and the plasma density, can be obtained. The measured plasma parameters from this method are compared to the results from the measured electron energy distribution function, and they are in good agreement. Because the intermodulation currents originated from the plasma not from the stray component of the measurement system, an accurate measurement of the plasma parameters is achievable.

Kim, Dong-Hwan [Department of Nanoscale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Nanoscale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kim, Yu-Sin; Chung, Chin-Wook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2013-08-19

88

X-ray diagnostic methods for laser imploded targets  

SciTech Connect

Some recently developed x-ray diagnostic methods for laser irradiated targets are described. The first section deals with a method based on the observation of absorption x-ray lines formed when a continuum from a hot imploded core traverses a cooler surrounding tamper. The absorption lines, of atomic species in a thin layer embedded in the target tamper, can yield the tamper temperature and rho..delta..R. The second section describes a variety of x-ray devices, currently under development, which should be useful in diagnosing high-density laser compression experiments. These include Von-Hamos focusing crystal spectrograph, Laue spectrograph, achromatic and polychromatic imaging with Laue crystals and x-ray interferometry.

Yaakobi, B.

1985-01-01

89

X-ray diagnostic methods for laser imploded targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some recently developed X-ray diagnostic methods for laser irradiated targets are described. The first section deals with a method based on the observation of absorption X-ray lines formed when a continuum from a hot imploded core traverses a cooler surrounding tamper. The absorption lines, of atomic species in a thin layer embedded in the target tamper, can yield the tamper temperature and rho delta R. The second section describes a variety of X-ray devices, currently under development, which should be useful in diagnosing high-density laser compression experiments. These include Von-Hamos focusing crystal spectrograph, Laue spectrograph, achromatic and polychromatic imaging with Laue crystals and X-ray interferometry.

Yaakobi, B.

90

Evidence-based development of a diagnosis-dependent therapy planning system and its implementation in modern diagnostic software.  

PubMed

The prerequisite for structured individual therapy of craniomandibular dysfunctions is differential diagnostics. Suggestions for the structured recording of findings and their structured evaluation beyond the global diagnosis of "craniomandibular disorders" have been published. Only this structured approach enables computerization of the diagnostic process. The respective software is available for use in practice (CMDcheck for CMD screening, CMDfact for the differential diagnostics). Based on this structured diagnostics, knowledge-based therapy planning is also conceivable. The prerequisite for this would be a model of achieving consensus on the indicated forms of therapy related to the diagnosis. Therefore, a procedure for evidence-based achievement of consensus on suitable forms of therapy in CMD was developed first in multicentric cooperation, and then implemented in corresponding software. The clinical knowledge of experienced specialists was included consciously for the consensus achievement process. At the same time, anonymized mathematical statistical evaluations were used for control and objectification. Different examiners form different departments of several universities working independently of one another assigned the theoretically conceiveable therapeutic alternatives to the already published diagnostic scheme. After anonymization, the correlation of these assignments was then calculated mathematically. For achieving consensus in those cases for which no agreement initally existed, agreement was subsequently arrived at in the course of a consensus conference on the basis of literature evaluations and the discussion of clinical case examples. This consensus in turn finally served as the basis of a therapy planner implemented in the above-mentioned diagnostic software CMDfact. Contributing to quality assurance, the principles of programming this assistant as well as the interface for linking into the diagnostic software are documented and also published here. PMID:16416934

Ahlers, M O; Jakstat, H A

2005-07-01

91

A significant diagnostic method in torture investigation: bone scintigraphy.  

PubMed

Torture appears to be a permanent feature in countries, which have experienced military coups or ruled by oppressive governments in the past, such as Turkey. The Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (HRFT) was established in 1990 to serve torture victims, mainly those who were the victims of the 1980 military regime. Since then the HRFT has been providing rehabilitation and documentation for torture survivors. Bone scintigraphy can be one of the diagnostic methods to reveal trauma, particularly after several years when it is challenging to find any physical or radiological evidence. The HRFT's Istanbul Branch referred 97 of their applicants for bone scintigraphy between 1992 and 2010. In this retrospective survey of 97 cases, 17 of them were female and 80 of them were male. Several aspects were evaluated, including working conditions, change of torture methods practiced in certain time periods, time since torture and duration of exposure to torture in comparison with findings of bone scintigraphies. The torture methods varied from beating to falanga, electric shock, suspension and several other types of torture within the period of practice, although beating was a common denominator among all. The findings were classified according to time since torture and duration of exposure to torture. More than half of the cases (59%) had a detectable bone lesion on bone scintigraphy, and the detectable bone lesion on scintigraphy increased significantly with the duration of exposure to torture, particularly among cases who had been subjected to torture for a longer period (8 days and more). Bone scintigraphy should be considered as a valuable non-invasive diagnostic method to assess and document long term torture practices and/or cases with no detectable marks upon physical examination. PMID:23332810

Ozkalipci, Onder; Unuvar, Umit; Sahin, Umit; Irencin, Sukran; Fincanci, Sebnem Korur

2013-03-10

92

Applications of modern statistical methods to analysis of data in physical science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern methods of statistical and computational analysis offer solutions to dilemmas confronting researchers in physical science. Although the ideas behind modern statistical and computational analysis methods were originally introduced in the 1970's, most scientists still rely on methods written during the early era of computing. These researchers, who analyze increasingly voluminous and multivariate data sets, need modern analysis methods to extract the best results from their studies. The first section of this work showcases applications of modern linear regression. Since the 1960's, many researchers in spectroscopy have used classical stepwise regression techniques to derive molecular constants. However, problems with thresholds of entry and exit for model variables plagues this analysis method. Other criticisms of this kind of stepwise procedure include its inefficient searching method, the order in which variables enter or leave the model and problems with overfitting data. We implement an information scoring technique that overcomes the assumptions inherent in the stepwise regression process to calculate molecular model parameters. We believe that this kind of information based model evaluation can be applied to more general analysis situations in physical science. The second section proposes new methods of multivariate cluster analysis. The K-means algorithm and the EM algorithm, introduced in the 1960's and 1970's respectively, formed the basis of multivariate cluster analysis methodology for many years. However, several shortcomings of these methods include strong dependence on initial seed values and inaccurate results when the data seriously depart from hypersphericity. We propose new cluster analysis methods based on genetic algorithms that overcomes the strong dependence on initial seed values. In addition, we propose a generalization of the Genetic K-means algorithm which can accurately identify clusters with complex hyperellipsoidal covariance structures. We then use this new algorithm in a genetic algorithm based Expectation-Maximization process that can accurately calculate parameters describing complex clusters in a mixture model routine. Using the accuracy of this GEM algorithm, we assign information scores to cluster calculations in order to best identify the number of mixture components in a multivariate data set. We will showcase how these algorithms can be used to process multivariate data from astronomical observations.

Wicker, James Eric

93

Big Data Analysis Using Modern Statistical and Machine Learning Methods in Medicine  

PubMed Central

In this article we introduce modern statistical machine learning and bioinformatics approaches that have been used in learning statistical relationships from big data in medicine and behavioral science that typically include clinical, genomic (and proteomic) and environmental variables. Every year, data collected from biomedical and behavioral science is getting larger and more complicated. Thus, in medicine, we also need to be aware of this trend and understand the statistical tools that are available to analyze these datasets. Many statistical analyses that are aimed to analyze such big datasets have been introduced recently. However, given many different types of clinical, genomic, and environmental data, it is rather uncommon to see statistical methods that combine knowledge resulting from those different data types. To this extent, we will introduce big data in terms of clinical data, single nucleotide polymorphism and gene expression studies and their interactions with environment. In this article, we will introduce the concept of well-known regression analyses such as linear and logistic regressions that has been widely used in clinical data analyses and modern statistical models such as Bayesian networks that has been introduced to analyze more complicated data. Also we will discuss how to represent the interaction among clinical, genomic, and environmental data in using modern statistical models. We conclude this article with a promising modern statistical method called Bayesian networks that is suitable in analyzing big data sets that consists with different type of large data from clinical, genomic, and environmental data. Such statistical model form big data will provide us with more comprehensive understanding of human physiology and disease.

Ramirez, Luis; Liuzzi, Juan

2014-01-01

94

Big data analysis using modern statistical and machine learning methods in medicine.  

PubMed

In this article we introduce modern statistical machine learning and bioinformatics approaches that have been used in learning statistical relationships from big data in medicine and behavioral science that typically include clinical, genomic (and proteomic) and environmental variables. Every year, data collected from biomedical and behavioral science is getting larger and more complicated. Thus, in medicine, we also need to be aware of this trend and understand the statistical tools that are available to analyze these datasets. Many statistical analyses that are aimed to analyze such big datasets have been introduced recently. However, given many different types of clinical, genomic, and environmental data, it is rather uncommon to see statistical methods that combine knowledge resulting from those different data types. To this extent, we will introduce big data in terms of clinical data, single nucleotide polymorphism and gene expression studies and their interactions with environment. In this article, we will introduce the concept of well-known regression analyses such as linear and logistic regressions that has been widely used in clinical data analyses and modern statistical models such as Bayesian networks that has been introduced to analyze more complicated data. Also we will discuss how to represent the interaction among clinical, genomic, and environmental data in using modern statistical models. We conclude this article with a promising modern statistical method called Bayesian networks that is suitable in analyzing big data sets that consists with different type of large data from clinical, genomic, and environmental data. Such statistical model form big data will provide us with more comprehensive understanding of human physiology and disease. PMID:24987556

Yoo, Changwon; Ramirez, Luis; Liuzzi, Juan

2014-06-01

95

How to measure the effects of fluoride treatments in clinical trials? Assessment: modern versus traditional methods.  

PubMed

In recent years there has been a pronounced change in the epidemiology and disease pattern of dental caries. In the current context, traditional methods of caries assessment, discriminating lesions at cavitation, are clinically inappropriate, and obsolete for research requiring detection of a very early phase of mineral loss. Modern prospective caries studies require sensitive methods permitting the measurement of small changes in tooth mineral content, and objective, quantitative measurements of such changes are now possible in a single caries lesion. For longitudinal studies there are noninvasive methods for assessment of new lesions as well as quantitative changes (progression or regression) in existing lesions. Among as yet unresolved issues are improved methods to assess the current activity of a lesion, methods for detection and quantification of secondary caries and root caries, calibration of methodologies between different research institutes, and methods capable of assessment of the whole continuum in the development of a caries lesion, from initial loss of mineral to cavitation. PMID:11359055

Angmar-Månsson, B

2001-01-01

96

Pedophilia: an evaluation of diagnostic and risk prediction methods.  

PubMed

One hundred thirty child sexual abusers were diagnosed using each of following four methods: (a) phallometric testing, (b) strict application of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text revision [DSM-IV-TR]) criteria, (c) Rapid Risk Assessment of Sex Offender Recidivism (RRASOR) scores, and (d) "expert" diagnoses rendered by a seasoned clinician. Comparative utility and intermethod consistency of these methods are reported, along with recidivism data indicating predictive validity for risk management. Results suggest that inconsistency exists in diagnosing pedophilia, leading to diminished accuracy in risk assessment. Although the RRASOR and DSM-IV-TR methods were significantly correlated with expert ratings, RRASOR and DSM-IV-TR were unrelated to each other. Deviant arousal was not associated with any of the other methods. Only the expert ratings and RRASOR scores were predictive of sexual recidivism. Logistic regression analyses showed that expert diagnosis did not add to prediction of sexual offence recidivism over and above RRASOR alone. Findings are discussed within a context of encouragement of clinical consistency and evidence-based practice regarding treatment and risk management of those who sexually abuse children. PMID:21062948

Wilson, Robin J; Abracen, Jeffrey; Looman, Jan; Picheca, Janice E; Ferguson, Meaghan

2011-06-01

97

Improvement of the Management and Administration of Education Systems Through the Use of Modern Management Methods and Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number and diversity of the parameters involved in the organization of modern education make it necessary to employ modern management methods and techniques to optimize decisions about the organization and improve the use of available material and financial resources. To accomplish these goals, a systems approach is advisable. A model of any…

Barbulescu, Constantin

98

Different diagnostic methods for detection of influenza epidemics.  

PubMed

Linking continuous community-based morbidity recording of influenza-like illness (ILI) with virological sampling has consistently proved its value as one of the earliest indicators of circulating influenza activity. The clinical morbidity recording in the Portuguese national surveillance network, during a 7-year period, and the contribution of different diagnostic techniques, including virus isolation, multiplex RT-PCR, immunocapture enzyme linked immunoassay (EIA) and complement fixation tests (CFTs) for the detection of influenza in such a community-based setting is described and evaluated in this study. There was good correlation between the increase of morbidity, total samples taken and the detection of influenza virus by all the methods although this was less evident for virus isolation and EIA than for RT-PCR or serology. From a total of 1685 throat swabs collected from cases of ILI, 43.6% were RT-PCR positive, 17.5% were positive by capture EIA and in 5% virus isolates were made. The detection of influenza by RT-PCR occurred earlier than by any other method and showed the best correlation with epidemic patterns of morbidity registration. We conclude that in surveillance systems where virus culture is sub-optimal, RT-PCR provides a rapid, sensitive, specific method for detecting influenza viruses from community-based sampling. PMID:10982076

Rebelo-de-Andrade, H; Zambon, M C

2000-06-01

99

Modern thermoelectrochemistry.  

PubMed

Thermoelectrochemistry as a branch of electrochemistry like photoelectrochemistry is reviewed in an integral treatment of the subject. Especially modern thermoelectrochemistry is focused on new techniques to vary the temperature as an independent variable. This review based on a definition of modern thermoelectrochemistry includes all the classical work which contributes to the formation of modern thermoelectrochemistry, among them high-temperature electrochemistry, subcritical- and supercritical electrochemistry and in-situ electrochemical calorimetry. The main focus is on modern techniques like fast electrode heating by lasers or by alternating current as well as on heating of solution spots by microwaves and related methods. Here the state of the art in modern thermoelectrochemistry is critically reviewed for the first time. PMID:19634136

Gründler, Peter; Kirbs, Andreas; Dunsch, Lothar

2009-08-01

100

Model-based angiogenic inhibition of tumor growth using modern robust control method.  

PubMed

Cancer is one of the most destructive and lethal illnesses of the modern civilization. In the last decades, clinical cancer research shifted toward molecular targeted therapies which have limited side effects in comparison to conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Antiangiogenic therapy is one of the most promising cancer treatment methods. The dynamical model for tumor growth under angiogenic stimulator/inhibitor control was posed by Hahnfeldt et al. in 1999; it was investigated and partly modified many times. In this paper, a modified version of the originally published model is used to describe a continuous infusion therapy. In order to generalize individualized therapies a robust control method is proposed using H? methodology. Uncertainty weighting functions are determined based on the real pathophysiological case and simulations are performed on different tumor volumes to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method. PMID:24472366

Kovács, Levente; Szeles, Annamária; Sápi, Johanna; Drexler, Dániel A; Rudas, Imre; Harmati, István; Sápi, Zoltán

2014-05-01

101

Diagnostic Methods for Bile Acid Malabsorption in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Altered bile acid (BA) concentrations in the colon may cause diarrhea or constipation. BA malabsorption (BAM) accounts for >25% of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea and chronic diarrhea in Western countries. As BAM is increasingly recognized, proper diagnostic methods are desired in clinical practice to help direct the most effective treatment course for the chronic bowel dysfunction. This review appraises the methodology, advantages and disadvantages of 4 tools that directly measure BAM: 14C-glycocholate breath and stool test, 75Selenium HomotauroCholic Acid Test (SeHCAT), 7 ?-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) and fecal BAs. 14C-glycocholate is a laborious test no longer widely utilized. 75SeHCAT is validated, but not available in the United States. Serum C4 is a simple, accurate method that is applicable to a majority of patients, but requires further clinical validation. Fecal measurements to quantify total and individual fecal BAs are technically cumbersome and not widely available. Regrettably, none of these tests are routinely available in the U.S., and a therapeutic trial with a BA binder is used as a surrogate for diagnosis of BAM. Recent data suggest there is an advantage to studying fecal excretion of the individual BAs and their role in BAM; this may constitute a significant advantage of the fecal BA method over the other tests. Fecal BA test could become a routine addition to fecal fat measurement in patients with unexplained diarrhea. In summary, availability determines the choice of test among C4, SeHCAT and fecal BA; more widespread availability of such tests would enhance clinical management of these patients.

Vijayvargiya, Priya; Camilleri, Michael; Shin, Andrea; Saenger, Amy

2013-01-01

102

Optical caries diagnostics: comparison of laser spectroscopic PNC method with method of laser integral fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research we present the results of approbation of two methods of optical caries diagnostics: PNC-spectral diagnostics and caries detection by laser integral fluorescence. The research was conducted in a dental clinic. PNC-method analyses parameters of probing laser radiation and PNC-spectrums of stimulated secondary radiations: backscattering and endogenous fluorescence of caries-involved bacterias. He-Ne-laser ((lambda) =632,8 nm, 1-2mW) was used as a source of probing (stimulated) radiation. For registration of signals, received from intact and pathological teeth PDA-detector was applied. PNC-spectrums were processed by special algorithms, and were displayed on PC monitor. The method of laser integral fluorescence was used for comparison. In this case integral power of fluorescence of human teeth was measured. As a source of probing (stimulated) radiation diode lasers ((lambda) =655 nm, 0.1 mW and 630nm, 1mW) and He-Ne laser were applied. For registration of signals Si-photodetector was used. Integral power was shown in a digital indicator. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are described in this research. It is disclosed that the method of laser integral power of fluorescence has the following characteristics: simplicity of construction and schema-technical decisions. However the method of PNC-spectral diagnostics are characterized by considerably more sensitivity in diagnostics of initial caries and capability to differentiate pathologies of various stages (for example, calculus/initial caries). Estimation of spectral characteristics of PNC-signals allows eliminating a number of drawbacks, which are character for detection by method of laser integral fluorescence (for instance, detection of fluorescent fillings, plagues, calculus, discolorations generally, amalgam, gold fillings as if it were caries.

Masychev, Victor I.

2000-11-01

103

The role of the Standard Days Method in modern family planning services in developing countries  

PubMed Central

Background The mere availability of family planning (FP) services is not sufficient to improve reproductive health; services must also be of adequate quality. The introduction of new contraceptive methods is a means of improving quality of care. The Standard Days Method (SDM) is a new fertility-awareness-based contraceptive method that has been successfully added to reproductive health care services around the world. Content Framed by the Bruce-Jain quality-of-care paradigm, this paper describes how the introduction of SDM in developing country settings can improve the six elements of quality while contributing to the intrinsic variety of available methods. SDM meets the needs of women and couples who opt not to use other modern methods. SDM providers are sensitised to the potential of fertility-awareness-based contraception as an appropriate choice for these clients. SDM requires the involvement of both partners and thus offers a natural entry point for providers to further explore partner communication, intimate partner violence, condoms, and HIV/STIs. Conclusion SDM introduction broadens the range of FP methods available to couples in developing countries. SDM counselling presents an opportunity for FP providers to discuss important interpersonal and reproductive health issues with potential users.

2012-01-01

104

Modern methods for investigating functional surfaces of advanced materials by mechanical contact testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern methods for determining the hardness, Young’s modulus, elastic recovery, adhesive/cohesive strength, friction coefficient, and wear resistance of thin films, coatings, multilayer materials, and bulk materials are considered. The experimental data obtained in instrumented indentation, instrumented scratching, and tribological tests of nanostructured and quasicrystalline coatings and composite materials are analyzed. It is noted that the elastic recovery of a number of advanced materials is higher than the elastic recovery of metal alloys by a factor of 2-3. The coefficients of sliding friction of sintered samples and thin films containing Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystals are found to be relatively low. An increase in the fraction of quasicrystalline particles to 30% in composites with an aluminum matrix leads to an increase in the wear resistance.

Petrzhik, M. I.; Levashov, E. A.

2007-11-01

105

Modern methods for investigating functional surfaces of advanced materials by mechanical contact testing  

SciTech Connect

Modern methods for determining the hardness, Young's modulus, elastic recovery, adhesive/cohesive strength, friction coefficient, and wear resistance of thin films, coatings, multilayer materials, and bulk materials are considered. The experimental data obtained in instrumented indentation, instrumented scratching, and tribological tests of nanostructured and quasicrystalline coatings and composite materials are analyzed. It is noted that the elastic recovery of a number of advanced materials is higher than the elastic recovery of metal alloys by a factor of 2-3. The coefficients of sliding friction of sintered samples and thin films containing Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystals are found to be relatively low. An increase in the fraction of quasicrystalline particles to 30% in composites with an aluminum matrix leads to an increase in the wear resistance.

Petrzhik, M. I., E-mail: petrzhik@shs.misis.ru; Levashov, E. A. [State Technological University 'Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys, (Russian Federation)

2007-11-15

106

Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods  

DOEpatents

A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2009-09-29

107

Theories and methods of strategic environmental assessment of modern logistics development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern logistics is a new industry during the construction of national economy. Based on analyzing the environmental problem\\u000a that was led by the limitation of the strategy during enacting the program of the modern logistics, SEA for modern logistics\\u000a was implemented. In this paper, procedure and indicator system in the SEA are constructed, and Environmental Check List to\\u000a identify environmental

Ling Xu; Jin-cheng Shang; Yu-mei Wang

2005-01-01

108

Comparative analysis of diagnostic methods in meniscal lesions.  

PubMed

(Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of clinical and MRI diagnosis in comparison with arthroscopy for detection of meniscal lesions. Also, to answer if MRI diagnosis impacts on the decision of the surgeon for the choice of treatment (operative or conservative). Material and methods: We examined 70 patients with knee injuries. Clinical diagnosis was established using the case-history of the patient and positive clinical tests for meniscal injuries (McMurray and Aplay). All patients underwent MRI on a 1.5 T magnet for MRI diagnosis. This was followed by arthroscopy for final diagnosis. Clinical and MRI diagnoses were correlated with the arthroscopic diagnosis which was used as a gold standard. Results: Of 70 patients with knee injuries, 55 had a clinical diagnosis of meniscal lesions out of whom 44 patients had a medial meniscal lesion and 11 had a lateral meniscal lesion. Arthroscopy confirmed the clinical diagnosis in 32 patients (72.72%) (44 vs 32) in medial meniscal lesion, and 8 patients (72.7%) (11 vs 8) with a lateral meniscal lesion. In MRI diagnosis of 56 patients with medial meniscal lesion arthroscopy confirmed the diagnosis in 34 patients (60.7%) (56 vs 34) and pf 10 patients with lateral meniscal lesion arthroscopy confirmed the diagnosis in 6 patients (60%) (10 vs 6). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of clinical diagnosis versus MRI for medial meniscus were (79.9% vs 79.5%); (58.1% vs 38.1%); (69.8% vs 69.6%); (69.2% vs 69.2%). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of clinical diagnosis versus MRI for lateral meniscus were (50% vs 40%); (92.7% vs 92.7%); (63.6% vs 60%); (87.9% vs 85.5%). Conclusions: Carefully performed clinical examination can give an equal or better diagnosis of meniscal lesions in comparison with MRI diagnosis. Any experienced orthopaedic surgeon can trust his clinical diagnosis as an indication of arthroscopy. When the clinical diagnosis is established, with no doubts due to positivity of the clinical tests, the MRI is not essential. In suspected cases where there is a dilemma, MRI is very helpful in making a decision for arthroscopy. The diagnostic accuracy of clinical and MRI diagnosis of meniscal lesions is high. Their reliability in diagnosing meniscal lesions is evident. Key words: Meniscal lesion, clinical diagnosis, MRI, arthroscopy. PMID:24566018

Dzoleva-Tolevska, R; Poposka, A; Samardziski, M; Georgieva, D

2013-01-01

109

Diagnostic methods for invasive fungal diseases in patients with hematologic malignancies  

PubMed Central

Invasive fungal disease is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in hematologic malignancy patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Timely recognition and treatment of invasive fungal diseases in these patients are essential and decrease mortality. However, conventional definitive diagnostic methods are difficult and time consuming. While conventional microbiological and histopathological methods are still needed for a definitive diagnosis of invasive fungal disease, new noninvasive diagnostic methods including serologic and molecular biomarkers are now available. These new diagnostic methods facilitate an early diagnosis of invasive fungal disease and allow for utilization of a pre-emptive treatment approach, which may ultimately lead to improved treatment outcomes and reduced toxicity.

Riwes, Mary Mansour; Wingard, John R

2013-01-01

110

Modern applications for a total sulfur reduction distillation method - what's old is new again  

PubMed Central

Background The use of a boiling mixture of hydriodic acid, hypophosphorous acid, and hydrochloric acid to reduce any variety of sulfur compounds has been in use in various applications since the first appearance of this method in the literature in the 1920’s. In the realm of sulfur geochemistry, this method remains a useful, but under-utilized technique. Presented here is a detailed description of the distillation set-up and procedure, as well as an overview of potential applications of this method for marine sulfur biogeochemistry/isotope studies. The presented applications include the sulfur isotope analysis of extremely low amounts of sulfate from saline water, the conversion of radiolabeled sulfate into sulfide, the extraction of refractory sulfur from marine sediments, and the use of this method to assess sulfur cycling in Aarhus Bay sediments. Results The STrongly Reducing hydrIodic/hypoPhosphorous/hydrochloric acid (STRIP) reagent is capable of rapidly reducing a wide range of sulfur compounds, including the most oxidized form, sulfate, to hydrogen sulfide. Conversion of as little as approximately 5 micromole sulfate is possible, with a sulfur isotope composition reproducibility of 0.3 permil. Conclusions Although developed many decades ago, this distillation method remains relevant for many modern applications. The STRIP distillation quickly and quantitatively converts sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide which can be readily collected in a silver nitrate trap for further use. An application of this method to a study of sulfur cycling in Aarhus Bay demonstrates that we account for all of the sulfur compounds in pore-water, effectively closing the mass balance of sulfur cycling.

2014-01-01

111

Inventions leading to the development of the diagnostic test kit industry--from the modern pregnancy test to the sandwich assays.  

PubMed

The universities are encouraged by the government nowadays to stimulate innovations and also to provide the proper machinery for assisting the protection and commercialisation of innovations. A better understanding of the innovation process may help to create an atmosphere suitable for inventions at the university. Examples can be taken from successful innovations previously made at the university. During the 1960's I made a series of inventions, which ultimately led to the development of the diagnostic test kit industry. The first, which I made as an undergraduate, was a simple and reliable test kit for diagnosis of pregnancy. This was followed by the solid phase radioimmunoassay and a solid phase assay for vitamin B12; next, the dual specific non-competitive sandwich assay and the in-vitro test for diagnosis of allergy, called RAST (Radioallergosorbent test). Organon in Holland with the pregnancy test kit, and Pharmacia in Sweden with test kits for radioimmunoassay, became pioneers among the diagnostic test kit industries. Pharmacia Diagnostics later became one of the leading diagnostic test kit companies in the world and has continued to be so in the field of allergy diagnosis. Each one of these inventions started with a few unique observations leading to a technical development. The pregnancy test as well as the allergy test emerged from the development of assay methods with unique qualities with the subsequent search for appropriate applications. The foreseeing of a commercial value on a future market was a very important step. This was followed by the search for a suitable industry interested to exploit the invention with its new business opportunity i.e. apply for a patent, produce and market the products, which in my case consisted of the necessary reagents and equipments for particular diagnostic tests. Finally, an agreement had to be settled between the entrepreneur and the inventors. This report describes these inventions and particularly discusses some crucial steps of the innovation processes. PMID:16454158

Wide, Leif

2005-01-01

112

Analysis of modern IS security development approaches: towards the next generation of social and adaptable ISS methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various modern approaches to Information Systems Security (ISS) development, influenced, e.g., by information systems (IS) development methods, have been presented. While we see these approaches as serious attempts to improve ISS, they have not received much attention in the literature. One reason for this is that these methods have been developed by scholars from different research traditions and disciplines. This

Mikko T. Siponen

2005-01-01

113

The Revised Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders: Methods used to Establish and Validate Revised Axis I Diagnostic Algorithms  

PubMed Central

AIMS To derive reliable and valid revised Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis I diagnostic algorithms for clinical TMD diagnoses. METHODS The multi-site RDC/TMD Validation Project’s dataset (614 TMD community and clinic cases, and 91 controls) was used to derive revised algorithms for Axis I TMD diagnoses. Validity of diagnostic algorithms was assessed relative to reference standards, the latter based on consensus diagnoses rendered by 2 TMD experts using criterion examination data, including temporomandibular joint imaging. Cut-offs for target validity were sensitivity ? 0.70 and specificity ? 0.95. Reliability of revised algorithms was assessed in 27 study participants. RESULTS Revised algorithm sensitivity and specificity exceeded the target levels for myofascial pain (0.82, 0.99, respectively) and myofascial pain with limited opening (0.93, 0.97). Combining diagnoses for any myofascial pain showed sensitivity of 0.91 and specificity of 1.00. For joint pain, target sensitivity and specificity were observed (0.92, 0.96) when arthralgia and osteoarthritis were combined as “any joint pain.” Disc displacement without reduction with limited opening demonstrated target sensitivity and specificity (0.80, 0.97). For the other Group II disc displacements and Group III osteoarthritis and osteoarthrosis, sensitivity was below target (0.35 to 0.53), and specificity ranged from 0.80 to meeting target. Kappa for revised algorithm diagnostic reliability was ? 0.63. CONCLUSION Revised RDC/TMD Axis I TMD diagnostic algorithms are recommended for myofascial pain and joint pain as reliable and valid. However, revised clinical criteria alone, without recourse to imaging, are inadequate for valid diagnosis of two of the three disc displacements and osteoarthritis/osteoarthrosis.

Schiffman, Eric L.; Ohrbach, Richard; Truelove, Edmond L.; Feng, Tai; Anderson, Gary C.; Pan, Wei; Gonzalez, Yoly M.; John, Mike T.; Sommers, Earl; List, Thomas; Velly, Ana M.; Kang, Wenjun; Look, John O.

2011-01-01

114

Diagnostic efficacy of in vitro methods vs. skin testing in patients with inhalant allergies  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of our study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of two selected methods of in vitro allergy testing. Specifically, the PRIST/modified RAST I125 isotope systems and the Quantizyme/modified EAST alkaline phosphatase method were compared. The time, expense, convenience, and diagnostic efficacy of the two procedures are discussed. Special attention is given to the practicality of each method for the practicing physician.

Corey, J.P.; Liudahl, J.J.; Young, S.A.; Rodman, S.M. (Univ. of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL (USA))

1991-03-01

115

[Klatskin tumors: rational diagnostics and staging].  

PubMed

Klatskin tumors continue to be a challenge for diagnostic assessment and staging due to their longitudinal tumor growth along the perihilar bile ducts. Therefore the rate of non-resectable tumors remains relatively stable despite modern imaging and endoscopic techniques. This article reviews the current diagnostic methods for preoperative staging and the significance for predicting resectability. PMID:22349786

Denzer, U W; Rösch, T

2012-03-01

116

Comparing historical and modern methods of sea surface temperature measurement - Part 1: Review of methods, field comparisons and dataset adjustments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea surface temperature (SST) has been obtained from a variety of different platforms, instruments and depths over the past 150 yr. Modern-day platforms include ships, moored and drifting buoys and satellites. Shipboard methods include temperature measurement of seawater sampled by bucket and flowing through engine cooling water intakes. Here I review SST measurement methods, studies analysing shipboard methods by field or lab experiment and adjustments applied to historical SST datasets to account for variable methods. In general, bucket temperatures have been found to average a few tenths of a °C cooler than simultaneous engine intake temperatures. Field and lab experiments demonstrate that cooling of bucket samples prior to measurement provides a plausible explanation for negative average bucket-intake differences. These can also be credibly attributed to systematic errors in intake temperatures, which have been found to average overly-warm by >0.5 °C on some vessels. However, the precise origin of non-zero average bucket-intake differences reported in field studies is often unclear, given that additional temperatures to those from the buckets and intakes have rarely been obtained. Supplementary accurate in situ temperatures are required to reveal individual errors in bucket and intake temperatures, and the role of near-surface temperature gradients. There is a need for further field experiments of the type reported in Part 2 to address this and other limitations of previous studies.

Matthews, J. B. R.

2013-07-01

117

Benchmarking Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: A Public Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of engine health management (EHM) technology. The need is two-fold: technology developers require relevant data and problems to design and validate new algorithms and techniques while engine system integrators and operators need practical tools to direct development and then evaluate the effectiveness of proposed solutions. This paper presents a publicly available gas path diagnostic benchmark problem that has been developed by the Propulsion and Power Systems Panel of The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) to help address these needs. The problem is coded in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc.) and coupled with a non-linear turbofan engine simulation to produce "snap-shot" measurements, with relevant noise levels, as if collected from a fleet of engines over their lifetime of use. Each engine within the fleet will experience unique operating and deterioration profiles, and may encounter randomly occurring relevant gas path faults including sensor, actuator and component faults. The challenge to the EHM community is to develop gas path diagnostic algorithms to reliably perform fault detection and isolation. An example solution to the benchmark problem is provided along with associated evaluation metrics. A plan is presented to disseminate this benchmark problem to the engine health management technical community and invite technology solutions.

Simon, Donald L.; Bird, Jeff; Davison, Craig; Volponi, Al; Iverson, R. Eugene

2008-01-01

118

Modern Methods of Real-Time Gamma Radiation Monitoring for General Personal Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time radiation detectors become an essential part of emergency personnel who may have to respond to unknown accidents, incidents or terrorist attacks, which could involve radioactive material. More and more ordinary citizens are interested in personal radiation protection as well. Reasons include lost sources, nuclear industrial accidents, nuclear or radiological terrorism and the possibility of nuclear weapons being used in a war. People want to have the ability to measure it for themselves and they want to be notified when the radiation levels are increased. To meet this demand, considerable research into new sensors is underway, including efforts to enhance the sensor performance through both the material properties and manufacturing technologies. Deep understanding of physical properties of the materials under the influence of radiation exposure is vital for the effective design of dosimeter devices. Detection of radiation is based on the fact that both the electrical and the optical properties of the materials undergo changes upon the exposure to ionizing radiation. It is believed that radiation causes structural defects. The influence of radiation depends on both the dose and the parameters of the films including their thickness: the degradation is more severe for the higher dose and the thinner films. This paper presents overview of modern methods of real-time gamma radiation monitoring for personal protection of radiation workers and general public and suggests further developments in this area.

Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

119

64 FR 61915 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: ``Diagnostic and Therapeutic Methods of Detecting and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Health and Human Services, is contemplating the grant of an exclusive world-wide license to the U.S. Patent Application 60/098,993, entitled, ``Diagnostic and Therapeutic Methods of Detecting and Treating Cancers of Reproductive Tissues'' and...

1999-11-15

120

Statistical Methods and Software for Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary goal of this R03 project was to develop statistical methods and related software for meta-analysis of diagnostic tests. Comparative effectiveness research relies fundamentally on accurate assessment of clinical outcomes. The growing number of ...

H. Chu

2013-01-01

121

Progress and experience on diagnostic methods for conventional and metal-oxide surge arresters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents the most recent diagnostic methods developed in Italy for conventional (gapped) and metal-oxide (gapless) surge arresters. Main requirements for these techniques are their simplicity, reliability, easiness in execution and in results in...

A. Bargigia

1991-01-01

122

A Test of Hartnett's Revisions to the Pubic Symphysis and Fourth Rib Methods on a Modern Sample.  

PubMed

Estimating age at death is one of the most important aspects of creating a biological profile. Most adult age estimation methods were developed on North American skeletal collections from the early to mid-20th century, and their applicability to modern populations has been questioned. In 2010, Hartnett used a modern skeletal collection from the Maricopia County Forensic Science Centre to revise the Suchey-Brooks pubic symphysis method and the ??can et al. fourth rib methods. The current study tests Hartnett's revised methods as well as the original Suchey-Brooks and ??can et al. methods on a modern sample from the William Bass Skeletal Collection (N = 313, mean age = 58.5, range 19-92). Results show that the Suchey-Brooks and ??can et al. methods assign individuals to the correct phase 70.8% and 57.5% of the time compared with Hartnett's revised methods at 58.1% and 29.7%, respectively, with correctness scores based on one standard deviation of the mean rather than the entire age range. Accuracy and bias scores are significantly improved for Hartnett's revised pubic symphysis method and marginally better for Hartnett's revised fourth rib method, suggesting that the revised mean ages at death of Hartnett's phases better reflect this modern population. Overall, both Hartnett's revised methods are reliable age estimation methods. For the pubic symphysis, there are significant improvements in accuracy and bias scores, especially for older individuals; however, for the fourth rib, the results are comparable to the original ??can et al. methods, with some improvement for older individuals. PMID:24602081

Merritt, Catherine E

2014-05-01

123

Raman background photobleaching as a possible method of cancer diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinetics of photobleaching of background in Raman spectra of aqueous solutions of plant toxins ricin and ricin agglutinin, ricin binding subunit, and normal and malignant human blood serum were measured. For the excitation of the spectra cw and pulsed laser radiation were used. The spectra of Raman background change upon laser irradiation. Background intensity is lower for the samples with small molecular weight. The cyclization of amino acid residues in the toxin molecules as well as in human blood serum can be a reason of the Raman background. The model of the background photobleaching is proposed. The differences in photobleaching kinetics in the cases of cw and pulsed laser radiation are discussed. It is shown that Raman background photobleaching can be very informative for cancer diagnostics.

Brandt, Nikolai N.; Brandt, Nikolai B.; Chikishev, Andrey Y.; Gangardt, Mihail G.; Karyakina, Nina F.

2001-06-01

124

Non-Intrusive Optical Diagnostic Methods for Flowfield Characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Non-intrusive optical diagnostic techniques such as Electron Beam Fluorescence (EBF), Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF), and Focusing Schlieren (FS) have been setup for high-speed flow characterization and large flowfield visualization, respectively. Fluorescence emission from the First Negative band of N2(+) with the (0,0) vibration transition (at lambda =391.44 nm) was obtained using the EBF technique and a quenching rate of N2(+)* molecules by argon gas was reported. A very high sensitivity FS system was built and applied in the High-Speed Flow Generator (HFG) at NASA LaRC. A LIF system is available at the Advanced Propulsion Laboratory (APL) on campus and a plume exhaust velocity measurement, measuring the Doppler shift from lambda = 728.7 nm of argon gas, is under way.

Tabibi, Bagher M.; Terrell, Charles A.; Spraggins, Darrell; Lee, Ja. H.; Weinstein, Leonard M.

1997-01-01

125

Frequency-Domain Methods for Characterization of Pulsed Power Diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses methods of frequency-domain characterization of pulsed power sensors using vector network analyzer and spectrum analyzer techniques that offer significant simplification over time-domain methods, while mitigating or minimizing the effect of the difficulties present in time domain characterization. These methods are applicable to characterization of a wide variety of sensors.

White, A D; Anderson, R A; Ferriera, T J; Goerz, D A

2009-07-27

126

Restrictive Stochastic Item Selection Methods in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes two new item selection methods for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing: the restrictive progressive method and the restrictive threshold method. They are built upon the posterior weighted Kullback-Leibler (KL) information index but include additional stochastic components either in the item selection index or in…

Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Huebner, Alan

2011-01-01

127

Rapid diagnostic tests for molecular surveillance of Plasmodium falciparum malaria -assessment of DNA extraction methods and field applicability  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The need for new malaria surveillance tools and strategies is critical, given improved global malaria control and regional elimination efforts. High quality Plasmodium falciparum DNA can reliably be extracted from malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Together with highly sensitive molecular assays, wide scale collection of used RDTs may serve as a modern tool for improved malaria case detection and

U. Morris; B. Aydin-Schmidt; D. Shakely; A. Martensson; L. Jornhagen; A. S. Ali; M. I. Msellem; M. Petzold; J. P. Gil; P. Ferreira; A. Bjorkman

2013-01-01

128

[Olfactory testing: diagnostic methods for investigating the sense of smell].  

PubMed

For the testing of a person's sense of smell, both subjective and objective methods are available. Subjective tests include odor identification, threshold and discrimination tests. A prerequisite for successful testing is the ability and willingness of the patient to cooperate. For testing smell in the demented, comatose or simulating patient, the measurement of chemosensory evoked potentials (CSEP) is an established method. PMID:16937875

Pfaar, O; Klimek, L

2006-08-01

129

Improving the teaching quality of Organic Chemistry by adopting some modern teaching methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper first gives a description of the tertiary education context in China, which has been greatly influenced by examination-oriented policies. The current curriculum of Organic Chemistry and the teaching strategy for Organic Chemistry in Huazhong Agricultural University have also been reviewed. To improve the quality of teaching and learning, some modern teaching theories and strategies have been discussed. A

Hong Jiang

2004-01-01

130

Modern Carbonate Field Studies Designed to Direct Inquiry-Based Learning That Teaches Research Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transitioning students from learner to investigator is best accomplished by incorporating research into the undergraduate classroom as a collaborative enterprise between students and faculty. Our course is a two-part design with a focus on a modern carbonate ecosystem and depositional environment on San Salvador Island, Bahamas in order to integrate geology, biology, and environmental science. Content background is provided in

L. E. Davis; R. L. Eves

2006-01-01

131

Diagnostic methods and techniques in preventing cervical carcinoma. Part I: Conventional cytology and new cytological methods.  

PubMed

Cancer of the cervix is one of the most predictable and preventable types of cancer, however, it is still one of the most common malignancies. Due to a lack of information available to women about the causes of the disease, accessibility of screening programs, and limitations to the existing screening techniques, cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Detection and follow-up of pre-cancer stages of the disease are based on the Pap test, which is now well established as a basic method of secondary prevention. Relative low sensitivity of the Pap test has initiated the development of additional technologies and methods towards enhanced screening quality and error elimination not only in the process of sample taking and analysis but also in screening and interpretation. Immunocytochemical methods and liquid based cytology are the new diagnostics possibilities in secondary prevention. In order to decrease morbidity, thus mortality too, it is necessary that the primary prevention (vaccination) be also implemented. PMID:20387719

Bolanca, Ines Krivak; Vranes, Jasmina

2010-02-01

132

Cytodiagnosis and other methods of biopsy in the modern management of breast cancer.  

PubMed

Since 1970 fine-needle aspiration cytology for breast tumours has grown in popularity and is now routinely used in the initial diagnosis of palpable breast masses in the United States and other parts of the world. Fast staining methods of the aspirate enables reporting within 10 minutes of the aspirate being performed. Training and experience is important in obtaining satisfactory smears for diagnosis, and pitfalls are false-negative and false-positive findings, which may have dire consequences for the patient if cytological diagnosis is the final arbiter. Conditions such as benign mammary dysplasia and sclerosing adenosis are the most common sources of highly cellular smears and often show marked atypia, which makes distinction from carcinoma difficult. Also, atypical papillary formations present a diagnostic problem, and biopsy is indicated to exclude a papillary carcinoma. Fine-needle aspirations very seldom cause traumatic complications, and these are usually of a minor degree. Seeding along the needle track has occurred, but in most cases with a larger-caliber (18 s.e.g.) needle. Aspiration itself has been shown to have no effect on the survival rates in breast carcinoma. Contemporary reports show that around 90% of cases of breast cancer can be detected with confidence by means of this procedure. The reduction in scar formation facilitates future evaluation of the patient as scar tissue often interferes with the interpretation of mammograms. Cost effectiveness is evident in terms of decreased use of anaesthetics and operating time and a reduction in the use of frozen section histology by about 80%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2657973

Preece, P E; Hunter, S M; Duguid, H L; Wood, R A

1989-01-01

133

Expanded response-surfaces: a new method to reconstruct paleoclimates from fossil pollen assemblages that lack modern analogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollen-based paleoclimatic interpretations of late-glacial to early Holocene climates (17-9 ka) in Midwestern North America are hampered by samples that lack modern analogues. Unresolved questions include the magnitude and direction of temperature seasonality (i.e. were these climates more or less seasonal than present) and the temporal changes in precipitation. Central to the no-analogue problem is the truncation of modern pollen-climate relationships for abundant late-glacial taxa such as Fraxinus. Here we present a new method called the expanded response-surface (ERS) method, developed to reconstruct climates from no-analogue pollen assemblages and applied to a high-resolution late-glacial pollen record from Crystal Lake, Illinois to test hypotheses about late-glacial climates. The key assumptions central to the ERS method are: (1) plant species and pollen abundances follow symmetrical unimodal distributions along climatic gradients, (2) taxa with truncated distributions in modern climate space occupy a subset of their fundamental niche, and (3) expansion of truncated distributions by mirroring around the distributional mode recovers the portion of the fundamental niche not realized in the modern climate space. With the ERS method, we expanded modern pollen-climate relationships by mirroring pollen abundances for each taxon around a mode defined with respect to four climate axes (mean winter temperature, mean summer temperature, mean winter precipitation, and mean summer precipitation). The ERS method reconstructed past temperatures and precipitation during the height of no-analogue conditions (14?160-12?370 cal yr BP) for 37% of the Crystal Lake samples where techniques that employed only modern observational data found matches for only 13% of the fossil samples. The total climate space of the expanded taxa set allowed analogue matches under more seasonal-than-present climates with higher-than-present precipitation. The ERS climate reconstructions for the height of no-analogue conditions indicated cooler-than-present summer and winter temperatures, similar-to-present seasonal range in temperatures, higher-than-present winter precipitation, and similar-to-present summer precipitation. These results thus suggest that high moisture availability helped drive the formation of the Midwestern no-analogue communities with high Fraxinus nigra abundances, but do not show higher-than-present temperature seasonality notwithstanding the higher-than-present insolation seasonality at this time. During the no-analogue late-glacial interval, Picea mariana, F. nigra, and Larix stands probably grew on low-lying, poorly drained soils in the Crystal Lake region; whereas Abies, Picea glauca, Quercus, and Ostrya/ Carpinus grew on upland positions with better soil drainage.

Gonzales, L. M.; Williams, J. W.; Grimm, E. C.

2009-12-01

134

An Informative Method for the Diagnostics of Superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is proposed to measure the thermodynamic field of a superconductor; this method allows for the high-precision measurement of the first thermodynamic critical magnetic fields of the sample and its crystallites and subcrystallites. The first thermodynamic critical magnetic fields are used to estimate the critical current density of the sample, crystallites, and subcrystallites. The role of the demagnetizing fields of crystallites in HTSC samples is studied. An increase in the crystallite size is shown to suppress the intra-and intercrystalline critical currents of the sample in lower fields.

Rostami, Khalil

2010-12-01

135

Physical control and monitoring in modern medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is devoted to the role of fundamental physical achievements in advanced technologies of control and monitoring used in modern medicine. It contains the analysis of diagnostic methods based on physical phenomena: X-ray examination, nuclear medicine, ultrasound test, the method of electronic paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray- and positron-emission computer tomography, endoscopy, thermography, luminescent analysis, electrocardiography, biomagnetism

V. K. Kournykov

2003-01-01

136

A New Method with General Diagnostic Utility for the Calculation of Immunoglobulin G Avidity  

PubMed Central

The reference method for immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity determination includes reagent-consuming serum titration. Aiming at better IgG avidity diagnostics, we applied a logistic model for the reproduction of antibody titration curves. This method was tested with well-characterized serum panels for cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, rubella virus, parvovirus B19, and Toxoplasma gondii. This approach for IgG avidity calculation is generally applicable and attains the diagnostic performance of the reference method while being less laborious and twice as cost-effective.

Korhonen, Maria H.; Brunstein, John; Haario, Heikki; Katnikov, Alexei; Rescaldani, Roberto; Hedman, Klaus

1999-01-01

137

Online efficiency diagnostic method of three phase asynchronous machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are various methods to determine the efficiency of three phase induction machines. But all of them have in common that they are to inaccurate or they are impracticable. In this paper the machine efficiency will be derived from start up data. For that purpose the variation with time of all stator currents and all stator voltages have to been

Johann Peter Bacher

2009-01-01

138

Conceptual Models and Methods to Guide Diagnostic Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains conceptual methods and models to guide research on and development of tools for diagnosing the causes of biological impairment within the aquatic ecosystems of the United States. It was produced to satisfy requirements in the U.S. Env...

2006-01-01

139

BRIDGE STRUCTURE DIAGNOSTICS USING THE ACOUSTIC EMISSION METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stability of building structures is one of very important issues in the field of non- destructive defectoscopy. Taking into account the fact that most of concrete and reinforced concrete structures were created in the first half of last century, it is evident that a search for new and simple defectoscopic methods, allowing the researchers to determine the integrity of these

Marta KORENSKA; Josef STRYK; Lubos PAZDERA; Pavel VYROUBAL

140

Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-08-26

141

Making Diagnostic Inferences about Cognitive Attributes Using the Rule-Space Model and Attribute Hierarchy Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to describe the logic and identify key assumptions associated with making cognitive inferences using two attribute-based psychometric methods. The first method is Kikumi Tatsuoka's rule-space model. This model provides a strong point of reference for studying the nature of diagnostic inferences because it is important…

Gierl, Mark J.

2007-01-01

142

A diagnostic craniometric method for determining occlusal vertical dimension.  

PubMed

There is no precise scientific method for determining the correct edentulous occlusal vertical dimension. This study established the proportion between the ear-eye to chin-nose distance for determining reasonable occlusal vertical dimension. Two hundred white and 400 Asian men and women participated in this study. The ear-eye and chin-nose distances were measured with a modified craniometer. The results revealed that left ear-eye distance can be used to predict chin-nose distance with reasonable accuracy. However, the algorithm for making this prediction is not the same for combinations of sex and ethnic origin. PMID:8040818

Chou, T M; Moore, D J; Young, L; Glaros, A G

1994-06-01

143

The modern infertility evaluation.  

PubMed

The modern diagnostic evaluation of the infertile couple reflects a growing reliance on assisted reproductive technologies and the trend toward a more evidence-based medical practice. The recommended evaluation no longer includes some of the traditional diagnostic tests, applies other tests more selectively, and includes a new test that helps to define a couple's prognosis and best choice of treatment. All tests are easily performed, allowing clinicians to complete a basic but still thorough evaluation quickly and easily. PMID:22828101

Fritz, Marc A

2012-09-01

144

New diagnostic method for liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Liver fibrosis, i.e. excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, occurs in most types of chronic liver diseases. The prognosis and management of chronic liver diseases depend on the degree of liver fibrosis. Therefore, the assessment of liver fibrosis provides useful information not only for diagnosis but also for treatment planning. Although liver biopsy is still the gold standard for assessing hepatic fibrosis, it has some technical limitations and risks. Furthermore, the dynamic process of liver fibrosis resulting from progression and regression cannot be quantified by liver biopsy. Therefore, alternative, simple, reliable and noninvasive tests are needed to assess the stage of fibrosis. Several noninvasive direct and indirect serum markers able to predict the presence of significant fibrosis or cirrhosis in patients with chronic liver disease with considerable accuracy have been reported. However, since most of these markers require complicated calculations, clinical application is difficult. Transient elastography (FibroScan) is a new method for the evaluation of liver stiffness. The technique is based on changes in tissue elasticity induced by hepatic fibrosis. Liver stiffness measured by transient elastography is a noninvasive, reproducible and reliable method to assess hepatic fibrosis as well as to diagnose liver cirrhosis. Based on accumulating clinical data, clinical applications of elastography will increase in the near future. PMID:18544943

Han, Kwang-Hyub; Yoon, Ki Tae

2008-01-01

145

Rock-Magnetic Method for Post Nuclear Detonation Diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magnetic signature characteristic of a Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse (NEMP) may still be detectable near the sites of atmospheric nuclear tests conducted at what is now the Nevada National Security Site. This signature is due to a secondary magnetization component of the natural remanent magnetization of material containing traces of ferromagnetic particles that have been exposed to a strong pulse of magnetic field. We apply a rock-magnetic method introduced by Verrier et al. (2002), and tested on samples exposed to artificial lightning, to samples of rock and building materials (e.g. bricks, concrete) retrieved from several above ground nuclear test sites. The results of magnetization measurements are compared to NEMP simulations and historic test measurements.

Englert, J.; Petrosky, J.; Bailey, W.; Watts, D. R.; Tauxe, L.; Heger, A. S.

2011-12-01

146

Novel diagnostic method of peritoneal injury using dual macromolecular markers.  

PubMed

Long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) frequently produces morphological and functional changes of the peritoneum, which makes continuation of PD difficult. Moreover, the progression of peritoneal injury causes complications and poor prognosis. Since therapeutic treatments for peritoneal injury during PD have yet to be established, it is important to diagnose peritoneal injury as early as possible. The aim of this study was to develop a method of monitoring peritoneal function to diagnose peritoneal injury. Model rats of peritoneal injury were prepared by intraperitoneal injection of methylglyoxal (MGO) for five consecutive days. Then, marker substances of various molecular weights (phenolsulfonphthalein, fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FD)-10, FD-40, FD-70, FD-2000 or tetramethylrhodamine-dextran (RD)-10) were injected into the peritoneal cavity. At 120?min after injection, the remaining amounts of all marker substances were significantly decreased in the MGO-treated rats compared with those in the vehicle-treated rats. Molecular weight dependence of the peritoneal permeability was observed. A substance with a molecular weight of approximately 10000 was found to be suitable to diagnose peritoneal injury. Moreover, coadministration of RD-10 with FD-2000 enabled us to monitor enhanced peritoneal permeability and the transfer of water simultaneously, without the recovery of whole PD fluid, even in the case of different ultrafiltration volumes. We demonstrated the usefulness of administering substances to evaluate peritoneal permeability and the transfer of water simultaneously to diagnose peritoneal injury. This study should be valuable for safe and effective PD. PMID:24492723

Hirata, Haruna; Miyamoto, Hirotaka; Shimokawa, Kenta; Nakashima, Mikiro; Nakayama, Morio; Fumoto, Shintaro; Nishida, Koyo

2014-01-01

147

Assessment of standing balance deficits in people who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using traditional and modern analysis methods.  

PubMed

Modern methods of assessing standing balance such as wavelet and entropy analysis could provide insight into postural control mechanisms in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to examine what effect anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has on traditional and modern measures of balance. Ninety subjects, 45 who had undergone ACLR and 45 matched controls, performed single leg static standing balance tests on their surgical or matched limb on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board. Data were analysed in the anterior-posterior axis of movement, which is known to be affected by ACLR. The traditional measures of path velocity, amplitude and standard deviation were calculated in this plane. Additionally, sample entropy and discrete wavelet transform derived assessment of path velocity in four distinct frequency bands related to (1) spinal reflexive loops and muscle activity, (2) cerebellar, (3) vestibular, and (4) visual mechanisms of postural control were derived. The ACLR group had significantly increased values in all traditional measures and all four frequency bands. No significant difference was observed for sample entropy. This indicated that whilst postural sway was amplified in the ACLR group, the overall mechanism used by the patient group to maintain balance was similar to that of the control group. In conclusion, modern methods of signal analysis may provide additional insight into standing balance mechanisms in clinical populations. Future research is required to determine if these results provide important and unique information which is of benefit to clinicians. PMID:24433669

Clark, Ross A; Howells, Brooke; Pua, Yong-Hao; Feller, Julian; Whitehead, Tim; Webster, Kate E

2014-03-21

148

Difference of Diagnostic Rates and Analytical Methods in the Test Positions of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the differences of diagnostic rates, of the two widely used test positions, in measuring vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) and selecting the most appropriate analytical method for diagnostic criteria for the patients with vertigo. Methods Thirty-two patients with vertigo were tested in two comparative testing positions: turning the head to the opposite side of the evaluating side and bowing while in seated position, and bowing while in supine positions. Abnormalities were determined by prolonged latency of p13 or n23, shortening of the interpeak latency, and absence of VEMP formation. Results Using the three criteria above for determining abnormalities, both the seated and supine positions showed no significant differences in diagnostic rates, however, the concordance correlation of the two positions was low. When using only the prolonged latency of p13 or n23 in the two positions, diagnostic rates were not significantly different and their concordance correlation was high. On the other hand, using only the shortened interpeak latency in both positions showed no significant difference of diagnostic rates, and the degree of agreement between two positions was low. Conclusion Bowing while in seated position with the head turned in the opposite direction to the area being evaluated is found to be the best VEMP test position due to the consistent level of sternocleidomastoid muscle tension and the high level of compliance. Also, among other diagnostic analysis methods, using prolonged latency of p13 or n23 as the criterion is found to be the most appropriate method of analysis for the VEMP test.

Park, Jeong Mee; Yong, Sang Yeol; Kim, Jong Heon; Kim, Hee; Park, Sang-Yoo

2014-01-01

149

Diagnostic methods in revealing internal moisture in polymer housed metal oxide surge arresters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. Diagnostic measurements performed for surge arresters are normally studied by evaluating their suitability to detect ageing and degradation of metal oxide material. The suitability of different methods for revealing internal moisture in arresters has not been studied much. This aspect is considered in the paper based on measurement results obtained during a 1.5 year

K. Lahti; K. Kannus; K. Nousiainen

2002-01-01

150

Diagnostic Methods in Revealing Internal Moisture in Polymer Housed Metal Oxide Surge Arresters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostic measurements performed for surge arresters are normally studied by evaluating their suitability to detect ageing and degradation of metal oxide material. The suitability of different methods for revealing intemal moisture in arresters has not been studied much. This aspect is considered in the paper based on measurement results obtained during a 1.5 year laboratory test series conducted for six

K. Lahti; K. Kannus; K. Nousianen

2002-01-01

151

Diagnostic methods in revealing internal moisture in polymer housed metal oxide surge arresters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostic measurements performed for surge arresters are normally studied by evaluating their suitability to detect aging and degradation of metal oxide material. The suitability of different methods for revealing internal moisture in arresters has not been studied much. This aspect is considered in the paper based on measurement results obtained during a 1.5-yr laboratory test series conducted for six different

Kari Lahti; Kari Kannus; Kirsi Nousiainen

2002-01-01

152

Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same  

DOEpatents

A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand. 21 figs.

Katti, K.V.; Karra, S.R.; Berning, D.E.; Smith, C.J.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.

1999-01-05

153

Hydroxyalkyl phosphine gold complexes for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same  

DOEpatents

A complex and method for making a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical includes a ligand comprising at least one hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group bound to a gold atom to form a gold-ligand complex that is stable in aqueous solutions containing oxygen, serum and other body fluids. 20 figs.

Katti, K.V.; Berning, D.E.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.

1998-12-01

154

Hydroxyalkyl phosphine gold complexes for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same  

DOEpatents

A complex and method for making same for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical includes a ligand comprising at least one hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group bound to a gold atom to form a gold-ligand complex that is stable in aqueous solutions containing oxygen, serum and other body fluids.

Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Berning, Douglas E. (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)

1998-01-01

155

Study on Fault Diagnostics of a Turboprop Engine Using Inverse Performance Model and Artificial Intelligent Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the health monitoring system of major gas path components of gas turbine uses mostly the model based method like the Gas Path Analysis (GPA). This method is to find quantity changes of component performance characteristic parameters such as isentropic efficiency and mass flow parameter by comparing between measured engine performance parameters such as temperatures, pressures, rotational speeds, fuel consumption, etc. and clean engine performance parameters without any engine faults which are calculated by the base engine performance model. Currently, the expert engine diagnostic systems using the artificial intelligent methods such as Neural Networks (NNs), Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithms (GAs) have been studied to improve the model based method. Among them the NNs are mostly used to the engine fault diagnostic system due to its good learning performance, but it has a drawback due to low accuracy and long learning time to build learning data base if there are large amount of learning data. In addition, it has a very complex structure for finding effectively single type faults or multiple type faults of gas path components. This work builds inversely a base performance model of a turboprop engine to be used for a high altitude operation UAV using measured performance data, and proposes a fault diagnostic system using the base engine performance model and the artificial intelligent methods such as Fuzzy logic and Neural Network. The proposed diagnostic system isolates firstly the faulted components using Fuzzy Logic, then quantifies faults of the identified components using the NN leaned by fault learning data base, which are obtained from the developed base performance model. In leaning the NN, the Feed Forward Back Propagation (FFBP) method is used. Finally, it is verified through several test examples that the component faults implanted arbitrarily in the engine are well isolated and quantified by the proposed diagnostic system.

Kong, Changduk; Lim, Semyeong

2011-12-01

156

Muni Modernization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of modernization schemes will consist of five phases: (1) Inventory of MUNI Plant and equipment. (2) Evaluation of adequacy of existing plant and equipment. (3) Preparation of alternative modernization plans. (4) Testing and evaluation of ...

1967-01-01

157

A real-time PCR diagnostic method for detection of Naegleria fowleri.  

PubMed

Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba that can cause primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). While, traditional methods for diagnosing PAM still rely on culture, more current laboratory diagnoses exist based on conventional PCR methods; however, only a few real-time PCR processes have been described as yet. Here, we describe a real-time PCR-based diagnostic method using hybridization fluorescent labelled probes, with a LightCycler instrument and accompanying software (Roche), targeting the Naegleria fowleriMp2Cl5 gene sequence. Using this method, no cross reactivity with other tested epidemiologically relevant prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms was found. The reaction detection limit was 1 copy of the Mp2Cl5 DNA sequence. This assay could become useful in the rapid laboratory diagnostic assessment of the presence or absence of Naegleria fowleri. PMID:19919836

Madarová, Lucia; Trnková, Katarína; Feiková, Sona; Klement, Cyril; Obernauerová, Margita

2010-09-01

158

DISCUSSION: Diagnostics of active media of CO2 lasers by the laser spectrograph method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis is made of the results of diagnostics of the active medium of a waveguide CO2 laser by the laser spectrograph method. It is shown that a simplified approach to this method has led to errors in determination of the translational and vibrational temperatures of CO2 molecules and, consequently, to an incorrect understanding of the physical processes occurring in the active medium of the laser.

Nevdakh, Vladimir V.

1996-02-01

159

A New Method with General Diagnostic Utility for the Calculation of Immunoglobulin G Avidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reference method for immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity determination includes reagent-consuming serum titration. Aiming at better IgG avidity diagnostics, we applied a logistic model for the reproduction of antibody titration curves. This method was tested with well-characterized serum panels for cytomegalovirus, Epstein- Barr virus, rubella virus, parvovirus B19, and Toxoplasma gondii. This approach for IgG avidity calculation is generally applicable

MARIA H. KORHONEN; JOHN BRUNSTEIN; HEIKKI HAARIO; ALEXEI KATNIKOV; ROBERTO RESCALDANI; KLAUS HEDMAN

1999-01-01

160

Comparison of laser spectroscopic PNC method with laser integral fluorescence in optical caries diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research we represent the results of approbation of two methods of optical caries diagnostics: PNC-spectral diagnostics and caries detection by laser integral fluorescence. The research was conducted in a dental clinic. PNC-method analyzes parameters of probing laser radiation and PNC-spectrums of stimulated secondary radiations: backscattering and endogenous fluorescence of caries- involved bacteria. Ia-Ne laser ((lambda) equals632.8 nm, 1-2 mW) was used as a source of probing (stimulated) radiation. For registration of signals, received from intact and pathological teeth PDA-detector was applied. PNC-spectrums were processed by special algorithms, and were displayed on PC monitor. The method of laser integral fluorescence was used for comparison. In this case integral power of fluorescence of human teeth was measured. As a source of probing (stimulated) radiation diode lasers ((lambda) equals655 nm, 0.1 mW and 630 nm, 1 mW) and Ia-Na laser were applied. For registration of signals Si-photodetector was used. Integral power was shown in a digital indicator. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are described in this research. It is disclosed that the method of laser integral power of fluorescence has the following characteristics: simplicity of construction and schema-technical decisions. However the method of PNC-spectral diagnostics are characterized by considerably more sensitivity in diagnostics of initial caries and capability to differentiate pathologies of various stages (for example, calculus/initial caries). Estimation of spectral characteristics of PNC-signals allows eliminating a number of drawbacks, which are character for detection by method of laser integral fluorescence (for instance, detection of fluorescent fillings, plagues, calculus, discolorations generally, amalgam, gold fillings as if it were caries).

Masychev, Victor I.

2001-05-01

161

Instrumentation for noninvasive express-diagnostics bacteriophages and viruses by optical method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theoretical and the experimental researches of spectra of absent-minded radiation in medium containing viruses were carried out. The information on spectra luminescence 31 viruses was written down.The new method the express - analysis of viruses in organism of the man was developed. It shall be mentioned that the proposed method of express diagnostics allows detection of infection agent in the organism several hours after infection. It makes it suitable for high efficient testing in blood services for detection and rejection of potential donors infected with such viruses as hepatitis, herpes, Epstein-Barre, cytomegalovirus, and immunodeficiency. Methods of serum diagnostics used for that purpose can detect antibodies to virus only 1-3 months after the person has been infected. The device for the express analysis of 31 viruses of the man was created.

Moguilnaia, Tatiana A.; Andreev, Gleb I.; Agibalov, Andrey A.; Botikov, Andrey G.; Kosenkov, Evgeniy; Saguitova, Elena

2004-03-01

162

Using the Attribute Hierarchy Method to Make Diagnostic Inferences about Examinees' Knowledge and Skills in Mathematics: An Operational Implementation of Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to apply the attribute hierarchy method in an operational diagnostic mathematics program at Grades 3 and 6 to promote cognitive inferences about students' problem-solving skills. The attribute hierarchy method is a psychometric procedure for classifying examinees' test item responses into a set of structured attribute…

Gierl, Mark J.; Alves, Cecilia; Majeau, Renate Taylor

2010-01-01

163

Optimization by Direct Search: New Perspectives on Some Classical and Modern Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct search methods are best known as unconstrained optimization techniques that do not explicitly use derivatives. Direct search methods were formally proposed and widely applied in the 1960s but fell out of favor with the mathematical optimization community by the early 1970s because they lacked coherent mathematical analysis. Nonetheless, users remained loyal to these methods, most of which were easy

Tamara G. Kolda; Robert Michael Lewis

2003-01-01

164

THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN DESIGN AND REFERENCE CORE NEUTRONICS METHODS FOR THE PBMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) introduces several challenges for core neutronic methods. The particulate fuel is highly heterogeneous with a random distribution within the fuel pebbles and requires unique methods to calculate the effects of fuel resonance self shielding. In addition, the flow of fuel through the core is specific to the PBMR, again requiring specialised methods to model

T D NEWTON

165

Modern nature and climate changes in Siberia: new methods and results of analysis of instrumented observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peculiarity of nature and climate changes in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere and in Siberia is that the temporal variability of meteorological quantities here has a wide range and their spatial variability has a complicated zone structure. Therefore, regional monitoring of modern nature and climate changes in Siberia is of scientific interest from the viewpoint of the global changes observed. Another Siberian peculiarity is associated with the fact that there are many unique objects that have global importance both as natural complexes (boreal forests, water- bog systems, Baikal lake, etc.) And as technogenic objects (oil and gas production, coal mining, metallurgy, transport, etc.). Therefore monitoring and modeling of regional nature and climate changes in Siberia have great practical importance, which is underestimated now, for industrial development of Siberia. Taking into account the above peculiarities and tendencies on investigation of global and regional environmental and climate changes, the multidisciplinary project on Climate and Ecological Monitoring of Siberia (CEMS) was accepted to the research and development program Sibir' since 1993. To realize this project, the Climate and Ecological Observatory was established in Tomsk at the Institute for Optical Monitoring (IOM) SB RAS. At the present time the stations (the basic and background ones) of this observatory are in a progress and theory and instruments for monitoring are being developed as well. In this paper we discuss some results obtained in the framework of CEMS project that were partially published in the monographs, in scientific journals, and will be published in the Proceedings of the 8th Joint International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics and Atmosphere Physics. This review has a purpose not only to discuss the obtained regularities but also to formulate scientific and technical tasks for further investigations into the regional changes of technogenic, natural, and climate systems.

Kabanov, Mikhail V.

2002-03-01

166

Adaptation of LASCA method for diagnostics of malignant tumours in laboratory animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LASCA method is adapted for diagnostics of malignant neoplasms in laboratory animals. Tumours are studied in mice of Balb/c inbred line after inoculation of cells of syngeneic myeloma cell line Sp.2/0 — Ag.8. The appropriateness of using the tLASCA method in tumour investigations is substantiated; its advantages in comparison with the sLASCA method are demonstrated. It is found that the most informative characteristic, indicating the presence of a tumour, is the fractal dimension of LASCA images.

Ul'yanov, S. S.; Laskavyi, V. N.; Glova, Alina B.; Polyanina, T. I.; Ul'yanova, O. V.; Fedorova, V. A.; Ul'yanov, A. S.

2012-05-01

167

Adaptation of LASCA method for diagnostics of malignant tumours in laboratory animals  

SciTech Connect

The LASCA method is adapted for diagnostics of malignant neoplasms in laboratory animals. Tumours are studied in mice of Balb/c inbred line after inoculation of cells of syngeneic myeloma cell line Sp.2/0 Ag.8. The appropriateness of using the tLASCA method in tumour investigations is substantiated; its advantages in comparison with the sLASCA method are demonstrated. It is found that the most informative characteristic, indicating the presence of a tumour, is the fractal dimension of LASCA images.

Ul'yanov, S S; Laskavyi, V N; Glova, Alina B; Polyanina, T I; Ul'yanova, O V; Fedorova, V A; Ul'yanov, A S

2012-05-31

168

Current potential and limitations of molecular diagnostic methods in head and neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional diagnostic methods such as clinical assessment, histopathological examination and imaging techniques are limited\\u000a in their capacity to provide information on prognosis and treatment choice of head and neck cancer. In recent years, molecular\\u000a techniques have been developed that enabled us to get more insight into the molecular biological cellular pathways underlying\\u000a tumor progression and metastasis. Correlation of these molecular

Magdy E. Mahfouz; Juan P. Rodrigo; Robert P. Takes; Mohamed N. Elsheikh; Alessandra Rinaldo; Ruud H. Brakenhoff; Alfio Ferlito

2010-01-01

169

Current and future research in diagnostic criteria and evaluation of caries detection methods.  

PubMed

The biochemical definition of dental caries is reasonably understood and generally agreed upon, but there is no consensus on a clinical definition among dentists. There are many proposed diagnostic criteria of dental caries in the dental literature. The recently developed International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II) has been constructed to allow data comparison between studies. It can be used in epidemiological studies, public health research, clinical research, clinical practice and dental education. A good study evaluating a caries detection method should contain information on caries prevalence of the study sample and other measures, including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). It is noteworthy that measuring sensitivity and specificity provides no quantitative information on how likely a tested tooth is to be carious because the true caries status of the tooth is not known in a clinical situation. Moreover, the study design for caries detection should address the interpretation of predictive values because PPV and NPV are affected by the caries prevalence. The study design should also measure patient-oriented outcomes, address allocation concealment and avoid lead-time bias to generate valid and clinically relevant studies. Prudent evaluation of caries detection methods is the standard of care. This paper reviews current diagnostic criteria for caries detection and discusses proper ways to evaluate new diagnostic methods. PMID:23534041

Chu, Chun Hung; Chau, Alex M; Lo, Edward C

2013-01-01

170

[The value of self-report methods in neuropsychological diagnostics of patients after brain injury].  

PubMed

Self-report methods are commonly applied in medicine and psychology. However, their diagnostic value in assessment of patients with acquired brain damage can be limited due to a number of various difficulties encountered by these patients, including cognitive disorders, fatigue, similarity of psychopathological and somatic symptoms, psychological reaction to the disease and limited or lack of insight (anosognosia). In our article we highlight the most important limitations of application of popular frequently used questionnaires in evaluation of brain-injured patients. We also discuss the possible ways of adjusting self-report techniques to requirements of diagnostic process in this clinical population. Proposed modifications refer to, among others, specific construction of diagnostic tools (appropriate content and number of questions, methods of measuring responses), collecting information from relatives, using questionnaires along with more objective measures, and controlling conditions in which the assessment is carried out. Although relying only on self-report methods can be misleading, for an aware clinician it is still an important source of data on patient's subjective opinion and on the way they experience their symptoms. PMID:23885540

Roessler-Górecka, Magdalena; Iwa?ski, Szczepan; Seniów, Joanna

2013-01-01

171

Triple-Frequency Method for High-Order Ionospheric Refractive Error Modelling in GPS Modernization  

Microsoft Academic Search

New opportunities for the refinement of ionospheric modelling and reduction of the ionospheric error in GPS measurements arise since a third-frequency will be introduced for the modernised GPS system. This paper investigates theoretical models of the ionospheric refractive error. A triple-frequency method of correcting the 1st and 2nd order ionospheric refraction is presented and a triple-frequency ionosphere-free combination method is

Zemin Wang; Yue Wu; Kefei Zhang; Yang Meng

2005-01-01

172

Application possibilities of several modern methods of microscopy and microanalysis in forensic science field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methods of optical and electron microscopy and microanalysis are the linchpin of forensic inorganic analysis. However, their capacity is limited as for the exact identification of pigments and colour layers, and therefore it is essential that they be complemented by other methods of phase microanalysis - powder X-ray microdiffraction (micro pXRD) and FTIR in transmission mode. The classic way of sample division for different methods is not suitable with regard to the inhomogeneity of the sequence of strata. That is why a method was tested that would allow performance of optical microscopy, SEM/EDS(WDS), micro pXRD and FTIR in a nondestructive manner, from an identical spot of a single fragment. The solution can be polished sections - embedded samples and microtome sections. Conductive zerobackground single-crystal silicon plates were developed and tested for sample fixation in SEM, micro pXRD and transmission FTIR. Methods using a focused ion beam - FIB have recently gained importance in the field of electron microscopy. In the forensic sphere they can be employed in examinations of metal materials, technical analyses of documents, post-blast and gunshot residues.

Kotrly, Marek; Turkova, Ivana

2011-05-01

173

Diagnostic validity of the chemiluminescent method compared to polymerase chain reaction for hepatitis B virus detection in the routine clinical diagnostic laboratory  

PubMed Central

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common significant chronic viral infection world-wide. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) has been the principal target for laboratory testing to identify active infection by HBV. We aimed to find out diagnostic validity of the Liaison chemiluminescent method compared to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for HBV detection in the routine clinical diagnostic laboratory. Materials and Methods: From 350 patients suspicious of having infection with HBV, serum samples were separated and used for testing HBsAg by two methods of Liaison chemiluminescent immunoassay, with HBsAg confirmatory test and PCR method. Results: According to the PCR results as assumed as gold standard method with 100% sensitivity and specificity, detection rate sensitivity of chemiluminescent with confirmatory test was 96% and its specificity was 100%, and for chemiluminescent without confirmatory test sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 70%, respectively. Also for chemiluminescent with confirmatory test, positive predictive value (PPV) was 100% and its negative predictive value (NPV) was 97%, compared to chemiluminescent without confirmatory test with PPV and NPV equal to 71% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: It is possible to conclude that in the majority of the HBV cases, the diagnostic value of chemiluminescent method compared to the PCR method is acceptable, except in low indexes positive cases that need further investigation with the PCR method.

Khadem-Ansari, Mohammad-Hassan; Omrani, Mir-Davood; Rasmi, Yousef; Ghavam, Arsalan

2014-01-01

174

Integration of PET/CT in Current Diagnostic and Response Evaluation Methods in Patients with Tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is a systemic disease that still affects many people. While pleural involvement is frequently observed in extrapulmonary tuberculosis, multiple skeletal system and articular involvements are quite rare. FDG PET imaging could be a promising diagnostic and treatment monitoring method, especially in complicated cases and if the other methods are inadequate. In this case study, we report a patient who was admitted with suspected malignancy and then diagnosed with tuberculosis pleuritis, lymphadenitis, spondylodiscitis, and sacroiliitis with specific symptoms; the response to anti-tuberculosis therapy was shown using FDG PET/CT. PMID:24900142

Ozmen, Ozlem; Gökçek, Atila; Tatc?, Ebru; Biner, Inci; Akkalyoncu, Behiye

2014-03-01

175

Reactive flow model development for PBXW-126 using modern nonlinear optimization methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initiation and detonation behavior of PBXW-126 has been characterized and is described. PBXW-126 is a composite explosive consisting of approximately equal amounts of RDX, AP, AL, and NTO with a polyurethane binder. The three term ignition and growth of reaction model parameters (ignition+two growth terms) have been found using nonlinear optimization methods to determine the ``best'' set of model

M. J. Murphy; R. L. Simpson; P. A. Urtiew; P. C. Souers; F. Garcia; R. G. Garza

1996-01-01

176

Reactive flow model development for PBXW-126 using modern nonlinear optimization methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initiation and detonation behavior of PBXW-126 has been characterized and is described. PBXW-126 is a composite explosive consisting of approximately equal amounts of RDX, AP, AL, and NTO with a polyurethane binder. The three term ignition and growth of reaction model parameters (ignition+two growth terms) have been found using nonlinear optimization methods to determine the “best” set of model

M. J. Murphy; R. L. Simpson; P. A. Urtiew; P. C. Souers; F. Garcia; R. G. Garza

1996-01-01

177

Reactive flow model development for PBXW-126 using modern nonlinear optimization methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initiation and detonation behavior of PBXW-126 has been characterized and is described. PBXW-126 is a composite explosive consisting of approximately equal amounts of RDX, AP, AL, and NTO with a polyurethane binder. The three term ignition and growth of reaction model parameters (ignition + two growth terms) have been found using nonlinear optimization methods to determine the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} set

M. J. Murphy; R. L. Simpson; P. A. Urtiew

1995-01-01

178

Modern Miracle Medical Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site contains resources involving the physics of contemporary medical procedures. This collection is intended mainly to help students gain insight into the physics behind modern medical diagnostics and treatments, which are scarcely mentioned in most pre-med physics courses. The site contains student tutorials and activities, instructor materials, software, and various related links. Topics covered include vision and optics, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography (PET).

Zollman, Dean A.; Murphy, Sytil K.; Mcbride, Dyan L.

2009-07-27

179

The challenges of validating diagnostic methods and selecting appropriate gold standards.  

PubMed

Caries diagnostic methods are usually methods for caries lesion detection and measurement. Caries lesions occur on a continuous scale of tissue damage, from subclinical surface changes to macroscopic cavities reaching the pulp. Any change of a lesion on this continuous scale offers the opportunity for the diagnosis of disease activity or remission. Research aimed at remineralizing agents may focus on lesions that are amenable to remineralization, and select a method that will measure small changes in early lesions. General caries management strategies depend on detecting all stages of lesion development, and methods covering early to late stages are preferred. This paper addresses some methodological issues in validating caries diagnostic methods. The available gold standards for caries lesions are discussed, with their suitability in different applications, and their "validity" as far as it is known or can be inferred. The gold standards are compared as far as their measurement of lesion parameters and reproducibility is concerned. Tentative conclusions are formulated, and recommendations for future research are given. PMID:15286122

Huysmans, M-C D N J M; Longbottom, C

2004-01-01

180

Advanced Optical Diagnostic Methods for Describing Fuel Injection and Combustion Flowfield Phenomena  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past decade advanced optical diagnostic techniques have evolved and matured to a point where they are now widely applied in the interrogation of high pressure combusting flows. At NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), imaging techniques have been used successfully in on-going work to develop the next generation of commercial aircraft gas turbine combustors. This work has centered on providing a means by which researchers and designers can obtain direct visual observation and measurements of the fuel injection/mixing/combustion processes and combustor flowfield in two- and three-dimensional views at actual operational conditions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the chemical and physical processes at the extreme operating conditions of the next generation of combustors is critical to reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency. To accomplish this and other tasks, the diagnostic team at GRC has designed and constructed optically accessible, high pressurer high temperature flame tubes and sectar rigs capable of optically probing the 20-60 atm flowfields of these aero-combustors. Among the techniques employed at GRC are planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) for imaging molecular species as well as liquid and gaseous fuel; planar light scattering (PLS) for imaging fuel sprays and droplets; and spontaneous Raman scattering for species and temperature measurement. Using these techniques, optical measurements never before possible have been made in the actual environments of liquid fueled gas turbines. 2-D mapping of such parameters as species (e.g. OH-, NO and kerosene-based jet fuel) distribution, injector spray angle, and fuel/air distribution are just some of the measurements that are now routinely made. Optical imaging has also provided prompt feedback to researchers regarding the effects of changes in the fuel injector configuration on both combustor performance and flowfield character. Several injector design modifications and improvements have resulted from this feedback. Alternate diagnostic methods are constantly being evaluated as to their suitability as a diagnostic tool in these environments. A new method currently under examination is background oriented Schlieren (BOS) for examining the fuel/air mixing processes. While ratioing the Stokes and anti-Stokes nitrogen lines obtained from spontaneous Raman is being refined for temperature measurement. While the primary focus of the GRC diagnostic work remains optical species measurement and flow stream characterization, an increased emphasis has been placed on our involvement in flame code validation efforts. A functional combustor code should shorten and streamline future combustor design. Quantitative measurements of flow parameters such as temperature, species concentration, drop size and velocity using such methods as Raman and phase Doppler anemometry will provide data necessary in this effort.

Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.

2004-01-01

181

Evaluation of some diagnostic methods for the brucellosis in humans - a five year study.  

PubMed

(Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis with a high degree of morbidity in humans. In Bosnia and Herzegovina a progressive increase of brucellosis among humans is evident. As the clinical picture of human brucellosis is fairly non-specific, a definitive diagnosis requires isolation of the causative organism, or the demonstration of the high levels of specific antibodies, or seroconversion. Aim: To analyse the diagnostic value of the Rose Bengal test, blood culture and immunoenzymatic test (ELISA IgM and IgG) in patients with brucellosis and to examine the relationship between these diagnostic methods. Methods: We analysed the diagnostic methods in 525 brucellosis patients from 2004 to 2008. All patients were treated at the Infectious Diseases Clinic, University of Sarajevo Clinics Centre. The disease was diagnosed by positive blood culture results and/or by positive relevant serologic test results (ELISA, Rose-Bengal plate-agglutination test). Results: In total 162/525 (30.8%) patients had positive blood cultures. The Rose Bengal test was positive in all patients - 525/525 (100.0%). Brucella IgM antibodies with ELISA were positive in 341/525 (64.8%). Early in infection, antibodies of the IgM class predominate. Brucella IgG antibodies with ELISA were positive in 236/525 (56%). Conclusion: This study clearly showed that only a combination of blood culture, Rose Bengal test and ELISA ensured early and precise diagnosis of human brucellosis. The Rose Bengal test is excellent for screening. Blood culture gave excellent results in patients with primary infections. ELISA(IgM, IgG) is the method of choice for the diagnosis of chronic disease and relapse. Key words: brucellosis, infection, laboratory diagnosis, serology, blood culture. PMID:20703185

Sisirak, M; Huki?, M; Knezevi?, Z

2010-07-01

182

Pure-rotational spectrometry: a vintage analytical method applied to modern breath analysis.  

PubMed

Pure-rotational spectrometry (PRS) is an established method, typically used to study structures and properties of polar gas-phase molecules, including isotopic and isomeric varieties. PRS has also been used as an analytical tool where it is particularly well suited for detecting or monitoring low-molecular-weight species that are found in exhaled breath. PRS is principally notable for its ultra-high spectral resolution which leads to exceptional specificity to identify molecular compounds in complex mixtures. Recent developments using carbon aerogel for pre-concentrating polar molecules from air samples have extended the sensitivity of PRS into the part-per-billion range. In this paper we describe the principles of PRS and show how it may be configured in several different modes for breath analysis. We discuss the pre-concentration concept and demonstrate its use with the PRS analyzer for alcohols and ammonia sampled directly from the breath. PMID:23774191

Hrubesh, Lawrence W; Droege, Michael W

2013-09-01

183

Accelerating mesh-based Monte Carlo method on modern CPU architectures  

PubMed Central

In this report, we discuss the use of contemporary ray-tracing techniques to accelerate 3D mesh-based Monte Carlo photon transport simulations. Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) based computation and branch-less design are exploited to accelerate ray-tetrahedron intersection tests and yield a 2-fold speed-up for ray-tracing calculations on a multi-core CPU. As part of this work, we have also studied SIMD-accelerated random number generators and math functions. The combination of these techniques achieved an overall improvement of 22% in simulation speed as compared to using a non-SIMD implementation. We applied this new method to analyze a complex numerical phantom and both the phantom data and the improved code are available as open-source software at http://mcx.sourceforge.net/mmc/.

Fang, Qianqian; Kaeli, David R.

2012-01-01

184

A study of radioactivity in modern stream gravels and its possible application as a prospecting method  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Traverses along some streams of the Colorado Plateau in areas known to contain minable uranium deposits show that anomalous radiation in the stream gravels can be detected with a suitable counter downstream from the deposits. The amount of radiation is influenced by the size of the uranium deposit, the size of the drainage area of the stream, the grain size of the sediments, and the lithology of the rocks over which the stream flows. The spacing of the stations where readings are taken is controlled by the size of the stream, and special readings are also taken directly downstream from important tributaries. An anomaly is empirically defined as a 10 percent rise over background. Radioactive material from large uranium deposits has been detected as much as 1 mile downstream. Radioactive material from smaller deposits is detachable over shorter distances. The method is slow but appears to be a useful prospecting tool under restricted conditions.

Chew, Randall T., III

1955-01-01

185

Quantitative Diagnostic Method for Biceps Long Head Tendinitis by Using Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Objective. To investigate the feasibility of grayscale quantitative diagnostic method for biceps tendinitis and determine the cut-off points of a quantitative biceps ultrasound (US) method to diagnose biceps tendinitis. Design. Prospective cross-sectional case controlled study. Setting. Outpatient rehabilitation service. Methods. A total of 336 shoulder pain patients with suspected biceps tendinitis were recruited in this prospective observational study. The grayscale pixel data of the range of interest (ROI) were obtained for both the transverse and longitudinal views of the biceps US. Results. A total of 136 patients were classified with biceps tendinitis, and 200 patients were classified as not having biceps tendinitis based on the diagnostic criteria. Based on the Youden index, the cut-off points were determined as 26.85 for the transverse view and 21.25 for the longitudinal view of the standard deviation (StdDev) of the ROI values, respectively. When the ROI evaluation of the US surpassed the cut-off point, the sensitivity was 68% and the specificity was 90% in the StdDev of the transverse view, and the sensitivity was 81% and the specificity was 73% in the StdDev of the longitudinal view to diagnose biceps tendinitis. Conclusion. For equivocal cases or inexperienced sonographers, our study provides a more objective method for diagnosing biceps tendinitis in shoulder pain patients.

Huang, Shih-Wei; Wang, Wei-Te

2013-01-01

186

Evaluation of avian influenza serologic and virologic diagnostic methods in wild Anseriformes and Charadriiformes.  

PubMed

Evaluation of avian influenza virus (AIV) diagnostic methods, including a nucleoprotein (NP) competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA), hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, type A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR), and embryonating chicken egg (ECE) virus isolation (VI), suggested validity of these tests in wild birds comparable to that reported in poultry. This was determined by analyzing the results from experimental inoculation of three species of wild birds with a low-pathogenicity AIV and from field surveillance data. The NP c-ELISA in a high-AIV prevalence setting had 100% diagnostic sensitivity (Se; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 81.5%-100%) and 91% diagnostic specificity (Sp; 95% CI: 70.8%-98.9%) in negative controls compared with the RRT-PCR. In low-AIV prevalence flocks using a > 60% inhibition positivity threshold, relative to the HI test, c-ELISA performed with 90.5% Se (95% CI: 86.2%-93.8%) and 41.2% Sp (95% CI: 38.1%-44.5%). Assessment of HI suggests a titer > or = 8 is a positive test result in wild-bird sera, and using this titer had 83.3% Se (95% CI: 58.6%-96.4%) in experimentally infected birds. The RRT-PCR diagnostic performance compared with VI in cloacal swabs varied over 2-6 days postinoculation, having high Se (83.3%-100%) and Sp (94.1%-100%) with substantial agreement (kappa = 0.8). The cycle thresholds (C(t)) for the RRT-PCR of C(t) < 37 for positivity and C(t) = 37-40 as indeterminate were found to be valid for the species included in this study. In view of the interpretative diagnostic difficulties in heterogeneous populations of wild birds, this evaluation in three species of wild birds and in surveillance data should provide greater confidence in the application of these methods routinely used in poultry. PMID:24758113

Curran, John M; Robertson, Ian D; Ellis, Trevor M; Selleck, Paul W

2014-03-01

187

Express diagnostics of intact and pathological dental hard tissues by optical PNC method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of hard tooth tissues research by the optical PNC- method in experimental and clinical conditions are presented. In the experiment under 90 test-sample of tooth slices with thickness about 1 mm (enamel, dentine and cement) were researched. The results of the experiment were processed by the method of correlation analyze. Clinical researches were executed on teeth of 210 patients. The regions of tooth tissue diseases with initial, moderate and deep caries were investigated. Spectral characteristics of intact and pathologically changed tooth tissues are presented and their peculiar features are discussed. The results the optical PNC- method application while processing tooth carious cavities are presented in order to estimate efficiency of the mechanical and antiseptic processing of teeth. It is revealed that the PNC-method can be used as for differential diagnostics of a degree dental carious stage, as for estimating of carefulness of tooth cavity processing before filling.

Masychev, Victor I.; Alexandrov, Michail T.

2000-03-01

188

An In Vivo Comparison of Two Diagnostic Methods in Secondary Caries Detection  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the level of agreement between four operators with different levels of experience for two methods of detecting secondary enamel and dentin carious lesions in composite restored teeth. Materials and Methods: Sixty teeth of 40 patients with with secondary carious lesions in the composite resin were selected. The teeth were examined by two methods; visual inspection and a laser fluorescence device (DIAGNO dent pen 2190) by four operators including an undergraduate student, a dentist with 5 years of clinical experience, a general dentist with 12 years of clinical experience and an oral and maxillofacial radiologist. Cohen's kappa statistic was applied in order to assess the agreement between the diagnoses performed by the four operators with each diagnostic method. Results: The diagnosis performed by different operators achieved an excellent agreement with high ICC. Conclusion: DIAGNOdent can be a useful device for secondary caries detection in posterior teeth as an adjunct to visual examination.

Hamishaki, Kazem Saber; Chiniforush, Nasim; Monzavi, Abbas; Khazarazifard, Mohammad Javad

2014-01-01

189

Reactive flow model development for PBXW-126 using modern nonlinear optimization methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initiation and detonation behavior of PBXW-126 has been characterized and is described. PBXW-126 is a composite explosive consisting of approximately equal amounts of RDX, AP, AL, and NTO with a polyurethane binder. The three term ignition and growth of reaction model parameters (ignition+two growth terms) have been found using nonlinear optimization methods to determine the ``best'' set of model parameters. The ignition term treats the initiation of up to 0.5% of the RDX. The first growth term in the model treats the RDX growth of reaction up to 20% reacted. The second growth term treats the subsequent growth of reaction of the remaining AP/AL/NTO. The unreacted equation of state (EOS) was determined from the wave profiles of embedded gauge tests while the JWL product EOS was determined from cylinder expansion test results. The nonlinear optimization code, NLQPEB/GLO, was used to determine the ``best'' set of coefficients for the three term Lee-Tarver ignition and growth of reaction model.

Murphy, M. J.; Simpson, R. L.; Urtiew, P. A.; Souers, P. C.; Garcia, F.; Garza, R. G.

1996-05-01

190

Modern Methods for Analysis of Antiepileptic Drugs in the Biological Fluids for Pharmacokinetics, Bioequivalence and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is a chronic disease occurring in approximately 1.0% of the world's population. About 30% of the epileptic patients treated with availably antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) continue to have seizures and are considered therapy-resistant or refractory patients. The ultimate goal for the use of AEDs is complete cessation of seizures without side effects. Because of a narrow therapeutic index of AEDs, a complete understanding of its clinical pharmacokinetics is essential for understanding of the pharmacodynamics of these drugs. These drug concentrations in biological fluids serve as surrogate markers and can be used to guide or target drug dosing. Because early studies demonstrated clinical and/or electroencephalographic correlations with serum concentrations of several AEDs, It has been almost 50 years since clinicians started using plasma concentrations of AEDs to optimize pharmacotherapy in patients with epilepsy. Therefore, validated analytical method for concentrations of AEDs in biological fluids is a necessity in order to explore pharmacokinetics, bioequivalence and TDM in various clinical situations. There are hundreds of published articles on the analysis of specific AEDs by a wide variety of analytical methods in biological samples have appears over the past decade. This review intends to provide an updated, concise overview on the modern method development for monitoring AEDs for pharmacokinetic studies, bioequivalence and therapeutic drug monitoring.

Park, Yoo-Sin; Kim, Shin-Hee; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Jun, Min-Young

2011-01-01

191

Diagnostic technology in cardiovascular disease: review of noninvasive methods for population studies  

PubMed Central

To aid the selection of appropriate diagnostic technologies, the literature on noninvasive methods for population studies of cardiovascular diseases was reviewed. Indications, limitations and cost-effectiveness are discussed. Most widely applicable are the standardized medical history, blood pressure and other measurements, resting electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, and selected tests of blood and urine. Useful in specialized studies are exercise testing, ambulatory monitoring, and peripheral arterial flow measurements. Ultrasound is valuable in the study of hypertensive and other myocardial diseases. Further methodological research is needed.

Gillum, R. F.

1988-01-01

192

Methods for and results from estimating the effectiveness of accelerated modernization of the Russian electric power industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methodology for and results from evaluating the social effectiveness of the Program for Modernizing the Electric Power Industry of Russia for the Period Up to 2020 (which constitute one of its key components) are considered. The lines of technological modernization and ways of improving economic relations in the industry, which are two other components of the Program, will be addressed in separate publications.

Veselov, F. V.; Makarov, A. A.; Makarova, A. S.

2013-01-01

193

Modernization (Selected Articles).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

TABLE OF CONTENTS: Modernization of Educational Training Methods; Tactical Combat Exercise Conducted Using Laser and Electronic Simulation Equipment; General Description of the Development of Our Military Training Simulation Equipment; An Interview With D...

Q. Xiaohao Z. Zhongfan L. Shuanqin L. Sehua

1986-01-01

194

Development of a novel LAMP diagnostic method for visible detection of swine Pasteurella multocida.  

PubMed

A set of four specific primers for six regions of kmt1 gene from a species specific region was designed for developing the loop-mediated isothermal amplification diagnostic method of swine Pasteurella multocida (Pm-LAMP). After the Pm-LAMP was carried out at 63°C for 1 h, the LAMP products could be visually confirmed using fluorescent dyes as detection reagent under UV-illumination. In sensitivity, the detection limit of the Pm-LAMP was 10 cfu/mL, and was 1 log less than that of the PCR method. In specificity, the Pm-LAMP did not amplify genomic DNA of swine common respiratory pathogens. Furthermore, based on results for clinical swab samples (n?=?31) using PCR detection as golden standard, relative sensitivity of the Pm-LAMP was 100%, relative specificity of the Pm-LAMP was 90.9%, and percentage of observation agreement was 93.5% (Kappa = 0.85). The Pm-LAMP method should be a useful diagnostic tool for rapid and visible detection of swine Pasteurella multocida. PMID:20717843

Sun, Dongbo; Wang, Jianfa; Wu, Rui; Wang, Chunren; He, Xianjing; Zheng, Jiasan; Yang, Huanmin

2010-12-01

195

Confusion assessment method: a systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy  

PubMed Central

Background Delirium is common in the early stages of hospitalization for a variety of acute and chronic diseases. Objectives To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of two delirium screening tools, the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU). Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo for relevant articles published in English up to March 2013. We compared two screening tools to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria. Two reviewers independently assessed studies to determine their eligibility, validity, and quality. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using a bivariate model. Results Twenty-two studies (n = 2,442 patients) met the inclusion criteria. All studies demonstrated that these two scales can be administered within ten minutes, by trained clinical or research staff. The pooled sensitivities and specificity for CAM were 82% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 69%–91%) and 99% (95% CI: 87%–100%), and 81% (95% CI: 57%–93%) and 98% (95% CI: 86%–100%) for CAM-ICU, respectively. Conclusion Both CAM and CAM-ICU are validated instruments for the diagnosis of delirium in a variety of medical settings. However, CAM and CAM-ICU both present higher specificity than sensitivity. Therefore, the use of these tools should not replace clinical judgment.

Shi, Qiyun; Warren, Laura; Saposnik, Gustavo; MacDermid, Joy C

2013-01-01

196

Dusty plasma diagnostics methods for charge, electron temperature, and ion density  

SciTech Connect

Diagnostic methods are developed to measure the microparticle charge Q and two plasma parameters, electron temperature T{sub e}, and ion density n{sub i}, in the main plasma region of a dusty plasma. Using video microscopy to track microparticles yields a resonance frequency, which along with a charging model allows an estimation of Q and T{sub e}. Only measurements of microparticle position and velocity are required, unlike other methods that use measurements of T{sub e} and plasma parameters as inputs. The resonance frequency measurement can also be used with an ion drag model to estimate n{sub i}. These methods are demonstrated using a single-layer dusty plasma suspension under microgravity conditions.

Liu Bin; Goree, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Fortov, V. E.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 127412 (Russian Federation); Morfill, G. E.; Thomas, H. M.; Ivlev, A. V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, 85748 Garching (Germany)

2010-05-15

197

Method development for forensic identification of biodiesel based on chemical fingerprints and corresponding diagnostic ratios.  

PubMed

A forensic identification method based on the chemical fingerprinting of the first generation of biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters as effective components), and several corresponding diagnostic ratios was developed and validated. The distribution of major fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and polar compounds (free fatty acids, glycerol, monoacylglycerides, and free sterols) in several representative above biodiesel products commercially available in Canada were positively quantified and compared, a number of cross-plots of diagnostic ratios of target FAMEs and sterols were developed for biofuel correlation and differentiation. It was found that the cross-plots of FAME ratios, for example, the sum of the di-unsaturated relative to saturated homologues of FAMEs (D/S) versus the sum of the mono-saturated to saturated FAMEs (M/S), and the sum of di-unsaturated to mono-saturated FAMEs (D/M) versus the sum of the mono-saturated to saturated FAMEs (M/S), could cluster samples clearly into their individual feedstock. The cross-plots of diagnostic ratios of individual major sterols (cholesterol, brassicasterol, campesterol, ?-stiosterol and stigmasterol) to the total sterols were also developed and proved to be effective in identifying biodiesel sources due to their self-normalizing effect on sterol data. The case study of a mystery biodiesel spill using this method showed that the two real samples can be tightly clustered into biodiesel from animal fat (Ban) group. However, the significant discrepancy of free fatty acids, glycerol, monoacylglycerides and sterol concentrations between the two real samples indicated their different producing batches. PMID:24378307

Yang, Zeyu; Hollebone, Bruce P; Wang, Zhendi; Yang, Chun; Brown, Carl; Landriault, Mike

2014-01-01

198

Diagnostic procedures in dermatology.  

PubMed

Although most skin diseases can be diagnosed with simple visual inspection, laboratory investigations are necessary in several clinical circumstances. This contribution highlights the usefulness of routine diagnostic procedures that are often overlooked and the innovative methods of molecular biology, which are expensive and require an experienced staff. Among the classic diagnostic investigations are (1) the use of Wood's light in many dermatologic disorders (eg, vitiligo, pityriasis versicolor, erythrasma, porphyrias), (2) cytodiagnosis of Tzanck in dermatologic practice (eg, herpetic infections, molluscum contagiosum, leishmaniasis, pemphigus vulgaris, basal cell carcinoma, erythroplasia of Queyrat, Hailey-Hailey disease), and (3) microscopic examination for fungal and bacterial skin infections as well as for mite infestation using potassium hydroxide, simple saline, and Gram stain. Modern molecular biotechnologies encompassing gene-specific polymerase chain reaction and its variants have a substantial affect in selected cases of viral (especially herpes simplex virus), bacterial, fungal, and protozoan (Leishmania) skin infections. PMID:21855731

Ruocco, Eleonora; Baroni, Adone; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Ruocco, Vincenzo

2011-01-01

199

[Clinical usefulness of diagnostic methods for human papilloma virus dependent lesions].  

PubMed

Persistent infection of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is confirmed necessary factor for development of cervical cancer and anogenital neoplasia. DNA HPV is detected in 96% of cervical cancer, 40% of vulvar and vaginal cancer, 90% of anal cancer and 26% of oral cavity cancer cases in general population. The most common high-risk HPV types observed in anogenital intraepithelial neoplasia or anogenital cancer are HPV 16, 18 and 45. Numerous diagnostic methods of detection of HPV infection and lesions causes by persistent HPV infection are widely used. Epidemiological data reveals correlation of incidence and mortality reduction due to cervical cancer and consequent prosecution and improvement of screening programmes based on morphological assessment of exfoliative smears. In last decade some limitations of conventional smear method were pointed out and a new diagnostic techniques were introduced: liquid-based cytology and HPV DNA testing. Combination of cytological examination and HPV DNA testing seems to be optimal solution to be introduced in large population because of combining high sensitivity of molecular test with high specificity of cytological smear. PMID:24720112

Suwalska, Anna; Owczarek, Witold; Fiedor, Piotr

2014-02-01

200

A method for fine positioning of diagnostic packages in inertial confinement fusion experiments.  

PubMed

A method based on binocular vision servoing for positioning of a diagnostic package in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments is presented. The general diagnostic instrument manipulator will provide precision three dimension positioning and alignment-to-target capability in ICF experiments. In this work, we focus on the final precise automatic positioning with a binocular vision system. A three dimension image projection vector (IPV), which has an almost linear relationship with the target position in 3D space under the condition of weak perspective, is introduced to extract target position information from binocular image. The difference of the IPV between the current image and the desired image will be used as the input of servo controller. A differential motion model was found for the hybrid manipulator with three degrees of freedom. With this model and the said IPV, the servo strategy will be dramatically simplified compare with general image based visual servo in which the image Jacobian matrix needs estimated online. The experiment result implies that the locating accuracy of the manipulator is less than two pixels. This method can also be used in micromanipulation visual servo field. PMID:22225255

Wang, Wei; Shi, Tielin; Lee, Kok-Meng

2011-12-01

201

A method for fine positioning of diagnostic packages in inertial confinement fusion experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method based on binocular vision servoing for positioning of a diagnostic package in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments is presented. The general diagnostic instrument manipulator will provide precision three dimension positioning and alignment-to-target capability in ICF experiments. In this work, we focus on the final precise automatic positioning with a binocular vision system. A three dimension image projection vector (IPV), which has an almost linear relationship with the target position in 3D space under the condition of weak perspective, is introduced to extract target position information from binocular image. The difference of the IPV between the current image and the desired image will be used as the input of servo controller. A differential motion model was found for the hybrid manipulator with three degrees of freedom. With this model and the said IPV, the servo strategy will be dramatically simplified compare with general image based visual servo in which the image Jacobian matrix needs estimated online. The experiment result implies that the locating accuracy of the manipulator is less than two pixels. This method can also be used in micromanipulation visual servo field.

Wang, Wei; Shi, Tielin; Lee, Kok-Meng

2011-12-01

202

Rapid diagnostic tests for molecular surveillance of Plasmodium falciparum malaria -assessment of DNA extraction methods and field applicability  

PubMed Central

Background The need for new malaria surveillance tools and strategies is critical, given improved global malaria control and regional elimination efforts. High quality Plasmodium falciparum DNA can reliably be extracted from malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Together with highly sensitive molecular assays, wide scale collection of used RDTs may serve as a modern tool for improved malaria case detection and drug resistance surveillance. However, comparative studies of DNA extraction efficiency from RDTs and the field applicability are lacking. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate different methods of DNA extraction from RDTs and to test the field applicability for the purpose of molecular epidemiological investigations. Methods DNA was extracted from two RDT devices (Paracheck-Pf® and SD Bioline Malaria Pf/Pan®), seeded in vitro with 10-fold dilutions of cultured 3D7 P. falciparum parasites diluted in malaria negative whole blood. The level of P. falciparum detection was determined for each extraction method and RDT device with multiple nested-PCR and real-time PCR assays. The field applicability was tested on 855 paired RDT (Paracheck-Pf) and filter paper (Whatman® 3MM) blood samples (734 RDT negative and 121 RDT positive samples) collected from febrile patients in Zanzibar 2010. RDT positive samples were genotyped at four key single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pfmdr1 and pfcrt as well as for pfmdr1 copy number, all associated with anti-malarial drug resistance. Results The P. falciparum DNA detection limit varied with RDT device and extraction method. Chelex-100 extraction performed best for all extraction matrixes. There was no statistically significant difference in PCR detection rates in DNA extracted from RDTs and filter paper field samples. Similarly there were no significant differences in the PCR success rates and genotyping outcomes for the respective SNPs in the 121 RDT positive samples. Conclusions The results support RDTs as a valuable source of parasite DNA and provide evidence for RDT-DNA extraction for improved malaria case detection, molecular drug resistance surveillance, and RDT quality control.

2013-01-01

203

A nondestructive method for diagnostic of insulated building walls using infrared thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work deals with the development of an experimental protocol for the diagnostic of multi-layered insulated building walls. First, a test bench is set up in order to measure front and back sides temperatures of standard panels. The panels considered have insulation thicknesses of 2, 6 and 10cm. The front side is heated by two halogen lamps of 500W. A CEDIP Jade Long wave infrared camera and thermocouples are used to carry out temperature measurements. In a second time, a one dimensional model based on thermal quadruples and Laplace transforms was developped under Matlab environment. Also, we developped a three dimensional model based on finite volumes using Fluent computational code. Finally, a method of identification of physical parameters is implemented by performing least square minimization based on Levenberg-Marquardt method. The experimental measurements are compared to theoretical results and by minimization we obtain thermal conductivity and diffusivity as well as thickness of the two layers.

Larbi Youcef, Mohamed H. A.; Mazioud, Atef; Bremond, Pierre; Ibos, Laurent; Candau, Yves; Piro, Michel; Filloux, Alain

2007-04-01

204

Comparing historical and modern methods of Sea Surface Temperature measurement - Part 2: Field comparison in the Central Tropical Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discrepancies between historical Sea Surface Temperature (SST) datasets have been partly ascribed to use of different adjustments for variable measurement methods. Until recently adjustments had only been applied to bucket temperatures from the late 19th and early 20th century, with the aim of correcting their supposed coolness relative to engine cooling water intake temperatures (EIT). In the UK Met Office Hadley Centre SST 3 dataset (HadSST3) adjustments are applied to observations over its full duration, including those obtained by other methods. Here we evaluate such adjustments by direct field comparison of historical and modern methods of SST measurement. We compare wood, canvas and rubber bucket temperatures to 3 m seawater intake temperature along a Central Tropical Pacific transect conducted in May and June 2008. In contrast to the prevailing view we find no average differences between bucket temperatures obtained with different bucket types. Moreover, we observe strong near-surface temperature gradients day and night, indicating intake and bucket temperatures cannot be considered equivalent in this region. We suggest engine intake temperatures are unreliable as a source of SST given that they are often obtained by untrained non-scientist observers with low precision, inaccurate instruments at unknown intake depth. Using a physical model we demonstrate that warming of intake seawater by engine room air is unlikely a cause of negative average bucket-intake temperature differences, as sometimes suggested. We propose removal of intake temperatures and bucket adjustments from historical SST records and posit this will lead to their better capture of real long-term trends.

Matthews, J. B. R.; Matthews, J. B.

2012-09-01

205

Diagnostic Method for Internal Deterioration of Epoxy Mold Spacers Used in GIS (Gas-Insulated Substations).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As a part of studies on the diagnostic technique of the internal deterioration in epoxy mold spacers used in gas insulated switchgear, long-term continuous loading experiments have been conducted using model spacers with various defects, and a diagnostic ...

H. Fujinami T. Takuma T. Kawamoto T. Okamoto

1988-01-01

206

Early dental caries detection by method of PNC-diagnostics: comparison with visual and x-ray methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research results of approbation of the optical PNC- method in dental clinic are presented. The PNC-method was used for diagnostics stages of caries (initial, moderate and deep). The variant of the PNC-method adapted for dental diagnosis is based on simultaneous analyses the following parameters by special algorithms: backscattering and probing radiation, stimulated (endogenous) autofluorescence of caries induced batteries. Analyze of informational signals show good correlation with tooth morphological structure and concentration of anaerobic microflora in hearth of caries lesion. Investigation was performed in vivo on 101 tooth in conditions of typical dental clinic. Comparison of the PNC- method with visual and X-ray ones, which are widely used in clinical practice was made. Preliminary results showed high potential of usage the PNC-method in clinical practice and more high probability of initial caries detection (up to 100%) in comparison with X-ray method (approximately 75%). In cases when X-ray diagnosed absence of initial caries, more sensitive the PNC-method detected initial caries in stage 'white lesion.'

Masychev, Victor I.; Sokolovsky, Alexander S.; Kesler, Gaby; Alexandrov, Michail T.

2000-03-01

207

Expanded response-surfaces: a new method to reconstruct paleoclimates from fossil pollen assemblages that lack modern analogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen-based paleoclimatic interpretations of late-glacial to early Holocene climates (17–9ka) in Midwestern North America are hampered by samples that lack modern analogues. Unresolved questions include the magnitude and direction of temperature seasonality (i.e. were these climates more or less seasonal than present) and the temporal changes in precipitation. Central to the no-analogue problem is the truncation of modern pollen-climate relationships

L. M. Gonzales; J. W. Williams; E. C. Grimm

2009-01-01

208

Application of diagnostic methods and molecular diagnosis of hemoglobin disorders in Khuzestan province of Iran  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The hemoglobinopathies refer to a diverse group of inherited disorders characterized by a reduced synthesis of one or more globin chains (thalassemias) or the synthesis of structurally abnormal hemoglobin (Hb). The thalassemias often coexist with a variety of structural Hb variants giving rise to complex genotypes and an extremely wide spectrum of clinical and hematological phenotypes. Hematological and biochemical investigations and family studies provide essential clues to the different interactions and are fundamental to DNA diagnostics of the Hb disorders. Although DNA diagnostics have made a major impact on our understanding and detection of the hemoglobinopathies, DNA mutation testing should never be considered a shortcut or the test of first choice in the workup of a hemoglobinopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A careful three-tier approach involving: (1) Full blood count (2) Special hematological tests, followed by (3) DNA mutation analysis, provides the most effective way in which to detect primary gene mutations as well as gene-gene interactions that can influence the overall phenotype. With the exception of a few rare deletions and rearrangements, the molecular lesions causing hemoglobinopathies are all identifiable by PCR-based techniques. Furthermore, each at-risk ethnic group has its own combination of common Hb variants and thalassemia mutations. In Iran, there are many different forms of ? and ? thalassemia. Increasingly, different Hb variants are being detected and their effects per se or in combination with the thalassemias, provide additional diagnostic challenges. RESULTS: We did step-by-step diagnosis workup in 800 patients with hemoglobinopathies who referred to Research center of Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathies in Shafa Hospital of Ahwaz Joundishapour University of medical sciences, respectively. We detected 173 patients as iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and 627 individuals as thalassemic patients by use of different indices. We have successfully detected 75% (472/627) of the ?-thalassemia mutations by using amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) technique and 19% (130/627) of the ?-thalassemia mutations by using Gap-PCR technique and 6% (25/627) as Hb variants by Hb electrophoresis technique. We did prenatal diagnosis (PND) for 176 couples which had background of thalassemia in first pregnancy. Result of PND diagnosis in the first trimester was 35% (62/176) affected fetus with ?-thalassemia major and sickle cell disease that led to termination of the pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Almost all hemoglobinopathies can be detected with the current PCR-based assays with the exception of a few rare deletions. However, the molecular diagnostic service is still under development to try and meet the demands of the population it serves. In the short term, the current generation of instruments such as the capillary electrophoresis systems, has greatly simplified DNA sequence analysis.

Fakher, Rahim; Bijan, Kaeikhaei; Taghi, Akbari Mohammad

2007-01-01

209

Diagnostic methods for fungal infections in pediatric patients: microbiological, serological and molecular methods.  

PubMed

Although invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are relatively rare, they are important causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised pediatric patients. Early and precise diagnosis of IFI is important to allow antifungal treatment to be started in time and to reduce the unnecessary use of toxic antifungal agents. Although traditional approaches such as direct microscopic examination, histopathological evaluation and cultivation are still gold standard, the diagnosis of IFI is generally difficult because of inadequate sensitivity and specificity with these tests. Commercial systems detecting the Aspergillus cell wall antigen galactomannan and 1,3-?-D-glucan are seen as the most convenient nonculture methods for the diagnosis of the IFI and monitoring of antifungal treatment. Several molecular methods have been described for the diagnosis of opportunistic mycoses. However, they have not been standardized and have only been used in experimental studies. PMID:21417868

Oz, Yasemin; Kiraz, Nuri

2011-03-01

210

A primer of biostatistic and economic methods for diagnostic and prognostic modeling in nuclear cardiology: Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review presents a brief overview of existing diagnostic and prognostic methodologies to be used for the evaluation of\\u000a patients undergoing noninvasive testing. In part I of this review, we will present methods for use of logistic and Cox regression\\u000a analyses in determining the diagnostic and prognostic value of nuclear imaging techniques. In part II of this review, we will

Leslee J. Shaw; Rory Hachamovitch; Eric L. Eisenstein; Karen L. Kesler; Gary V. Heller; D. Douglas Miller

1996-01-01

211

Total synthesis by modern chemical ligation methods and high resolution (1.1 Å) X-ray structure of ribonuclease A  

SciTech Connect

The total chemical synthesis of RNase A using modern chemical ligation methods is described, illustrating the significant advances that have been made in chemical protein synthesis since Gutte and Merrifield's pioneering preparation of RNase A in 1969. The identity of the synthetic product was confirmed through rigorous characterization, including the determination of the X-ray crystal structure to 1.1 Angstrom resolution.

Boerema, David J.; Tereshko, Valentina A.; Kent, Stephen B.H. (UC)

2010-02-08

212

Comparing historical and modern methods of sea surface temperature measurement - Part 2: Field comparison in the central tropical Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discrepancies between historical sea surface temperature (SST) datasets have been partly ascribed to use of different adjustments to account for variable measurement methods. Until recently, adjustments had only been applied to bucket temperatures from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with the aim of correcting their supposed coolness relative to engine cooling water intake temperatures. In the UK Met Office Hadley Centre SST 3 dataset (HadSST3), adjustments have been applied over its full duration to observations from buckets, buoys and engine intakes. Here we investigate uncertainties in the accuracy of such adjustments by direct field comparison of historical and modern methods of shipboard SST measurement. We compare wood, canvas and rubber bucket temperatures to 3 m seawater intake temperature along a central tropical Pacific transect conducted in May and June 2008. We find no average difference between the temperatures obtained with the different bucket types in our short measurement period (∼1 min). Previous field, lab and model experiments have found sizeable temperature change of seawater samples in buckets of smaller volume under longer exposure times. We do, however, report the presence of strong near-surface temperature gradients day and night, indicating that intake and bucket measurements cannot be assumed equivalent in this region. We thus suggest bucket and buoy measurements be considered distinct from intake measurements due to differences in sampling depth. As such, we argue for exclusion of intake temperatures from historical SST datasets and suggest this would likely reduce the need for poorly field-tested bucket adjustments. We also call for improvement in the general quality of intake temperatures from Voluntary Observing Ships. Using a physical model we demonstrate that warming of intake seawater by hot engine room air is an unlikely cause of overly warm intake temperatures. We suggest that reliable correction for such warm errors is not possible since they are largely of unknown origin and can be offset by real near-surface temperature gradients.

Matthews, J. B. R.; Matthews, J. B.

2013-07-01

213

Failure of Routine Diagnostic Methods to Detect Influenza in Hospitalized Older Adults  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To define the utility of using routine diagnostic methods to detect influenza in older, hospitalized adults. DESIGN Descriptive study. SETTING One academic hospital and 1 community hospital during the 2006–2007 and 2007–2008 influenza seasons. PARTICIPANTS Hospitalized adults 50 years of age or older. METHODS Adults who were 50 years of age or older and hospitalized with symptoms of respiratory illness were enrolled and tested for influenza by use of reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Using RT-PCR as the gold standard, we assessed the performances of rapid antigen tests and conventional influenza culture and the diagnostic use of the clinical definition of influenza-like illness. RESULTS Influenza was detected by use of RT-PCR in 26 (11%) of 228 patients enrolled in our study. The sensitivity of the rapid antigen test performed at bedside by research staff members was 19.2% (95% confidence interval, 8.51%–37.9%); the sensitivity of conventional influenza culture was 34.6% (95% confidence interval, 19.4%–53.8%). The ability to detect influenza with both the rapid antigen test and culture was associated with patients with a higher viral load (P=.002 and P=.001, respectively). The ability to diagnose influenza by use of the clinical definition of influenza-like illness had a higher sensitivity (80.8%) but lacked specificity (40.6%). CONCLUSION Because rapid antigen testing and viral culture have poor sensitivity (19.2% and 34.6%, respectively), neither testing method is sufficient to use to determine what type of isolation procedures to implement in a hospital setting.

Talbot, H. Keipp; Williams, John V.; Zhu, Yuwei; Poehling, Katherine A.; Griffin, Marie R.; Edwards, Kathryn M.

2013-01-01

214

Chemical differentiation of Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang, a Chinese medicine formula, prepared by traditional and modern decoction methods using UPLC/Q-TOFMS-based metabolomics approach.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate chemical consistency between traditional and modern decoctions of Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang (DCQT), a classical Chinese medicine formula commonly used in the treatment of digestive diseases, an ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOFMS) combined with multivariate statistical analysis was established to globally characterize the chemical profile and discover differentiating chemical markers. Two kinds of decoctions, namely traditional decoction (multi-step decoction of constituent herbs), and modern decoction (one-step decoction of all herbs), were prepared and subjected to UPLC-MS analysis, the datasets of tR-m/z pairs, ion intensities and sample codes were processed with supervised orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to comprehensively compare the chemical difference between these two kinds of decoction samples. The global chemical difference was found between traditional and modern decoctions, and rhein, sennoside A/B, diosmetin, magnoloside B and naringin were the components contributing most to these differences. Based on the fact that traditional decoction of DCQT presents the higher concentration of rhein and sennoside A/B, mainly contributed to laxative activity of DCQT, the purgative effect of traditional decoction might be more potent, compared with modern decoction. However, the comparative study on purgative effect of traditional and modern DCQT remains to be further investigated using pharmacological approaches. Our findings also provide the early scientific evidence of traditional decoction method of DCQT. PMID:23685412

Wan, Jian-Bo; Bai, Xu; Cai, Xiu-Jiang; Rao, Yi; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Tao

2013-09-01

215

Modern Supersymmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have spent more than twenty years applying supersymmetry (SUSY) to elementary particle physics and attempting to find an experimental manifestation of this symmetry. Terning's monograph demonstrates the strong influence of SUSY on theoretical elaborations in the field of elementary particles. It gives both an overview of modern supersymmetry in elementary particle physics and calculation techniques.The author, trying to be

Petr P Kulish

2006-01-01

216

Embedded diagnostic, prognostic, and health management system and method for a humanoid robot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A robotic system includes a humanoid robot with multiple compliant joints, each moveable using one or more of the actuators, and having sensors for measuring control and feedback data. A distributed controller controls the joints and other integrated system components over multiple high-speed communication networks. Diagnostic, prognostic, and health management (DPHM) modules are embedded within the robot at the various control levels. Each DPHM module measures, controls, and records DPHM data for the respective control level/connected device in a location that is accessible over the networks or via an external device. A method of controlling the robot includes embedding a plurality of the DPHM modules within multiple control levels of the distributed controller, using the DPHM modules to measure DPHM data within each of the control levels, and recording the DPHM data in a location that is accessible over at least one of the high-speed communication networks.

Barajas, Leandro G. (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A (Inventor)

2013-01-01

217

Current potential and limitations of molecular diagnostic methods in head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

Traditional diagnostic methods such as clinical assessment, histopathological examination and imaging techniques are limited in their capacity to provide information on prognosis and treatment choice of head and neck cancer. In recent years, molecular techniques have been developed that enabled us to get more insight into the molecular biological cellular pathways underlying tumor progression and metastasis. Correlation of these molecular changes with clinical events has been explored. However, consistently useful markers have not been identified yet, although many promising developments are in progress. It may be expected that in the near future, molecular markers will be useful for clinical purposes. In this paper, an overview will be given of the several molecular techniques that may have potential to be introduced in clinical practice in the management of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:20037788

Mahfouz, Magdy E; Rodrigo, Juan P; Takes, Robert P; Elsheikh, Mohamed N; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Brakenhoff, Ruud H; Ferlito, Alfio

2010-06-01

218

[Comparative study of diagnostic methods for visceral leishmaniasis in dogs from Ilha Solteira, SP].  

PubMed

The purpose of the present work was a comparative study of diagnostic methods for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) using serological methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), histochemical (HE) and immunohistochemical (IMHC) tests using spleen, lymph node and liver canine tissues. In addition, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was done in blood and in tissues in order to compare and confirm no conclusive and negative diagnosis by the methods above. For this study, 34 dogs were divided according to clinical signs in asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic and polisymptomatic Leishmania-infected dogs euthanized by Zoonotic Disease Control Center (CCZ) from Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. The positivism indexes of ELISA, IMHC, IFAT and HE were 65.0, 62.0, 56.0 and 56.0%, respectively with the highest numbers of positive dogs in polisymptomatic (92.0%) followed by oligosymptomatic (57.0%) and asymptomatic dogs (12.5%). Furthermore, PCR confirmed the positive results and detected DNA in tissues from 100% of negative dogs and 89.0% suspects raising the animal positivism index up to 97.0%. In conclusion, PCR was the most sensitive and a valuable method for a definitive CVL diagnosis. PMID:20385055

de Assis, Juliana; de Queiroz, Nina Marí Gual Pimenta; da Silveira, Rita de Cássia Vieira; Nunes, Cáris Maroni; Oliveira, Trícia Maria Ferreira de Sousa; Junior, Antonio Carlos Faconti de Noronha; Neves, Maria Francisca; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida Starke

2010-01-01

219

On-line diagnostics of high-voltage bushings and current transformers using the sum current method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experience with the application of the sum current method to on-line diagnostics of high-voltage bushings and current transformers is presented. The method and analysis are described along with field experience obtained at fourteen substations, comprising 56 sets of (three) bushings and current transformers. The influences of temperature, humidity and changes in more than one bushing are discussed

Mark F. Lachman; Wolf Walter; Philip A. von Guggenberg

2000-01-01

220

Comparison of diagnostic methods in the diagnosis of dermatomycoses and onychomycoses.  

PubMed

Direct microscopic examination of potassium hydroxide (KOH)-prepared specimens is the simplest, cheapest method used for the diagnosis of mycotic infections of the skin. However, KOH preparations have been reported to have 5-15% of false-negative results, possibly because of the low visibility of scant, scattered fungal material of the nail scrapings and because the detection of fungal elements depends on the skill of the observer [Arch Dermatol133 (1997) 1317; Clin Microbiol Rev8 (1995) 240]. We compared two different KOH-based staining methods in order to obtain reliable results in shorter time than expected for cultures. A total of 124 patients with suspect diagnosis of dermatomycosis or onychomycosis were enrolled. Two scrapings from the same lesion of each patient were stained with KOH-Chlorazole and KOH-Acridine Orange (AO), respectively; cultural examination of the same specimen was considered as diagnostic gold standard. The two methods showed neither significantly different sensitivity nor specificity; however, for onychomycoses, we observed a slightly higher sensitivity for KOH-Chlorazole and a higher specificity for KOH-AO. We suggest the use of both techniques in order to improve detection of fungal infection, especially for onychomycoses. PMID:16367815

Panasiti, V; Borroni, R G; Devirgiliis, V; Rossi, M; Fabbrizio, L; Masciangelo, R; Bottoni, U; Calvieri, S

2006-01-01

221

Improved diagnostic value of a TCD-based non-invasive ICP measurement method compared with the sonographic ONSD method for detecting elevated intracranial pressure.  

PubMed

Objectives: To compare the diagnostic reliability of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) ultrasonography with a transcranial Doppler (TCD)-based absolute intracranial pressure (ICP) value measurement method for detection of elevated ICP in neurological patients. The ONSD method has been only tested previously on neurosurgical patients. Methods: A prospective clinical study of a non-invasive ICP estimation method based on ONSD correlation with ICP and an absolute ICP value measurement method based on a two-depth TCD technology has recruited 108 neurological patients. Ninety-two of these patients have been enrolled in the final analysis of the diagnostic reliability of ONSD ultrasonography and 85 patients using the absolute ICP value measurement method. All non-invasive ICP measurements were compared with 'Gold Standard' invasive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure measurements obtained by lumbar puncture. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis has been used to investigate the diagnostic value of these two methods. Results: The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the ONSD method for detecting elevated intracranial pressure (ICP >14·7 mmHg) were calculated using a cutoff point of ONSD at 5·0 mm and found to be 37·0%, 58·5%, and 0·57, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and AUC for the non-invasive absolute ICP measurement method were calculated at the same ICP cutoff point of 14·7 mmHg and were determined to be 68·0%, 84·3%, and 0·87, respectively. Conclusions: The non-invasive ICP measurement method based on two-depth TCD technology has a better diagnostic reliability on neurological patients than the ONSD method when expressed by the sensitivity and specificity for detecting elevated ICP >14·7 mmHg. PMID:24620972

Ragauskas, Arminas; Bartusis, Laimonas; Piper, Ian; Zakelis, Rolandas; Matijosaitis, Vaidas; Petrikonis, Kestutis; Rastenyte, Daiva

2014-07-01

222

Tate Modern  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yesterday, Queen Elizabeth II officially opened the Tate Modern, Britain's new national museum of modern art housed in a former power station on London's Bankside. Those who weren't invited to the gala opening party last night and can't make it to the official public opening today can still visit the new museum online. In addition to the ordinary visiting information, special exhibitions, and so forth, the site offers a complete overview of the works displayed in each of its four themed groups. Though modern sounding, the four display themes (Landscape/ Matter/ Environment; Still Life/ Object/ Real Life; Nude/ Action/ Body; and History/ Memory/ Society) are actually based on the major genres of art established by the French Academy in the seventeenth century: landscape, still life, the nude, and history painting. Clicking on a section will bring up a list of rooms, each of which links to a short description and list of works. From this list, users can access more information on a particular work (and an image when available) and other pieces by the same artist held at Tate galleries via the Tate Collections Website (see the June 11, 1999 Scout Report).

2000-01-01

223

Modern NMR Spectroscopy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses direct chemical information that can be obtained from modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, concentrating on the types of problems that can be solved. Shows how selected methods provide information about polymers, bipolymers, biochemistry, small organic molecules, inorganic compounds, and compounds oriented in a magnetic…

Jelinski, Lynn W.

1984-01-01

224

Physics-Based Methods of Failure Analysis and Diagnostics in Human Space Flight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Integrated Health Management (IHM) for the future aerospace systems requires to interface models of multiple subsystems in an efficient and accurate information environment at the earlier stages of system design. The complexity of modern aeronautic an...

D. G. Luchinsky F. A. Patterson-Hine V. Viatcheslav V. N. Hafiychuk V. N. Smelyanskiy

2010-01-01

225

[Diagnostic methods for confirming drug-allergy--the lymphocyte transformation test in dermatology].  

PubMed

Recognizing the adverse drug reactions and confirming the role of the drug causing the symptoms is a great challenge for a medical team. The aim of this article is to review the diagnostic methods for confirming drug-allergy and to evaluate the lymphocyte transformation test according to dermatological aspect. Lymphocyte transformation test relies on the observation that specific T-cells divide and expand after encountering the antigen. T-cell sensitization is measured by 3H-thymidine uptake in dividing cells. The main advantage of this test is its applicability with many different drugs in different immune reactions, as drug-specific T-cells are almost always involved in drug hypersensitivity reactions. Its disadvantage is that the test is cumbersome and technically demanding. The method is not unequivocally accepted, it is necessary to carry out a systematic evaluation of its sensitivity and specificity to make the test more widely appreciated. Despite of its deficits, the lymphocyte transformation test plays an important role in diagnosing drug-hypersensitivities. PMID:18539577

Makó, Sarolta; Lepesi-Benko, Réka; Marschalkó, Márta; Soós, Gyöngyvér; Kárpáti, Sarolta

2008-06-15

226

Accuracy of Diagnostic Methods and Surveillance Sensitivity for Human Enterovirus, South Korea, 1999-2011  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of enteroviral infection in South Korea during 1999–2011 chronicles nationwide outbreaks and changing detection and subtyping methods used over the 13-year period. Of 14,657 patients whose samples were tested, 4,762 (32.5%) samples were positive for human enterovirus (human EV); as diagnostic methods improved, the rate of positive results increased. A seasonal trend of outbreaks was documented. Genotypes enterovirus 71, echovirus 30, coxsackievirus B5, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B2 were the most common genotypes identified. Accurate test results correlated clinical syndromes to enterovirus genotypes: aseptic meningitis to echovirus 30, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B5; hand, foot and mouth disease to coxsackievirus A16; and hand, foot and mouth disease with neurologic complications to enterovirus 71. There are currently no treatments specific to human EV infections; surveillance of enterovirus infections such as this study provides may assist with evaluating the need to research and develop treatments for infections caused by virulent human EV genotypes.

Hyeon, Ji-Yeon; Hwang, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyejin; Song, Jaehyoung; Ahn, Jeongbae; Kang, Byunghak; Kim, Kisoon; Choi, Wooyoung; Chung, Jae Keun; Kim, Cheon-Hyun; Cho, Kyungsoon; Jee, Youngmee; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Kisang; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kim, Min-Ji

2013-01-01

227

Rapid diagnostic methods for influenza virus in clinical specimens - A comparative study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of five rapid viral diagnostic techniques for identifying influenza virus in nasopharyngeal aspirates has been made on patients with influenza-like illnesses. Initial results with immune electron microscopy were positive in only one of 11 specimens from which virus was isolated and further work abandoned. Four other rapid tests were carried out on 39 specimens from which influenza virus had been isolated in tissue culture in 28. Of these 28 specimens yielding virus, 24 (85.7 percent) were positive by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) on nasopharyngeal cells, 18 (64.3 percent) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 19 (67.8 percent) by enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA), and 26 (92.8 percent) by a rapid tissue culture amplification method (TCA) in a continuous Rhesus monkey kidney line (LLC-MK2) with identification of virus by fluorescent antibody. In terms of sensitivity, simplicity, and rapidity, a combination of the IFAT and TCA methods seems to be very useful.

Evans, A. S.; Olson, B.

1982-01-01

228

Accuracy of diagnostic methods and surveillance sensitivity for human enterovirus, South Korea, 1999-2011.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of enteroviral infection in South Korea during 1999-2011 chronicles nationwide outbreaks and changing detection and subtyping methods used over the 13-year period. Of 14,657 patients whose samples were tested, 4,762 (32.5%) samples were positive for human enterovirus (human EV); as diagnostic methods improved, the rate of positive results increased. A seasonal trend of outbreaks was documented. Genotypes enterovirus 71, echovirus 30, coxsackievirus B5, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B2 were the most common genotypes identified. Accurate test results correlated clinical syndromes to enterovirus genotypes: aseptic meningitis to echovirus 30, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B5; hand, foot and mouth disease to coxsackievirus A16; and hand, foot and mouth disease with neurologic complications to enterovirus 71. There are currently no treatments specific to human EV infections; surveillance of enterovirus infections such as this study provides may assist with evaluating the need to research and develop treatments for infections caused by virulent human EV genotypes. PMID:23876671

Hyeon, Ji-Yeon; Hwang, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyejin; Song, Jaehyoung; Ahn, Jeongbae; Kang, Byunghak; Kim, Kisoon; Choi, Wooyoung; Chung, Jae Keun; Kim, Cheon-Hyun; Cho, Kyungsoon; Jee, Youngmee; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Kisang; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kim, Min-Ji; Cheon, Doo-Sung

2013-08-01

229

Robust Sequence Selection Method Used To Develop the FluChip Diagnostic Microarray for Influenza Virus  

PubMed Central

DNA microarrays have proven to be powerful tools for gene expression analyses and are becoming increasingly attractive for diagnostic applications, e.g., for virus identification and subtyping. The selection of appropriate sequences for use on a microarray poses a challenge, particularly for highly mutable organisms such as influenza viruses, human immunodeficiency viruses, and hepatitis C viruses. The goal of this work was to develop an efficient method for mining large databases in order to identify regions of conservation in the influenza virus genome. From these regions of conservation, capture and label sequences capable of discriminating between different viral types and subtypes were selected. The salient features of the method were the use of phylogenetic trees for data reduction and the selection of a relatively small number of capture and label sequences capable of identifying a broad spectrum of influenza viruses. A detailed experimental evaluation of the selected sequences is described in a companion paper. The software is freely available under the General Public License at http://www.colorado.edu/chemistry/RGHP/software/.

Mehlmann, Martin; Dawson, Erica D.; Townsend, Michael B.; Smagala, James A.; Moore, Chad L.; Smith, Catherine B.; Cox, Nancy J.; Kuchta, Robert D.; Rowlen, Kathy L.

2006-01-01

230

Perspective ground-based method for diagnostics of the lower ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new perspective ground-based method for diagnostics of the ionosphere and atmosphere parameters. The method uses one of the numerous physical phenomena observed in the ionosphere illuminated by high-power radio waves. It is a generation of the artificial periodic irregularities (APIs) in the ionospheric plasma. The APIs were found while studying the effects of ionospheric high-power HF modification. It was established that the APIs are formed by a standing wave that occurs due to interference between the upwardly radiated radio wave and its reflection off the ionosphere. The API studies are based upon observation of the Bragg backscatter of the pulsed probe radio wave from the artificial periodic structure. Bragg backscatter occurs if the spatial period of the irregularities is equal to half a wavelength of the probe signal. The API techniques makes it possible to obtain the following information: the profiles of electron density from the lower D-region up to the maximum of the F-layer; the irregular structure of the ionosphere including split of the regular E-layer, the sporadic layers; the vertical velocities in the D- and E-regions of the ionosphere; the turbulent velocities, turbulent diffusion coefficients and the turbopause altitude; the neutral temperatures and densities at the E-region altitudes; the parameters of the internal gravity waves and their spectral characteristics; the relative concentration of negative oxygen ions in the D-region. Some new results obtained by the API technique are discussed .

Bakhmetieva, N. V.; Grigoriev, G. I.; Tolmacheva, A. V.

231

[Economic analysis of diagnostic and therapeutic methods in cases of cold thyroid nodules].  

PubMed

This article studies how two diagnostic tests (cytological puncture and 201thallium scanning) can be combined to obtain a more efficient approach of cold thyroid nodules. Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are compared on the basis of four criteria: financial cost (immediate and delayed), number of labelled cancers, pre- and postoperative death rates and number of complications. PMID:8092807

Eeckhoudt, L; Hermans, J; Merlo, P; Coudeville, L; Lebrun, T

1993-01-01

232

Biogeosystem technique as a method to overcome the Biological and Environmental Hazards of modern Agricultural, Irrigational and Technological Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern challenge for humanity is to replace the paradigm of nature use and overcome environmental hazards of agronomy, irrigation, industry, and other human activities in biosphere. It is utterly reasonable to stop dividing biosphere on shares - the human habitat and the environment. In the 21st century it is an outdated anthropocentrism. Contradicting himself to biosphere Humankind has the problems. The new paradigm of biosphere control by methods of Biogeosystem technique is on agenda of Humankind. Key directions of Biogeosystem technique. Tillage. Single rotary milling 20…30-50…60 sm soil layer optimizes the evolution and environment of soil, creates a favorable conditions for the rhizosphere, increases the biological productivity of biosphere by 30-50% compared to the standard agricultural practices for the period up to 40 years. Recycle material. Recycling of mineral and organic substances in soil layer of 20…30-50…60 sm in rotary milling soil processing provides wastes clean return to biosphere. Direct intrasoil substances synthesis. Environmentally friendly robot wasteless nanotechnology provides direct substances synthesis, including fertilizers, inside the soil. It eliminates the prerequisites of the wastes formation under standard industrial technologies. Selective substance's extraction from soil. Electrochemical robotic nanotechnology provides selective substances extraction from soil. The technology provides recovery, collection and subsequent safe industrial use of extracted substances out of landscape. Saving fresh water. An important task is to save fresh water in biosphere. Irrigation spends water 4-5 times more of biological requirements of plants, leads to degradation of soil and landscape. The intrasoil pulse continuous-discrete paradigm of irrigation is proposed. It provides the soil and landscape conservation, increases the biological productivity, save the fresh water up to 10-20 times. The subsurface soil rotary processing and intrasoil pulsed continuous-discrete irrigation provide environmentally safe disposal of municipal, industrial, biological and agricultural wastes. Hazardous chemical and biological agents are under the soil surface. It provided a medical and veterinary safety of environment. Biogeosystem technic controls the equilibria in the soil and soil solution, prevents excessive mineralization of organic matter in the surface layers of soil. Simultaneously a soil chemical reduction excluded, biological substance do not degrade to gases. Products of organic matter decomposition are directed to the food chain, 100% waste recycling is obtained. Biogeosystems technique allows producing more biological products hence to recycle excessive amount of man-made CO2 and other substances. Biogeosystems technique increases the rate of photosynthesis of the biosphere, the degree of air ionization. This enhances the formation of rains over land, ensures stability of the ionosphere, magnetosphere and atmosphere of Earth. The nowadays technologies allow applying technical solutions based on Biogeosystem technique, there is unique opportunity to accelerate the noosphere new technological platform.

Kalinitchenko, Valery; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Zinchenko, Vladimir; Zarmaev, Ali; Magomadov, Ali; Chernenko, Vladimir; Startsev, Viktor; Bakoev, Serojdin; Dikaev, Zaurbek

2014-05-01

233

Diagnostic Performance of a Rapid Magnetic Resonance Imaging Method of Measuring Hepatic Steatosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives Hepatic steatosis is associated with an increased risk of developing serious liver disease and other clinical sequelae of the metabolic syndrome. However, visual estimates of steatosis from histological sections of biopsy samples are subjective and reliant on an invasive procedure with associated risks. The aim of this study was to test the ability of a rapid, routinely available, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to diagnose clinically relevant grades of hepatic steatosis in a cohort of patients with diverse liver diseases. Materials and Methods Fifty-nine patients with a range of liver diseases underwent liver biopsy and MRI. Hepatic steatosis was quantified firstly using an opposed-phase, in-phase gradient echo, single breath-hold MRI methodology and secondly, using liver biopsy with visual estimation by a histopathologist and by computer-assisted morphometric image analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the diagnostic performance of the MRI method against the biopsy observations. Results The MRI approach had high sensitivity and specificity at all hepatic steatosis thresholds. Areas under ROC curves were 0.962, 0.993, and 0.972 at thresholds of 5%, 33%, and 66% liver fat, respectively. MRI measurements were strongly associated with visual (r2?=?0.83) and computer-assisted morphometric (r2?=?0.84) estimates of hepatic steatosis from histological specimens. Conclusions This MRI approach, using a conventional, rapid, gradient echo method, has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing liver fat at all grades of steatosis in a cohort with a range of liver diseases.

House, Michael J.; Gan, Eng K.; Adams, Leon A.; Ayonrinde, Oyekoya T.; Bangma, Sander J.; Bhathal, Prithi S.; Olynyk, John K.; St. Pierre, Tim G.

2013-01-01

234

Occurrence of Strongyloides stercoralis in Yunnan Province, China, and Comparison of Diagnostic Methods  

PubMed Central

Background Strongyloides stercoralis is a neglected soil-transmitted helminth species, and there is a lack of parasitologic and epidemiologic data pertaining to this parasite in China and elsewhere. We studied the local occurrence of S. stercoralis in a village in Yunnan province, China, and comparatively assessed the performance of different diagnostic methods. Methodology/Principal Findings Multiple stool samples from a random population sample were subjected to the Kato-Katz method, an ether-concentration technique, the Koga agar plate method, and the Baermann technique. Among 180 participants who submitted at least 2 stool samples, we found a S. stercoralis prevalence of 11.7%. Males had a significantly higher prevalence than females (18.3% versus 6.1%, p?=?0.011), and infections were absent in individuals <15 years of age. Infections were only detected by the Baermann (highest sensitivity) and the Koga agar plate method, but neither with the Kato-Katz nor an ether-concentration technique. The examination of 3 stool samples rather than a single one resulted in the detection of 62% and 100% more infections when employing the Koga agar plate and the Baermann technique, respectively. The use of a mathematical model revealed a ‘true’ S. stercoralis prevalence in the current setting of up to 16.3%. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that S. stercoralis is endemic in the southern part of Yunnan province and that differential diagnosis and integrated control of intestinal helminth infections needs more pointed emphasis in rural China.

Steinmann, Peter; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Wang, Li-Bo; Wang, Xue-Zhong; Li, Lan-Hua; Marti, Hanspeter; Utzinger, Jurg

2007-01-01

235

Modern mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We consider the goals of the introductory course in classical mechanics taken by physics majors and argue both that these goals are not well met in actual courses and that the goals themselves should be rethought. We propose alternative goals and describe an introductory "modern mechanics" course that addresses these alternative goals. Included in the description are several genres of homework problems that are nearly absent from traditional mechanics courses at both the introductory and intermediate levels. The intermediate mechanics course could be restructured to exploit a broader foundation laid by the introductory course.

Chabay, Ruth; Sherwood, Bruce

2005-10-11

236

Absolute calibration method for laser megajoule neutron yield measurement by activation diagnostics.  

PubMed

The laser megajoule (LMJ) and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) plan to demonstrate thermonuclear ignition using inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The neutron yield is one of the most important parameters to characterize ICF experiment performance. For decades, the activation diagnostic was chosen as a reference at ICF facilities and is now planned to be the first nuclear diagnostic on LMJ, measuring both 2.45 MeV and 14.1 MeV neutron yields. Challenges for the activation diagnostic development are absolute calibration, accuracy, range requirement, and harsh environment. At this time, copper and zirconium material are identified for 14.1 MeV neutron yield measurement and indium material for 2.45 MeV neutrons. A series of calibrations were performed at Commissariat a? l'Energie Atomique (CEA) on a Van de Graff facility to determine activation diagnostics efficiencies and to compare them with results from calculations. The CEA copper activation diagnostic was tested on the OMEGA facility during DT implosion. Experiments showed that CEA and Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) diagnostics agree to better than 1% on the neutron yield measurement, with an independent calibration for each system. Also, experimental sensitivities are in good agreement with simulations and allow us to scale activation diagnostics for the LMJ measurement range. PMID:21806179

Landoas, Olivier; Glebov, Vladimir Yu; Rossé, Bertrand; Briat, Michelle; Disdier, Laurent; Sangster, Thomas C; Duffy, Tim; Marmouget, Jean Gabriel; Varignon, Cyril; Ledoux, Xavier; Caillaud, Tony; Thfoin, Isabelle; Bourgade, Jean-Luc

2011-07-01

237

Different optical diagnostic methods for defining the corner-turning distances of detonating high-explosive charges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Corner Turning Distance (CTD) can be measured with different optical diagnostic methods or also with FXR. The CTD's are important values of the detonability of high explosive (HE) charges or indicate at what distance or radius they are able to change a forward detonation in a radial detonation direction. The less sensitive HE's have an increasing problem with this

Manfred Held

1997-01-01

238

A method for the production of composite scintillators for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology.  

PubMed

Plastic scintillators are used in the dosimetry of photons in radiotherapy. Their use in diagnostic radiology is affected by the drop in response at lower photon energies due to inadequate composition (effective atomic number) and chemical quenching. To compensate for this deficiency, a method for the production of composite polystyrene-based plastic scintillators was devised allowing the incorporation of inorganic scintillation powder. Disks of 10 mm diameter and 1 mm thickness optimized for a flat energy response referred to kerma in air were produced using CaWO(4), ZnS:Ag and CaF(2):Eu as additives. In an HVL range of 2.26-13.69 mmAl, the response was within an interval of +/-2.8% for CaF(2):Eu as additive, +/-3.2% for CaWO(4) and +/-10.9% for ZnS:Ag, respectively. The response of a commercial plastic scintillator (BC470) stays within +/-13.6%. The temperature dependence of the composite scintillator using CaF(2):Eu is lowest with a variation of +3.7% to -3.6% in an interval from 5 degrees C to 45 degrees C. The deficiency in photon absorption at lower energies due to the effective atomic number is reduced but not fully compensated by the additive scintillators. The optimized concentrations were established for the scintillator dimensions used. PMID:19218738

Nowotny, R; Taubeck, A

2009-03-21

239

Development of Monitoring and Diagnostic Methods for Robots Used In Remediation of Waste Sites - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This project is the first evaluation of model-based diagnostics to hydraulic robot systems. A greater understanding of fault detection for hydraulic robots has been gained, and a new theoretical fault detection model developed and evaluated.

Martin, M.

2000-04-01

240

Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography as a diagnostic method in ischemic heart disease - basic technical aspects.  

PubMed

Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) poses an important diagnostic problem. Clinical picture of the disease is often atypical. SPECT is one of the main diagnostic tools in ischemic heart disease. Radioisotope study evaluates distribution of a radiopharmaceutical agent in the heart through a series of scintigraphic images taken by an external gamma camera. This article discusses the technical aspects of cardiac SPECT imaging, starting with a detection system, through image reconstruction, and ending with image filtering. PMID:22802841

Ple?niak, Jaros?aw

2011-07-01

241

Modern Baking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Baking is an art, a science, and a field that many people (especially young students) wish to learn more about. Visitors to this site can learn about the hands-on details of baking, along with gaining insights into business trends within the baking world. Modern Baking contains classified ads for those bakers looking to pick up some new equipment (or a new job), and a section of up-to-date industry news as well. The content is divided into eight sections: Formulas & Techniques, Cake Decorating, Supermarket Baking, Retail Baking, Specialty Wholesale Baking, Foodservice Baking, Bread & Pastry, and Bakery Management. Visitors would do well to try the formula in the Formulas & Techniques section for chestnut and cognac brioche, as it brings together two flavors that are truly divine.

2006-11-16

242

Contact angle measurements: an empirical diagnostic method for evaluation of thin film solar cell absorbers (CuInS 2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An empirical diagnostic method for the evaluation of solar cell grade CuInS2 absorbers has been developed. The method involves the measurement of the contact angle between water and the CuInS2 absorber before fabrication of a solar cell. The contact angle is expected to depend upon local inhomogeneity, chemical composition and surface morphology of the CuInS2 absorber. The variation of these

C. D Lokhande; A Barkschat; H Tributsch

2003-01-01

243

[New diagnostic methods for imaging the anterior segment of the eye to enable treatment modalities selection].  

PubMed

New diagnostic instruments for imaging the anterior segment of the eye have been developed using the corneal topographer, wavefront sensor, and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT). Data obtained from these instruments can be used to choose treatment modalities by providing information that is complementary to slit-lamp examination and visual acuity measurements. Zernike vector analysis was used to evaluate the corneal higher-order aberrations to quantify the effects of the corneal shape on the optical quality of the eye. The analyses showed the optical characteristics of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the cornea in patients with keratoconus or pellucid marginal corneal degeneration. The association between the deterioration of optical quality during rigid gas-permeable contact lens wear in patients with keratoconus and the residual coma due to posterior corneal shape was suggested by the findings made with this method. Zernike vector analyses also revealed the differences in the ocular higher-order aberrations between conventional Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and custom LASIK. Serial measurements of the ocular higher-order aberrations by a wavefront sensor enabled us to evaluate the effects of tear fluid dynamics on the optical quality of the eye. The findings clarified the characteristics of serial alterations of higher-order aberrations in normal eyes, dry eye with tear deficiency and dry eye with tear evaporation. The effects of internal lubricating agents on the soft contact lenses were also evaluated objectively. In addition, these results suggest that the effects of serial fluctuations in the ocular higher-order aberrations on refractive surgery should be considered. To observe the cornea at the cellular level with anterior segment OCT, a prototype machine of full-field OCT was developed. This made it possible to show epithelial edema in human donor corneas as well as the alterations in the epithelial layer and stromal layer associated with intraocular pressure elevation in ex vivo porcine eyes. An OCT-based corneal topographer was developed using a three-dimensional anterior segment OCT with the swept-source principle. Corneal topographic analyses of the anterior and posterior surfaces either in eyes with keratoconus or following keratoplasty was possible even in where it was difficult for conventional corneal topographers to analyze accurately. Also, OCT-based corneal topographer analyzed the host and donor cornea separately following Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty by recognizing the host-graft interface. The results from these new diagnostic methods for imaging the anterior segment of eye will be useful for the diagnosis of corneal disorders and the planning of treatment by evaluating the effects of corneal topographic abnormalities and tear fluid dynamics on visual function, by observing the abnormalities of the corneal tissue at the cellular level, and by showing corneal topography in diseased corneas more accurately and non-invasively. PMID:21476312

Maeda, Naoyuki

2011-03-01

244

Different optical diagnostic methods for defining the corner-turning distances of detonating high-explosive charges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Corner Turning Distance (CTD) can be measured with different optical diagnostic methods or also with FXR. The CTD's are important values of the detonability of high explosive (HE) charges or indicate at what distance or radius they are able to change a forward detonation in a radial detonation direction. The less sensitive HE's have an increasing problem with this phenomenon. It will be presented an overview of the different, especially the optical diagnostic methods. Their advantages and disadvantages will be illustrated on a number of typical examples. Simple tests which give only the CTD's, and more scientific arrangements allow also to define the so-called dark or dead zones. The CTD values given also good indication for insufficient initiation strength. With this method explosive trains can be also checked very well in their initiation limitations.

Held, Manfred

1997-05-01

245

Diagnostic accuracy of three scoring methods for the Davidson Trauma Scale among U.S. military veterans.  

PubMed

Self-report questionnaires are frequently used to identify PTSD among U.S. military personnel and Veterans. Two common scoring methods used to classify PTSD include: (1) a cut score threshold and (2) endorsement of PTSD symptoms meeting DSM-IV-TR symptom cluster criteria (SCM). A third method requiring a cut score in addition to SCM has been proposed, but has received little study. The current study examined the diagnostic accuracy of three scoring methods for the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS) among 804 Afghanistan and Iraq war-era military Service Members and Veterans. Data were weighted to approximate the prevalence of PTSD and other Axis I disorders in VA primary care. As expected, adding a cut score criterion to SCM improved specificity and positive predictive power. However, a cut score of 68-72 provided optimal diagnostic accuracy. The utility of the DTS, the role of baseline prevalence, and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:24216181

McDonald, Scott D; Thompson, NiVonne L; Stratton, Kelcey J; Calhoun, Patrick S

2014-03-01

246

Studies of the physical aspects of intumescence using advance diagnostics methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of intumescent paints as an active fire protection method has gained immense interest in recent years. A significant aspect of research has focused on studying the chemical aspects of the system to improve performance. The dynamics and physical aspects of intumescence in real time fire conditions are still unclear. The present research uses an experimental approach where diagnostics techniques such as thermal imaging camera was used to study intumescent characteristics that have been not been reported in great detail. T-panels are a substitute to the most commonly used part in construction, the I-beam. Studies were conducted using a cone calorimeter that provided a uniform heat flux through radiation on steel T-panel samples. The complex nature of char movement was recorded and a novel algorithm was used to track the growing char laye07r. The samples are designed to cater to different fire conditions. Therefore, the degree of intumescence was observed to be very different in the samples. The samples designed for low temperature cellulosic fires focus on high degree of intumesce. Whereas, mechanical strength is the focus for samples used in high temperature turbulent hydrocarbon fire conditions. The variation in the internal structure of the sample is presented. Furthermore, the phenomenon is phase shift is discussed. The phase shift is an essential part of the process of intumescence when the majority of intumescence occurs. It was observed to be different in all the samples. The movement of the samples is a property of great interest. This is because if any part of the substrate is exposed then the formulation does not meet strict commercialisation criterion. The movement was diagonal in nature as compared to flat panels where it is perpendicular. This is due tot the heating pattern of the plate that results in the web part of the panel to influence the growth of char on the flange part of the panel. A special case of char cracking is also highlighted and using image processing algorithm on the thermal imaging data. A quantitative method of analsysis is presented to an otherwise commonly qualitative nature of experimental study in this field.

Saeed, Hussain; Huang, Hua Wei; Zhang, Yang

2014-04-01

247

Atomic Resonance Radiation Energetics Investigation as a Diagnostic Method for Non-Equilibrium Hypervelocity Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Absorption measurements with a tunable vacuum ultraviolet light source have been proposed as a concentration diagnostic for atomic oxygen, and the viability of this technique is assessed in light of recent measurements. The instrumentation, as well as initial calibration measurements, have been reported previously. We report here additional calibration measurements performed to study the resonance broadening line shape for atomic oxygen. The application of this diagnostic is evaluated by considering the range of suitable test conditions and requirements, and by identifying issues that remain to be addressed.

Meyer, Scott A.; Bershader, Daniel; Sharma, Surendra P.; Deiwert, George S.

1996-01-01

248

Comparison of Resource Requirements for a Wind Tunnel Test Designed with Conventional vs. Modern Design of Experiments Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The factors that determine data volume requirements in a typical wind tunnel test are identified. It is suggested that productivity in wind tunnel testing can be enhanced by managing the inference error risk associated with evaluating residuals in a response surface modeling experiment. The relationship between minimum data volume requirements and the factors upon which they depend is described and certain simplifications to this relationship are realized when specific model adequacy criteria are adopted. The question of response model residual evaluation is treated and certain practical aspects of response surface modeling are considered, including inference subspace truncation. A wind tunnel test plan developed by using the Modern Design of Experiments illustrates the advantages of an early estimate of data volume requirements. Comparisons are made with a representative One Factor At a Time (OFAT) wind tunnel test matrix developed to evaluate a surface to air missile.

DeLoach, Richard; Micol, John R.

2011-01-01

249

Advanced Diagnostics for Reacting Flows.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported for the past year of an interdisciplinary program to innovate modern diagnostic techniques applicable to combustion and plasma flows. Research topics include: (1) digital flowfield imaging, including temporally and spatially resolved ...

R. K. Hanson

1985-01-01

250

Advanced Diagnostics for Reacting Flows.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported for the past 4 years of an interdisciplinary program to innovate modern diagnostic techniques applicable to combustion and plasma flows. Research topics include: (1) digital flowfield imaging including 2-d and 3-d temporally resolved ...

R. K. Hanson

1986-01-01

251

Towards a rapid molecular diagnostic for melioidosis: Comparison of DNA extraction methods from clinical specimens.  

PubMed

Optimising DNA extraction from clinical samples for Burkholderia pseudomallei Type III secretion system real-time PCR in suspected melioidosis patients confirmed that urine and sputum are useful diagnostic samples. Direct testing on blood remains problematic; testing DNA extracted from plasma was superior to DNA from whole blood or buffy coat. PMID:22108495

Richardson, Leisha J; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mayo, Mark; Bowers, Jolene R; Tuanyok, Apichai; Schupp, Jim; Engelthaler, David; Wagner, David M; Keim, Paul S; Currie, Bart J

2012-01-01

252

[Express-diagnostic methods in urolithiasis for medical check-ups and screening].  

PubMed

The suggested tool's set designed for express-diagnosis of urolithiasis and for ultrasonic screening of the kidneys, which comprises a new diagnostic technology ("Litos-System'), provides for stating a diagnosis even before the renal calculi begin to take shape. PMID:14524128

Dasaeva, L A; Shilov, E M

2003-08-01

253

Improvement of optical diagnostic methods for a xenon operating thruster plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvement of contemporary plasma optical diagnostic technique for xenon Hall effect based thrusters is considered. This improvement has become possible after critical revision of collisional radiative model for the thruster plasma. In particular, three important processes have been included into the collisional radiative model: excitation of the xenon emissions in collisions between xenon ions and atoms; step-wise excitation of xenon

Georgy Karabadzhak

2004-01-01

254

Two-frequency method of the ionospheric diagnostics by API technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new way of the investigation of the electron density in the ionospheric E-region, turbulent events and sporadic E-layers using the artificial periodic irregularities (API). API are created in the field of the power standing wave formed by the interference of the incident wave and reflected one by the ionosphere. The spatial period of the irregular periodic structure is equal to the standing wavelength ? or the one-half of the power wavelength ?/2. Physical process dominating on the E-region heights and specifying API decay (relaxation) after the pumping turning off is the ambipolar diffusion process. The API method of the ionosphere diagnostics is connected with an observation of Bragg scattered signals (probe waves) from the artificial periodic structure of the ionospheric plasma on the API relaxation stage (V.V. Belikovich, E.A. Benediktov, N.V. Bakhmet'eva, A.V. Tolmacheva, Ionospheric Research by Means of Artificial Periodic Irregularities, Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany, Copernicus GmbH, 2002, pp. 1-160). The new two-frequency method is based upon the scattering of probe waves from API formed by the power radiation at two frequencies and having therefore different spatial periods. In this case the API relaxation time depends on both ambipolar diffusion rate D and spatial scale of the irregular structure ?. Measuring the ratio of the relaxation time of scattered signals on two frequencies one can determine the height profile of the electron density N(h) and its fine structure. Mathematical simulation made for two frequencies 4.7 and 5.6 MHz shown that electron density in the range of values (2 · 104 -1.8 · 105 ) cm-3 can be defined. The two-frequency API technique has been applied to N(h)-profile measurement in 2006, 2007 using the SURA heating facility (56.13 N, 46.15 E). The API formation and their sounding by probe radio waves of X-polarization were carried out by rotation at frequency of 4.7 MHz and 5.6 MHz. The effective radiated power was about 70 MW at the first frequency and 15 MW at the second one. The session of the measurement of the API relaxation time at each frequency was continued 15 s. During one minute two session of the pumping at each frequency were carried out. During the first 3 s of the session ionosphere was pumped by X-polarized powerful radio wave and API were formed. The pumping period was followed by 12-s pause. Probing pulses with 30-µc duration and a 50 Hz repetition rate were radiated at the same frequency. The amplitude and phase of the scattered signals from the virtual height range 50-750 km were recorded. N(h)-profiles in a height range 95-115 km were obtained. It has appeared the method to consider the fine structure of the profile, to determine even the electron density of sporadic E-layers, which are not registered standard ionosonde. The error of the N(z)-profile determination by API two-frequency method should not be exceeded 10%. The work has been supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research Grants No. 05-05-64304 and No 05-05-64111.

Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Belikovich, Vitold V.; Tolmacheva, Ariadna V.

255

An integrated medical record and data system for primary care. Part 3: the diagnostic index manual and computer methods and applications.  

PubMed

Manual and computer versions of the diagnostic of the index-E-Book are described. Methods for establisment and maintenance of both indexes are given and the relative merits of each are delineated. Uses of diagnostic indexes are presented which are appropriate to solo and group practices. The role of the diagnostic index in curriculum development within a family practice training setting is also illustrated. PMID:886284

Froom, J; Culpepper, L; Boisseau, V

1977-07-01

256

VAAFT: a new minimally invasive method in the diagnostics and treatment of anal fistulas - initial results.  

PubMed

Abstract The aim of the study was to present our own experience in the treatment of anal fistulas by means of VAAFT (Video-Assisted Anal Fistula Treatment). Material and methods. Twenty patients were qualified for the VAAFT procedure. All were subjected to diagnostics. Two patients after the diagnostic stage underwent classical fistula surgery. The remaining 18 patients were subjected to the full procedure (diagnostic fistuloscopy, supply of the internal ostium, and coagulation of the fistula canal). The mean observation period was 10 months. Results. In most cases the trans-sphincter fistula was observed during the diagnostic phase, including three with additional fluid compartments. There was one intersphincteric fistula. Considering the 18 patients subjected to the full VAAFT procedure the internal ostium was supplied by means of an advancement flap in 3 cases, while in 11 by means of a mattress suture, including one with additional tissue glue. In 4 cases the internal ostium was tightly covered by mucosa. Surgical complications were not observed during the procedure. During further observation a permanent fistula was observed in 4 (22%) patients, and in two (17%), recurrence of anal fistula. In the remaining 12 patients one observed healing without fistula recurrence. Complications were not observed, including stool and gas control deterioration (based on the FISI scoring). Conclusions. The VAAFT method does not affect sphincter efficiency, no intra- and postoperative complications were observed. As compared to other minimally invasive procedures a comparable recovery rate is observed without the risk of incontinence. It is the only method enabling the intraoperative identification of the internal ostium and fistula canal under visual control. Initial optimistic results require further investigations on a larger group of patients. PMID:24578448

Wa??ga, Piotr; Romaniszyn, Micha?; Nowak, Wojciech

2014-01-01

257

Latent-Class Methods to Evaluate Diagnostics Tests for Echinococcus Infections in Dogs  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnosis of canine echinococcosis can be a challenge in surveillance studies because there is no perfect gold standard that can be used routinely. However, unknown test specificities and sensitivities can be overcome using latent-class analysis with appropriate data. Methodology We utilised a set of faecal and purge samples used previously to explore the epidemiology of canine echinococcosis on the Tibetan plateau. Previously only the purge results were reported and analysed in a largely deterministic way. In the present study, additional diagnostic tests of copro-PCR and copro-antigen ELISA were undertaken on the faecal samples. This enabled a Bayesian analysis in a latent-class model to examine the diagnostic performance of a genus specific copro-antigen ELISA, species-specific copro-PCR and arecoline purgation. Potential covariates including co-infection with Taenia, age and sex of the dog were also explored. The dependence structure of these diagnostic tests could also be analysed. Principle findings The most parsimonious result, indicated by deviance-information criteria, suggested that co-infection with Taenia spp. was a significant covariate with the Echinococcus infection. The copro-PCRs had estimated sensitivities of 89% and 84% respectively for the diagnoses of Echinococcus multilocularis and E. granulosus. The specificities for the copro-PCR were estimated at 93 and 83% respectively. Copro-antigen ELISA had sensitivities of 55 and 57% for the diagnosis of E. multilocularis and E. granulosus and specificities of 71 and 69% respectively. Arecoline purgation with an assumed specificity of 100% had estimated sensitivities of 76% and 85% respectively. Significance This study also shows that incorporating diagnostic uncertainty, in other words assuming no perfect gold standard, and including potential covariates like sex or Taenia co-infection into the epidemiological analysis may give different results than if the diagnosis of infection status is assumed to be deterministic and this approach should therefore be used whenever possible.

Hartnack, Sonja; Budke, Christine M.; Craig, Philip S.; Jiamin, Qiu; Boufana, Belgees; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Torgerson, Paul R.

2013-01-01

258

An efficient diagnostic method for the identification of potato viral pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato is commonly affected by various pathogens of viral, bacterial, and fungal origin; therefore, simple and accurate diagnostic\\u000a and identification techniques are of key importance both for the production of virus free planting material and for the monitoring\\u000a of the phytosanitary state of planting areas. The newly developed test systems based on qualitative fluorescent amplification-based\\u000a specific hybridization (FLASH-PCR) enable fast

D. Yu. Ryazantsev; S. K. Zavriev

2009-01-01

259

A REFINED QSO SELECTION METHOD USING DIAGNOSTICS TESTS: 663 QSO CANDIDATES IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD  

SciTech Connect

We present 663 QSO candidates in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) selected using multiple diagnostics. We started with a set of 2566 QSO candidates selected using the methodology presented in our previous work based on time variability of the MACHO LMC light curves. We then obtained additional information for the candidates by crossmatching them with the Spitzer SAGE, the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Chandra, the XMM, and an LMC UBVI catalog. Using this information, we specified six diagnostic features based on mid-IR colors, photometric redshifts using spectral energy distribution template fitting, and X-ray luminosities in order to further discriminate high-confidence QSO candidates in the absence of spectra information. We then trained a one-class Support Vector Machine model using the diagnostics features of the confirmed 58 MACHO QSOs. We applied the trained model to the original candidates and finally selected 663 high-confidence QSO candidates. Furthermore, we crossmatched these 663 QSO candidates with the newly confirmed 151 QSOs and 275 non-QSOs in the LMC fields. On the basis of the counterpart analysis, we found that the false positive rate is less than 1%.

Kim, Dae-Won; Protopapas, Pavlos; Trichas, Markos; Alcock, Charles [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Rowan-Robinson, Michael [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Khardon, Roni [Department of Computer Science, Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States); Byun, Yong-Ik [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-03-10

260

Diagnostic efficiency of several methods of identifying socially rejected children and effect of participation rate on classification accuracy.  

PubMed

Social rejection is associated with a wide variety of negative outcomes. Early identification of social rejection and intervention to minimize its negative impact is thus important. However, sociometric methods, which are considered high in validity for identifying socially rejected children, are frequently not used because of (a) procedural challenges, (b) community apprehension, and (c) sensitivity to missing data. In a sample of 316 students in grades K through 8, we used receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses to compare the diagnostic efficiency of several methods for identifying socially rejected children. When not using least-liked nominations, (a) most-liked nominations yielded the greatest diagnostic efficiency (AUC=.96), (b) peer ratings were more efficient (AUC=.84 to .99) than teacher ratings (AUC=.74 to .81), and (c) teacher report of social status was more efficient (AUC=.81) than scores from teacher behavior rating scales (AUC=.74 to .75). We also examined the effects of nominator non-participation on diagnostic efficiency. At participation as low as 50%, classification of sociometric rejection (i.e., being rejected or not rejected) was quite accurate (?=.63 to .77). In contrast, at participation as high as 70%, classification of sociometric status (i.e., popular, average, unclassified, neglected, controversial, or rejected) was significantly less accurate (?=.50 to .59). PMID:21930010

McKown, Clark; Gumbiner, Laura M; Johnson, Jason

2011-10-01

261

Modern-day prospecting  

SciTech Connect

Locating productive oil and mineral deposits takes a combination of money, time, and luck. However, the modern-day prospector has several new tools at his disposal. Some are conventional and relatively inexpensive; others are more innovative and high-priced. Improved seismic techniques, image processing, and some other innovative prospecting methods are described. These techniques are helping oil companies improve their exploration win-loss records.

Not Available

1984-12-01

262

A new parametric method based on S-distributions for computing receiver operating characteristic curves for continuous diagnostic tests.  

PubMed

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves provides a method for evaluating the performance of a diagnostic test. These curves represent the true positive ratio, that is, the true positives among those affected by the disease, as a function of the false positive ratio, that is, the false positives among the healthy, corresponding to each possible value of the diagnostic variable. When the diagnostic variable is continuous, the corresponding ROC curve is also continuous. However, estimation of such curve through the analysis of sample data yields a step-line, unless some assumption is made on the underlying distribution of the considered variable. Since the actual distribution of the diagnostic test is seldom known, it is difficult to select an appropriate distribution for practical use. Data transformation may offer a solution but also may introduce a distortion on the evaluation of the diagnostic test. In this paper we show that the distribution family known as the S-distribution can be used to solve this problem. The S-distribution is defined as a differential equation in which the dependent variable is the cumulative. This special form provides a highly flexible family of distributions that can be used as models for unknown distributions. It has been shown that classical statistical distributions can be represented accurately as S-distributions and that they occur in a definite subspace of the parameter space corresponding to the whole S-distribution family. Consequently, many other distributional forms that do not correspond to known distributions are provided by the S-distribution. This property can be used to model observed data for unknown distributions and is very useful in constructing parametric ROC curves in those cases. After fitting an S-distribution to the observed samples of diseased and healthy populations, ROC curve computation is straightforward. A ROC curve can be considered as the solution of a differential equation in which the dependent variable is the ratio of true positives and the independent variable is the ratio of false positives. This equation can be easily obtained from the S-distributions fitted to observed data. Using these results, we can compute pointwise confidence bands for the ROC curve and the corresponding area under the curve. We shall compare this approach with the empirical and the binormal methods for estimating a ROC curve to show that the S-distribution based method is a useful parametric procedure. PMID:12111875

Sorribas, Albert; March, Jaume; Trujillano, Javier

2002-05-15

263

[The statement of Polish Society's Experts Group concerning diagnostics and methods of endometriosis treatment].  

PubMed

Endometriosis is defined by endometrial glands and stroma outside of the endometrial cavity Three types of endometriosis have been described: peritoneal endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis and deep infiltrating endometriosis. Endometriosis afflicts 6-15% of women population. It occurs mainly in the group of women in reproductive age, but also in the group of minors and approximately 3% of women after menopause. Within the group of women suffering from infertility the frequency of endometriosis increased to 35-50% of cases. Endometriosis is associated with pain symptoms which can bear the character of pain occurring periodically and altering into constant pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, dysuria and dyschezia. The correlation between the stage of endometriosis and intensity of pain symptoms not always has to be proportionate. Laparoscopy can be perceived as a standard procedure in endometriosis diagnostics as it allows simultaneous treatment. Profound interview as well as visual diagnostics (USG, MRI) should precede laparoscopy Treatment of endometriosis can be divided into pharmacological and surgical treatment, which can be invasive or non-invasive. The type of treatment depends on patient's age and her procreation plans, occurring ailments and endometriosis type. Important role is played by adjuvant treatment such as appropriate diet and lifestyle. Treatment of advanced endometriosis should be conducted in reference centres that are appointed with adequate equipment and have the possibility of interdisciplinary treatment. Presented standards can digest and outline the order of proceedings both in diagnostics and endometriosis treatment. The research group believes that the above compilation will facilitate undertaking appropriate decision in diagnosis and treatment of the disease, which will subsequently contribute to therapeutic success. PMID:23379199

Basta, Antoni; Brucka, Aleksandra; Górski, Jaros?aw; Kotarski, Jan; Kulig, Bartosz; Oszukowski, Przemys?aw; Poreba, Ryszard; Radowicki, Stanis?aw; Radwan, Jerzy; Sikora, Jerzy; Skret, Andrzej; Skrzypczak, Jana; Szy??o, Krzysztof

2012-11-01

264

Genetic mutation underlying orthostatic intolerance and diagnostic and therapeutic methods relating thereto  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isolated polynucleotide molecules and peptides encoded by these molecules are used in the analysis of human norepinephrine (NE) transporter variants, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, relating to a human NE transporter polymorphism. By analyzing genomic DNA or amplified genomic DNA, or amplified cDNA derived from mRNA, it is possible to type a human NE transporter with regard to the human NE transporter polymorphism, for example, in the context of diagnosing and treating NE transport impairments, and disorders associated with NE transport impairments, such as orthostatic intolerance.

Robertson, David (Inventor); Blakely, Randy D. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

265

Use of Expert Panels to Define the Reference Standard in Diagnostic Research: A Systematic Review of Published Methods and Reporting  

PubMed Central

Background In diagnostic studies, a single and error-free test that can be used as the reference (gold) standard often does not exist. One solution is the use of panel diagnosis, i.e., a group of experts who assess the results from multiple tests to reach a final diagnosis in each patient. Although panel diagnosis, also known as consensus or expert diagnosis, is frequently used as the reference standard, guidance on preferred methodology is lacking. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of methods used in panel diagnoses and to provide initial guidance on the use and reporting of panel diagnosis as reference standard. Methods and Findings PubMed was systematically searched for diagnostic studies applying a panel diagnosis as reference standard published up to May 31, 2012. We included diagnostic studies in which the final diagnosis was made by two or more persons based on results from multiple tests. General study characteristics and details of panel methodology were extracted. Eighty-one studies were included, of which most reported on psychiatry (37%) and cardiovascular (21%) diseases. Data extraction was hampered by incomplete reporting; one or more pieces of critical information about panel reference standard methodology was missing in 83% of studies. In most studies (75%), the panel consisted of three or fewer members. Panel members were blinded to the results of the index test results in 31% of studies. Reproducibility of the decision process was assessed in 17 (21%) studies. Reported details on panel constitution, information for diagnosis and methods of decision making varied considerably between studies. Conclusions Methods of panel diagnosis varied substantially across studies and many aspects of the procedure were either unclear or not reported. On the basis of our review, we identified areas for improvement and developed a checklist and flow chart for initial guidance for researchers conducting and reporting of studies involving panel diagnosis. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Bertens, Loes C. M.; Broekhuizen, Berna D. L.; Naaktgeboren, Christiana A.; Rutten, Frans H.; Hoes, Arno W.; van Mourik, Yvonne; Moons, Karel G. M.; Reitsma, Johannes B.

2013-01-01

266

Image-guided dissection of human white matter tracts as a new method of modern neuroanatomical training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuronavigation is a kind of image-guided surgery used during neurosurgical procedures. Based on specific equipment which is compatible with the software calculating and processing the patient's data; this method allows the determina- tion of the location of anatomical structures and visualisation of surgical instru- ments in the operative field. Although standard brain dissection is still the best method of neuroanatomical

T. Skadorwa; J. Kunicki; P. Nauman; B. Ciszek

267

Method for assessing the reliability of molecular diagnostics based on multiplexed SERS-coded nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles have been engineered to generate unique fingerprint spectra and are potentially useful as bright contrast agents for molecular diagnostics. One promising strategy for biomedical diagnostics and imaging is to functionalize various particle types ("flavors"), each emitting a unique spectral signature, to target a large multiplexed panel of molecular biomarkers. While SERS particles emit narrow spectral features that allow them to be easily separable under ideal conditions, the presence of competing noise sources and background signals such as detector noise, laser background, and autofluorescence confounds the reliability of demultiplexing algorithms. Results obtained during time-constrained in vivo imaging experiments may not be reproducible or accurate. Therefore, our goal is to provide experimentalists with a metric that may be monitored to enforce a desired bound on accuracy within a user-defined confidence level. We have defined a spectral reliability index (SRI), based on the output of a direct classical least-squares (DCLS) demultiplexing routine, which provides a measure of the reliability of the computed nanoparticle concentrations and ratios. We present simulations and experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of this strategy, which can potentially be utilized for a range of instruments and biomedical applications involving multiplexed SERS nanoparticles. PMID:23620806

Leigh, Steven Y; Som, Madhura; Liu, Jonathan T C

2013-01-01

268

Medical diagnosis aboard submarines. Use of a computer-based Bayesian method of analysis in an abdominal pain diagnostic program.  

PubMed

The medical issues that arise in the isolated environment of a submarine can occasionally be grave. While crewmembers are carefully screened for health problems, they are still susceptible to serious acute illness. Currently, the submarine medical department representative, the hospital corpsman, utilizes a history and physical examination, clinical acumen, and limited laboratory testing in diagnosis. The application of a Bayesian method of analysis to an abdominal pain diagnostic system utilizing an onboard microcomputer is described herein. Early results from sea trials show an appropriate diagnosis in eight of 10 cases of abdominal pain, but the program should still be viewed as an extended "laboratory test" until proved effective at sea. PMID:6368770

Osborne, S F

1984-02-01

269

Improved Data Acquisition Methods for Uninterrupted Signal Monitoring and Ultra-Fast Plasma Diagnostics in LHD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To deal with endless data streams acquired in LHD steady-state experiments, the LHD data acquisition system was designed with a simple concept that divides a long pulse into a consecutive series of 10-s “subshots”. Latest digitizers applying high-speed PCI-Express technology, however, output nonstop gigabyte per second data streams whose subshot intervals would be extremely long if 10-s rule was applied. These digitizers need shorter subshot intervals, less than 10-s long. In contrast, steady-state fusion plants need uninterrupted monitoring of the environment and device soundness. They adopt longer subshot lengths of either 10 min or 1 day. To cope with both uninterrupted monitoring and ultra-fast diagnostics, the ability to vary the subshot length according to the type of operation is required. In this study, a design modification that enables variable subshot lengths was implemented and its practical effectiveness in LHD was verified.

Nakanishi, Hideya; Imazu, Setsuo; Ohsuna, Masaki; Kojima, Mamoru; Nonomura, Miki; Shoji, Mamoru; Emoto, Masahiko; Yoshida, Masanobu; Iwata, Chie; Miyake, Hitoshi; Nagayama, Yoshio; Kawahata, Kazuo

270

Investigation of the Utilization of Modern Industrial Methods, Processes, Ergonomics, and the Internet in the Scientific Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Oct. 1, 2001 Cleveland State University and NASA Glenn Research Center embarked on the above named cooperative agreement. Because NASA's research facilities often exhibit instances where the failure to use state-of-the-art technologies and methods to improve on outmoded systems of interface and control, and this runs contrary to the NASA philosophy of "faster, better, and cheaper", it was deemed an ideal opportunity for this collaboration. The main objectives of the proposed effort were to research and investigate the use of the latest technologies, methods, techniques, etc. which pertain to control and interface with industrial and research systems and facilities. The work was done in large part at NASA Glenn Research Center, using selected research facilities as real-world laboratories; such as certain Microgravity Science Division and Space Station projects. Microgravity Science Division at Glenn Research Center designs and builds experiments to be flown on the Space Shuttle and eventually on the International Space Station. Economy of space, weight, complexity, data storage, ergonomics, and many other factors present problems that also exist in industry. Many of the solutions can come from the same areas of study mentioned above.

Myer, Spencer S., Jr.

2005-01-01

271

Multi-Method Analysis of MRI Images in Early Diagnostics of Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

The role of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming more and more emphasized in the early diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to assess the improvement in classification accuracy that can be achieved by combining features from different structural MRI analysis techniques. Automatically estimated MR features used are hippocampal volume, tensor-based morphometry, cortical thickness and a novel technique based on manifold learning. Baseline MRIs acquired from all 834 subjects (231 healthy controls (HC), 238 stable mild cognitive impairment (S-MCI), 167 MCI to AD progressors (P-MCI), 198 AD) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database were used for evaluation. We compared the classification accuracy achieved with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machines (SVM). The best results achieved with individual features are 90% sensitivity and 84% specificity (HC/AD classification), 64%/66% (S-MCI/P-MCI) and 82%/76% (HC/P-MCI) with the LDA classifier. The combination of all features improved these results to 93% sensitivity and 85% specificity (HC/AD), 67%/69% (S-MCI/P-MCI) and 86%/82% (HC/P-MCI). Compared with previously published results in the ADNI database using individual MR-based features, the presented results show that a comprehensive analysis of MRI images combining multiple features improves classification accuracy and predictive power in detecting early AD. The most stable and reliable classification was achieved when combining all available features.

Koikkalainen, Juha; Niskanen, Eini; Zhang, Dong Ping; Rueckert, Daniel; Soininen, Hilkka; Lotjonen, Jyrki

2011-01-01

272

A diagnostic for determining the quality of single-reference electron correlation methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was recently proposed that the Euclidian norm of the t sub 1 vector of the coupled cluster wave function (normalized by the number of electrons included in the correlation procedure) could be used to determine whether a single-reference-based electron correlation procedure is appropriate. This diagnostic, T sub 1, is defined for use with self consistent field molecular orbitals and is invariant to the same orbital rotations as the coupled cluster energy. T sub 1 is investigated for several different chemical systems which exhibit a range of multireference behavior, and is shown to be an excellent measure of the importance of nondynamical electron correlation and is far superior to C sub 0 from a singles and doubles configuration interaction wave function. It is further suggested that when the aim is to recover a large fraction of the dynamical electron correlation energy, a large T sub 1 (i.e., greater than 0.02) probably indicates the need for a multireference electron correlation procedure.

Lee, Timothy J.; Taylor, Peter R.

1989-01-01

273

A diagnostic for determining the quality of single-reference electron correlation methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was recently proposed that the Euclidian norm of the t(sub 1) vector of the coupled cluster wave function (normalized by the number of electrons included in the correlation procedure) could be used to determine whether a single-reference-based electron correlation procedure is appopriate. This diagnostic, T(sub 1) is defined for use with self-consistent-field molecular orbitals and is invariant to the same orbital rotations as the coupled cluster energy. T(sub 1) is investigated for several different chemical systems which exhibit a range of multireference behavior, and is shown to be an excellent measure of the importance of non-dynamical electron correlation and is far superior to C(sub 0) from a singles and doubles configuration interaction wave function. It is further suggested that when the aim is to recover a large fraction of the dynamical electron correlation energy, a large T(sub 1) (i.e., greater than 0.02) probably indicates the need for a multireference electron correlation procedure.

Lee, Timothy J.; Taylor, Peter R.

1989-01-01

274

Nasal discharge cytology an important diagnostic method for allergic fungal sinusitis: report of three cases.  

PubMed

Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a distinct clinicopathological entity. It occurs in immunocompetent individuals with history of atopy, increased IgE levels and peripheral eosinophilia and causes noninvasive pansinusitis. It is histologically characterised by the presence of 'allergic mucin' with clusters of eosinophils, charcot - Leyden crystals and scattered fungal hyphae. AFS is an immunological reaction to fungal deposits. As AFS is noninvasive, fungal hyphae can be demonstrated in nasal secretions on cytology. Etiological agent of AFS is Aspergillus or pigmented dematiaceous family. Special stains are helpful for identification. We came across three cases of age group ranging from 26 to 60-year of recurrent rhinitis with nasal discharge. The nasal secretions were collected by nasal swabs onto the glass slide and stained with Giemsa and silver stains. Smears revealed fungal hyphae amidst inflammatory cells with occasional Charcot-Leyden crystals. Nasal secretion cytology plays an important role in diagnosis and can be used for preoperative as well as intraoperative diagnosis of AFS and can be used as an additional diagnostic tool. PMID:24783101

Rane, Sharada Raju; Kadgi, Nalini Vinayak; Agrawal, Sonal Ashok; Kavatkar, Anita Neelkanth

2014-03-01

275

Sub-clinical diseases affecting performance in Standardbred trotters: diagnostic methods and predictive parameters.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical diseases in poorly-performing Standardbred horses, compare their physiological response to exercise with control horses, and identify predictive parameters of poor-performance. Fifty horses underwent thorough clinical and ancillary examinations, including haematological and biochemical evaluation, Doppler echocardiography, standardised exercise tests (SETs) on both treadmill and racetrack, treadmill video-endoscopy and collection of respiratory fluids. Most of the poorly-performing horses exhibited many concomitant diseases. The most frequently diagnosed problems involved the lower and upper respiratory tract and the musculoskeletal system. Poor-performers had lower speeds at a blood lactate (LA) concentration of 4mmol/L (V(LA4)) and a heart rate (HR) of 200bpm (V(200)) on treadmill and racetrack, as well as lower values for haematological parameters, plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme and antioxidants, compared to control horses. Problems of the respiratory system were the most frequently diagnosed sub-clinical diseases affecting performance. SETs, together with some blood markers, may be useful as a non-specific diagnostic tool for early detection of diseases that may affect performance. PMID:19477143

Richard, Eric A; Fortier, Guillaume D; Pitel, Pierre-Hugues; Dupuis, Marie-Capucine; Valette, Jean-Paul; Art, Tatiana; Denoix, Jean-Marie; Lekeux, Pierre M; Erck, Emmanuelle Van

2010-06-01

276

Nasal Discharge Cytology an Important Diagnostic Method for Allergic Fungal Sinusitis: Report of Three Cases  

PubMed Central

Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a distinct clinicopathological entity. It occurs in immunocompetent individuals with history of atopy, increased IgE levels and peripheral eosinophilia and causes noninvasive pansinusitis. It is histologically characterised by the presence of ‘allergic mucin’ with clusters of eosinophils, charcot – Leyden crystals and scattered fungal hyphae. AFS is an immunological reaction to fungal deposits. As AFS is noninvasive, fungal hyphae can be demonstrated in nasal secretions on cytology. Etiological agent of AFS is Aspergillus or pigmented dematiaceous family. Special stains are helpful for identification. We came across three cases of age group ranging from 26 to 60-year of recurrent rhinitis with nasal discharge. The nasal secretions were collected by nasal swabs onto the glass slide and stained with Giemsa and silver stains. Smears revealed fungal hyphae amidst inflammatory cells with occasional Charcot-Leyden crystals. Nasal secretion cytology plays an important role in diagnosis and can be used for preoperative as well as intraoperative diagnosis of AFS and can be used as an additional diagnostic tool.

Rane, Sharada Raju; Kadgi, Nalini Vinayak; Agrawal, Sonal Ashok; Kavatkar, Anita Neelkanth

2014-01-01

277

Methods Developed by the Tools for Engine Diagnostics Task to Monitor and Predict Rotor Damage in Real Time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tools for Engine Diagnostics is a major task in the Propulsion System Health Management area of the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention project under NASA s Aviation Safety Program. The major goal of the Aviation Safety Program is to reduce fatal aircraft accidents by 80 percent within 10 years and by 90 percent within 25 years. The goal of the Propulsion System Health Management area is to eliminate propulsion system malfunctions as a primary or contributing factor to the cause of aircraft accidents. The purpose of Tools for Engine Diagnostics, a 2-yr-old task, is to establish and improve tools for engine diagnostics and prognostics that measure the deformation and damage of rotating engine components at the ground level and that perform intermittent or continuous monitoring on the engine wing. In this work, nondestructive-evaluation- (NDE-) based technology is combined with model-dependent disk spin experimental simulation systems, like finite element modeling (FEM) and modal norms, to monitor and predict rotor damage in real time. Fracture mechanics time-dependent fatigue crack growth and damage-mechanics-based life estimation are being developed, and their potential use investigated. In addition, wireless eddy current and advanced acoustics are being developed for on-wing and just-in-time NDE engine inspection to provide deeper access and higher sensitivity to extend on-wing capabilities and improve inspection readiness. In the long run, these methods could establish a base for prognostic sensing while an engine is running, without any overt actions, like inspections. This damage-detection strategy includes experimentally acquired vibration-, eddy-current- and capacitance-based displacement measurements and analytically computed FEM-, modal norms-, and conventional rotordynamics-based models of well-defined damages and critical mass imbalances in rotating disks and rotors.

Baaklini, George Y.; Smith, Kevin; Raulerson, David; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Brasche, Lisa

2003-01-01

278

On the understanding and development of modern physical neurorehabilitation methods: robotics and non-invasive brain stimulation  

PubMed Central

The incidence of physical disability in the community resulting from neurological dysfunction is predicted to increase in the coming years. The impetus for immediate and critical evaluation of physical neurorehabilitation strategies stems from the largely incomplete recovery following neurological damage, questionable efficacy of individual rehabilitation techniques, and the progressive acceptance of evidence-based medicine. The emergent technologies of non-invasive brain stimulation (NBS) and rehabilitation robotics enable a better understanding of the recovery process, as well as the mechanisms and effectiveness of intervention. With a more precise grasp of the relationship between dysfunctional and treatment-related plasticity, we can anticipate a move toward highly controlled and individualised prescription of rehabilitation. Both robotics and NBS can also be used to enhance motor control and learning in patients with neurological dysfunction. The merit of these contemporary methods as investigative and rehabilitation tools requires clarification and discussion. In this thematic series, five cohesive and eloquent papers address this issue from leading clinicians and scientists in the fields of robotics, NBS, plasticity and motor learning.

Edwards, Dylan J

2009-01-01

279

Viral encephalitis: a review of diagnostic methods and guidelines for management.  

PubMed

Viral encephalitis is a medical emergency. The spectrum of brain involvement and the prognosis are dependent mainly on the specific pathogen and the immunological state of the host. Although specific therapy is limited to only several viral agents, correct immediate diagnosis and introduction of symptomatic and specific therapy has a dramatic influence upon survival and reduces the extent of permanent brain injury in survivors. We searched MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine) for relevant literature from 1966 to May 2004. Review articles and book chapters were also included. Recommendations are based on this literature based on our judgment of the relevance of the references to the subject. Recommendations were reached by consensus. Where there was lack of evidence but consensus was clear we have stated our opinion as good practice points. Diagnosis should be based on medical history, examination followed by analysis of cerebrospinal fluid for protein and glucose contents, cellular analysis and identification of the pathogen by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification (recommendation level A) and serology (recommendation level B). Neuroimaging, preferably by magnetic resonance imaging, is an essential aspect of evaluation (recommendation level B). Lumbar puncture can follow neuroimaging when immediately available, but if this cannot be obtained at the shortest span of time it should be delayed only in the presence of strict contraindications. Brain biopsy should be reserved only for unusual and diagnostically difficult cases. All encephalitis cases must be hospitalized with an access to intensive care units. Supportive therapy is an important basis of management. Specific, evidence-based, anti-viral therapy, acyclovir, is available for herpes encephalitis (recommendation level A). Acyclovir might also be effective for varicella-zoster virus encephalitis, gancyclovir and foscarnet for cytomegalovirus encephalitis and pleconaril for enterovirus encephalitis (IV class of evidence). Corticosteroids as an adjunct treatment for acute viral encephalitis are not generally considered to be effective and their use is controversial. Surgical decompression is indicated for impending uncal herniation or increased intracranial pressure refractory to medical management. PMID:15804262

Steiner, I; Budka, H; Chaudhuri, A; Koskiniemi, M; Sainio, K; Salonen, O; Kennedy, P G E

2005-05-01

280

Optimization method to calculate shieldings on X ray diagnostic rooms by HE and E, and verification using H*(10)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents an alternative method to the official norm, NOM-156-SSA1-1996 in order to calculate shielding parameters and its corresponding verification for X ray diagnostic rooms. We proposed a method to optimize the shielding parameters as a function of HE and E values; for verification method, we employed the Ambient Dose Equivalent (H*(10)). It is experimentally determined by the conversion coefficients between the Ambient Dose Equivalent and the Kerma in free air: H*(10)/Ka, for the beam qualities of 60, 80 and 100 kVp for a typical equipment of rays x diagnosis. The conversion coefficients values obtained are: 1.15, 1.21 and 1.29 Sv/Gy with an expanded uncertainty U(k=1) of 11.8, 11.3 and 11.8% respectively for each quality beam. Finally an illustrative example is presented to compare the standard method with the method based in optimization, in which theoretical and experimentally is proven that standard method overestimate the structural design of the shielding. .

Gutiérrez, J. G.; Alvarez, J. T.

2001-10-01

281

Comparison of modelling methods and of diagnostic of asynchronous motor in case of defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to provide the reader with a comparison base between several methods of modelling and diagnosis of faulted induction machine. In the case of high precision modelling, the paper presents several methods used to simulate the faulted induction machine such as: the extended Park model, the analytical three-phase model, the coupled magnetic circuit model, the

R. Casimir; E. Bouteleux; H. Yahoui; G. Clerc; H. Henao; C. Delmotte; G.-A. Capolino; G. Rostaing; J.-P. Rognon; E. Foulon; L. Loron; H. Razik; G. Didier; G. Houdouin; G. Barakat; B. Dakyo; S. Bachir; S. Tnani; G. Champenois; J.-C. Trigeassou; V. Devanneaux; B. Dagues; J. Faucher

2004-01-01

282

Methods and Compositions to Reduce Scattering of Light During Therapeutic and Diagnostic Imaging Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Disclosed are improved methods and compositions for use in light-based in vivo imaging and treatment. The techniques described involve the use of low-scattering, oxygen-carrying blood substitutes in imaging and treatment methods, including OCT imaging. Th...

J. W. Villard M. D. Feldman T. E. Milner

2003-01-01

283

Differences in outcome according to Clostridium difficile testing method: a prospective multicentre diagnostic validation study of C difficile infection  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection is controversial because of many laboratory methods, compounded by two reference methods. Cytotoxigenic culture detects toxigenic C difficile and gives a positive result more frequently (eg, because of colonisation, which means that individuals can have the bacterium but no free toxin) than does the cytotoxin assay, which detects preformed toxin in faeces. We aimed to validate the reference methods according to clinical outcomes and to derive an optimum laboratory diagnostic algorithm for C difficile infection. Methods In this prospective, multicentre study, we did cytotoxigenic culture and cytotoxin assays on 12?420 faecal samples in four UK laboratories. We also performed tests that represent the three main targets for C difficile detection: bacterium (glutamate dehydrogenase), toxins, or toxin genes. We used routine blood test results, length of hospital stay, and 30-day mortality to clinically validate the reference methods. Data were categorised by reference method result: group 1, cytotoxin assay positive; group 2, cytotoxigenic culture positive and cytotoxin assay negative; and group 3, both reference methods negative. Findings Clinical and reference assay data were available for 6522 inpatient episodes. On univariate analysis, mortality was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (72/435 [16·6%] vs 20/207 [9·7%], p=0·044) and in group 3 (503/5880 [8·6%], p<0·001), but not in group 2 compared with group 3 (p=0·4). A multivariate analysis accounting for potential confounders confirmed the mortality differences between groups 1 and 3 (OR 1·61, 95% CI 1·12–2·31). Multistage algorithms performed better than did standalone assays. Interpretation We noted no increase in mortality when toxigenic C difficile alone was present. Toxin (cytotoxin assay) positivity correlated with clinical outcome, and so this reference method best defines true cases of C difficile infection. A new diagnostic category of potential C difficile excretor (cytotoxigenic culture positive but cytotoxin assay negative) could be used to characterise patients with diarrhoea that is probably not due to C difficile infection, but who can cause cross-infection. Funding Department of Health and Health Protection Agency, UK.

Planche, Timothy D; Davies, Kerrie A; Coen, Pietro G; Finney, John M; Monahan, Irene M; Morris, Kirsti A; O'Connor, Lily; Oakley, Sarah J; Pope, Cassie F; Wren, Mike W; Shetty, Nandini P; Crook, Derrick W; Wilcox, Mark H

2013-01-01

284

Diagnostic markers of stroke and cerebral injury and methods of use thereof  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to methods for the diagnosis and evaluation of stroke and transient ischemic attacks. A variety of markers are disclosed for assembling a panel for such diagnosis and evaluation. In various aspects, the invention provides methods for early detection and differentiation of stroke types and transient ischemic attacks, for determining the prognosis of a patient presenting with stroke symptoms, and identifying a patient at risk for cerebral vasospasm. Invention methods provide rapid, sensitive and specific assays to greatly increase the number of patients that can receive beneficial stroke treatment and therapy, and reduce the costs associated with incorrect stroke diagnosis.

2009-10-27

285

CONCEPTUAL MODELS AND METHODS TO GUIDE DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH INTO CAUSES OF IMPAIRMENT TO AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods and conceptual models to guide the development of tools for diagnosing the causes of biological impairment within aquatic ecosystems of the United States are described in this report. The conceptual models developed here address nutrients, suspended and bedded sediments (...

286

Comparison between AmniSure placental alpha microglobulin-1 rapid immunoassay and standard diagnostic methods for detection of rupture of membranes.  

PubMed

Objective. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of placental alpha microglobulin-1 assay and standard diagnostic methods for detecting rupture of membrane. Study Design. Prospective diagnostic study, between June 2011 to November 2011 at a tertiary centre. Initial evaluation included both the standard diagnostic methods for rupture of membranes and placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay. The actual rupture of membranes was diagnosed on review of the medical records after delivery (absence of membrane or a positive pad chart). Main Outcome Measures. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay and standard diagnostic methods for diagnosis of rupture of membrane. Results. A total of 211 patients were recruited. At initial presentation, 187 patients (88.6%) had ruptured membranes, while 24 patients (11.4%) had intact membranes. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay confirmed rupture of membranes at initial presentation with a sensitivity of 95.7% (179 of 187), specificity of 100% (24 of 24), positive predictive value of 100% (179 of 179), and negative predictive value of 75.0% (24 of 32). By comparison, the conventional standard diagnostic methods had a sensitivity of 78.1% (146 of 187), specificity of 100% (24 of 24), positive predictive value of 100% (146 of 146), and negative predictive value of 36.9% (24 of 65) in diagnosing rupture of membrane. Conclusion. Placental alpha-microglobulin-1 immunoassay is a rapid and accurate method for confirming the diagnosis of rupture of membrane. It was superior to conventional standard diagnostic methods (pooling, nitrazine, and ferning), the nitrazine test alone or fern test alone. PMID:24073412

Ng, Beng Kwang; Lim, Pei Shan; Shafiee, Mohamad Nasir; Ghani, Nur Azurah Abdul; Ismail, Nor Azlin Mohamed; Omar, Mohd Hashim; Yassin, Muhammad Abdul Jamil Muhammad

2013-01-01

287

Self-mixing in a diode laser as a method for cardiovascular diagnostics.  

PubMed

Our aim is the development of a simple optical method for pulse wave profile, pulse wave delay time, and blood flow measurement. The method is based on recording the Doppler frequency shift related to a moving target--blood vessel walls or small particles. The Doppler signal is detected using the self-mixing that occurs in the diode laser cavity when radiation scatters back from the moving target into the laser and interferes with the field inside. Two different ways can be simultaneously used for the self-mixing signal extraction: a photodiode accommodated in the rear facet of the diode laser package and a resistor from the laser pump current. An experimental device with a pigtail laser diode is developed that is able to detect the pulsation of major arteries with potentially useful information, including the pulse wave profile and the pulse wave delay time. The pulse wave delay time in different regions of the human body is measured relative to the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. Also the flow velocity of a liquid suspension containing particles the size of erythrocytes (equivalent to blood flow) is measured. Registered signals are stored after digitalization and preprocessed using LabView for a Windows environment. The described device has the application of the self-mixing method and highlights significant advantages of simplicity, compactness, and robustness as well as the self-aligning and self-detecting abilities of such method, compared with the use of conventional interferometric method. PMID:12542390

Meigas, Kalju; Hinrikus, Hiie; Kattai, Rain; Lass, Jaanus

2003-01-01

288

Thermal Diagnostics with SDO/AIA: A new method and application to Eruptive Active Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new method for the retrieval of the emission measure (EM) distribution of coronal plasma using SDO/AIA EUV images. Unlike some existing EM inversion algorithms, this inversion scheme does not make assumptions about the functional form (e.g. Gaussian, power law etc.) of the solution. The method returns positive definite solutions and runs at a speed ~O(10^4) pixels per second in a Solarsoft implementation. We apply the method to a selection of eruptive active regions (ARs) to study the thermal evolution of AR loops. In terms of both morphology and temporal evolution, synthetic Hinode/XRT images calculated from EM solutions retrieved using only AIA data show good agreement with actual XRT images.

Cheung, Mark; Boerner, Paul; Testa, Paola

2014-06-01

289

A method for developing integrated numeric and symbolic models for fault diagnostic reasoning  

SciTech Connect

Model-based reasoning is a developing area of study in the artificial intelligence community. We believe that a model-based reasoner consists of two major elements; a cognitive element and an artifact element. The cognitive element models and provides for the cognitive activities and inference methods ascribed to the reasoning task. The artifact element models information about the artifact, such as structure and function. This paper discusses our methodology for developing and integrating numeric and symbolic models for reasoning about physical system faults. In this paper we only discuss our method for developing the artifact model which we designate the system-process model.

Stratton, R.C.; Jarrell, D.B.

1990-07-01

290

Review of diagnostic methods for TFTR D{endash}T radiation shielding and neutronics studies  

SciTech Connect

The methods and instrument systems used for TFTR D{endash}T radiation shielding and neutronics studies involving signal strengths ranging over 10 orders of magnitude are reviewed. Neutron and gamma dose-equivalent, fluence, spectral, and materials activation measurements have been performed at various locations from the TFTR vessel to the nearest property lines. The detection systems include {sup 3}He, BF{sub 3}, and {sup 235}U proportional counters in moderated spheres, Bonner sphere arrays, advanced thermoluminescent detectors, argon ionization chambers, intrinsic Ge gamma detectors, and activation foil spectrometry methods. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Kugel, H.W.; Ascione, G.; Gilbert, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Azziz, N.; Goldhagen, P.; Reginatto, M.; Shebell, P. [U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Measurements Laboratory, New York, New York 10014-4811 (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Measurements Laboratory, New York, New York 10014-4811 (United States); Kumar, A. [School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)] [School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

1997-01-01

291

Modern Method for Preventive Maintenance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a system at Michigan State University that comprises 16 separate programs and schedules 25,000 manhours of preventive maintenance. With information about preventive maintenance for over 100,000 units stored in its computer, the university saves personnel, time, and energy. (Author/MLF)

Wilson, Howard D.

1974-01-01

292

Global business beyond modernity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper sets out to provide global business managers and researchers with perspectives, concepts, and some tools to deal with emergent late modern conditions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Analytical discourse is employed to outline the post-enlightenment rise of modernity and rational economics. The paper critiques the nature of business institutions and practices under modernity, and points to the new conditions

Nikhilesh Dholakia; A. Fuat F?rat

2006-01-01

293

AmniSure placental alpha microglobulin-1 rapid immunoassay versus standard diagnostic methods for detection of rupture of membranes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the AmniSure rapid immunoassay with standard methods for diagnosing rupture of fetal membranes. Patients presenting with signs/symptoms of membrane rupture between 15 and 42 weeks of gestation were invited to participate. Standard/control methods were performed to establish a diagnosis and compare it with AmniSure results. AmniSure performance metrics and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. A total of 203 patients agreed to participate. Discrepancies between the control method and AmniSure were noted in seven cases. In these cases, true positives and negatives were determined by retesting with the control method and AmniSure and by noting sonographic evidence of low amniotic fluid. In the final analysis, the AmniSure diagnostic test demonstrated a sensitivity of 98.9%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 99.1%. AmniSure is highly accurate in diagnosing fetal membrane rupture. PMID:16118720

Cousins, Larry M; Smok, Dorothy P; Lovett, Stuart M; Poeltler, Deborah M

2005-08-01

294

Vibration Arthrography as a Diagnostic Method for Osteoarthritis of the Knee joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique of vibration arthrography (VAG) permits the non-invasive evaluation of internal derangements of the knee. In this method, the delicate sounds emitted from a joint are recorded by a sensitive detector which is placed on a joint, and the resultant signals are depicted by an oscilloscope. The primary objective in this study was to examine the vibration signal patterns

Pooneh Afkari

295

Urinary tract infection in general practice: Direct antibiotic sensitivity testing as a potential diagnostic method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing (DST) is a rapid means of diagnosing urinary tract infection (UTI) and obtaining antibiotic sensitivity patterns of the infecting organisms. In this study 227 urine samples from general practice were analysed using this technique and the results obtained were compared with those obtained using the standard laboratory method. DST was shown to be 94.6% sensitive, and

P. G. Scully; B. O’Shea; K. P. Flanagan; F. R. Falkiner

1990-01-01

296

A fit method for the determination of inherent filtration with diagnostic x-ray units  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the determination of total inherent filtration for clinical x-ray units using attenuation curves was devised. A model for the calculation of x-ray spectra is used to calculate kerma values which are then adjusted to the experimental data in minimizing the sum of the squared relative differences in kerma using a modified simplex fit process. The model considers

K. Meghzifene; H. Aiginger; R. Nowotny

2006-01-01

297

Diagnostic method for the magnetic field measurement in the plasma focus device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A development of the polarimeter system for measuring the azimuthal magnetic field in the plasma focus (PF) device is presented. Measurements were carried out on the PF-360 device by means of the Faraday rotation (FR) method. It was concluded that current-driven instability of plasma does not cause enhanced diffusion of the magnetic field to the moment when the MHD m=0

S. Czekaj; A. Kasperczuk; R. Miklaszewski; M. Paduch; T. Pisarczyk; Z. Wereszczynski

1989-01-01

298

A Gibbs random field-based active electromagnetic method for noninvasive diagnostics in biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to the reconstruction of dielectric properties of unknown biological bodies is proposed, which is developed starting from an integral equation formulation of the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem. A Gibbs Random Field model is used to develop a stochastic approach based on the Bayes theorem. An iterative solution is obtained by the simulated annealing technique. The method integrates

S. Caorsi; G. L. Gragnani; S. Medicina; M. Pastorino; G. A. Pinto

1995-01-01

299

Optical feedback in diagnostic methods and testing of semiconductor laser diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The asymmetries induced by optical feedback in semiconductor laser diodes inserted in optical systems provides a possible way of noninvasive monitoring laser dynamics and system properties. A method, based on a microscopic model for single-mode laser diodes with additional terms to describe optical feedback contribution, is proposed.

Marziale Milani; S. Mazzoleni; Franca Brivio

1992-01-01

300

Diagnostic methods for and clinical pictures of polyomavirus primary infections in children, Finland.  

PubMed

We used comprehensive serodiagnostic methods (IgM, IgG, and IgG avidity) and PCR to study Merkel cell polyomavirus and trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus infections in children observed from infancy to adolescence. Comparing seroconversion intervals with previous and subsequent intervals, we found that primary infections with these 2 viruses were asymptomatic in childhood. PMID:24655410

Chen, Tingting; Tanner, Laura; Simell, Ville; Hedman, Lea; Mäkinen, Marjaana; Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Veijola, Riitta; Hyöty, Heikki; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael; Toppari, Jorma; Simell, Olli; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Hedman, Klaus

2014-04-01

301

Diagnostic method for the detection of KIF5B-RET transformation in lung adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

KIF5B-RET fusions have recently been reported to occur in pulmonary adenocarcinomas, thereby being proposed as a novel genetic alteration in adenocarcinoma of the lung. However, clinically useful methods to detect RET-rearrangement in pulmonary adenocarcinoma have not been well established. 53 cases of lung adenocarcinomas harbored "triple (EGFR, KRAS and ALK)-negative" were tested for KIF5B-RET fusions using whole-transcriptome sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and long-range PCR. Dual color break-apart probes and KIF5B-RET fusion probes were used for FISH. Three different commercial antibodies against C-terminal RET protein were tested for IHC. Primers designed for 3 different variants of KIF5B-RET fusions were used for long-range PCR. Three patients (5.6%) showed RET rearrangement in whole-transcriptome sequencing, which were used as a gold standard. All those three patients were also positive in FISH for both KIF5B-RET fusion and RET break-apart probes. None of remaining patients showed positive result, resulting in 100% concordance rate of FISH and transcriptome sequencing methods. However, fused RET proteins were not detected by IHC in none of true positive patients. Moreover, 6 patients without RET fusions showed gain of gene copy number of both KIF5B and RET. All those three true positive cases were detected by long-range PCR methods and none with true negative cases were positive. Both FISH and PCR may be useful methods to detect novel KIF5B-RET rearrangements in pulmonary adenocarcinomas rather than IHC. However, as there may be additional variant of fusion mutation, FISH may be better than PCR method in terms of sensitivity. PMID:23932363

Go, Heounjeong; Jung, Yoo Jin; Kang, Hyun Woong; Park, In-Kyu; Kang, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Jung Wan; Ju, Young Seok; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Chung, Doo Hyun; Kim, Young Tae

2013-10-01

302

Development of a hemi-nested RT-PCR method for the specific determination of European Bat Lyssavirus 1. Comparison with other rabies diagnostic methods.  

PubMed

A simplified hemi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (hnRT-PCR) has been developed to determine specifically the European Bat Lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1) nucleoprotein gene. The specificity of this method was determined by using the seven genotypes of lyssavirus by RT-PCR, Southern blot and sequence analysis. Compared to the rabies diagnostic methods, the hnRT-PCR showed a higher sensitivity for the detection of small amounts of EBLV-1 virus. In view of these results, we suggest this new hnRT-PCR should be performed for the epidemiological survey of bat colonies, also providing rapid detection and genotyping of EBLV-1 until now encountered in all naturally infected bats in France. PMID:15121304

Picard-Meyer, E; Bruyère, V; Barrat, J; Tissot, E; Barrat, M J; Cliquet, F

2004-05-01

303

Modern problems of thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of energy and methods of its saving for the development of human society and life are analyzed. The importance of future use of space energy flows and energy of water and air oceans is emphasized. The authors consider the idea of the unit for production of electric energy and pure substances using sodium chloride which reserves are limitless on the planet. Looking retrospectively at the development of power engineering from the elementary fire to modern electric power station, we see that the used method of heat production, namely by direct interaction of fuel and oxidizer, is the simplest. However, it may be possible to combust coal, i.e., carbon in salt melt, for instance, sodium chloride that would be more rational and efficient. If the stated problems are solved positively, we would master all energy properties of the substance; and this is the main problem of thermodynamics being one of the sciences on energy.

Novikov, I. I.

2012-12-01

304

New immunohistochemical method for improved myotonia and chloride channel mutation diagnostics  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study was to validate the immunohistochemical assay for the diagnosis of nondystrophic myotonia and to provide full clarification of clinical disease to patients in whom basic genetic testing has failed to do so. Methods: An immunohistochemical assay of sarcolemmal chloride channel abundance using 2 different ClC1-specific antibodies. Results: This method led to the identification of new mutations, to the reclassification of W118G in CLCN1 as a moderately pathogenic mutation, and to confirmation of recessive (Becker) myotonia congenita in cases when only one recessive CLCN1 mutation had been identified by genetic testing. Conclusions: We have developed a robust immunohistochemical assay that can detect loss of sarcolemmal ClC-1 protein on muscle sections. This in combination with gene sequencing is a powerful approach to achieving a final diagnosis of nondystrophic myotonia.

Penttila, Sini; Suominen, Tiina; Kaakinen, Mika; Burge, James; Haworth, Andrea; Sud, Richa; Schorge, Stephanie; Haapasalo, Hannu; Sandell, Satu; Metsikko, Kalervo; Hanna, Michael; Udd, Bjarne

2012-01-01

305

Optimization of parodontium tissue irradiation method for fluorescent diagnostic (FD) and photodynamic therapy (PDT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last several years research activities have been conducted to study PDT availability in stomatology for pathogenic microflora suppression, which presence causes different kinds of oral cavity inflammatory disease. Studies indicate that PDT can be alternative to traditional antibiotic therapy. We carried out research in order to determine the optimal method of tooth irradiation to provide necessary therapeutic radiation dose for affected parodontium tissue in case of inflammatory disease. These data can be used for fiber-optic catheter positioning for further influence on oral cavity nidus of inflammation during PDT and PD. 20 teeth ex vivo were examined. Teeth were irradiated with diode laser (680 nm). In different teeth regions laser radiation intensity was measured by LESA-01-Biospec spectrometer. Optimal radiation method for PDT and PD was found.

Sinyaeva, Maria L.; Mamedov, Ad. A.; Lervkin, V. V.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Volkova, Anna I.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Berezin, Anatoly N.; Kiselev, Gennady L.

2004-06-01

306

[Study on diagnostic methods of breathing disorders based on fuzzy logic inference and the neural network].  

PubMed

This paper descries a new non-invasive method for diagnosis of breathing disorders based on adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). In this method, PetCO2, SpO2 and HR are chosen as inputs, and the breathing condition is selected as output ofANFIS. The inputs and output are then classified into fuzzy subsets by experts' knowledge. After, the fuzzy IF-THEN rules are built up according to the corresponding membership functions by set up of fuzzy subsets. The neural network was finally established and the membership functions and fuzzy rules were optimized by training. The results of experiment shows that ANFIS is more effective than BP Network regarding the diagnosis of breathing disorders. PMID:22097748

Chen, Min; Yin, Xuezhi

2011-07-01

307

Frequency of parvovirus B19 infection in nonimmune hydrops fetalis and utility of three diagnostic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of parvovirus B19 (PV) infection in cases of “idiopathic” nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) is reported to be approximately 16% with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Antibodies for use in paraffin-embedded tissue have not been systematically compared with PCR or with the presence of inclusions at varying gestational ages. All autopsy cases of NIHF and those with effusions of

Lydia R Essary; Cindy L Vnencak-jones; Suzanne S Manning; Sandra J Olson; Joyce E Johnson

1998-01-01

308

Comparison of the finite element and finite difference methods in a diagnostic regional wind field model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study was undertaken to investigate the similarities and differences between the finite element and finite difference methods of numerically approximating an objective analysis equation. Both models are three-dimensional, time-independent, and incorporate terrain in adjusting a field of observed three-component velocities to achieve mass-consistency. Principles from the calculus of variations are utilized in developing model equatons. The variational approach

1979-01-01

309

Mesenteric vascular occlusion: a new diagnostic method using a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody reactive with platelets  

SciTech Connect

A new method for diagnosing mesenteric vaso-occlusive bowel disease with the use of radioimmunoscintigraphy was developed and tested in experimental models of arterial and venous disease, as well as in a model simulating bowel strangulation. The method involves the use of a monoclonal antibody fragment mixture that binds to platelets. The antibody was labeled with technetium-99m, and imaging was performed with a gamma camera in the planar and single photon emission computed tomography modes. This method allowed visualization of areas of ischemia of 1-6 hours duration in bowel loops in 19 dogs 90-180 minutes after injection of the radiolabeled antibody. No bowel radioactivity accumulation occurred in dogs that underwent the same surgical procedure but were given a nonspecific Tc-99m-labeled antibody or in normal dogs given the specific antibody. It appears that the radiolabeled antibody used, which has higher reactivity with human platelets than with dog platelets, will be a good agent for noninvasive diagnosis of mesenteric vaso-occlusive disease in humans. It may also play a role in the intraoperative determination of the extent and location of ischemic bowel segments.

Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Zamora, P.O. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (USA))

1989-06-01

310

Diagnostic possibilities with multidimensional images in head and neck area using efficient registration and visualization methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For several diseases in the head and neck area different imaging modalities are applied to the same patient.Each of these image data sets has its specific advantages and disadvantages. The combination of different methods allows to make the best use of the advantageous properties of each method while minimizing the impact of its negative aspects. Soft tissue alterations can be judged better in an MRI image while it may be unrecognizable in the relating CT. Bone tissue, on the other hand, is optimally imaged in CT. Inflammatory nuclei of the bone can be detected best by their increased signal in SPECT. Only the combination of all modalities let the physical come to an exact statement on pathological processes that involve multiple tissue structures. Several surfaces and voxel based matching functions we have tested allowed a precise merging by means of numerical optimization methods like e.g. simulated annealing without the complicated assertion of fiducial markers or the localization landmarks in 2D cross sectional slice images. The quality of the registration depends on the choice of the optimization procedure according to the complexity of the matching function landscape. Precise correlation of the multimodal head and neck area images together with its 2D and 3D presentation techniques provides a valuable tool for physicians.

Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian U.; Krol, Zdzislaw; Sader, Robert; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Gerhardt, Paul; Schweiger, Markus; Horch, Hans-Henning

1997-05-01

311

Target detection in diagnostic ultrasound: Evaluation of a method based on the CLEAN algorithm.  

PubMed

A technique is proposed for the detection of abnormalities (targets) in ultrasound images using little or no a priori information and requiring little operator intervention. The scheme is a combination of the CLEAN algorithm, originally proposed for radio astronomy, and constant false alarm rate (CFAR) processing, as developed for use in radar systems. The CLEAN algorithm identifies areas in the ultrasound image that stand out above a threshold in relation to the background; CFAR techniques allow for an adaptive, semi-automated, selection of the threshold. Neither appears to have been previously used for target detection in ultrasound images and never together in any context. As a first step towards assessing the potential of this method we used a widely used method of simulating B-mode images (Field II). We assumed the use of a 256 element linear array operating at 3.0MHz into a water-like medium containing a density of point scatterers sufficient to simulate a background of fully developed speckle. Spherical targets with diameters ranging from 0.25 to 6.0mm and contrasts ranging from 0 to 12dB relative to the background were used as test objects. Using a contrast-detail analysis, the probability of detection curves indicate these targets can be consistently detected within a speckle background. Our results indicate that the method has considerable promise for the semi-automated detection of abnormalities with diameters greater than a few millimeters, depending on the contrast. PMID:22853949

Masoom, Hassan; Adve, Raviraj S; Cobbold, Richard S C

2013-02-01

312

Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents  

DOEpatents

A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. 13 figs.

Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G.; Dees, H.C.

1998-11-10

313

Methods for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents  

DOEpatents

A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method comprises the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention also provides a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent.

Wachter, Eric A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fisher, Walter G. (Knoxville, TN); Dees, H. Craig (Knoxville, TN)

2008-03-18

314

Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents  

DOEpatents

A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent.

Wachter, Eric A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fisher, Walter G. (Knoxville, TN); Dees, H. Craig (Knoxville, TN)

1998-01-01

315

Diagnostic Accuracy and Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Methods for Detection of Soil-Transmitted Helminths in a Post-Treatment Setting in Western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC methods for detection of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in a post-treatment setting in western Kenya. A cost analysis also explores the cost implications of collecting samples during school surveys when compared to household surveys. Methods Stool samples were collected from children (n?=?652) attending 18 schools in Bungoma County and diagnosed by the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC coprological methods. Sensitivity and additional diagnostic performance measures were analyzed using Bayesian latent class modeling. Financial and economic costs were calculated for all survey and diagnostic activities, and cost per child tested, cost per case detected and cost per STH infection correctly classified were estimated. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the impact of various survey parameters on cost estimates. Results Both diagnostic methods exhibited comparable sensitivity for detection of any STH species over single and consecutive day sampling: 52.0% for single day Kato-Katz; 49.1% for single-day Mini-FLOTAC; 76.9% for consecutive day Kato-Katz; and 74.1% for consecutive day Mini-FLOTAC. Diagnostic performance did not differ significantly between methods for the different STH species. Use of Kato-Katz with school-based sampling was the lowest cost scenario for cost per child tested ($10.14) and cost per case correctly classified ($12.84). Cost per case detected was lowest for Kato-Katz used in community-based sampling ($128.24). Sensitivity analysis revealed the cost of case detection for any STH decreased non-linearly as prevalence rates increased and was influenced by the number of samples collected. Conclusions The Kato-Katz method was comparable in diagnostic sensitivity to the Mini-FLOTAC method, but afforded greater cost-effectiveness. Future work is required to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of STH surveillance in different settings.

Kepha, Stella; Kihara, Jimmy H.; Njenga, Sammy M.; Pullan, Rachel L.; Brooker, Simon J.

2014-01-01

316

Modern quantitative schlieren techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Schlieren optical techniques have traditionally been used to qualitatively visualize refractive flowfields in transparent media. Modern schlieren optics, however, are increasingly focused on obtaining quantitative information such as temperature and density fields in a flow -- once the sole purview of interferometry -- without the need for coherent illumination. Quantitative data are obtained from schlieren images by integrating the measured refractive index gradient to obtain the refractive index field in an image. Ultimately this is converted to a density or temperature field using the Gladstone-Dale relationship, an equation of state, and geometry assumptions for the flowfield of interest. Several quantitative schlieren methods are reviewed here, including background-oriented schlieren (BOS), schlieren using a weak lens as a "standard," and "rainbow schlieren." Results are presented for the application of these techniques to measure density and temperature fields across a supersonic turbulent boundary layer and a low-speed free-convection boundary layer in air. Modern equipment, including digital cameras, LED light sources, and computer software that make this possible are also discussed.

Hargather, Michael; Settles, Gary

2010-11-01

317

A New Method for Diagnostics of Subsurface Magnetic Fields and Flows from Time-Distance Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new method of obtaining the information on plasma flows and magnetic fileds below the visible surface using the time-distance measurements. The recent advent of time-distance tomography (Duvall et al. 1993) consisting in the discovery that allows to measure directly the travel time between any point on the solar surface and a surrounding annulus, opens the efficient ways to study the structure and dynamics of the solar interior. We suggest to use sin ntheta and cos ntheta convolutions of the propagation time tau_ ? measured between any point inside the annulus with the prescribed azimuthal angle theta : \\bar {\\tau}_c^{(n)} ;=;\\frac{1}{2\\pi} \\int\\limits0^{2\\pi} \\tau(\\theta)\\cos n\\theta d\\theta \\qquad \\bar {\\tau}_s^{(n)} ;=;\\frac{1}{2\\pi} \\int\\limits0^{2\\pi} \\tau(\\theta)\\sin n\\theta d\\theta Using the approximation of geometrical acoustics and assuming that the magnetic effects are small, we find that the first harmonics (n=1) contain an information predominantly on the direction and absolute value of the horizontal flow velocity, while the second harmonics (n=2) predominantly describes orientation and absolute value of the horizontal magnetic field. The data obtained for the different annuli give a topology and absolute values of the mass flows and magnetic fields at the different depths. We discuss the effects of discrete mesh on the accuracy in measurements of propagation time. The advantage of the method consists in the fact that we do not need any specific choice of the measurement mesh; the method itself establishes a rule by which one can use any a priori chosen mesh to find the distribution of horizontal magnetic fields and flows. This research is supported by NASA contract NAG5-3077 at Stanford University. References Duvall, T..L.Jr., S.M.Jefferies, J.W. Harvey and M.A.Pomerantz, 1993, Nature, 362, 430.

Ryutova, M.

1996-05-01

318

Comparative analysis of the methods of drug and protein delivery for the treatment of cancer, genetic diseases and diagnostics.  

PubMed

The methods of protein and drug delivery for the treatment of cancer, genetic diseases and diagnostics were summarized. The potential of protein transduction is discussed and the recent developments in the field are reviewed. An overview is provided of the non-viral delivery methods such as liposomes, polymer-based delivery, cell-penetrating peptides, bacterial secretion, cells, virosomes, physical methods including electroporation, microinjection, osmotic lysis, nanoparticles, sonoporation to locally inject therapeutic molecules. The characteristic properties of non-viral vectors and their use for the delivery of therapeutic molecules for the diagnosis and treatment of disorders and to target tumors are also discussed. The potential of the transduced peptides and proteins was used as new therapeutic compounds against infectious diseases, to complement deficiencies in specific genes, to specifically kill tumour cells, for gene therapy. The protein delivery vectors can enhance the transfection at low concentrations and help to develop future gene delivery systems with reduced toxicity. Vitamin B12, folic acid, biotin, and riboflavin are essential in the treatment of cancer. Ultrasound has a potential in the delivery of therapeutic agents. The new developing technologies of drug delivery and targeting offer the possibility to improve the therapeutic possibilities of the existing drugs and to develop novel therapeutics. PMID:21864112

Todorova, Roumiana

2011-11-01

319

Superparamagnetic-bead Based Method: An Effective DNA Extraction from Dried Blood Spots (DBS) for Diagnostic PCR  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Storing blood as dried spots on filter paper is a trustworthy approach used in genetic screening issues which justifies the necessity for a reliable DNA extraction method. The present work aims to investigate the effectiveness of superparamagnetic-bead based method in extracting DNA from dried blood spots (DBS). Materials and Methods: Sixteen venous blood samples collected in K3-EDTA tubes (400?l of whole blood) were used for the spotting (4 circles each 100?l) on Ahlstrom 226 grad filter papers, for extraction and comparison. To ensure effectiveness, the extracted DNA was checked for quantity using the Quant-iT™ dsDNA Broad-Range Assay Kit and for quality by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 344 bp segment of the HBB gene. Hybridization assays based on the dynamic allele specific hybridization (DASH) technique for two hemoglobin beta (HBB) mutations in genomic DNA extracted from DBS of ß-thalassemia patients were also performed to ensure the quality of extraction. Results: The results revealed a compatible effectiveness of the superparamagnetic-bead based method in extracting DNA from DBS particularly when incubating the DBS with lysis buffers BL+BLM overnight. A mean concentration of 21ng/ ?l was obtained with lysis buffers BL+BLM overnight incubation compared to 5.2 ng/?l for 2 h incubation with lysis buffers BL+BLM and 4.7 ng/?l when extraction performed using the lysis buffer BLM alone. Moreover, PCR amplification of 344 bp segment of the HBB showed a good quality of the extracted DNA. Conclusion: It was concluded that the superparamagnetic-bead based method is a reliable and effective method for DNA extraction from DBS and can be adopted for genetic diagnostic purposes.

2014-01-01

320

Superparamagnetic-bead Based Method: An Effective DNA Extraction from Dried Blood Spots (DBS) for Diagnostic PCR.  

PubMed

Introduction: Storing blood as dried spots on filter paper is a trustworthy approach used in genetic screening issues which justifies the necessity for a reliable DNA extraction method. The present work aims to investigate the effectiveness of superparamagnetic-bead based method in extracting DNA from dried blood spots (DBS). Materials and Methods: Sixteen venous blood samples collected in K3-EDTA tubes (400?l of whole blood) were used for the spotting (4 circles each 100?l) on Ahlstrom 226 grad filter papers, for extraction and comparison. To ensure effectiveness, the extracted DNA was checked for quantity using the Quant-iT™ dsDNA Broad-Range Assay Kit and for quality by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 344 bp segment of the HBB gene. Hybridization assays based on the dynamic allele specific hybridization (DASH) technique for two hemoglobin beta (HBB) mutations in genomic DNA extracted from DBS of ß-thalassemia patients were also performed to ensure the quality of extraction. Results: The results revealed a compatible effectiveness of the superparamagnetic-bead based method in extracting DNA from DBS particularly when incubating the DBS with lysis buffers BL+BLM overnight. A mean concentration of 21ng/ ?l was obtained with lysis buffers BL+BLM overnight incubation compared to 5.2 ng/?l for 2 h incubation with lysis buffers BL+BLM and 4.7 ng/?l when extraction performed using the lysis buffer BLM alone. Moreover, PCR amplification of 344 bp segment of the HBB showed a good quality of the extracted DNA. Conclusion: It was concluded that the superparamagnetic-bead based method is a reliable and effective method for DNA extraction from DBS and can be adopted for genetic diagnostic purposes. PMID:24959449

Sirdah, Mahmoud Mohammed

2014-04-01

321

The Visualization of Biofilms in Chronic Diabetic Foot Wounds Using Routine Diagnostic Microscopy Methods  

PubMed Central

Diabetic foot wounds are commonly colonised by taxonomically diverse microbial communities and may additionally be infected with specific pathogens. Since biofilms are demonstrably less susceptible to antimicrobial agents than are planktonic bacteria, and may be present in chronic wounds, there is increasing interest in their aetiological role. In the current investigation, the presence of structured microbial assemblages in chronic diabetic foot wounds is demonstrated using several visualization methods. Debridement samples, collected from the foot wounds of diabetic patients, were histologically sectioned and examined using bright-field, fluorescence, and environmental scanning electron microscopy and assessed by quantitative differential viable counting. All samples (n = 26) harboured bioburdens in excess of 5 log10 CFU/g. Microcolonies were identified in 4/4 samples by all three microscopy methods, although bright-field and fluorescence microscopy were more effective at highlighting putative biofilm morphology than ESEM. Results in this pilot study indicate that bacterial microcolonies and putative biofilm matrix can be visualized in chronic wounds using florescence microscopy and ESEM, but also using the simple Gram stain.

Bowling, Frank L.; Boulton, Andrew J. M.; Bowler, Philip G.; Metcalf, Daniel G.; McBain, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

322

Pathways to personalized medicine for breast and prostate cancers: emerging diagnostic methods and prognostic biomarkers.  

PubMed

Early and personal diagnosis to breast a prostate cancer is crucial for optimizing treatments leading to long-term patient survival. Once cancer metastasizes from the breast or prostate to other tissues of the body, therapies are limited, and there is no cure for the diseases. Currently used screening modalities for breast and prostate cancers have limitations. Routine screening for breast cancer includes clinical breast exams and mammograms. Improvements in imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance, ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis and ductography are being explored as adjuncts to mammography. A new approach to breast cancer screening involves the detection of abnormalities at the cellular level and uses various means to collect cellular material from the ductal system, including nipple aspirate fluid, breast ductal lavage, fiberoptic ductoscopy and random periareolar fine needle aspiration. Current screening methods for prostate cancer include digital rectal exam and serum PSA levels. However, these methods offer low sensitivity and specificity and do not allow differentiation between significant- and minimal-risk cancers. New approaches to prostate cancer screening involve different calculations using PSA, as well as molecular urine tests. With the recent advances in microarray technologies and whole-genome sequencing of tumors, the identification of specific biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis, as well as new therapeutic targets, is quickly paving the way for personalized medicine. In the future, routine patient care will include using the molecular signature of a patient's disease to guide treatment. PMID:20666024

Watson, Allison P; Egland, Kristi A

2010-07-01

323

Evaluation of Diagnostic Methods for Myocoptes musculinus According to Age and Treatment Status of Mice (Mus musculus)  

PubMed Central

Detecting and controlling murine fur mites continues to be challenging. Here we compared the efficacy of fur-pluck, cage PCR, and fur PCR testing of mice naturally infested with Myocoptes musculinus and make recommendations regarding the application of these diagnostic strategies in aged or treated mice. We compared all 3 diagnostic methods in groups of infested and noninfested control mice over time. For fur plucks, we used a scoring system to quantitatively compare mite infestations across ages. Mice that were 4 wk old had higher egg and mite scores than did older mice, with average scores at 4 wk corresponding to 40 to 100 individual fur mites and eggs per sample. Furthermore, 15% and 20% of samples from infested mice at 24 and 28 wk of age, respectively, lacked all fur mites and eggs. Cage PCR results varied as mice grew older. Fur PCR testing was the most sensitive and specific assay in untreated infested mice, particularly when mite densities were low. In addition, we compared fur-pluck and fur PCR tests for evaluating the efficacy of selamectin treatment. Two treatments with selamectin eliminated Myocoptes fur-mite infestations. At 8 wk after treatment, all fur-pluck samples were negative, but one-third of treated infested cages remained positive by fur PCR assay; at 16 wk after treatment, all cages were negative by fur PCR assay. Because offspring of infested mice were invariably heavily infested, breeding of suspected infested mice with subsequent testing of offspring was the definitive testing strategy when fur-pluck and PCR results conflicted.

Rice, Kelly A; Albacarys, Lauren K; Pate, Kelly A Metcalf; Perkins, Cheryl; Henderson, Kenneth S; Watson, Julie

2013-01-01

324

Evaluation of diagnostic methods for Myocoptes musculinus according to age and treatment status of mice (Mus musculus).  

PubMed

Detecting and controlling murine fur mites continues to be challenging. Here we compared the efficacy of fur-pluck, cage PCR, and fur PCR testing of mice naturally infested with Myocoptes musculinus and make recommendations regarding the application of these diagnostic strategies in aged or treated mice. We compared all 3 diagnostic methods in groups of infested and noninfested control mice over time. For fur plucks, we used a scoring system to quantitatively compare mite infestations across ages. Mice that were 4 wk old had higher egg and mite scores than did older mice, with average scores at 4 wk corresponding to 40 to 100 individual fur mites and eggs per sample. Furthermore, 15% and 20% of samples from infested mice at 24 and 28 wk of age, respectively, lacked all fur mites and eggs. Cage PCR results varied as mice grew older. Fur PCR testing was the most sensitive and specific assay in untreated infested mice, particularly when mite densities were low. In addition, we compared fur-pluck and fur PCR tests for evaluating the efficacy of selamectin treatment. Two treatments with selamectin eliminated Myocoptes fur-mite infestations. At 8 wk after treatment, all fur-pluck samples were negative, but one-third of treated infested cages remained positive by fur PCR assay; at 16 wk after treatment, all cages were negative by fur PCR assay. Because offspring of infested mice were invariably heavily infested, breeding of suspected infested mice with subsequent testing of offspring was the definitive testing strategy when fur-pluck and PCR results conflicted. PMID:24351766

Rice, Kelly A; Albacarys, Lauren K; Metcalf Pate, Kelly A; Perkins, Cheryl; Henderson, Kenneth S; Watson, Julie

2013-11-01

325

Application of the electrodiffusion method for near-wall flow diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrodiffusion method is presented as a measuring technique suitable for the flow measurement done in close proximity of the wall, thus in the region difficultly accessible by standard anemometric techniques (e.g. PIV, LDA). The experimental results obtained in different flow configurations (backward-facing step flow, wavy film flow, turbulent channel flow, rising Taylor bubbles) document application capabilities of this technique, e.g. for mapping of wall shear stresses, delimitation of stable flow-recirculation zones, detection of short-time reversal of the near-wall flow, investigation of the near-wall turbulence, or detection of moving fluid particles. A new technology of sensor fabrication based on photolithography is introduced and possible applications of microsensors in microfluidic devices discussed.

Tihon, J.

2014-03-01

326

Diagnostic efficacy of the cell block method in comparison with smear cytology of tissue samples obtained by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The diagnostic efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytology may vary greatly depending\\u000a on the treatment of the samples obtained and the level of proficiency of the cytopathologist or cytoscreener.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We prospectively evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of the cell block (CB) method and that of smear cytology using tissue samples\\u000a obtained in the same needle pass at EUS-FNA in

Yutaka Noda; Naotaka Fujita; Go Kobayashi; Kei Itoh; Jun Horaguchi; Takasawa T. Obana; Takashi Obana; Shinsuke Koshita; Yoshihide Kanno; Takashi Suzuki; Dai Hirasawa; Toshiki Sugawara; Tetsuya Ohira; Yoshihiro Harada; Takashi Tsuchiya; Takashi Sawai; Miwa Uzuki; Akira Kurose

2010-01-01

327

Computer-aided diagnostic method for classification of Alzheimer's disease with atrophic image features on MR images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our goal for this study was to attempt to develop a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) method for classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with atrophic image features derived from specific anatomical regions in three-dimensional (3-D) T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. Specific regions related to the cerebral atrophy of AD were white matter and gray matter regions, and CSF regions in this study. Cerebral cortical gray matter regions were determined by extracting a brain and white matter regions based on a level set based method, whose speed function depended on gradient vectors in an original image and pixel values in grown regions. The CSF regions in cerebral sulci and lateral ventricles were extracted by wrapping the brain tightly with a zero level set determined from a level set function. Volumes of the specific regions and the cortical thickness were determined as atrophic image features. Average cortical thickness was calculated in 32 subregions, which were obtained by dividing each brain region. Finally, AD patients were classified by using a support vector machine, which was trained by the image features of AD and non-AD cases. We applied our CAD method to MR images of whole brains obtained from 29 clinically diagnosed AD cases and 25 non-AD cases. As a result, the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve obtained by our computerized method was 0.901 based on a leave-one-out test in identification of AD cases among 54 cases including 8 AD patients at early stages. The accuracy for discrimination between 29 AD patients and 25 non-AD subjects was 0.840, which was determined at the point where the sensitivity was the same as the specificity on the ROC curve. This result showed that our CAD method based on atrophic image features may be promising for detecting AD patients by using 3-D MR images.

Arimura, Hidetaka; Yoshiura, Takashi; Kumazawa, Seiji; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Koga, Hiroshi; Mihara, Futoshi; Honda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Shuji; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu

2008-04-01

328

The Diagnostic Method of Inner Parts of Welded Joints at Nuclear Power Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no possibility to check any inner part at real welded joint at nuclear power station (NPS) during operation because any destructive test cannot be used. In practice there is checked surface of weld. There are used four methodical instructions for the check of real welds: 1. The visual inspection, 2. The measurement of hardness, 3. The chemical composition checking and 4. The microstructure replica analysis. It is necessary to know how these information of weld surface are in accordance with characteristics of inner parts of weld. If there is not any difference between surface weld microstructure and internal weld microstructure of experimental weld it is supposed to that there is not any difference in other measured properties of welds. If is changed structural characteristics of microstructure, it is changed also hardness, chemical analysis etc. It was observed that the microstructure of real welds is almost the same with simulated weld and also the surface microstructure of experimental weld is in accordance with microstructure of inner parts of this weld. It can be supposed extension of lifetime of NPS if there is not any difference between replicas microstructure taken after six year operation of NPS and microstructure of inner parts of simulated weld is almost the same with surface microstructure.

Bednarova, O.; Janovec, J.

2010-06-01

329

Diagnostics of 3D Scaffolds by the Method of X-Ray Phase Contrast Visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymers are one of the most interesting classes of materials for bioengineering due to their high biocompatibility and the possibility of regulating their strength and degradation. In bioengineering, the design of a polymer scaffold determines the functional possibilities of the scaffold and its possible medical applications. Traditionally, the design of polymer scaffolds is analyzed with the help of two-dimensional visualization methods, such as optical and electron microscopy, and computer tomography. However, the x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum is only insignificantly absorbed by polymers and soft tissue, which means that it does not support computer tomography with sufficient contrast. The present work investigates visualization with the help of an interferometer based on the Talbot effect for three-dimensional visualization of a polymer scaffold in absorption, phase, and dark-field contrasts. A comparison of images obtained by x-ray visualization with histological sections of the scaffold is made. Phase contrast has made it possible to visualize the polymer structure and growth of soft tissues in the volume of the scaffold. In the future, it will be possible to use phase contrast for three-dimensional visualization of polymer scaffolds and soft tissues in vivo as well as in vitro.

Al'tapova, V. R.; Khlusov, I. A.; Karpov, D. A.; Chen, F.; Baumbach, T.; Pichugin, V. F.

2014-02-01

330

Comparative evaluation of microagglutination test and serum agglutination test as supplementary diagnostic methods for brucellosis.  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of brucellosis in cattle and small ruminants requires the use of more than one serological test. The complement fixation test (CFT), the rose bengal test (RBT), and the serum agglutination test (SAT) are among the most useful tests for routine diagnosis. The microagglutination test (MAT) was developed as a simpler and more efficient test than the SAT. The relative efficacy of this test compared with that of the SAT was evaluated by using brucella-free sheep and goats prior to and after vaccination treatment. The specificities of the MAT and the SAT were 100%. Of the ewes and goats with a vaccination history, one ewe, expectedly a negative responder, had reactions in the MAT, the complement fixation test, and the rose bengal test but not in the SAT, suggesting a lower sensitivity of the SAT in this case. The calculated sensitivities of the MAT and the SAT were 93.9%. The agreement between MAT and SAT results from nonresponders was examined by using sera from unvaccinated lambs and kids (95.2% agreement), unvaccinated ewes and goats (84.4%), and ewes and goats with a vaccination history (43.9%). For the latter group higher levels of agglutination units were observed by the MAT than by the SAT in 51.5% of the samples. In testing sera from positive reactors after vaccination neither method was superior (MAT values were greater than SAT values for 23.5% of the samples, and MAT values were less than SAT values for 21.9% of the samples).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Baum, M; Zamir, O; Bergman-Rios, R; Katz, E; Beider, Z; Cohen, A; Banai, M

1995-01-01

331

Special Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This section contains a number of special diagnostics that are designed to examine certain mechanisms. Section 1 reports on the method used to test the photochemical partitioning in the models. Sections 2 and 3 represent efforts to examine the model calculated production and removal rates for ozone and how the values are combined with transport rates in the models to produce the simulated ozone distributions. Sections 4 and 5 concentrate on polar processes including the dynamics aspect of vortex confinement and the chemical aspects of chlorine activation.

Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Jackman, Charles H.; Considine, David B.; Douglass, Anne R.

1999-01-01

332

AgarCyto: A Novel Cell-processing Method for Multiple Molecular Diagnostic Analyses of the Uterine Cervix  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In diagnostic cytology, it has been advocated that molecular techniques will improve cytopathological diagnosis and may predict clinical course. Ancillary molecular techniques, however, can be applied only if a sufficient number of preparations are made from a single cell sample. We have developed the AgarCyto cell block procedure for multi- ple molecular diagnostic analyses on a single scraping from

Harold M. J. Kerstens; Johanna C. M. Robben; Pino J. Poddighe; Willem J. G. Melchers; Henk Boonstra; Merryn V. E. Macville; Antonius G. J. M. Hanselaar

333

Modern Miracle Medical Machines: Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity teaches the physics of magnetic resonance imaging and NMR. It begins with instruction on the basics of magnetism, electromagnetism, and resonance and applies these topics to the operation of magnetic resonance equipment for medical diagnostics. This activity includes both hands-on exercises and computer visualizations. Information on the construction of the measurement apparatus is available in the instructor resources for the Modern Miracle Medical Machines web site. This one of a growing set of activities developed by the Kansas State University Physics Education Research group on the physics of modern medicine.

Murphy, Sytil K.

2010-06-08

334

Nuclear weapons modernizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

Kristensen, Hans M.

2014-05-01

335

Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Immunohistochemistry as Diagnostic Methods for ALK Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) positivity represents a novel molecular target in a subset of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers (NSCLC). We explore Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) as diagnostic methods for ALK positive patients and to describe its prevalence and outcomes in a population of NSCLC patients. Methods NSCLC patients previously screened for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) at our institution were selected. ALK positive patients were identified by FISH and the value of IHC (D5F3) was explored. Results ninety-nine patients were identified. Median age was 61.5 years (range 35–83), all were caucasians, eighty percent were adenocarcinomas, fifty-one percent were male and thirty-eight percent were current smokers. Seven (7.1%) patients were ALK positive by FISH, thirteen (13.1%) were EGFR mutant, and 65 (65.6%) were negative/Wild Type (WT) for both ALK and EGFR. ALK positivity and EGFR mutations were mutually exclusive. ALK positive patients tend to be younger than EGFR mutated or wt patients. ALK positive patients were predominantly never smokers (71.4%) and adenocarcinoma (71.4%). ALK positive and EGFR mutant patients have a better outcome than negative/WT. All patients with ALK FISH negative tumours were negative for ALK IHC. Out of 6 patients positive for ALK FISH with more tissue available, 5 were positive for ALK IHC and 1 negative. Conclusions ALK positive patients represent 7.1% of a population of selected NSCLC. ALK positive patients have different clinical features and a better outcome than EGFR WT and ALK negative patients. IHC is a promising method for detecting ALK positive NSCLC patients.

Martinez, Pablo; Hernandez-Losa, Javier; Cedres, Susana; Castellvi, Josep; Martinez-Marti, Alex; Tallada, Natalia; Murtra-Garrell, Nuria; Navarro-Mendivill, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Freixinos, Victor; Canela, Mercedes; Ramon y Cajal, Santiago; Felip, Enriqueta

2013-01-01

336

Comparison of diagnostic potential of serological, molecular and cell culture methods for detection of Q fever in ruminants.  

PubMed

Q fever is an infectious disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. Diagnosis of Q fever based on clinical symptoms is unattainable; thus, different laboratory techniques are used to detect the infection. The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic potential of ELISA, CFT, conventional PCR, real-time PCR and cell culture. The tests were carried out on 2251 serum samples from ruminants. Moreover, 668 placentas, 1277 vaginal swabs and 306 specimens of the internal organs of aborted foetuses were examined by PCR and cell culture. Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare the results obtained by ELISA, CFT, PCR, real-time PCR and isolation in cell culture. The ?(2) test confirmed that in most cases the results obtained by means of the different methods were correlated with each other (P<0.05). The highest correlation coefficients (r=0.76-0.87) were observed in the case of real-time PCR and conventional PCR. ELISA and CFT were moderately correlated (r=0.43-0.45). When the comparison was made between the results of tests run on samples from swabs and aborted foetuses, the r values between ELISA and CFT were lower than those between ELISA and PCRs. A negligible, or weak to moderate relationship was mostly observed when the method of cell culture isolation was compared with all the other analytical techniques investigated. The use of a combination of different laboratory methods, preferably ELISA for serology and polymerase chain reactions for the agent detection, is suggested to achieve the correct diagnosis of Q fever. PMID:24725446

Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Szyma?ska-Czerwi?ska, Monika; Smietanka, Krzysztof; Bocian, Lukasz

2014-06-25

337

Normalized autofluorescence imaging diagnostics in upper GI tract: a new method to improve specificity in neoplasia detection  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims: This study was performed to improve the autofluorescence imaging (AFI) in the upper GI tract by applying a new method of normalized autofluorescence (NAFI) obtained via tri-modal imaging. Objective: NAFI may provide lower false positive rate to achieve ultimately better specificity at acceptable sensitivity. Patients and methods: This is a prospective, controlled single-centre study. 18 patients with suspected esophagus or stomach cancer undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) were enrolled between February and May 2010. After endoscopy each patient was assigned into one of two groups: (1) non- cancer, including inflammation; (2) cancer group. EGDs were performed using video white light endoscopy, followed by AFI/NAFI. The targeted biopsy samples were taken from the abnormal areas as well as from adjacent mucosa. NAFI was compared versus AFI for cancer diagnostics in terms of specificity and sensitivity. Results: NAFI detected all neoplastic lesions. WLE or NBI detected no additional neoplasia. The AFI displayed mucosal inflammation and carcinomas of esophagus and stomach as dark red color, the normal mucosa background was displayed as light green. The NAFI didn’t differentiate inflamed tissue from normal in majority of cases, but in tumorous mucosa, the cancer areas were detected precisely. AFI shows 100% sensitivity but 50% specificity which correlates with previous literature data. On the other hand, NAFI demonstrated lower sensitivity (88%) but higher specificity compared to AFI (69%). Conclusions: Measuring the NAFI instead of the AFI was found improving the specificity of cancer diagnosis. Use of fiber-optic endoscopes to analyze AFI and possible endoscopic and histological sampling error are the main potential limitations of this method.

Krauss, Ekaterina; Agaimy, Abbas; Douplik, Alexandre; Albrecht, Heinz; Neumann, Helmut; Hartmann, Arndt; Hohenstein, Ralf; Raithel, Martin; Hahn, Eckhart G; Neurath, Markus F; Mudter, Jonas

2012-01-01

338

Patient accounts of diagnostic testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia: comparing responses to genetic and non-genetic testing methods  

PubMed Central

Background Continuing developments in genetic testing technology together with research revealing gene-disease associations have brought closer the potential for genetic screening of populations. A major concern, as with any screening programme, is the response of the patient to the findings of screening, whether the outcome is positive or negative. Such concern is heightened for genetic testing, which it is feared may elicit stronger reactions than non-genetic testing. Methods This paper draws on thematic analysis of 113 semi-structured interviews with 39 patients being tested for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), an inherited predisposition to early-onset heart disease. It examines the impact of disease risk assessments based on both genetic and non-genetic information, or solely non-genetic information. Results The impact of diagnostic testing did not seem to vary according to whether or not genetic information was used. More generally, being given a positive or negative diagnosis of FH had minimal discernible impact on people's lives as they maintained the continuity of their beliefs and behaviour. Conclusions The results suggest that concerns about the use of genetic testing in this context are unfounded, a conclusion that echoes findings from studies in this and other health contexts.

2012-01-01

339

MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CHOICES AND ISSUES IN SELECTING MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS ARE DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT. BACKGROUND INFORMATION IS INTRODUCED IN TERMS OF REASONS FOR ABANDONMENT, THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SCHOOL BUILDING OBSOLESCENCE, AND PROBLEMS IN THE MODERNIZATION PROCESS. INTERIOR PARTITIONS ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF BUILDING MATERIALS,…

JACKSON, R. GRAHAM

340

Astronomy in Modern Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present-day astronomy and its development in the recent history of Turkey are described. Current astronomy education in modern-day Turkish Republic from primary to high schools, including modern-day university education is discussed. Astronomical and space research together with the existing observatories and present-day Turkish astronomy in the global state is presented.

Eker, Zeki; Demircan, Osman, Kirbiyik, Halil; Bilir, Selcuk

2013-01-01

341

Myth and Modern Man.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various theories about the purpose of myth are described briefly, and then the place of myth in modern life is explored. Modern man is found to still create his own myths, and his life is still influenced by mythical prototypes and images. Myths, mythical beliefs, and mythical thinking are discovered in socialist, Communist, and totalitarian…

Patai, Raphael

342

Murder\\/Media\\/Modernity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article has been drawn from a larger study by the author, True Crime: Observations on Violence and Modernity. Here the focus is on a minor genre—true crime—thatat the same time is a scale model of modern society. True crime is crime fact that reads like, or looks like, crime fiction. It is one of the popular genres of our

Mark Seltzer

2008-01-01

343

Advanced diagnostics for reacting flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress is reported for the past year of an interdisciplinary program to innovate modern diagnostic techniques applicable to combustion and plasma flows. Research topics include: (1) digital flowfield imaging, including temporally and spatially resolved species and temperature imaging using planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF); (2) quantitative particle imaging in spray flames using planar Mie scattering (PMS); (3) quantitative velocity and

R. K. Hanson

1985-01-01

344

Real-Time PCR Diagnostics for Detecting and Identifying Potential Bioweapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial contents: Diagnostics Systems Division, Diagnostics and Patient Care: Goals, Diagnostic Essentials, Impact of Diagnostics and Patient Care, Diagnostic Time Constraint, Classical Methods for Identifying Biological Agents, Diagnostic Sensitivity Req...

D. Norwood

2003-01-01

345

Integrated diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

Hunthausen, Roger J.

1988-01-01

346

Cortisol diurnal patterns, associations with depressive symptoms, and the impact of intervention in older adults: results using modern robust methods aimed at dealing with low power due to violations of standard assumptions.  

PubMed

Advances in salivary bioscience enable the widespread integration of biological measures into the behavioral and social sciences. While theoretical integration has progressed, much less attention has focused on analytical strategies and tactics. The statistical literature warns that common methods for comparing groups and studying associations can have relatively poor power compared to more modern robust techniques. Here we illustrate, in secondary data analyses using the USC Well Elderly II study (n=460, age 60-95, 66% female), that modern robust methods make a substantial difference when analyzing relations between salivary analyte and behavioral data. Analyses that deal with the diurnal pattern of cortisol and the association of the cortisol awakening response with depressive symptoms and physical well-being are reported. Non-significant results become significant when using improved methods for dealing with skewed distributions and outliers. Analytical strategies and tactics that employ modern robust methods have the potential to reduce the probability of both Type I and Type II errors in studies that compare salivary analytes between groups, across time, or examine associations with salivary analyte levels. PMID:24468639

Wilcox, Rand R; Granger, Douglas A; Szanton, Sarah; Clark, Florence

2014-03-01

347

Diagnostics development plan for ZR.  

SciTech Connect

The Z Refurbishment (ZR) Project is a program to upgrade the Z machine at SNL with modern durable pulsed power technology, providing additional shot capacity and improved reliability as well as advanced capabilities for both pulsed x-ray production and high pressure generation. The development of enhanced diagnostic capabilities is an essential requirement for ZR to meet critical mission needs. This report presents a comprehensive plan for diagnostic instrument and infrastructure development for the first few years of ZR operation. The focus of the plan is on: (1) developing diagnostic instruments with high spatial and temporal resolution, capable of low noise operation and survival in the severe EMP, bremsstrahlung, and blast environments of ZR; and (2) providing diagnostic infrastructure improvements, including reduced diagnostic trigger signal jitter, more and flexible diagnostic line-of-sight access, and the capability for efficient exchange of diagnostics with other laboratories. This diagnostic plan is the first step in an extended process to provide enhanced diagnostic capabilities for ZR to meet the diverse programmatic needs of a broad range of defense, energy, and general science programs of an international user community into the next decade.

Hanson, David Lester

2003-09-01

348

Use of the Attribute Hierarchy Method for Development of Student Cognitive Models and Diagnostic Assessments in Geoscience Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a recognized need to better understand student learning in the geosciences (Stofflet, 1994; Zalles, Quallmalz, Gobert and Pallant, 2007). Educators, cognitive psychologists and practicing scientists have also called for instructional approaches that support deep conceptual development (Manduca, Mogk and Stillings, 2004, Libarkin and Kurdziel, 2006). In both cases there is an important role for educational measures that can generate descriptions of how student understanding develops over time and inform instruction. The presenters will suggest one way of responding to these needs by describing the Attribute Hierarchy Method (AHM) of assessment (Leighton, Gierl and Hunka, 2004; Gierl, Cui, Wang and Zhou, 2008) as enacted in a large-scale earth science curriculum development project funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The AHM is one approach to criterion referenced, diagnostic assessment that ties measure design to cognitive models of student learning in order to support justified inferences about students’ understanding and the knowledge required for continued development. The Attribute Hierarchy Method bears potential for researchers and practitioners interested in learning progressions and solves many problems associated with making meaningful, justified inferences about students’ understanding based on their assessment performances. The process followed to design and develop the project’s cognitive models as well as a description of how they are used in subsequent assessment task design will be emphasized in order to demonstrate how the AHM may be applied in the context of geoscience education. Results from over twenty student cognitive interviews, and two hypothesized cognitive models -- one describing a student pathway for understanding rock formation and a second describing a student pathway for increasingly sophisticated use of maps and models in the geosciences - are also described. Sample assessment items will be provided as indications of the final assessment measures. The project’s efforts to create an on-line geoscience curriculum for use in the middle school grades that adapts to student performances by customizing whole lessons, grouping assignments or student feedback will provide a broader context for the discussion.

Corrigan, S.; Brodsky, L. M.; Loper, S.; Brown, N.; Curley, J.; Baker, J.; Goss, M.; Castek, J.; Barber, J.

2010-12-01

349

Etymology and Modern Linguistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the estrangement between etymology and modern linguistics, and concludes that a reconciliation between spatio-temporal linguistics and etymology must occur, because without it, both disciplines are doomed to inanition. (Author/AM)

Malkiel, Yakov

1975-01-01

350

Modern inventory analysis techniques.  

PubMed

Modern techniques for managing pharmacy inventories are described. Pharmacists should rely on modern techniques, such as sort-based and activity-based analyses, for managing pharmacy inventories, containing drug costs, performing replacement-and-elimination analysis, and monitoring the health system's operations. Unit price and quantity are the two basic inventory-control approaches; however, modern techniques recognize quantity as the more useful of the two. The primary areas of the pharmacy's activities must be taken into consideration. Pharmacists must learn to divide inventory analysis problems into sets of smaller issues. Modern inventory analyses that take into account annual quantity, unit price, total annual cost, and the health system's unique activities provide the pharmacist with a practical basis for inventory management. PMID:10714973

Salamie, D

2000-02-15

351

Modern Evolutionary Synthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Wickipedia describes the modern evolutionary synthesis. This theory brings together Charles Darwin's theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendel's theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance. Essentially, the modern synthesis (or neo-Darwinism) introduces the connection between two important discoveries; the units of evolution (genes) with the mechanism of evolution (selection). The site features links to any of the topics discussed.

Wikipedia

352

Optimizing Modern Family Size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern industrialized populations lack the strong positive correlations between wealth and reproductive success that characterize\\u000a most traditional societies. While modernization has brought about substantial increases in personal wealth, fertility in many\\u000a developed countries has plummeted to the lowest levels in recorded human history. These phenomena contradict evolutionary\\u000a and economic models of the family that assume increasing wealth reduces resource competition

David W. Lawson; Ruth Mace

2010-01-01

353

Olympics: Ancient vs. Modern  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objective: Students will compare the Ancient Olympics invented by the Greeks to a Modern Olympic games Materials: Computer with internet connection Paper and writing Utensil OR open blank Word Document Procedures: 1. On your paper or in your Word Document, create two columns and label one Ancient Greeks and the other Modern Olympics 2. Use a minimum of 2 of the following links to find information to compare the Ancient Olympics to the ...

Schaefer, Mrs.

2008-09-13

354

Modern Day Pyramids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate the ways in which ancient technologies â six types of simple machines and combinations â are used to construct modern buildings. As they work together to solve a design problem (designing and building a modern structure), they brainstorm ideas, decide on a design, and submit it to a design review before acquiring materials to create it (in this case, a mural depicting it). Emphasis is placed on cooperative, creative teamwork and the steps of the engineering design process.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

355

Diagnostic of vacuum subsonic and supersonic plasma flows with enthalpy probe, schlieren and high speed camera methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. HF plasma has been used for numerous applications. HF plasma of subsonic flow is used for densification and spheroidization of powders, thermal protection deposition and liquid and gaseous waste destruction. As for HF plasma supersonic flow, in spite of its less frequent use, its diagnostic is crucial in order to improve processes involving this type of

V. Leveille; M. I. Boulos; D. Gravelle

2002-01-01

356

Diagnosing Examinees' Attributes-Mastery Using the Bayesian Inference for Binomial Proportion: A New Method for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA) is a new theoretical framework for psychological and educational testing that is designed to provide detailed information about examinees' strengths and weaknesses in specific knowledge structures and processing skills. During the last three decades, more than a dozen psychometric models have been developed…

Kim, Hyun Seok John

2011-01-01

357

Methods Developed by the Tools for Engine Diagnostics Task to Monitor and Predict Rotor Damage in Real Time.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tools for Engine Diagnostics is a major task in the Propulsion System Health Management area of the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention project under NASA s Aviation Safety Program. The major goal of the Aviation Safety Program is to reduce fatal aircraft...

G. Y. Baaklini K. Smith D. Raulerson A. L. Gyekenyesi J. T. Sawicki L. Brasche

2003-01-01

358

Nanodevices in diagnostics  

PubMed Central

The real-time, personalized and highly sensitive early-stage diagnosis of disease remains an important challenge in modern medicine. With the ability to interact with matter at the nanoscale, the development of nanotechnology architectures and materials could potentially extend subcellular and molecular detection beyond the limits of conventional diagnostic modalities. At the very least, nanotechnology should be able to dramatically accelerate biomarker discovery, as well as facilitate disease monitoring, especially of maladies presenting a high degree of molecular and compositional heterogeneity. This article gives an overview of several of the most promising nanodevices and nanomaterials along with their applications in clinical practice. Significant work to adapt nanoscale materials and devices to clinical applications involving large interdisciplinary collaborations is already underway with the potential for nanotechnology to become an important enabling diagnostic technology.

Hu, Ye; Fine, Daniel H.; Tasciotti, Ennio; Bouamrani, Ali; Ferrari, Mauro

2010-01-01

359

MethyQESD, a robust and fast method for quantitative methylation analyses in HNPCC diagnostics using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Promoter hypermethylation occurs in various tumors and leads to silencing of tumor-relevant genes. Thus, promoter methylation analysis (MA) has been established as an important tool in cancer research and diagnostics. Here we present MethyQESD (methylation-quantification of endonuclease-resistant DNA) as a fast, easy, precise and reliable method for quantitative MA without the need of bisulfite-treatment or fluorescent probes. Though MethyQESD principally

Marcus Bettstetter; Stefan Dechant; Petra Ruemmele; Corinna Vogel; Katrin Kurz; Monika Morak; Gisela Keller; Elke Holinski-Feder; Ferdinand Hofstaedter; Wolfgang Dietmaier

2008-01-01

360

Predictive research methods of enamel and dentine for initial caries detection  

PubMed Central

Currently, various research methods of enamel and dentine for precautionary diagnostics of initial caries forms are developed; however, the vast majority of these do not provide objective criteria of caries diagnostics or are very difficult to perform. Therefore, the search of diagnostics and enamel research methods, which will allow predicting caries emergence and to carry out personalised prevention of this pathology, is necessary. In this review, modern diagnostic methods that allow understanding the main aspects of caries process, assess the risk of its development, and also suggest the possibility of emergency prevention of caries progression in the nearest future are presented.

2013-01-01

361

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Study to Investigate the Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and the Sensitivity of its Diagnostic Methods in Iran  

PubMed Central

Context: Helicobacter pylori is the most common infecting organism affecting humans, being almost half the population infected. The aim of this study was to find out the epidemiological features and the sensitivity of diagnostic methods of Helicobacter pylori infection in Iran, which can provide the logic of developing preventive approaches to control Helicobacter pylori infections and the associated diseases. Evidence Acquisition: By reviewing the databases of SID, MAGIRAN, SCOPUS, MEDLIB, Google, ISI and PUBMED, a total of 30 papers, published from 1994 to 2011, were extracted. Summary prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using random-effects model. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA Ver.11. Results: Among the 30 studies evaluated, the prevalence rate of Helicobacter pylori infections in Iran was estimated as 50.7 % (95% CI: 44.4-56.9%). When the sensitivity of diagnostic methods was evaluated, ELISA, with an accuracy rate of 52.3% (95% CI: 43.8 to 60.8%) was found the most accurate diagnostic method available. The highest and the least Helicobacter pylori prevalence were 19.2% in Tehran and 74.27% in Mazandran respectively. Conclusions: About half the population in Iran is infected with Helicobacter pylori, the pollution in different areas and preventive strategies should be carried out to control this infection. The prevalence rate of Helicobacter pylori infections in Iran showed only little changes during the years 1994 to 2011.

Sayehmiri, Fatemeh; Darvishi, Zahra; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Soroush, Setareh; Emaneini, Mohammad; Zarrilli, Raffaele; Taherikalani, Morovat

2014-01-01

362

Quantitative assessment of tumour extraction from dermoscopy images and evaluation of computer-based extraction methods for an automatic melanoma diagnostic system.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to provide a quantitative assessment of the tumour area extracted by dermatologists and to evaluate computer-based methods from dermoscopy images for refining a computer-based melanoma diagnostic system. Dermoscopic images of 188 Clark naevi, 56 Reed naevi and 75 melanomas were examined. Five dermatologists manually drew the border of each lesion with a tablet computer. The inter-observer variability was evaluated and the standard tumour area (STA) for each dermoscopy image was defined. Manual extractions by 10 non-medical individuals and by two computer-based methods were evaluated with STA-based assessment criteria: precision and recall. Our new computer-based method introduced the region-growing approach in order to yield results close to those obtained by dermatologists. The effectiveness of our extraction method with regard to diagnostic accuracy was evaluated. Two linear classifiers were built using the results of conventional and new computer-based tumour area extraction methods. The final diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by drawing the receiver operating curve (ROC) of each classifier, and the area under each ROC was evaluated. The standard deviations of the tumour area extracted by five dermatologists and 10 non-medical individuals were 8.9% and 10.7%, respectively. After assessment of the extraction results by dermatologists, the STA was defined as the area that was selected by more than two dermatologists. Dermatologists selected the melanoma area with statistically smaller divergence than that of Clark naevus or Reed naevus (P = 0.05). By contrast, non-medical individuals did not show this difference. Our new computer-based extraction algorithm showed superior performance (precision, 94.1%; recall, 95.3%) to the conventional thresholding method (precision, 99.5%; recall, 87.6%). These results indicate that our new algorithm extracted a tumour area close to that obtained by dermatologists and, in particular, the border part of the tumour was adequately extracted. With this refinement, the area under the ROC increased from 0.795 to 0.875 and the diagnostic accuracy showed an increase of approximately 20% in specificity when the sensitivity was 80%. It can be concluded that our computer-based tumour extraction algorithm extracted almost the same area as that obtained by dermatologists and provided improved computer-based diagnostic accuracy. PMID:16567974

Iyatomi, Hitoshi; Oka, Hiroshi; Saito, Masataka; Miyake, Ayako; Kimoto, Masayuki; Yamagami, Jun; Kobayashi, Seiichiro; Tanikawa, Akiko; Hagiwara, Masafumi; Ogawa, Koichi; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Soyer, H Peter; Tanaka, Masaru

2006-04-01

363

Diagnostic apparatus and method for use in the alignment of one or more laser means onto a fiber optics interface  

DOEpatents

Diagnostic apparatus for use in determining the proper alignment of a plurality of laser beams onto a fiber optics interface is disclosed. The apparatus includes a lens assembly which serves two functions, first to focus a plurality of laser beams onto the fiber optics interface, and secondly to reflect and image the interface using scattered light to a monitor means. The monitor means permits indirect observation of the alignment or focusing of the laser beams onto the fiber optics interface.

Johnson, S.A.; Shannon, R.R.

1985-01-18

364

Diagnostic apparatus and method for use in the alignment of one or more laser means onto a fiber optics interface  

DOEpatents

Diagnostic apparatus for use in determining the proper alignment of a plurality of laser beams onto a fiber optics interface is disclosed. The apparatus includes a lens assembly which serves two functions, first to focus a plurality of laser beams onto the fiber optics interface, and secondly to reflect and image the interface using scattered light to a monitor means. The monitor means permits indirect observation of the alignment or focusing of the laser beams onto the fiber optics interface.

Johnson, Steve A. (Tracy, CA) [Tracy, CA; Shannon, Robert R. (Tucson, AZ) [Tucson, AZ

1987-01-01

365

Computerized method for evaluating diagnostic image quality of calcified plaque images in cardiac CT: Validation on a physical dynamic cardiac phantom  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In cardiac computed tomography (CT), important clinical indices, such as the coronary calcium score and the percentage of coronary artery stenosis, are often adversely affected by motion artifacts. As a result, the expert observer must decide whether or not to use these indices during image interpretation. Computerized methods potentially can be used to assist in these decisions. In a previous study, an artificial neural network (ANN) regression model provided assessability (image quality) indices of calcified plaque images from the software NCAT phantom that were highly agreeable with those provided by expert observers. The method predicted assessability indices based on computer-extracted features of the plaque. In the current study, the ANN-predicted assessability indices were used to identify calcified plaque images with diagnostic calcium scores (based on mass) from a physical dynamic cardiac phantom. The basic assumption was that better quality images were associated with more accurate calcium scores. Methods: A 64-channel CT scanner was used to obtain 500 calcified plaque images from a physical dynamic cardiac phantom at different heart rates, cardiac phases, and plaque locations. Two expert observers independently provided separate sets of assessability indices for each of these images. Separate sets of ANN-predicted assessability indices tailored to each observer were then generated within the framework of a bootstrap resampling scheme. For each resampling iteration, the absolute calcium score error between the calcium scores of the motion-contaminated plaque image and its corresponding stationary image served as the ground truth in terms of indicating images with diagnostic calcium scores. The performances of the ANN-predicted and observer-assigned indices in identifying images with diagnostic calcium scores were then evaluated using ROC analysis. Results: Assessability indices provided by the first observer and the corresponding ANN performed similarly (AUC{sub OBS1}=0.80 [0.73,0.86] vs AUC{sub ANN1}=0.88 [0.82,0.92]) as that of the second observer and the corresponding ANN (AUC{sub OBS2}=0.87 [0.83,0.91] vs AUC{sub ANN2}=0.90 [0.85,0.94]). Moreover, the ANN-predicted indices were generated in a fraction of the time required to obtain the observer-assigned indices. Conclusions: ANN-predicted assessability indices performed similar to observer-assigned assessability indices in identifying images with diagnostic calcium scores from the physical dynamic cardiac phantom. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of using computerized methods for identifying images with diagnostic clinical indices in cardiac CT images.

King, Martin; Rodgers, Zachary; Giger, Maryellen L.; Bardo, Dianna M. E.; Patel, Amit R. [Department of Radiology, Committee on Medical Physics, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC 2026, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 Southwest Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239 (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC 5084, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2010-11-15

366

Biomedical lab on glass slide for crystallo-optic diagnostics: high technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unique analytic potential of biofluids crystallooptic diagnostics (COD) is determined by visualization of aggregation properties and molecular biofluid organization, that reflect an important information about functional state of separate systems as well as about the physiological status of the whole organism. Extraction, visualization and processing of the diagnostic information are supplied by the smart-technology. COD techniques experience in studies of bile, urine, liquor, tear, saliva, blood and other biological fluids is generalized: crystallooptic diagnosticums are the pool of analytical system 'Mesotest'. Combining of biofluids COD with the modern computer technologies transfer such methods into the category of intellectual prompts.

Berg, Dmitri B.; Mintz, Rafail I.

1997-05-01

367

BOOK REVIEW: Modern Supersymmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have spent more than twenty years applying supersymmetry (SUSY) to elementary particle physics and attempting to find an experimental manifestation of this symmetry. Terning's monograph demonstrates the strong influence of SUSY on theoretical elaborations in the field of elementary particles. It gives both an overview of modern supersymmetry in elementary particle physics and calculation techniques. The author, trying to

J. Terning

2006-01-01

368

Modern quantitative schlieren techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schlieren optical techniques have traditionally been used to qualitatively visualize refractive flowfields in transparent media. Modern schlieren optics, however, are increasingly focused on obtaining quantitative information such as temperature and density fields in a flow -- once the sole purview of interferometry -- without the need for coherent illumination. Quantitative data are obtained from schlieren images by integrating the measured

Michael Hargather; Gary Settles

2010-01-01

369

Gnotobiology in modern medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is given of currently accepted theories and applications of gnotobiology. A brief history of gnotobiology is supplied. Problems involved in creating germ-free gnotobiota and the use of these animals in experimental biology are cited. Examples of how gnotobiology is used in modern medical practice illustrate the future prospects for this area of science.

Podoprigora, G. I.

1980-01-01

370

Educating the Modern Manager  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous changes in both the economy and technology, as well as changes in the speed of change, suggest that managers who lead modern organizations need to be engaged in a constant learning process. Although much executive education focuses on technical and financial issues, we believe that the big mistakes in careers and organizations result from a lack of knowledge of

ROBERT HOGAN; RODNEY WARRENFELTZ

2003-01-01

371

Modern Regression Discontinuity Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a detailed discussion of the theory and practice of modern regression discontinuity (RD) analysis for estimating the effects of interventions or treatments. Part 1 briefly chronicles the history of RD analysis and summarizes its past applications. Part 2 explains how in theory an RD analysis can identify an average effect of…

Bloom, Howard S.

2012-01-01

372

Modern Electrostatic Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental principles involved in electrostatic power generations are described and the main features of modern machines discussed. Recent developments in the fields of liquid dielectrics and aerosol physics are now being applied to electrostatic generations. Some of the more promising devices may lead to eleotro static machines which have power densities an order of masnitude greater than that of

A. W. Bright; B. Makin

1969-01-01

373

Comments on Modern Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of physics, at the threshold of the modern era, in 1880, is briefly reviewed. The classical description of a physical event, as observed in Galilean frames, is outlined. The following experiments are discussed: aether drift (Michelson and Morley), propagation of radio waves (Hertz;Lodge), magnetic fields generated by motion of charge with respect to the aether (Roentgen; Trouton and

B. R. Gossick

1963-01-01

374

Modernizing Mechanical Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the problems of renovating school buildings and in particular the modernization of mechanical services in existing facilities are discussed. According to school management publications, approximately 42 per cent of our elementary and 59 per cent of our secondary schools are 15 years old or older. School plants, which were built 12 to 15…

Rutgers, Norman L.

375

Modern splinting bandages.  

PubMed

We have assessed the current range of synthetic splinting bandages, using physical and mechanical tests and the subjective opinions of patients, volunteers and orthopaedic staff. Modern bandages have some better properties than standard plaster bandage but do not conform as well, are more expensive, and potentially more hazardous. PMID:1991785

Wytch, R; Ashcroft, G P; Ledingham, W M; Wardlaw, D; Ritchie, I K

1991-01-01

376

Modern School Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There was much enthusiasm when the phrase "Modern School Mathematics" was coined shortly after the 1958 National Defense Education Act was passed. Many federally funded study groups came into being. Presently, criticisms in secondary teaching are just as great as it was in 1958. The innovations recommended by federally funded study groups has had…

Ediger, Marlow

2008-01-01

377

BOOK REVIEW: Modern Supersymmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have spent more than twenty years applying supersymmetry (SUSY) to elementary particle physics and attempting to find an experimental manifestation of this symmetry. Terning's monograph demonstrates the strong influence of SUSY on theoretical elaborations in the field of elementary particles. It gives both an overview of modern supersymmetry in elementary particle physics and calculation techniques. The author, trying to be closer to applications of SUSY in the real world of elementary particles, is also anticipating the importance of supersymmetry for rigorous study of nonperturbative phenomena in quantum field theory. In particular, he presents the `exact' SUSY ? function using instanton methods, phenomena of anomalies and dualities. Supersymmetry algebra is introduced by adding two anticommuting spinor generators to Poincaré algebra and by presenting massive and massless supermultiplets of its representations. The author prefers to use mostly the component description of field contents of the theories in question rather than the superfield formalism. Such a style makes the account closer to physical chartacteristics. Relations required by SUSY among ? functions of the gauge, Yukawa and quartic interactions are checked by direct calculations as well as to all orders in perturbation theory, thus demonstrating that SUSY survives quantization. A discussion is included of the hierarchy problem of different scales of weak and strong interactions and its possible solution by the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Different SUSY breaking mechanisms are presented corresponding to a realistic phenomenology. The monograph can also be considered as a guide to `duality' relations connecting different SUSY gauge theories, supergravities and superstrings. This is demonstrated referring to the particular properties and characteristics of these theories (field contents, scaling dimensions of appropriate operators etc). In particular, the last chapter deals with the AdS/CFT correspondence. The author explains clearly most of the arguments in discussions and refers for further details to original papers (with corresponding arXiv numbers), selected lists of which appear at the end of each chapter (there are more than 300 references in the book). Considered as a whole the book covers primers on quantum fields, Feynman diagrams, renormalization procedure and renormalization groups, as well as the representation theory of classical linear Lie algebras. Some necessary information on irreducible representations of su(N), so(N) and sp(2N) is given in an appendix. There are in the text short historical and biographical notes concerning those scientists who made important contributions to the subject of the monograph: S Coleman, Yu Golfand, E Witten and others. Most of the seventeen chapters contain a few exercises to check the reader's understanding of the corresponding material. This monograph will be useful for graduate students and researchers in the field of elementary particles.

Kulish, Petr P.

2006-12-01

378

A physical parameter method for the design of broad-band X-ray imaging systems to do coronal plasma diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technique commonly used for the analysis of data from broad-band X-ray imaging systems for plasma diagnostics is the filter ratio method. This requires the use of two or more broad-band filters to derive temperatures and line-of-sight emission integrals or emission measure distributions as a function of temperature. Here an alternative analytical approach is proposed in which the temperature response of the imaging system is matched to the physical parameter being investigated. The temperature response of a system designed to measure the total radiated power along the line of sight of any coronal structure is calculated. Other examples are discussed.

Kahler, S.; Krieger, A. S.

1978-01-01

379

Diagnostics of hemangioma by the methods of correlation and fractal analysis of laser microscopic images of blood plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time the complex correlation and fractal analysis was used for the investigation of microscopic images of both tissue images and hemangioma liquids. It was proposed a physical model of description of phase distributions formation of coherent radiation, which was transformed by optical anisotropic biological structures. The phase maps of laser radiation in the boundary diffraction zone were used as the main information parameter. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts in the points of laser images of histological sections of hemangioma, hemangioma blood smears and blood plasma with vascular system pathologies. The diagnostic criteria of hemangioma nascency are determined.

Boychuk, T. M.; Bodnar, B. M.; Vatamanesku, L. I.

2011-09-01

380

MOMA: Modern Women  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are women represented at the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) in New York? It's a fascinating question and this website takes a look at just that. The site was designed to complement a publication looking at contemporary female artists whose work has been included in various MOMA collections. The materials here are divided into four areas, including Exhibitions, Video, Modern Women: A Partial History, and Online Collection. Within the Video section, visitors can look through over two dozen videos that include interviews with MOMA's archivists and leading artists such as Maya Deren. Moving on, visitors can click on the Artists tab to view biographical profiles and artwork by the women featured in the online collection. There are some great pieces here, such as "Malcolm X Speaks for Us" by Elizabeth Catlett or Eva Hesse's "Repetition Nineteen III." Visitors can also explore the Blog for meditations on Lillian Gish or musings on the use of art in everyday spaces.

381

Investigations of mirrors for ITER diagnostics in modern fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide experimental program on investigation of behavior of in-vessel mirrors in the present-day fusion devices is being implemented. The program is coordinated by the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) and now more than 10 fusion devices are involved in mirror studies. The aim of these investigations is to find solutions for several important tasks that arise with the necessity

V. S. Voitsenya; A. Litnovsky

2009-01-01

382

Modern Physics : Theoretical Minimum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Stanford Continuing Studies course is a collection of video lectures that provide a concise introduction to Theoretical Physics. The goal is for students following the curriculum to achieve a solid understanding of Modern Physics in an optimized manner. The lectures in the series cover Classical Mechanics, Quantum Mechanics, Special Relativity, General Relativity, Cosmology, Statistical Mechanics, Quantum Entanglement, Basic Particle Physics, and the Standard Model. While the courses build upon one another, each course also stands on its own.

Susskind, Leonard

2014-05-01

383

Foundations of Modern Cosmology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is intended for students who are using the textbook, "Foundations of Modern Cosmology". In this website every chapter in the book has a summary and a brief overview of the important concepts. Topics in the book include: Newton's contribution to cosmology, the evolution of stars, relativity, black holes, the expansion of the universe, the early universe, the CMB, dark matter, and inflation. There is also a list of students' questions, with answers, about ideas and concepts they found challenging.

Hawley, John

2004-07-16

384

The modern atom model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All particles in the atom are in constant motion, according to modern atomic theory. On this page of a tutorial on particle physics, students evaluate the relative size of atomic particles. If protons and neutrons are balls with a 1-centimeter diameter, then electrons have the diameter of a hair. The comparable size of an atom made from these particles would be 30 football fields long. Students read that atoms are mostly empty space. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Group, Lawrence B.

2002-01-01

385

Neutron Noise Diagnostics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The method is suitable for the diagnostics of mechanical vibrations of reactor internals and the indication of boiling in pressurized water reactors. Using the method it is possible to determine the immediate state of the equipment. A model is described o...

K. Dach

1982-01-01

386

Modern Anaesthesia Vapourisers  

PubMed Central

Inhalational anaesthetic agents are usually liquids at room temperature and barometric pressure and need to be converted to vapour before being used and this conversion is effected using a vapouriser. Vapourisers have evolved from very basic devices to more complicated ones. Anaesthetists should understand the basic principles of anaesthetic vapouriser, including the principles that affect vapouriser output and how they influence vapouriser design. Most of the modern vapourisers in use are designed to be used between the flow meter and the common gas outlet on the anaesthesia machine. Modern vapourisers are flow and temperature compensated, concentration calibrated, direct reading, dial controlled and are unaffected by positive-pressure ventilation. Safety features include an anti-spill and a select-a-tec mechanism and a specific vapouriser filling device. Desflurane has unique physical properties requiring the use of a specific desflurane vapouriser. The most recently designed vapourisers are controlled by a central processing unit in the anaesthetic machine. The concentration of vapour is continuously monitored and adjusted by altering fresh gas flow through the vapouriser. This article looks at the basic design and functioning of the modern vapourisers.

Chakravarti, Sucharita; Basu, Srabani

2013-01-01

387

Diagnostic system for high-voltage electrical components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents an example, indicating system logic and architecture, of a centralized diagnostic system for a modern substation. Detail are provided of the part relevant to the most important functions and operations required: measurements and transd...

C. Masetti

1988-01-01

388

Waldenström's macroglobulinemia as a diagnostic challenge: case report.  

PubMed

Waldenström's macroglobulinemia is a distinct clinicopathologic entity defined as a B-cell neoplasm characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate in the bone marrow, with an associated immunoglobulin (Ig) M paraprotein. Clinical manifestations are due to deposition of IgM in the liver, spleen, and/or lymph nodes, so it presents with anemia, hyperviscosity, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and neurologic symptoms. The main diagnostic criteria are a typical peak on serum protein electrophoresis and malignant cells in bone marrow biopsy samples. There is no standard therapy for the treatment of symptomatic Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia and no agents have been specifically approved for this disease, but initial treatment usually starts with the monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab, either alone or in combination with other agents, rather than chemotherapy alone. This article confirms that, despite the existence of more modern imaging methods, ultrasonography still has a significant diagnostic role. PMID:24974671

Budimir, Ivan; Nikoli?, Marko; Pusi?, Mateja Sabol; Hrabar, Davor; Ljubici?, Neven; Duvnjak, Marko; Supanc, Vladimir; Nikolac, Ivana; Babi?, Nenad; Sokcevi?, Marija

2014-03-01

389

Fungal diagnostics.  

PubMed

Early diagnosis of fungal infection is critical to effective treatment. There are many impediments to diagnosis such as a diminishing number of clinical mycologists, cost, time to result, and requirements for sensitivity and specificity. In addition, fungal diagnostics must meet the contrasting needs presented by the increasing diversity of fungi found in association with the use of immunosuppressive agents in countries with high levels of medical care and the need for diagnostics in resource-limited countries where large numbers of opportunistic infections occur in patients with AIDS. Traditional approaches to diagnosis include direct microscopic examination of clinical samples, histopathology, culture, and serology. Emerging technologies include molecular diagnostics and antigen detection in clinical samples. Innovative new technologies that use molecular and immunoassay platforms have the potential to meet the needs of both resource-rich and resource-limited clinical environments. PMID:24692193

Kozel, Thomas R; Wickes, Brian

2014-01-01

390

Morphological affinities of the proximal ulna from Klasies River main site: archaic or modern?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Middle Stone Age (MSA) asociated hominids from Klasies River Mouth (KRM) have taken on a key role in debate about the origins of modern humans, with their craniofacial remains seen as either representing the earliest well-dated modern humans in southern Africa or orthognathic late archaic humans. Diagnostic postcranial remains from Klasies are few, but one specimen—a proximal right ulna

S. E. Churchill; O. M. Pearson; F. E. Grine; E. Trinkaus; T. W. Holliday

1996-01-01

391

The Severity of Osteogenesis Imperfecta and Type I Collagen Pattern in Human Skin as Determined by Nonlinear Microscopy: Proof of Principle of a Diagnostic Method  

PubMed Central

Background The confirmatory diagnosis of Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) requires invasive, commonly bone biopsy, time consuming and destructive methods. This paper proposes an alternative method using a combination of two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopies from easily obtained human skin biopsies. We show that this method can distinguish subtypes of human OI. Methodology/Principal Findings Different aspects of collagen microstructure of skin fresh biopsies and standard H&E-stained sections of normal and OI patients (mild and severe forms) were distinguished by TPEF and SHG images. Moreover, important differences between subtypes of OI were identified using different methods of quantification such as collagen density, ratio between collagen and elastic tissue, and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) image-pattern analysis. Collagen density was lower in OI dermis, while the SHG/autofluorescence index of the dermis was significantly higher in OI as compared to that of the normal skin. We also showed that the energy value of GLCM texture analysis is useful to discriminate mild from severe OI and from normal skin. Conclusions/Significance This work demonstrated that nonlinear microscopy techniques in combination with image-analysis approaches represent a powerful tool to investigate the collagen organization in skin dermis in patients with OI and has the potential to distinguish the different types of OI. The procedure outlined in this paper requires a skin biopsy, which is almost painless as compared to the bone biopsy commonly used in conventional methods. The data presented here complement existing clinical diagnostic techniques and can be used as a diagnostic procedure to confirm the disease, evaluate its severity and treatment efficacy.

Pedroni, Marcus Vinicius; Steiner, Carlos E.; Pelegati, Vitor B.; de Thomaz, Andre A.; Carvalho, Hernandes F.; Cesar, Carlos L.

2013-01-01

392

Evaluation of Diagnostic Value of Elisa Method (EIA) & PCR in Diagnosis of Hepatitis C Virus In Hemodialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims: Since hepatitis C Virus has contaminated approximately 170 millions people over the world. Applying serological screening methods using EIA has led to decline the risk of transmission. However, in chronic renal disease and hemodialysis patients, the EIA method is not sufficient for diagnosis of HCV. Therefore, PCR method is suggested for rapid diagnosis of the disease in

Mohammad Hassan; Khadem Ansari

393

Realizing the fault diagnostic system in maglev suspension train system (MSTS) based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since maglev train system is a large system, it is difficult to diagnose the fault to the whole train extent by traditional method of fault diagnosing. The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is usually applied to most large systems, which can consider many factors of a large system. Firstly the principle of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is introduced, then concerned about

Zhiqiang Long; Zhiguo Lv; Huajie Hong

2002-01-01

394

A comparison of diagnostic methods for the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in experimental clinical specimens.  

PubMed Central

Virus shedding was monitored in nasal secretions of 12 calves experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) using an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detecting the nucleoprotein (NP) antigen of BRSV, by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying the fusion protein of BRSV, and by a microisolation assay combined with immunoperoxidase staining for the F protein of BRSV. Under the conditions of this study, similar limits of detection and quantitative results were obtained from all three assays. BRSV was detected in nasal secretions of all calves for a minimum of 4 d. Virus shedding began on Day 2 after infection, peaked on Days 3-5, and was cleared in most calves by Day 8. The PCR, and to a lesser extent the ELISA, may detect virus shedding for a longer period after infection than virus isolation, possibly due to neutralization of the virus by rising mucosal antibody. Simulated environmental conditions likely to be experienced during transport of clinical field specimens markedly reduced the sensitivity of virus isolation but had a minimal effect on the results of the NP ELISA. Actual field transport conditions (overnight on ice) had minimal apparent effect on the results of the PCR assay. The less stringent specimen handling requirements, combined with low limits of detection, of both the nucleoprotein ELISA and PCR, indicate either of these assays are more suitable for diagnostic applications than virus isolation.

West, K; Bogdan, J; Hamel, A; Nayar, G; Morley, P S; Haines, D M; Ellis, J A

1998-01-01

395

Hidden Markov model-based fault diagnostics method in speed-up and speed-down process for rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is very important to ensure that the large rotating machinery operates safely and reliably. The behaviour characteristics of the speed-up and speed-down process in a rotating machinery possess the distinct diagnostic value. The abundant information, non-stationarity, poor repeatability and reproducibility in the speed-up and speed-down process lead to the necessity to find the corresponding approach of feature extraction and fault recognition. The Hidden Markov model (HMM) is very suitable for modelling the dynamic time series, and has a strong capability of pattern classification, especially for a signal with abundant information, non-stationarity, poor repeatability and reproducibility. At the same time, HMM can process the random long sequences in theory. Based on these features, HMM is very suitable for the signal from the speed-up and speed-down process in rotating machinery. As a result, HMM is introduced to the fault diagnosis of rotating machinery, and a new HMM-based approach of the fault diagnosis for the speed-up and speed-down process is proposed. The main idea of the proposed approach is that the feature vectors, which are obtained by the FFT, wavelet transform, bispectrum, etc., are used as fault features, respectively, and the HMMs as the classifiers to recognise the faults of the speed-up and speed-down process in rotating machinery. The experimental results show that the proposed approach is feasible and effective.

Li, Zhinong; Wu, Zhaotong; He, Yongyong; Fulei, Chu

2005-03-01

396

Laboratory spectroscopic diagnostics of TLE-like air plasmas: methods to derive the rotational (gas) temperature in TLEs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory low pressure (0.1 mbar < p < 2 mbar) glow air discharges have been studies by optical emission spectroscopy to illustrate several spectroscopic techniques that, depending on the available spectral resolution, could be implemented by different field spectrographs to experimentally quantify the gas temperature associated with Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) occurring at different altitudes including blue jets, giant blue jets and sprites. The laboratory air plasmas investigated have been analysed from the near UV (300 nm) to the near IR (1060 nm) with high (up to 0.01 nm) and low (2 nm) spectral resolution commercial grating spectrographs and by an in-house developed intensified CCD grating spectrograph that we have recently developed in our group at IAA - CSIC for TLE spectral diagnostic surveys with 0.45 nm spectral resolution. We discuss the results of laboratory tests and comment on the convenience of using one or another technique for rotational (gas) temperature determination during TLE spectroscopic campaigns. Finally, we will also show a comparison of the vibrational distribution function (VDF) of N2(B) obtained from (a) experiments in low pressure laboratory air plasmas produced in conditions similar to TLEs, (b) spectroscopic emissions from real TLE air plasmas and (c) compute from kinetic modeling.

Gordillo-Vazquez, F.; Parra-Rojas, F.; Passas, M.; Carrasco, E.; Luque, A.; Tanarro, I.; Simek, M.

2013-12-01

397

Detection of early stages of dental caries by optical PNC diagnostics: comparison with visual inspection, dental probe, and x-ray methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research results of approbation of the optical PNC-method in dental clinic are presented. The PNC-method was used for diagnostics stages of caries (initial, moderate and deep). The variant of the PNC-method adapted for dental diagnosis is based on simultaneous analyses the following parameters by special algorithms: probing radiation, stimulated backscattering and autofluorescence of caries induced batteries. Analyze of informational signals show good correlation with tooth morphological structure and concentration of anaerobic microflora in hearth of caries lesion. Investigation was performed in vivo on 101 tooth in conditions of typical dental clinic. Comparison of the PNC-methods with visual inspection, dental probe and X-ray ones, which are widely used in clinical practice was made. Preliminary results showed high potential of usage of the PNC-method in clinical practice and more high probability of initial caries detection (up to 100%) in comparison with X-ray method (approximately 75%). In cases when X-ray diagnosed absence of initial caries, more sensitive the PNC-method detected initial caries in stage white lesion.

Masychev, Victor I.; Sokolovsky, Alexander A.; Kesler, Gaby

2000-11-01

398

A methodology study to validate a structured diagnostic method used to diagnose female sexual dysfunction and its subtypes in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

The currently accepted gold standard for diagnosis of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a nonstandardized interview by a clinician whose field of expertise is FSD. However, the limited number of experts in the field has implications for running efficient large-scale clinical trials. Therefore, we developed a structured diagnostic method (SDM) to enable diagnosis of FSD in postmenopausal women by health care professionals who are not FSD experts. Our study objectives were to evaluate both convergent validity and intrarater reliability of the SDM. The results showed that the method had good convergent validity and excellent intrarater reliability. Thus, we conclude that the SDM can reliably diagnose FSD status and FSD subtypes in postmenopausal women. PMID:16020146

Utian, Wulf H; MacLean, David B; Symonds, Tara; Symons, James; Somayaji, Veena; Sisson, Melanie

2005-01-01

399

Statistical methods to correct for verification bias in diagnostic studies are inadequate when there are few false negatives: a simulation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A common feature of diagnostic research is that results for a diagnostic gold standard are available primarily for patients who are positive for the test under investigation. Data from such studies are subject to what has been termed \\

Angel M Cronin; Andrew J Vickers

2008-01-01

400

Foundations of modern cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent discoveries in astronomy, especially those made with data collected by satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, have revolutionized the science of cosmology. These new observations offer the possibility that some long-standing mysteries in cosmology might be answered, including such fundamental questions as the ultimate fate of the universe. Foundations of modern cosmology provides an accessible, thorough and descriptive introduction to the physical basis for modern cosmological theory, from the big bang to a distant future dominated by dark energy. This second edition includes the latest observational results and provides the detailed background material necessary to understand their implications, with a focus on the specific model supported by these observations, the concordance model. Consistent with the book's title, emphasis is given to the scientific framework for cosmology, particularly the basics concepts of physics that underlie modern theories of relativity and cosmology; the importance of data and observations is stressed throughout. The book sketches the historical background of cosmology, and provides a review of the relevant basic physics and astronomy. After this introduction, both special and general relativity are treated, before proceeding to an in-depth discussion of the big bang theory and physics of the early universe. The book includes current research areas, including dark matter and structure formation, dark energy, the inflationary universe, and quantum cosmology. The authors' website (http://www.astro.virginia.edu/~jh8h/Foundations) offers a wealth of supplemental information, including questions and answers, references to other sources, and updates on the latest discoveries.

Hawley, John F.; Holcomb, Katherine A.

2005-07-01

401

Imaging of gastrointestinal stromal tumours with modern ultrasound techniques - a pictorial essay.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are rare tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. Dealing with these tumours requires a profound knowledge of the nature of the lesions and their malignant potentials. Modern ultrasound techniques provide the necessary tools to give the clinician the information he needs to diagnose and treat the patient. This article reviews the actual pathophysiological knowledge of GIST and provides a broad spectrum of ultrasound findings to introduce the reader into modern ultrasound investigation methods of subepithelial tumours. It covers the transcutaneous as well as the endoscopic ultrasound approach. Different conditions of GIST like the low risk or high risk form as well as the metastatic form will be discussed in diagnosis and treatment with plenty of examples. Special attention is paid to contrast-enhanced ultrasound techniques and elastography from the transcutaneous as well as the endoscopic route. Other diagnostic methods like CT, MRI and PET CT are additionally reviewed and their role in clinical practice is compared with that of ultrasound. The aim of the article is to introduce the reader into the new ultrasound techniques and special diagnostic behaviour of GIST and outline clinical pathways to deal correctly with different stages of the disease. PMID:22581701

Dietrich, C F; Jenssen, C; Hocke, M; Cui, X-W; Woenckhaus, M; Ignee, A

2012-05-01

402

Diagnostic formulation  

PubMed Central

Writing a ‘Diagnostic Formulation’ is a skill expected of candidates in the post-graduate examinations in psychiatry in most universities in India. However there is ambiguity regarding what the term means and how it should be written. This article is an attempt to provide some guidelines on this topic.

Kuruvilla, K.; Kuruvilla, Anju

2010-01-01

403

Modern Physics Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Consortium for Upper Level Physics Software (CUPS) has developed a comprehensive series of Nine Book/Software packages that Wiley will publish in FY `95 and `96. CUPS is an international group of 27 physicists, all with extensive backgrounds in the research, teaching, and development of instructional software. The project is being supported by the National Science Foundation (PHY-9014548), and it has received other support from the IBM Corp., Apple Computer Corp., and George Mason University. The Simulations being developed are: Astrophysics, Classical Mechanics, Electricity & Magnetism, Modern Physics, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Solid State, Thermal and Statistical, and Wave and Optics.

Brandt, Douglas; Hiller, John R.; Moloney, Michael J.

1995-10-01

404

Diagnostics and Microelectronics  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses activities of the Diagnostics and Microelectronics thrust area which conducts activities in semiconductor devices and semiconductor fabrication technology for programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our multidisciplinary engineering and scientific staff use modern computational tools and semi-conductor microfabrication equipment to develop high-performance devices. Our work concentrates on three broad technologies of semiconductor microdevices: (1) silicon on III-V semiconductor microeletronics, (2) lithium niobate-based and III-V semiconductor-based photonics, and (3) silicon-based micromaching for application to microstructures and microinstruments. In FY-92, we worked on projects in seven areas, described in this report: novel photonic detectors; a wideband phase modulator; an optoelectronic terahertz beam system; the fabrication of microelectrode electrochemical sensors; diamond heatsinks; advanced micromachining technologies; and electrophoresis using silicon microchannels.

Balch, J.W.

1993-03-01

405

Methods and difficulties in detection of Clostridium botulinum and its toxins.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to present selected data regarding traditional and modern methods for C. botulinum and its toxins detection. In this article, methods based on culturing techniques, mouse bioassay, immunological techniques, chromatography and PCR, PFGE, RFLP, AFLP are described. The mentioned techniques were evaluated considering their usefulness in the samples examination, genotyping of strains and the diagnostics of botulism. PMID:24724492

Grenda, T; Kukier, E; Kwiatek, K

2014-01-01

406

Off-line diagnostic analyses of a three-dimensional PM model using two matrix factorization methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Error diagnosis of fine-grid photochemical transport models (CTM) has become a formidable task, which requires thorough understanding of complex microphysical and photochemical processes in the atmosphere as well as scientific computing. In an initial modeling exercise conducted for the California Regional PM 10/PM 2.5 Air Quality Study (CRPAQS), abnormally high, unrealistic, PM sulfate concentrations were simulated in central California. To aid the error diagnosis, two matrix factorization methods, namely absolute principal component analysis (APCA) and an efficient non-negative matrix factorization method (NMFROC), were used to analyze the relationships among the input and output parameters of a CTM for PM modeling and to apportion the relative importance of individual factors to an abnormal sample. The APCA method corroborated sciences implemented in the PM model, but failed to apportion the relative importance of individual factors to PM sulfate in an abnormal case. On the other hand, the NMFROC method performed well on the apportionment of an abnormally high PM sulfate. The factors produced from the NMFROC method shared common features with the APCA method, but significant differences remain between the two methods, which can be understood from their difference in methodology. Subsequent PM modeling results were shown to validate the results from the NMFROC method.

Liang, Jinyou; Kaduwela, Ajith; Jackson, Bruce; Gürer, Kemal; Allen, Paul

407

Making the Modern World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Making the Modern World offers a dynamic rendition of the permanent gallery at the Science Museum in London. The "learning modules" are "packed with demonstrations, activities and rich media experiences" and "designed for use by everyone interested in learning more about the evolution of the modern world." Topics include how to engineer DNA, how the world's most famous bridges were built, and war technology. The Stories Timeline section provides a timeline of stories about inventions to "show how our lives are shaped by the things we make, invent and use." Articles are embedded within the timeline for further exploration of the topics. Another section highlights some of the Icons of Invention, such as the home computer and the Apollo 10 command module. The Everyday Life section explores how "technology is woven through our daily lives at home, at work or at play." Finally, the Guided Tours chronologically follows a particular topic, such as women in science and technology. All of the sections include photographs and are easy to navigate.

408

SFMOMA: Explore Modern Art  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art website has a wonderful feature that aims to help visitors of the online exhibits (or the physical museum) understand what was going on in the mind of the artist, the curator, or art historian when they created, chose or studied a work of art. The "Explore Modern Art" link provides a multimedia resource which helps visitors better understand this often misunderstood mode of artistic endeavor. Visitors can go to the archive of multimedia presentations released by SFMOMA, which covers more than 50 artists, such as Sol LeWitt and Betye Saar. To hear the musings of curators on exhibits at SFMOMA, visitors should click on the "Audio" link under "Multimedia." If you are not familiar with the artwork featured in the audio, most of the audio features provide a link to a biography of the artist featured, as well as to a few of their works. Visitors shouldn't miss watching the time-lapse video of "SFMOMA installs Ann Hamilton's indigo blue", which can be found in the "Video" link on the left said of the page.

409

A successful diagnostic case of Pneumocystis pneumonia by the loop-mediated isothermal amplification method in a patient with dermatomyositis.  

PubMed

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) can occur in patients with many causes of the immunocompromised state other than human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is quite difficult to diagnose PCP without HIV because there is no method for detecting Pneumocystis jirovecii. Thus, non-HIV PCP continues to have high mortality. Recently, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is becoming an established nucleic acid amplification method offering rapid, accurate, and cost-effective diagnosis of infectious diseases. We report a non-HIV PCP case successfully diagnosed by the LAMP method. It was previously reported that PCR in BALF specimens had been the most sensitive method in the diagnosis of PCP without HIV. The LAMP method would be more sensitive than conventional PCR and an effective tool in the early diagnosis of PCP. PMID:22526388

Asai, Nobuhiro; Aoshima, Masahiro; Ohkuni, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Haruki; Matsunuma, Ryo; Nakashima, Kei; Katsurada, Naoko; Nakano, Hiroto; Otsuka, Yoshihito; Kawamura, Yasutaka; Matsui, Kazuo; Kaneko, Norihiro

2012-12-01

410

Discordance rate, a new concept for combining diagnostic decisions with analytical performance characteristics. 1. Application in method or sample system comparisons and in defining decision limits.  

PubMed

Method comparison studies are usually evaluated by several statistical tests (e.g., regression analysis) which sufficiently describe the analytical (dis)agreement between the results of two procedures. However, they do not provide any information how differences, if observed, influence diagnostic decision making. A novel statistical approach is described to test the clinical relevance of differences between two analytical procedures. The new procedure requires a population-based probability which describes the distribution of values within the population under study and an analytical probability quantifying the risk of errors due to replacing one method by the other. The population probability was derived from 171 subjects from two outpatient departments (internal medicine and dermatology) who were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test because type 2 diabetes mellitus was suspected. The analytical probability was determined from duplicate glucose measurements in venous and capillary blood, and venous plasma in the fasting and 2 h post-challenge state by the routine method used in a central laboratory (Ebio analyzer) and a (POCT) glucometer (Elite). The two probabilities were combined into one "error rate" (discordance rate). The new concept was applied to three examples. In the first example, a comparison between two analytical systems led to discordance rates above 15%. After transforming the Elite analyzer results by a regression function, the discordance rate decreased below 5%, which was considered to be acceptable for the diagnostic purpose studied. In the second example, discordance rates were estimated by comparing different sample systems with each other. The use of whole blood in comparison with venous plasma led to discordance rates of 5-7% for venous blood and 7-10% for capillary blood. The same data set was also used in a third example to derive decision limits for capillary and venous blood from the established plasma values. The proposed procedure estimates the diagnostic error rate based on analytic performance characteristics and population probabilities. It extends the concept of (un)efficiency by including the effect of variability about a decision limit and the distribution of the measurement values in the patient population. PMID:12705345

Haeckel, Rainer; Wosniok, Werner; Puentmann, Isabel

2003-03-01

411

Applications of the LIF method for the diagnostics of the combustion process of gas-IC-engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the underlying project, the task was to develop methods for optical measurements in a hydrogen-fuelled engine with\\u000a direct-injection, with the goal of measuring the jet patterns during injection, the stratification of the charge at ignition\\u000a point and the propagation of the flame during combustion. Therefore, the method of planar laser-induced-fluorescence (PLIF)\\u000a was chosen. In order to apply this technique

Wolfram Kirchweger; Rainer Haslacher; Michael Hallmannsegger; Udo Gerke

2007-01-01

412

Diagnostic evaluation of people with hypertension in low income country: cohort study of "essential" method of risk stratification  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore the predictive power of a risk stratification method for people with hypertension based on “essential” procedures (that is, available in economically less developed areas of the world), comparing it in the same population with the results given by the method suggested by the 1999 World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension (WHO-ISH) guidelines. Design Prospective cohort study of outcomes according to cardiovascular risk profile at baseline. Setting Primary care in a poor rural area of the Ecuadorian forest. Participants 504 people with hypertension prospectively monitored for a mean of 6.7 (SD 2.3) years. Interventions Essential data included blood pressure, medical history, smoking, age, sex, and diagnosis of diabetes; the WHO-ISH methods additionally included measurement of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, and creatinine, urinalysis, and electrocardiography. Main outcome measures Cardiovascular events and total deaths. Results With both methods there was a highly significant association between the level of predicted risk and the incidence of cardiovascular events and of total deaths: up to three quarters of all cardiovascular events and two thirds of all deaths were reported among people classified as at high or very high risk with either method. The predictive discrimination of the essential method is comparable with the WHO-ISH with C statistics (95% confidence interval) of 0.788 (0.721 to 0.855) and 0.744 (0.673 to 0.815), respectively, for cardiovascular events and 0.747 (0.678 to 0.816) and 0.705 (0.632 to 0.778) for total mortality. Conclusions The risk stratification of patients with hypertension with an essential package of variables (that is, available and practicable even in the economically less developed areas of the world) serves at least as well as the more comprehensive method proposed by WHO-ISH.

2008-01-01

413

Modern control design for flexible wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control can improve energy capture and reduce dynamic loads in wind turbines. In the 1970s and 1980s wind turbines used classical control designs to regulate power and speed. The methods used, however, were not always successful. These systems often had bandwidths large enough to destabilize low-damped flexible modes leading to high dynamic load fatigue failures. Modern turbines are larger, mounted

Alan Duane Wright

2003-01-01

414

A Dynamical Successor to Modernism and Postmodernism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author introduces an emerging worldview that could affect counseling concepts and methods greatly in the relatively near future. The worldview, dynamicalism, incorporates essential features of modernism and postmodernism. It also incorporates cutting-edge concepts from physics and philosophy. The synthesis of these ideas provides a conceptual…

MacDonald, Don

2008-01-01

415

The Ins and Outs of Modern Doors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the qualities and trends in modern metal doors for educational facilities that include fire protection and sound-control attributes. Important differences in door manufacturing methods and materials are addressed and sound-transmission class values, ratings, and rating descriptions are listed. (GR)

College Planning & Management, 1999

1999-01-01

416

Navigating the diagnostics career labyrinth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated diagnostics is a career field for which there currently exists no standard set of basic qualifications, few educational opportunities to study at the university level, no clear processes within most organizations for practicing integrated diagnostics as a systems engineering activity and often no uniform method of sharing techniques and lessons learned with new employees. Several authors have stated the

Russell Shannon; J. Quiter

2007-01-01

417

Diagnostic Decision Making  

PubMed Central

Diagnostic or screening tests are used to help determine whether or not a patient has a certain condition or disease. The ability of a diagnostic test to correctly classify subjects is expressed by the four test characteristics—sensitivity, specificity, predictive value positive, and predictive value negative. This paper describes these characteristics and discusses methods for choosing optimal tests or cutoff points to maximize expected value considering the consequences of incorrect diagnoses. Data drawn from ongoing studies of facial pain are used to illustrate some of these concepts.

Antczak-Bouckoms, Alexia; Tulloch, J.F.C.; Bouckoms, Anthony J.; Keith, David; Lavori, Phillip

1990-01-01

418

A direct comparison of next generation sequencing enrichment methods using an aortopathy gene panel- clinical diagnostics perspective  

PubMed Central

Background Aortopathies are a group of disorders characterized by aneurysms, dilation, and tortuosity of the aorta. Because of the phenotypic overlap and genetic heterogeneity of diseases featuring aortopathy, molecular testing is often required for timely and correct diagnosis of affected individuals. In this setting next generation sequencing (NGS) offers several advantages over traditional molecular techniques. Methods The purpose of our study was to compare NGS enrichment methods for a clinical assay targeting the nine genes known to be associated with aortopathy. RainDance emulsion PCR and SureSelect RNA-bait hybridization capture enrichment methods were directly compared by enriching DNA from eight samples. Enriched samples were barcoded, pooled, and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Depth of coverage, consistency of coverage across samples, and the overlap of variants identified were assessed. This data was also compared to whole-exome sequencing data from ten individuals. Results Read depth was greater and less variable among samples that had been enriched using the RNA-bait hybridization capture enrichment method. In addition, samples enriched by hybridization capture had fewer exons with mean coverage less than 10, reducing the need for followup Sanger sequencing. Variants sets produced were 77% concordant, with both techniques yielding similar numbers of discordant variants. Conclusions When comparing the design flexibility, performance, and cost of the targeted enrichment methods to whole-exome sequencing, the RNA-bait hybridization capture enrichment gene panel offers the better solution for interrogating the aortopathy genes in a clinical laboratory setting.

2012-01-01

419

[Paraphrenia: the modernity of Emil Kraepelin's thinking].  

PubMed

Paraphrenia is a chronic psychotic disorder similar to paranoid schizophrenia, but with a better-preserved affect and rapport, and a much less personality deterioration. It was at first described by Kraepelin in 1913 as a group of patients who exhibited delusional symptoms typical of dementia praecox, but with minimal disturbances of emotion and volition. After the publication of Mayer-Gross's report in 1921, the view to differentiate paraphrenia from schizophrenia was considered to be unfounded and the term "paraphrenia" was not included in the current DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. Consequently, this disorder is now diagnosed relatively infrequently. However, several authors have recently suggested that the paraphrenia concept has not lost its usefulness. It seems to be that many psychiatrists recognize the illness, but labelled it as "atypical psychosis", "schizoaffective disorder" or "psychotic disorder not otherwise specified" for the lack of a better diagnostic category. Very few systematic studies on paraphrenia have been conducted in the past 70 years. Aim of this article is to underline the modernity of Kraepelin's thinking and his "paraphrenia" concept, suggesting that it could be possible to define and recognize the illness if practitioners would be induced to use a viable diagnostic entity. PMID:20568578

Pelizza, Lorenzo; Bonazzi, Federica

2010-01-01

420

Similitude in modern pharmacology.  

PubMed

The principle of the similitude, the basis of homeopathy, has correspondences in the clinical studies of secondary effects of many modern pharmaceutical agents through the observation of the rebound effects of these drugs. Through clinical pharmacology, I proposed a model on which to base the scientificism of the homeopathic model. We have studied the effects of the drugs in the human body using pharmacological compendia and recent scientific works, confirming the mechanism of the homeopathic medicines' action through the verification of the primary action of the drugs and the consequent secondary reaction of the organism in hundreds of pharmaceutical agents. Treatment exploiting the "rebound" effect (curative vital reaction) may also be observed. This work suggests a research methodology to scientifically base the therapeutic principle of similitude. PMID:10449051

Teixeira, M Z

1999-07-01