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[Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].  


Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders. PMID:17471820

Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Ma?gorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa



[Modern aspects of diagnostics of bacterial endocarditis].  


Modern approaches to diagnostics of infective endocarditis (IE) are considered in the article. Possibilities for detection of the disease provided by various diagnostic criteria are analyzed. The authors demonstrate the advantages of improved criteria and present the diagnostic signs of subacute endocarditis in congenital heart diseases, artificial valve IE, and IE in drug addicts. Differential diagnostics issues are covered as well. PMID:17882801

Nikolaevski?, E N; Avram, G Kh; Soldatenko, M V; Pichko, G A



Diagnostic method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for prognosing osteoporosis phenotypes or estimating osteoporosis quantitative traits comprising determining outcomes for selected SNP variables and clinical variables. Products and methods for genotyping multiple osteoporosis associated genetic variations.



Experimental Physics - Modern Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designed for physics students treating the underlying basis for modern techniques and the devices used, this timely survey describes current experimental methods in a clear and accessible text. This up-to-date volume provides an essential part of undergraduate physics training; until now, students were often expected to learn many of these methods in the laboratory without proper introduction. The broad coverage of available techniques includes discussion of state-of-the-art electronic equipment, as well as such topics as discrete semiconductor devices, signal processing, thermometry, optical components, nuclear instrumentation, and x-ray diffraction methods. Professor Dunlap's text will serve not only as a complete introduction for majors but also as a reference work for technicians throughout a professional career. In addition to tutorial discussions presented, tables of numerical data and constants are included, further enhancing the book as a permanent reference.

Dunlap, R. A.



Computational Chemistry Using Modern Electronic Structure Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Various modern electronic structure methods are now days used to teach computational chemistry to undergraduate students. Such quantum calculations can now be easily used even for large size molecules.|

Bell, Stephen; Dines, Trevor J.; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Withnall, Robert



Application of modern diagnostic techniques to assess the condition of oil and pressboard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging of oil-paper insulation was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. Traditional and modern diagnostic tools and techniques are discussed. Insulation condition testing includes common chemical diagnostics such as acidity tests and several new chemical techniques such as determination of relative content of dissolved decay products by spectrophotometry, solid suspension by turbidimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and electrical diagnostic techniques that

A. Bouaicha; I. Fofana; M. Farzaneh



A modern diagnostic approach for automobile systems condition monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important topic in automotive research and development is the area of active and passive safety systems. In general, it is grouped in active safety systems to prevent accidents and passive systems to reduce the impact of a crash. An example for an active system is ABS while a seat belt tensioner represents the group of passive systems. Current developments in the automotive industry try to link active with passive system components to enable a complete event sequence, beginning with the warning of the driver about a critical situation till the automatic emergency call after an accident. The cross-linking has an impact on the current diagnostic approach, which is described in this paper. Therefore, this contribution introduces a new diagnostic approach for automotive mechatronic systems. The concept is based on monitoring the messages which are exchanged via the automotive communication systems, e.g. the CAN bus. According to the authors' assumption, the messages on the bus are changing between faultless and faulty vehicle condition. The transmitted messages of the sensors and control units are different depending on the condition of the car. First experiments are carried and in addition, the hardware design of a suitable diagnostic interface is presented. Finally, first results will be presented and discussed.

Selig, M.; Shi, Z.; Ball, A.; Schmidt, K.



Modern molecular diagnostics and the management of haematological malignancies.  


The advent of molecular biological techniques has led to a radical improvement in the evaluation of haematological disorders and offers exciting future prospects. In particular it has led to the improved recognition of distinct clinicopathological entities defined by a combination of morphological, immunophenotypic and chromosomal features. Antibody-based techniques, namely immunophenotyping and immunocytochemical techniques, are essential to malignant haematological diagnosis. More novel is the diagnostic use of antibodies against novel fusion proteins, for example in AML, M3 and anaplastic lymphoma. PCR-based techniques allow the identification of genetic mutations and translocations including such common translocations as t(14;18), t(9;22), inv 16 and t(8;21). Fish-based techniques are greatly improving the ability to detect genetic abnormalities including those conditions with low cell proliferation and current research-based techniques include the combination of FISH with cell surface markers (FICTION), FIBRE FISH and Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Molecular techniques are essential in monitoring residual disease which is best illustrated in CML. The development of real-time automated PCR offers exciting prospects in this field. The increasing number of tests, the need for an integrated approach to diagnosis and the need for cost effectiveness indicate that such services should be provided by a specialized haematology laboratory. PMID:9681227

Morgan, G J; Pratt, G



[Pulmonary arterial hypertension: modern diagnostics and therapy--Part 1].  


Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) belongs to the group of rare diseases and the morbidity rate is 15 to 50 people per million per year. Before the era of specific treatment of PAH, the prognosis was poor. The average life expectancy of the patients was 2.8 years. However, in the last years there has been a breakthrough in treating the patients with PAH. The introduction of this specific treatment has prolonged the life and improved the quality of it within the group of the patients with PAH. In Poland, since 2008 the therapy has been organized by the Pulmonary Hypertension Therapeutic Program. PAH is a recognition done by excluding more probable causes of pulmonary hypertension (PH) such as: PH due to left heart disease and lung disease, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and PH with multifactorial mechanisms. The clinical symptoms of pulmonary hypertension are non-specific, they develop for a several months and they are mainly caused by progressive right ventricular failure. The base of PAH recognition is echocardiography, which indirectly estimates the pulmonary artery systolic pressure. However, the golden standard of PAH diagnostics is right heart catheterization (RHC) with measurements of pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), right atrial pressure (RAP), right ventricular pressure and pulmonary wedge pressure (PWP). The early PAH recognition and the correct classification of patients to the treatment organized by the Pulmonary Hypertension Therapeutic Program give them a chance for longer and more comfortable life. PMID:23882936

Betkier-Lipi?ska, Katarzyna; Ryczek, Robert; Kwasiborski, Przemys?aw; Cwetsch, Andrzej



Improving food processing using modern optimization methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution, computer-aided optimization is presented as the ultimate tool to improve food processing. The state of the art is reviewed, especially focusing in recent developments using modern optimization techniques. Their potential for industrial applications is also discussed in the light of several important examples. Finally, future trends and research needs are outlined.

Julio R. Banga; Eva Balsa-Canto; Carmen G. Moles; Antonio A. Alonso



Doppler Shift Methods for Plasma Diagnostics,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work to develop novel advanced laser spectroscopy plasma diagnostic methods is described. The methods are based on observing the doppler shift in the absorption liners of ionic species. Two methods under study are Velocity Modulated Laser Spectroscopy and...

M. Sassi J. W. Daily



Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*  

PubMed Central

This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice.

Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.



A method of traffic signal control for modern roundabout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern roundabouts have been used among many countries. But when the circulatory roadway of a roundabout has more than two lanes, the disorder of the traffic cause big problems. The weaving section where the vehicles enter or leave the roundabout appears to be the critical bottleneck. In this paper, a new method of traffic signal control for modern roundabout is

Xiaoguang Yang; Xiugang Li



Diagnostic differences in mandibular P4 shape between Neandertals and anatomically modern humans.  


This study uses elliptical Fourier analysis to quantify shape differences observed in the P(4) crown of Neandertals and anatomically modern humans. Previously, P(4) shape was assessed qualitatively, and results suggested marked differences between Neandertals and anatomically modern humans (Bailey [2002] New Anat. 269:148-156). The goal of this study was to investigate the P(4) shape in more detail, quantifying it in order to determine its utility for taxonomic classification and phylogenetic analysis. A comparison of mean shapes confirms that the mesiolingual portion of the P(4) is truncated in Neandertals, and that this produces a distinctively asymmetrical P(4). A randomization test confirms that the shape difference between Neandertals and anatomically modern humans is significant. Principal component and discriminant function analyses indicate that the relative size of the lingual portion of the tooth also affects tooth shape, with the lingual portion of the Neandertal P(4) being narrower than that of anatomically modern humans. Classification of P(4) crown shapes using discriminant functions analysis is far from perfect. While 86.4% of the teeth were correctly classified, classification was much better for anatomically modern humans (98.1%) than it was for Neandertals (65%). Fortunately, crown shape is but one of several diagnostic characters of the P(4) crown. P(4) crown asymmetry can be added to the growing list of dental morphological characters distinguishing Neandertals from anatomically modern humans. Moreover, based on a comparison of mean tooth shapes in fossil and recent humans, symmetry, rather than asymmetry, appears to be the primitive state, and the high frequency of P(4) asymmetry is likely derived in Neandertals. PMID:15386225

Bailey, Shara E; Lynch, John M



Comparison of Two Modern Pattern Recognition Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods of pattern recognition are introduced in this paper: Unsupervised learning algorithm - fuzzy clustering method and supervised learning algorithm - neural network. The pattern recognition becomes failure pattern recognition if it is used in the fault diagnosis of the machine. Both merits and shortages of these two methods are discussed through a specific example in the mechanical faults

Xiaochun Shi



Modern Methods of Separating Zirconium and Hafnium  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONTENTS I. Introduction 522 II. Methods of separating zirconium and hafnium 523 III. Future prospects in the application of the most important methods for separating zirconium and hafnium 532 Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title Abstract Text Return: Query Results Return items starting with number Query Form Database:

I. V. Vinarov



Modern map methods for charged particle optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differential algebraic methods, a natural tool for the description and determination of the solution of differential equations, have proven useful for the computation of aberrations of any desired order in any particle optical system. Besides conventional symplectic systems based on strongly or weakly focusing elements including fringe fields, they also readily allow the treatment of spin dynamics as well

Martin Berz



A survey of modern authorship attribution methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Authorship attribution supported by statistical or computational methods has a long history starting from 19th century and marked by the seminal study of Mosteller and Wallace (1964) on the authorship of the disputed Federalist Papers. During the last decade, this scientific field has been developed substantially taking advantage of research advances in areas such as machine learning, information retrieval, and

Efstathios Stamatatos



Modern Statistical Methods for GLAST Event Analysis  

SciTech Connect

We describe a statistical reconstruction methodology for the GLAST LAT. The methodology incorporates in detail the statistics of the interactions of photons and charged particles with the tungsten layers in the LAT, and uses the scattering distributions to compute the full probability distribution over the energy and direction of the incident photons. It uses model selection methods to estimate the probabilities of the possible geometrical configurations of the particles produced in the detector, and numerical marginalization over the energy loss and scattering angles at each layer. Preliminary results show that it can improve on the tracker-only energy estimates for muons and electrons incident on the LAT.

Morris, Robin D.; /RIACS, Mtn. View; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park



Modern Statistical Methods for GLAST Event Analysis  

SciTech Connect

We describe a statistical reconstruction methodology for the GLAST LAT. The methodology incorporates in detail the statistics of the interactions of photons and charged particles with the tungsten layers in the LAT, and uses the scattering distributions to compute the full probability distribution over the energy and direction of the incident photons. It uses model selection methods to estimate the probabilities of the possible geometrical configurations of the particles produced in the detector, and numerical marginalization over the energy loss and scattering angles at each layer. Preliminary results show that it can improve on the tracker-only energy estimates for muons and electrons incident on the LAT.

Morris, Robin D. [USRA-RIACS, 444, Castro St, Suite 320, Mountain View, CA 94041 (United States); Cohen-Tanugi, Johann [SLAC/KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)



[Historical survey of modern reversible contraceptive methods].  


Because of contraception, pregnancy need not be viewed by women as punishment for sexual activity but as a planned and desired event. Most of the contraceptive methods used in developing countries at present were introduced during the 1960s, but use of contraception has a long history and some methods date back to antiquity. Contraceptive pills were already used around 2000 BC in the form of mercury and arsenic tablets. Their effectiveness was questionable. The role of hormones in human reproduction began to be understood only in the early 1900s. The discovery of progesterone in a Mexican iguana in the 1940s permitted production of progesterone on a large scale. Estrogens had been identified around 1930. Human trials of a contraceptive pill beginning in 1956 in Puerto Rico demonstrated that progestins could prevent pregnancy by suppressing ovulation. Later on, estrogen was added to reduce menstrual irregularities. The 1st generation of combined oral contraceptives contained very high levels of hormones associated with high rates of side effects. Numerous formulations with lower hormonal contents became available beginning around 1970 and constitute the principal formulations in use today. A number of long acting hormonal methods based on progestins have been developed, including injectables, some IUDs and vaginal rings, and implants. The 1st commercially available injectable, norethisterone enanthate, did not acquire the wide distribution of medroxyprogesterone acetate, sold as Depo Provera and used to treat various pathological conditions as well as for contraception. The 1st true IUDs were small stones placed within the uteri of camels by nomads to prevent pregnancy during long caravans. An IUD was developed in 1909 by Richter, and the 2 most widely used models before 1960 were the Grafenberg and Ota silver rings. Use of the 2 rings became rare for medical reasons after 1935 despite their efficacy. Safe plastic IUDs which appeared beginning in the early 1960s were flexible and capable of returning to their original shape after insertion. The Lippes loop was the 1st highly successful IUD. Bioactive IUDs containing copper were developed in the 1970s. Research is underway to develop IUDs which will resist expulsion, reduce bleeding, be more appropriate for multiparas, and last longer. IUDs are used to treat intrauterine adhesions as well as for contraception. A gummy substance used to block the cervix was described in Egypt in 1850 BC. Japanese and Chinese prostitutes of antiquity placed oiled bamboo paper at the cervical opening for contraception. Diaphragms and cervical caps were developed in the 19th century in Germany. Large scale production became possible after 1880 with the development of better, more durable, and cheaper rubber. An Egyptian writing in 3500 BC began the study of spermicides. Numerous substances such as lemon juice and honey have been placed in the vagina to avoid pregnancy. Such substances are available to all women and some were reasonably effective. Current research is directed toward development of spermicides which will also prevent sexually transmitted diseases. The 1st condoms were made of animal skins by an English physician to prevent transmission of venereal diseases. Rubber condoms appeared in the early 20th century and are widely utilized in some family planning programs. Pregnancy vaccines and a reversible hormonal method for men are among methods under development. PMID:12268230

Mbabajende, V



Modern numerical methods for plasma tomography optimisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tomography is a technique which is widely applied to fusion plasmas as it can provide improved understanding of plasma emissivity distributions. It is challenging because of the sparse nature of data available from the measured plasma projections. An optimised version of robust and fast tomographic algorithm based on the Tikhonov regularisation constrained to Minimum Fisher Information is presented in this contribution. A new regularisation matrix enforcing preferential emissivity smoothness along magnetic flux surfaces is introduced. The paper also details application of advanced numerical methods which lead to a substantial decrease in computation time. Subsequent implementation of fast presolvers of the inverse problem further contributes to the algorithm's efficiency and also an improved stability of the tomography reconstruction. Finally, reliability and performance of the tomography algorithm is exemplified by the reconstruction of soft X-ray data evolution following tungsten ablation into a JET plasma. The resulting speed of reconstruction is compared to other referenced tomographic algorithms.

JET EFDA Contributors Odstrcil, M.; Mlynar, J.; Odstrcil, T.; Alper, B.; Murari, A.



Cryptosporidiosis: multiattribute evaluation of six diagnostic methods.  

PubMed Central

Six diagnostic methods (Giemsa staining, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, auramine-rhodamine staining, Sheather's sugar flotation, an indirect immunofluorescence procedure, and a modified concentration-sugar flotation method) for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in stool specimens were compared on the following attributes: diagnostic yield, cost to perform each test, ease of handling, and ability to process large numbers of specimens for screening purposes by batching. A rank ordering from least desirable to most desirable was then established for each method by using the study attributes. The process of decision analysis with respect to the laboratory diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis is discussed through the application of multiattribute utility theory to the rank ordering of the study criteria. Within a specific health care setting, a diagnostic facility will be able to calculate its own utility scores for our study attributes. Multiattribute evaluation and analysis are potentially powerful tools in the allocation of resources in the laboratory.

MacPherson, D W; McQueen, R



New method of modern physics in research of disaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantum method of the modern physics is used to the space between the Sun and Earth. The magnitude equation of earthquake and the principle of trigger earthquake by the energy stored in an isolated wave excited by the tide-generating forces of celestial objects are preliminary discussed.

Hu, Hui; Zhang, Shi-Jie


[Obstructive defecation. Diagnostic methods and treatment].  


Obstructive defecation is observed in approximately half of all patients with functional constipation. Functional constipation has been related to alterations in intestinal motility (slow transit constipation) and to pelvic floor disorders leading to obstructive defecation associated with anatomical alterations of the pelvic floor (rectocele, posterior perineal hernia, enterocele and sigmoidocele, internal rectal intussusception, occult mucosal prolapse, solitary rectal ulcer and descending perineum syndrome), or obstructive defecation without anatomical alterations (pelvic floor dyssynergy or anismus). The diagnostic methods used (history and physical examination, colonic transit time, balloon expulsion test, proctography, anorectal manometry and electromyography) are reviewed. Conservative medical treatment and the indications for surgical treatment and its results are also discussed. PMID:16478617

García-Armengol, Juan; Moro, David; Ruiz, María Dolores; Alós, Rafael; Solana, Amparo; Roig-Vila, José Vicente



Cerebrospinal fluid leakage--reliable diagnostic methods.  


Prompt diagnosis and early treatment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage minimizes the risk of severe complications. In patients presenting with clear fluid nasal discharge it is important to identify the nature of the rhinorrhea. The CSF leakage may occur as post-traumatic, iatrogenic, spontaneous or idiopathic rhinorrhea. The differential diagnosis of CSF rhinorrhea often presents a challenging problem. The confirmation of CSF rhinorrhea and localization of the leakage may be diagnosed by CT, MRI cisternography and MRI cisternography in combination with single photon emission tomography or radioisotopic imaging. Although these methods allow estimation of the CSF leakage with high accuracy, they are expensive and invasive procedures. Therefore, biochemical methods are still used in the differentiation. Although the most common diagnostic method for screening CSF leakage is glucose oxidase, its diagnostic sensitivity and specificity is generally unsatisfactory. False negative results may occur with bacterial contamination and false positive results are common in diabetic patients. Glucose detection is not recommended as a confirmatory test. As such, other biomarkers of the CSF leakage, such as beta-2-transferrin (beta-2 trf) and beta-trace protein (betaTP) are necessary to identify and confirm of this condition. PMID:21334321

Mantur, Maria; ?ukaszewicz-Zaj?c, Marta; Mroczko, Barbara; Ku?akowska, Alina; Ganslandt, Oliver; Kemona, Halina; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Drozdowski, Wies?aw; Zimmermann, Rüdiger; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lewczuk, Piotr



INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION: Modern matrix thermovision in biomedicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focal plane array infrared technique (thermovision) is a rapid, noncontact, painless, and harmless diagnostic tool for many diseases. In this paper, the use of remote IR radiation detection to obtain infrared human images and perform spatio-temporal measurements of temperature distribution is reviewed in terms of its historical development. Mechanisms of heat production in the human body, methods of control it, and the effects of environment are briefly discussed. Biomedical applications of matrix thermovision are reviewed.

Ivanitsky, Genrikh R.



Comparison of indirect diagnostic methods for hypolactasia.  


The aim of this study was to continue our previously published work and to compare the different indirect diagnostic methods for hypolactasia with the lactase to sucrase ratio obtained by jejunal biopsy. The following tests were performed in 63 adult patients: the breath hydrogen test, the lactose tolerance test with ethanol (serum galactose measurement after oral lactose load with ethanol), the urinary lactose tolerance test (urinary galactose measurement after oral lactose load with ethanol), and the strip test (like the former but using a special test strip for urinary galactose). Specificities of all these tests were good (96-98%). The 3-h breath hydrogen test was less sensitive (69%) than the other methods (81-94%). The strip test is recommended for the general practitioner for the diagnosis of this common cause of abdominal complaints. PMID:3133752

Arola, H; Koivula, T; Jokela, H; Jauhiainen, M; Keyriläinen, O; Ahola, T; Uusitalo, A; Isokoski, M



Diagnostic methods for feline coronavirus: a review.  


Feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) are found throughout the world. Infection with FCoV can result in a diverse range of signs from clinically inapparent infections to a highly fatal disease called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). FIP is one of the most serious viral diseases of cats. While there is neither an effective vaccine, nor a curative treatment for FIP, a diagnostic protocol for FCoV would greatly assist in the management and control of the virus. Clinical findings in FIP are non-specific and not helpful in making a differential diagnosis. Haematological and biochemical abnormalities in FIP cases are also non-specific. The currently available serological tests have low specificity and sensitivity for detection of active infection and cross-react with FCoV strains of low pathogenicity, the feline enteric coronaviruses (FECV). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been used to detect FCoV and is rapid and sensitive, but results must be interpreted in the context of clinical findings. At present, a definitive diagnosis of FIP can be established only by histopathological examination of biopsies. This paper describes and compares diagnostic methods for FCoVs and includes a brief account of the virus biology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis. PMID:20798771

Sharif, Saeed; Arshad, Siti Suri; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Zeenathul, Nazariah Allaudin; Alazawy, Amer



Current status of diagnostic methods for henipavirus.  


Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are the causative agents of emerging transboundary animal disease in pigs and horses. They also cause fatal disease in humans. NiV has a case fatality rate of 40 - 100%. In the initial NiV outbreak in Malaysia in 1999, about 1.1 million pigs had to be culled. The economic impact was estimated to be approximately US$450 million. Worldwide, HeV has caused more than 60 deaths in horses with 7 human cases and 4 deaths. Since the initial outbreak, HeV spillovers from Pteropus bats to horses and humans continue. This article presents a brief review on the currently available diagnostic methods for henipavirus infections, including advances achieved since the initial outbreak, and a gap analysis of areas needing improvement. Copyright © 2013 by the International Alliance for Biological Standardization (IABS), Carouge-Geneva (Switzerland). PMID:23689891

Tamin, A; Rota, P A



Contemporary chinese pulse diagnosis: a modern interpretation of an ancient and traditional method.  


Contemporary Chinese pulse diagnosis™ (CCPD) is a system of pulse diagnosis utilized by Dr. John He Feng Shen, OMD, and documented by Dr. Leon Hammer, MD, in the book Chinese Pulse Diagnosis, A Contemporary Approach. It is the traditional method of the Ding medical lineage from the Shanghai region and dates to the 15th century in Chinese language texts. The fundamentals of this system are, however, much older and can be directly traced to the Neijing Suwen. Having been passed from the last direct inheritor of Ding knowledge (Dr. Shen) to modern practitioners of Chinese medicine by way of Dr. Hammer and his students, it represents an important system of advanced diagnosis. Although modern diagnostic technology provides very sophisticated diagnoses, for these instruments to be effective, the disease process must already have a physical manifestation. CCPD, on the other hand, provides the earliest warnings of physiological processes, which if left unchecked may result in the subsequent appearance of a disease. This article describes the derivation and the principles of this system of pulse diagnosis and explores its successful integration into the modern practice of Chinese medicine. PMID:24139459

Bilton, Karen; Hammer, Leon; Zaslawski, Chris



SIOExplorer: Modern IT Methods and Tools for Digital Library Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With more geoscience disciplines becoming data-driven it is increasingly important to utilize modern techniques for data, information and knowledge management. SIOExplorer is a new digital library project with 2 terabytes of oceanographic data collected over the last 50 years on 700 cruises by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. It is built using a suite of information technology tools and methods that allow for an efficient and effective digital library management system. The library consists of a number of independent collections, each with corresponding metadata formats. The system architecture allows each collection to be built and uploaded based on a collection dependent metadata template file (MTF). This file is used to create the hierarchical structure of the collection, create metadata tables in a relational database, and to populate object metadata files and the collection as a whole. Collections are comprised of arbitrary digital objects stored at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) High Performance Storage System (HPSS) and managed using the Storage Resource Broker (SRB), data handling middle ware developed at SDSC. SIOExplorer interoperates with other collections as a data provider through the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) protocol. The user services for SIOExplorer are accessed from CruiseViewer, a Java application served using Java Web Start from the SIOExplorer home page. CruiseViewer is an advanced tool for data discovery and access. It implements general keyword and interactive geospatial search methods for the collections. It uses a basemap to georeference search results on user selected basemaps such as global topography or crustal age. User services include metadata viewing, opening of selective mime type digital objects (such as images, documents and grid files), and downloading of objects (including the brokering of proprietary hold restrictions).

Sutton, D. W.; Helly, J.; Miller, S.; Chase, A.; Clarck, D.



A dynamic fuzzy reasoning method for adaptive diagnostic systems design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tackles some critical issues in diagnostic problem solving by addressing the conceptual design of automatic diagnostic systems able to cope with complex dynamic processes. The dynamic switching fuzzy system model introduced by M.H. Smith (1994) is used as a generalized framework which dynamically changes the reasoning method by tuning the operators and\\/or defuzzification methods. This technique is applied to tune

Mihaela Ulieru; Michael H. Smith



A Modern Incarnation of Tycho's Diurnal Parallax Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tycho had rudimentary instrumentation (by modern standards), but he also had a first-rate mind (by any standard). With them, he was able to demonstrate that a comet and a nova were more distant than the Moon. I have investigated the feasibility of replicating similar measurements using very common modern equipment (a DSLR, a spreadsheet, and a star catalog). It appears to be feasible for a science student to replicate - and extend - the great scientist's observations and analysis. I'll describe how the distance to the Moon and the distance to an asteroid can be determined from a single fixed site, through the use of diurnal parallax.

Buchheim, Robert K.



Signal processing methods for MFE plasma diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The application of various signal processing methods to extract energy storage information from plasma diamagnetism sensors occurring during physics experiments on the Tandom Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) is discussed. We show how these processing techniques can be used to decrease the uncertainty in the corresponding sensor measurements. The algorithms suggested are implemented using SIG, an interactive signal processing package developed at LLNL.

Candy, J.V.; Casper, T.; Kane, R.



Travel Into a Fairy Land: A Critique of Modern Qualitative and Mixed Methods Psychologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article modern qualitative and mixed methods approaches are criticized from the standpoint of structural-systemic\\u000a epistemology. It is suggested that modern qualitative methodologies suffer from several fallacies: some of them are grounded\\u000a on inherently contradictory epistemology, the others ask scientific questions after the methods have been chosen, conduct\\u000a studies inductively so that not only answers but even questions are

Aaro Toomela



MicrobPad MD: microbial pathogen diagnostic methods database.  


Medical pathogens induce infections, illnesses and sometimes serious medical conditions in the infected hosts. Diagnosis of these pathogens is important for proper treatment and investigation of pathogenesis processes. Molecular techniques have been developed for facilitating accurate, sensitive and low-cost diagnosis of these pathogens. Based on these techniques, diagnostic devices have been developed for a number of pathogens. More devices are needed for comprehensive coverage of medical pathogens. To facilitate the development of these devices, a database with integrated information about diagnostic methods, targets, and primers/probes for the known bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens is needed. We developed the microbial pathogen diagnostic methods database MicrobPad MD ( or to provide comprehensive information about the molecular diagnostic techniques, targets, primers/probes, detection procedures and conditions, and tested diagnostic accuracies and limit of diagnosis for 314 bacterial, fungal and viral species from 61 genera. While available, additional information such as pathogen strains and hosts, tissue distribution or habitats, cultivation methods, biochemical characteristics, virulence factors, morphology, diseases, symptoms, treatment and prevention methods are provided. Our Database covers 242 gene targets, 700 primers/probes, 340 virulence factors, and 261 diseases. Cross-links to the NCBI genome and SwissProt/UniProt databases are provided. PMID:23178820

Han, B C; Wei, X N; Zhang, J X; Truong, N Q T; Westgate, C L; Zhao, R Y; Chen, Y Z



Basic Concepts in Modern Methods of Test Equating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes some of the basic concepts in test equating. Various types of equating methods, as well as data collection designs, are outlined, with attempts to provide insight into preferred methods and techniques. Test equating describes a group of methods that enable test constructors and users to compare scores from two different forms…

Woldbeck, Tanya


Modern Robust Data Analysis Methods: Measures of Central Tendency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various statistical methods, developed after 1970, offer the opportunity to substantially improve upon the power and accuracy of the conventional t test and analysis of variance methods for a wide range of commonly occurring situations. The authors briefly review some of the more fundamental problems with conventional methods based on means; provide some indication of why recent advances, based on

Rand R. Wilcox; H. J. Keselman



The radiocarbon method and its application in modern science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiocarbon method, which was developed more than 60 years ago and awarded the Nobel Prize, was initially used for dating\\u000a archeological and geological objects, but soon the sphere of its application expanded substantially. The method has proved\\u000a its universality and continues to be used successfully in science, engineering, medicine, and other fields of human activity.

Ya. V. Kuz’min



[Historical records and modern studies on agarwood production method and overall agarwood production method].  


Agarwood is a precious traditional Chinese medicine with the efficacy of promoting qi circulation and relieving pain, warming middle-jiao, controlling nausea and vomiting, governing inspiration and relieving asthma, therefore it is widely applied in the clinic. Meanwhile, agarwood is also a precious spice. Aquilaria sinensis is the only source of agarwood production in China. Under natural conditions, a healthy A. sinensis tree produces no agarwood. Only if being wounded or infected with fungus can it synthetize and accumulate agarwood. It takes a decade or even several decades to produce agarwood, thus natural agarwood can not meet market demands. The essay summarizes historical records of agarwood production method and modern agarwood production method, in order to provide basis and reference for large-scale production of agarwood. PMID:23667998

Huang, Jun-Qing; Wei, Jian-He; Zhang, Zheng; Yang, Yun; Liu, Yang-Yang; Meng, Hui; Zhang, Xing-Li; Zhang, Jin-Lian



[Diagnostic methods for the exploration of the female breast].  


The diagnostic methods for exploration of the female breast (self-examination, clinical examination, mammography, xero-radiography, thermography, open biopsy, and aspiration biopsy smears) are briefly discussed. Their advantages and disadvantages emerge in their application for the detection of breast disease. PMID:1265465

Schreiner, W E



Advances in electrical impedance methods in medical diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical impedance diagnostic methods and instrumentation developed at the Gda ´ nsk and Warsaw Universities of Technology are described. On the basis of knowledge of their features, several original approaches to the broad field of electrical impedance applications are discussed. Analysis of electrical field distribution after external excitation, including electrode impedance, is of primary importance for measurement accuracy and



[A role of additional methods of examination in neurological diagnostics].  


The current work covers the question of the additional methods of examination in neurology. The special accent is put on electroneuromyography (ENMG). The actuality and importance of knowledge of ENMG basic principles for the neurologists are shown. Neurophysiological substantiation of ENMG, its diagnostic value, indications and contra-indication to realization are presented. PMID:23373389

Murashko, N K; Ponomarenko, Iu V; Popov, O V



High accuracy mantle convection simulation through modern numerical methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulation of the processes in the Earth's mantle is a key piece in understanding its dynamics, composition, history and interaction with the lithosphere and the Earth's core. However, doing so presents many practical difficulties related to the numerical methods that can accurately represent these processes at relevant scales. This paper presents an overview of the state of the art in algorithms for high-Rayleigh number flows such as those in the Earth's mantle, and discusses their implementation in the Open Source code ASPECT (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion). Specifically, we show how an interconnected set of methods for adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), higher order spatial and temporal discretizations, advection stabilization and efficient linear solvers can provide high accuracy at a numerical cost unachievable with traditional methods, and how these methods can be designed in a way so that they scale to large numbers of processors on compute clusters. ASPECT relies on the numerical software packages DEAL.II and TRILINOS, enabling us to focus on high level code and keeping our implementation compact. We present results from validation tests using widely used benchmarks for our code, as well as scaling results from parallel runs.

Kronbichler, Martin; Heister, Timo; Bangerth, Wolfgang



Modern composite materials manufa- ctured by pressure infiltration method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the technique of manufacturing the composite materials based on porous ceramic preforms infiltrated by liquid aluminium alloy and examination of the structure and corrosion resistance of those materials. Design\\/methodology\\/approach: The material for investigations was manufactured by pressure infiltration method of ceramic porous preforms. The eutectic aluminium alloy EN AC - AlSi12

L. A. Dobrza?ski; M. Kremzer; M. Drak


Modern statistical methods in chronic disease epidemiology: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Since the publication of Mantel and Haenszel's pioneering paper in 1959, has seen a veritable explosion of statistical methodology in chronic disease epidemiology. The central methodologic issues revolve around environmental and genetic risk assessment, and risk extrapolation. The tenth Research Application Conference held under the auspices of SIMS brought together experts from around the world to discuss the theory and applications of statistical methods in chronic disease epidemiology. This volume represents the proceedings of that conference. Relative risk regression models provide flexible and powerful tools for the analysis of epidemiologic data. These models have been the objects of intense study in the past several years, and it seems reasonable to predict that relative risk regression methods will become a, or perhaps, the, central analytical tool in chronic disease epidemiology. Thus, a major emphasis of the conference was on relative risk regression, and various papers in this volume deal with time-dependent covariates, new study designs, multivariate failure time data, methods of model criticism, parameter transformations for optimal inference, and issues in matching, covariate adjustment, and incomplete and missing covariate information.

Moolgavkar, S.H.; Prentice, R.L. (eds.)



Serologic diagnosis of syphilis: comparison of different diagnostic methods.  


Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in syphilis show wide variation. The use of only one type of serologic test is insufficient for diagnosis. However, current international recommendations cannot be applied due to various reasons (cost, availability, etc.). The aim of the study was to review serologic data of syphilis patients to determine diagnostic performance of three different methods. In 117 patients suspected of having syphilis, syphilis was diagnosed serologically and clinically. Three different methods were used for detection of antibodies: Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR), Treponemal Chemiluminescence Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay (CMIA) and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were calculated for the former two methods against TPHA. The sensitivity of RPR and CMIA against TPHA was 58% and 98%, respectively. The specificity of RPR and CMIA against TPHA was 0% and 100%, respectively. Automated enzyme immunoassay systems could contribute to reducing errors that depend on the person, especially while monitoring titration changes. PMID:22726280

Saral, Yunus; Dilek, Aziz Ramazan; Dilek, Nursel; Bahçeci, Ilkay; Ulusan, Deniz Zehra



A comparison of discounted cashflow and modern asset pricing methods—project selection and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the differences in the net present values (NPVs) of North Sea oil projects obtained using the weighted average cost of capital and a modern asset pricing (MAP) method which involves the separate discounting of project cashflow components. NPV differences of more than $10 million were found for some oil projects. Thus, the choice of valuation method will affect

Magne Emhjellen; Chris M. Alaouze



Discounted Cash Flow and Modern Asset Pricing Methods Project Selection and Policy Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the differences in the net present values (NPV's) of North Sea oil projects obtained using the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and a Modern Asset Pricing (MAP) method which involves the separate discounting of project cashflow components. NPV differences of more than $10m were found for some oil projects. Thus, the choice of valuation method will affect

Magne Emhjellen; Chris M. Alaouze



[Modern results and old-established methods in obstetrics (author's transl)].  


More than 20.000 obstetric cases were attended to during the years 1965 to 1974 at the Semmelweis-Klinik in Vienna. The perinatal maternal mortality rate was 0.1% and the perinatal infant mortality rate was finally 15%. The cases were treated according to oldfashioned obstetric principles. Hence, although the more modern obstetric methods might be of some scientific value, their importance appears to have been overestimated from a practical point of view. A return to the conscientious implementation of simple, long-established methods of pernatal care appears to be called for, even with the most modern monitoring machines at hand. PMID:1241187

Rockenschaub, A



Modern Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Today's access-control and video-surveillance systems can work together to provide a holistic solution for educational environments. Keeping intruders off campus, limiting access to facilities that house expensive equipment, and remotely monitoring secluded areas can cut down significantly on crime and provide peace of mind to administrators,…

Sorrentino, Dominic



A Classical Parameter Identification Method and a Modern Test Generation Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many methods have been presented for the testing and diagnosis of analog circuits. Each of these methods has its advantages\\u000a and disadvantages. In this paper we propose a novel sensitivity analysis algorithm for the classical parameter identification\\u000a method and a continuous fault model for the modern test generation algorithm, and we compare the characteristics of these\\u000a methods. At present, parameter

Ting Long; Houjun Wang; Bing Long



Variational method in a diagnostic problem for nonequilibrium gaseous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the diagnostics of nonequilibrium gaseous media in a spatially one-dimensional formulation with the measurement\\u000a sensors placed in various flow cross-sections. The variational method minimizes the discrepancy functional over the system\\u000a of initial parameters allowing for the reliability, of the observations. A technique is developed for deriving the functional\\u000a gradient, which depends on the path components of the Cauchy

A. B. Vyskubenko; A. V. Razgulin



Modern instrumental methods of elemental analysis of petroleum products and lubricants  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the proceedings of an ASTM symposium on Modern Instrumental Methods of Elemental Analysis of Petroleum Products and Lubricants. Topics covered include: trace metal characterization of crude oil by coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, precious metal assay analysis of catalyst by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and trace halide determination in hydrocarbon.

Nadkarni, R.A.



Alternative Models of Uncertain Commodity Prices for Use with Modern Asset Pricing Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an introduction to alternative models of uncertain commodity prices. A model of commodity price movements is the engine around which any valuation methodology for commodity production projects is built, whether discounted cash flow (DCF) models or the recently developed modern asset pricing (MAP) methods. The accuracy of the valuation is in part dependent on the quality of

Malcolm P. Baker; E. Scott Mayfield; John E. Parsons



Detection of scabies: A systematic review of diagnostic methods  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis of scabies infection is important for patient treatment and for public health control of scabies epidemics. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the accuracy and precision of history, physical examination and tests for diagnosing scabies. METHODS: Using a structured search strategy, Medline and Embase databases were searched for English and French language articles that included a diagnosis of scabies. Studies comparing history, physical examination and/or any diagnostic tests with the reference standard of microscopic visualization of mites, eggs or fecal elements obtained from skin scrapings or biopsies were included for analysis. Data were extracted using standard criteria. RESULTS: History and examination of pruritic dermatoses failed to accurately diagnose scabies infection. Dermatoscopy by a trained practitioner has a positive likelihood ratio of 6.5 (95% CI 4.1 to 10.3) and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.1 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.2) for diagnosing scabies. The accuracy of other diagnostic tests could not be calculated from the data in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: In the face of such diagnostic inaccuracy, clinical judgment is still practical in diagnosing scabies. Two tests are used – the burrow ink test and handheld dermatoscopy. The burrow ink test is a simple, rapid, noninvasive test that can be used to screen a large number of patients. Handheld dermatoscopy is an accurate test, but requires special equipment and trained practitioners. Given the morbidity and costs of scabies infection, and that studies to date lack adequate internal and external validity, research to identify or develop accurate diagnostic tests for scabies infection is needed and justifiable.

Leung, Victor; Miller, Mark



Mammary carcinoma - current diagnostic methods and symptomatology in imaging studies  

PubMed Central

Summary Breast cancer is the most common neoplasm of the female population and its incidence is constantly rising. Social campaigns educating the public about the importance of the problem have been conducted for the past several years. Women are encouraged to self-examine on a monthly basis. Women aged 50–69 years can have an x-ray mammography performed once every 2 years as part of a prophylactic screening program. Ultrasound studies or MR mammography are adjuvant or, in some cases, alternative to x-ray mammography. Nuclear medicine techniques with application of oncophilic markers and receptor studies (this publication will not cover nuclear medicine methods) are not routinely used. Other techniques, such as computed tomography and conventional radiography are of no significance in the diagnostics of mammary cancer. However, together with isotopic methods, they are helpful in staging of the disease. X-ray mammography is, up to date, the only method with proven value in decreasing mortality. It is also the best available method for visualization of microcalicifications. Ultrasound examination is complementary to x-ray mammography as it is a cheap, easily available method of imaging mammary glands with higher glandular tissue content. It is also the most commonly used modality aiding in targeted biopsy of mammary gland. To date, MR mammography, characterized by the highest sensitivity in cancer diagnostics, remained a method reserved for “special tasks”. MR is used for prophylaxis mainly in a population of women with particularly high risk of the disease and in cases where x-ray and ultrasound examinations are insufficient. Picture of mammary carcinoma in imaging studies is heterogeneous. However, it most often presents as an irregularly demarcated mass. Moreover, each modality can aid in visualization of additional features of a lesion such as typical shape of microcalcifications in x-ray mammography, characteristic pattern of contrast enhancement in MR examination or less strain in elastography.

Popiel, Monika; Mroz-Klimas, Danuta; Kasprzak, Renata; Furmanek, Mariusz



Comparison of diagnostic methods in the evaluation of onychomycosis.  


Onychomycosis is a common nail problem, accounting for up to half of all nail diseases. Several nail disorders may mimic the onychomycosis clinically. Therefore, a sensitive, quick, and inexpensive test is essential for screening nail specimens for the administration of the proper drug. The aim of this study was to compare 4 different diagnostic methods in the evaluation of onychomycosis and to determine their sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. In a cross-sectional study, nail specimens were collected from 101 patients suspected to have onychomycosis during a 14-month period. The nail specimens were examined using potassium hydroxide (KOH) 20 %, KOH-treated nail clipping stained with periodic acid-Schiff (KONCPA), and calcofluor white (CFW) stain, and grew a fungal culture. The culture was chosen as the gold standard for statistical analysis using the McNemar and chi-square tests. Out of 101 patients, 100 (99 %) patients had at least 1 of the 4 diagnostic methods positive for the presence of organisms. The positive rates for the fungal culture, KOH preparation, CFW, and KONCPA were 74.2, 85.1, 91.09, and 99.01 %, respectively. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of KONCPA was 100 %. KONCPA was the most sensitive among the tests and was also superior to other methods in its negative predictive value. KONCPA was easy to perform, rapid, and gave significantly higher rates of detection of onychomycosis compared to the standard methods of KOH preparation and fungal culture. Therefore, KONCPA should be the single method of choice for the evaluation of onychomycosis. PMID:23371413

Haghani, Iman; Shokohi, Tahereh; Hajheidari, Zohreh; Khalilian, Alireza; Aghili, Seyed Reza



Plasma diagnostic method using intermodulation frequencies in a Langmuir probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A plasma diagnostic method using intermodulation frequencies is developed. When dual-frequency (?1,?2) voltage signals are applied to a probe, the intermodulation frequencies (?2+/-?1, ?2+/-2?1) between the signals are generated due to the nonlinearity of the sheath. From the analysis of the intermodulation frequencies, the plasma parameters, such as the electron temperature and the plasma density, can be obtained. The measured plasma parameters from this method are compared to the results from the measured electron energy distribution function, and they are in good agreement. Because the intermodulation currents originated from the plasma not from the stray component of the measurement system, an accurate measurement of the plasma parameters is achievable.

Kim, Dong-Hwan; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kim, Yu-Sin; Chung, Chin-Wook



[The role of modern methods for frontal tamponade in the strategic management of recurrent nasal bleeding].  


Nasal hemorrhage remains a challenging clinical problem due to the high prevalence of this pathology that frequently recurs and leads to serious deterioration of the patient's condition. This paper deals with modern therapeutic modalities used to stop and control nasal bleeding. The authors proposed a device for arresting nasal bleeding and present its detailed description laying emphasis on its clinical efficacy and advantages over other methods for the management of recurrent nasal bleeding. PMID:22678639



Body-selves and health-related narratives in modern yoga and meditation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article explores the stories of engagement with modern yoga and meditation (MYM) methods of a group of long-term practitioners from the combined perspective of body and narrative. It uses Frank’s typology of ‘body use in action’ as an interpretive framework to illustrate key embodied dispositions and health-related narratives that these participants cultivate through their embodied practises, which are perfect

Aspasia Leledaki



A significant diagnostic method in torture investigation: bone scintigraphy.  


Torture appears to be a permanent feature in countries, which have experienced military coups or ruled by oppressive governments in the past, such as Turkey. The Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (HRFT) was established in 1990 to serve torture victims, mainly those who were the victims of the 1980 military regime. Since then the HRFT has been providing rehabilitation and documentation for torture survivors. Bone scintigraphy can be one of the diagnostic methods to reveal trauma, particularly after several years when it is challenging to find any physical or radiological evidence. The HRFT's Istanbul Branch referred 97 of their applicants for bone scintigraphy between 1992 and 2010. In this retrospective survey of 97 cases, 17 of them were female and 80 of them were male. Several aspects were evaluated, including working conditions, change of torture methods practiced in certain time periods, time since torture and duration of exposure to torture in comparison with findings of bone scintigraphies. The torture methods varied from beating to falanga, electric shock, suspension and several other types of torture within the period of practice, although beating was a common denominator among all. The findings were classified according to time since torture and duration of exposure to torture. More than half of the cases (59%) had a detectable bone lesion on bone scintigraphy, and the detectable bone lesion on scintigraphy increased significantly with the duration of exposure to torture, particularly among cases who had been subjected to torture for a longer period (8 days and more). Bone scintigraphy should be considered as a valuable non-invasive diagnostic method to assess and document long term torture practices and/or cases with no detectable marks upon physical examination. PMID:23332810

Ozkalipci, Onder; Unuvar, Umit; Sahin, Umit; Irencin, Sukran; Fincanci, Sebnem Korur



Novel scanner characterization method for color measurement and diagnostics applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel scanner characterization approach for applications requiring color measurement of hardcopy output in printer calibration, characterization, and diagnostic applications. It is assumed that a typical printed medium comprises the three basic colorants C, M, Y. The proposed method is particularly advantageous when additional colorants are used in the print (e.g. black (K)). A family of scanner characterization targets is constructed, each varying in C, M, Y and at a fixed level of K. A corresponding family of 3-D scanner characterizations is derived, one for each level of K. Each characterization maps scanner RGB to a colorimetric representation such as CIELAB, using standard characterization techniques. These are then combined into a single 4-D characterization mapping RGBK to CIELAB. A refinement of the technique improves performance significantly by using a function of the scanned values for K (e.g. the scanner's green channel response to printed K) instead of the digital K value directly. This makes this new approach more robust with respect to variations in printed K over time. Secondly it enables, with a single scanner characterization, accurate color measurement of prints from different printers within the same family. Results show that the 4-D characterization technique can significantly outperform standard 3-D approaches especially in cases where the image being scanned is a patch target made up of unconstrained CMYK combinations. Thus the algorithm finds particular use in printer characterization and diagnostic applications. The method readily generalizes to printed media containing other (e.g "hi-fi") colorants, and also to other image capture devices such as digital cameras.

Lee, Bong-Sun; Bala, Raja; Sharma, Gaurav



Pedophilia: an evaluation of diagnostic and risk prediction methods.  


One hundred thirty child sexual abusers were diagnosed using each of following four methods: (a) phallometric testing, (b) strict application of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text revision [DSM-IV-TR]) criteria, (c) Rapid Risk Assessment of Sex Offender Recidivism (RRASOR) scores, and (d) "expert" diagnoses rendered by a seasoned clinician. Comparative utility and intermethod consistency of these methods are reported, along with recidivism data indicating predictive validity for risk management. Results suggest that inconsistency exists in diagnosing pedophilia, leading to diminished accuracy in risk assessment. Although the RRASOR and DSM-IV-TR methods were significantly correlated with expert ratings, RRASOR and DSM-IV-TR were unrelated to each other. Deviant arousal was not associated with any of the other methods. Only the expert ratings and RRASOR scores were predictive of sexual recidivism. Logistic regression analyses showed that expert diagnosis did not add to prediction of sexual offence recidivism over and above RRASOR alone. Findings are discussed within a context of encouragement of clinical consistency and evidence-based practice regarding treatment and risk management of those who sexually abuse children. PMID:21062948

Wilson, Robin J; Abracen, Jeffrey; Looman, Jan; Picheca, Janice E; Ferguson, Meaghan



Obtaining the lattice energy of the anthracene crystal by modern yet affordable first-principles methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The non-covalent interactions in organic molecules are known to drive their self-assembly to form molecular crystals. We compare, in the case of anthracene and against experimental (electronic-only) sublimation energy, how modern quantum-chemical methods are able to calculate this cohesive energy taking into account all the interactions between occurring dimers in both first-and second-shells. These include both O(N6)- and O(N5)-scaling methods, Local Pair Natural Orbital-parameterized Coupled-Cluster Single and Double, and Spin-Component-Scaled-Mřller-Plesset perturbation theory at second-order, respectively, as well as the most modern family of conceived density functionals: double-hybrid expressions in several variants (B2-PLYP, mPW2-PLYP, PWPB95) with customized dispersion corrections (-D3 and -NL). All-in-all, it is shown that these methods behave very accurately producing errors in the 1-2 kJ/mol range with respect to the experimental value taken into account the experimental uncertainty. These methods are thus confirmed as excellent tools for studying all kinds of interactions in chemical systems.

Sancho-García, J. C.; Aragó, J.; Ortí, E.; Olivier, Y.



Obtaining the lattice energy of the anthracene crystal by modern yet affordable first-principles methods.  


The non-covalent interactions in organic molecules are known to drive their self-assembly to form molecular crystals. We compare, in the case of anthracene and against experimental (electronic-only) sublimation energy, how modern quantum-chemical methods are able to calculate this cohesive energy taking into account all the interactions between occurring dimers in both first-and second-shells. These include both O(N(6))- and O(N(5))-scaling methods, Local Pair Natural Orbital-parameterized Coupled-Cluster Single and Double, and Spin-Component-Scaled-Mřller-Plesset perturbation theory at second-order, respectively, as well as the most modern family of conceived density functionals: double-hybrid expressions in several variants (B2-PLYP, mPW2-PLYP, PWPB95) with customized dispersion corrections (-D3 and -NL). All-in-all, it is shown that these methods behave very accurately producing errors in the 1-2 kJ/mol range with respect to the experimental value taken into account the experimental uncertainty. These methods are thus confirmed as excellent tools for studying all kinds of interactions in chemical systems. PMID:23742472

Sancho-García, J C; Aragó, J; Ortí, E; Olivier, Y



Diagnostic methods 2: receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical practice commonly demands ‘yes or no’ decisions; and for this reason a clinician frequently needs to convert a continuous diagnostic test into a dichotomous test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis is an important test for assessing the diagnostic accuracy (or discrimination performance) of quantitative tests throughout the whole range of their possible values, and it helps to identify

Giovanni Tripepi; Kitty J Jager; Friedo W Dekker; Carmine Zoccali



Computational methods in the pricing and risk management of modern financial derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last 20 years modern finance has developed into a complex mathematically challenging field. Very complicated risks exist in financial markets which need very advanced methods to measure and/or model them. The financial instruments invented by the market participants to trade these risk, the so called derivatives are usually even more complicated than the risks themselves and also sometimes generate new riks. Topics like random walks, stochastic differential equations, martingale measures, time series analysis, implied correlations, etc. are of common use in the field. This is why more and more people with a science background, such as physicists, mathematicians, or computer scientists, are entering the field of finance. The measurement and management of all theses risks is the key to the continuing success of banks. This talk gives insight into today's common methods of modern market risk management such as variance-covariance, historical simulation, Monte Carlo, "Greek" ratios, etc., including the statistical concepts on which they are based. Derivatives are at the same time the main reason for and the most effective means of conducting risk management. As such, they stand at the beginning and end of risk management. The valuation of derivatives and structured financial instruments is therefore the prerequisite, the condition sine qua non, for all risk management. This talk introduces some of the important valuation methods used in modern derivatives pricing such as present value, Black-Scholes, binomial trees, Monte Carlo, etc. In summary this talk highlights an area outside physics where there is a lot of interesting work to do, especially for physicists. Or as one of our consultants said: The fascinating thing about this job is that Arthur Andersen hired me not ALTHOUGH I am a physicist but BECAUSE I am a physicist.

Deutsch, Hans-Peter



Diagnostic Methods for Bile Acid Malabsorption in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Altered bile acid (BA) concentrations in the colon may cause diarrhea or constipation. BA malabsorption (BAM) accounts for >25% of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea and chronic diarrhea in Western countries. As BAM is increasingly recognized, proper diagnostic methods are desired in clinical practice to help direct the most effective treatment course for the chronic bowel dysfunction. This review appraises the methodology, advantages and disadvantages of 4 tools that directly measure BAM: 14C-glycocholate breath and stool test, 75Selenium HomotauroCholic Acid Test (SeHCAT), 7 ?-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) and fecal BAs. 14C-glycocholate is a laborious test no longer widely utilized. 75SeHCAT is validated, but not available in the United States. Serum C4 is a simple, accurate method that is applicable to a majority of patients, but requires further clinical validation. Fecal measurements to quantify total and individual fecal BAs are technically cumbersome and not widely available. Regrettably, none of these tests are routinely available in the U.S., and a therapeutic trial with a BA binder is used as a surrogate for diagnosis of BAM. Recent data suggest there is an advantage to studying fecal excretion of the individual BAs and their role in BAM; this may constitute a significant advantage of the fecal BA method over the other tests. Fecal BA test could become a routine addition to fecal fat measurement in patients with unexplained diarrhea. In summary, availability determines the choice of test among C4, SeHCAT and fecal BA; more widespread availability of such tests would enhance clinical management of these patients.

Vijayvargiya, Priya; Camilleri, Michael; Shin, Andrea; Saenger, Amy



Validation of the beam tracing method for heating and diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The beam tracing approximate description of the propagation and absorption of wave beams is studied and compared to the corresponding exact solution of the wave equation for two simplified models relevant to electron cyclotron resonance heating and reflectometry diagnostics.

Maj, O. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany) and Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Pereverzev, G. V.; Poli, E. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany)



Chronic intraoral pain--assessment of diagnostic methods and prognosis.  


The overall goal of this thesis was to broaden our knowledge of chronic intraoral pain. The research questions were: What methods can be used to differentiate inflammatory, odontogenic tooth pain from pain that presents as toothache but is non-odontogenic in origin? What is the prognosis of chronic tooth pain of non-odontogenic origin, and which factors affect the prognosis? Atypical odontalgia (AO) is a relatively rare but severe and chronic pain condition affecting the dentoalveolar region. Recent research indicates that the origin is peripheral nerve damage: neuropathic pain. The condition presents as tooth pain and is challenging to dentists because it is difficult to distinguish from ordinary toothache due to inflammation or infection. AO is of interest to the pain community because it shares many characteristics with other chronic pain conditions, and pain perpetuation mechanisms are likely to be similar. An AO diagnosis is made after a comprehensive examination and assessment of patients' self-reported characteristics: the pain history. Traditional dental diagnostic methods do not appear to suffice, since many patients report repeated care-seeking and numerous treatment efforts with little or no pain relief. Developing methods that are useful in the clinical setting is a prerequisite for a correct diagnosis and adequate treatment decisions. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is used to assess sensory function on skin when nerve damage or disease is suspected. A variety of stimuli has been used to examine the perception of, for example, touch, temperature (painful and non-painful), vibration, pinprick pain, and pressure pain. To detect sensory abnormalities and nerve damage in the oral cavity, the same methods may be possible to use. Study I examined properties of thermal thresholds in and around the mouth in 30 pain-free subjects: the influence of measurement location and stimulation area size on threshold levels, and time variability of thresholds. Thresholds for cold, warmth and painful heat were measured in four intraoral and two extraoral sites. Measurements were repeated 3 times over 6 weeks, using four sizes of stimulation area (0.125-0.81 cm2). The threshold levels were highly dependent on location but less dependent on measuring probe size and time variability was small, and this knowledge is important for the interpretation of QST results. Study II applied a recently developed standardized QST examination protocol (intended for use on skin) inside the oral cavity. Two trained examiners evaluated 21 pain-free subjects on three occasions over 1-3 weeks, at four sites-three intraoral and one extraoral. Most tests had acceptable reliability and the original test instruments and techniques could be applied intraorally with only minor adjustments. Study III examined the value of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in pain investigations. Twenty patients with AO and 5 with symptomatic apical periodontitis (inflammatory tooth pain) participated. The results indicate that when AO is suspected, addition of CBCT can improve the diagnostic certainty compared to sole use of periapical and panoramic radiographs, especially because of the superior ability of CBCT to exclude inflammation as the pain cause. Study IV assessed the long-term prognosis of AO, and analyzed potential outcome predictors. A comprehensive questionnaire including validated and reliable instruments was used to gather data on patient and pain characteristics and pain consequences from 37 patients in 2002 and 2009. Thirty-five percent of the patients reported substantial overall improvement at follow-up, but almost all still had pain of some degree after many years. The initial high level of emotional distress was unchanged. Low baseline pain intensity predicted improvement over time. PMID:22338784

Pigg, Maria



Review of Dercum's disease and proposal of diagnostic criteria, diagnostic methods, classification and management  

PubMed Central

Definition and clinical picture We propose the minimal definition of Dercum’s disease to be generalised overweight or obesity in combination with painful adipose tissue. The associated symptoms in Dercum’s disease include fatty deposits, easy bruisability, sleep disturbances, impaired memory, depression, difficulty concentrating, anxiety, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, diabetes, bloating, constipation, fatigue, weakness and joint aches. Classification We suggest that Dercum’s disease is classified into: I. Generalised diffuse form A form with diffusely widespread painful adipose tissue without clear lipomas, II. Generalised nodular form - a form with general pain in adipose tissue and intense pain in and around multiple lipomas, and III. Localised nodular form - a form with pain in and around multiple lipomas IV. Juxtaarticular form - a form with solitary deposits of excess fat for example at the medial aspect of the knee. Epidemiology Dercum’s disease most commonly appears between the ages of 35 and 50?years and is five to thirty times more common in women than in men. The prevalence of Dercum’s disease has not yet been exactly established. Aetiology Proposed, but unconfirmed aetiologies include: nervous system dysfunction, mechanical pressure on nerves, adipose tissue dysfunction and trauma. Diagnosis and diagnostic methods Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and should be made by systematic physical examination and thorough exclusion of differential diagnoses. Advisably, the diagnosis should be made by a physician with a broad experience of patients with painful conditions and knowledge of family medicine, internal medicine or pain management. The diagnosis should only be made when the differential diagnoses have been excluded. Differential diagnosis Differential diagnoses include: fibromyalgia, lipoedema, panniculitis, endocrine disorders, primary psychiatric disorders, multiple symmetric lipomatosis, familial multiple lipomatosis, and adipose tissue tumours. Genetic counselling The majority of the cases of Dercum’s disease occur sporadically. A to G mutation at position A8344 of mitochondrial DNA cannot be detected in patients with Dercum’s disease. HLA (human leukocyte antigen) typing has not revealed any correlation between typical antigens and the presence of the condition. Management and treatment The following treatments have lead to some pain reduction in patients with Dercum’s disease: Liposuction, analgesics, lidocaine, methotrexate and infliximab, interferon ?-2b, corticosteroids, calcium-channel modulators and rapid cycling hypobaric pressure. As none of the treatments have led to long lasting complete pain reduction and revolutionary results, we propose that Dercum’s disease should be treated in multidisciplinary teams specialised in chronic pain. Prognosis The pain in Dercum’s disease seems to be relatively constant over time.



The role of the Standard Days Method in modern family planning services in developing countries  

PubMed Central

Background The mere availability of family planning (FP) services is not sufficient to improve reproductive health; services must also be of adequate quality. The introduction of new contraceptive methods is a means of improving quality of care. The Standard Days Method (SDM) is a new fertility-awareness-based contraceptive method that has been successfully added to reproductive health care services around the world. Content Framed by the Bruce-Jain quality-of-care paradigm, this paper describes how the introduction of SDM in developing country settings can improve the six elements of quality while contributing to the intrinsic variety of available methods. SDM meets the needs of women and couples who opt not to use other modern methods. SDM providers are sensitised to the potential of fertility-awareness-based contraception as an appropriate choice for these clients. SDM requires the involvement of both partners and thus offers a natural entry point for providers to further explore partner communication, intimate partner violence, condoms, and HIV/STIs. Conclusion SDM introduction broadens the range of FP methods available to couples in developing countries. SDM counselling presents an opportunity for FP providers to discuss important interpersonal and reproductive health issues with potential users.



Modern methods for investigating functional surfaces of advanced materials by mechanical contact testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern methods for determining the hardness, Young’s modulus, elastic recovery, adhesive/cohesive strength, friction coefficient, and wear resistance of thin films, coatings, multilayer materials, and bulk materials are considered. The experimental data obtained in instrumented indentation, instrumented scratching, and tribological tests of nanostructured and quasicrystalline coatings and composite materials are analyzed. It is noted that the elastic recovery of a number of advanced materials is higher than the elastic recovery of metal alloys by a factor of 2-3. The coefficients of sliding friction of sintered samples and thin films containing Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystals are found to be relatively low. An increase in the fraction of quasicrystalline particles to 30% in composites with an aluminum matrix leads to an increase in the wear resistance.

Petrzhik, M. I.; Levashov, E. A.



Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods  


A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI



Sherlock Holmes' methods of deductive reasoning applied to medical diagnostics.  


Having patterned the character of Sherlock Holmes after one of his professors, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, himself a physician, incorporated many of the didactic qualities of the 19th century medical diagnostician into the character of Holmes. In this paper I explore Holmes's techniques of deductive reasoning and their basis in 19th and 20th century medical diagnostics. PMID:3887762

Miller, L



Sherlock Holmes's Methods of Deductive Reasoning Applied to Medical Diagnostics  

PubMed Central

Having patterned the character of Sherlock Holmes after one of his professors, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, himself a physician, incorporated many of the didactic qualities of the 19th century medical diagnostician into the character of Holmes. In this paper I explore Holmes's techniques of deductive reasoning and their basis in 19th and 20th century medical diagnostics.

Miller, Larry



A study on Tailabindu pariksha - An ancient Ayurvedic method of urine examination as a diagnostic and prognostic tool  

PubMed Central

Indian traditional medicine, Ayurveda has a great history. Researchers in India have tried to corroborate ancient wisdom with the modern scientific practices. Tailabindu pariksha is a diagnostic tool of urine examination developed by the medieval Ayurvedic scholars, and also throws a light on the prognosis of the disease condition. This study aims at using this ancient wisdom to diagnose the medical conditions and to study about their prognosis, and studying about how it can be applied to modern medical practice and its limitations. For the purpose of the study, 30 volunteers were divided into 3 groups. Group I consisting of healthy volunteers, group II of those patients who suffer from curable conditions and group III consisting of patients suffering from chronic diseases which can be regarded as incurable. The urine collection, oil drop instillation and evaluation, were all done according to the guidelines laid down in Ayurvedic practices. Upon the evaluation of the color, appearance, consistency and pattern of oil drop spreading in different patients of different groups, it could be seen that the data could be correlated to what has been provided in the literature in majority of the cases. In today's modern medical practices, there is a plethora of urine diagnostic examinations available. These act as an added financial burden to the patients. In the midst of this, making use of Tailabindu pariksha for urine examination, will not only prove economical, but also is a time-tested and scientifically proven method. More in-depth studies on larger groups of patients, suffering from various diseases need to be done to standardize the procedure and make it scientifically more acceptable.

Sangu, Pavan Kumar; Kumar, Vanitha Murali; Shekhar, Meera Shiv; Chagam, Murali Krishna; Goli, Penchala Prasad; Tirupati, Prasanna Kumar



Tokamak physics studies using x-ray diagnostic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray diagnostic measurements have been used in a number of experiments to improve our understanding of important tokamak physics issues. The impurity content in TFTR plasmas, its sources and control have been clarified through soft x-ray pulse-height analysis (PHA) measurements. The dependence of intrinsic impurity concentrations and Z\\/sub eff\\/ on electron density, plasma current, limiter material and conditioning, and neutral-beam

K. W. Hill; M. Bitter; S. von Goeler; P. Beiersdorfer; E. Fredrickson; H. Hsuan; K. McGuire; N. R. Sauthoff; S. Sesnic; J. E. Stevens



Steady-state data acquisition method for LHD diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LHD experiment has gone through 5 campaign periods over the past 4 years, during which the diagnostics data continues to grow and the primary 28 measurements produce about 620 MB\\/shot in 150 shot\\/day 3-min cycles. In 2002, 30-min long-pulse experiments will be carried out in LHD, where real-time operations are indispensable for plasma measurements and data acquisition. The new

Nakanishi Hideya; Kojima Mamoru; Ohsuna Masaki; Komada Seiji; Nonomura Miki; Yoshida Masanobu; Imazu Setsuo; Sudo Shigeru



Analysis of modern IS security development approaches: towards the next generation of social and adaptable ISS methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various modern approaches to Information Systems Security (ISS) development, influenced, e.g., by information systems (IS) development methods, have been presented. While we see these approaches as serious attempts to improve ISS, they have not received much attention in the literature. One reason for this is that these methods have been developed by scholars from different research traditions and disciplines. This

Mikko T. Siponen




Microsoft Academic Search

Questions of diagnostics of failures of asynchronous electric motors with a short-circuited rotor are considered. A method of diagnostics of asynchronous electric motors technical condition on the basis of the position-binary analysis of cyclic signals is offered. It is known, that failure of electric motors included to the various complexes in some cases can lead to serious economic losses, especially

Ogtay Nusratov; Punhan Seyidov; Sevinj Seyidova


The Revised Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders: Methods used to Establish and Validate Revised Axis I Diagnostic Algorithms  

PubMed Central

AIMS To derive reliable and valid revised Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis I diagnostic algorithms for clinical TMD diagnoses. METHODS The multi-site RDC/TMD Validation Project’s dataset (614 TMD community and clinic cases, and 91 controls) was used to derive revised algorithms for Axis I TMD diagnoses. Validity of diagnostic algorithms was assessed relative to reference standards, the latter based on consensus diagnoses rendered by 2 TMD experts using criterion examination data, including temporomandibular joint imaging. Cut-offs for target validity were sensitivity ? 0.70 and specificity ? 0.95. Reliability of revised algorithms was assessed in 27 study participants. RESULTS Revised algorithm sensitivity and specificity exceeded the target levels for myofascial pain (0.82, 0.99, respectively) and myofascial pain with limited opening (0.93, 0.97). Combining diagnoses for any myofascial pain showed sensitivity of 0.91 and specificity of 1.00. For joint pain, target sensitivity and specificity were observed (0.92, 0.96) when arthralgia and osteoarthritis were combined as “any joint pain.” Disc displacement without reduction with limited opening demonstrated target sensitivity and specificity (0.80, 0.97). For the other Group II disc displacements and Group III osteoarthritis and osteoarthrosis, sensitivity was below target (0.35 to 0.53), and specificity ranged from 0.80 to meeting target. Kappa for revised algorithm diagnostic reliability was ? 0.63. CONCLUSION Revised RDC/TMD Axis I TMD diagnostic algorithms are recommended for myofascial pain and joint pain as reliable and valid. However, revised clinical criteria alone, without recourse to imaging, are inadequate for valid diagnosis of two of the three disc displacements and osteoarthritis/osteoarthrosis.

Schiffman, Eric L.; Ohrbach, Richard; Truelove, Edmond L.; Feng, Tai; Anderson, Gary C.; Pan, Wei; Gonzalez, Yoly M.; John, Mike T.; Sommers, Earl; List, Thomas; Velly, Ana M.; Kang, Wenjun; Look, John O.



Analysis of Individual Environmental Particles Using Modern Methods of Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the composition of particles in the atmosphere is critical because of their health effects and their direct and indirect effects on radiative forcing, and hence on climate. In this manuscript, we demonstrate the utility of single particle off-line analysis to investigate the chemistry of individual atmospheric particles using modern, state-of-the-art electron microscopy and time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry techniques. We show that these methods provide specific, detailed data on particle composition, chemistry, morphology, phase and internal structure. This information is crucial for evaluating hygroscopic properties of aerosols, understanding aerosol aging and reactivity, and correlating the characteristics of aerosols with their optical properties. The manuscript presents a number of analytical advances in methods of electron probe particle analysis along with a brief review of a number of the research projects carried out in the authors’ laboratory on the chemical characterization of environmental particles. The obtained data offers a rich set of qualitative and quantitative information on the particle chemistry, composition and the mechanisms of gas-particle interactions which are of high importance to atmospheric processes involving particulate matter and air pollution.

Laskin, Alexander; Cowin, James P.; Iedema, Martin J.



Diagnostic efficacy of in vitro methods vs. skin testing in patients with inhalant allergies  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of our study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of two selected methods of in vitro allergy testing. Specifically, the PRIST/modified RAST I125 isotope systems and the Quantizyme/modified EAST alkaline phosphatase method were compared. The time, expense, convenience, and diagnostic efficacy of the two procedures are discussed. Special attention is given to the practicality of each method for the practicing physician.

Corey, J.P.; Liudahl, J.J.; Young, S.A.; Rodman, S.M. (Univ. of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL (USA))



Comparing historical and modern methods of sea surface temperature measurement - Part 1: Review of methods, field comparisons and dataset adjustments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea surface temperature (SST) has been obtained from a variety of different platforms, instruments and depths over the past 150 yr. Modern-day platforms include ships, moored and drifting buoys and satellites. Shipboard methods include temperature measurement of seawater sampled by bucket and flowing through engine cooling water intakes. Here I review SST measurement methods, studies analysing shipboard methods by field or lab experiment and adjustments applied to historical SST datasets to account for variable methods. In general, bucket temperatures have been found to average a few tenths of a °C cooler than simultaneous engine intake temperatures. Field and lab experiments demonstrate that cooling of bucket samples prior to measurement provides a plausible explanation for negative average bucket-intake differences. These can also be credibly attributed to systematic errors in intake temperatures, which have been found to average overly-warm by >0.5 °C on some vessels. However, the precise origin of non-zero average bucket-intake differences reported in field studies is often unclear, given that additional temperatures to those from the buckets and intakes have rarely been obtained. Supplementary accurate in situ temperatures are required to reveal individual errors in bucket and intake temperatures, and the role of near-surface temperature gradients. There is a need for further field experiments of the type reported in Part 2 to address this and other limitations of previous studies.

Matthews, J. B. R.



Acute respiratory infection due to Chlamydia pneumoniae: current status of diagnostic methods.  


Reliable diagnosis of respiratory infection due to Chlamydia pneumoniae and investigation of its role in chronic diseases remain difficult because of the absence of well-standardized and commercially available diagnostic tests. In 2001, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published recommendations for standardizing the diagnostic approach. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge of C. pneumoniae-associated respiratory infections in the context of epidemiological studies published during the past 5 years, with particular emphasis on the diagnostic strategies used and their impact on results. The single most likely factor underlying wide variations in data is the significant interstudy variation of the choice of diagnostic methods and criteria used. Adoption of a more unified approach, both for choices of diagnostic methods and for validation of new molecular assays, is long overdue and will be critically important for development of a standardized test for clinical laboratories. PMID:17243062

Kumar, Swati; Hammerschlag, Margaret R



Modern Methods of Real-Time Gamma Radiation Monitoring for General Personal Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time radiation detectors become an essential part of emergency personnel who may have to respond to unknown accidents, incidents or terrorist attacks, which could involve radioactive material. More and more ordinary citizens are interested in personal radiation protection as well. Reasons include lost sources, nuclear industrial accidents, nuclear or radiological terrorism and the possibility of nuclear weapons being used in a war. People want to have the ability to measure it for themselves and they want to be notified when the radiation levels are increased. To meet this demand, considerable research into new sensors is underway, including efforts to enhance the sensor performance through both the material properties and manufacturing technologies. Deep understanding of physical properties of the materials under the influence of radiation exposure is vital for the effective design of dosimeter devices. Detection of radiation is based on the fact that both the electrical and the optical properties of the materials undergo changes upon the exposure to ionizing radiation. It is believed that radiation causes structural defects. The influence of radiation depends on both the dose and the parameters of the films including their thickness: the degradation is more severe for the higher dose and the thinner films. This paper presents overview of modern methods of real-time gamma radiation monitoring for personal protection of radiation workers and general public and suggests further developments in this area.

Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok


Medical diagnostic system and method for capturing medical image information  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention relates to a medical diagnostic system having two C-arms which are adjustable with the aid of two drive means and serve as retaining devices for one medical measuring system in each case. At least one evaluation unit and at least one display element are provided for each medical measuring system. The first measuring system is an X-ray measuring system comprising an X-ray emitter and an X-ray detector and has a high spatial resolution. The second measuring system is a nuclear medicine measuring system for visualizing tissue functions. Accurate and rapid medical diagnoses and interventions are possible based on image information generated by both measuring systems.

Klingenbeck-Regn; Klaus (Nuremberg, DE)



[Comparison of calculation methods for diagnostic trials under different sample size].  


To discuss the calculation methods under different sample size, used for diagnostic trials. The purpose of the diagnostic trial was to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the new method. Equations and results were directly compared. Monte Carlo random simulation was used to validate the results. Sample size obtained from the sampling method was always smaller than from the target value method. Results from simulation showed that the target value method could offer more and larger power. The two sample size determination method showed essential differences of the results, suggesting that the investigator should choose appropriate method in accordance with the study design. If the hypothesis of study was to demonstrate the new diagnostic method which could meet the clinical requirements, only if the target value method provides enough statistical power. PMID:21223674

Wang, Yang; Hu, Bo; Chen, Tao; Li, Wei



Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same  

SciTech Connect

A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand.

Katti, K.V.; Karra, S.R.; Berning, D.E.; Smith, C.J.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.



Therapeutic and Diagnostic Methods and Compositions Based on Notch Proteins and Nucleic Acids  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to therapeutic and diagnostic methods and compositions based on Notch proteins and nucleic acids. The invention provides for treatment of disorders of cell fate or differentiation by administration of a therapeutic compound o...

C. M. Blaumueller P. Zagouras R. G. Fehon S. Artavanis-Tsakonas



Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same  


A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand.

Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Karra, Srinivasa Rao (Columbia, MO); Berning, Douglas E. (Columbia, MO); Smith, C. Jeffrey (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)



Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same  


A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand.

Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Karra, Srinivasa Rao (Columbia, MO); Berning, Douglas E. (Columbia, MO); Smith, C. Jeffrey (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)



Research in departments of diagnostic radiology: a question of method limitation.  


Research support, training, and methods in diagnostic radiology have been the focus of analysis for 2 decades and continue to be important in the effective competition for research grants, especially those granted by the National Institutes of Health. The limitation of hypothesis formation and testing to imaging methods alone, however, could be a major impediment to more successful sponsorship of research in this discipline. The author emphasizes that a well-designed research plan in diagnostic radiology should not be restricted solely to imaging methods and should include such factors as the formation of well-defined hypotheses testable by means of inductive reasoning and, most important, flexibility in approaches to research methods. Other factors influencing effective research in diagnostic imaging include the establishment of mentors for continuous training and support, uninterrupted time for research, and a totally supportive environment. Improvements in these areas may enhance the competitiveness of research proposals from departments of diagnostic radiology. PMID:2717771

Northway, W H



Comparison of diagnostic methods to detect piroplasms in asymptomatic cattle.  


This study was carried out to compare different diagnostic techniques to reveal the presence of piroplasms in asymptomatic cattle kept at pasture. Nineteen blood samples were collected from animals of two different areas of Emilia Romagna Region of Italy and processed for microscopic observation, PCR, serological test (IFAT) for Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina antibodies and in vitro cultivation. The cultures were performed on both bovine and ovine erythrocytes. Seventeen blood smears (89%) were positive for piroplasms, while PCR was positive on 18 samples (95%). DNA sequencing of 18S rRNA identified the piroplasms as Theileria spp. In vitro cultures were successful for 6 samples (32%) cultured on bovine blood and subsequent identified these as Babesia major by PCR. On IFAT analyses of 16 samples, 36.8% resulted positive for B. bovis and 31.6% positive for B. bigemina. These results show, in the same animals, the co-infection with Babesia spp. and Theileria spp.; the detection of B. major was possible only using the in vitro cultures. PMID:21846583

Galuppi, R; Bonoli, C; Aureli, S; Cassini, R; Marcer, F; Foley, J E; Tampieri, M P



Modelling geographical variations and determinants of use of modern family planning methods among women of reproductive age in Nigeria.  


Summary Understanding the level, trend, geographical variations and determinants of use of modern family planning (FP) plays a major role in designing effective interventions leading to increased usage. This study assessed these characteristics of FP use in Nigeria using data from the 2003, 2005 and 2007 National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey, a national population-based household survey. A Bayesian geo-additive procedure was used, which provides flexible modelling of non-linear and spatial effects at a highly disaggregated level of states. The findings reveal considerable geographical variation in the use of modern FP in Nigeria, with a distinct north-south divide. Furthermore, a significant trend in the use of modern FP was evident, with an increase between 2003 and 2005 followed by a decline between 2005 and 2007. The effect of respondent's age was non-linear, and use of modern FP was found to differ significantly between never-married and currently/formerly married respondents. Awareness of FP methods and knowledge of where to get/buy FP services/methods were found to be significantly associated with usage. The findings provide policymakers with tools to prioritize the use of scarce resources for implementing FP and reproductive health interventions. PMID:22739073

Adebayo, Samson B; Gayawan, Ezra; Ujuju, Chinazo; Ankomah, Augustine



Method for engineering diagnostics at thermal power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The system for diagnosing equipment at thermal power plants is intended to check the efficiency of the equipment and to search for defects that arise during operation. A method used in the USSR for detecting damage such as breaks in turbine blades and the distortion of turbine rotors is discussed. The developed diagnosis method consists of comparing changes in vibration

Ya. S. Urintsev; Yu. A. Averbakh; V. I. Berlyand; M. M. Volynskii; V. L. Shiber



A Comparison of Oil Project NPV's in the North Sea Obtained using the Weighted Average Cost of Capital Discounting Method and a Modern Asset Pricing Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the difference in the net present values (NPV's) of North sea oil projects obtained using discounted cashflow methods based on the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and a Modern Asset Pricing (MAP) method (Laughton and Jacoby, 1993; Jacoby and Laughton, 1992).

Magne Emhjellen; Chris M. Alaouze



[Modern methods of early screening for preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension--a review].  


Preeclampsia remains to be a serious perinatal complication and early screening for this disease to identify the high risk population before the first symptoms develop constitutes a considerable clinical challenge. Modern methods of screening for preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension include patients history biochemical serum markers and foetal DNA and RNA in maternal serum. They aid the process of developing an optimal protocol to initiate treatment in early pregnancy and to reduce the rate of complications. Our review presents an overview of the novel methods and techniques used for early screening for preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Most of the research focuses on 11-13 weeks of gestation due to the fact that the first prenatal examination is performed at that time. The most important information seems to be: weight, mass, mean blood pressure, history of pregnancy-induced hypertension or preeclampsia at previous pregnancies as well as the ethnic origin. During an ultrasound scan, pulsatility index of the uterine arteries is measured. Blood samples are obtained during the last part of the examination. At the moment only a few markers seem to be strong predictors of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy: pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), placental growth factor (PIGF) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1). Also, fetal DNA and RNA in maternal plasma are helpful in the prediction of preeclampsia as they are markers of the trophoblast apoptosis. Researchers aim at identifying the population at high risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia in order to offer appropriate antenatal care to these women. At the moment many drugs and diet supplements are investigated to reduce the prevalence of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. These medications are usually administrated in early gestation (up to 16 week of gestation) before the first clinical symptoms present. Low doses of aspirin were found to decrease the risk of preeclampsia in high-risk groups. Moreover, according to some recent research, also essential omega-3 fatty acids reduce the incidence of preeclampsia. None of the other investigated diet supplements or antioxidants were proven to successfully reduce incidents of hypertensive disorders. So far, there is available evidence on the lack of any effect for vitamines C, D or E. Further studies are necessary to define clinical useful markers of gestational hypertension. PMID:23342898

Poprawski, Grzegorz; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Brazert, Jacek



Modern Carbonate Field Studies Designed to Direct Inquiry-Based Learning That Teaches Research Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transitioning students from learner to investigator is best accomplished by incorporating research into the undergraduate classroom as a collaborative enterprise between students and faculty. Our course is a two-part design with a focus on a modern carbonate ecosystem and depositional environment on San Salvador Island, Bahamas in order to integrate geology, biology, and environmental science. Content background is provided in

L. E. Davis; R. L. Eves



Diagnostic Amsel criteria compared standardized method of Gram stain for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two well-described diagnostic methods for bacterial vaginosis are clinical or wet-smear diagnosis (Amsel criteria) and Gram stain diagnosis (Nugent criteria). Our objective was to compare diagnostic Amsel criteria and Gram stain diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Between June 1999 and November 2001, all non-pregnant women aged 16 years or older who referred to gynecologic clinic with a complaint of vaginal discharge

Ziaeddine Moussavi; Roxana Behrouzi



Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Los Alamos, NM)



Diagnostics of low — temperature plasma by refractional methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma — chemical processes, e.g. during deposition of thin films, are in addition to electron and ion states also influenced\\u000a by the state of neutral gas. Visualization of density inhomogeneities can be performed by refractional methods. Quantitative\\u000a analysis of such images is complicated as the refraction depends on partial derivatives of refractive index. As a first step\\u000a in attempt to

J. Blažek; P. K?íž; V. Stra?ák; P. Špatenka



Method for engineering diagnostics at thermal power plants  

SciTech Connect

The system for diagnosing equipment at thermal power plants is intended to check the efficiency of the equipment and to search for defects that arise during operation. A method used in the USSR for detecting damage such as breaks in turbine blades and the distortion of turbine rotors is discussed. The developed diagnosis method consists of comparing changes in vibration of the inverse frequency of the bearings at several frequencies of rotation with calculated values for vibration at monitored points, produced by likely damage. Probable damage to rotors and turbines is determined by analyzing statistical data on damage in K-300-240 KhTGZ turbine units. The effect of damage on vibration was determined by calculating the vibrations of the shaft-support system. In the case of a break in the blades, the vibrations were calculated under the influence of an imbalance. The effect of bending of a rotor was determined as a result of calculating vibrations stemming from a break in the shaft axis. The algorithm for seeking damage automatically determines its location and magnitude. To increase the reliability of diagnosis the algorithm takes into account inaccuracy of measurements and operational influences. The developed method for diagnosis can be used for turbine units of other types as well.

Urintsev, Ya.S.; Averbakh, Yu.A.; Berlyand, V.I.; Volynskii, M.M.; Shiber, V.L.



Diagnostic tools and imaging methods in intervertebral disk degeneration.  


Low back pain has a negative impact on the economy and society. Intervertebral disk degeneration is linked to the occurrence of low back pain. MRI provides three-dimensional morphologic and biochemical information regarding the status of the disk. This article reviews new and evolving MRI disk-imaging techniques, including grading, relaxation-time measurements, diffusion, and contrast perfusion. In addition, high-resolution magic-angle spinning methods to correlate in vitro disk degeneration (with pain, etc) and in vivo spectroscopic results are discussed. With the potential for morphologic and biochemical characterization of the intervertebral disk, MRI shows promise as a tool to quantitatively assess disk health. PMID:21944587

Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M; Steinbach, Lynne S; Hu, Serena; Kurhanewicz, John



Using the Attribute Hierarchy Method to Make Diagnostic Inferences about Examinees' Cognitive Skills in Critical Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to apply the attribute hierarchy method (AHM) to a subset of SAT critical reading items and illustrate how the method can be used to promote cognitive diagnostic inferences. The AHM is a psychometric procedure for classifying examinees' test item responses into a set of attribute mastery patterns associated with…

Wang, Changjiang; Gierl, Mark J.



Making Diagnostic Inferences about Cognitive Attributes Using the Rule-Space Model and Attribute Hierarchy Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this paper is to describe the logic and identify key assumptions associated with making cognitive inferences using two attribute-based psychometric methods. The first method is Kikumi Tatsuoka's rule-space model. This model provides a strong point of reference for studying the nature of diagnostic inferences because it is important…

Gierl, Mark J.



A survey of IGBT fault diagnostic methods for three-phase power inverters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault diagnostics of power converters have drawn increasing attentions due to the widespread adoption of advanced power control devices, such as motor drives and uninterruptible power supplies. This paper presents a literature survey on existing methods for fault diagnosis and protection of IGBTpsilas, with special focus on those used in three-phase power inverters. Eleven methods for open-circuit faults and ten

Bin Lu; Santosh Sharma



Rock-Magnetic Method for Post Nuclear Detonation Diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magnetic signature characteristic of a Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse (NEMP) may still be detectable near the sites of atmospheric nuclear tests conducted at what is now the Nevada National Security Site. This signature is due to a secondary magnetization component of the natural remanent magnetization of material containing traces of ferromagnetic particles that have been exposed to a strong pulse of magnetic field. We apply a rock-magnetic method introduced by Verrier et al. (2002), and tested on samples exposed to artificial lightning, to samples of rock and building materials (e.g. bricks, concrete) retrieved from several above ground nuclear test sites. The results of magnetization measurements are compared to NEMP simulations and historic test measurements.

Englert, J.; Petrosky, J.; Bailey, W.; Watts, D. R.; Tauxe, L.; Heger, A. S.



Gene and genetic diagnostic method patent claims: a comparison under current European and US patent law  

PubMed Central

The paper focuses on the fundamental debate that is going on in Europe and the United States about whether genes and genetic diagnostic methods are to be regarded as inventions or subject matter eligible for patent protection, or whether they are discoveries or principles of nature and thus excluded from patentability. The study further explores some possible scenarios of American influences on European patent applications with respect to genetic diagnostic methods. Our analysis points out that patent eligibility for genes and genetic diagnostic methods, as discussed in the United States in the Association of Molecular Pathology versus US Patent and Trademark Office decision, is based on a different reasoning compared with the European Patent Convention.

Huys, Isabelle; Van Overwalle, Geertrui; Matthijs, Gert



A Literature Review of IGBT Fault Diagnostic and Protection Methods for Power Inverters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a survey on existing methods for fault diagnosis and protection of insulated gate bipolar transistors with special focus on those used in three-phase power inverters. Twenty-one methods for open-circuit faults and ten methods for short-circuit faults are evaluated and summarized, based on their performance and implementation efforts. The gate-misfiring faults and their diagnostic methods are also briefly

Bin Lu; Santosh K. Sharma



A Literature Review of IGBT Fault Diagnostic and Protection Methods for Power Inverters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a survey on existing methods for fault diagnosis and protection of IGBT's, with special focus on those used in three-phase power inverters. Twenty one methods for open-circuit faults and ten methods for short-circuit faults are evaluated and summarized, based on their performance and implementation efforts. The gate-misfiring faults and their diagnostic methods are also briefly discussed. Finally,

Bin Lu; Santosh Sharma



Diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of a simplified low cost method of counting CD4 cells with flow cytometry in Malawi: diagnostic accuracy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To assess the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of a simplified low cost method for measuring absolute and percentage CD4 counts with flow cytometry.Design A CD4 counting method (Blantyre count) using a CD4 and CD45 antibody combination with reduced blood and reagent volumes. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by measuring agreement of the index test with two other assays (TruCount

Calman A MacLennan; Michael K P Liu; Sarah A White; Joep J G van Oosterhout; Felanji Simukonda; Joseph Bwanali; Michael J Moore; Eduard E Zijlstra; Mark T Drayson; Malcolm E Molyneux



Interlaboratory diagnostic accuracy of a Salmonella specific PCR-based method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collaborative study involving four European laboratories was conducted to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of a Salmonella specific PCR-based method, which was evaluated within the European FOOD-PCR project (http:\\/\\/ Each laboratory analysed by the PCR a set of independent obtained presumably naturally contaminated samples and compared the results with the microbiological culture method. The PCR-based method comprised a preenrichment step

Burkhard Malorny; Jeffrey Hoorfar; Marta Hugas; Annet Heuvelink; Patrick Fach; Lüppo Ellerbroek; Cornelia Bunge; Christina Dorn; Reiner Helmuth



Adaptive quality assurance of the product development process of additive manufacturing with modern 3D data evaluation methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the possibilities of modern 3D data evaluation for metrology and quality assurance are presented for the special application of the plastic laser sinter process, especially the Additive Manufacturing process. We use the advantages of computer tomography and of the 3D focus variation at all stages of a production process for an increased quality of the resulting products. With the CT and the 3D focus variation the modern quality assurance and metrology have state of the art instruments that allow non-destructive, complete and accurate measuring of parts. Therefore, these metrological methods can be used in many stages of the product development process for non-destructive quality control. In this work, studies and evaluation of 3D data and the conclusions for relevant quality criteria are presented. Additionally, new developments and implementations for adapting the evaluation results for quality prediction, comparison and for correction are described to show how an adequate process control can be achieved with the help of modern 3D metrology techniques. The focus is on the optimization of laser sintering components with regard to their quality requirements so that the functionality during production can be guaranteed and quantified.

Kroll, Julia; Botta, Sabine; Breuninger, Jannis; Verl, Alexander



Gene and genetic diagnostic method patent claims: a comparison under current European and US patent law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focuses on the fundamental debate that is going on in Europe and the United States about whether genes and genetic diagnostic methods are to be regarded as inventions or subject matter eligible for patent protection, or whether they are discoveries or principles of nature and thus excluded from patentability. The study further explores some possible scenarios of American

Isabelle Huys; Geertrui Van Overwalle; Gert Matthijs



A Fault Diagnostic Method for EFI Engine Based on MATLAB Software Package  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, the diagnostic instruments used widely here and abroad is not entire, which can not diagnose the mechanical fault without fault code. In order to solve this problem, this paper presents a method for fault diagnosis of electronic fuel injection (EFI) engine using radial basis function (RBF) neural network. By connecting MATLAB software package and ACCESS database, a fault

Du Danfeng; Guo Xiurong; Guan Qiang



Evaluation of chronic venous disease in the lower limbs: comparison of five diagnostic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare the usefulness of five diagnostic methods in ensuring deep vein patency, and in demonstrating site(s) of incompetence, 39 patients with clinical signs of chronic venous disease of a leg were included in a study of deep, superficial and perforator veins using triplex ultrasound (TUS), ascending phlebography (AP), descending phlebography (DP), continuous wave Doppler (CWD) and ambulatory strain gauge



Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same  


A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand. 21 figs.

Katti, K.V.; Karra, S.R.; Berning, D.E.; Smith, C.J.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.



Hydroxyalkyl phosphine gold complexes for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same  


A complex and method for making same for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical includes a ligand comprising at least one hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group bound to a gold atom to form a gold-ligand complex that is stable in aqueous solutions containing oxygen, serum and other body fluids.

Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Berning, Douglas E. (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)



Hydroxyalkyl phosphine gold complexes for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same  


A complex and method for making a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical includes a ligand comprising at least one hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group bound to a gold atom to form a gold-ligand complex that is stable in aqueous solutions containing oxygen, serum and other body fluids. 20 figs.

Katti, K.V.; Berning, D.E.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.




Microsoft Academic Search

The method of case-based reasoning for a solution of problems of real-time diagnostics and forecasting in intelligent decision support systems (IDSS) is considered. Special attention is drawn to case library structure for real-time IDSS (RT IDSS) and algorithm of k-nearest neighbors type. This work was supported by RFBR.

Alexander Eremeev; Pavel Varshavskiy



An active method of monitoring tool wear states by impact diagnostic excitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an active method of monitoring tool wear states by using impact diagnostic excitation in the machining process. Because the dynamic characteristics of tool vibration in machining process will change with the tool wear development, the damping ratio, which is one of the important dynamic characteristics of tool vibration, will be used for monitoring the tool wear states

Weiguo Gong; Weihong Li; T. Shirakashi; T. Obikawa



Defect diagnostics of SUAV gas turbine engine using hybrid SVM-artificial neural network method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid method of an artificial neural network (ANN) combined with a support vector machine (SVM) has been developed for\\u000a the defect diagnostic system applied to the SUAV gas turbine engine. This method has been suggested to overcome the demerits\\u000a of the general ANN with the local minima problem and low classification accuracy in case of many nonlinear data. This

Sang-Myeong Lee; Tae-Seong Roh; Dong-Whan Choi



US-guided gallbladder aspiration: a new diagnostic method for biliary fascioliasis.  


Fasciola hepatica is a trematode which is found worldwide. The diagnosis is usually delayed because the disease is relatively rare and the parasite or its eggs must be shown in bile samples for verification. We report three cases in which the diagnosis of fascioliasis was established by simple US-guided aspiration of the gallbladder. This new diagnostic method is less invasive, safe, and easy compared with the conventional endoscopic methods. PMID:10369983

Kabaalioglu, A; Apaydin, A; Sindel, T; Lüleci, E



A multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based diagnostic method for bacterial vaginosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:To develop a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic method for bacterial vaginosis using bacterial vaginosis-associated anaerobes.METHODS:A multiple PCR assay was developed using primers specific to 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (Mobiluncus mulieris and Mobiluncus curtisii), nanH (Bacteroides fragilis), and an internal spacer region of ribosomal DNA (Gardnerella vaginalis). The vaginal swabs from pregnant and nonpregnant women were examined by Gram

Mana Obata-Yasuoka; William Ba-Thein; Hiromi Hamada; Hideo Hayashi



A simple method to combine multiple molecular biomarkers for dichotomous diagnostic classification  

PubMed Central

Background In spite of the recognized diagnostic potential of biomarkers, the quest for squelching noise and wringing in information from a given set of biomarkers continues. Here, we suggest a statistical algorithm that – assuming each molecular biomarker to be a diagnostic test – enriches the diagnostic performance of an optimized set of independent biomarkers employing established statistical techniques. We validated the proposed algorithm using several simulation datasets in addition to four publicly available real datasets that compared i) subjects having cancer with those without; ii) subjects with two different cancers; iii) subjects with two different types of one cancer; and iv) subjects with same cancer resulting in differential time to metastasis. Results Our algorithm comprises of three steps: estimating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for each biomarker, identifying a subset of biomarkers using linear regression and combining the chosen biomarkers using linear discriminant function analysis. Combining these established statistical methods that are available in most statistical packages, we observed that the diagnostic accuracy of our approach was 100%, 99.94%, 96.67% and 93.92% for the real datasets used in the study. These estimates were comparable to or better than the ones previously reported using alternative methods. In a synthetic dataset, we also observed that all the biomarkers chosen by our algorithm were indeed truly differentially expressed. Conclusion The proposed algorithm can be used for accurate diagnosis in the setting of dichotomous classification of disease states.

Mamtani, Manju R; Thakre, Tushar P; Kalkonde, Mrunal Y; Amin, Manik A; Kalkonde, Yogeshwar V; Amin, Amit P; Kulkarni, Hemant



System and method for embedment of emotive content in modern text processing, publishing and communication  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Aspects of the invention provide ways to include emotive content in written communication. The emotive content serves many needs not currently addressed in written word computer applications and text generation aids such as word processors, web publishers, email, file archives, faxes, cell phones, PDAs other applications. Adding emotive content to messages adds information, which can help to interpret and amplify the text message, improve the message integrity and fidelity of communication. Emotional content can contain and convey the subliminal messages, which are vital to a user's interaction with one another via modern communication technologies. Aspects of the invention provide ways for the sender or author to add emotional content, which can capture, maintain, and focuses a receiver's interest. Current expression of emotive content and emotive intensity in written word are rarely used because of lack of writing ability, lack of facilitation or lack of capability. An aspect of the invention provides mechanisms, which facilitate user emotive embedment in the written word without regard to personal language expression and language manipulation skills, vocabulary size or writing style. Aspects of the invention provide sets of emotive primitives, mechanisms and techniques to manipulate these primitives to represent emotive states and emotive intensities while "co-existing" with the actual textual message in the communications. These are primarily done through the use of face glyphs, colors, animation, fonts and also sets of "feeling" words.

Froloff; Walt (Aptos, CA)



Instrumentation for noninvasive express-diagnostics bacteriophages and viruses by optical method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theoretical and the experimental researches of spectra of absent-minded radiation in medium containing viruses were carried out. The information on spectra luminescence 31 viruses was written down.The new method the express - analysis of viruses in organism of the man was developed. It shall be mentioned that the proposed method of express diagnostics allows detection of infection agent in the organism several hours after infection. It makes it suitable for high efficient testing in blood services for detection and rejection of potential donors infected with such viruses as hepatitis, herpes, Epstein-Barre, cytomegalovirus, and immunodeficiency. Methods of serum diagnostics used for that purpose can detect antibodies to virus only 1-3 months after the person has been infected. The device for the express analysis of 31 viruses of the man was created.

Moguilnaia, Tatiana A.; Andreev, Gleb I.; Agibalov, Andrey A.; Botikov, Andrey G.; Kosenkov, Evgeniy; Saguitova, Elena



[Diagnostic techniques in breast cancer detection. Part II: Physical and biopsy methods].  


This publication contains an overview of methods based on the principles of physics applied in breast cancer diagnosis. It refers both to those created de novo and those that have recently been updated, thanks to the revolutionary progress in digital, computer and information technologies. It also contains an overview of the biopsy techniques considered to be "the golden standard" in breast cancer diagnoses, as well as the latest ones, allowing to obtain ductal cells. An effort to develop new diagnostic methods, based on various fields of physics and integration of various diagnostic methods, needs to be made in order for medicine to cope with the requirements of early detection of breast tumours. PMID:17899706

Slubowski, Tadeusz; Slubowska, Ma?gorzata; Wojciechowski, Artur



Modern nature and climate changes in Siberia: new methods and results of analysis of instrumented observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peculiarity of nature and climate changes in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere and in Siberia is that the temporal variability of meteorological quantities here has a wide range and their spatial variability has a complicated zone structure. Therefore, regional monitoring of modern nature and climate changes in Siberia is of scientific interest from the viewpoint of the global changes observed. Another Siberian peculiarity is associated with the fact that there are many unique objects that have global importance both as natural complexes (boreal forests, water- bog systems, Baikal lake, etc.) And as technogenic objects (oil and gas production, coal mining, metallurgy, transport, etc.). Therefore monitoring and modeling of regional nature and climate changes in Siberia have great practical importance, which is underestimated now, for industrial development of Siberia. Taking into account the above peculiarities and tendencies on investigation of global and regional environmental and climate changes, the multidisciplinary project on Climate and Ecological Monitoring of Siberia (CEMS) was accepted to the research and development program Sibir' since 1993. To realize this project, the Climate and Ecological Observatory was established in Tomsk at the Institute for Optical Monitoring (IOM) SB RAS. At the present time the stations (the basic and background ones) of this observatory are in a progress and theory and instruments for monitoring are being developed as well. In this paper we discuss some results obtained in the framework of CEMS project that were partially published in the monographs, in scientific journals, and will be published in the Proceedings of the 8th Joint International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics and Atmosphere Physics. This review has a purpose not only to discuss the obtained regularities but also to formulate scientific and technical tasks for further investigations into the regional changes of technogenic, natural, and climate systems.

Kabanov, Mikhail V.



NEW INSTRUMENTS AND MEASUREMENT METHODS: Laser dynamic optoacoustic diagnostics of condensed media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser dynamic optoacoustic diagnostics is a method of studying materials that has rapidly developed in recent years, and which uses lasers to generate short-period acoustic perturbations and records these perturbations---responses of the material with high time resolution---for subsequent analysis of the fine structure of the response bearing information on the properties of the specimens. The fundamental concepts of the varieties

S. V. Egerev; L. M. Lyamshev; O. V. Puchenkov



US-guided gallbladder aspiration: a new diagnostic method for biliary fascioliasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a Fasciola hepatica is a trematode which is found worldwide. The diagnosis is usually delayed because the disease is relatively rare and the\\u000a parasite or its eggs must be shown in bile samples for verification. We report three cases in which the diagnosis of fascioliasis\\u000a was established by simple US-guided aspiration of the gallbladder. This new diagnostic method is less

A. Kabaalio?lu; A. Apayd?n; T. Sindel; E. Lüleci



Adaptation of LASCA method for diagnostics of malignant tumours in laboratory animals  

SciTech Connect

The LASCA method is adapted for diagnostics of malignant neoplasms in laboratory animals. Tumours are studied in mice of Balb/c inbred line after inoculation of cells of syngeneic myeloma cell line Sp.2/0 Ag.8. The appropriateness of using the tLASCA method in tumour investigations is substantiated; its advantages in comparison with the sLASCA method are demonstrated. It is found that the most informative characteristic, indicating the presence of a tumour, is the fractal dimension of LASCA images.

Ul'yanov, S S; Laskavyi, V N; Glova, Alina B; Polyanina, T I; Ul'yanova, O V; Fedorova, V A; Ul'yanov, A S



Adaptation of LASCA method for diagnostics of malignant tumours in laboratory animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LASCA method is adapted for diagnostics of malignant neoplasms in laboratory animals. Tumours are studied in mice of Balb/c inbred line after inoculation of cells of syngeneic myeloma cell line Sp.2/0 — Ag.8. The appropriateness of using the tLASCA method in tumour investigations is substantiated; its advantages in comparison with the sLASCA method are demonstrated. It is found that the most informative characteristic, indicating the presence of a tumour, is the fractal dimension of LASCA images.

Ul'yanov, S. S.; Laskavyi, V. N.; Glova, Alina B.; Polyanina, T. I.; Ul'yanova, O. V.; Fedorova, V. A.; Ul'yanov, A. S.



Application possibilities of several modern methods of microscopy and microanalysis in forensic science field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods of optical and electron microscopy and microanalysis are the linchpin of forensic inorganic analysis. However, their capacity is limited as for the exact identification of pigments and colour layers, and therefore it is essential that they be complemented by other methods of phase microanalysis - powder X-ray microdiffraction (micro pXRD) and FTIR in transmission mode. The classic way

Marek Kotrly; Ivana Turkova



Bayesian and maximum entropy methods for fusion diagnostic measurements with compact neutron spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

In applications of neutron spectrometry to fusion diagnostics, it is advantageous to use methods of data analysis which can extract information from the spectrum that is directly related to the parameters of interest that describe the plasma. We present here methods of data analysis which were developed with this goal in mind, and which were applied to spectrometric measurements made with an organic liquid scintillation detector (type NE213). In our approach, we combine Bayesian parameter estimation methods and unfolding methods based on the maximum entropy principle. This two-step method allows us to optimize the analysis of the data depending on the type of information that we want to extract from the measurements. To illustrate these methods, we analyze neutron measurements made at the PTB accelerator under controlled conditions, using accelerator-produced neutron beams. Although the methods have been chosen with a specific application in mind, they are general enough to be useful for many other types of measurements.

Reginatto, Marcel; Zimbal, Andreas [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)



Mass Spectrometry Element Analysis-Advances and New Perspectives in a Modern Analytical Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass spectrometry is an extremely sensitive method for the determination of elements down to the sub-pg level. The different ionization methods used for mono-and multi-element analyses are discussed. Spark source mass spectrometry has been the most commonly multi-element technique in the past. However, inductively coupled plasma and glow-discharge mass spectrometry will probably replace spark source mass spectrometry in the future.

Klaus G. Heumann



Modern analytical methods for estimating the phase stability of nickel superalloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analytical methods that can estimate the probability of formation of harmful topologically close-packed phases and the volume fraction of the useful hardening ?' phase in nickel superalloys from their chemical composition are considered. These methods are the balance of valence electrons, the balance of electron vacancies, the balance of the energy levels of the d orbitals in the atoms of alloy components, and the balance of covalent electron interactions.

Belyanchikov, L. N.



A new, modern, cost-saving micro/macro method for the determination of serum fructosamine.  


Serum/plasma fructosamine (SeFa) concentration is a reliable indicator used in human diabetic control. Tests for monitoring the carbohydrate/energy metabolism of (farm) animals are less commonly performed in veterinary laboratories, since most of the reliable determinations, both automated and manual, are relatively expensive. The aim of this study was to develop a precise, money- (and time-) saving automated micro method for measuring SeFa. ELISA microplates (20 microL samples and 200 microL reagents) and an automatic microplate autoreader were used. The classical nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) stain reagent solution of Johnson et al. (1982) was modified using a SIGMA reagent to render it stable for up to one year. SeFa concentrations measured by the new method in 30 human blood plasma samples were compared with values obtained by the standard (generally used) LaRoche kit procedure. Fifteen cow, 13 dog and 18 chicken plasma samples were assayed by the new automated 'micro' method as well as by the manual test tube 'macro' method commonly used earlier. The modified reagent was applied for both methods. The coefficient of correlation (r) between the results obtained by the two methods was consistently between 0.94 and 0.98 (p < 0.001). PMID:11402712

Oppel, K; Kulcsár, M; Bárdos, L; Ferencz, A; Lakner, H; Simon, J; Temesváry, K; Karchesz, K



Mathematical modeling and fiber optics parameter optimization in diagnostics of biotissue by PNC method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical PNC-diagnostics is one of the methods to diagnose biotissue in norm and pathology. In primary case backscattering and fluorescent components of detected secondary radiations are registered by means of PNC-method. These radiations are stimulated and occur when probing laser beam radiates biotissue. For diagnostic purposes both monofibers and multifiber probes (fiber bundle), where probing radiation transmits to biotissue via one of the fibers, are usually used. Registered secondary radiations from biotissue are detected by distal end of a multifiber probe (peripheral fibers). This work was intended to mathematically modulate and determine optimization parameters of fiberoptic probes, applied in PNC-diagnostics inclusive localization and depth of pathological underskin hearth. Main mathematical correlations and formulas for calculation and optimization of backscattering radiation in dependence on applied waveguide characteristics inclusive radiation absorption in biotissue were obtained. All calculations are made regarding each biotissue layer as reflective or Lambert quasi-source of backscattering signal. It is found out, that varying parameters in a probe we can vary the depth of tissue where the maximum signal received from and optimize the value of the signal.

Sokolovsky, Alexander A.; Masychev, Victor I.



Trends and interannual variability of extra-tropical cyclones derived from different diagnostic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One central effort of the IMILAST (Intercomparison of Mid Latitude Storm Diagnostics) project is to assess diagnostic method-induced differences with respect to basic scientific investigations on extra-tropical cyclone characteristics, like trends and variability. Will answers to scientific questions relevant to cyclone studies be sensitive to the specific identification and tracking method applied? Due to differences in the cyclone diagnostic methods used, one would not expect a one-to-one overlap for the identified cyclones. The inter-methods differences could also vary from one cyclone characteristic to another, or for a particular subset of cyclones. For example, the differences in absolute trends in cyclone statistics could be larger than relative measures, and bigger for weak-moderate cyclone statistics than for strong cyclone statistics, etc. and the multi-method spread could be dependent on the intensity of the subset of cyclones investigated. This presentation focuses on basic trend behaviour and interannual variability of cyclones as diagnosed by different methods. In order to concentrate on inter-method differences, all participating methods have been applied to the same data set, the ERA-Interim reanalysis data for the period 1989-2008. Although a 20-yr period is too short to assess long term (e.g. anthropogenic) trends in cyclone activity, it is useful to see how different/similar the interannual variability and trends in cyclone activity are. Although trends in different cyclone parameters might be small for the period analyzed, an overall agreement of the trends and interannual variability diagnosed by the different methods would strengthen the applicability of those methods for addressing scientific questions. The inter-comparison of trends and variability will be presented for the northern and southern hemispheres, separately. In general, the inter-methods differences are much less notable in the trend estimates than in the absolute values of cyclone statistics. It is also noted that the methods perform more similarly for the subset of strong cyclones than for weak-moderate cyclones. Discrepancies between the methods are smallest in the regions of identified significant trends, revealing that the basic findings remain robust between the methods. Similar results are achieved with respect to the capability of the methods to identify coherent patterns of the interannual variability.

Leckebusch, G. C.; Wang, X. L.; Kew, S. F.; Grieger, J.; Schuster, M.; Ulbrich, U.; Gulev, S.; Imilast Team



Application possibilities of several modern methods of microscopy and microanalysis in forensic science field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methods of optical and electron microscopy and microanalysis are the linchpin of forensic inorganic analysis. However, their capacity is limited as for the exact identification of pigments and colour layers, and therefore it is essential that they be complemented by other methods of phase microanalysis - powder X-ray microdiffraction (micro pXRD) and FTIR in transmission mode. The classic way of sample division for different methods is not suitable with regard to the inhomogeneity of the sequence of strata. That is why a method was tested that would allow performance of optical microscopy, SEM/EDS(WDS), micro pXRD and FTIR in a nondestructive manner, from an identical spot of a single fragment. The solution can be polished sections - embedded samples and microtome sections. Conductive zerobackground single-crystal silicon plates were developed and tested for sample fixation in SEM, micro pXRD and transmission FTIR. Methods using a focused ion beam - FIB have recently gained importance in the field of electron microscopy. In the forensic sphere they can be employed in examinations of metal materials, technical analyses of documents, post-blast and gunshot residues.

Kotrly, Marek; Turkova, Ivana



Development of a diagnostic method applicable to various serotypes of hantavirus infection in rodents.  


Antigenic diversity among different hantaviruses requires a variety of reagents for diagnosis of hantavirus infection. To develop a diagnostic method applicable to various hantavirus infections with a single set of reagents, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant nucleocapsid proteins of three hantaviruses, Amur, Hokkaido, and Sin Nombre viruses. This novel cocktail antigen-based ELISA enabled detection of antibodies against Hantaan, Seoul, Amur, Puumala, and Sin Nombre viruses in immunized laboratory animals. In wild rodent species, including Apodemus, Rattus, and Myodes, our ELISA detected antibodies against hantaviruses with high sensitivity and specificity. These data suggest that our novel diagnostic ELISA is a useful tool for screening hantavirus infections and could be effectively utilized for serological surveillance and quarantine purposes. PMID:22673703

Sanada, Takahiro; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Saasa, Ngonda; Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Seto, Takahiro; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Ivanov, Leonid I; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Yoshii, Kentaro; Takashima, Ikuo



NEW INSTRUMENTS AND MEASUREMENT METHODS: Laser dynamic optoacoustic diagnostics of condensed media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser dynamic optoacoustic diagnostics is a method of studying materials that has rapidly developed in recent years, and which uses lasers to generate short-period acoustic perturbations and records these perturbations—responses of the material with high time resolution—for subsequent analysis of the fine structure of the response bearing information on the properties of the specimens. The fundamental concepts of the varieties of the method are given. The experience of applying it is generalized for analyzing inhomogeneous liquid and solid specimens, the process of crystallization from the melt, dielectrics, and films of surface-active materials.

Egerev, S. V.; Lyamshev, L. M.; Puchenkov, O. V.



A modern method for analyzing thermal energy system with system state equation and analytical formula of performance index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses overall performance analysis of coal-fired power unit. From the point of view of system engineering, a general steam-water distribution equation of the thermal plant system is presented. This system state equation is an exact expression combining system topological structure and system properties. Through proper mathematic transform, the inner relationship and interaction between the main system and auxiliary system are revealed and its general form is given. An analytical formula for the heat consumption rate of thermal power plant is one direct fruit of the equation, which greatly facilitate the online analyzing and optimizing of complex thermal system. The new approach, with the aid of modern data acquiring technology, is a perfect extension of the traditional analysis method based on the First Law of Thermodynamics.

Zhang, Chunfa; Li, Liping; Wang, Huijie; Zhao, Ning



Modern methods of feeding in infancy and childhood: Donald Paterson and J. F. Smith  

Microsoft Academic Search

We take pleasure in reviewing the seventh edition of this monograph. The authors have tried their best to bring it up to date and they have no doubt succeeded well. The book is excellent for the general practitioner as well as for the pediatrician. The methods described can be easily followed. The Diet Charts are however not well suited to

M. L. Biswas; J. F. SMITH



New diagnostic method for monitoring plasma reactor walls: Multiple total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared surface probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Films and adsorbates that deposit on reactor walls during plasma etching and deposition affect the discharge properties such as the charged particle and reactive radical concentrations. A systematic study of this plasma–wall interaction is made difficult by a lack of diagnostic methods that enable one to monitor the chemical nature of the reactor wall surface. A new diagnostic technique based

Anna R. Godfrey; Saurabh J. Ullal; Linda B. Braly; Erik A. Edelberg; Vahid Vahedi; Eray S. Aydil



Noninvasive diagnostic methods for perceptual and motor disabilities in children with cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

The field of neuroorthopedics centers on chronic diseases demanding close clinical monitoring. We shall use several examples to show how the various noninvasive diagnostic instruments can be used to obtain insight into the central nervous system as well as into the musculoskeletal system and its morphology. The choice of the most appropriate method depends on the problem; that is, whether the method is to be applied for clinical use or for basic research. In this report we introduce various technical examination methods that are being used successfully in the fields of pediatrics, orthopedics, and neurology. The major examination instrument in pediatric diagnostics is sonography, which is being used in this report as a research instrument for the biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system, but which also gives insight into neurofunctional sequences. In orthopedics, pedography is used for diagnosing deformities of the feet. In neuroorthopedics for children pedography acts as a functional monitor for apraxia and thus allows, for example, a classification of the degree of neurological malfunctions in the lower extremities. The 3D bodyscan is used to minimize x-raying in patients with neurogenic scoliosis. This report introduces examples of the application of MRI and fMRI for basic research. The biometric measuring methods introduced provide precise data in the areas of diagnostics and monitoring and are highly valuable for further neuroorthopedic basic research. In future we expect the ever-evolving technical measuring methods to enable a deeper understanding of the primary neurological causes of and the implications for patients with cerebral palsy and other neuroorthopedic conditions. This may allow the development of new forms of therapy not necessarily predictable today.

Lampe, Renee; Mitternacht, Jurgen



Modern architectures for intelligent systems: reusable ontologies and problem-solving methods.  

PubMed Central

When interest in intelligent systems for clinical medicine soared in the 1970s, workers in medical informatics became particularly attracted to rule-based systems. Although many successful rule-based applications were constructed, development and maintenance of large rule bases remained quite problematic. In the 1980s, an entire industry dedicated to the marketing of tools for creating rule-based systems rose and fell, as workers in medical informatics began to appreciate deeply why knowledge acquisition and maintenance for such systems are difficult problems. During this time period, investigators began to explore alternative programming abstractions that could be used to develop intelligent systems. The notions of "generic tasks" and of reusable problem-solving methods became extremely influential. By the 1990s, academic centers were experimenting with architectures for intelligent systems based on two classes of reusable components: (1) domain-independent problem-solving methods-standard algorithms for automating stereotypical tasks--and (2) domain ontologies that captured the essential concepts (and relationships among those concepts) in particular application areas. This paper will highlight how intelligent systems for diverse tasks can be efficiently automated using these kinds of building blocks. The creation of domain ontologies and problem-solving methods is the fundamental end product of basic research in medical informatics. Consequently, these concepts need more attention by our scientific community.

Musen, M. A.



Determination of lead and cadmium in milk with modern analytical methods.  


Methods to determine lead and cadmium at the low mug/kg-level in milk were investigated. Methods tested were differential-pulse anodic-stripping voltammetry (DPASV) and flameless atomic-absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS). Under the circumstances in which these methods were used, the analytical procedure based on DPASV was the most sensitive, with an estimated detection limit of about 0.2 mug/1 for lead and cadmium in liquid milk. The pretreatment of the milk samples before the DPASV-analysis included: freeze-drying, ashing in a muffle furnance at 550 degree C and finally dissolution of the ash in 0.1 M-hydrochloric acid. The recoveries of known amounts of lead and cadmium added to milk were 95 and 59%, respectively. A survey of the contents of lead and cadmium in the Swedish manket milk was performed. This investigation showed that the average lead content in Swedish market milk was 2.0 mug/1, with a standard deviation of 0.5 mug/1. The cadmium content was below 0.2 mug/1 in all samples analyzed. PMID:989211

Jönsson, H



Matched and equipartitioned design method for modern high-intensity radio frequency quadrupole accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new design method—Matched and equipartitioned (EP) design method—has been proposed for radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) dynamics design, on the considerations of preventing emittance growth and halo formation in high-intensity linacs by means of keeping beam envelope matched and energy balance within the beam, as well as avoiding structure resonances [R.A. Jameson, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28 (1981) 2408; R.A. Jameson et al., Scaling and optimization in high-intensity linear accelerators, LA-CP-91-272, Los Alamos National Laboratory, July 1991 (introduction of LINACS design code); R.A. Jameson, AIP Conf. Proc. 279 (1992) 969; R.A. Jameson, An approach to fundamental study of beam loss minimization, in: Y.K. Batygin (Ed.), AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 480, Space Charge Dominated Beam Physics for Heavy Ion Fusion, Saitama, Japan, December 1998]. As there are more than three parameters for a linear accelerator, but only three equations (two envelope equations and an EP equation) are available to design the structural parameters of the RFQ accelerator around the beam, therefore the others have to be determined by additional rules. Following these equations and rules, a new RFQ design code named MATCHDESIGN has been written at Peking University. Three example designs are generated by this code and their simulation results have been compared with a conventional RFQ, which had proved the feasibilities and merits of the new method.

Yan, X. Q.; Jameson, R. A.; Lu, Y. R.; Guo, Z. Y.; Fang, J. X.; Chen, J. E.



Modern architectures for intelligent systems: reusable ontologies and problem-solving methods.  


When interest in intelligent systems for clinical medicine soared in the 1970s, workers in medical informatics became particularly attracted to rule-based systems. Although many successful rule-based applications were constructed, development and maintenance of large rule bases remained quite problematic. In the 1980s, an entire industry dedicated to the marketing of tools for creating rule-based systems rose and fell, as workers in medical informatics began to appreciate deeply why knowledge acquisition and maintenance for such systems are difficult problems. During this time period, investigators began to explore alternative programming abstractions that could be used to develop intelligent systems. The notions of "generic tasks" and of reusable problem-solving methods became extremely influential. By the 1990s, academic centers were experimenting with architectures for intelligent systems based on two classes of reusable components: (1) domain-independent problem-solving methods-standard algorithms for automating stereotypical tasks--and (2) domain ontologies that captured the essential concepts (and relationships among those concepts) in particular application areas. This paper will highlight how intelligent systems for diverse tasks can be efficiently automated using these kinds of building blocks. The creation of domain ontologies and problem-solving methods is the fundamental end product of basic research in medical informatics. Consequently, these concepts need more attention by our scientific community. PMID:9929181

Musen, M A



Pure-rotational spectrometry: a vintage analytical method applied to modern breath analysis.  


Pure-rotational spectrometry (PRS) is an established method, typically used to study structures and properties of polar gas-phase molecules, including isotopic and isomeric varieties. PRS has also been used as an analytical tool where it is particularly well suited for detecting or monitoring low-molecular-weight species that are found in exhaled breath. PRS is principally notable for its ultra-high spectral resolution which leads to exceptional specificity to identify molecular compounds in complex mixtures. Recent developments using carbon aerogel for pre-concentrating polar molecules from air samples have extended the sensitivity of PRS into the part-per-billion range. In this paper we describe the principles of PRS and show how it may be configured in several different modes for breath analysis. We discuss the pre-concentration concept and demonstrate its use with the PRS analyzer for alcohols and ammonia sampled directly from the breath. PMID:23774191

Hrubesh, Lawrence W; Droege, Michael W



A study of radioactivity in modern stream gravels and its possible application as a prospecting method  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Traverses along some streams of the Colorado Plateau in areas known to contain minable uranium deposits show that anomalous radiation in the stream gravels can be detected with a suitable counter downstream from the deposits. The amount of radiation is influenced by the size of the uranium deposit, the size of the drainage area of the stream, the grain size of the sediments, and the lithology of the rocks over which the stream flows. The spacing of the stations where readings are taken is controlled by the size of the stream, and special readings are also taken directly downstream from important tributaries. An anomaly is empirically defined as a 10 percent rise over background. Radioactive material from large uranium deposits has been detected as much as 1 mile downstream. Radioactive material from smaller deposits is detachable over shorter distances. The method is slow but appears to be a useful prospecting tool under restricted conditions.

Chew, Randall T., III



Study of carbohydrate structure and reactivity by modern NMR methods and isotopic labeling  

SciTech Connect

Chemical methods are described for preparing unenriched and (1-/sup 13/C)-enriched 5-deoxy- and 5-O-methylpentoses in the D or L configuration. The /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR spectra of these compounds have been interpreted and the carbon spectra assigned with the aid of 2D /sup 13/C-/sup 1/H chemical-shift correlation spectroscopy. The tautomeric composition in /sup 2/H/sub 2/O has been quantitated with the aid of (1-/sup 13/C)-enriched derivatives. The branched-chain pentose, DL-apiose has been synthesized in good yield by a new and simple chemical method that can be adapted to prepare (1-/sup 13/C)-, (2-/sup 13/C)-, (1-/sup 2/H)- and/or (2-/sup 2/H)-enriched derivatives. The solution composition of D-idose in D/sup 2/O has been examined by /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy using (/sup 13/C)-enriched compounds. In addition to two furanoses and two pyranoses, aldehyde and hydrate forms have been detected and quantified. The solution composition of D-talose has been investigated by /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy using (1-/sup 13/C)talose. The tautomeric composition has been determined at 28/sup 0/, and the results show equivalent amounts of the acyclic aldehyde and hydrate. Several structurally modified furanose sugars were synthesized to assess the extent the Thorpe-Ingold effect promotes rings formation and enhances rates of ring-closure.

Snyder, J.R.



Extracting seasonal signals from continuous GPS time series with modern statistical methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that continuous GPS position time series show seasonal variations. Previous investigations have revealed the importance and potential contributions of seasonal mass loading signals in continuous GPS time series. For instance, some researchers have made comparisons of annual vertical crustal displacements from GPS and GRACE. Seasonal signals from GPS time series were usually obtained by weighted least squares fitting, assuming the data are temporally uncorrelated. However, several studies demonstrated that not only white noise is included in GPS time series but also colored noise, like random walk and flicker noise. The mismodelled noise would definitely alias into the seasonal signals. In our work, GPS data from stations around the Danube river basin are used. Based on previous studies, we utilize a combination of PCA (Principle Component Analysis) and MLE (Maximum Likelihood Estimation) techniques to extract the annual and semi-annual signals buried in GPS time series. Within the work, the PCA method is firstly applied to remove the so called Common Mode Errors (CME). After an iterative removal of CME, the resulting time series are fit to a commonly used model that contains a linear term and seasonal terms to form residuals. The MLE algorithm is thereafter deployed to test noise models that describe the time series. Finally, the periodic terms are extracted by weighted least squares using the best noise models. These seasonal signals will ultimately be used for inversion and comparison purposes.

Chen, Q.; van Dam, T.; Sneeuw, N.; Collilieux, X.; Rebischung, P.



Spectroscopic method of diagnostics of the bone marrow and peripheral blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first results of comparative spectral analysis of the bone marrow and blood taken from one and the same donor are presented and the new potentialities of the spectroscopic method for hematologic diseases diagnostics and for testing the pathologic process together with the morphologic investigations of bone marrow punctates are considered. We present here the results of comparative spectral analysis of the bone marrow and blood taken from one and the same donor. We found out what differences in spectra are for normal and pathology bone marrow composition and what causes this difference.

Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Medvedev, Boris A.; Sedova, Yuliya G.; Brill, Grigory E.; Stepanova, Valentina Y.



New Multi-functional Diagnostic Method with Tracer-encapsulated Pellet Injection on LHD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tracer-Encapsulated Solid PELlet (TESPEL) injection is one of the simplest new ideas to study the impurity confinement and other plasma properties. The special features of this method are: (a) local deposition inside the plasma, (b) precise knowledge of the deposited tracer amount, (c) wide selection of tracer materials. The achievements of the multi-functional diagnostics using TESPEL injection on LHD are to measure: (a) impurity transport properties, (b) heat diffusivity, (c) particle flow features in and out of the magnetic island, and (d) fast neutral particle fluxes.

Sudo, S.; Tamura, N.; Kalinina, D. V.; Sato, K.; Matsubara, A.; Inagaki, S.; Goncharov, P. R.; Ozaki, T.; Stutman, D.; LHD Experimental Group



Instantaneous phasor method for obtaining instantaneous balanced fundamental components for power quality control and continuous diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Poor power quality not only causes additional energy losses, it may also cause detrimental interruptions to business and manufacturing operations. The growing popularity of electronic equipment, such as computers, televisions, electronic ballasts, solid-state motor controllers, and electronically controlled industry loads pollutes the power quality. In 1995, EPRI reported that the revenue losses due to poor power quality to US business alone were $400 billion per year. A new instantaneous phasor method for obtaining instantaneous balanced fundamental components is introduced. An example is presented. This technique may be used for active power quality control and for continuous diagnostics.

Hsu, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)



Diagnostic technology in cardiovascular disease: review of noninvasive methods for population studies  

PubMed Central

To aid the selection of appropriate diagnostic technologies, the literature on noninvasive methods for population studies of cardiovascular diseases was reviewed. Indications, limitations and cost-effectiveness are discussed. Most widely applicable are the standardized medical history, blood pressure and other measurements, resting electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, and selected tests of blood and urine. Useful in specialized studies are exercise testing, ambulatory monitoring, and peripheral arterial flow measurements. Ultrasound is valuable in the study of hypertensive and other myocardial diseases. Further methodological research is needed.

Gillum, R. F.



New Multi-functional Diagnostic Method with Tracer-encapsulated Pellet Injection on LHD  

SciTech Connect

The Tracer-Encapsulated Solid PELlet (TESPEL) injection is one of the simplest new ideas to study the impurity confinement and other plasma properties. The special features of this method are: (a) local deposition inside the plasma, (b) precise knowledge of the deposited tracer amount, (c) wide selection of tracer materials. The achievements of the multi-functional diagnostics using TESPEL injection on LHD are to measure: (a) impurity transport properties, (b) heat diffusivity, (c) particle flow features in and out of the magnetic island, and (d) fast neutral particle fluxes.

Sudo, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Graduate Univ. Advanced Studies, Hayama 240-0193 (Japan); Tamura, N.; Sato, K.; Matsubara, A.; Inagaki, S.; Goncharov, P.R.; Ozaki, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Kalinina, D.V. [Graduate Univ. Advanced Studies, Hayama 240-0193 (Japan); Stutman, D.; Finkenthal, M. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)



Impact of gene patents on diagnostic testing: a new patent landscaping method applied to spinocerebellar ataxia  

PubMed Central

Recent reports in Europe and the United States raise concern about the potential negative impact of gene patents on the freedom to operate of diagnosticians and on the access of patients to genetic diagnostic services. Patents, historically seen as legal instruments to trigger innovation, could cause undesired side effects in the public health domain. Clear empirical evidence on the alleged hindering effect of gene patents is still scarce. We therefore developed a patent categorization method to determine which gene patents could indeed be problematic. The method is applied to patents relevant for genetic testing of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). The SCA test is probably the most widely used DNA test in (adult) neurology, as well as one of the most challenging due to the heterogeneity of the disease. Typically tested as a gene panel covering the five common SCA subtypes, we show that the patenting of SCA genes and testing methods and the associated licensing conditions could have far-reaching consequences on legitimate access to this gene panel. Moreover, with genetic testing being increasingly standardized, simply ignoring patents is unlikely to hold out indefinitely. This paper aims to differentiate among so-called ‘gene patents' by lifting out the truly problematic ones. In doing so, awareness is raised among all stakeholders in the genetic diagnostics field who are not necessarily familiar with the ins and outs of patenting and licensing.

Berthels, Nele; Matthijs, Gert; Van Overwalle, Geertrui



Development of a diagnostic method for neosporosis in cattle using recombinant Neospora caninum proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Neosporosis is an infectious disease primarily of cattle and dogs, caused by intracellular parasite, Neospora caninum. Neosporosis appears to be a major cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide and causes to huge economic loss to dairy industry. Results Recombinant surface associated antigen 1 (NcSAG1), NcSAG1 related sequence 2 (NcSRS2) and the dense granule antigen 2 (NcGRA2) of N. caninum were expressed either in silkworm or in Escherichia coli and purified. The purified recombinant proteins bound to the N. caninum-specific antibodies in serum samples from infected cattle as revealed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). By co-immobilizing these recombinant proteins, a novel indirect ELISA was developed for detection of neosporosis. With the use of 32 serum samples, comprising 12 positive serum samples and 20 negative serum samples, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were found to be 91.7 and 100%, respectively. Seventy-two serum samples from dairy farms were also tested and one was diagnosed with neosporasis with both this method and a commercial assay. Conclusions A diagnostic method employing recombinant proteins of N. caninum was developed. The method showed high sensitivity and specificity. Diagnostic test with field serum samples suggested its applicability to the practical diagnosis of neosporosis.



Confusion assessment method: a systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy  

PubMed Central

Background Delirium is common in the early stages of hospitalization for a variety of acute and chronic diseases. Objectives To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of two delirium screening tools, the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU). Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo for relevant articles published in English up to March 2013. We compared two screening tools to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria. Two reviewers independently assessed studies to determine their eligibility, validity, and quality. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using a bivariate model. Results Twenty-two studies (n = 2,442 patients) met the inclusion criteria. All studies demonstrated that these two scales can be administered within ten minutes, by trained clinical or research staff. The pooled sensitivities and specificity for CAM were 82% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 69%–91%) and 99% (95% CI: 87%–100%), and 81% (95% CI: 57%–93%) and 98% (95% CI: 86%–100%) for CAM-ICU, respectively. Conclusion Both CAM and CAM-ICU are validated instruments for the diagnosis of delirium in a variety of medical settings. However, CAM and CAM-ICU both present higher specificity than sensitivity. Therefore, the use of these tools should not replace clinical judgment.

Shi, Qiyun; Warren, Laura; Saposnik, Gustavo; MacDermid, Joy C



New Possibilities of the Electron Beam Method for Diagnostics of High- Temperature Supersonic Gas Stream of Complicated Molecular Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Today the electron beam diagnostics is one of the main methods for investigation of rarefied gas flows allowing to determine a number of local gas parameters such as density partial concentration temperatures of internal degrees of freedom etc. The relati...

N. G. Gorchakova A. G. Chichenin V. G. Prikhodko V. N. Yarygin



[The nasal valve. Part I. Anatomical and physiological nature, clinical manifestations of dysfunction and methods for its diagnostics].  


In this article, the critical analysis of the available publications concerning anatomical and physiological nature of the nasal valve, clinical manifestations of its dysfunction, and diagnostic methods is presented. Various diagnostic tools are considered with special reference to the anatomical features of the nasal valve and mechanisms of its disorders. The study revealed contradictory opinions as regards the causes underlying valvular insufficiency and the necessity of the objective evaluation of nasal breathing in the patients with this pathology. The need of the search for the new methods of topical diagnostics of nasal valve dysfunction is substantiated. PMID:22833881

Rusetski?, Iu Iu; Lopatin, A S; Sobolev, V P



Dusty plasma diagnostics methods for charge, electron temperature, and ion density  

SciTech Connect

Diagnostic methods are developed to measure the microparticle charge Q and two plasma parameters, electron temperature T{sub e}, and ion density n{sub i}, in the main plasma region of a dusty plasma. Using video microscopy to track microparticles yields a resonance frequency, which along with a charging model allows an estimation of Q and T{sub e}. Only measurements of microparticle position and velocity are required, unlike other methods that use measurements of T{sub e} and plasma parameters as inputs. The resonance frequency measurement can also be used with an ion drag model to estimate n{sub i}. These methods are demonstrated using a single-layer dusty plasma suspension under microgravity conditions.

Liu Bin; Goree, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Fortov, V. E.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 127412 (Russian Federation); Morfill, G. E.; Thomas, H. M.; Ivlev, A. V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, 85748 Garching (Germany)



Application of Diagnostic/Prognostic Methods to Critical Equipment for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Cleanup Program  

SciTech Connect

The management of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project at the Hanford K-Basin in the 100 N Area has successfully restructured the preventive maintenance, spare parts inventory requirements, and the operator rounds data requirements. In this investigation, they continue to examine the different facets of the operations and maintenance (O&M) of the K-Basin cleanup project in search of additional reliability and cost savings. This report focuses on the initial findings of a team of PNNL engineers engaged to identify potential opportunities for reducing the cost of O&M through the application of advanced diagnostics (fault determination) and prognostics (residual life/reliability determination). The objective is to introduce predictive technologies to eliminate or reduce high impact equipment failures. The PNNL team in conjunction with the SNF engineers found the following major opportunities for cost reduction and/or enhancing reliability: (1) Provide data routing and automated analysis from existing detection systems to a display center that will engage the operations and engineering team. This display will be operator intuitive with system alarms and integrated diagnostic capability. (2) Change operating methods to reduce major transients induced in critical equipment. This would reduce stress levels on critical equipment. (3) Install a limited sensor set on failure prone critical equipment to allow degradation or stressor levels to be monitored and alarmed. This would provide operators and engineers with advance guidance and warning of failure events. Specific methods for implementation of the above improvement opportunities are provided in the recommendations. They include an Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) decision support system, introduction of variable frequency drives on certain pump motors, and the addition of limited diagnostic instrumentation on specified critical equipment.

Casazza, Lawrence O.; Jarrell, Donald B.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Meador, Richard J.; Wallace, Dale E.



Modernization Act  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Procedural; Modernization Act, PET Drug Applications - Content and Format for NDAs and ANDAs_2011 (PDF - 429KB), Final Guidance, 08/31/11. ... More results from


A quantitative diagnostic method for oral mucous precancerosis by Rose Bengal fluorescence spectroscopy.  


A novel in vivo fluorescence spectroscopic diagnostic method has been developed in an animal model to make a quantified precancer diagnosis. In the study, 40 golden hamsters were randomly divided into four groups (groups A, B, C, and D), with group A being the control group and the other three groups being inducted at different precancer stages. A 1% Rose Bengal (RB) solution was used for the fluorescence spectroscopic diagnosis. A parameter K defined as K = I(RB)/I(auto) was introduced to reflect the amount of RB in the tissue, where I(RB) and I(auto) represent the fluorescence peak intensity of the RB in the tissue and the autofluorescence intensity of tissue at 580 nm, respectively. The average K values of the four groups were calculated and statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), which revealed statistically significant differences within each group as well as between groups (p < 0.001). After analysis by Clementine 11.1 C&R Tree modeling (CART), the following diagnostic criteria were set: normal, K ? 8.91; simple hyperplasia, 8.91 < K ? 41.92; mild dysplasia, 41.92 < K ? 70.79; moderate and severe dysplasia, K >70.79. The sensitivity and specificity to detect precancerous lesions compared with scalpel biopsy were calculated. The results of this study showed that the spectrofluorometric method mediated by RB could accurately discriminate different precancer stages. PMID:22648285

Zhang, Lei; Bi, Liangjia; Shi, Jinna; Zhang, Zhiguo; Cao, Wenwu; Lin, Jiang; Li, Chengzhang; Bi, Jiarui; Yu, Yang



Diagnostic Performance of Combined Noninvasive Coronary Angiography and Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Using 320-MDCT: The CT Angiography and Perfusion Methods of the CORE320 Multicenter Multinational Diagnostic Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Coronary MDCT angiography has been shown to be an accurate noninvasive tool for the diagnosis of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Its sensitivity and negative predictive value for diagnosing percentage of stenosis are unsurpassed compared with those of other noninvasive testing methods. However, in its current form, it provides no information regarding the physiologic impact of CAD and is a poor predictor of myocardial ischemia. CORE320 is a multicenter multinational diagnostic study with the primary objective to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 320-MDCT for detecting coronary artery luminal stenosis and corresponding myocardial perfusion deficits in patients with suspected CAD compared with the reference standard of conventional coronary angiography and SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging. CONCLUSION We aim to describe the CT acquisition, reconstruction, and analysis methods of the CORE320 study.

George, Richard T.; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Cerci, Rodrigo J.; Vavere, Andrea L.; Kitagawa, Kakuya; Dewey, Marc; Rochitte, Carlos E.; Arai, Andrew E.; Paul, Narinder; Rybicki, Frank J.; Lardo, Albert C.; Clouse, Melvin E.; Lima, Joao A. C.



Rapid diagnostic tests for molecular surveillance of Plasmodium falciparum malaria -assessment of DNA extraction methods and field applicability  

PubMed Central

Background The need for new malaria surveillance tools and strategies is critical, given improved global malaria control and regional elimination efforts. High quality Plasmodium falciparum DNA can reliably be extracted from malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Together with highly sensitive molecular assays, wide scale collection of used RDTs may serve as a modern tool for improved malaria case detection and drug resistance surveillance. However, comparative studies of DNA extraction efficiency from RDTs and the field applicability are lacking. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate different methods of DNA extraction from RDTs and to test the field applicability for the purpose of molecular epidemiological investigations. Methods DNA was extracted from two RDT devices (Paracheck-Pf® and SD Bioline Malaria Pf/Pan®), seeded in vitro with 10-fold dilutions of cultured 3D7 P. falciparum parasites diluted in malaria negative whole blood. The level of P. falciparum detection was determined for each extraction method and RDT device with multiple nested-PCR and real-time PCR assays. The field applicability was tested on 855 paired RDT (Paracheck-Pf) and filter paper (Whatman® 3MM) blood samples (734 RDT negative and 121 RDT positive samples) collected from febrile patients in Zanzibar 2010. RDT positive samples were genotyped at four key single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pfmdr1 and pfcrt as well as for pfmdr1 copy number, all associated with anti-malarial drug resistance. Results The P. falciparum DNA detection limit varied with RDT device and extraction method. Chelex-100 extraction performed best for all extraction matrixes. There was no statistically significant difference in PCR detection rates in DNA extracted from RDTs and filter paper field samples. Similarly there were no significant differences in the PCR success rates and genotyping outcomes for the respective SNPs in the 121 RDT positive samples. Conclusions The results support RDTs as a valuable source of parasite DNA and provide evidence for RDT-DNA extraction for improved malaria case detection, molecular drug resistance surveillance, and RDT quality control.



Highly variable use of diagnostic methods for sexually transmitted infections-results of a nationwide survey, Germany 2005  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual transmitted infections (STIs) have increased in Germany and other countries in Europe since the mid-nineties. To obtain a better picture of diagnostic methods used in STI testing institutions in Germany, we performed a nationwide survey amongst STI specialists in order to evaluate the quality of STI reports and provide recommendations to harmonize and possibly improve STI diagnostics in Germany. Methods We asked sentinel physicians and randomly chosen gynaecologists, urologists and dermato-venerologists, about the diagnostic methods used in 2005 to diagnose HIV, chlamydia (CT), gonorrhoea (GO) and syphilis (SY) in a national cross-sectional survey in order to recognize potential problems and provide recommendations. Results A total of 739/2287 (32%) physicians participated. Of all participants, 80% offered tests for HIV, 84% for CT, 83% for GO and 83% for SY. Of all participants who performed HIV testing, 90% requested an antibody test, 3% a rapid test and 1% a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). For CT testing, NAAT was used in 33% and rapid tests in 34% of participants. GO resistance testing was performed by 31% of the participants. SY testing was performed in 98% by serology. Conclusions Diagnostic methods for STI vary highly among the participants. Diagnostic guidelines should be reviewed and harmonised to ensure consistent use of the optimal STI diagnostic methods.



The methods of fractal analysis of diagnostic images. initial clinical experience.  


The report describes the application of fractal analysis in complex systems of visual diagnostics in order to expand its diagnostic capabilities by increasing the information content for intelligent decision modeling to reduce subjectivity in the perception and interpretation. PMID:22416374

Bubnov, R V; Melnyk, I M


Comparing historical and modern methods of Sea Surface Temperature measurement - Part 2: Field comparison in the Central Tropical Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discrepancies between historical Sea Surface Temperature (SST) datasets have been partly ascribed to use of different adjustments for variable measurement methods. Until recently adjustments had only been applied to bucket temperatures from the late 19th and early 20th century, with the aim of correcting their supposed coolness relative to engine cooling water intake temperatures (EIT). In the UK Met Office Hadley Centre SST 3 dataset (HadSST3) adjustments are applied to observations over its full duration, including those obtained by other methods. Here we evaluate such adjustments by direct field comparison of historical and modern methods of SST measurement. We compare wood, canvas and rubber bucket temperatures to 3 m seawater intake temperature along a Central Tropical Pacific transect conducted in May and June 2008. In contrast to the prevailing view we find no average differences between bucket temperatures obtained with different bucket types. Moreover, we observe strong near-surface temperature gradients day and night, indicating intake and bucket temperatures cannot be considered equivalent in this region. We suggest engine intake temperatures are unreliable as a source of SST given that they are often obtained by untrained non-scientist observers with low precision, inaccurate instruments at unknown intake depth. Using a physical model we demonstrate that warming of intake seawater by engine room air is unlikely a cause of negative average bucket-intake temperature differences, as sometimes suggested. We propose removal of intake temperatures and bucket adjustments from historical SST records and posit this will lead to their better capture of real long-term trends.

Matthews, J. B. R.; Matthews, J. B.



A simple method to combine multiple molecular biomarkers for dichotomous diagnostic classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In spite of the recognized diagnostic potential of biomarkers, the quest for squelching noise and wringing in information from a given set of biomarkers continues. Here, we suggest a statistical algorithm that - assuming each molecular biomarker to be a diagnostic test - enriches the diagnostic performance of an optimized set of independent biomarkers employing established statistical techniques. We

Manju R. Mamtani; Tushar P. Thakre; Mrunal Y. Kalkonde; Manik A. Amin; Yogeshwar V. Kalkonde; Amit P. Amin; Hemant Kulkarni



Application of diagnostic methods and molecular diagnosis of hemoglobin disorders in Khuzestan province of Iran  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The hemoglobinopathies refer to a diverse group of inherited disorders characterized by a reduced synthesis of one or more globin chains (thalassemias) or the synthesis of structurally abnormal hemoglobin (Hb). The thalassemias often coexist with a variety of structural Hb variants giving rise to complex genotypes and an extremely wide spectrum of clinical and hematological phenotypes. Hematological and biochemical investigations and family studies provide essential clues to the different interactions and are fundamental to DNA diagnostics of the Hb disorders. Although DNA diagnostics have made a major impact on our understanding and detection of the hemoglobinopathies, DNA mutation testing should never be considered a shortcut or the test of first choice in the workup of a hemoglobinopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A careful three-tier approach involving: (1) Full blood count (2) Special hematological tests, followed by (3) DNA mutation analysis, provides the most effective way in which to detect primary gene mutations as well as gene-gene interactions that can influence the overall phenotype. With the exception of a few rare deletions and rearrangements, the molecular lesions causing hemoglobinopathies are all identifiable by PCR-based techniques. Furthermore, each at-risk ethnic group has its own combination of common Hb variants and thalassemia mutations. In Iran, there are many different forms of ? and ? thalassemia. Increasingly, different Hb variants are being detected and their effects per se or in combination with the thalassemias, provide additional diagnostic challenges. RESULTS: We did step-by-step diagnosis workup in 800 patients with hemoglobinopathies who referred to Research center of Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathies in Shafa Hospital of Ahwaz Joundishapour University of medical sciences, respectively. We detected 173 patients as iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and 627 individuals as thalassemic patients by use of different indices. We have successfully detected 75% (472/627) of the ?-thalassemia mutations by using amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) technique and 19% (130/627) of the ?-thalassemia mutations by using Gap-PCR technique and 6% (25/627) as Hb variants by Hb electrophoresis technique. We did prenatal diagnosis (PND) for 176 couples which had background of thalassemia in first pregnancy. Result of PND diagnosis in the first trimester was 35% (62/176) affected fetus with ?-thalassemia major and sickle cell disease that led to termination of the pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Almost all hemoglobinopathies can be detected with the current PCR-based assays with the exception of a few rare deletions. However, the molecular diagnostic service is still under development to try and meet the demands of the population it serves. In the short term, the current generation of instruments such as the capillary electrophoresis systems, has greatly simplified DNA sequence analysis.

Fakher, Rahim; Bijan, Kaeikhaei; Taghi, Akbari Mohammad



Adaptation of an ethnographic method for investigation of the task domain in diagnostic radiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of user-centered methods for designing radiology workstations have been described by researchers at Carleton University (Ottawa), Georgetown University, George Washington University, and University of Arizona, among others. The approach described here differs in that it enriches standard human-factors practices with methods adapted from ethnography to study users (in this case, diagnostic radiologists) as members of a distinct culture. The overall approach combines several methods; the core method, based on ethnographic 'stream of behavior chronicles' and their analysis, has four phases: (1) first, we gather the stream of behavior by videotaping a radiologist as he or she works; (2) we view the tape ourselves and formulate questions and hypothesis about the work; and then (3) in a second videotaped session, we show the radiologist the original tape and ask for a running commentary on the work, into which, at the appropriate points, we interject our questions for clarification. We then (4) categorize/index the behavior on the 'raw data' tapes for various kinds of follow-on analysis. We describe and illustrate this method in detail, describe how we analyze the 'raw data' videotapes and the commentary tapes, and explain how the method can be integrated into an overall user-centered design process based on standard human-factors techniques.

Ramey, Judith A.; Rowberg, Alan H.; Robinson, Carol



Comparison of four diagnostic methods for detecting rabies viruses circulating in Korea.  


It is essential to rapidly and precisely diagnose rabies. In this study, we evaluated four diagnostic methods, indirect fluorescent antibody test (FAT), virus isolation (VI), reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and rapid immunodiagnostic assay (RIDA), to detect rabies in animal brain homogenates. Out of the 110 animal brain samples tested, 20 (18.2%) were positive for rabies according to the FAT. Compared to the FAT, the sensitivities of VI, RT-PCR, and RIDA were 100, 100, and 95%, respectively. The specificities of VI, RT-PCR and RIDA were found to be 100, 100, and 98.9%, respectively. Rabies viruses circulating in Korea were isolated and propagated in murine neuroblastoma (NG108-15) cells with titers ranging from 10(1.5) to 10(4.5) TCID(50)/mL. Although the RIDA findings did not completely coincide with results obtained from FAT, VI, and RT-PCR, RIDA appears to be a fast and reliable assay that can be used to analyze brain samples. In summary, the results from our study showed that VI, RT-PCR, and RIDA can be used as supplementary diagnostic tools for detecting rabies viruses in both laboratory and field settings. PMID:22437535

Yang, Dong-Kun; Shin, Eun-Kyung; Oh, Yoon-I; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lee, Chung-San; Kim, Seo-Young; Lee, Jeong-A; Song, Jae-Young



Improving Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing by Balancing Attribute Coverage: The Modified Maximum Global Discrimination Index Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a new item selection method, namely, the modified maximum global discrimination index (MMGDI) method, for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT). The new method captures two aspects of the appeal of an item: (a) the amount of contribution it can make toward adequate coverage of every attribute and (b) the…

Cheng, Ying



Total synthesis by modern chemical ligation methods and high resolution (1.1 Ĺ) X-ray structure of ribonuclease A  

SciTech Connect

The total chemical synthesis of RNase A using modern chemical ligation methods is described, illustrating the significant advances that have been made in chemical protein synthesis since Gutte and Merrifield's pioneering preparation of RNase A in 1969. The identity of the synthetic product was confirmed through rigorous characterization, including the determination of the X-ray crystal structure to 1.1 Angstrom resolution.

Boerema, David J.; Tereshko, Valentina A.; Kent, Stephen B.H. (UC)



Comparing historical and modern methods of sea surface temperature measurement - Part 2: Field comparison in the central tropical Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discrepancies between historical sea surface temperature (SST) datasets have been partly ascribed to use of different adjustments to account for variable measurement methods. Until recently, adjustments had only been applied to bucket temperatures from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with the aim of correcting their supposed coolness relative to engine cooling water intake temperatures. In the UK Met Office Hadley Centre SST 3 dataset (HadSST3), adjustments have been applied over its full duration to observations from buckets, buoys and engine intakes. Here we investigate uncertainties in the accuracy of such adjustments by direct field comparison of historical and modern methods of shipboard SST measurement. We compare wood, canvas and rubber bucket temperatures to 3 m seawater intake temperature along a central tropical Pacific transect conducted in May and June 2008. We find no average difference between the temperatures obtained with the different bucket types in our short measurement period (∼1 min). Previous field, lab and model experiments have found sizeable temperature change of seawater samples in buckets of smaller volume under longer exposure times. We do, however, report the presence of strong near-surface temperature gradients day and night, indicating that intake and bucket measurements cannot be assumed equivalent in this region. We thus suggest bucket and buoy measurements be considered distinct from intake measurements due to differences in sampling depth. As such, we argue for exclusion of intake temperatures from historical SST datasets and suggest this would likely reduce the need for poorly field-tested bucket adjustments. We also call for improvement in the general quality of intake temperatures from Voluntary Observing Ships. Using a physical model we demonstrate that warming of intake seawater by hot engine room air is an unlikely cause of overly warm intake temperatures. We suggest that reliable correction for such warm errors is not possible since they are largely of unknown origin and can be offset by real near-surface temperature gradients.

Matthews, J. B. R.; Matthews, J. B.



Development of an HPTLC-based diagnostic method for invasive aspergillosis.  


A rapid, sensitive and specific high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for determination of gliotoxin in Aspergillus infected immunocompromised patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA). Densitometric analysis of gliotoxin was carried out in the absorbance mode at 254 nm after single-step extraction with chloroform. The method uses TLC aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F-254 as a stationary phase and toluene-isoamyl alcohol-methanol (10:0.5:0.5, v/v/v) as mobile phase, which gives compact spot of gliotoxin (R(f) = 0.51). The calibration curve was linear (r(2) > or = 0.994) between peak area and concentration in the tested range of 100-1000 ng spot(-1) with minimum detectable range 0.025 ng mu(-1) of serum sample. The mean +/- SD value of slope and intercept of the standard chromatogram of gliotoxin were found to be 523.2 +/- 1.555635 and 915.8 +/- 30.68843, respectively. The developed method is simple, rapid, precise and less costly than earlier diagnostic methods, and different serum samples can be run on a single TLC plate for comparative analysis. The proposed method can be used to analyze gliotoxin in patient serum for easy, rapid and cost-effective diagnosis of IA. PMID:20033890

Puri, Alka; Ahmad, Ajaz; Panda, Bibhu Prasad



Comparison between Amnisure Placental Alpha Microglobulin-1 Rapid Immunoassay and Standard Diagnostic Methods for Detection of Rupture of Membranes  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of placental alpha microglobulin-1 assay and standard diagnostic methods for detecting rupture of membrane. Study Design. Prospective diagnostic study, between June 2011 to November 2011 at a tertiary centre. Initial evaluation included both the standard diagnostic methods for rupture of membranes and placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay. The actual rupture of membranes was diagnosed on review of the medical records after delivery (absence of membrane or a positive pad chart). Main Outcome Measures. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay and standard diagnostic methods for diagnosis of rupture of membrane. Results. A total of 211 patients were recruited. At initial presentation, 187 patients (88.6%) had ruptured membranes, while 24 patients (11.4%) had intact membranes. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay confirmed rupture of membranes at initial presentation with a sensitivity of 95.7% (179 of 187), specificity of 100% (24 of 24), positive predictive value of 100% (179 of 179), and negative predictive value of 75.0% (24 of 32). By comparison, the conventional standard diagnostic methods had a sensitivity of 78.1% (146 of 187), specificity of 100% (24 of 24), positive predictive value of 100% (146 of 146), and negative predictive value of 36.9% (24 of 65) in diagnosing rupture of membrane. Conclusion. Placental alpha-microglobulin-1 immunoassay is a rapid and accurate method for confirming the diagnosis of rupture of membrane. It was superior to conventional standard diagnostic methods (pooling, nitrazine, and ferning), the nitrazine test alone or fern test alone.

Ng, Beng Kwang; Lim, Pei Shan; Shafiee, Mohamad Nasir; Abdul Ghani, Nur Azurah; Mohamed Ismail, Nor Azlin; Omar, Mohd Hashim; Muhammad Yassin, Muhammad Abdul Jamil



Comparison between Amnisure Placental Alpha Microglobulin-1 Rapid Immunoassay and Standard Diagnostic Methods for Detection of Rupture of Membranes.  


Objective. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of placental alpha microglobulin-1 assay and standard diagnostic methods for detecting rupture of membrane. Study Design. Prospective diagnostic study, between June 2011 to November 2011 at a tertiary centre. Initial evaluation included both the standard diagnostic methods for rupture of membranes and placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay. The actual rupture of membranes was diagnosed on review of the medical records after delivery (absence of membrane or a positive pad chart). Main Outcome Measures. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay and standard diagnostic methods for diagnosis of rupture of membrane. Results. A total of 211 patients were recruited. At initial presentation, 187 patients (88.6%) had ruptured membranes, while 24 patients (11.4%) had intact membranes. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay confirmed rupture of membranes at initial presentation with a sensitivity of 95.7% (179 of 187), specificity of 100% (24 of 24), positive predictive value of 100% (179 of 179), and negative predictive value of 75.0% (24 of 32). By comparison, the conventional standard diagnostic methods had a sensitivity of 78.1% (146 of 187), specificity of 100% (24 of 24), positive predictive value of 100% (146 of 146), and negative predictive value of 36.9% (24 of 65) in diagnosing rupture of membrane. Conclusion. Placental alpha-microglobulin-1 immunoassay is a rapid and accurate method for confirming the diagnosis of rupture of membrane. It was superior to conventional standard diagnostic methods (pooling, nitrazine, and ferning), the nitrazine test alone or fern test alone. PMID:24073412

Ng, Beng Kwang; Lim, Pei Shan; Shafiee, Mohamad Nasir; Abdul Ghani, Nur Azurah; Mohamed Ismail, Nor Azlin; Omar, Mohd Hashim; Muhammad Yassin, Muhammad Abdul Jamil



Improvement of the X-ray radiometric method of lanthanides' diagnostics in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are scarce data on the content of lanthanides in the soils of Russia, which is explained by the difficulties in their identification. The improvement of X-ray radiometric analysis permitted us to analyze a significant group of lanthanides in soils, i.e., La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, and Dy. Methods of diagnostics are developed for different groups of lanthanides. The new procedure permitted achieving high accuracy in the measurement; the limit of the lanthanide identification in soils is equal to 2-5 mg/kg. The new procedure allows revealing the particularities of heavy lanthanides' distribution depending on the lithogenic and anthropogenic factors. The procedure is applicable for revealing the technogenic anomalies of heavy lanthanides and determining their content in soils within positive and weakly negative anomalies.

Savichev, A. T.; Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.



Experience with local rectal cancer excision in light of two recent preoperative diagnostic methods  

SciTech Connect

This study analyzes the usefulness of two diagnostic methods: endorectal echotomography and adenolymphoscintigraphy. Echotomography is an important means for determining the extent of a tumor beyond the rectal wall, whereas lymphoscintigraphy is useful in demonstrating the metastatic locations in lymph nodes. These two modes of evaluation may permit an evaluation of the extent of the tumor and the possible involvement of regional lymph nodes before a surgical operation. Although the case material is limited, the statistical data can lead one to believe that, in the near future, a reasoned choice will be possible between local excision and abdominoperineal resection. The study includes 60 endorectal echotomographies and 26 lymphoscintigraphies (20 with /sup 99m/Tc colloid and six with /sup 201/Tl colloid).

Accarpio, G.; Scopinaro, G.; Claudiani, F.; Davini, D.; Mallarini, G.; Saitta, S.



Modern Supersymmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have spent more than twenty years applying supersymmetry (SUSY) to elementary particle physics and attempting to find an experimental manifestation of this symmetry. Terning's monograph demonstrates the strong influence of SUSY on theoretical elaborations in the field of elementary particles. It gives both an overview of modern supersymmetry in elementary particle physics and calculation techniques.The author, trying to be

Petr P Kulish



Modern Spectroscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents the basic ideas of modern spectroscopy. Both the angular momenta and wave-nature approaches to the determination of energy level patterns for atomic and molecular systems are discussed. The interpretation of spectra, based on atomic and molecular models, is considered. (LC)|

Barrow, Gordon M.



A rapid and precise diagnostic method for detecting the Pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  


ABSTRACT Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, which is a major forest disease in Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, and Portugal. A diagnostic method which is rapid, precise, and simple could greatly help the proper management of this disease. Here, we present a novel detection method using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeting the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA of the nematode. Specificity of the primers and LAMP was confirmed using DNA from various nematode species related to B. xylophilus. Our experimental results suggest that LAMP can detect B. xylophilus faster and with higher sensitivity than the traditional diagnostic method. Moreover, because it does not require expensive equipment or specialized techniques, this LAMP-based diagnostic method has the potential to be used under field conditions. PMID:19900002

Kikuchi, Taisei; Aikawa, Takuya; Oeda, Yuka; Karim, Nurul; Kanzaki, Natsumi



A theoretical investigation of several methods for combining multiple diagnostic assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acquiring multiple images of the same patient (e.g., mediolateral oblique and craniocaudal view mammograms) can, in principle, help improve diagnostic accuracy. We investigated theoretically, in the context of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), four methods of combining multiple computer outputs obtained from multiple images of the same patient: taking the average, the median, the maximum, or the minimum of the individual assessments. We assumed that multiple computer outputs for each patient are equally accurate and that they can be transformed monotonically to the same pair of truth conditional normal distributions. We found that both the average and the median always produce improved area under the ROC curve (AUC) compared to single-view images, and that the average always performs better than the median. Furthermore, the maximum and the minimum can also produce improved AUCs and can outperform the average under certain situations, but in other situations they can produce worse results than single-view images. Moreover, except for the median, each method can be the best-performing method under specific conditions. Finally, as the strength of correlation between image pairs increases, the maximum and the minimum tend to perform the best more often whereas the average is less often the best performer.

Liu, Bei; Metz, Charles E.; Jiang, Yulei



Philanthropy: A Method for Teaching Counselors to Be Social Advocates in the Age of Modern Behavioral Health Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Graduate counseling programs are proficient in training direct service providers but less able to teach the business of sustaining a community agency's services. Modern philanthropy emphasizes social advocacy by investing in change that benefits the local community and respects the diverse cultural experiences of potential clients and…

O'Connell, William; Shupe, Margery



Trends in Modern Subject Analysis with Reference to Text Derivative Indexing and Abstracting Methods: The State of the Art.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper briefly reviews the information explosion of the last thirty years and the various attempts made to organize that information in new ways. Section B offers a brief historic review of modern classification and subject heading theory. Section C r...



A novel method for determining the phase of T-wave alternans: diagnostic and therapeutic implications.  


Background- T-wave alternans (TWA) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, to estimate and suppress TWA effectively, the phase of TWA must be accurately determined. Methods and Results- We developed a method that computes the beat-by-beat integral of the T-wave morphology, over time points within the T-wave with positive alternans. Then, we estimated the signed derivative of the T-wave integral sequence, which allows the classification of each beat to a binary phase index. In animal studies, we found that this method was able to accurately identify the T-wave phase in artificially induced alternans (P<0.0001). The coherence of the phase increased consistently after acute ischemia induction in all body-surface and intracardiac leads (P<0.0001). Also, we developed a phase-resetting detection algorithm that enhances the diagnostic utility of TWA. We further established an algorithm that uses the phase of TWA to deliver appropriate polarity-pacing pulses (all interventions compared with baseline, P<0.0001 for alternans voltage; P<0.0001 for Kscore), to suppress TWA. Finally, we demonstrated that using the phase of TWA we can suppress spontaneous TWA during acute ischemia; 77.6% for alternans voltage (P<0.0001) and 92.5% for Kscore (P<0.0001). Conclusions- We developed a method to quantify the temporal variability of the TWA phase. This method is expected to enhance the utility of TWA in predicting ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death and raises the possibility of using upstream therapies to abort a ventricular tachyarrhythmia before its onset. PMID:23884196

Sayadi, Omid; Merchant, Faisal M; Puppala, Dheeraj; Mela, Theofanie; Singh, Jagmeet P; Heist, E Kevin; Owen, Chris; Armoundas, Antonis A



Modern Interferometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Following Labeyrie’s successful demonstration of stellar interferometry with independent apertures [121], founding the era\\u000a of modern interferometry, there were several projects in the 1980s and 1990s, at the Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur in France\\u000a (Grand Interféromčtre ŕ 2 Télescopes, GI2T) [124, 164], in the US, Mark I - III [214, 215, 213] at Mt. Wilson, California,\\u000a the Palomar Testbed

Andreas Glindemann


Tate Modern  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yesterday, Queen Elizabeth II officially opened the Tate Modern, Britain's new national museum of modern art housed in a former power station on London's Bankside. Those who weren't invited to the gala opening party last night and can't make it to the official public opening today can still visit the new museum online. In addition to the ordinary visiting information, special exhibitions, and so forth, the site offers a complete overview of the works displayed in each of its four themed groups. Though modern sounding, the four display themes (Landscape/ Matter/ Environment; Still Life/ Object/ Real Life; Nude/ Action/ Body; and History/ Memory/ Society) are actually based on the major genres of art established by the French Academy in the seventeenth century: landscape, still life, the nude, and history painting. Clicking on a section will bring up a list of rooms, each of which links to a short description and list of works. From this list, users can access more information on a particular work (and an image when available) and other pieces by the same artist held at Tate galleries via the Tate Collections Website (see the June 11, 1999 Scout Report).



New Medical Diagnostic Method for Oriental Medicine Using BYY Harmony Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In help of BYY harmony learning for binary independent factor analysis, an automatic oriental medical diagnostic approach\\u000a is proposed. A preliminary experiment has shown a promising result on the diagnostic problem of ’Flaming-up liver fire’ with\\u000a medical data from oriental medical diagnosis.

Jeongyon Shim



Accuracy of Diagnostic Methods and Surveillance Sensitivity for Human Enterovirus, South Korea, 1999-2011  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of enteroviral infection in South Korea during 1999–2011 chronicles nationwide outbreaks and changing detection and subtyping methods used over the 13-year period. Of 14,657 patients whose samples were tested, 4,762 (32.5%) samples were positive for human enterovirus (human EV); as diagnostic methods improved, the rate of positive results increased. A seasonal trend of outbreaks was documented. Genotypes enterovirus 71, echovirus 30, coxsackievirus B5, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B2 were the most common genotypes identified. Accurate test results correlated clinical syndromes to enterovirus genotypes: aseptic meningitis to echovirus 30, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B5; hand, foot and mouth disease to coxsackievirus A16; and hand, foot and mouth disease with neurologic complications to enterovirus 71. There are currently no treatments specific to human EV infections; surveillance of enterovirus infections such as this study provides may assist with evaluating the need to research and develop treatments for infections caused by virulent human EV genotypes.

Hyeon, Ji-Yeon; Hwang, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyejin; Song, Jaehyoung; Ahn, Jeongbae; Kang, Byunghak; Kim, Kisoon; Choi, Wooyoung; Chung, Jae Keun; Kim, Cheon-Hyun; Cho, Kyungsoon; Jee, Youngmee; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Kisang; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kim, Min-Ji



Perspective ground-based method for diagnostics of the lower ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new perspective ground-based method for diagnostics of the ionosphere and atmosphere parameters. The method uses one of the numerous physical phenomena observed in the ionosphere illuminated by high-power radio waves. It is a generation of the artificial periodic irregularities (APIs) in the ionospheric plasma. The APIs were found while studying the effects of ionospheric high-power HF modification. It was established that the APIs are formed by a standing wave that occurs due to interference between the upwardly radiated radio wave and its reflection off the ionosphere. The API studies are based upon observation of the Bragg backscatter of the pulsed probe radio wave from the artificial periodic structure. Bragg backscatter occurs if the spatial period of the irregularities is equal to half a wavelength of the probe signal. The API techniques makes it possible to obtain the following information: the profiles of electron density from the lower D-region up to the maximum of the F-layer; the irregular structure of the ionosphere including split of the regular E-layer, the sporadic layers; the vertical velocities in the D- and E-regions of the ionosphere; the turbulent velocities, turbulent diffusion coefficients and the turbopause altitude; the neutral temperatures and densities at the E-region altitudes; the parameters of the internal gravity waves and their spectral characteristics; the relative concentration of negative oxygen ions in the D-region. Some new results obtained by the API technique are discussed .

Bakhmetieva, N. V.; Grigoriev, G. I.; Tolmacheva, A. V.


Modern NMR Spectroscopy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses direct chemical information that can be obtained from modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, concentrating on the types of problems that can be solved. Shows how selected methods provide information about polymers, bipolymers, biochemistry, small organic molecules, inorganic compounds, and compounds oriented in a magnetic…

Jelinski, Lynn W.



Diagnostic Performance of a Rapid Magnetic Resonance Imaging Method of Measuring Hepatic Steatosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives Hepatic steatosis is associated with an increased risk of developing serious liver disease and other clinical sequelae of the metabolic syndrome. However, visual estimates of steatosis from histological sections of biopsy samples are subjective and reliant on an invasive procedure with associated risks. The aim of this study was to test the ability of a rapid, routinely available, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to diagnose clinically relevant grades of hepatic steatosis in a cohort of patients with diverse liver diseases. Materials and Methods Fifty-nine patients with a range of liver diseases underwent liver biopsy and MRI. Hepatic steatosis was quantified firstly using an opposed-phase, in-phase gradient echo, single breath-hold MRI methodology and secondly, using liver biopsy with visual estimation by a histopathologist and by computer-assisted morphometric image analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the diagnostic performance of the MRI method against the biopsy observations. Results The MRI approach had high sensitivity and specificity at all hepatic steatosis thresholds. Areas under ROC curves were 0.962, 0.993, and 0.972 at thresholds of 5%, 33%, and 66% liver fat, respectively. MRI measurements were strongly associated with visual (r2?=?0.83) and computer-assisted morphometric (r2?=?0.84) estimates of hepatic steatosis from histological specimens. Conclusions This MRI approach, using a conventional, rapid, gradient echo method, has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing liver fat at all grades of steatosis in a cohort with a range of liver diseases.

House, Michael J.; Gan, Eng K.; Adams, Leon A.; Ayonrinde, Oyekoya T.; Bangma, Sander J.; Bhathal, Prithi S.; Olynyk, John K.; St. Pierre, Tim G.



An In Vitro Comparison of Different Diagnostic Methods in Detection of Residual Dentinal Caries  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of different diagnostic methods in detection of residual dentinal caries in excavated cavities. Fifty extracted molar with deep dentinal carious lesions were excavated using a slow-speed handpiece. All cavities were assessed by laser fluorescence(LF) device, electronic caries monitor(ECM), and caries detector dye(CDD) by three independent observers blindly. The measurements were repeated after two weeks. Specimens containing dentin slices 150??m in thickness were prepared for histological analyses. The existence and absence of carious dentin was determined using a lightmicroscope. The average intraobserver accuracy was 1.00 (perfect agreement) for CDD, 0.86 (excellent agreement) for ECM, and 0.50 (good agreement) for LF. The average interobserver accuracy values were 0.92 (excellent agreement), (0.36 marginal agreement) and 0.48 (good agreement), for CDD, ECM, and LF, respectively. The average specificity was 0.60 for CDD, 73% for ECM, and 0.50 for LF. The average sensitivity was 0.55 for CDD, 0.85 for LF, and 0.47 for ECM. The average accuracy values were 0.53, 0.51, and 0.81 for CDD, ECM, and LF, respectively. LF had the greatest sensitivity and accuracy values of any of the methods tested. As a conclusion, LF device is appeared to most reliable method in detection of remain caries in cavity. However, because of its technical sensitivity it may susceptible to variations in measurements. To pay attention to the rule of usage and repeated measurements can minimize such variations in clinical practice. It was concluded that LF is an improvement on the currently available aids for residual caries detection.

Unlu, Nimet; Ermis, Rabia Banu; Sener, Sevgi; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Cetin, Ali Riza



Diagnostic performance of multidetector CT for acute cholangitis: evaluation of a CT scoring method  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the diagnostic performance of multidetector CT (MDCT) for the diagnosis of acute cholangitis using a new scoring method. Methods Of 80 patients with suspected biliary disease who underwent biphasic CT and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography, 39 were diagnosed as having acute cholangitis (Group 1) and 41 patients were classified as suspected biliary disease (Group 2). 100 age-matched patients without evidence of biliary disease were selected randomly as a control group (Group 3). Each patient's axial scan was scored by two independent radiologists for the extent of transient hepatic attenuation difference, the presence of biliary dilatation and identification of a biliary obstructive lesion. The difference in the scores among the three groups was evaluated and the optimal cut-off score for the diagnosis of acute cholangitis was determined. Interobserver agreement was also evaluated. Results The total scores (mean±standard deviation) for Groups 1, 2 and 3 were 7.0±2.0, 4.4±2.4 and 0.9±1.2, respectively, for Reviewer 1 and 7.2±1.8, 4.3 ±2.7 and 0.7±1.1, respectively, for Reviewer 2. Significant differences were found for the subscores and the total scores among the three groups (p<0.001). Using a cut-off score of ?5, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing acute cholangitis were 84.6% and 83.7%, respectively, for Reviewer 1 and 89.7% and 83.7%, respectively, for Reviewer 2. Agreement for the subscores between readers was good to excellent (?=0.74–0.86). Conclusion Based on dynamic MDCT and the described CT scoring method, the diagnosis of acute choangitis can be made with high sensitivity and specificity.

Kim, S W; Shin, H C; Kim, H C; Hong, M J; Kim, I Y



A method for the production of composite scintillators for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology.  


Plastic scintillators are used in the dosimetry of photons in radiotherapy. Their use in diagnostic radiology is affected by the drop in response at lower photon energies due to inadequate composition (effective atomic number) and chemical quenching. To compensate for this deficiency, a method for the production of composite polystyrene-based plastic scintillators was devised allowing the incorporation of inorganic scintillation powder. Disks of 10 mm diameter and 1 mm thickness optimized for a flat energy response referred to kerma in air were produced using CaWO(4), ZnS:Ag and CaF(2):Eu as additives. In an HVL range of 2.26-13.69 mmAl, the response was within an interval of +/-2.8% for CaF(2):Eu as additive, +/-3.2% for CaWO(4) and +/-10.9% for ZnS:Ag, respectively. The response of a commercial plastic scintillator (BC470) stays within +/-13.6%. The temperature dependence of the composite scintillator using CaF(2):Eu is lowest with a variation of +3.7% to -3.6% in an interval from 5 degrees C to 45 degrees C. The deficiency in photon absorption at lower energies due to the effective atomic number is reduced but not fully compensated by the additive scintillators. The optimized concentrations were established for the scintillator dimensions used. PMID:19218738

Nowotny, R; Taubeck, A



Diagnostic Microbiologic Methods in the GEMS-1 Case/Control Study  

PubMed Central

To understand the etiology of moderate-to-severe diarrhea among children in high mortality areas of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, we performed a comprehensive case/control study of children aged <5 years at 7 sites. Each site employed an identical case/control study design and each utilized a uniform comprehensive set of microbiological assays to identify the likely bacterial, viral and protozoal etiologies. The selected assays effected a balanced consideration of cost, robustness and performance, and all assays were performed at the study sites. Identification of bacterial pathogens employed streamlined conventional bacteriologic biochemical and serological algorithms. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli were identified by application of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for enterotoxigenic, enteroaggregative, and enteropathogenic E. coli. Rotavirus, adenovirus, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia enterica, and Cryptosporidium species were detected by commercially available enzyme immunoassays on stool samples. Samples positive for adenovirus were further evaluated for adenovirus serotypes 40 and 41. We developed a novel multiplex assay to detect norovirus (types 1 and 2), astrovirus, and sapovirus. The portfolio of diagnostic assays used in the GEMS study can be broadly applied in developing countries seeking robust cost-effective methods for enteric pathogen detection.

Panchalingam, Sandra; Antonio, Martin; Hossain, Anowar; Mandomando, Inacio; Ochieng, Ben; Oundo, Joseph; Ramamurthy, T.; Tamboura, Boubou; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Petri, William; Houpt, Eric; Murray, Patrick; Prado, Valeria; Vidal, Roberto; Steele, Duncan; Strockbine, Nancy; Sansonetti, Philippe; Glass, Roger I.; Robins-Browne, Roy M.; Tauschek, Marija; Svennerholm, Ann-Marie; Kotloff, Karen; Levine, Myron M.; Nataro, James P.



Assays for membrane tyrosine kinase receptors: methods for high-throughput screening and utility for diagnostics.  


The development of novel antagonists or agonists of membrane tyrosine kinase receptors is a large focus of discovery research. This review will provide some background on membrane tyrosine kinases as well as a description of some of the better established assays used for the high-throughput screening of membrane tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Biochemical methods detailed include those using labels such as radioactivity and fluorescence (fluorescence energy transfer, fluorescence and fluorescence polarization) as well as label-free assays using luminescence. These assays are solid phase, liquid phase, as well as bead based. In addition, a discussion on which tools are available to screen for membrane tyrosine kinase receptor modulators/activators using whole-cell assays will be presented. The potential clinical need for testing receptor activation/phosphorylation as well as the possibility of using some of these tests to measure biomarkers of disease or as clinical diagnostic tools to tailor drug therapy or monitor its efficacy will also be discussed. PMID:16013974

Minor, Lisa K



A Convenient Method of Calibrating Relative Sensitivity of Multi-Channel Thomson Scattering Diagnostic System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LHD is equipped with a 200-channel Thomson scattering diagnostic, which can yield electron temperature Te and density ne profiles along the major radius passing the magnetic axis. Though the Te profiles are of fairly good quality, the ne profiles are far from satisfactory due to incomplete sensitivity calibration of each polychromator. In order to elaborate this issue more efficiently, we are developing a versatile method of calibration: To simulate light coming from the scattering volumes in a plasma and passing the view window, we used light diffusively reflected from a BaSO4-coated plate set on the surface of the viewing window in the airside, which is illuminated by 10 ns pulse light from an OPO with wavelength scanned between 600-1060 nm. Combining the scattering length and the solid angle for each spatial-channel with the polychromator-sensitivity thus obtained, we can obtain the coefficients necessary for deducing ne profile. We will examine the ne profiles at the position where the structures are observed on Te profiles.

Narihara, Kazumichi



Diagnostic microbiologic methods in the GEMS-1 case/control study.  


To understand the etiology of moderate-to-severe diarrhea among children in high mortality areas of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, we performed a comprehensive case/control study of children aged <5 years at 7 sites. Each site employed an identical case/control study design and each utilized a uniform comprehensive set of microbiological assays to identify the likely bacterial, viral and protozoal etiologies. The selected assays effected a balanced consideration of cost, robustness and performance, and all assays were performed at the study sites. Identification of bacterial pathogens employed streamlined conventional bacteriologic biochemical and serological algorithms. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli were identified by application of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for enterotoxigenic, enteroaggregative, and enteropathogenic E. coli. Rotavirus, adenovirus, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia enterica, and Cryptosporidium species were detected by commercially available enzyme immunoassays on stool samples. Samples positive for adenovirus were further evaluated for adenovirus serotypes 40 and 41. We developed a novel multiplex assay to detect norovirus (types 1 and 2), astrovirus, and sapovirus. The portfolio of diagnostic assays used in the GEMS study can be broadly applied in developing countries seeking robust cost-effective methods for enteric pathogen detection. PMID:23169941

Panchalingam, Sandra; Antonio, Martin; Hossain, Anowar; Mandomando, Inacio; Ochieng, Ben; Oundo, Joseph; Ramamurthy, T; Tamboura, Boubou; Zaidi, Anita K M; Petri, William; Houpt, Eric; Murray, Patrick; Prado, Valeria; Vidal, Roberto; Steele, Duncan; Strockbine, Nancy; Sansonetti, Philippe; Glass, Roger I; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Tauschek, Marija; Svennerholm, Ann-Marie; Berkeley, Lynette Y; Kotloff, Karen; Levine, Myron M; Nataro, James P



A Comparison of US and Korean Students' Mathematics Skills Using a Cognitive Diagnostic Testing Method: Linkage to Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of the present study were (a) to compare US and Korean 8th graders' mastery of knowledge and skills in the mathematics test of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 using a cognitive diagnostic testing method and (b) to find links between teachers' instruction and students' mastery of mathematics…

Im, Seongah; Park, Hye Jin



Development of Monitoring and Diagnostic Methods for Robots Used In Remediation of Waste Sites - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This project is the first evaluation of model-based diagnostics to hydraulic robot systems. A greater understanding of fault detection for hydraulic robots has been gained, and a new theoretical fault detection model developed and evaluated.

Martin, M.



Roadmap of Risk Diagnostic Methods: Developing an Integrated View of Risk Identification and Analysis Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical note illustrates the concept and value of the Risk Diagnostic Roadmap (RDR), which is envisioned to be a comprehensive reference tool for risk identification and analysis (RI AND A) techniques. Program Managers (PMs) responsible for develop...

R. Williams K. Ambrose L. Bentrem



Acute respiratory infection due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae : current status of diagnostic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the absence of well-standardized both in-house and FDA-approved commercially available diagnostic tests, the reliable\\u000a diagnosis of respiratory infection due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae remains difficult. In addition, no formal external quality assessment schemes which would allow to conclude about the performance\\u000a of M. pneumoniae diagnostic tests exist. In this review, the current state of knowledge of M. pneumoniae-associated respiratory

K. Loens; H. Goossens; M. Ieven



International Energy Agency building energy simulation test (BESTEST) and diagnostic method  

SciTech Connect

This is a report on the Building Energy Simulation Test (BESTEST) project conducted by the Model Evaluation and Improvement International Energy Agency (IEA) Experts Group. The group was composed of experts from the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) Programme, Task 12 Subtask B, and the Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems (BCS) Programme, Annex 21 Subtask C. Recognizing that the needs for model evaluation were similar in both IEA programmes, the combined Experts Group was approved by the Executive Committees in 1990. This is the first joint group organized by the respective IEA Executive Committees, and it has resulted in significant cost savings for all participating countries. The objective of this subtask has been to develop practical implementation procedures and data for an overall IEA validation methodology which has been under development by NREL since 1981, with refinements contributed by the United Kingdom. The methodology consists of a combination of empirical validation, analytical verification, and comparative analysis techniques. This report documents a comparative testing and diagnostic procedure for thermal models related to the architectural fabric of the building. Other projects (reported elsewhere) conducted by this group include work on empirical validation, analytical verification, and comparative test cases for commercial buildings. In the BESTEST project, a method was developed for systematically testing whole-building energy simulation programs and diagnosing the sources of predictive disagreement. Field trials of the method were conducted with a number of {open_quotes}reference{close_quotes} programs selected by the participants to represent the best state-of-the-art detailed simulation capability available in the United States and Europe. These included BLAST, DOE2, ESP, SERIRES, S3PAS, TASE, and TRNSYS.

Judkoff, R.; Neymark, J.



Modern optical diagnostics in engine research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different optical diagnistic techniques are used to gain insight into the single steps forming the functioning chain of the engine combustion process and the complex interplay between these single steps. Examples are given for the application of Mie scattering, laser-induced fluorescence, Raman scattering, CARS and laser-induced incandescence to study diesel engine, SI engine and HCCI combustion processes. The careful adaptation of each optical tool to one part of the engine process makes it possible to get valuable information with minimum change of the process investigated. The paper demonstrates that in addition to conventional engine measurement techniques, a number of different optical techniques must be applied -- and sometimes simultaneously -- to successfully determine the critical parameters of the processes and to investigate their influences on the performance and the quality of real engine combustion.

Leipertz, A.; Wensing, M.



[Modern wound dressings for the therapy of chronic wounds].  


The incidence of chronic wounds is increasing in developed Western countries. There are many causes for chronic or non-healing wounds. A multidisciplinary diagnostic approach and attention to underlying disorders are essential. A modern, moist, and phase adapted wound therapy is also essential. Modern wound dressings include activated charcoal, alginates, hyaluronic acid, hydrofibers, hydrogels, hydrocolloids, impregnated gauze, collagen, moist methods, proteolytic enzymes, foams, semipermeable membranes and silver dressings. Because of the lack of comparative investigations the phase-adapted use of wound dressings is still empiric. Application of modern wound dressings may help to create an optimized wound milieu and accelerate healing. Treatment of the underlying causes is an absolute requirement for long-term complete healing. PMID:16317552

Dissemond, J



Modern Baking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Baking is an art, a science, and a field that many people (especially young students) wish to learn more about. Visitors to this site can learn about the hands-on details of baking, along with gaining insights into business trends within the baking world. Modern Baking contains classified ads for those bakers looking to pick up some new equipment (or a new job), and a section of up-to-date industry news as well. The content is divided into eight sections: Formulas & Techniques, Cake Decorating, Supermarket Baking, Retail Baking, Specialty Wholesale Baking, Foodservice Baking, Bread & Pastry, and Bakery Management. Visitors would do well to try the formula in the Formulas & Techniques section for chestnut and cognac brioche, as it brings together two flavors that are truly divine.



Methods of analysis: Diagnostic interpretation of results from analyses of used motor oils  

SciTech Connect

Oil operating in an internal combustion engine is a carrier of information on the thermodynamic, chemical, and tribological processes taking place in the cylinders and also in the lubricating system. Changes in mechanical condition of diesel engine components during operation, as well as operating difficulties, are reflected to a great degree in the physico-chemical characteristics of the engine oil. The work reported here was aimed at a diagnostic interpretation of the parameters of an engine oil in service, and at the development of information complexes for the creation of an expert system of technical diagnostics of shipboard internal engines.

Pevzner, L.A.; Rozenberg, G.Sh.; Spirova, V.N.



Two-Step Robust Diagnostic Method for Identification of Multiple High Leverage Points  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: High leverage points are extreme outliers in the X- direction. In regression analysis, the detection of these leverag e points becomes important due to their arbitrary large effects on the estimations as well as multico llinearity problems. Mahalanobis Distance (MD) has been used as a diagnostic tool for identification o f outliers in multivariate analysis where it finds

Arezoo Bagheri; Habshah Midi; A. H. M. Rahmatullah Imon



Nucleic acid probes as a diagnostic method for tickborne hemoparasites of veterinary importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increased number of articles on the use of nucleic acid-based hybridization techniques for diagnostic purposes have been recently published. This article reviews nucleic acid-based hybridization as an assay to detect hemoparasite infections of economic relevance in veterinary medicine. By using recombinant DNA techniques, selected clones containing inserts of Anaplasma, Babesia, Cowdria or Theileria genomic DNA sequences have been obtained,

J. V. Figueroa; G. M. Buening



Statistical analysis and interpretation of prenatal diagnostic imaging studies, Part 2: descriptive and inferential statistical methods.  


The objective of this article is to discuss the rationale for common statistical tests used for the analysis and interpretation of prenatal diagnostic imaging studies. Examples from the literature are used to illustrate descriptive and inferential statistics. The uses and limitations of linear and logistic regression analyses are discussed in detail. PMID:21795489

Tuuli, Methodius G; Odibo, Anthony O



Multi-Method Analysis of MRI Images in Early Diagnostics of Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming more and more emphasized in the early diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to assess the improvement in classification accuracy that can be achieved by combining features from different structural MRI analysis techniques. Automatically estimated MR features used are hippocampal volume, tensor-based morphometry, cortical thickness and a

Robin Wolz; Valtteri Julkunen; Juha Koikkalainen; Eini Niskanen; Dong Ping Zhang; Daniel Rueckert; Hilkka Soininen; Jyrki Lötjönen; Celia Oreja-Guevara



Perinatal deaths and lymphatic system involvement: a diagnostic flow-chart applying immunohistochemical methods.  


A diagnostic flow chart is presented for use in case of perinatal death or still birth with non-immune hydrops fetalis, visceral effusions, or increased nuchal translucency. Immunohistochemical staining with CD-31, CD-34, D2-40, and smooth muscle actin is recommended. PMID:22165583

Bellini, C; Rutigliani, M; Boccardo, F; Campisi, C; Fulcheri, E; Bellini, T; Bonioli, E



Towards a rapid molecular diagnostic for melioidosis: Comparison of DNA extraction methods from clinical specimens.  


Optimising DNA extraction from clinical samples for Burkholderia pseudomallei Type III secretion system real-time PCR in suspected melioidosis patients confirmed that urine and sputum are useful diagnostic samples. Direct testing on blood remains problematic; testing DNA extracted from plasma was superior to DNA from whole blood or buffy coat. PMID:22108495

Richardson, Leisha J; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mayo, Mark; Bowers, Jolene R; Tuanyok, Apichai; Schupp, Jim; Engelthaler, David; Wagner, David M; Keim, Paul S; Currie, Bart J



Two-frequency method of the ionospheric diagnostics by API technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new way of the investigation of the electron density in the ionospheric E-region, turbulent events and sporadic E-layers using the artificial periodic irregularities (API). API are created in the field of the power standing wave formed by the interference of the incident wave and reflected one by the ionosphere. The spatial period of the irregular periodic structure is equal to the standing wavelength ? or the one-half of the power wavelength ?/2. Physical process dominating on the E-region heights and specifying API decay (relaxation) after the pumping turning off is the ambipolar diffusion process. The API method of the ionosphere diagnostics is connected with an observation of Bragg scattered signals (probe waves) from the artificial periodic structure of the ionospheric plasma on the API relaxation stage (V.V. Belikovich, E.A. Benediktov, N.V. Bakhmet'eva, A.V. Tolmacheva, Ionospheric Research by Means of Artificial Periodic Irregularities, Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany, Copernicus GmbH, 2002, pp. 1-160). The new two-frequency method is based upon the scattering of probe waves from API formed by the power radiation at two frequencies and having therefore different spatial periods. In this case the API relaxation time depends on both ambipolar diffusion rate D and spatial scale of the irregular structure ?. Measuring the ratio of the relaxation time of scattered signals on two frequencies one can determine the height profile of the electron density N(h) and its fine structure. Mathematical simulation made for two frequencies 4.7 and 5.6 MHz shown that electron density in the range of values (2 · 104 -1.8 · 105 ) cm-3 can be defined. The two-frequency API technique has been applied to N(h)-profile measurement in 2006, 2007 using the SURA heating facility (56.13 N, 46.15 E). The API formation and their sounding by probe radio waves of X-polarization were carried out by rotation at frequency of 4.7 MHz and 5.6 MHz. The effective radiated power was about 70 MW at the first frequency and 15 MW at the second one. The session of the measurement of the API relaxation time at each frequency was continued 15 s. During one minute two session of the pumping at each frequency were carried out. During the first 3 s of the session ionosphere was pumped by X-polarized powerful radio wave and API were formed. The pumping period was followed by 12-s pause. Probing pulses with 30-µc duration and a 50 Hz repetition rate were radiated at the same frequency. The amplitude and phase of the scattered signals from the virtual height range 50-750 km were recorded. N(h)-profiles in a height range 95-115 km were obtained. It has appeared the method to consider the fine structure of the profile, to determine even the electron density of sporadic E-layers, which are not registered standard ionosonde. The error of the N(z)-profile determination by API two-frequency method should not be exceeded 10%. The work has been supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research Grants No. 05-05-64304 and No 05-05-64111.

Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Belikovich, Vitold V.; Tolmacheva, Ariadna V.


Diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of a simplified low cost method of counting CD4 cells with flow cytometry in Malawi: diagnostic accuracy study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of a simplified low cost method for measuring absolute and percentage CD4 counts with flow cytometry. Design A CD4 counting method (Blantyre count) using a CD4 and CD45 antibody combination with reduced blood and reagent volumes. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by measuring agreement of the index test with two other assays (TruCount and FACSCount). Clinical utility was investigated by comparing CD4 counts with the new assay with WHO clinical staging in patients with HIV. Setting Research laboratories and antiretroviral therapy clinic at a medical school and large government hospital in southern Malawi. Participants Assay comparisons were performed on consecutive blood samples sent for CD4 counting from 129 patients with HIV. Comparison of CD4 count with staging was conducted on 253 consecutive new patients attending the antiretroviral therapy clinic. Main outcome measures Limits of agreement with 95% confidence intervals between index test and reference standards. Results The limits of agreement for Blantyre count and TruCount were excellent (cell count ?48.9 to 27.0 ×109/l for absolute counts in the CD4 range <400×109/l and ?2.42% to 2.37% for CD4 percentage). The assay was affordable with reagent costs per test of $0.44 (Ł0.22, €0.33) for both absolute count and CD4 percentage, and $0.11 for CD4 percentage alone. Of 193 patients with clinical stage I or II disease, who were ineligible for antiretroviral therapy by clinical staging criteria, 73 (38%) had CD4 counts <200×109/l. By contrast, 12 (20%) of 60 patients with stage III or IV disease had CD4 counts >350×109/l. Conclusions This simplified method of counting CD4 cells with flow cytometry has good agreement with established commercial assays, is affordable for routine clinical use in Africa, and could improve clinical decision making in patients with HIV.

Liu, Michael K P; White, Sarah A; van Oosterhout, Joep J G; Simukonda, Felanji; Bwanali, Joseph; Moore, Michael J; Zijlstra, Eduard E; Drayson, Mark T; Molyneux, Malcolm E



Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP): a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective diagnostic method for infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an established nucleic acid amplification method offering rapid, accurate,\\u000a and cost-effective diagnosis of infectious diseases. This technology has been developed into commercially available detection\\u000a kits for a variety of pathogens including bacteria and viruses. The current focus on LAMP methodology is as a diagnostic system\\u000a to be employed in resource-limited laboratories in developing countries, where

Yasuyoshi Mori; Tsugunori Notomi



Cost-effectiveness of malaria diagnostic methods in sub-Saharan Africa in an era of combination therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the relative cost-effectiveness in different sub-Saharan African settings of presumptive treatment, field-standard microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to diagnose malaria. Methods We used a decision tree model and probabilistic sensitivity analysis applied to outpatients presenting at rural health facilities with suspected malaria. Costs and effects encompassed those for both patients positive on RDT (assuming artemisinin-based combination

Catherine Goodman; Chantal Morel; Paul Coleman; David Bell; A Mills



The Diagnostic Accuracy of Serologic and Molecular Methods for Detecting Visceral Leishmaniasis in HIV Infected Patients: Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHuman visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a potentially fatal disease, has emerged as an important opportunistic condition in HIV infected patients. In immunocompromised patients, serological investigation is considered not an accurate diagnostic method for VL diagnosis and molecular techniques seem especially promising.ObjectiveThis work is a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the accuracy of serologic and molecular tests for VL diagnosis

Gláucia Fernandes Cota; Marcos Roberto de Sousa; Fábio Nogueira Demarqui; Ana Rabello



A method to diagnose opioid dependence resulting from heroin versus prescription opioids using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview  

PubMed Central

Treatment research with opioid-dependent populations has not traditionally distinguished between those dependent on prescription opioids versus dependent upon heroin. Evidence suggests there is a substantial subpopulation of individuals with opioid dependence resulting largely or exclusively from prescription opioid use. Because this subpopulation may respond to treatment differently from heroin users, a method for discriminating DSM-IV opioid dependence due to prescription opioid use would provide more precision when examining this population. This paper describes an innovative method using a currently available diagnostic instrument, to diagnose DSM-IV opioid dependence and distinguish between dependence resulting from prescription opioids versus dependence upon heroin.

Potter, Jennifer S.; Prather, Kristi; Kropp, Frankie; Byrne, Mimmie; Sullivan, C. Rollynn; Mohamedi, Nadia; Copersino, Marc L.; Weiss, Roger D.



[The statement of Polish Society's Experts Group concerning diagnostics and methods of endometriosis treatment].  


Endometriosis is defined by endometrial glands and stroma outside of the endometrial cavity Three types of endometriosis have been described: peritoneal endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis and deep infiltrating endometriosis. Endometriosis afflicts 6-15% of women population. It occurs mainly in the group of women in reproductive age, but also in the group of minors and approximately 3% of women after menopause. Within the group of women suffering from infertility the frequency of endometriosis increased to 35-50% of cases. Endometriosis is associated with pain symptoms which can bear the character of pain occurring periodically and altering into constant pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, dysuria and dyschezia. The correlation between the stage of endometriosis and intensity of pain symptoms not always has to be proportionate. Laparoscopy can be perceived as a standard procedure in endometriosis diagnostics as it allows simultaneous treatment. Profound interview as well as visual diagnostics (USG, MRI) should precede laparoscopy Treatment of endometriosis can be divided into pharmacological and surgical treatment, which can be invasive or non-invasive. The type of treatment depends on patient's age and her procreation plans, occurring ailments and endometriosis type. Important role is played by adjuvant treatment such as appropriate diet and lifestyle. Treatment of advanced endometriosis should be conducted in reference centres that are appointed with adequate equipment and have the possibility of interdisciplinary treatment. Presented standards can digest and outline the order of proceedings both in diagnostics and endometriosis treatment. The research group believes that the above compilation will facilitate undertaking appropriate decision in diagnosis and treatment of the disease, which will subsequently contribute to therapeutic success. PMID:23379199

Basta, Antoni; Brucka, Aleksandra; Górski, Jaros?aw; Kotarski, Jan; Kulig, Bartosz; Oszukowski, Przemys?aw; Poreba, Ryszard; Radowicki, Stanis?aw; Radwan, Jerzy; Sikora, Jerzy; Skret, Andrzej; Skrzypczak, Jana; Szy??o, Krzysztof



[Diagnostics of acute adhesive intestinal obstruction by the method of measuring intra-abdominal pressure].  


Questions of diagnostics of acute adhesive intestinal obstruction (AIO) including erased picture of the disease are considered. The data of 120 patients with acute intestinal obstruction are presented in whom the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was investigated in dynamics. The questions of degree of IAP in acute intestinal obstruction of different genesis and with different levels of disturbed patency of the gastro-intestinal tract are discussed. The radiological data are compared with the parameters of IAP in acute intestinal obstruction. The algorithm of strategy of treatment of patients with acute intestinal obstruction based on the size of IAP is proposed. PMID:23227739

Sheianov, S D; Kharitonova, E A; Zukhraeva, Z I



Application Research of Two Real-Time Fault Diagnostic Methods in the Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

In order to guarantee the safety of nuclear power plants (NPP), we built two real-time fault diagnosis systems adopting VISUAL BAS6.0 programming language, which apply neural network technology and data fusion technology respectively. The fault diagnosis systems interchange data with the simulator timely utilizing communication interface. We insert faults on simulator to test the two systems on line. The advantages and disadvantages are illuminated and contrasted through analyzing the faults diagnostic results off- line, which establish the foundation for the further research and application to the fault diagnosis system of the nuclear power plants. (authors)

Chun-Li Xie; Yong-Kuo Liu; Hong Xia [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, HLJ (China)



Evaluation of diagnostic methods for the detection of Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsy specimens of dyspeptic patients  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori infects nearly 50% of the world’s population. This microorganism is accepted as the most important agent of gastritis and as a risk factor for peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. Currently many diagnostic methods exist for detecting H. pylori, however they all have limitations, thus it is recommend a combination of at least two methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic methods, such as in-house urease test, culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), for the detection of the H. pylori in gastric biopsy specimens of 144 dyspeptic patients, using as gold standard the association between histology and rapid urease test. According to the gold standard used in this study, 48 (33.3%) patients were infected with H. pylori, while 96 (66.7%) were classified as not infected. The in-house urease test and the PCR were the most sensitive methods (100%), followed by culture (85.4%). However, the inhouse urease test and the culture were the most specific (100%), followed by PCR (75%). In conclusion, this study showed that, in comparison with the combination of histology and rapid urease test, the in-house urease test and the PCR presented 100% of sensitivity in the diagnosis of gastric infection by H. pylori, while the in-house urease test and the culture reached 100% of specificity. These finding suggest that the combination of two or more methods may improve the accuracy of the H. pylori detection.

Ramis, Ivy Bastos; de Moraes, Ernani Pinho; Fernandes, Marcia Silveira; Mendoza-Sassi, Raul; Rodrigues, Obirajara; Juliano, Carlos Renan Varela; Scaini, Carlos James; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida



Mastitis diagnostics and performance monitoring: a practical approach  

PubMed Central

In this paper a review is given of frequently used mastitis diagnostic methods in modern dairy practice. Methods used at the quarter, cow, herd and regional or national level are discussed, including their usability for performance monitoring in udder health. Future developments, such as systems in which milk-derived parameters are combined with modern analytical techniques, are discussed. It is concluded that, although much knowledge is available and science is still developing and much knowledge is available, it is not always fully exploited in practice.



Use of Expert Panels to Define the Reference Standard in Diagnostic Research: A Systematic Review of Published Methods and Reporting  

PubMed Central

Background In diagnostic studies, a single and error-free test that can be used as the reference (gold) standard often does not exist. One solution is the use of panel diagnosis, i.e., a group of experts who assess the results from multiple tests to reach a final diagnosis in each patient. Although panel diagnosis, also known as consensus or expert diagnosis, is frequently used as the reference standard, guidance on preferred methodology is lacking. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of methods used in panel diagnoses and to provide initial guidance on the use and reporting of panel diagnosis as reference standard. Methods and Findings PubMed was systematically searched for diagnostic studies applying a panel diagnosis as reference standard published up to May 31, 2012. We included diagnostic studies in which the final diagnosis was made by two or more persons based on results from multiple tests. General study characteristics and details of panel methodology were extracted. Eighty-one studies were included, of which most reported on psychiatry (37%) and cardiovascular (21%) diseases. Data extraction was hampered by incomplete reporting; one or more pieces of critical information about panel reference standard methodology was missing in 83% of studies. In most studies (75%), the panel consisted of three or fewer members. Panel members were blinded to the results of the index test results in 31% of studies. Reproducibility of the decision process was assessed in 17 (21%) studies. Reported details on panel constitution, information for diagnosis and methods of decision making varied considerably between studies. Conclusions Methods of panel diagnosis varied substantially across studies and many aspects of the procedure were either unclear or not reported. On the basis of our review, we identified areas for improvement and developed a checklist and flow chart for initial guidance for researchers conducting and reporting of studies involving panel diagnosis. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Bertens, Loes C. M.; Broekhuizen, Berna D. L.; Naaktgeboren, Christiana A.; Rutten, Frans H.; Hoes, Arno W.; van Mourik, Yvonne; Moons, Karel G. M.; Reitsma, Johannes B.



Using the integral spleen method of radiorenogram analysis and a baboon model to compare the diagnostic usefulness of technetium-99m-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid to that of various technetium-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycene formulations and iodine-123-hippuran  

SciTech Connect

In light of the high price of commercially available mercaptoacetyltriglycene (MAG3) it was decided to attempt a local MAG3-formation and to test this against diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), /sup 123/I-Hippuran, and commercial MAG3 for diagnostic radiorenographic capabilities also in conjunction with furosemide and captopril. A baboon model (n = 6) was used, and the parameters evaluated were obtained by the integral spleen method of radiorenogram analysis. Although the images and parameters pointed to /sup 123/I-Hippuran and commercial MAG3 as the ideal renal scanning agents and to DTPA as the least so, with the local product an acceptable alternative, the differences were not significant enough to warrant either the purchase of the commercial product or the extensive development of the local product. Inexpensive /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA in conjunction with modern computer techniques will probably supply most of the answers.

Dormehl, I.C.; Van Wyk, A.; Pilloy, W.; Maree, M.; Knoesen, O.; De Winter, R.; Jacobs, L.; Hoppe, H.C.



Potential Application Of New Diagnostic Methods For Controlling Bovine Tuberculosis In Brazil  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis, a chronic infection in cattle caused by Mycobacterium bovis, remains an economic and public health problem for several countries. Due to its economic impact on international trade, contagious nature, and implications for human health, global programs to eradicate the disease were implemented worldwide. Those programs are based on slaughtering PPD-reactive animals. Despite the National Programs in Brazil, complete eradication has not been achieved, and the disease remains, albeit at a lower prevalence. The central purpose of this review is to address diagnostic tests for tuberculosis. Considering the course of the infection in cattle, at least two tests, ideally complementary to one another, may be necessary for an adequate diagnosis: the first based on the cellular response, and the second capable of identifying anergic animals by detection of specific anti-M.bovis antibodies.

Medeiros, Luciana dos Santos; Marassi, Carla Dray; Figueiredo, Eduardo Eustaquio S.; Lilenbaum, Walter



The value of immunoscintigraphy for the operative retreatment of colorectal cancer. Limitations of a new diagnostic method  

SciTech Connect

In 42 patients with suspected recurrent colorectal cancer, results of conventional diagnostic methods were compared with those of immunoscintigraphy. In 69% of all cases, the intraoperative findings of a second-look operation served for validation, whereas in 31% close follow-up was used. Recurrent tumors were successfully localized in 83% of patients by conventional methods, whereas immunoscintigraphy was expressive in 57% of cases. Immunoscintigraphy was disappointing especially because of its low sensitivity (23%) and low predictive value (positive, 33%; negative, 37%) with regard to successful diagnosis of extrahepatic tumors compared with the results of conventional methods (77% sensitivity; positive, 94%; negative, 79%). The rate of false-positive results was relatively high with immunoscintigraphy (n = 12), 83% of which were related to extrahepatic recurrent tumors. The value of immunoscintigraphy using an immunococktail of 131-I-labeled F(ab')2 fragments of monoclonal antibodies against CEA, with Ca 19-9 as an additional diagnostic tool for early detection of recurrent colorectal cancer, must therefore be viewed critically.

Hoelting, T.S.; Schlag, P.; Steinbaecher, M.K.; Kretzschmar, U.; Georgi, P.; Herfarth, C. (Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.))



Determination of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes by a rapid method useful for the routine diagnostic laboratory.  


The existence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes has many important implications for the global evolution of HIV and for the evaluation of pathogenicity, transmissibility, and candidate HIV vaccines. The aim of this study was to establish a rapid method for determination of HIV-1 subtypes useful for a routine diagnostic laboratory and to investigate the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes in Austrian patients. Samples were tested by a subtyping method based on a 1.3-kb sequence of the polymerase gene generated by a commercially available drug resistance assay. The generated sequence was subtyped by means of an HIV sequence database. Results of 74 routine samples revealed subtype B (71.6%) as the predominant subtype, followed by subtype A (13.5%) and subtype C (6.8%). Subtypes E, F, G, and AE (CM240) were also detected. This subtyping method was found to be very easy to handle, rapid, and inexpensive and has proved suitable for high-throughput routine diagnostic laboratories. The specific polymerase gene sequence, however, must be existent. PMID:11527821

Kessler, H H; Deuretzbacher, D; Stelzl, E; Daghofer, E; Santner, B I; Marth, E



[The nasal valve. Part II. The modern methods for the conservative and surgical treatment of its pathology].  


This literature review is focused on the methods for surgical correction of the nasal valve. Various surgical techniques are critically examined with reference to their application depending on the peculiar anatomical features of the nasal valve and mechanisms underlying its disorders. Conflicting opinions about the approaches to the correction of nasal valve insufficiency dictate the necessity of further search for the new methods for this purpose taking account of the peculiarities of the patients' clinical conditions and topographic level of the disorder. PMID:22833882

Rusetski?, Iu Iu; Lopatin, A S; Sobolev, V P



[The ethiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics and clinical features of the complicated posttraumatic rectal fistulae].  


The ethiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, clinical features and the capabilities of modern instrumental methods in the diagnosis of 134 patients with posttraumatic rectal fistulaes. The main causes of the rectal fistulae formation was the mechanism of the forecoming trauma, late hospital admission and postoperative complications. The use of modern diagnostic facilities allows to know the anatomic features of the fistulae, the presence of the septic cavities of the pararectal tissue, the involvement of sphincter muscles to the inflammatory process and their functional state. All the listed above facilitate the efficacy of the surgical treatment. PMID:22951612

Mamedov, N I



Approaches to modernization of the state soil map of Russia on the basis of the methods of digital soil mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ways of further development of the State Soil Map (SSM) of the Russian Federation are discussed. This map represents the\\u000a most valuable product of soil mapping projects in Russia. It has been developed since the 1930s. A long duration of the map\\u000a compilation has resulted in certain differences in the methods of mapping, topographic base, and classification decisions\\u000a applied

T. V. Korolyuk; S. V. Ovechkin



Validation of a Diagnostic PCR Method for Routine Analysis of Salmonella spp. in Animal Feed Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of a validation study, a comparative study of a PCR method and the standard culture-based method NMKL-71, for detection\\u000a of Salmonella, was performed according to the validation protocol from the Nordic validation organ for validation of alternative microbiological\\u000a methods (NordVal) on 250 artificially or naturally contaminated animal feed samples. The PCR method is based on culture enrichment

Charlotta Löfström; Charlotta Engdahl Axelsson; Peter Rĺdström



Multi-Functional Diagnostic Method with Tracer-Encapsulated Pellet Injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to obtain a better understanding of impurity transport in magnetically confined plasmas, a Tracer-Encapsulated Soild PELlet (TESPEL) has been developed. The essential points of the TESPEL are as follows: the TESPEL has a double-layered structure, and a tracer impurity, the amount of which can be known precisely, is embedded as an inner core. This structure enables us to deposit the tracer impurity locally inside the plasma. From experiences of developing the TESPEL production technique and its injection experiments, it became clear that various plasma properties can be studied by the TESPEL injection. There are not only impurity transport in the plasma but also transport both outside and inside of the magnetic island O-point, heat transport and high-energy neutral particle flux. Therefore, the TESPEL injection has a favorable multi-functional diagnostic capability. Furthermore a Tracer-Encapsulated Cryogenic PELlet (TECPEL) has been also developed. The TECPEL has an advantage over the TESPEL in terms of no existence of carbons in the outer layer. The TECPEL injector was installed at LHD in December 2005, and the preliminary injection experiments have been carried out.

Sudo, Shigeru; Tamura, Naoki; Kalinina, Diana; Vinyar, Igor; Sato, Kuninori; Veshchev, Evgeny; Goncharov, Pavel; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Inagaki, Shigeru; Funaba, Hisamichi; Mutoh, Sadatsugu; Igitkhanov, Yuri; Yi, Liu; Peterson, Byron; Stutman, Dan; Finkenthal, Michael; LHD Experimental Group


Multi-method analysis of MRI images in early diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease.  


The role of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming more and more emphasized in the early diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to assess the improvement in classification accuracy that can be achieved by combining features from different structural MRI analysis techniques. Automatically estimated MR features used are hippocampal volume, tensor-based morphometry, cortical thickness and a novel technique based on manifold learning. Baseline MRIs acquired from all 834 subjects (231 healthy controls (HC), 238 stable mild cognitive impairment (S-MCI), 167 MCI to AD progressors (P-MCI), 198 AD) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database were used for evaluation. We compared the classification accuracy achieved with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machines (SVM). The best results achieved with individual features are 90% sensitivity and 84% specificity (HC/AD classification), 64%/66% (S-MCI/P-MCI) and 82%/76% (HC/P-MCI) with the LDA classifier. The combination of all features improved these results to 93% sensitivity and 85% specificity (HC/AD), 67%/69% (S-MCI/P-MCI) and 86%/82% (HC/P-MCI). Compared with previously published results in the ADNI database using individual MR-based features, the presented results show that a comprehensive analysis of MRI images combining multiple features improves classification accuracy and predictive power in detecting early AD. The most stable and reliable classification was achieved when combining all available features. PMID:22022397

Wolz, Robin; Julkunen, Valtteri; Koikkalainen, Juha; Niskanen, Eini; Zhang, Dong Ping; Rueckert, Daniel; Soininen, Hilkka; Lötjönen, Jyrki



[New diagnostic methods--ultrasound and clinico-chemical procedures in diagnosis of ischemia].  


Stress-echocardiography represents a new non-invasive, alternative approach in the assessment of patients with coronary artery disease. By means of dynamic or pharmacological stress or by atrial pacing regional wall motion abnormalities can be induced, which can be identified by 2D-echocardiography. Beyond the indirect detection of ischemia this approach allows a better quantification of the amount of ischemia and of global LV function, which is advantageous compared to stress ECG recording or myocardial scintigraphy. Disadvantageous is however, the subjective reading of the echo itself. In experienced hands stress-echocardiography has proven to be as sensitive and specific as myocardial scintigraphy. Recently, in addition the diagnostic potential of myocardial cell injury has been improved by the detection of specific antibodies versus Troponin T. In comparison with conventional biochemical markers of myocardial cell necrosis Troponin T analysis has been proven to be superior in postoperative or traumatic cardiac damage or in the setting of acute myocardial infarction. In this situation the time window is improved by an earlier rise compared to CK and a longer detection rate compared to lactate dehydrogenase. PMID:8154150

Hanrath, P; Hoffmann, R; Lankes, W; Stellbrink, C



The Diagnostic Accuracy of Serologic and Molecular Methods for Detecting Visceral Leishmaniasis in HIV Infected Patients: Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a potentially fatal disease, has emerged as an important opportunistic condition in HIV infected patients. In immunocompromised patients, serological investigation is considered not an accurate diagnostic method for VL diagnosis and molecular techniques seem especially promising. Objective This work is a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the accuracy of serologic and molecular tests for VL diagnosis specifically in HIV-infected patients. Methods Two independent reviewers searched PubMed and LILACS databases. The quality of studies was assessed by QUADAS score. Sensitivity and specificity were pooled separately and compared with overall accuracy measures: diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and symmetric summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC). Results Thirty three studies recruiting 1,489 patients were included. The following tests were evaluated: Immunofluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT), Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting (Blot), direct agglutination test (DAT) and polimerase chain reaction (PCR) in whole blood and bone marrow. Most studies were carried out in Europe. Serological tests varied widely in performance, but with overall limited sensitivity. IFAT had poor sensitivity ranging from 11% to 82%. DOR (95% confidence interval) was higher for DAT 36.01 (9.95–130.29) and Blot 27.51 (9.27–81.66) than for IFAT 7.43 (3.08–1791) and ELISA 3.06 (0.71–13.10). PCR in whole blood had the highest DOR: 400.35 (58.47–2741.42). The accuracy of PCR based on Q-point was 0.95; 95%CI 0.92–0.97, which means good overall performance. Conclusion Based mainly on evidence gained by infection with Leishmania infantum chagasi, serological tests should not be used to rule out a diagnosis of VL among the HIV-infected, but a positive test at even low titers has diagnostic value when combined with the clinical case definition. Considering the available evidence, tests based on DNA detection are highly sensitive and may contribute to a diagnostic workup.

Cota, Glaucia Fernandes; de Sousa, Marcos Roberto; Demarqui, Fabio Nogueira; Rabello, Ana



On the understanding and development of modern physical neurorehabilitation methods: robotics and non-invasive brain stimulation  

PubMed Central

The incidence of physical disability in the community resulting from neurological dysfunction is predicted to increase in the coming years. The impetus for immediate and critical evaluation of physical neurorehabilitation strategies stems from the largely incomplete recovery following neurological damage, questionable efficacy of individual rehabilitation techniques, and the progressive acceptance of evidence-based medicine. The emergent technologies of non-invasive brain stimulation (NBS) and rehabilitation robotics enable a better understanding of the recovery process, as well as the mechanisms and effectiveness of intervention. With a more precise grasp of the relationship between dysfunctional and treatment-related plasticity, we can anticipate a move toward highly controlled and individualised prescription of rehabilitation. Both robotics and NBS can also be used to enhance motor control and learning in patients with neurological dysfunction. The merit of these contemporary methods as investigative and rehabilitation tools requires clarification and discussion. In this thematic series, five cohesive and eloquent papers address this issue from leading clinicians and scientists in the fields of robotics, NBS, plasticity and motor learning.

Edwards, Dylan J



A molecular method to assess bioburden embedded within silicon-based resins used on modern spacecraft materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current assessments of bioburden embedded in spacecraft materials are based on work performed in the Viking era (1970s), and the ability to culture organisms extracted from such materials. To circumvent the limitations of such approaches, DNA-based techniques were evaluated alongside established culturing techniques to determine the recovery and survival of bacterial spores encapsulated in spacecraft-qualified polymer materials. Varying concentrations of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores were completely embedded in silicone epoxy. An organic dimethylacetamide-based solvent was used to digest the epoxy and spore recovery was evaluated via gyrB-targeted qPCR, direct agar plating, most probably number analysis, and microscopy. Although full-strength solvent was shown to inhibit the germination and/or outgrowth of spores, dilution in excess of 100-fold allowed recovery with no significant decrease in cultivability. Similarly, qPCR (quantitative PCR) detection sensitivities as low as ~103 CFU ml-1 were achieved upon removal of inhibitory substances associated with the epoxy and/or solvent. These detection and enumeration methods show promise for use in assessing the embedded bioburden of spacecraft hardware.

Stam, Christina N.; Bruckner, James; Spry, J. Andy; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; La Duc, Myron T.



Model-based performance monitoring: Review of diagnostic methods and chiller case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper commences by reviewing the variety of technical approaches to the problem of detecting and diagnosing faulty operation in order to improve the actual performance of buildings. The review covers manual and automated methods, active testing and passive monitoring, the different classes of models used in fault detection, and methods of diagnosis. The process of model-based fault detection is

Philip Haves; Sat Kartar Khalsa



Comparison of modelling methods and of diagnostic of asynchronous motor in case of defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to provide the reader with a comparison base between several methods of modelling and diagnosis of faulted induction machine. In the case of high precision modelling, the paper presents several methods used to simulate the faulted induction machine such as: the extended Park model, the analytical three-phase model, the coupled magnetic circuit model, the

R. Casimir; E. Bouteleux; H. Yahoui; G. Clerc; H. Henao; C. Delmotte; G.-A. Capolino; G. Rostaing; J.-P. Rognon; E. Foulon; L. Loron; H. Razik; G. Didier; G. Houdouin; G. Barakat; B. Dakyo; S. Bachir; S. Tnani; G. Champenois; J.-C. Trigeassou; V. Devanneaux; B. Dagues; J. Faucher



Vertical settling in rheumatoid arthritis. Diagnostic value of the Ranawat and Redlund-Johnell methods.  


The usefulness of the recently developed Ranawat and Redlund-Johnell craniometric methods was compared with that of the conventional McGregor method for diagnosing vertical settling (VS) of the skull and the atlas on the axis in 209 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Statistical analysis of the values obtained from roentgenograms revealed close correlations among the three methods. The first two methods were superior to the McGregor method because the measuring points could be identified on plain roentgenograms of the cervical spine in virtually all cases. The McGregor value could not be determined in 38 (18%) patients. Since medullary compression could be detected by magnetic resonance imaging in all patients who showed abnormal Redlund-Johnell values, the Redlund-Johnell method may be useful for diagnosing advanced VS. It also detects not only atlantoaxial lesions but also atlantooccipital lesions. Thus, the Redlund-Johnell method appears to be the best method for diagnosing VS in RA patients. PMID:2912612

Kawaida, H; Sakou, T; Morizono, Y



Minimally Invasive Biopsy Methods - Diagnostics or Therapy? Personal Opinion and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Summary This article provides an overview of different minimally invasive biopsy (MIB) methods for preoperative assessment of suspicious and indeterminate breast lesions. Accuracy depends on the choice of method and on lesion characteristics. An additional aspect deals with the question whether or not MIB is a suitable therapeutic approach in selected lesions.

Kettritz, Ute



Plasma diagnostics using floating harmonics method and recent results in processing plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a floating harmonics method for processing plasma has been developed [1]. When a sinusoidal voltage is applied on a probe at a floating potential, the current flowing through the probe has many harmonics due to the nonlinearity of sheath. From the harmonic current components, plasma densities and electron temperatures can be found. There are many advantages of this method

Chinwook Chung



Model-based performance monitoring: Review of diagnostic methods and chiller case study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper commences by reviewing the variety of technical approaches to the problem of detecting and diagnosing faulty operation in order to improve the actual performance of buildings. The review covers manual and automated methods, active testing and pa...

P. Haves S. K. Khalsa



Radioimmunoassay of Renin in Human Renal Tissues. Methodic and Diagnostic Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method has been developed to quantitatively determine renin in human kidney tissue. The angiotensin I split off angiotensinogs by renin was radioimmunologically determined. The renin-renin substrate reaction rate followed a saturation kinetics, as it in...

B. Wowra



Method of Implanting Permanent Diagnostic Electrodes in the Corpus Amygdaloideum of the Human Brain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possibility of determining the exact location of human brain structures and development of techniques to reach them rather reliably have resulted in development of a method of implanting long-term intracerebral electrodes, the use of which is necessar...

O. A. Sigua S. A. Chkhenkeli V. G. Gogsadze



A Quantitative Diagnostic Method Based on Bayesian Networks in Traditional Chinese Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is one of the most important complementary and alternative medicines. Due to the subjectivity\\u000a and fuzziness of diagnosis in TCM, quantitative model or methods are needed to facilitate the popularization of TCM. In this\\u000a article, a novel quantitative method for syndrome differentiation based on BNs is proposed. First the symptoms are selected\\u000a by a novel mutual

Huiyan Wang; Jie Wang



A high-throughput diagnostic method for measuring human exposure to organophosphorus nerve agents.  


An automated high-throughput immunomagnetic separation (IMS) method for diagnosing exposure to the organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNAs) sarin (GB), cyclohexylsarin (GF), VX, and Russian VX (RVX) was developed to increase sample processing capacity for emergency response applications. Diagnosis of exposure to OPNAs was based on the formation of OPNA adducts to butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Data reported with this method represent a ratio of the agent-specific BuChE adduct concentration, relative to the total BuChE peptide concentration that provides a nonactivity measurement expressed as percent adducted. All magnetic bead transfer steps and washes were performed using instrumentation in a 96-well format allowing for simultaneous extraction of 86 clinical samples plus reference materials. Automating extractions increased sample throughput 50-fold, as compared to a previously reported manual method. The limits of detection, determined using synthetic peptides, were 1 ng/mL for unadducted BuChE and GB-, GF-, VX-, and RVX-adducted BuChE. The automated method was characterized using unexposed serum and serum pools exposed to GB, GF, VX, or RVX. Variation for the measurement of percent adducted was <12% for all characterized quality control serum pools. Twenty-six (26) serum samples from individuals asymptomatic for cholinesterase inhibitor exposure were analyzed using this method, and no background levels of OPNA exposure were observed. Unexposed BuChE serum concentrations measured using this method ranged from 2.8 ?g/mL to 10.6 ?g/mL, with an average concentration of 6.4 ?g/mL. PMID:23083472

Knaack, Jennifer S; Zhou, Yingtao; Abney, Carter W; Jacob, Justin T; Prezioso, Samantha M; Hardy, Katelyn; Lemire, Sharon W; Thomas, Jerry; Johnson, Rudolph C



Physical diagnosis versus modern technology. A review.  

PubMed Central

The role of physical diagnosis in an age of modern diagnostic technology has been evaluated by investigators assessing specific techniques in a number of areas, though there has been no systematic comprehensive study of the sensitivity, specificity, cost-benefit ratio, and reliability of physical diagnosis relative to technologic diagnostic tools. In a review of published studies comparing physical with nonphysical diagnostic techniques, the startling accuracy of physical diagnosticians in some areas contrasts sharply with the extremely poor correlation of physical findings with autopsy or imaging studies in others. In a time of constricting financial resources, physicians-and those who teach or judge physicians' skills-must begin to compare physical and nonphysical diagnostic techniques rigorously so that the best, safest, and least expensive diagnostic test is chosen in each clinical situation.

Fitzgerald, F. T.



Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) as a method used in spatial localization of digestive tract tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of the paper is devoted to a modern diagnostic method called the endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) that is still not widely implemented in many countries. This method bases on two imaging techniques: videoendoscopy and ultrasonography, making possible effective aiding of diagnostics as well as evaluating possibilities of performing radical surgical therapy. Rotating USG probes enable acquiring images vertical to

Pawel Skrzywanek; Aleksander Sowier; Anna R. Cysewska-Sobusiak



Vibration Arthrography as a Diagnostic Method for Osteoarthritis of the Knee joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique of vibration arthrography (VAG) permits the non-invasive evaluation of internal derangements of the knee. In this method, the delicate sounds emitted from a joint are recorded by a sensitive detector which is placed on a joint, and the resultant signals are depicted by an oscilloscope. The primary objective in this study was to examine the vibration signal patterns

Pooneh Afkari


Radiation dose to children in diagnostic radiology. Measurements and methods for clinical optimisation studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for estimating mean absorbed dose to different organs and tissues was developed for paediatric patients undergoing X-ray investigations. The absorbed dose distribution in water was measured for the specific X-ray beam used. Clinical images were s...

A. J. Almen



A rapid method for the simulation of filtered X-ray spectra in diagnostic imaging systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction and rapid growth of various digital and computed radiography systems and their application to traditional projection radiography, tomography, fluoroscopy, and dual energy imaging, makes it desirable to accurately simulate these systems, in order to provide the best clinical images possible. This work presents methods for predicting Bremsstrahlung and Characteristic x-ray spectra and the corresponding energy deposited by those

Charles W. Dodge III



A Statistical, Rule-Based Fault Detection and Diagnostic Method for Vapor Compression Air Conditioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for automated detection and diagnosis of faults in vapor compression air conditioners that only requires temperature measurements, and one humidity measurement. The differences between measured thermodynamic states and predicted states obtained from models for normal performance (residuals) are used as performance indices for both fault detection and diagnosis. For fault detection, statistical properties of the

Todd M. Rossi; James E. Braun



Diagnostic method for the detection of KIF5B-RET transformation in lung adenocarcinoma.  


KIF5B-RET fusions have recently been reported to occur in pulmonary adenocarcinomas, thereby being proposed as a novel genetic alteration in adenocarcinoma of the lung. However, clinically useful methods to detect RET-rearrangement in pulmonary adenocarcinoma have not been well established. 53 cases of lung adenocarcinomas harbored "triple (EGFR, KRAS and ALK)-negative" were tested for KIF5B-RET fusions using whole-transcriptome sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and long-range PCR. Dual color break-apart probes and KIF5B-RET fusion probes were used for FISH. Three different commercial antibodies against C-terminal RET protein were tested for IHC. Primers designed for 3 different variants of KIF5B-RET fusions were used for long-range PCR. Three patients (5.6%) showed RET rearrangement in whole-transcriptome sequencing, which were used as a gold standard. All those three patients were also positive in FISH for both KIF5B-RET fusion and RET break-apart probes. None of remaining patients showed positive result, resulting in 100% concordance rate of FISH and transcriptome sequencing methods. However, fused RET proteins were not detected by IHC in none of true positive patients. Moreover, 6 patients without RET fusions showed gain of gene copy number of both KIF5B and RET. All those three true positive cases were detected by long-range PCR methods and none with true negative cases were positive. Both FISH and PCR may be useful methods to detect novel KIF5B-RET rearrangements in pulmonary adenocarcinomas rather than IHC. However, as there may be additional variant of fusion mutation, FISH may be better than PCR method in terms of sensitivity. PMID:23932363

Go, Heounjeong; Jung, Yoo Jin; Kang, Hyun Woong; Park, In-Kyu; Kang, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Jung Wan; Ju, Young Seok; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Chung, Doo Hyun; Kim, Young Tae



FLOTAC for the diagnosis of Hymenolepis spp. infection: proof-of-concept and comparing diagnostic accuracy with other methods.  


Hymenolepis nana is the most common cestode parasitizing humans, yet it is under-diagnosed. We determined the optimal flotation solution (FS) for the diagnosis of this intestinal parasite with the FLOTAC method, and compared its diagnostic accuracy with an ether-concentration technique and the Kato-Katz method. Zinc sulphate (specific gravity 1.20) proved to be the best-performing FS. Using this FS, we detected 65 H. nana infections among 234 fixed fecal samples from Tajik and Sahrawi children (prevalence 27.8 %). The ether-concentration technique detected 40 infections (prevalence 17.1 %) in the same samples. Considering the combined results as a reference, the sensitivities of FLOTAC and ether-concentration were 95.6 % and 58.8 %, respectively. The Kato-Katz method resulted in a prevalence of only 8.7 %. In terms of eggs per gram of stool, a significantly (P <0.05) higher value was obtained with the FLOTAC and Kato-Katz techniques compared to ether-concentration. In another study carried out in China, the FLOTAC method detected six Hymenolepis diminuta infections in 302 fecal samples, whereas five samples were found positive with the Kato-Katz technique. We conclude that FLOTAC is an accurate coprodiagnostic technique for H. nana and H. diminuta, two species which join a growing list of intestinal parasites that can be reliably diagnosed by this technique. PMID:22461006

Steinmann, Peter; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Bruschi, Fabrizio; Matthys, Barbara; Lohourignon, Laurent K; Castagna, Barbara; Maurelli, Maria P; Morgoglione, Maria E; Utzinger, Jürg; Rinaldi, Laura



Optimization of parodontium tissue irradiation method for fluorescent diagnostic (FD) and photodynamic therapy (PDT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last several years research activities have been conducted to study PDT availability in stomatology for pathogenic microflora suppression, which presence causes different kinds of oral cavity inflammatory disease. Studies indicate that PDT can be alternative to traditional antibiotic therapy. We carried out research in order to determine the optimal method of tooth irradiation to provide necessary therapeutic radiation dose for affected parodontium tissue in case of inflammatory disease. These data can be used for fiber-optic catheter positioning for further influence on oral cavity nidus of inflammation during PDT and PD. 20 teeth ex vivo were examined. Teeth were irradiated with diode laser (680 nm). In different teeth regions laser radiation intensity was measured by LESA-01-Biospec spectrometer. Optimal radiation method for PDT and PD was found.

Sinyaeva, Maria L.; Mamedov, Ad. A.; Lervkin, V. V.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Volkova, Anna I.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Berezin, Anatoly N.; Kiselev, Gennady L.



Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents  


A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. 13 figs.

Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G.; Dees, H.C.



Development of a hemi-nested RT-PCR method for the specific determination of European Bat Lyssavirus 1. Comparison with other rabies diagnostic methods.  


A simplified hemi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (hnRT-PCR) has been developed to determine specifically the European Bat Lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1) nucleoprotein gene. The specificity of this method was determined by using the seven genotypes of lyssavirus by RT-PCR, Southern blot and sequence analysis. Compared to the rabies diagnostic methods, the hnRT-PCR showed a higher sensitivity for the detection of small amounts of EBLV-1 virus. In view of these results, we suggest this new hnRT-PCR should be performed for the epidemiological survey of bat colonies, also providing rapid detection and genotyping of EBLV-1 until now encountered in all naturally infected bats in France. PMID:15121304

Picard-Meyer, E; Bruyčre, V; Barrat, J; Tissot, E; Barrat, M J; Cliquet, F



Applications of the LIF method for the diagnostics of the combustion process of gas-IC-engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the underlying project, the task was to develop methods for optical measurements in a hydrogen-fuelled engine with direct-injection, with the goal of measuring the jet patterns during injection, the stratification of the charge at ignition point and the propagation of the flame during combustion. Therefore, the method of planar laser-induced-fluorescence (PLIF) was chosen. In order to apply this technique for the named tasks, particular methods the visualisation of fuel distribution and the flame front were developed. The measurements were carried out on a single cylinder research engine installed at the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines at Graz University of Technology. This engine features optical access through a quartz-glass liner and a window in the piston while providing a layout equivalent to modern passenger car engines and the possibility to operate in fired mode. As it is hardly feasible to directly excite molecular hydrogen by means of laser light, it is necessary to add a tracer substance to the fuel that provides high fluorescence intensity while not changing the properties of the fuel. Consequently, Triethylamine was chosen as a tracer to be mixed with hydrogen at 200 ppm, which allows it to be used up to a maximum pressure of 200 bar while still providing a strong LIF signal. Due to the excellent linearity of the signal to the local air/fuel-ratio it was possible to develop a method for the calibration of the images in order to compensate for inhomogeneities of the laser beam and staining of the optical access and to ultimately allow a quantification of the fuel distribution. The results are images scaled on air/fuel-ratio which can be used for a direct optimisation of mixture formation processes and the validation of CFD-models. For the analysis of the combustion process the method was adapted with two different approaches. For homogeneous charges a new method was applied by marking the flame front using the tracer within the fuel, so that both are burned together. However, as this method is limited to measurements with a homogeneous distribution of tracer within the measured volume, an alternative technique had to be applied for the measurement of stratified charges. In this case, a direct visualisation of the flame front was achieved by exciting the OH-radicals formed during combustion. As this method has significantly increased demands on measuring equipment and is more time consuming, both methods are used in parallel on specific measuring tasks.

Kirchweger, Wolfram; Haslacher, Rainer; Hallmannsegger, Michael; Gerke, Udo



A new non-invasive diagnostic method for lung lobe torsion: pulmonary CT angiography.  


Torsion of the remaining lung lobe after lobectomy is an uncommon event which is difficult to diagnose and may result in hemorrhagic infarction and fatal gangrene. We report a case of right upper lobe torsion after middle lobe resection for bronchiectasis, diagnosed with noninvasive pulmonary computerized tomography (CT) angiography. Rethoracotomy with an upper lobectomy was performed. She was asymptomatic at the two-year follow-up. Although the bronchoscopy has a great value in the diagnosis, CT angiography is an effective noninvasive method for confirming the correct diagnosis. A high index of clinical suspicion, early diagnosis and aggressive management may improve survival. PMID:17401799

Enön, Serkan; Kumbasar, Ula?; Kayi Cangir, Ayten; Atasoy, Cetin; Kavukçu, Sevket



On re-initialization methods and spin-up periods effects on WRF precipitation diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the scope of regional climate downscaling, with special focus on precipitation in complex terrain, several methods of dynamical downscaling with frequent re-initializations are being tested. In a configuration of three nested domains centered on a mountainous region in north-central Portugal with a complex topography, the WRF-ARW model is applied to the rainy periods during the first half of 2012. The large-scale data that are downscaled are those of the ERA Interim reanalysis of the ECMWF. The tests are designed to answer two questions regarding frequent re-initializations. The first concerns the spin-up period needed by the model to produce realistic precipitation predictions; the second relates to the initial conditions of each re-initialization. For every downscaling period, several initial conditions were tested: (1) interpolation of the large scale data into the computational domain of the study area; (2) 4DVAR assimilation of data from the ds351.4 and ds461.0 datasets from the CISL research data archive; (3) the same as under (2) butwith the assimilation of observed rainfall data. For each of the initialization tests described above, three spin-up periods were tested: 6h, 12h and 18h. The results of the different simulations are compared mutually as well as with the data from a dense network of automatic rain gauges that was installed in the domain for that specific purpose. The advantages and disadvantages of each method will be discussed in detail.

Ferreira, Juan; Carvalho, Ana; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Rocha, Alfredo



Pathways to personalized medicine for breast and prostate cancers: emerging diagnostic methods and prognostic biomarkers.  


Early and personal diagnosis to breast a prostate cancer is crucial for optimizing treatments leading to long-term patient survival. Once cancer metastasizes from the breast or prostate to other tissues of the body, therapies are limited, and there is no cure for the diseases. Currently used screening modalities for breast and prostate cancers have limitations. Routine screening for breast cancer includes clinical breast exams and mammograms. Improvements in imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance, ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis and ductography are being explored as adjuncts to mammography. A new approach to breast cancer screening involves the detection of abnormalities at the cellular level and uses various means to collect cellular material from the ductal system, including nipple aspirate fluid, breast ductal lavage, fiberoptic ductoscopy and random periareolar fine needle aspiration. Current screening methods for prostate cancer include digital rectal exam and serum PSA levels. However, these methods offer low sensitivity and specificity and do not allow differentiation between significant- and minimal-risk cancers. New approaches to prostate cancer screening involve different calculations using PSA, as well as molecular urine tests. With the recent advances in microarray technologies and whole-genome sequencing of tumors, the identification of specific biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis, as well as new therapeutic targets, is quickly paving the way for personalized medicine. In the future, routine patient care will include using the molecular signature of a patient's disease to guide treatment. PMID:20666024

Watson, Allison P; Egland, Kristi A



A budget impact analysis comparing use of a modern fecal management system to traditional fecal management methods in two canadian hospitals.  


Research suggests that fecal management systems (FMS) offer advantages, including potential cost savings, over traditional methods of caring for patients with little or no bowel control and liquid or semi-liquid stool. A budget impact model accounting for material costs of managing fecal incontinence was developed, and 1 year of experiential data from two hospitals' ICUs were applied to it. Material costs were estimated for traditional methods (ie, use of absorbent briefs/pads, skin cleansers, moisturizers) and compared with material costs of using a modern FMS for both average (normal-range weight) and complex (bariatric with wounds) ICU patients at hospital 1 and any ICU patient at hospital 2. Reductions in daily material costs per ICU patient using FMS versus traditional methods were reported by hospital 1 ($93.74 versus $143.89, average patient; $150.55 versus $476.41, complex patient) and by hospital 2 ($61.15 versus $104.85 per patient). When extrapolated to the total number of patients expected to use FMS at each institution, substantial annual cost savings were projected (hospital 1: $57,216; hospital 2: $627,095). In addition, total nursing time per day for managing fecal incontinence (ie, changing, cleaning, repositioning patients, changing pads, linens, and the like) was estimated at hospital 1, showing substantial reductions with FMS (120 minutes versus 348 minutes for average patients; 240 minutes versus 760 minutes for complex). Nursing time was not included in cost calculations to keep the analysis conservative. Results of this study suggest the materials cost of using the FMS in ICU patients was substantially lower than the cost of traditional fecal incontinence management protocols of care in both hospitals. Comparative studies using patient level data, materials, and nursing time costs, as well as complication rates, are warranted. PMID:23221016

Langill, Mike; Yan, Songkai; Kommala, Dheerendra; Michenko, Michael



A rapid method for the simulation of filtered X-ray spectra in diagnostic imaging systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction and rapid growth of various digital and computed radiography systems and their application to traditional projection radiography, tomography, fluoroscopy, and dual energy imaging, makes it desirable to accurately simulate these systems, in order to provide the best clinical images possible. This work presents methods for predicting Bremsstrahlung and Characteristic x-ray spectra and the corresponding energy deposited by those spectra, packaged in a FORTRAN95 program dubbed XSPECT version 4. The primary difference between this and other commonly available analytical models is XSPECT version 4's ability to account for electron distributions (depth, angular orientation, and number as a function of electron energy) within the target. These improvements give XSPECT version 4 an accuracy level similar to that of Monte Carlo methods, but with a significant computational savings. This savings in processing time is required in system optimizations given the large number of spectra generated in optimizing a single x-ray tube. Given an accurate x-ray spectra, that spectra can be attenuated through a subject, patient doses can be determined, the appropriate detector response can be applied and one can determine optimal radiographic techniques for particular systems and images. One proposed innovation of this method is to measure the exposure of an individual x-ray tube through several attenuator thicknesses and compare plots of those exposures to those of computed estimates. Then by iteratively adding and subtracting attenuator thickness in the computed estimates the plot of measured and computed exposures can be aligned. This then minimizes the small errors resulting from unknown intrinsic and added filtration thicknesses in the x-ray tube. The results from these simulations are verified by direct comparison to existing measured x-ray spectra and the Monte Carlo routine PENELOPE. The matching of XSPECT version 4 to PENELOPE was excellent. Matching to the measured Mercier data was also quite good, in general within 5% of the peak measured x-ray intensity. The last dataset, that of the FDA, showed much poorer matching in general to about 80% of the measured peak values. However, a consistent offset of the peak intensity (lower in energy and higher in intensity) may indicate that the FDA spectra had a small amount of intrinsic filtration included which was not included in initial FDA estimates.

Dodge, Charles W., III


Comparative analysis of the methods of drug and protein delivery for the treatment of cancer, genetic diseases and diagnostics.  


The methods of protein and drug delivery for the treatment of cancer, genetic diseases and diagnostics were summarized. The potential of protein transduction is discussed and the recent developments in the field are reviewed. An overview is provided of the non-viral delivery methods such as liposomes, polymer-based delivery, cell-penetrating peptides, bacterial secretion, cells, virosomes, physical methods including electroporation, microinjection, osmotic lysis, nanoparticles, sonoporation to locally inject therapeutic molecules. The characteristic properties of non-viral vectors and their use for the delivery of therapeutic molecules for the diagnosis and treatment of disorders and to target tumors are also discussed. The potential of the transduced peptides and proteins was used as new therapeutic compounds against infectious diseases, to complement deficiencies in specific genes, to specifically kill tumour cells, for gene therapy. The protein delivery vectors can enhance the transfection at low concentrations and help to develop future gene delivery systems with reduced toxicity. Vitamin B12, folic acid, biotin, and riboflavin are essential in the treatment of cancer. Ultrasound has a potential in the delivery of therapeutic agents. The new developing technologies of drug delivery and targeting offer the possibility to improve the therapeutic possibilities of the existing drugs and to develop novel therapeutics. PMID:21864112

Todorova, Roumiana



Study of protoporphyrin IX elimination by body excreta: a new noninvasive cancer diagnostic method?  


This paper describes the elimination of porphyrins by feces. It was demonstrated that porphyrin accumulates substantially more in tumors than in normal tissues, and consequently more PPIX reaches the blood of patients and animals with tumors, and then, it needs to be eliminated. The fluorescence of feces revealed that there are large amounts of PPIX in the excreta of animals with cancer comparing with healthy animals. The autofluorescence of feces porphyrin extracted with acetone was analyzed using fluorescence spectroscopy of animals inoculated with DU145 cells into the prostate and healthy animals to monitor the PPIX concentration. Emission spectra were obtained by exciting the samples at 405 nm. Significant differences were observed in autofluorescence intensities measured in the 575-725 nm spectral regions for the studied groups. The results showed a noninvasive, simple, rapid and sensitive method to detect cancer by feces analysis. PMID:22961210

Silva, Flávia R O; Nabeshima, Camila T; Bellini, Maria H; Schor, Nestor; Vieira, Nilson D; Courrol, Lilia C



Optical properties of hydrothermal-method-grown ZnO crystal as EUV laser diagnostics material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoluminescence properties of hydrothermal method-grown zinc oxide (ZnO) are evaluated in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region. The prominent fluorescence peak observed at 380 nm is characterized by a double exponential decay profile, where the 1.6 ns fast decay component is attributed to free excitons while the 15 ns slow decay component is assigned to trapped carriers. The response time of ZnO is improved to 70 ps by intentional iron (Fe) ion doping accomplished through the removal of the platinum lining in the growth chamber. This response time-improved ZnO will have promising applications in EUV lithography and X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) research.

Yamanoi, Kohei; Shimizu, Toshihiko; Furukawa, Yusuke; Cadatal-Raduban, Marilou; Nakazato, Tomoharu; Sakai, Kohei; Tsuboi, Mizuki; Nishi, Ryosuke; Sarukura, Nobuhiko; Tanaka, Momoko; Nishikino, Masaharu; Yamatani, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Keisuke; Kimura, Toyoaki; Fukuda, Tsuguo; Nagasono, Mitsuru; Togashi, Tadashi; Higashiya, Atsushi; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Kimura, Hiroaki



Diagnostic Applications and Methods to Isolate Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) from Blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each year a million new cancer cases are diagnosed in the United States. Ninety percent of the deaths will be the result of metastasis, not from the primary tumor. Tissue biopsy is a universally accepted tool for cancer diagnosis and determination of treatment. The procedure varies, but is invasive, costly, and can be fatal, and for these reasons is seldom repeated after initial diagnosis. Monitoring of treatment response and for possible relapse is usually done by CT or MRI scan, both of which are expensive and require the tumor to change size perceptibly. Further, cancer can mutate or develop resistance to therapeutics and require modification of the treatment regimen. The initial tissue biopsy often cannot reflect the disease as it progresses, requiring new biopsy samples to determine a change of treatment. All carcinomas, about 80% of all cancer, shed tumor cells into the circulation, most often at the later stages when treatment is more critical. These circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are the cause of metastasis, and can be isolated from patient blood to serve as ``liquid biopsy''. These CTCs contain a valuable trove of information that help both patient and clinician understand disease status. In addition to counting the number of CTCs (known to be a prognostic indicator of survival), CTCs can provide biomarker information such as protein expressions and gene mutations, amplifications, and translocations. This information can be used to determine treatment. During treatment, the number of intact and apoptotic CTCs can be measured on a repeated basis to measure the patient's response to treatment and disease progression. Following treatment, liquid biopsy can be repeated at regular intervals to watch for relapse. Methods to isolate CTCs can be grouped into three categories: i) immunocapture based on surface markers of CTCs, ii) size exclusion based on CTC size, typically larger than blood cells, and iii) negative selection utilizing red blood cell lysis, white blood cell depletion or FICOLL. Various implementations of the CTC isolation methods will be presented.

Tang, Cha-Mei



Essential veterinary education in modern molecular tools for the detection of disease: what veterinarians will need to know about genomics and molecular biology and diagnostics (including bioterrorist weapons) in 2025.  


Future veterinary education programmes in microbiology will undoubtedly include an increasing emphasis on new and existing molecular tools. They should also, however, provide veterinarians with a comprehensive and clear understanding of the types of results that can be obtained using a particular approach (for example, specific diagnostic procedures as against open diagnostic procedures, phenotypic versus genotypic characterisation, etc.). Furthermore, students should gain a sound knowledge of which type of test is the most appropriate in a given clinical or epidemiological situation, and what conclusions can or cannot be drawn from the results. Consequently, each veterinary curriculum should focus on the following items: the principles of molecular biology and genomics; the detection of disease and characteristics of molecular tests; the principles of micro-organism taxonomy, sequence comparison and molecular epidemiology and their applications (such as: taxonomic identification, epidemiological survey, genetic evolution and the traceability of strains); and the role of the veterinarian in the field of zoonoses and human public health. PMID:20128476

de Lamballerie, X



Time-resolved immunofluorimetic assay (TRIFMA): diagnostic method of the future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the development and clinical evaluation of two-site immunometric assays for ferritin, thyrotropin (TSH), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF(alpha) ) using time resolved fluorescent measurement with streptavidin-europium (STAV-Eu+3) as a label. The liquid phase antibodies were labeled with amidocaproylbiotin-N- hydroxysuccinimide ester. All three assays were based on microtiterplate technology and could be completed within a working day (incubation times less than 4 h). The ferritin assay was compared with luminescent and enzyme labeled assays using identical components. The TSH assay was compared with a commercial immunoluminometric assay whereas the TNF assay was unable to be compared with another method, only with standards from an independent source. The performance data was excellent with lower detection limits for TSH from < 0.003 mU/l and for TNF(alpha) under 10 ng/l. Intra-assay precision was acceptable within the range of interest with TSH < 4% (0.2 - 50 mU/l), TNF(alpha) < 15% (70 - 8000 ng/l and ferritin < 8% (10 - 500 g/l). Inter-assay precision was < 6% for TSH, < 16% for TNF(alpha) and < 8.5% for ferritin. All assays were performed using commercially available components and proved suitable for routine use.

Missler, U.; Gaida, U.; Li, Hong; Wood, W. G.



The Diagnostic Method of Inner Parts of Welded Joints at Nuclear Power Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no possibility to check any inner part at real welded joint at nuclear power station (NPS) during operation because any destructive test cannot be used. In practice there is checked surface of weld. There are used four methodical instructions for the check of real welds: 1. The visual inspection, 2. The measurement of hardness, 3. The chemical composition checking and 4. The microstructure replica analysis. It is necessary to know how these information of weld surface are in accordance with characteristics of inner parts of weld. If there is not any difference between surface weld microstructure and internal weld microstructure of experimental weld it is supposed to that there is not any difference in other measured properties of welds. If is changed structural characteristics of microstructure, it is changed also hardness, chemical analysis etc. It was observed that the microstructure of real welds is almost the same with simulated weld and also the surface microstructure of experimental weld is in accordance with microstructure of inner parts of this weld. It can be supposed extension of lifetime of NPS if there is not any difference between replicas microstructure taken after six year operation of NPS and microstructure of inner parts of simulated weld is almost the same with surface microstructure.

Bednarova, O.; Janovec, J.




Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, terrorism is analysed using the tools of modern portfolio theory. This approach permits the analysis of the returns that a terrorist group can expect from their activities as well as the risk they face. The analysis sheds new light on the nature of the terrorist group’s (attack method) choice set and the efficiency properties of that set.

Peter J. Phillips



Comparative evaluation of microagglutination test and serum agglutination test as supplementary diagnostic methods for brucellosis.  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of brucellosis in cattle and small ruminants requires the use of more than one serological test. The complement fixation test (CFT), the rose bengal test (RBT), and the serum agglutination test (SAT) are among the most useful tests for routine diagnosis. The microagglutination test (MAT) was developed as a simpler and more efficient test than the SAT. The relative efficacy of this test compared with that of the SAT was evaluated by using brucella-free sheep and goats prior to and after vaccination treatment. The specificities of the MAT and the SAT were 100%. Of the ewes and goats with a vaccination history, one ewe, expectedly a negative responder, had reactions in the MAT, the complement fixation test, and the rose bengal test but not in the SAT, suggesting a lower sensitivity of the SAT in this case. The calculated sensitivities of the MAT and the SAT were 93.9%. The agreement between MAT and SAT results from nonresponders was examined by using sera from unvaccinated lambs and kids (95.2% agreement), unvaccinated ewes and goats (84.4%), and ewes and goats with a vaccination history (43.9%). For the latter group higher levels of agglutination units were observed by the MAT than by the SAT in 51.5% of the samples. In testing sera from positive reactors after vaccination neither method was superior (MAT values were greater than SAT values for 23.5% of the samples, and MAT values were less than SAT values for 21.9% of the samples).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Baum, M; Zamir, O; Bergman-Rios, R; Katz, E; Beider, Z; Cohen, A; Banai, M



Diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism in dogs as compared to human diagnostic methods: a review.  


Spontaneous hyperadrenocorticism is a common and well-recognised endocrine disorder occurring in dogs. The biochemical diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism rests on the documentation of excessive glucocorticoid levels or metabolites in urine or blood. The diagnosis of canine hyperadrenocorticism is historically developed from human methods and based on non-dynamic and dynamic tests and visualisation. In some cases the different ranges of endocrine parameters or metabolites necessitate the modification of human protocols. Elevation of the activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and its heat-resistant isoenzyme (SIAP) induced by endogenous or exogenous glucocorticoid excess raise the suspicion of hyperadrenocorticism. Cortisol values in morning urine are related to creatinine concentrations to correct for differences in urine concentration. Theoretically, the administration of dexamethasone (DX) at a relatively low dose (0.01 mg/kg of body weight) can inhibit the pituitary secretion of ACTH and, in turn, decrease endogenous cortisol secretion for as long as 24 to 48 h. Therefore, DX administration to dogs with a functioning adrenocortical tumour would not affect the plasma cortisol concentration at any time following its administration. The high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDS) is based on the observation that the function of adrenocortical tumours is independent of pituitary ACTH and they completely suppress ACTH secretion; therefore, regardless of its dose, dexamethasone is never able to suppress cortisol secretion. HDDS can be combined with the measurement of urinary cortisol/creatinine (c/c) ratio from morning urine samples on three consecutive days. In case of non-suppressible urinary c/c ratio one has to speculate on differentiating adrenal tumour (AT) from non-suppressible pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) due to a pituitary tumour arising from the intermediate lobe. Radiocholesterol scintigraphy is a less frequently used technique in the diagnosis of canine Cushing's syndrome (CCS); however, it has the same advantages in the localisation and characterisation of adrenocortical diseases as in humans. PMID:9704520

Thuróczy, J; Balogh, L; Huszenicza, G; Jánoki, G A; Kulcsár, M



Set theory in diagnostic reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Regarding diagnostic reasoning, the currently taught Bayesian theory is a form of hypothetical-deduction reasoning. Using set theory, we offer syllogism reasoning instead of hypothetical-deductive reasoning and establish an online diagnostic expert system model based on this diagnostic methodology. Methods: Concepts of set theory were employed to demonstrate diagnostic reasoning. ASP, Vbscript and Microsoft Access were used to establish the

Rui-Bao Tang; Qin-Fang Deng; Hou-Qi Liu



Development of rapid, sensitive and non-radioactive tissue-blot diagnostic method for the detection of citrus greening.  


Citrus huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is caused by Gram-negative, phloem-limited ?-proteobacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', vectored by the psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Citrus plants infected by the HLB bacterium may not show visible symptoms sometimes for years following infection and non-uniform distribution within the tree makes the detection of the pathogen very difficult. Efficient management of HLB disease requires rapid and sensitive detection early in the infection followed by eradication of the source of pathogen and the vector. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based method is most commonly employed for screening the infected/suspected HLB plants and psyllids. This is time consuming, cumbersome and not practical for screening large number of samples in the field. To overcome this, we developed a simple, sensitive, non-radioactive, tissue-blot diagnostic method for early detection and screening of HLB disease. Digoxigenin labeled molecular probes specific to 'Ca. L. asiaticus' nucleotide sequences have been developed and used for the detection of the pathogen of the HLB disease. The copy number of the target genes was also assessed using real-time PCR experiments and the optimized real-time PCR protocol allowed positive 'Ca. L. asiaticus' detection in citrus samples infected with 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterium. PMID:23660459

Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Miyata, Shin-Ichi; Ghosh, Dilip; Irey, Mike; Garnsey, Stephen M; Gowda, Siddarame



Heating Diagnostics with MHD Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heating of the solar atmosphere is a fundamental problem of modern solar and astrophysics. A review of the seismological aspects of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves with an emphasis on standing longitudinal waves in the context of coronal heating is presented. Efforts made recently may be split into two categories: forward modelling and data inversion. Forward modelling can be applied to predict the observational footprints of various heating scenarios. A new diagnostic method based on the analysis of Doppler shift time series is outlined with specific application to solar coronal conditions. The power of the method is demonstrated and tested using synthetic data and comparing them with actual high-resolution (e.g. SoHO/SUMER) observations. Further, related recent examples of standing longitudinal oscillations in coronal loop structures observed with the new Hinode/EIS instrument are also presented. These latter observations provide an advanced ground for MHD seismology as a tool for plasma heating diagnostics in the atmosphere of the Sun.

Taroyan, Y.; Erdélyi, R.



Telecardiogram: still of matter in the modern cardiac imaging era?  


The modern cardiovascular imaging era has seen the introduction in clinical practice of highly innovative and performing diagnostic features. The negative side of this outstanding evolution risks to be an under-assessment of well-established classical diagnostic techniques. Thereby, to support the actual relevance of a properly executed chest X-ray, this article describes two paradigmatic cases of exceptional cardiac abnormalities, in which X-rays played a key diagnostic role. PMID:18319703

Anselmino, M; Castagno, D; Chirio, C; Biondi-Zoccai, G; Grimaldi, R; Sheiban, I



Patient accounts of diagnostic testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia: comparing responses to genetic and non-genetic testing methods  

PubMed Central

Background Continuing developments in genetic testing technology together with research revealing gene-disease associations have brought closer the potential for genetic screening of populations. A major concern, as with any screening programme, is the response of the patient to the findings of screening, whether the outcome is positive or negative. Such concern is heightened for genetic testing, which it is feared may elicit stronger reactions than non-genetic testing. Methods This paper draws on thematic analysis of 113 semi-structured interviews with 39 patients being tested for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), an inherited predisposition to early-onset heart disease. It examines the impact of disease risk assessments based on both genetic and non-genetic information, or solely non-genetic information. Results The impact of diagnostic testing did not seem to vary according to whether or not genetic information was used. More generally, being given a positive or negative diagnosis of FH had minimal discernible impact on people's lives as they maintained the continuity of their beliefs and behaviour. Conclusions The results suggest that concerns about the use of genetic testing in this context are unfounded, a conclusion that echoes findings from studies in this and other health contexts.



Diagnostic interviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review addresses issues related to the use of structured psychiatric diagnostic interviews in children and adolescents.\\u000a Structured diagnostic interviews improve the diagnostic process by better organizing the collection of clinical data and eliminating\\u000a biases when applying diagnostic criteria. Available interviews generally fall into two categories. Highly structured (or respondent-based)\\u000a measures use a set script and record subject’s responses without

Ileana Calinoiu; Jon McClellan




Microsoft Academic Search

This article has been drawn from a larger study by the author, True Crime: Observations on Violence and Modernity. Here the focus is on a minor genre—true crime—thatat the same time is a scale model of modern society. True crime is crime fact that reads like, or looks like, crime fiction. It is one of the popular genres of our

Mark Seltzer



Approximate analytical method for determining the vibration-diagnostic parameter indicating the presence of a crack in a distributed-parameter elastic system at super- and subharmonic resonances  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approximate method for calculating the vibration-diagnostic parameter indicating the presence of a crack in an elastic\\u000a distributed-parameter system at super- and subharmonic resonances is considered. The method involves the finding of the non-linearity\\u000a characteristic of an elastic system based on the analysis of its forced vibrations in the undamaged state and the use of results\\u000a of the approximate analytical

V. V. Matveev; O. E. Boginich; A. P. Yakovlev



Astigmatism and diagnostic procedures.  


Astigmatism represents an inability of the cornea and lens to provide a sharp image onto the retina. Correcting astigmatic errors, whether congenital, contact lens induced or surgically induced, is now an integral part of modern cataract and refractive procedures. Development of modern technology has enabled accurate diagnosis and perfect opportunities for correction; however, while cataract and keratorefractive surgery have come a long way in the last decade, the treatment and diagnosis of astigmatism continue to challenge ophthalmologists. There are several diagnostic procedures and tools available today, some standard and some contemporary that include keratometry, corneal topography, apparatus using wavefront or Scheimpflug analysis like Orbscan, Pentacam, Wavescan, etc. With the introduction of several new diagnostic tools, measurements of astigmatism have become less of an issue, but in some cases it is still difficult to obtain consistent results. What remains still unanswered is the question of the best diagnostic tool on the market. Further research is needed to evaluate both tools as well as their clinical application for optimal use. PMID:23115957

Visnji?, Mirna Belovari; Zrins?ak, Ognjen; Barisi?, Freja; Ivekovi?, Renata; Laus, Katia Novak; Mandi?, Zdravko



Real-Time PCR Diagnostics for Detecting and Identifying Potential Bioweapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial contents: Diagnostics Systems Division, Diagnostics and Patient Care: Goals, Diagnostic Essentials, Impact of Diagnostics and Patient Care, Diagnostic Time Constraint, Classical Methods for Identifying Biological Agents, Diagnostic Sensitivity Req...

D. Norwood



Modern Physics Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the lack of laboratories for introductory modern physics classes, Dr. Jorge A. Lopez and Mr. Jose Ricardo Correa from the UTEP Physics Department work in the development of computer simulations of important modern physics experiments for the aforementioned physics classes. The presentation will inform the audience about this resource in the instruction of introductory modern physics as well as the success it has had. Introductory modern physics classes expose students to radically new concepts that defy common sense. As if this was not hard enough, students encounter a lack of hands-on activities due to the lack of lab equipment for their modern physics class. This is to be understood since most of the experiments cannot be performed in the conditions university laboratories provide and at the undergraduate level organization. Therefore, much time and effort have been devoted to the development of computer simulations of key modern physics experiments. These virtual experiments are a great alternative that will alleviate the limitations physics professors face when teaching introductory modern physics courses in addition to enchance student understanding.

Lopez, Jorge; Correa, Jose



Judaism, modernization, and anti-modernization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  The manner in which etements of Judaism as a religion may have been active in mediating the effects of early stages of modernization\\u000a in Eastern and Western Europe, and how that religion itself may have been altered, call for careful examination The concept\\u000a of shifting boundaries has been used to underscore both the dialectical relationship and numberable positions between tradition

Hillel Levine



Diagnostics development plan for ZR.  

SciTech Connect

The Z Refurbishment (ZR) Project is a program to upgrade the Z machine at SNL with modern durable pulsed power technology, providing additional shot capacity and improved reliability as well as advanced capabilities for both pulsed x-ray production and high pressure generation. The development of enhanced diagnostic capabilities is an essential requirement for ZR to meet critical mission needs. This report presents a comprehensive plan for diagnostic instrument and infrastructure development for the first few years of ZR operation. The focus of the plan is on: (1) developing diagnostic instruments with high spatial and temporal resolution, capable of low noise operation and survival in the severe EMP, bremsstrahlung, and blast environments of ZR; and (2) providing diagnostic infrastructure improvements, including reduced diagnostic trigger signal jitter, more and flexible diagnostic line-of-sight access, and the capability for efficient exchange of diagnostics with other laboratories. This diagnostic plan is the first step in an extended process to provide enhanced diagnostic capabilities for ZR to meet the diverse programmatic needs of a broad range of defense, energy, and general science programs of an international user community into the next decade.

Hanson, David Lester



Modern Treatment of Burns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph summarizes the experiences of treating persons suffering from burns which have been accumulated by the collective of the hospital surgical clinic of the Samarkand Medical Institute, and also uses the data of the modern literature concerning...

S. A. Mullakandov



Modern inventory analysis techniques.  


Modern techniques for managing pharmacy inventories are described. Pharmacists should rely on modern techniques, such as sort-based and activity-based analyses, for managing pharmacy inventories, containing drug costs, performing replacement-and-elimination analysis, and monitoring the health system's operations. Unit price and quantity are the two basic inventory-control approaches; however, modern techniques recognize quantity as the more useful of the two. The primary areas of the pharmacy's activities must be taken into consideration. Pharmacists must learn to divide inventory analysis problems into sets of smaller issues. Modern inventory analyses that take into account annual quantity, unit price, total annual cost, and the health system's unique activities provide the pharmacist with a practical basis for inventory management. PMID:10714973

Salamie, D



Modernization in Tamil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studies the general theory of language development and particularly the modernization of Tamil and the sociocultural factors responsible for the way development has taken place in this language. (SC)|

Shanmugam, S. V.



Diagnostic of vacuum subsonic and supersonic plasma flows with enthalpy probe, schlieren and high speed camera methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. HF plasma has been used for numerous applications. HF plasma of subsonic flow is used for densification and spheroidization of powders, thermal protection deposition and liquid and gaseous waste destruction. As for HF plasma supersonic flow, in spite of its less frequent use, its diagnostic is crucial in order to improve processes involving this type of

V. Leveille; M. I. Boulos; D. Gravelle



An inexpensive and rapid diagnostic method of Koi Herpesvirus (KHV) infection by loop-mediated isothermal amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Koi Herpesvirus (KHV) affects both juvenile and adult common carp and koi, and is especially lethal to fry. The high mortalities caused by the disease have had a negative impact on the international koi trade. Different diagnostic techniques have been used to detect KHV, including: isolation of the virus in cell culture, electron microscopy, several PCR tests, ELISA and

Hatem Soliman; Mansour El-Matbouli



Diagnosing Examinees' Attributes-Mastery Using the Bayesian Inference for Binomial Proportion: A New Method for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA) is a new theoretical framework for psychological and educational testing that is designed to provide detailed information about examinees' strengths and weaknesses in specific knowledge structures and processing skills. During the last three decades, more than a dozen psychometric models have been developed…

Kim, Hyun Seok John



Olympics: Ancient vs. Modern  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objective: Students will compare the Ancient Olympics invented by the Greeks to a Modern Olympic games Materials: Computer with internet connection Paper and writing Utensil OR open blank Word Document Procedures: 1. On your paper or in your Word Document, create two columns and label one Ancient Greeks and the other Modern Olympics 2. Use a minimum of 2 of the following links to find information to compare the Ancient Olympics to the ...

Schaefer, Mrs.



Modern Day Pyramids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate the ways in which ancient technologies â six types of simple machines and combinations â are used to construct modern buildings. As they work together to solve a design problem (designing and building a modern structure), they brainstorm ideas, decide on a design, and submit it to a design review before acquiring materials to create it (in this case, a mural depicting it). Emphasis is placed on cooperative, creative teamwork and the steps of the engineering design process.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program


Modernities, Sciences, and Democracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “modern” in “modern science” is a relatively uninterrogated and untheorized concept within the sciences and in the philosophy,\\u000a sociology, and history of science. This is so today at a time when other aspects of Western sciences have been fruitfully\\u000a explored in critical and illuminating ways (see Christensen and Hansen, Chap. 13; and Skovsmose, Chap. 15). In particular,\\u000a the exceptionalism

Sandra Harding


Optimizing Modern Family Size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern industrialized populations lack the strong positive correlations between wealth and reproductive success that characterize\\u000a most traditional societies. While modernization has brought about substantial increases in personal wealth, fertility in many\\u000a developed countries has plummeted to the lowest levels in recorded human history. These phenomena contradict evolutionary\\u000a and economic models of the family that assume increasing wealth reduces resource competition

David W. Lawson; Ruth Mace



Nanodevices in diagnostics  

PubMed Central

The real-time, personalized and highly sensitive early-stage diagnosis of disease remains an important challenge in modern medicine. With the ability to interact with matter at the nanoscale, the development of nanotechnology architectures and materials could potentially extend subcellular and molecular detection beyond the limits of conventional diagnostic modalities. At the very least, nanotechnology should be able to dramatically accelerate biomarker discovery, as well as facilitate disease monitoring, especially of maladies presenting a high degree of molecular and compositional heterogeneity. This article gives an overview of several of the most promising nanodevices and nanomaterials along with their applications in clinical practice. Significant work to adapt nanoscale materials and devices to clinical applications involving large interdisciplinary collaborations is already underway with the potential for nanotechnology to become an important enabling diagnostic technology.

Hu, Ye; Fine, Daniel H.; Tasciotti, Ennio; Bouamrani, Ali; Ferrari, Mauro



A diagnostic multiplex polymerase chain reaction method to identify Japanese internal apple-feeding Lepidopteran pests: Grapholita molesta , Grapholita dimorpha (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a multiplex polymerase chain reaction method to differentiate between three Japanese internal apple-feeding pests:\\u000a the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), Grapholita dimorpha Komai, and the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura. A 1,342-bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced in each species. The three\\u000a species showed consistent and diagnostic differences in the region

Hiroshi Hada; Ken-Taro Sekine



[Diagnosis of mammary gland diseases using microwave thermography: a study on adjunctive diagnostic methods in relation to different factors in breast diseases].  


Since 1982, a 4.7 GHz microwave radiometer has been used for diagnosis of mammary gland diseases by obtaining temperature information on the region surrounding deeply located tumors. The subjects comprised 95 cases of malignant tumors and 331 cases of benign tumors (total, 426 cases). The analysis of the diagnostic results showed a 91.3% specificity, 72.6% sensitivity, 70.4% predictability, and 87.1% accuracy. The method provides different information on temperatures from conventional infrared telethermography and contact thermography due to the tissue permeability of microwave. Utilizing a combination of conventional methods and microwave thermography (MWT), the diagnostic rate was found to be 94.7%, resulting in an accuracy improvement of approximately 10%. Various factors are investigated for their effects on MWT diagnosis. No significant difference was seen with respect to histologic types. Although significant difference was seen with respect to histologic types. Although significant difference was not observed in relation to the diameter of the tumor, the diagnostic rate in T1 cases, which was 75.0% using two conventional methods, was improved to 100% when combined with MWT. Tumor depth revealed no significant difference. Tumor vascular density showed a high correlation with temperature measured by MWT. PMID:2385225

Maeda, T



Quantitative assessment of tumour extraction from dermoscopy images and evaluation of computer-based extraction methods for an automatic melanoma diagnostic system.  


The aims of this study were to provide a quantitative assessment of the tumour area extracted by dermatologists and to evaluate computer-based methods from dermoscopy images for refining a computer-based melanoma diagnostic system. Dermoscopic images of 188 Clark naevi, 56 Reed naevi and 75 melanomas were examined. Five dermatologists manually drew the border of each lesion with a tablet computer. The inter-observer variability was evaluated and the standard tumour area (STA) for each dermoscopy image was defined. Manual extractions by 10 non-medical individuals and by two computer-based methods were evaluated with STA-based assessment criteria: precision and recall. Our new computer-based method introduced the region-growing approach in order to yield results close to those obtained by dermatologists. The effectiveness of our extraction method with regard to diagnostic accuracy was evaluated. Two linear classifiers were built using the results of conventional and new computer-based tumour area extraction methods. The final diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by drawing the receiver operating curve (ROC) of each classifier, and the area under each ROC was evaluated. The standard deviations of the tumour area extracted by five dermatologists and 10 non-medical individuals were 8.9% and 10.7%, respectively. After assessment of the extraction results by dermatologists, the STA was defined as the area that was selected by more than two dermatologists. Dermatologists selected the melanoma area with statistically smaller divergence than that of Clark naevus or Reed naevus (P = 0.05). By contrast, non-medical individuals did not show this difference. Our new computer-based extraction algorithm showed superior performance (precision, 94.1%; recall, 95.3%) to the conventional thresholding method (precision, 99.5%; recall, 87.6%). These results indicate that our new algorithm extracted a tumour area close to that obtained by dermatologists and, in particular, the border part of the tumour was adequately extracted. With this refinement, the area under the ROC increased from 0.795 to 0.875 and the diagnostic accuracy showed an increase of approximately 20% in specificity when the sensitivity was 80%. It can be concluded that our computer-based tumour extraction algorithm extracted almost the same area as that obtained by dermatologists and provided improved computer-based diagnostic accuracy. PMID:16567974

Iyatomi, Hitoshi; Oka, Hiroshi; Saito, Masataka; Miyake, Ayako; Kimoto, Masayuki; Yamagami, Jun; Kobayashi, Seiichiro; Tanikawa, Akiko; Hagiwara, Masafumi; Ogawa, Koichi; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Soyer, H Peter; Tanaka, Masaru



Development and evaluation of one-step rRT-PCR and immunohistochemical methods for detection of Rift Valley fever virus in biosafety level 2 diagnostic laboratories.  


Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic insect transmitted virus endemic to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Infection causes abortions and high mortality in newborn ruminants. The overall human infection rate is <1%; however, fatality rates in those with severe clinical disease have been reported as high as 29%. The potential of RVFV as a bioterrorism agent and/or being accidentally introduced into North America is widely recognized. Currently, regional veterinary biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) diagnostic laboratories lack safe, modern, validated diagnostic tests to detect RVFV. An existing one-step real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay was modified for quick virus inactivation for use in BSL-2 laboratories, evaluated on serum and tissue samples from experimentally infected lambs and calves, and compared to virus isolation. Viremia was detected in all inoculated sheep with titers reaching 10(6.5) plaque forming units/ml, or up to 10(10) viral RNA copies/ml. Viremia in calves was lower and not detected in all inoculated animals; however, all animals became transiently febrile and were infected as determined by rRT-PCR of tissues. Virus was isolated from rRT-PCR-positive liver and/or spleen in 33% of lamb and 41% of calf samples between 2 and 7 days post inoculation. For RVFV antigen detection, reagents are typically produced at BSL-3Ag or BSL-4 conditions and require inactivation and safety testing for use outside of containment. In this study, antiserum against recombinant RVFV-nucleocapsid (N) was produced to develop an immunohistochemical (IHC) assay which was subsequently evaluated on formalin fixed lamb and calf tissues at BSL-2 laboratory conditions. Antigen was detected by IHC in 79% of rRT-PCR-positive sheep and 70% of rRT-PCR-positive calf tissues tested. Once validated and approved by national regulatory agencies, these assays can be safely produced and distributed to regional diagnostic laboratories, providing capacity for early detection of RVFV in suspected ruminant samples. PMID:22172972

Drolet, Barbara S; Weingartl, Hana M; Jiang, Jieyuan; Neufeld, James; Marszal, Peter; Lindsay, Robbin; Miller, Myrna M; Czub, Markus; Wilson, William C



Methods of optical diagnostics of electron-positron beams and interaction between plasma and high-current electron beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical diagnostics is widely used, both in plasma-physics experiments and in measuring parameters of electron and positron beams in accelerators. In doing so, the approaches with the same methodological base are often applied, which is explained by similarity of certain properties of objects under study despite the fact that these fields of physics are absolutely specific and require using the specialized techniques. The possibility of close contacts and cooperation among scientists concerned with similar problems in different fields of physics contributes to the fruitful exchange of ideas and helps to overcome these problems. It is especially characteristic of the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, which is famous for pioneering works in the field of electron-positron colliders and controlled thermonuclear fusion. The first part of this paper presents a review of optical diagnostics of the stationary beam parameters in cyclic accelerators of electrons and positrons. The only techniques considered are those that became the recognized tools at colliders and storage rings of the latest generation, without which the routine operation of the facility is difficult to imagine. The second part of the paper describes optical diagnostics used in experiments of heating the plasma by a high-current electron beam.

Vyacheslavov, L. N.; Ivantsivskii, M. V.; Meshkov, O. I.; Popov, S. S.; Smaluk, V. V.



The modern trends of the evolution laser information technology in oncology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser-optical information technologies and devices develop since the 70- years at the end of 20 century and are broadly used for diagnostics and treatment of oncological diseases to date. Although such methods as photodynamic therapy (PDT), laser-induce thermotherapy (LITT), fluorescent diagnostics and spectrophotometry already more than 30 years are used for treatment and diagnostics of oncological diseases, nevertheless, they are enough new methods and, as a rule, are used in large scientific centers and medical institutions. This is bound, first of all, with lack of information on modern method of cancer treatment, the absence of widely available laser procedures and corresponding devices in the polyclinics and even in district hospitals, as well as insufficient understanding of application areas, where laser methods has an advantage by comparison, for instance, with beam or chemotherapy. At present day laser methods are fast upcoming direction of the treatment oncological diseases. This is explained by progress in development essentially laser, particularly diode, improvement electronic and computing components and broad introduction software-algorithmic methods of control the undertaking therapeutic and diagnostic procedures. In article are considered new laser methods of the undertaking diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and is shown that introduction multiwave laser radiation for probe and influences on tissue, the different methods of the determination of the functional state of tissues, realization of the on-line diagnostics when carrying out the therapeutic procedures, automatic control systems of the power laser radiation, which depends on state patient tissue, as well as software-algorithmic methods of management session therapeutic and diagnostic procedures greatly raises efficiency of the treatment oncological diseases. On an example of the multipurpose laser therapeutic devices("MLTA") developed and introduced in clinical practice and multipurpose laser diagnostic complexes ("MLDC"), the realizing offered methods, are shown the basic tendencies of development laser methods in oncology, concrete technical decisions and the experimental clinical material showing increase of efficiency of treatment of a cancer at their realization are resulted. It is shown, that realization of the offered methods and technical technologies opens new competitive advantages laser technologies in comparison with beam and chemical-therapy at treatment of oncological diseases.

Mikov, A. A.; Svirin, V. N.



BOOK REVIEW: Modern Supersymmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have spent more than twenty years applying supersymmetry (SUSY) to elementary particle physics and attempting to find an experimental manifestation of this symmetry. Terning's monograph demonstrates the strong influence of SUSY on theoretical elaborations in the field of elementary particles. It gives both an overview of modern supersymmetry in elementary particle physics and calculation techniques. The author, trying to

J. Terning



Modernizing sports facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modernization and renovation of sports facilities challenge the design team to balance a number of requirements: spectator and owner expectations, existing building and site conditions, architectural layouts, code and legislation issues, time constraints and budget issues. System alternatives are evaluated and selected based on the relative priorities of these requirements. These priorities are unique to each project. At Alexander Memorial



Modern Biotechnology in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming


Educating the Modern Manager  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous changes in both the economy and technology, as well as changes in the speed of change, suggest that managers who lead modern organizations need to be engaged in a constant learning process. Although much executive education focuses on technical and financial issues, we believe that the big mistakes in careers and organizations result from a lack of knowledge of




Modern Physics for Kids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

But it's the last chapter in the book! What should young people learn about modern physics? The setting could be a school classroom or a university lecture hall, laboratory or computer lab. The experience should build understandings and relationships. The approach should involve engagement and exploration. We discuss several activities for secondary students based on experiences of the particle physics community.

Bardeen, Marjorie



Modern Regression Discontinuity Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides a detailed discussion of the theory and practice of modern regression discontinuity (RD) analysis for estimating the effects of interventions or treatments. Part 1 briefly chronicles the history of RD analysis and summarizes its past applications. Part 2 explains how in theory an RD analysis can identify an average effect of…

Bloom, Howard S.



Modern Physics Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern physics is now a regular course for non-physics majors who do not have to take the accompanying laboratory. This lack of an experimental component puts the engineering students at a disadvantage. A possible solution is the use of computer simulations to add a constructivist element to the class. In this work we present a set of computer simulations of

Milijana Suskavcevic; Jorge López; Carlos Velasco



Medicalized weapons & modern war.  


"Medicalized" weapons--those that rely on advances in neuroscience, physiology, and pharmacology--offer the prospect of reducing casualties and protecting civilians. They could be especially useful in modern asymmetric wars in which conventional states are pitted against guerrilla or insurgent forces. But may physicians and other medical workers participate in their development? PMID:20166514

Gross, Michael L


Modernizing Mechanical Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some of the problems of renovating school buildings and in particular the modernization of mechanical services in existing facilities are discussed. According to school management publications, approximately 42 per cent of our elementary and 59 per cent of our secondary schools are 15 years old or older. School plants, which were built 12 to 15…

Rutgers, Norman L.



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The field of electronics continues to change and evolve rapidly. Electronics are increasingly being used to collect and process all types of data, transfer information, make decisions, and provide automation and control functions. Modern microcontrollers and semiconductor components offer many adv...


Foundations of modern cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent discoveries in astronomy, especially those made with data collected by satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, have revolutionized the science of cosmology. These new observations offer the possibility that some long-standing mysteries in cosmology might be answered, including such fundamental questions as the ultimate fate of the universe. Foundations of modern cosmology

John F. Hawley; Katherine A. Holcomb



Modern Igneous Petrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mohan K. Sood prefaces Modern Igneous Petrology by stating that his objective is to facilitate the understanding of the application of phase equilibrium data to the crystallization and evolution of magmas. He states that the book may be valuable as either a reference or source text or as a text for courses in igneous petrology for undergraduate and graduate students.

Richard F. Wendlandt



Diagnostic laparoscopy  


Laparoscopy - diagnostic ... of certain organs. If you are having gynecologic laparoscopy, dye may be injected into your cervix area ... You will probably not stay overnight after a laparoscopy. You will not be allowed to drive home. ...


Moderne Diagnostik des stumpfen Bauchtraumas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Summary.   Lethality and morbidity of blunt abdominal trauma are directly dependent on the immediately valid diagnostic work-up. Since\\u000a blunt abdominal trauma usually occurs in the setting of multisystem injury and patients are no longer cooperative, clinical\\u000a methods of diagnosis are unreliable. In regard to the imaging procedures, the practical approach has been simplified and standardized\\u000a in the last few years.

H. Feussner; J. R. Siewert



Comparison of diagnostic methods for the detection and quantification of the four sympatric Plasmodium species in field samples from Papua New Guinea  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate diagnosis of Plasmodium infections is essential for malaria morbidity and mortality reduction in tropical areas. Despite great advantages of light microscopy (LM) for malaria diagnosis, its limited sensitivity is a critical shortfall for epidemiological studies. Robust molecular diagnostics tools are thus needed. Methods The present study describes the development of a duplex quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) assay, which specifically detects and quantifies the four human Plasmodium species. Performance of this method was compared to PCR-ligase detection reaction-fluorescent microsphere assay (PCR_LDR_FMA), nested PCR (nPCR) and LM, using field samples collected from 452 children one to five years of age from the Sepik area in Papua New Guinea. Agreement between diagnostic methods was calcualted using kappa statistics. Results The agreement of qPCR with other molecular diagnostic methods was substantial for the detection of P. falciparum, but was moderate for the detection of P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale. P. falciparum and P. vivax prevalence by qPCR was 40.9% and 65.7% respectively. This compares to 43.8% and 73.2% by nPCR and 47.1% and 67.5% by PCR_LDR_FMA. P. malariae and P. ovale prevalence was 4.7% and 7.3% by qPCR, 3.3% and 3.8% by nPCR, and 7.7% and 4.4% by PCR_LDR_FMA. Prevalence by LM was lower for all four species, being 25.4% for P. falciparum, 54.9% for P. vivax, 2.4% for P. malariae and 0.0% for P. ovale. The quantification by qPCR closely correlated with microscopic quantification for P. falciparum and P. vivax samples (R2 = 0.825 and R2 = 0.505, respectively). The low prevalence of P. malariae and P. ovale did not permit a solid comparative analysis of quantification for these species. Conclusions The qPCR assay developed proved optimal for detection of all four Plasmodium species. Densities by LM were well reflected in quantification results by qPCR, whereby congruence was better for P. falciparum than for P. vivax. This likely is a consequence of the generally lower P. vivax densities. Easy performance of the qPCR assay, a less laborious workflow and reduced risk of contamination, together with reduced costs per sample through reduced reaction volume, opens the possibility to implement qPCR in endemic settings as a suitable diagnostic tool for large epidemiological studies.



Diagnostic system for high-voltage electrical components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents an example, indicating system logic and architecture, of a centralized diagnostic system for a modern substation. Detail are provided of the part relevant to the most important functions and operations required: measurements and transd...

C. Masetti



Modern diagnostic and therapeutic interventional radiology in lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Imaging has an important role in the multidisciplinary management of primary lung cancer. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art imaging modalities used for the evaluation, staging and post-treatment follow-up and surveillance of lung cancers, and image-guided percutaneous techniques for biopsy to confirm the diagnosis and for local therapy in non-surgical candidates.

Lau, Eddie W. F.; Chin, Kwang; Sedlaczek, Oliver; Steinke, Karin



[Diabetes mellitus and chronic kideny disease: modern diagnostics and treatment].  


Diabetic nephropathy (DN)--is a leading cause of terminal renal failure in the developed countries. Kidney pathology development undergoes several stages--from preclinical structural changes in the first years of the disease to diffuse or nodular glomerulosclerosis 15-20 years after the diabetes onset. Microalbuminuria is an early marker of DN. Intensive treatment of DN at the stage of microalbuminuria leads to regress and remission of lab parameters of DN in 40 - 50% of patients after 2 years of treatment. Prognostic factors of DN remission are: tight glycaemia control, arterial hypertension control, especially while treated with renin-angiotensin blockers. Regress of structural changes of kidney tissue In a diabetic patient is possible only after a long-term (>10yrs) normoglycaemia maintenance. PMID:22550710

Shestakova, M V



Modern Physics Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern physics is now a regular course for non-physics majors who do not have to take the accompanying laboratory. This lack of an experimental component puts the engineering students at a disadvantage. A possible solution is the use of computer simulations to add a constructivist element to the class. In this work we present a set of computer simulations of fundamental experiments, key to the teaching of modern physics, as well as their in-class implementation and assessment. Preliminary results indicate that the use of these simulation produce a substantial increase of student comprehension. This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation under grant NSF DUE-9651026, and UTEP's NSF-MIE program.

Suskavcevic, Milijana; López, Jorge; Velasco, Carlos



Paradoxes of modern geoecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six paradoxes of modern geoecology as a science are described: the many-sided manner of understanding the content of geoecology,\\u000a the absence of definite and, especially, of generally accepted theoretical problems of geoecology, the ambiguous attitude\\u000a of researchers-geoecologists to the necessity of studying the state of biota, the insufficiently considered problem of the\\u000a inter-disciplinary manner of geoecology, and different points of

V. T. Trofimov



Modern planktic foraminifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planktic foraminifers are marine protozoans with calcareous Shells and chambered tests. They first appeared in the mid-Jurassic\\u000a and spread since the mid-Cretaceous over all the world’s oceans. Modern planktic foraminifers evolved since the early Tertiary,\\u000a when the first spinose species occurred. Most species live in the surface to sub-thermocline layer of the open ocean, and\\u000a in marginal seas like the

Ralf Schiebel; Christoph Hemleben



Process studies in modern glacial environments: An innovative method and tool for subsurface site characterization at U.S. Army Alaska installations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface stratigraphy in previously glaciated terrain is complex and difficult to interpret. Textbook models illustrating glacial and periglacial environments are often too idealized to serve as adequate analogs to interpret site-specific subsurface data. Models of emplacement generally provide the perspective of glacial and periglacial processes at synoptic scales. While these models are useful to understand general principles, these models are insufficient to provide geologic information at resolutions necessary for quantitative environmental remediation efforts. Contaminated sites on U.S. Army Alaska Installations are characterized by glacially driven complex subsurface stratigraphy. These subsurface conditions cannot entirely be defined through boreholes, nor can geophysical data (ground penetrating radar, shallow seismics, etc.) be readily interpreted through existing conceptual models, especially in areas of discontinuous permafrost (Fort Wainwright, central Alaska) or formerly glaciated terrains (Fort Richardson, South Central Alaska; Haines Fuel Terminal, Southeast Alaska). Process studies at modern glacier locales, such as the Matanuska Glacier and Glacier Bay, allow us to apply actual field-process observations at a variety of scales to characterize site-specific stratigraphy. This work has led us to refine our geophysical approaches to detect the presence of buried ice, permafrost and sediment layers in active terrestrial and tidewater glacial environments, which has greatly enhanced our ability to map the vertical and lateral distribution of confining layers in our investigative areas (i.e. permafrost and sediments). These data and process observations are synthesized as three-dimensional models allowing us to predict the probable spatial distribution and relationships that exist among aquifers and their confining units. This approach allows us the ability to accurately develop subsurface models that are essential in developing groundwater models to predict contaminant migration pathways.

Evenson, E. B.; Lawson, D. E.; Kopczynski, S. E.; Finnegan, D. C.; Bigl, S. R.; Fosbrook, C.



Statistical Evaluation of Two Microbiological Diagnostic Methods of Pulmonary Tuberculosis After Implementation of a Directly Observed Treatment Short-course Program  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of smear and culture tests of clinical samples of pulmonary tuberculosis after the introduction of the directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) program. Methods: Using sputum samples from 572 individuals as a self-selected population, both Ziehl–Neelsen staining and culturing on Lowenstein–Jensen medium were carried out as diagnostic procedures. Using Bayes’ rule, the obtained data set was analyzed. Results: Of the 572 samples, 33 (0.05769) were true positive (results of both tests positive) cases; 22 samples (0.03846) were false positive (smear test positive and culture test negative) cases; 62 samples (0.10839) were false negative (smear test negative and culture test positive) cases; and 455 samples (0.79545) were true negative (results of both tests negative) cases. Values of test statistics, sensitivity, and specificity were used to compute several inherent other Bayesian test statistics. The a priori probability or prevalence value of tuberculosis in the targeted population was 0.166. The a posteriori probability value computed arithmetically was 0.6614 and that obtained by the graphical method was 0.62. Conclusions: The smear test was found to be dependable for 95.4% with stable TB infections, and it was not dependable for 34.7% without stable TB infections. The culture test could be regarded as the gold standard for 96.15% as seen with the data set, which was obtained after the implementation of the DOTS program.

Rath, Shakti; Dubey, Debasmita; Sahu, Mahesh C.; Mishra, Sudhanshu S.; Padhy, Rabindra N.



Realizing the fault diagnostic system in maglev suspension train system (MSTS) based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since maglev train system is a large system, it is difficult to diagnose the fault to the whole train extent by traditional method of fault diagnosing. The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is usually applied to most large systems, which can consider many factors of a large system. Firstly the principle of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is introduced, then concerned about

Zhiqiang Long; Zhiguo Lv; Huajie Hong



Modern Man and the Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Modernization is a process of change in the way of life of a person in which he uses available resources and learned techniques to achieve material happiness. Data collected in 1967 and 1972 in the rural communities of India reveal certain characteristics that distinguish the modern person: a keen awareness of his own modernity, highly motivated…

Sitaram, K. B.


Antennas for Modern Small Satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern small satellites (MSS) are revolutionizing the space industry. They can drastically reduce the mission cost, and can make access to space more affordable. The relationship between a modern small satellite and a ldquoconventionalrdquo large satellite is similar to that between a modern compact laptop and a ldquoconventionalrdquo work-station computer. This paper gives an overview of antenna technologies for applications

S. Gao; K. Clark; M. Unwin; J. Zackrisson; W. A. Shiroma; J. M. Akagi; K. Maynard; P. Garner; L. Boccia; G. Amendola; G. Massa; C. Underwood; M. Brenchley; M. Pointer; M. N. Sweeting



Modern Man and the Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modernization is a process of change in the way of life of a person in which he uses available resources and learned techniques to achieve material happiness. Data collected in 1967 and 1972 in the rural communities of India reveal certain characteristics that distinguish the modern person: a keen awareness of his own modernity, highly motivated…

Sitaram, K. B.


Diagnostics and Microelectronics  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses activities of the Diagnostics and Microelectronics thrust area which conducts activities in semiconductor devices and semiconductor fabrication technology for programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our multidisciplinary engineering and scientific staff use modern computational tools and semi-conductor microfabrication equipment to develop high-performance devices. Our work concentrates on three broad technologies of semiconductor microdevices: (1) silicon on III-V semiconductor microeletronics, (2) lithium niobate-based and III-V semiconductor-based photonics, and (3) silicon-based micromaching for application to microstructures and microinstruments. In FY-92, we worked on projects in seven areas, described in this report: novel photonic detectors; a wideband phase modulator; an optoelectronic terahertz beam system; the fabrication of microelectrode electrochemical sensors; diamond heatsinks; advanced micromachining technologies; and electrophoresis using silicon microchannels.

Balch, J.W.



Simultaneous diagnostic method for phenylketonuria and galactosemia from dried blood spots using high-performance liquid chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection.  


We developed a simultaneous diagnostic method for phenylketonuria (PKU) and galactosemia through simultaneous determination of phenylalanine (Phe) and galactose (Gal) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD). The intra- and inter-day precisions were <5.8%, with satisfactory mean recoveries (98.2-105%). For all PKU-positive samples, Phe levels were above the cut-off value (>30.0 mg/L), but Gal levels were nearly zero. For 77% of galactosemia-positive samples, Phe levels were above the cut-off value, but Gal levels were above the cut-off value (>80.0 mg/L) for all samples. Our HPLC-PAD method can reduce the false-positive rate of misdiagnosis for PKU and galactosemia. PMID:20494631

Kim, Nam-Hee; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Kwon, Ha-Jeong; Lee, Yong-Moon; Yoon, Hye-Ran; Lee, Kyoung Ryul; Hong, Seon-Pyo



Foundations of modern cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent discoveries in astronomy, especially those made with data collected by satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, have revolutionized the science of cosmology. These new observations offer the possibility that some long-standing mysteries in cosmology might be answered, including such fundamental questions as the ultimate fate of the universe. Foundations of modern cosmology provides an accessible, thorough and descriptive introduction to the physical basis for modern cosmological theory, from the big bang to a distant future dominated by dark energy. This second edition includes the latest observational results and provides the detailed background material necessary to understand their implications, with a focus on the specific model supported by these observations, the concordance model. Consistent with the book's title, emphasis is given to the scientific framework for cosmology, particularly the basics concepts of physics that underlie modern theories of relativity and cosmology; the importance of data and observations is stressed throughout. The book sketches the historical background of cosmology, and provides a review of the relevant basic physics and astronomy. After this introduction, both special and general relativity are treated, before proceeding to an in-depth discussion of the big bang theory and physics of the early universe. The book includes current research areas, including dark matter and structure formation, dark energy, the inflationary universe, and quantum cosmology. The authors' website ( offers a wealth of supplemental information, including questions and answers, references to other sources, and updates on the latest discoveries.

Hawley, John F.; Holcomb, Katherine A.



Modern solids control  

SciTech Connect

The concept of modern solids-control system for drilling rigs is introduced and experimentally investigated. The system incorporates a conventional solids-control arrangement followed by a diversion of part of the drilling mud for chemical conditioning and configuration. The dewatering effluent is returned to the mud system makeup-water storage. The dewatered colloidal solids are then stabilized by being mixed with the shaker discharge and the surrounding soils. The system can provide an effective control of colloidal-solids concentration in drilling muds. In can also minimize the volume of drilling waste. The new process was examined in full-scale experiments to evaluate process efficiency and to identify the effects of field installation, operational variables, solids classification before dewatering, dilution, and the stability of the dewatering and its sensitivity to chemical dosage. In the chemical destabilization tests, a successful treatment was found for flowline samples of five different drilling-mud systems. The conceptual design of the modern solids-control system is presented and discussed. This process is also related to conventional solids-control and wastewater treatments.

Wojtanowicz, A.K. (Louisiana State Univ., LA (US))



Heliotropism in modern stromatolites  

SciTech Connect

Three different examples of modern microbial mats and stromatolites have been discovered that exhibit a preferred orientation towards specular sunlight. In Hamelin Pool of Shark Bay, Western Australia, subtidal decimeter-sized discrete columns and intertidal centimeter-sized tufts were found pointing north. In thermal spring effluents and pools of Yellowstone National Park, columnar and conical centimeter-sized microbial structures were found to be inclined to the south. None of these inclined structures show growth orientation in response to prevailing fluid directions. Each example occurs in markedly different environments and each has different photosynthetic microbes: (1) the subtidal Shark Bay columns are dominated by surficial diatoms: (2) the intertidal Shark Bay tufts constructed by a filamentous cyanobacterium; and (3) the cones and columns in Yellowstone are built by filamentous flexibacteria and cyanobacteria. Sunlight must be considered a major driving force in stromatolite morphogenesis. Extrapolation of these modern heliotropic columnar stromatolites to fossil examples supports the paleolatitude hypothesis of Vologdin (1961) and of Nordeng (1963) and the days per year hypothesis of Vanyo and Awramik (1982). Taken together, and especially when combined with paleomagnetic analyses, the procedures yield an impressive array of data on Earth and Earth-Sun-Moon histories.

Awramik, S.M.



Making the Modern World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Making the Modern World offers a dynamic rendition of the permanent gallery at the Science Museum in London. The "learning modules" are "packed with demonstrations, activities and rich media experiences" and "designed for use by everyone interested in learning more about the evolution of the modern world." Topics include how to engineer DNA, how the world's most famous bridges were built, and war technology. The Stories Timeline section provides a timeline of stories about inventions to "show how our lives are shaped by the things we make, invent and use." Articles are embedded within the timeline for further exploration of the topics. Another section highlights some of the Icons of Invention, such as the home computer and the Apollo 10 command module. The Everyday Life section explores how "technology is woven through our daily lives at home, at work or at play." Finally, the Guided Tours chronologically follows a particular topic, such as women in science and technology. All of the sections include photographs and are easy to navigate.


Isolation of Diagnostic Glycoproteins to Taenia Solium, Immunoblot-Assay and Method for the Detection of Human Cysticercosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention is directed to a method for diagnosing active human neurocysticercosis utilizing an immunoblot assay which comprises: detecting the presence of antibodies in the serum or cerebrospinal fluid of a human to be diagnosed, wherein said a...

V. C. W. Tsang J. A. Brand A. E. Boyer M. Wilson P. M. Schantz



Discordance rate, a new concept for combining diagnostic decisions with analytical performance characteristics. 1. Application in method or sample system comparisons and in defining decision limits.  


Method comparison studies are usually evaluated by several statistical tests (e.g., regression analysis) which sufficiently describe the analytical (dis)agreement between the results of two procedures. However, they do not provide any information how differences, if observed, influence diagnostic decision making. A novel statistical approach is described to test the clinical relevance of differences between two analytical procedures. The new procedure requires a population-based probability which describes the distribution of values within the population under study and an analytical probability quantifying the risk of errors due to replacing one method by the other. The population probability was derived from 171 subjects from two outpatient departments (internal medicine and dermatology) who were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test because type 2 diabetes mellitus was suspected. The analytical probability was determined from duplicate glucose measurements in venous and capillary blood, and venous plasma in the fasting and 2 h post-challenge state by the routine method used in a central laboratory (Ebio analyzer) and a (POCT) glucometer (Elite). The two probabilities were combined into one "error rate" (discordance rate). The new concept was applied to three examples. In the first example, a comparison between two analytical systems led to discordance rates above 15%. After transforming the Elite analyzer results by a regression function, the discordance rate decreased below 5%, which was considered to be acceptable for the diagnostic purpose studied. In the second example, discordance rates were estimated by comparing different sample systems with each other. The use of whole blood in comparison with venous plasma led to discordance rates of 5-7% for venous blood and 7-10% for capillary blood. The same data set was also used in a third example to derive decision limits for capillary and venous blood from the established plasma values. The proposed procedure estimates the diagnostic error rate based on analytic performance characteristics and population probabilities. It extends the concept of (un)efficiency by including the effect of variability about a decision limit and the distribution of the measurement values in the patient population. PMID:12705345

Haeckel, Rainer; Wosniok, Werner; Puentmann, Isabel



Applications of the LIF method for the diagnostics of the combustion process of gas-IC-engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the underlying project, the task was to develop methods for optical measurements in a hydrogen-fuelled engine with\\u000a direct-injection, with the goal of measuring the jet patterns during injection, the stratification of the charge at ignition\\u000a point and the propagation of the flame during combustion. Therefore, the method of planar laser-induced-fluorescence (PLIF)\\u000a was chosen. In order to apply this technique

Wolfram Kirchweger; Rainer Haslacher; Michael Hallmannsegger; Udo Gerke



Diagnostic evaluation of people with hypertension in low income country: cohort study of "essential" method of risk stratification  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore the predictive power of a risk stratification method for people with hypertension based on “essential” procedures (that is, available in economically less developed areas of the world), comparing it in the same population with the results given by the method suggested by the 1999 World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension (WHO-ISH) guidelines. Design Prospective cohort study of outcomes according to cardiovascular risk profile at baseline. Setting Primary care in a poor rural area of the Ecuadorian forest. Participants 504 people with hypertension prospectively monitored for a mean of 6.7 (SD 2.3) years. Interventions Essential data included blood pressure, medical history, smoking, age, sex, and diagnosis of diabetes; the WHO-ISH methods additionally included measurement of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, and creatinine, urinalysis, and electrocardiography. Main outcome measures Cardiovascular events and total deaths. Results With both methods there was a highly significant association between the level of predicted risk and the incidence of cardiovascular events and of total deaths: up to three quarters of all cardiovascular events and two thirds of all deaths were reported among people classified as at high or very high risk with either method. The predictive discrimination of the essential method is comparable with the WHO-ISH with C statistics (95% confidence interval) of 0.788 (0.721 to 0.855) and 0.744 (0.673 to 0.815), respectively, for cardiovascular events and 0.747 (0.678 to 0.816) and 0.705 (0.632 to 0.778) for total mortality. Conclusions The risk stratification of patients with hypertension with an essential package of variables (that is, available and practicable even in the economically less developed areas of the world) serves at least as well as the more comprehensive method proposed by WHO-ISH.



A direct comparison of next generation sequencing enrichment methods using an aortopathy gene panel- clinical diagnostics perspective  

PubMed Central

Background Aortopathies are a group of disorders characterized by aneurysms, dilation, and tortuosity of the aorta. Because of the phenotypic overlap and genetic heterogeneity of diseases featuring aortopathy, molecular testing is often required for timely and correct diagnosis of affected individuals. In this setting next generation sequencing (NGS) offers several advantages over traditional molecular techniques. Methods The purpose of our study was to compare NGS enrichment methods for a clinical assay targeting the nine genes known to be associated with aortopathy. RainDance emulsion PCR and SureSelect RNA-bait hybridization capture enrichment methods were directly compared by enriching DNA from eight samples. Enriched samples were barcoded, pooled, and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Depth of coverage, consistency of coverage across samples, and the overlap of variants identified were assessed. This data was also compared to whole-exome sequencing data from ten individuals. Results Read depth was greater and less variable among samples that had been enriched using the RNA-bait hybridization capture enrichment method. In addition, samples enriched by hybridization capture had fewer exons with mean coverage less than 10, reducing the need for followup Sanger sequencing. Variants sets produced were 77% concordant, with both techniques yielding similar numbers of discordant variants. Conclusions When comparing the design flexibility, performance, and cost of the targeted enrichment methods to whole-exome sequencing, the RNA-bait hybridization capture enrichment gene panel offers the better solution for interrogating the aortopathy genes in a clinical laboratory setting.



Advances in engine combustion and flow diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Developing a detailed understanding of the combustion processes in both spark-ignition and diesel engines is the goal of much engine combustion research. To this end, modern diagnostic tools (lasers, detectors, computers...) and modeling methods have been developed. A wide variety of papers are presented in this volume, all focusing, however, on some aspect of engine combustion. One major theme is the use of in-situ diagnostics to provide a detailed view of ignition and combustion processes. Several papers apply planar imaging techniques to measure concentrations of various species, for example OH radicals and soot. Other papers focus on the problem of spray formation in diesel engines and in-cylinder temperature measurements. A second major theme is the use of various combustion models, developed either as an aid to understanding or as the basis for practical engine control. Finally, a number of papers discuss processes through which cyclic combustion variability can be reduced, thereby enabling lean burn. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.




[Assay of specific anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies by ELISA method. 2. studies on clinical usefulness and serological diagnostic standards].  


We measured anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) specific antibody titers by means of a newly-developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method using an anti-C. pneumoniae specific antibody detection reagent. The clinical usefulness of this method was hereby evaluated. The IgG, IgA and IgM titers in 418 serum specimens obtained from patients with respiratory tract infections were measured by this new ELISA method, and the results were compared with the titers determined for the same specimens with the micro immunofluorescence (Micro-IF) method. The results showed good correlation coefficients for IgG, IgA and IgM. The two assay methods showed high agreement rates for positivity and for negativity. Specimens which did not yield the same results with the ELISA method and the Micro-IF method were subjected to analysis by the Western blot method, and the rates of agreement with the ELISA results were high. In addition, the child (0 approximately 15 yrs old; n = 122) and adult (16 approximately 90 yrs old; n = 133) cases were classified on the basis of being antigen-positive or antigen-negative at the initial examination, and their antibody-positive rates were determined. The adults showed no statistically significant differences in the antibody-positive rates for either IgG or IgA antibodies as a function of the pretreatment antigen status. However, the children showed statistically significant (p < 0.001) differences in the antibody-positive rates for both IgG and IgA antibodies as a function of the antigen status in the antigen-positive group compared with the rates in the antigen-negative group. Furthermore, the IgM-positive rates for the children were high in the antigen-positive group compared with the rates in the antigen-negative group, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The IgM-positive rates in the adults were also significantly (p < 0.05) different between the antigen-positive group and the antigen-negative group. The Micro-IF method was applied to 34 specimens from antigen-positive patients, and 22 specimens were found to show an IgG titer of > or = 512 or an IgM titer of > or = 16. The diagnoses of these patients were acute respiratory disease in sixteen, pneumonia in four. Application of the ELISA-method to those 22 specimens showed all of them to exhibit IgG absorbance of > or = 0.6 and IgA absorbance of 0.2. The results described above indicate the clinical usefulness of our new ELISA method for the detection of antibodies specific for C. pneumoniae. The significance of this ELISA method for serological diagnosis of C. pneumoniae infections and the criteria for diagnosis of acute infections were also discussed. PMID:8890551

Kishimoto, T; Kubota, Y; Matsushima, T; Izutsu, H; Matsumoto, A; Soejima, R; Numazaki, K; Chiba, S; Yamazaki, T; Sasaki, N; Kaku, M; Shimada, J; Iwasaki, E; Baba, M; Koori, Y; Aihara, M; Chikumi, H; Kosaba, S; Nonaka, Y; Ouchi, K; Yamamoto, T; Kashiwagi, S; Kawayama, T; Ohizumi, K; Nagai, H



An Approach to the Use of Modern Biological Assay Methods as a Fast Criterion for the Surface Cleaning/Assay Decision (LPS and ATP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA has an ongoing research effort to introduce new methodologies to evaluate trace levels of biological contamination on spacecraft outbound from Earth to the surface of Mars. Present NASA regulations call for the evaluation of bioburden on spacecraft surfaces by the determination of aerobic spore-forming bacteria as a proxy for the total bioburden actually present. We are currently investigating molecular based methodologies that assess bioburden in a more rapid manner than the NASA standard technique. These are expected to find initial use, not for regulatory purposes, but for assisting the engineering team during the assembly of spacecraft by providing a rapid indicator of bioburden. We have evaluated two complementary methodologies and found they correlate to a significant degree with the presence of bacterial spores. A bioluminescence based detection method is capable of rapidly monitoring ATP levels from 10-13 M to 10-10 M. Similarly a Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay is capable of rapidly monitoring levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from 0.005 to 50 endotoxin units (approx. 5x10-13 to 5x10-10 g E. coli LPS). Both methods have been tested during the course of the Mars Exploration Rover's assembly with a total of over 500 samples taken. Not only do these methods give one an independent measure of bioburden, they can also reasonably predict the presence of spores. There appears to be a significant correlation between samples containing ATP, LPS and spores.

Kern, R.; Wainwright, N.; Kazarians, G.; Kuhlman, G.; Kempf, M.; Chen, F.; Venkateswaran, K.


Diagnostic Instability of "DSM-IV" ADHD Subtypes: Effects of Informant Source, Instrumentation, and Methods for Combining Symptom Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from 123 children (aged 6-12 years) referred consecutively to a pediatric neuropsychiatry clinic by community physicians for assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and related problems, we investigated the effects of informant (parent, teacher), tool (interview, rating scale), and method for combining symptom…

Valo, Shana; Tannock, Rosemary



Application of different atomic force microscopy methods for detailed diagnostics of gold nanocoatings on a single-crystal sapphire surface  

SciTech Connect

Gold nanodots and clusters deposited on sapphire substrates with a regular nanorelief have been investigated by atomic force microscopy. It is shown that the phase-contrast method combined with contact force spectroscopy makes it possible to identify these nanostructures and describe some of their physical properties.

Muslimov, A. E., E-mail:; Volkov, Yu. O.; Asadchikov, V. E.; Kanevskii, V. M.; Roshchin, B. S.; Vlasov, V. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)



Development of Harmonic-Noise Reduction Technology in Diagnostic Method using AC Loss Current for Water Treed XLPE Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water tree is one of the degradation aspects of XLPE cables used for under-ground distribution or transmission lines. We have developed the loss current method using 3rd harmonic in AC loss current for cable diagnosis. Harmonic components in loss current arise as a result of the non-linear voltage-current characteristics of water trees. We confirmed that the 3rd harmonic in AC loss current had good correlation with water tree growth and break down strength. After that, we have applied this method to the actual 66kV XLPE cable lines. Up to now, the number of the application results is more than 120 lines. In this method, it is sometimes said that the degradation signal (3rd harmonic in loss current) is affected by the 3rd harmonic in the test voltage. To indicate and solve this problem, we investigated the extent of influence by 3rd harmonic in the test voltage, and found the rule of the influence. As a result, we developed a new technique of harmonic-noise reduction in loss current method that enabled a more highly accurate diagnosis and confirmed the effectiveness of this new technique by simulations and experiments with actual cables.

Tsujimoto, Tomiyuki; Nakade, Masahiko; Yagi, Yukihiro; Ishii, Noboru


An Introduction to Modern Missing Data Analyses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A great deal of recent methodological research has focused on two modern missing data analysis methods: maximum likelihood and multiple imputation. These approaches are advantageous to traditional techniques (e.g. deletion and mean imputation techniques) because they require less stringent assumptions and mitigate the pitfalls of traditional…

Baraldi, Amanda N.; Enders, Craig K.



Review of Modern Spacecraft Thermal Control Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Originally created and developed for space applications, several commercial terrestrial technologies still permeate our society today. Examples include solar cells, Global Positioning Systems, and less expensive methods of carbon nanotube manufacture. Given a long and successful history of spinoffs, there might exist opportunities for the transfer of modern spacecraft thermal control technologies to terrestrial HVAC&R applications. First, this paper presents

Derek W. Hengeveld; Margaret M. Mathison; James E. Braun; Eckhard A. Groll; Andrew D. Williams



Modern control design for flexible wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control can improve energy capture and reduce dynamic loads in wind turbines. In the 1970s and 1980s wind turbines used classical control designs to regulate power and speed. The methods used, however, were not always successful. These systems often had bandwidths large enough to destabilize low-damped flexible modes leading to high dynamic load fatigue failures. Modern turbines are larger, mounted

Alan Duane Wright



Modernized Newtonian Cosmology in Secondary Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern cosmology is founded on general relativity. Therefore, it lies outside the syllabus of classical physics and mathematics in most secondary schools. Nevertheless, it is desirable to introduce its concepts, methods and results to interested students. This is possible by assuming modified principles of homogeneity and isotropy and applying Newtonian dynamics with an extra repulsive force including Einstein's cosmological constant.

Thorir Sigurdsson



Relating faults in diagnostic reasoning with diagnostic errors and patient harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The relationship between faults in diagnostic reasoning, diagnostic errors, and patient harm has hardly been studied. This study examined suboptimal cognitive acts (SCAs; i.e., faults in diagnostic reasoning), related them to the occurrence of diagnostic errors and patient harm, and studied the causes. Method: Four expert internists reviewed patient records of 247 dyspnea patients, using a specially developed questionnaire

L. Zwaan; A. Thijs; C. Wagner; G. van der Wal; D. R. M. Timmermans



Modernizing sports facilities  

SciTech Connect

Modernization and renovation of sports facilities challenge the design team to balance a number of requirements: spectator and owner expectations, existing building and site conditions, architectural layouts, code and legislation issues, time constraints and budget issues. System alternatives are evaluated and selected based on the relative priorities of these requirements. These priorities are unique to each project. At Alexander Memorial Coliseum, project schedules, construction funds and facility usage became the priorities. The ACC basketball schedule and arrival of the Centennial Olympics dictated the construction schedule. Initiation and success of the project depended on the commitment of the design team to meet coliseum funding levels established three years ago. Analysis of facility usage and system alternative capabilities drove the design team to select a system that met the project requirements and will maximize the benefits to the owner and spectators for many years to come.

Dustin, R. [McKenney`s, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)



Modern carbonate environments  

SciTech Connect

This book offers help in evaluating potential sites for oil and gas accumulations. Pointing the way to discovery of hydrocarbons in carbonate reservoirs, this volume discusses modern carbonate depositional environments in different geomorphic settings. It compiles papers by scientists whose observations have revolutionized current thinking on facies relationships in ancient carbonate rock. Contents include: Selected carbonate regions --The Algal Sediments on Androa Island in the Bahamas, Sedimentary Facies, Interaction of Genetic Processes in Holocene Reefs off North Eleuthera Island in the Bahamas, Recent Anhydrite, Holocene Shallow-Water Carbonate and Evaporite Sediments of Khor al Bazam; Carbonate production--On the Origin of Aragonite in the Dead Sea, Carbonate Production by Coral Reefs; Cold-water carbonates--Contributions on the Geology of the Northwestern Peninsula of Iceland, Evaluation of Cold-Water Carbonates as a Possible Paleoclimatic Indicator.

Bhattacharyya, A.; Friedman, G.M.



Destination Modern Art - MOMA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grab your kids and join a couple of space aliens on a mission to explore modern art from MOMA's permanent collection (and at its satellite PS1), a former public school building. (Notably, the five works and associated activities at MOMA amused a seven-year-old for at least 25 minutes!) These activities include Listen (especially good on Van Gogh's _Starry Night_), Tools (make your own collage along with Romare Beardon's _The Dove_), and Look, explanations of the images in a Frida Kahlo self-portrait. The PS1 portion of the site is an interactive tour of selected artworks including Jennifer Cho's Haystacks, William Kentridge's paper cutouts, and a video installation by Pipilotti Rist, _Selbstlos im Lavabad_.


Modern sampling and analytical methods for the determination of trace elements in marine particulate material using magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.  


Trace elements often limit phytoplankton growth in the ocean, and the quantification of particulate forms is essential to fully understand their biogeochemical cycling. There is presently a lack of reliable measurements on the trace elemental content of marine particles, in part due to the inadequacies of the sampling and analytical methods employed. Here we report on the development of a series of state-of-the-art trace metal clean methods to collect and process oceanic particulate material in open-ocean and sea ice environments, including sampling, size-fractionated filtration, particle digestions and analysis by magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Particular attention was paid to the analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs) and field blanks, which are typically the limiting factor for the accurate analysis of low concentrations of trace metals in marine particulate samples. Theoretical detection limits (3 s of the blank) were low for all 17 elements considered, and varied according to filter material and porosity (sub-microg L(-1) for polycarbonate filters and 1-2 microg L(-1) for quartz and polyester filters). Analytical accuracy was verified using fresh water CRMs, with excellent recoveries noted (93-103%). Digestion efficiencies for various acid combinations were assessed using sediment and plankton CRMs. Using nitric acid only, good recoveries (79-90%) were achieved for Mo, Cd, Ba, Pb, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ga. The addition of HF was necessary for the quantitative recovery of the more refractory trace elements such as U, Al, V and Cr. Bioactive elements such as P can also be analysed and used as a biomass normaliser. Our developed sampling and analytical methods proved reliable when applied during two major field programs in both the open Southern Ocean and Antarctic sea ice environments during the International Polar Year in 2007. Trace elemental data are presented for particulate samples collected in both suspended and sinking marine material, and also within sea ice cores. PMID:20800737

Bowie, Andrew R; Townsend, Ashley T; Lannuzel, Delphine; Remenyi, Tomas A; van der Merwe, Pier



[Paraphrenia: the modernity of Emil Kraepelin's thinking].  


Paraphrenia is a chronic psychotic disorder similar to paranoid schizophrenia, but with a better-preserved affect and rapport, and a much less personality deterioration. It was at first described by Kraepelin in 1913 as a group of patients who exhibited delusional symptoms typical of dementia praecox, but with minimal disturbances of emotion and volition. After the publication of Mayer-Gross's report in 1921, the view to differentiate paraphrenia from schizophrenia was considered to be unfounded and the term "paraphrenia" was not included in the current DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. Consequently, this disorder is now diagnosed relatively infrequently. However, several authors have recently suggested that the paraphrenia concept has not lost its usefulness. It seems to be that many psychiatrists recognize the illness, but labelled it as "atypical psychosis", "schizoaffective disorder" or "psychotic disorder not otherwise specified" for the lack of a better diagnostic category. Very few systematic studies on paraphrenia have been conducted in the past 70 years. Aim of this article is to underline the modernity of Kraepelin's thinking and his "paraphrenia" concept, suggesting that it could be possible to define and recognize the illness if practitioners would be induced to use a viable diagnostic entity. PMID:20568578

Pelizza, Lorenzo; Bonazzi, Federica


Navigating the diagnostics career labyrinth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated diagnostics is a career field for which there currently exists no standard set of basic qualifications, few educational opportunities to study at the university level, no clear processes within most organizations for practicing integrated diagnostics as a systems engineering activity and often no uniform method of sharing techniques and lessons learned with new employees. Several authors have stated the

Russell Shannon; J. Quiter



Flow Cytometry Method as a Diagnostic Tool for Pleural Fluid Involvement in a Patient with Multiple Myeloma  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma is a malignant proliferation of plasma cells that mainly affects bone marrow. Pleural effusions secondary to pleural myelomatous involvement have rarely been reported in the literature. As it is rarely detected, we aimed to report a case in which pleural effusion of a multiple myeloma was confirmed as true myelomatous involvement by flow cytometry method. A 52-years old man presented to our clinic with chest and back pain lasting for 3 months. On the chest radiography, pleural fluid was detected in left hemithorax. Pleural fluid flow cytometry was performed. In the flow cytometry, CD56, CD38 and CD138 found to be positive, while CD19 was negative. True myelomatous pleural effusions are very uncommon, with fewer than 100 cases reported worldwide. Flow cytometry is a potentially useful and simple method for detection of pleural fluid involvement in multiple myeloma.

Keklik, Muzaffer; Sivgin, Serdar; Pala, Cigdem; Eroglu, Celalettin; Akyol, Gulsah; Kaynar, Leylagul; Koker, M. Yavuz; Camlica, Demet; Unal, Ali; Cetin, Mustafa; Eser, Bulent



Quantitation of mycotoxins in food and feed from Burkina Faso and Mozambique using a modern LC-MS/MS multitoxin method.  


In this study an LC-MS/MS multitoxin method covering a total of 247 fungal and bacterial metabolites was applied to the analysis of different foods and feedstuffs from Burkina Faso and Mozambique. Overall, 63 metabolites were determined in 122 samples of mainly maize and groundnuts and a few samples of sorghum, millet, rice, wheat, soy, dried fruits, other processed foods and animal feeds. Aflatoxin B(1) was observed more frequently in maize (Burkina Faso, 50% incidence, median = 23.6 ?g/kg; Mozambique, 46% incidence, median = 69.9 ?g/kg) than in groundnuts (Burkina Faso, 22% incidence, median = 10.5 ?g/kg; Mozambique, 14% incidence, median = 3.4 ?g/kg). Fumonisin B(1) concentrations in maize were higher in Mozambique (92% incidence, median = 869 ?g/kg) than in Burkina Faso (81% incidence, median = 269 ?g/kg). In addition, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and other less reported mycotoxins such as citrinin, alternariol, cyclopiazonic acid, sterigmatocystin, moniliformin, beauvericin, and enniatins were detected. Up to 28 toxic fungal metabolites were quantitated in a single sample, emphasizing the great variety of mycotoxin coexposure. Most mycotoxins have not been reported before in either country. PMID:22835072

Warth, Benedikt; Parich, Alexandra; Atehnkeng, Joseph; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf



Dialogue on Modernity and Modern Education in Dispute  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is a dialogue or conversation between Michael Baker (MB) and Michael A. Peters (MP) on the concept of modernity and its significance for educational theory. The dialogue took place originally as a conversation about a symposium on modernity held at the American Educational Studies Association meeting 2010. It was later developed for…

Baker, Michael; Peters, Michael A.



[The application of method of flow cytometry in diagnostics of hereditary spherocytosis (eosin-5 maleimid binding test)].  


The technique of binding eosin-5 maleimid fluorescent dye with lysine-430 of first extracellular protein bulge of band 3 of erythrocytes' membranes makes it possible to detect the defects of cytoskeleton of erythrocytes as a biological foundation of pathogenesis of hereditary spherocytosis. The samples of peripheral blood from 125 adult persons and 18 children with established absence of hematologic disorders were analyzed The samples of peripheral blood from 19 patients with verified hereditary spherocytosis were analyzed too. The method of flow cytometry was applied to register the average intensity of fluorescence of eosin-5 maleimid. The decrease of average intensity of fluorescence of eosin-5 maleimid of erythrocytes of patients with hereditary spherocytosis as compared with data from comparison groups was established in all cases. PMID:22988800

Prokhorova, Iu A; Zueva, E E; Sokolova, N E



Snapshot Mueller polarimetry for biomedical diagnostic related to human liver fibrosis: evaluation of the method for biomedical assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human liver biopsy samples, consisting into a 16 ?m thickness biomaterial chemically fixed into a formaldehyde matrix, and stained by red picrosirius dye, are analysed for different states of fibrosis degeneration. Polarimetric methods, and specially Mueller polarimetry based on wavelength coding, have been qualified as an efficient tool to describe many different biological aspects. The polarimetric characteristics of the media, extracted from a Lu and Chipman decomposition1, 2 of their Mueller Matrix (MM), are correlated with the degeneracy level of tissue. Different works and results linked to the clinical analysis will be presented and compared to previous performed works.3 Polarimetric imaging will be presented and compared with SHG measurements. A statistical analysis of the distribution of polarimetric parameters (such as the retardance R and depolarisation Pd) will be presented too, in order to characterise the liver fibrosis level into the biomaterial under study.

Babilotte, P.; Dubreuil, M.; Rivet, S.; Lijour, Y.; Sevrain, D.; Martin, L.; Le Brun, G.; Le Grand, Y.; Le Jeune, B.



Information integration in the modern pulp and paper industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like other types of industry, the modern pulp and paper industry (MPPI) is applying more modern information technologies and management technologies, and is integrating the different function sub-systems and production processes to realize intelligent and integrated production. This task is very complex thus useful theories, technologies and methods are needed to provide help. At the same time, fierce competition in

Guang-Yu Xiong; Gang Xiong; T. R. Nyberg



[Substantiation of an adequate scope of diagnostic methods and surgical procedures in patients with diabetic foot syndrome].  


Analysed herein are the results of treating a total of 154 patients presenting with diabetes mellitus and pyo-necrotic alterations in the lower limbs. Duration of diabetes prior to the development of necrotic complications averagely amounted to 15 years, in 76 patients of the Study Group we determined the species-specific composition of the pathogens, the number of microbial bodies in 1 gram of necrotic tissues as well as the state of cellular and humoral immunity, and the complex of therapeutic measures was supplemented by cytokine therapy: Operative treatment in 78 patients of the control group consisted of various-scope necrectomies and open management of the wounds. The operative procedures in the Study Group patients included revascularizing operations, as well as secondary surgical debridement of the wounds with placing sutures. In the control group, the limb salvage rate amounted to 57.7% (29 of 78) and that in the Study Group to 88.15% (67 of 76). In the first group, we performed a total of 29 (37.17%) major amputations and 4 (5.25%) in the study group. Conclusion was made on advantages of a comprehensive approach while assessing all impairments in the body of duibetic patients and adequate therapeutic policy aimed at re-establishing blood flow, removal of the purulent focus and decrease of tissue infectedness, correction of the immune status, as well as application of novel methods of treatment and drug therapy. PMID:22929687

Katel'nitski?, I I; Trandofilov, A M



Unnecessary laparotomy by using physical examination and different diagnostic modalities for penetrating abdominal stab wounds  

PubMed Central

Background: The modern management of penetrating abdominal trauma has decreased the incidence of unnecessary laparotomy by using selective non-operative management protocols. However, the real benefits of physical examination and different diagnostic methods are still unclear. Methods: From January 2000 to April 2003, we prospectively collected data on 117 patients with penetrating stab wounds to the thoracoabdominal, anterior abdominal, and back regions who had non-operative management. Clinical examination was the primary tool to differentiate those patients requiring operation. Findings of physical examination, ultrasound, computed tomography, endoscopy, echocardiography, diagnostic peritoneal lavage, and diagnostic laparoscopy were reviewed. The number of therapeutic, non-therapeutic, and negative laparotomies were recorded. Results: Non-operative management was successful in 79% of patients. There were 11 early (within 8 hours of admission) and 14 delayed (more than 8 hours after admission) laparotomies performed, depending on the results of various diagnostic procedures. Non-operative management failed in 21% of patients, and the rate of non-therapeutic laparotomy in early and delayed laparatomy groups was 9% and 14% respectively. There was no negative laparatomy. Conclusions: The use of physical examination alone and/or together with different diagnostic methods allows reduction of non-therapeutic laparotomies and elimination of negative laparatomies.

Ertekin, C; Yanar, H; Taviloglu, K; Guloglu, R; Alimoglu, O



Systematic evaluation of a secondary method for measuring diagnostic-level medical ultrasound transducer output power based on a large-area pyroelectric sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic study of the application of a novel pyroelectric technique to the measurement of diagnostic-level medical ultrasound output power is described. The method exploits the pyroelectric properties of a 0.028 mm thick membrane of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), backed by an acoustic absorber whose ultrasonic absorption coefficient approaches 1000 dB cm-1 at 3 MHz. When exposed to an ultrasonic field, absorption of ultrasound adjacent to the PVDF-absorber interface results in heating and the generation of a pyroelectric output voltage across gold electrodes deposited on the membrane. For a sensor large enough to intercept the whole of the acoustic beam, the output voltage can be calibrated for the measurement of acoustic output power. A number of key performance properties of the method have been investigated. The technique is very sensitive, with a power to voltage conversion factor of typically 0.23 V W-1. The frequency response of a particular embodiment of the sensor in which acoustic power reflected at the absorber-PVDF interface is subsequently returned to the pyroelectric membrane to be absorbed, has been evaluated over the frequency range 1.5 MHz to 10 MHz. This has shown the frequency response to be flat to within ±4%, above 2.5 MHz. Below this frequency, the sensitivity falls by 20% at 1.5 MHz. Linearity of the technique has been demonstrated to within ±1.6% for applied acoustic power levels from 1 mW up to 120 mW. A number of other studies targeted at assessing the achievable measurement uncertainties are presented. These involve: the effects of soaking, the influence of the angle of incidence of the acoustic beam, measurement repeatability and sensitivity to transducer positioning. Additionally, over the range 20 °C to 30 °C, the rate of change in sensitivity with ambient temperature has been shown to be +0.5% °C-1. Implications of the work for the development of a sensitive, traceable, portable, secondary method of ultrasound output power measurement, appropriate for clinical diagnostic ultrasound systems, are discussed.

Zeqiri, B.; Žauhar, G.; Rajagopal, S.; Pounder, A.



Modern fueloil filtration  

SciTech Connect

Pumping out a home storage tank and filtering the oil through a cleaning machine is an excellent way to service a dirty tank, but even then proper filtration is still a must. Without good filteration, it can be very embarrassing for the service department to explain a sediment problem which can still occur even after charging a customer for pumping the tank. Modern filteration technology makes it possible to overcome the effects of poorer quality fueloil and provide better service to customers as well as lower service costs (therefore, more profit) to the oil heat company. Yesterday`s fueloil was plentiful and there was strong competition in the supply market. As a result refiners and distributors were careful to keep out contaminants. Today, however, that has changed and fueloil is no longer consistently delivered as pure as it used to be. While it is true that refinery production of No. 2 fueloil has reached new highs in btu content and clean burning characteristics, it is also true that increased use of the spot market has had a negative effect on fuel quality.

Berg, J.



Modern Igneous Petrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mohan K. Sood prefaces Modern Igneous Petrology by stating that his objective is to facilitate the understanding of the application of phase equilibrium data to the crystallization and evolution of magmas. He states that the book may be valuable as either a reference or source text or as a text for courses in igneous petrology for undergraduate and graduate students. A review of recent literature and extensive references are promised the reader.There are eight chapters in the book. The presentation is theme-oriented and progresses from discussion of phase equilibrium in simple binary systems to those in complex synthetic and natural systems. The Introduction is intended to be ‘an overview of the igneous process and the state of the art of experimental petrology.’ Chapters 2 and 3, comprising in excess of one half of the book in extent, detail anhydrous silicate systems at 1-atm bearing on mafic magmas and residual alkaline magmas, respectively. The following four chapters deal in a perfunctory manner with silicate systems containing volatiles, volatile solubilities in silicate melts, melting relations of rocks, and the genesis of magmas. Chapter 8 summarizes the conclusions.

Wendlandt, Richard F.



Microsoft Academic Search

Modern Hebrew syntax not only reflects the syntax of Mishnaic Hebrew, as frequently suggested by various scholars, but integrates all historical layers of Hebrew syntax, from Biblical Hebrew on. Modern Hebrew syntax is not an artificial creation, namely the consequence of deliberate integration of Biblical and Mishnaic elements, but the natural product of a gradual process, building up through all

Tamar Zewi



The second modern condition? Compressed modernity as internalized reflexive cosmopolitization.  


Compressed modernity is a civilizational condition in which economic, political, social and/or cultural changes occur in an extremely condensed manner in respect to both time and space, and in which the dynamic coexistence of mutually disparate historical and social elements leads to the construction and reconstruction of a highly complex and fluid social system. During what Beck considers the second modern stage of humanity, every society reflexively internalizes cosmopolitanized risks. Societies (or their civilizational conditions) are thereby being internalized into each other, making compressed modernity a universal feature of contemporary societies. This paper theoretically discusses compressed modernity as nationally ramified from reflexive cosmopolitization, and, then, comparatively illustrates varying instances of compressed modernity in advanced capitalist societies, un(der)developed capitalist societies, and system transition societies. In lieu of a conclusion, I point out the declining status of national societies as the dominant unit of (compressed) modernity and the interactive acceleration of compressed modernity among different levels of human life ranging from individuals to the global community. PMID:20840427

Kyung-Sup, Chang



Strategic Plan Outline for the Army Utilities Modernization Program: Fiscal Years 2008-2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Utilities privatization is considered the preferred method for modernizing and recapitalizing utility systems in the Army. From Fiscal Year (FY) 1998 to FY 2002, the Army implemented a Utilities Modernization Program that focused on upgrading thermal util...

C. Marsh J. Vavrin N. Potts V. Hock W. Brown



Modern methods rediscover deep gas. [Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1973, Northern Natural Gas (NNG) Co.'s Midland exploration and production district acquired a 7-section lease block on a Devonian-Montoya prospect suggested by trend geology and limited seismic data. This acreage block was 2 miles west of the abandoned Hershey field, and included acreage on which the Devonian was tested at noncommercial rates in 1962. Additional seismic data confirmed the



Modern Molecular Methods for Amphibian Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article was published in BioScience, a peer-reviewed monthly journal with content written and edited for accessibility to researchers, educators, and students alike. It can be used to supplement classroom biology teaching or inform teaching practice.

Andrew Storfer (Washington State University;School of Biological Sciences)



Modern methods to interrogate microtubule dynamics.  


Microtubules are essential protein filaments required to organize and rearrange the interior of the cell. They must be stiff with mechanical integrity to support the structure of the cell. Yet, they must also be dynamic to enable rearrangements of the cell during cell division and development. This dynamic nature is inherent to microtubules and comes about through the hydrolysis of chemical energy stored in guanosine triphosphate (GTP). Dynamic instability has been studied with a number of microscopy techniques both in cells and in reconstituted systems. In this article, we review the techniques used to examine microtubule dynamic instability and highlight future avenues and still open questions about this vital and fascinating activity. PMID:24061278

Bailey, Megan; Conway, Leslie; Gramlich, Michael W; Hawkins, Taviare L; Ross, Jennifer L



Development of new source diagnostic methods and variance reduction techniques for Monte Carlo eigenvalue problems with a focus on high dominance ratio problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obtaining the solution to the linear Boltzmann equation is often is often a daunting task. The time-independent form is an equation of six independent variables which cannot be solved analytically in all but some special problems. Instead, numerical approaches have been devised. This work focuses on improving Monte Carlo methods for its solution in eigenvalue form. First, a statistical method of stationarity detection called the KPSS test adapted as a Monte Carlo eigenvalue source convergence test. The KPSS test analyzes the source center of mass series which was chosen since it should be indicative of overall source behavior, and is physically easy to understand. A source center of mass plot alone serves as a good visual source convergence diagnostic. The KPSS test and three different information theoretic diagnostics were implemented into the well known KENOV.a code inside of the SCALE (version 5) code package from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and compared through analysis of a simple problem and several difficult source convergence benchmarks. Results showed that the KPSS test can add to the overall confidence by identifying more problematic simulations than without its usage. Not only this, the source center of mass information on hand visually aids in the understanding of the problem physics. The second major focus of this dissertation concerned variance reduction methodologies for Monte Carlo eigenvalue problems. The CADIS methodology, based on importance sampling, was adapted to the eigenvalue problems. It was shown that the straight adaption of importance sampling can provide a significant variance reduction in determination of keff (in cases studied up to 30%?). A modified version of this methodology was developed which utilizes independent deterministic importance simulations. In this new methodology, each particle is simulated multiple times, once to every other discretized source region utilizing the importance for that region only. Since each particle is simulated multiple times, this methodology often slows down the final keff convergence, but an increase coupling between source zones with important yet low probability interaction is observed. This is an important finding for loosely coupled systems and may be useful in their analysis. The third major focus of this dissertation concerns the use of the standard cumulative fission matrix methodology for high dominance ratio problems which results in high source correlation. Source eigenvector confidence is calculated utilizing a Monte Carlo iterated confidence approach and shown to be superior to the currently used plus and minus fission matrix methodology. Utilizing the fission matrix based approach with appropriately meshing and particle density, it is shown that the fission matrix elements tend to be independent. As a result, the keff and the source eigenvector can be calculated without bias, which is not the case for the standard methodology due to the source correlation. This approach was tested with a 1-D multigroup eigenvalue code developed for this work. A preliminary automatic mesh and particle population diagnostic were formulated to ensure independent and normal fission matrix elements. The algorithm was extended in parallel to show the favorable speedup possible with the fission matrix based approach. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check

Wenner, Michael T.


Technologie de l'Education et democratisation de l'enseignement: deux methodes d'enseignement des langues vivantes (Educational Technology and Democratization of Teaching: Two Methods of Teaching Modern Languages).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a study comparing two methods of teaching English as a foreign language in France: a traditional and an audiovisual method. The research methodology is described in detail. The central question is not which method is better, but who benefits most from the method used. (AMH)|

Langouet, G.



Methods of Bypass Transition Diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bypass laminar-turbulent transition (BLTT) taking place in flows with disturbances of different nature is widely spread in various technical applications. However only during the last decade the intensive investigations of BLTT were begun in reference to needs of turbomachinery thermal power installations and internal flows in technological equipment. On the basis of detailed analysis of literature devoted to BLTT we can confidently say flat the earliest experimental investigations on this problem were started in IET NASU in the beginning of the seventies and their results were broadly used for understanding the BLTT mechanism aspects by a number of researchers.

Epik, E. Ya.; Suprun, T. T.



Plasma diagnostics by spectroscopic methods.  


Spectroscopic techniques for the measurement of plasma parameters are reviewed for a range of temperatures up to 10(6) degrees K. Tables and figures of useful data have been prepared or have been collected from the literature for ready application to experimental measurements. The problem of making spatially resolved intensity measurements in an optically thin axisymmetric plasma column is discussed. PMID:20062112

Robinson, D; Lenn, P D



Molecular Diagnostic Methods in Pharmacogenomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Rapid advances in pharmacogenomics research have facilitated the transfer of ­pharmacogenomics testing into clinical laboratories.\\u000a In the past several years, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has begun to recognize the importance of genetic information\\u000a and has required advisories on drug labels seeking to inform physicians and patients about the availability of genetic tests\\u000a to guide drug dosing and

Nikolina Babic; Loren J. Joseph; Kiang-Teck J. Yeo


[Current diagnostic method, prognosis estimation and therapy of papillary thyroid cancer: recommendations of the medical universities and the National Oncologic Institute of Budapest].  


Physical examination, cervical ultrasonography (US) and aspiration cytology are the mainstays of the preoperative diagnostics of papillary thyroid carcinoma. For the staging of suspected malignant cases, cervical and mediastinal CT (MRI for inconclusive results) is indicated before any surgery. The end-result of primary treatment is assessed by total-body iodine scintigraphy and the serum human thyroglobulin (hTG) level. For long-term follow-up, physical examination and the serum hTG level are the most reliable tools (6-monthly), supplemented by cervical US and chest X-ray (yearly), and total-body iodine scintigraphy (2-yearly). If these furnish positive results, further examinations may be indicated. In suspected relapses of hTG non-producing and iodine non-accumulating papillary carcinomas, 201thallium chloride or 99mTc-sesta-MIBI (methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile) scintigraphy, and positron emission tomography with 18fluoro-deoxyglucose or 11C-methionine may be of help. For estimation of the prognosis (cause-specific survival) of the patients, the MACIS score system of the Mayo Clinic is widely accepted, the patients being divided into low-risk and intermediate/high-risk categories. The recommended standard surgical intervention is near-total thyroidectomy (2-4 g residual glandular tissue left at the upper pole of the less-involved lobe), with a central cervical lymph node dissection for diagnostic purposes. In cases of lymph node dissemination, dissection (radical, modified radical, selective or microdissection) of any of the involved compartments (central, right or left cervical, or upper mediastinal) is indicated for therapeutic reasons, the method of which is depending on the extent of the metastatic involvement. Following adequate surgical intervention, no adjuvant radioiodine therapy is indicated for low-risk cases with a tumour of less than 1 cm diameter. For other low-risk or intermediate/high-risk patients, radioiodine ablation (R0N0M0) or a therapeutic radioiodine dosage (R2N1M1) is indicated. In cases at high-risk of local/regional relapse and in radioiodine non-accumulating tumorous cases, external radiotherapy may be applied. Thyroid hormone medication in a TSH suppressive dose is indicated during the first 5 postsurgical years: the goal is to achieve a TSH level below 0.1 (determined by a 3rd generation assay). If no relapse occurs or the case is a low-risk one, following the 5 years, it is enough to maintain the TSH level in a subnormal range (0.1-0.3). PMID:10673852

Esik, O; Balázs, C; Boér, A; Csernay, L; Földes, J; Füzy, M; Horváth, O P; Julesz, J; Kásler, M; Laczi, F; Leövey, A; Lukács, G; Németh, G; Perner, F; Repa, I; Szabolcs, I; Szentirmay, Z; Trón, L; Balázs, G



Apparatus and Methods for Monitoring Heart Rate and Respiration Rate and for Monitoring and Maintaining Body Temperature in Anesthetized Mammals Undergoing Diagnostic or Surgical Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to an apparatus for measuring the heart rate and the respiration rate of one or more anesthetized rodent while monitoring and maintaining body temperature of at least one or more anesthetized rodent during diagnostic or surgical proc...

A. D. Jones A. K. Reddy C. J. Hartley S. Madala



Modern gas centrifuge and rarefied-gas dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modern gas centrifuge appears to be the preferred method for the enrichment of the isotopes of uranium on a commercial scale. Centrifuge problems involving rarefield gas dynamics considerations are discussed.

R. A. Lowry; E. V. Halle; H. G. Wood III



[Diagnostic significance of different apolipoprotein levels during hypertriglyceridemia].  


Active receptor-mediated uptake of fatty acids (as lipids in VLDLP and LDLP) involves dynamic apolipoproteins apoE and apoC-III. Modern methods allow apoB-100 and apoA-1 to be determined both separately and together in HDLP and VLDLP+LDLP. We estimated diagnostic significance of simultaneous apoE and apoC-III determination in the serum and two LP classes in the patients having either physiological levels of triglycerides or moderate and pronounced hypertriglyceridemia. Serum apoE and apoC-III increased with increasing triglyceride levels and percent of prebeta-LP fractions in electrophoresis. There was significant correlation between apoE and apoC-II content in the sera and in apoB-100 LP. It precludes using measurements of apoproteins for differential assessment of VLDLP and LDLP uptake by the cells or differential diagnostics of primary phenotypes and secondary hyperlipoproteinemias. The apoE content in LDLP was increased only in 1/5 of the patients with marked hyertriglyceridemia. The ApoE an apoC-III content in lipoproteins is of no diagnostic value; it is enough to determine serum apoprotein levels. Significant correlation between HDLP cholesterol and apoA-1 and between LDLP and apoB-100 questions the necessity of measuring serum apoA-1 and apoB. PMID:23101259

Titov, V N; Rozhkova, T A; Urazalina, S Zh; Amelushkina, V A; Kaba, S I; Kotkina, T I



Requirements for ITER diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The development and design of plasma diagnostics for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) present a formidable challenge for experimental plasma physicists. The large plasma size, the high central density and temperature and the very high thermal wall loadings provide new challenges for present measurement techniques and lead to a search for new methods. But the physics and control requirements for the long burn phase of the discharge, combined with very limited access to the plasma, constrained by the requirement for radiation shielding of the coils and sharing of access ports with heating and current drive power, remote manipulation, fueling and turn blanket modules, make for very difficult design choices. An initial attempt at these choices has been made by an international team of diagnostic physicists, gathering together in a series of three workshops during the ITER Conceptual Design Activity. This paper is based on that report and provides a summary of its most important points. To provide a background against which to place the diagnostic requirements and design concepts, the ITER device, its most important plasma properties and the proposed experimental program will be described. The specifications for the measurement of the plasma parameters and the proposed diagnostics for these measurements will then be addressed, followed by some examples of the design concepts that have been proposed. As a result of these design studies, it was clear that there were many uncertainties associated with these concepts, particularly because of the nuclear radiation environment, so that a Research and Development Program for diagnostic hardware was established. It will also be briefly summarized.

Young, K.M.



The efficacy of hysteroscopy for endometrial pathology: the experience of a university clinic on diagnostic accuracy and the comparison with the other methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hysteroscopy procedures were retrospectively reviewed in order to reveal the diagnostic accuracy and the efficiency of the diagnostic procedures (transvaginal ultrasonography\\/TvUsg, saline infusion sonography\\/SIS, hysteroscopy) for an educational institution in the management of abnormal uterine bleeding. The study was completed in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the Istanbul University Cerrahpa?a School of Medicine by reviewing the hospital records

Altay Gezer; Adnan ?aar; Fuat Demirkiran; Ali Benian; Yavuz ?im?ek; Mustafa Albayrak; Derin Kösebay



PCR Diagnosis of Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis taichui Infections in a Lao Community in an Area of Endemicity and Comparison of Diagnostic Methods for Parasitological Field Surveys?  

PubMed Central

Opisthorchiasis is a major public health problem in Southeast Asia. Affected individuals often have mixed infections with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini and minute intestinal flukes such as Haplorchis taichui. The usual methods of diagnosing these infections involve the demonstration of fluke eggs in stool samples under light microscopy, but sensitivity and specificity are low. We developed two PCR tests that detect and discriminate between O. viverrini and H. taichui infections. PCR tests were validated by stool samples from purged individuals. We then applied the PCR tests to estimate the prevalence of O. viverrini and H. taichui infections from a random sample of individuals selected from a community in an area of endemicity in Khong District, Laos. PCR results were compared with those from the Kato-Katz (KK) method and the formalin-ether concentration technique (FECT). When validated with purge results, PCR tests of O. viverrini and H. taichui had sensitivities of 93.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 85.8 to 97.9%) and 73.3% (95% CI, 60.3 to 83.9%) and could detect as little as 0.75 pg DNA and 1.32 ng DNA, respectively. The PCR-determined community prevalences of O. viverrini and H. taichui infections were 63.9% (95% CI, 54.1 to 72.9%) and 30.6% (95% CI, 22.1 to 40.2%), respectively. Using PCR as the gold standard to detect O. viverrini, three KK thick smears performed comparably well, whereas one KK smear and FECT were poorer (sensitivities of 91.4% [95% CI, 81.0 to 97.1%,], 62.3% [95% CI, 49.8 to 73.7%], and 49.3% [95% CI, 37.0 to 61.6%], respectively). PCR may be a valuable and sensitive diagnostic tool, particularly for low-intensity O. viverrini and H. taichui infections.

Lovis, Leonore; Mak, Tippi K.; Phongluxa, Khampheng; Soukhathammavong, Phonepasong; Sayasone, Somphou; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter; Keiser, Jennifer; Felger, Ingrid



Near-Death Studies and Modern Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fields of near-death studies and modern physics face common dilemmas: namely, how to account for the corroborative nature of many near-death experiences or of the anthropic disposition of the universe without allowing for some otherworldly existence and\\/or some guiding intelligence. Extreme efforts in both fields to explain various phenomena by contemporary scientific methods and theories have been largely unsuccessful.

Craig R. Lundahl; Arvin S. Gibson



Modernization of Nevis Synchrocyclotron Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the request of the House Committee on Science and Technology, GAO is reporting on the modernization and management of the Nevis Synchrocyclotron, a machine which accelerates charged particles and whose beams are created for experimental uses. The Found...



An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This text presents modern astrophysics using the basic tools of physics. The text can be used for a course in stellar structure and evolution, with additional material on the solar system, galactic structure, dynamics, evolution, and cosmology.

Carroll, Bradley W.; Ostlie, Dale A.



Diagnostic Bayesian Networks auto-construction and diagnostic strategy design based on multi-signal model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on multi-signal model, a novel diagnostic Bayesian networks auto-construction method is proposed in this paper. Combined with information entropy theory, a diagnostic strategy with the ability of sequential fault diagnosis, multi-fault diagnosis and coupling faults diagnosis is designed. In order to deal with uncertain problems and increase diagnostic accuracy, the self adjustment method of diagnostic Bayesian networks (DBN) is

Zhang Shigang; Hu Zheng



Ancestral diets and modern diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diet has had a deep and wide-ranging impact on human evolution. Contemporary genome was originally selected for the lifestyle\\u000a of ancestral humans. Since human genome has little changed since the emergence of behaviourally modern humans, the study of\\u000a prehistoric hunter–gatherer diet could be regarded as a paradigm for modern humans. The discordance between our ancestral,\\u000a genetically determined biology and the

Maurizio Sudano; Franco Gregorio


Trends in Modern International Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter examines some of the most widely researched trends and developments within the phenomenon of modern international\\u000a terrorism, providing policy recommendations on how to counter its emerging threats – particularly that of the Global Jihad\\u000a movement and “homegrown” terrorism. The magnitude of the modern terrorist threat was demonstrated by the attacks of September\\u000a 11, and ever since, the field

Boaz Ganor


Modern physics and students' conceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The use of semi-classical models (e.g. Bohr) and concepts (e.g. dualism) oftem make learning modern physics needlessly difficult for students. An introduction to quantum physics was designed which omits all analogies to classical physics. In the evaluation of the teaching unit, students' conceptions were recorded both at the beginning and at the end of the teaching. Students in the test groups with access to visualized conceptions reached an understanding which is more suitable to modern physics.

Fischler, Helmut



Modern coal cutting technology  

SciTech Connect

In the past, the longwall method of mining was largely restricted to thin seams, but now it is also used with equal success in medium and thick seams. Seams of up to 3 m in thickness are being mined in a single pass. Thicker seams are mined in layers. The method is being applied in seams of verying gradients from flat to steeply inclined. The method permits almost 100% recovery of coal, instead of the 50 to 80% obtainable in room-and-pillar methods. The coal face, European versus USA systems, development of coal plows, development of shearer loaders, remote controls for mine haulage systems, and the shearers on the market are discussed.

Singhal, R.K.



On Heidegger, medicine, and the modernity of modern medical technology.  


This paper examines medicine's use of technology in a manner from a standpoint inspired by Heidegger's thinking on technology. In the first part of the paper, I shall suggest an interpretation of Heidegger's thinking on the topic, and attempt to show why he associates modern technology with danger. However, I shall also claim that there is little evidence that medicine's appropriation of modern technology is dangerous in Heidegger's sense, although there is no prima facie reason why it mightn't be. The explanation for this, I claim, is ethical. There is an initial attraction to the thought that Heidegger's thought echoes Kantian moral thinking, but I shall dismiss this. Instead, I shall suggest that the considerations that make modern technology dangerous for Heidegger are simply not in the character - the ethos - of medicine properly understood. This is because there is a distinction to be drawn between chronological and historical modernity, and that even up-to-date medicine, empowered by technology, retains in its ethos crucial aspects of a historically pre-modern understanding of technology. A large part of the latter half of the paper will be concerned with explaining the difference. PMID:17077993

Brassington, Iain



Diagnostic assay for Trypanosoma cruzi infection  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A sensitive, multicomponent diagnostic test for infection with T. cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, including methods of making and methods of use. Also provided is a method for screening T. cruzi polypeptides to identify antigenic polypeptides for inclusion as components of the diagnostic test, as well as compositions containing antigenic T. cruzi polypeptides.

Tarleton; Rick L. (Watkinsville, GA); Etheridge, Jr.; Ronald D. (Athens, GA)



Modern Mask, Ancient Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an African maskmaking project completed by seventh grade that gave students insight into tribal cultures. Discusses materials and methods students used to make the masks along with a backdrop painting to complement their masks. Displays several examples of student art. (DB)

Pichini, Cecelia D.; Sanson, Debra



Modern ultrasonic flowmeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current status of ultrasonic flowmeters were reviewed on the basis of materials published in the Soviet Union and elsewhere. The following advantages of ultrasonic flowmeters over earlier instruments are cited. A comparative analysis is made of the design methods employed in ultrasonic flowmeters. The evolution of ultrasonic flowmetering is traced from the first generation and trends in their development are analyzed.

Gurevich, V. M.; Truman, S. G.



Network technology for depot modernization  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to summarize existing and emerging information system technology and standards applicable to Depot System Command (DESCOM) modernization efforts. The intent of this summarization is to provide the Revitalization of Army Depots for the Year 2000 (READY 2000) team a clear understanding of the enabling information system technologies required to support effective modernization activities. Much of the information contained in this report was acquired during the last year in support of the US Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) Facility Integrated Manufacturing Management System (FIMMS) project at PNL, which is targeting the modernization of plant-wide information systems at Army Ammunition Plants. The objective of information system modernization is to improve the effectiveness of an organization in performing its mission. Information system modernization strives to meet this objective by creating an environment where data is electronically captured near the source and readily available to all areas of the organization. Advanced networks, together with related information system technology, are the enabling mechanisms that make modern information system infrastructures possible. The intent of this paper is to present an overview of advanced information system network technology to support depot modernization planners in making technology management decisions. Existing and emerging Open System Interconnection (OSI) and Government Open System Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) standards are explained, as well as a brief assessment of existing products compliant with these standards. Finally, recommendations for achieving plant-wide integration using existing products are presented, and migration strategies for full OSI compliance are introduced. 5 refs., 16 figs. (JF)

Hostick, C.J.



Microbial Diagnostic Array Workstation (MDAW): a web server for diagnostic array data storage, sharing and analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Microarrays are becoming a very popular tool for microbial detection and diagnostics. Although these diagnostic arrays are much simpler when compared to the traditional transcriptome arrays, due to the high throughput nature of the arrays, the data analysis requirements still form a bottle neck for the widespread use of these diagnostic arrays. Hence we developed a new online data sharing and analysis environment customised for diagnostic arrays. Methods Microbial Diagnostic Array Workstation (MDAW) is a database driven application designed in MS Access and front end designed in ASP.NET. Conclusion MDAW is a new resource that is customised for the data analysis requirements for microbial diagnostic arrays.

Scaria, Joy; Sreedharan, Aswathy; Chang, Yung-Fu



Repeated exposure to modern volatile anaesthetics may cause chronic hepatitis as well as acute liver injury  

PubMed Central

Summary Volatile anaesthetic agents are known to cause acute hepatitis and fulminant hepatic failure in susceptible individuals. Four patients were identified with prolonged liver injury due to volatile anaesthetic-induced hepatitis. Three had liver biopsy confirmation and all gave blood for specific diagnostic tests (TFA and CYP 2E1 IgG4 antibodies). The Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) drug causality scale was used to determine the likelihood of volatile anaesthetics causing the chronic liver injury. We describe four cases of volatile anaesthetic hepatitis in which three evolved into chronic hepatitis. The fourth followed a more typical pattern of acute hepatitis; however, resolution took a few months. These cases all occurred with modern volatile anaesthetics, predominantly sevoflurane, and all cases were proven with specific antibody tests, liver histology and a drug causality scale. This is the first report of chronic liver injury due to volatile anaesthetic exposure.

Nicoll, Amanda; Moore, David; Njoku, Dolores; Hockey, Brad



[BMW diagnostic criteria for IBS].  


Rome I diagnostic criteria for IBS was published in 1992 and it became a global diagnostic criteria. However, the criteria was not practical and somewhat complicated. Moreover, its symptomatic duration was too long (defined as more than 3 months) to be introduced in clinical practice. Therefore, Japanese member of BMW(Bowel Motility Workshop) tried to develop a new diagnostic criteria for IBS and it was established in 1995 by way of the Delphi method. The criteria was named as BMW diagnostic criteria and it was shown below: BMW diagnostic criteria for IBS (1995) At least one month or more of repetitive symptoms of the following 1) and 2) and no evidence of organic disease that likely to explain the symptoms. 1) Existence of abdominal pain, abdominal discomfort or abdominal distension 2) Existence of abnormal bowel movement (diarrhea, constipation) Abnormal bowel movement includes at least one of the below; (1) Abnormal stool frequency (2) Abnormal stool form (lumpy/hard or loose/wartery stool) Moreover, the following test should be performed as a rule to exclude organic diseases. (1) Urinalysis, fecal occult blood testing, CBC, chemistry (2) Barium enema or colonofiberscopic examination The other diagnostic criteria for IBS was also reviewed and their characteristics were compared with BMW diagnostic criteria. PMID:16898607

Matsueda, Kei



The value of different neuro-imaging methods in the diagnosis of a congenital, spinal, epidural meningeal cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital, spinal, epidural cysts are rare causes of transverse or radicular spinal lesions. Usually these cysts are located in the thoracal region, are oblong-shaped, and extend over several segments dorsally to the cord. Frequently, they cause no symptoms for years. They are fairly accessible to diagnostics by modern neuro-imaging methods.

Michael Langenbach; Dietmar Kiihne; Aeilke Brenner; Rodger von Wickede; Hans-Claus Leopold



Diagnostic articulation tables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, considerable progress has been made in the development of instrumental methods for general speech quality and intelligibility evaluation on the basis of modeling the auditory perception of speech and measuring the signal-to-noise ratio. Despite certain advantages (fast measurement procedures with a low labor consumption), these methods are not universal and, in essence, secondary, because they rely on the calibration based on subjective-statistical measurements. At the same time, some specific problems of speech quality evaluation, such as the diagnostics of the factors responsible for the deviation of the speech quality from standard (e.g., accent features of a speaker or individual voice distortions), can be solved by psycholinguistic methods. This paper considers different kinds of diagnostic articulation tables: tables of minimal pairs of monosyllabic words (DRT) based on the Jacobson differential features, tables consisting of multisyllabic quartets of Russian words (the choice method), and tables of incomplete monosyllables of the _VC/CV_ type (the supplementary note method). Comparative estimates of the tables are presented along with the recommendations concerning their application.

Mikhailov, V. G.



Modern treatment of acromegaly.  


Acromegaly is an endocrine disorder characterised by increased morbidity and mortality. It is usually caused by a growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma and is manifested by a variety of clinical features. Surgery is usually the treatment of choice, however over the last few years, several new methods of treatment have been developed. A recent consensus on the targets for treatment has led to multiple studies being conducted to assess the efficacy of the currently available options. This review examines the evidence for and against these treatments. PMID:12743333

Merza, Z



Modern trends in contraception.  


Substantial improvements have been made in oral contraceptives, a new injectable contraceptive (Norplant), and the intrauterine device (IUD). Major risks with oral contraceptives have declined substantially, and a number of noncontraceptive health benefits have been discovered. Norplant is probably the first new contraceptive in recent years, and offers long-term contraception with high efficacy and modest risks. The IUD, by carefully selecting users, is a safe and efficacious contraceptive method. The major risk, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), is far less common if one avoids use in the presence of risk factors for PID. PMID:2128711

Burkman, R T



Modern treatment of acromegaly  

PubMed Central

Acromegaly is an endocrine disorder characterised by increased morbidity and mortality. It is usually caused by a growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma and is manifested by a variety of clinical features. Surgery is usually the treatment of choice, however over the last few years, several new methods of treatment have been developed. A recent consensus on the targets for treatment has led to multiple studies being conducted to assess the efficacy of the currently available options. This review examines the evidence for and against these treatments.

Merza, Z



Modern signals and systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present text on input-output and input-output mapping systems discusses elementary operations on and among time signals, delta functions, the stability of convolution systems, the definition and examples of difference and differential systems, the state description of systems, and linear time-invariant systems with periodic inputs. Also treated are discrete-to-discrete and continuous-to-discrete Fourier transforms, the z- and Laplace transforms, the design of FIR and IIR filters, modulation and demodulation methods, and feedback theory and the stability of feedback systems.

Kwakernaak, Huibert; Sivan, Raphael


Do Modern Spectacles Endanger Surgeons?  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite documented cases of infectious disease transmission to medical staff via conjunctival contamination and widespread recommendation of protective eyewear use during surgical procedures, a large number of surgeons rely on their prescription spectacles as sole eye protection. Modern fashion spectacles, being of increasingly slim design, may no longer be adequate in this role. Methods: A survey was conducted among the surgeons at Waikato Hospital from December 7, 2004 to February 1, 2005, to assess current operating theater eyewear practices and attitudes. Those who wore prescription spectacles were asked to assume a standardized “operating position” from which anatomic measurements were obtained. These data were mathematically analyzed to determine the degree of palebral fissure protection conferred by their spectacles. Results: Of 71 surgical practitioners surveyed, 45.1% required prescription lenses for operating, the mean spectacle age being 2.45 years; 84.5% had experienced prior periorbital blood splashes; 2.8% had previously contracted an illness attributed to such an event; 78.8% participants routinely used eye protection, but of the 27 requiring spectacles, 68.0% used these as their sole eye protection. Chief complaints about safety glasses and facial shields were of fogging, poor comfort, inability to wear spectacles underneath, and unavailability. Our model predicted that 100%, 92.6%, 77.8%, and 0% of our population were protected by their spectacles laterally, medially, inferiorly, and superiorly, respectively. Conclusions: Prescription spectacles of contemporary styling do not provide adequate protection against conjunctival blood splash injuries. Our model predicts the design adequacy of currently available purpose-designed protective eyewear, which should be used routinely.

Chong, Simon J.; Smith, Charlotte; Bialostocki, Adam; McEwan, Christopher N.



Beck, Asia and second modernity.  


The work of Ulrich Beck has been important in bringing sociological attention to the ways issues of risk are embedded in contemporary globalization, in developing a theory of 'reflexive modernization', and in calling for social science to transcend 'methodological nationalism'. In recent studies, he and his colleagues help to correct for the Western bias of many accounts of cosmopolitanism and reflexive modernization, and seek to distinguish normative goals from empirical analysis. In this paper I argue that further clarification of this latter distinction is needed but hard to reach within a framework that still embeds the normative account in the idea that empirical change has a clear direction. Similar issues beset the presentation of diverse patterns in recent history as all variants of 'second modernity'. Lastly, I note that ironically, given the declared 'methodological cosmopolitanism' of the authors, the empirical studies here all focus on national cases. PMID:20840434

Calhoun, Craig



International Journal of Modern Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

International Journal of Modern Engineering Volume 8, Number 2, Spring/Summer 2008. A quarterly publication of findings from university research in the areas of industrial engineering topics. In this journal you will will want to review the following white papers: Assessing Industrial Technology Programs; Molecular Beam Epitaxity Growth and Instrumentation; and Using Rapid Protyping Tools for Automatic Control Systems. The International Journal of Modern Engineering (IJME) is the official and flagship journal of the International Association of Journals and Conferences (IAJC). IJME is a highly-selective, peer-reviewed journal, covering topics that appeal to a broad readership of all branches of engineering, engineering technology, and other related fields.



Applying the building energy simulation test (BESTEST) diagnostic method to verification of space conditioning equipment models used in whole-building energy simulation programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Validation of building energy simulation programs consists of a combination of empirical validation, analytical verification, and comparative analysis techniques. An analytical verification and comparative diagnostic procedure was developed to test the ability of whole-building simulation programs to model the performance of unitary space-cooling equipment that is typically modeled using manufacturer design data presented as empirically derived performance maps. This procedure

J Neymark; R Judkoff; G Knabe; H.-T Le; M Dürig; A Glass; G Zweifel



Development of a Low-Energetic Metastable Helium Beam Injector for Electric Field Diagnostics by Laser-Induced Fluorescence Method in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progresses in development of a metastable helium atomic beam injector as a beam prove for electric field diagnoses are described, which is applicable to a high electric potential region in inertial electrostatic confinement plasmas where a solid probe can hardly be utilized. Configuration refinement of setup of a skimmer to take a collimated diagnostic beam out of the gas jet

Kai Masuda; Takanori Ando; Tetsuya Nishi; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa



[Modern expression of classical acupuncture and moxibustion theories].  


Times differences of expression language and language situation of the classical acupuncture and moxibustion theories as the crux of acup-moxibustion science hinder understanding and exchanging of modern people. According to characters of acupuncture and moxibustion language, modern language expression of acupuncture and moxibustion theories based on systematical studies of writing, theoretical system, ideological concept and method of thinking is a basic prerequisite for inheritance and development of acupuncture and moxibustion science in the present ages. PMID:18085151

Zhao, Jing-Sheng



Artistic styles: revisiting the analysis of modern artists’ careers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on a global sample of the 214 most prominent modern visual artists born 1850–1945. Two analytical methods\\u000a are used to analyse the age at which artists produce their best works—one based on year-of-birth cohorts of modern visual\\u000a artists and the other on stylistic groups. The cohort-analysis shows that the career patterns develop similarly over time\\u000a for

Christiane Hellmanzik



Use of Modern Contraception by the Poor Is Falling Behind  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe widespread increase in the use of contraception, due to multiple factors including improved access to modern contraception, is one of the most dramatic social transformations of the past fifty years. This study explores whether the global progress in the use of modern contraceptives has also benefited the poorest.Methods and FindingsDemographic and Health Surveys from 55 developing countries were analyzed

Emmanuela Gakidou; Effy Vayena



[On the origins of modern science].  


The Renaissance savants essentially repelled the scholastic translations and commentaries of the ancient writings. Nevertheless, they did not reach a modern vision of experimental science. Moreover, education at the universities was not credited for the development of science. In fact, academic training of students was rather precarious. The first professional associations, such as the "Royal College of Physicians" of London, were not any better. Regarding the hermetic influence on Renaissance thought, the cultured and philosophical reformed magic (so-called white magic) was the equivalent of science at the time. Once the animistic universe, operated by magic, was transformed into the mathematical universe operated by mechanics, the era of science came into being. This movement began during the post-Renaissance age and gradually progressed following the physical-mathematical orientation of Galileo and his pupils: Borelli; Fabrizi; Santorio; Harvey, etc. They initiated physiological studies and introduced the quantitative method into the research field. Harvey's doctrine was the first adequate explanation of an organic phenomenon and a starting point for the way toward experimental physiology. However, the English physician did not completely leave the pre-scientific era, as can be inferred from his monography on animals reproduction. In this work, some points suggesting the birth of modern scientific reasoning alternate with confused, vague, and capricious assertions. In fact, modern science did not arise suddenly, but was elaborated and sustained slowly starting in the XVII century: Galileo's century. PMID:14635572

de Micheli-Serra, Alfredo


Diagnostic and interventional radiology in gynecologic neoplasms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The role and clinical value of the modern radiologic methods for evaluation of gynecologic tumors is not finally settled. The aims of our investigation were therefore to compare clinical examination with CT in patients with possible recurrence of cervical...

B. Thorvinger



Molecular Diagnostics of ?-Thalassemia  

PubMed Central

A high-quality hemoglobinopathy diagnosis is based on the results of a number of tests including assays for molecular identification of causative mutations. We describe the current diagnostic strategy for the identification of ?-thalassemias and hemoglobin (Hb) variants at the International Reference Laboratory for Haemoglobinopathies, Research Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (RCGEB) “Georgi D. Efremov,” Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. Our overall approach and most of the methods we use for detection of mutations are designed for the specific target population. We discuss new technical improvements that have allowed us to substantially reduce the average time necessary for reaching a conclusive diagnosis.

Atanasovska, B; Bozhinovski, G; Chakalova, L; Kocheva, S; Karanfilski, O; Plaseska-Karanfiska, D



Molecular Diagnostics of ?-Thalassemia.  


A high-quality hemoglobinopathy diagnosis is based on the results of a number of tests including assays for molecular identification of causative mutations. We describe the current diagnostic strategy for the identification of ?-thalassemias and hemoglobin (Hb) variants at the International Reference Laboratory for Haemoglobinopathies, Research Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (RCGEB) "Georgi D. Efremov," Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. Our overall approach and most of the methods we use for detection of mutations are designed for the specific target population. We discuss new technical improvements that have allowed us to substantially reduce the average time necessary for reaching a conclusive diagnosis. PMID:24052746

Atanasovska, B; Bozhinovski, G; Chakalova, L; Kocheva, S; Karanfilski, O; Plaseska-Karanfiska, D



In vitro diagnostic prospects of nanoparticles.  


There is a constant need to improve the performance of current diagnostic assays as well as develop innovative testing strategies to meet new testing challenges. The use of nanoparticles promises to help promote in vitro diagnostics to the next level of performance. Quantum dots (QDs), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and superparamagnetic nanoparticles are the most promising nanostructures for in vitro diagnostic applications. These nanoparticles can be conjugated to recognition moieties such as antibodies or oligonucleotides for detection of target biomolecules. Nanoparticles have been utilized in immunoassays, immunohistochemistry, DNA diagnostics, bioseparation of specific cell populations, and cellular imaging. Nanoparticle-based diagnostics may open new frontiers for detection of tumours, infectious diseases, bio-terrorism agents, and neurological diseases, to name a few. More work is necessary to fully optimize use of nanoparticles for clinical diagnosis and to resolve some concerns regarding potential health and environmental risks related to their use. However, we envision further developments of nanoparticle-based diagnostics will yield unique assays with enhanced sensitivity and multiplexing capability for the modern clinical laboratory. PMID:19361470

Azzazy, Hassan M E; Mansour, Mai M H




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Biologists in the Modern State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leading article in Nature of April 28 on ``Biologists in the Modern State'' draws attention once more to the need for biologists with sound basic training in one of the physical sciences. The Agricultural Research Council is seriously concerned about the shortage of plant and animal physiologists with an adequate knowledge of chemistry and physics and of biochemists with

W. K. Slater