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Sample records for modern diagnostic methods

  1. [Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].

    PubMed

    Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Małgorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders. PMID:17471820

  2. Modern Methods of Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seeber, F

    1939-01-01

    After a brief survey of the commonly used single-value test methods, the importance of the determination of the incipient knock for the octane number is discussed and improvements suggested for the knock testing in the CFR engine. The DVL supercharge test method with its superiority of direct determination of fuel knock in each single cylinder of an airplane engine without involving structural changes, is described and the advantages of a multiple-value method enumerated. A diagrammatic presentation of the knock characteristics is presented.

  3. Modern diagnostics of Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    PubMed

    Sta?czak, Janusz J; Majchrzak, Micha? J; Sta?czak, Grzegorz P

    2005-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is the most common agent of sexually transmitted infections. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranges from urethritis to infertility in women and to trachoma. Intracellular localisation of the pathogen creates a challenge for routine diagnostics. In this review possible diagnostic tests have been presented, varying from classic cell culture analysis and serodiagnostics (Enzyme-linked Immunoassays, Indirect Immunofluorescence) to the most sophisticated nucleic acid analyses (hybridisation, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Transcription Mediated Amplification, Ligase Chain Reaction), Advantages and disadvantages of the leading tests are discussed. Possible reasons of false positive as well as false negative results of genetic testing are presented. PMID:16082060

  4. Modernized active spectroscopic diagnostics (CXRS) of the T-10 tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupin, V. A.; Klyuchnikov, L. A.; Korobov, K. V.; Nemets, A. R.; Nurgaliev, M. R.; Gorbunov, A. V.; Naumenko, N. N.; Troynov, V. I.; Tugarinov, S. N.; Fomin, F. V.

    2015-12-01

    This work presents the results of modernization of the CXRS (charge exchange recombination spectroscopy) diagnostics [1] at the T-10 tokamak. The relevance of this work is due to the importance of measurements of the ion temperature and nuclei density of the working gas and impurities for analysis of transport processes in the plasma ion component. Measurements of radial profiles of the ion temperature are extremely important for investigating the geodesic acoustic mode behavior which is conducted at the T-10 [2]. The modernized scheme of CXRS measurements, as well as the design and operational features of the spectrometer created for the new diagnostics, is described. Principles of data recording and further processing are considered in detail; attention is given to the problem of calibration of the whole complex of equipment. The performed changes in diagnostics allow the measurements to be taken simultaneously in three spectral intervals: in the region of the beam line H?, the CXRS line of carbon ion C5+, and the CXRS line of one of the hydrogen-like ions: He1+, Li2+, N6+, O7+ or Ne9+. This makes it possible to measure the density profiles of two plasma impurities simultaneously, as well as the ion temperature from CXRS lines of different elements. The modernized diagnostics significantly broadens the possibilities of studying the physics of transport processes and quasi-coherent modes of plasma oscillations at the T-10.

  5. [Modern aspects of forensic medical diagnostics of the craniocerebral injury].

    PubMed

    Pigolkina, E Iu; Dorosheva, Zh V; Sidorovich, Iu V; Bychkov, A A

    2012-01-01

    The authors report the results of the investigations of craniocerebral injuries (CCI) including crystallographic studies of brain liquor obtained after the injury and non-traumatic pathological processes. The additional forensic medical criteria for the severity of craniocerebral injuries have been developed and the objective signs of CCI determined to be used for diagnostic purposes in the cases with concomitant diseases and also in the subjects of advanced and declining age. The diagnostic methods for the elucidation of the nature of chronic subdural hematomas and the estimation of the time of their formation have been improved. PMID:22567955

  6. Computational Chemistry Using Modern Electronic Structure Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Stephen; Dines, Trevor J.; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Withnall, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Various modern electronic structure methods are now days used to teach computational chemistry to undergraduate students. Such quantum calculations can now be easily used even for large size molecules.

  7. MODERN ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR MYCOTOXINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the early discovery of mycotoxins, the development of methods to detect these toxic secondary metabolites of fungi has progressed enormously. The wide variety of mycotoxins and the variety of commodities, foods, and feeds in which they can be found has necessitated the development of a large ...

  8. Modern Asteroid Occultation Observing Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, G. A.

    2004-05-01

    This presentation reviews current working methods for asteroid occultations developed by the International Occultation Timing Association (IOTA). Reduc- tion of multiple tracks or "chords" observed during stellar occultations pro- vides valuable measures of the relative sizes and shapes of asteroids. Tradi- tionally, predictions for asteroid occultations were prepared by regional IOTA computors, distributed annually in "hard copy" format to IOTA subscrib- ers and in publications such as Sky & Telescope magazine and the annual RASC Observers Handbook. IOTA - like many other organizations - is now using worldwide internet services and e-mail to distribute frequently-updated pre- dictions based upon the latest astrometry. The IOTA web pages provide an easily accessible, centralized source of information on lunar and solar sys- tem occultation events. IOTA's web pages feature a variety of articles on current activities, plans for observing campaigns and expeditions, and "how to do it" information on the latest technology and techniques. The latest up- dated predictions for asteroid events are made available as they are pro- duced, providing more accurate observing tracks and efficient coordination of observers. The IOTA e-mail list provides a dynamic forum for the exchange of technical information and com-munication of observing plans in a timely man- ner. Individuals may now generate customized occultation predictions using the WinOccult software package. The author presents some examples of recent occultation events, showing the benefits of coordinated observations. Also described are some of the latest innovations, featuring low-cost video camera equipment, devices for time insertion based on Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, and a new approach using unattended secondary field station equipment to multiply the number of tracks observed.

  9. A Brief Introduction to Modern Amplitude Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Lance J.

    I provide a basic introduction to modern helicity amplitude methods, including color organization, the spinor helicity formalism, and factorization properties. I also describe the BCFW (on-shell) recursion relation at tree level, and explain how similar ideas -- unitarity and on-shell methods -- work at the loop level. These notes are based on lectures delivered at the 2012 CERN Summer School and at TASI 2013, and are close to the material Zvi Bern lectured on at TASI 2014.

  10. Assessing the Risks for Modern Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    William, Jr.

    1998-05-01

    Some 35 years after Paul-Jacques and Pierre Curie discovered piezoelectricity, ultrasonic imaging was developed by Paul Langevin. During this work, ultrasonic energy was observed to have a detrimental biological effect. These observations were confirmed a decade later by R. W. Wood and A. L. Loomis. It was not until the early 1950s that ultrasonic exposure conditions were controlled and specified so that studies could focus on the mechanisms by which ultrasound influenced biological materials. In the late 1940s, pioneering work was initiated to image the human body by ultrasonic techniques. These engineers and physicians were aware of the deleterious ultrasound effects at sufficiently high levels; this endeavored them to keep the exposure levels reasonably low. Over the past three decades, diagnostic ultrasound has become a sophisticated technology. Yet, our understanding of the potential risks has not changed appreciably. It is very encouraging that human injury has never been attributed to clinical practice of diagnostic ultrasound.

  11. A modern diagnostic approach for automobile systems condition monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selig, M.; Shi, Z.; Ball, A.; Schmidt, K.

    2012-05-01

    An important topic in automotive research and development is the area of active and passive safety systems. In general, it is grouped in active safety systems to prevent accidents and passive systems to reduce the impact of a crash. An example for an active system is ABS while a seat belt tensioner represents the group of passive systems. Current developments in the automotive industry try to link active with passive system components to enable a complete event sequence, beginning with the warning of the driver about a critical situation till the automatic emergency call after an accident. The cross-linking has an impact on the current diagnostic approach, which is described in this paper. Therefore, this contribution introduces a new diagnostic approach for automotive mechatronic systems. The concept is based on monitoring the messages which are exchanged via the automotive communication systems, e.g. the CAN bus. According to the authors' assumption, the messages on the bus are changing between faultless and faulty vehicle condition. The transmitted messages of the sensors and control units are different depending on the condition of the car. First experiments are carried and in addition, the hardware design of a suitable diagnostic interface is presented. Finally, first results will be presented and discussed.

  12. [Modern detoxication methods in surgical patients].

    PubMed

    Dudenko, F I; Pliashkevich, A V; Zuev, A S; Tolkachev, A N

    1991-07-01

    The therapeutic possibilities of peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, and hemo- and lymphosorption in the treatment of the intoxication syndrome were studied in 786 patients. The causes of the intoxication syndrome were as follows: postoperative peritonitis (98), acute renal insufficiency of various etiology (493), acute hepatorenal insufficiency with exogenous poisoning (178), diffuse purulent peritonitis (11), pancreatogenic peritonitis (6). Enzymatic lavage and peritoneal dialysis were applied in 98 patients, hemodialysis methods in 493, hemosorption was conducted 360 times in 178 patients and lymphosorption in 17 patients. The efficacy of the modern methods of detoxification of the organism was demonstrated, which was evaluated from the patients' improved general condition, improvement of the values of hemodynamics, concentration of toxic metabolites and middle-mass molecules in the blood, and the results of the paramecium test. PMID:1921199

  13. [Modern methods of molecular targeted therapy for disseminated melanoma].

    PubMed

    Novik, A V; Protsenkol, S A; Semenova, A I; Latipova, D Kh; A S Zhabina; Akhaeva, Z Yu

    2015-01-01

    Significant changes occurred in drug therapy for disseminated melanoma during the last 5 years. New classes of pharmaceuticals appeared in daily clinical practice: inhibitors of MAPK pathway components (BRAF inhibitors vemurafenib and dabrafenib, MEK--inhibitors trametinib and cobimetinib) and immune checkpoint inhibitors that modulate immunologic synapse activity. This article presents information about MAPK pathway inhibitors, their mechanism of action and clinical trials experience including specific related adverse events. Relation of the therapies describes to the other methods in the field are also described. Algorithm of personalized use of current antineoplastic drugs in melanoma is presented. Modern therapeutic approaches in melanoma provide profound and long lasting effects and can even cure some patients. Rational consecutive and combined application of current methods, proper diagnostic and management of related AE can prolong life span of patients and meaningfully increase their quality of life. PMID:26087614

  14. MODERN ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR CHEMICAL RESIDUE DETECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements in instrumentation and methodology in the past decade have made the detection of chemical residues in foods not only faster but also less expensive and more sensitive. These modern analytical tools provide an efficient and affordable means to monitor the food supply for chemical residu...

  15. Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice. PMID:17579968

  16. Overview of computational structural methods for modern military aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudva, J. N.

    1992-01-01

    Computational structural methods are essential for designing modern military aircraft. This briefing deals with computational structural methods (CSM) currently used. First a brief summary of modern day aircraft structural design procedures is presented. Following this, several ongoing CSM related projects at Northrop are discussed. Finally, shortcomings in this area, future requirements, and summary remarks are given.

  17. Tomographic methods in flow diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a viewpoint of tomography that should be well adapted to currently available optical measurement technology as well as the needs of computational and experimental fluid dynamists. The goals in mind are to record data with the fastest optical array sensors; process the data with the fastest parallel processing technology available for small computers; and generate results for both experimental and theoretical data. An in-depth example treats interferometric data as it might be recorded in an aeronautics test facility, but the results are applicable whenever fluid properties are to be measured or applied from projections of those properties. The paper discusses both computed and neural net calibration tomography. The report also contains an overview of key definitions and computational methods, key references, computational problems such as ill-posedness, artifacts, missing data, and some possible and current research topics.

  18. Leaf Histology--Two Modern Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    Two methods for examining leaf structure are presented; both methods involve use of "superglue." The first method uses the glue to form a thin, permanent, direct replica of a leaf surface on a microscope slide. The second method uses the glue to examine the three-dimensional structure of spongy mesophyll. (JN)

  19. [Clinical significance of modern methods of corneal assessment].

    PubMed

    Avetisov, S E; Egorova, G B; Kobzova, M V; Mitichkina, T S; Rogova, A Ia

    2013-01-01

    The article observes the application experience of modern methods of corneal refraction and structure evaluation. Comprehension of computer-assisted videokeratography is high enough to diagnose corneal astigmatism, keratoconus, early-stage corneal dystrophies, and corneal topography changes resulting from a variety of factors. Scanning projecting keratography provides information on both anterior and posterior corneal topography and elevation, as well as corneal thickness in each point of central area. Aberrometry can be used for estimation of the impact of different factors on corneal optical properties and assess the possibility for correction of resultant disturbances. Confocal microscopy allows to evaluate morphological changes in keratoconus and corneal dystrophies and also diagnose acanthamoeba keratitis. Optical coherence tomography provides the possibility of whole cornea assessment, however, with much less magnification in comparison to confocal microscopy. Improved tearscopy with computed analysis of interference digital images ("Lacrima" software) enables evaluation of lipid layer thickness and structure in normal and impaired tear film (like in dry eye syndrome), as well as the influence of different factors and therapeutic measures. Topographical pachymetry data is the most valuable for diagnostics and monitoring of keratoconus. PMID:24261277

  20. Low-pressure plasma diagnostic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnostic techniques have been recently developed that permit the determination of the deviation from local thermal equilibrium (LTE) in subatmospheric electric arcs and plasma jets. A review is presented of the methods that are applicable to MPD and arcjet thruster plasmas but that have not been used in space propulsion research. Appropriate plasma diagnostics can lead to increased thrust, better nozzle design, and improved modeling capabilities. These methods include nonintrusive techniques, and can determine the electron, gas, and total excitation, temperatures, as well as the electron and atom densities, without using LTE or partial LTE assumptions. General relations for analysis and experimental results for argon constricted arcs, an arc in a rotating magnetic field, and plasma torch jets are presented. The methods discussed can also be applied to plasma mixtures. 23 refs.

  1. PREFACE: IX International Conference on Modern Techniques of Plasma Diagnostics and their Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savjolov, A. S.; Dodulad, E. I.

    2016-01-01

    The IX Conference on ''Modern Techniques of Plasma Diagnosis and their Application'' was held on 5 - 7 November, 2014 at National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (NRNU MEPhI). The goal of the conference was an exchange of information on both high-temperature and low-temperature plasma diagnostics as well as deliberation and analysis of various diagnostic techniques and their applicability in science, industry, ecology, medicine and other fields. The Conference also provided young scientists from scientific centres and universities engaged in plasma diagnostics with an opportunity to attend the lectures given by the leading specialists in this field as well as present their own results and findings. The first workshop titled ''Modern problems of plasma diagnostics and their application for control of chemicals and the environment'' took place at Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute (MEPhI) in June 1998 with the support of the Section on Diagnostics of the Council of Russian Academic of Science on Plasma Physics and since then these forums have been held at MEPhI every two years. In 2008 the workshop was assigned a conference status. More than 150 specialists on plasma diagnostics and students took part in the last conference. They represented leading Russian scientific centres (such as Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Thermonuclear Research, National Research Centre ''Kurchatov Institute'', Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics and others) and universities from Belarus, Ukraine, Germany, USA, Belgium and Sweden. About 30 reports were made by young researchers, students and post-graduate students. All presentations during the conference were broadcasted online over the internet with viewers in Moscow, Prague, St. Petersburgh and other cities. The Conference was held within the framework of the Centre of Plasma, Laser Research and Technology supported by MEPhI Academic Excellence Project (Russian Ministry of Education and Science contract 02.•03.21.0005 of August 27th 2013). Papers selected by the Program Committee for publishing were reviewed under control of invited editors Prof. Andrey Kukushkin, Dr. Sci. Alexander Kukushkin, Dr. Sci. Elena Baronova, Dr. Emil Dodulad. We would like to thank heartily all of the speakers, participants and organizing committee members for their contribution to the conference

  2. Method and computer program product for maintenance and modernization backlogging

    DOEpatents

    Mattimore, Bernard G; Reynolds, Paul E; Farrell, Jill M

    2013-02-19

    According to one embodiment, a computer program product for determining future facility conditions includes a computer readable medium having computer readable program code stored therein. The computer readable program code includes computer readable program code for calculating a time period specific maintenance cost, for calculating a time period specific modernization factor, and for calculating a time period specific backlog factor. Future facility conditions equal the time period specific maintenance cost plus the time period specific modernization factor plus the time period specific backlog factor. In another embodiment, a computer-implemented method for calculating future facility conditions includes calculating a time period specific maintenance cost, calculating a time period specific modernization factor, and calculating a time period specific backlog factor. Future facility conditions equal the time period specific maintenance cost plus the time period specific modernization factor plus the time period specific backlog factor. Other embodiments are also presented.

  3. Rare manifestations of sarcoidosis in modern era of new diagnostic tools

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Surendra K; Soneja, Manish; Sharma, Abhishek; Sharma, Mehar C.; Hari, Smriti

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Growing body of literature on sarcoidosis in India has led to an increased awareness of the disease. With the advent of better imaging tools hitherto under-recognized manifestations of sarcoidosis are likely to be better recognized. We sought to study the rare clinical and radiological manifestations (<5%) in patients with sarcoidosis. Methods: Retrospective review of records of 164 patients with histopathologically proven sarcoidosis seen over six years in a tertiary care centre in north India, was done. Results: Fifty four rare manifestations were observed in 164 patients. Acute presentation in the form of Lofgren syndrome was seen in eight (4.9%) and Heerfordt's syndrome in two (1.2%) patients. Musculoskeletal manifestations included chronic sarcoid arthritis in three (1.8%), deforming arthritis and bone erosion in one (0.6%) each. Rare initial presentation with dilated cardiomyopathy in one (0.6%), complete heart block in two (1.2%), bilateral sequential facial nerve palsy in two (1.2%), and pyrexia of unknown origin was seen in one (0.6%) patient. Other rare manifestations included chronic respiratory failure in one (0.6%), dysphagia in one (0.6%), sicca syndrome in five (3%), massive splenomegaly in one (0.6%), portal hypertension in two (1.2%), hypersplenism, gastric sarcoidosis, ninth and tenth cranial nerve palsies, moderate pericardial effusion and nephrocalcinosis in one (0.6%) each, and pulmonary artery hypertension in two (1.2%) patients. Rare radiological manifestations included moderate pleural effusion in two (1.2%), pleural thickening in five (3%), calcification of intrathoracic lymph nodes in four (2.4%), alveolar (nodular) sarcoidosis in three (1.8%), and myocardial uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) in two (1.2%) patients. Fourteen patients had airways obstruction and behaved typically like seasonal bronchial asthma with excellent response to corticosteroids. Interpretation & conclusions: Increased awareness of rare manifestations will facilitate better management of these patients. With increasing use of modern diagnostic tools, manifestations hitherto considered rare, are likely to be recognized more frequently in the future. PMID:22771590

  4. Modern methods of repairing coke oven batteries (a survey)

    SciTech Connect

    Shteinberg, E.A.; Lobov, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    The analysis of modern methods of repairing ovens generate the following conclusions: (1) present methods of wet hot repair are rather effective. With proper organization and timely performance of the work, the coke batteries will operate for a long time subsequently; (2) dry hot repair methods should be considered promising: flame guniting and ceramic welding; and (3) the repair method should be chosen with consideration of the state of oven linings, the nature of the damage, and economic feasibility. 29 references.

  5. Analytical methods for dating modern writing instrument inks on paper.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, Magdalena; Gngora, Juan M G; Maguregui, Itxaso; Alonso, Rosa

    2010-04-15

    This work reviews the different analytical methods that have been proposed in the field of forensic dating of inks from different modern writing instruments. The reported works have been classified according to the writing instrument studied and the ink component analyzed in relation to aging. The study, done chronologically, shows the advances experienced in the ink dating field in the last decades. PMID:20061099

  6. Analysis on modern measuring methods of curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chao-Wei; Liang, Xi-Chang; Zou, Chang-Ping

    1993-09-01

    There are lots of curved surfaces in machine manufacturing. For example. blades ot' water turbine, shells of rnotoreyle shells of airplane, mould, etc. Now, there isn't satisfactorical solution about the problem how to ne asure these curved surface. Modern nasuring methods of curved surfaces include the method of three-coordinate machine, the rithod of photograrnmetry, the method of raster projection, the method of rasuring by intersection of eleetronie-theodolites, the irthod of laser interferometry, the method laser diffractometry, the method of laser triangulation, etc. Now, let's introduce then respectively.

  7. The "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" as a Major Form of Dehumanization in the Modern World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    The "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) is one of the most successful technologies in modern times. In spite of well-argued critiques, the DSM and the idea of "mental illness" on which it is based flourish, with ever more (mis)behaviors labeled as brain diseases. Problems in living and related distress

  8. The "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" as a Major Form of Dehumanization in the Modern World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    The "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) is one of the most successful technologies in modern times. In spite of well-argued critiques, the DSM and the idea of "mental illness" on which it is based flourish, with ever more (mis)behaviors labeled as brain diseases. Problems in living and related distress…

  9. Ultrasensitive microanalytical diagnostic methods for rickettsial pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, A. V.

    2012-03-01

    A strategic CRADA was established between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) at Galveston to address pressing needs for US protection against biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and emerging infectious diseases. The combination of unique expertise and facilities at UTMB and SNL enabled interdisciplinary research efforts in the development of rapid and accurate diagnostic methods for early detection of trace priority pathogen levels. Outstanding postdoctoral students were also trained at both institutions to help enable the next generation of scientists to tackle the challenging interdisciplinary problems in the area of biodefense and emerging infectious diseases. Novel approaches to diagnostics were developed and the both the speed of assays as well as the detection sensitivity were improved by over an order of magnitude compared to traditional methods. This is a significant step toward more timely and specific detection of dangerous infections. We developed in situ polymerized porous polymer monoliths that can be used as (1) size exclusion elements for capture and processing of rickettsial infected cells from a sample, (2) photopatternable framework for grafting high densities of functionalized antibodies/fluorescent particles using novel monolith chemistry. Grafting affinity reagents specific to rickettsial particles enables rapid, ultra-sensitive assays by overcoming transport limitations of traditional planar assay approaches. We have selectively trapped particles and bacteria at the cell trap and have also detected picomolar mouse IL-6 captured with only 20 minutes total incubation times using the densely patterned monolith framework. As predicted, the monolith exhibits >10x improvements in both capture speed and capture density compared to traditional planar approaches. The most significant advancements as part of this CRADA is the optimization of techniques allowing the detection of <10 rickettsial cells in a whole blood sample. This detection limit is over 2 orders of magnitude more sensitive that previously reported methods and overcomes a key hurdle in ability to sense dangerous infections before they are too late to treat and contain. We also showed that in the new format, cross-reactivity with interfering species is reduced thereby increasing the specificity of such tests. Promising options to treat whole blood and avoid clogging and non-specific fouling of sensors were also developed.

  10. Diagnostic Methods in Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Jane S; Paff, Tamara; Goggin, Patricia; Haarman, Eric

    2016-03-01

    Diagnosing primary ciliary dyskinesia is difficult. With no reference standard, a combination of tests is needed; most tests require expensive equipment and specialist scientists. We review the advances in diagnostic testing over the past hundred years, with emphasis on recent advances. We particularly focus on use of high-speed video analysis, transmission electron microscopy, nasal nitric oxide and genetic testing. We discuss the international efforts that are in place to advance the evidence base for diagnostic tests. PMID:26362507

  11. Electron-Beam Diagnostic Methods for Hypersonic Flow Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work was the evaluation of the use of electron-bean fluorescence for flow measurements during hypersonic flight. Both analytical and numerical models were developed in this investigation to evaluate quantitatively flow field imaging concepts based upon the electron beam fluorescence technique for use in flight research and wind tunnel applications. Specific models were developed for: (1) fluorescence excitation/emission for nitrogen, (2) rotational fluorescence spectrum for nitrogen, (3) single and multiple scattering of electrons in a variable density medium, (4) spatial and spectral distribution of fluorescence, (5) measurement of rotational temperature and density, (6) optical filter design for fluorescence imaging, and (7) temperature accuracy and signal acquisition time requirements. Application of these models to a typical hypersonic wind tunnel flow is presented. In particular, the capability of simulating the fluorescence resulting from electron impact ionization in a variable density nitrogen or air flow provides the capability to evaluate the design of imaging instruments for flow field mapping. The result of this analysis is a recommendation that quantitative measurements of hypersonic flow fields using electron-bean fluorescence is a tractable method with electron beam energies of 100 keV. With lower electron energies, electron scattering increases with significant beam divergence which makes quantitative imaging difficult. The potential application of the analytical and numerical models developed in this work is in the design of a flow field imaging instrument for use in hypersonic wind tunnels or onboard a flight research vehicle.

  12. Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, John S. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image.

  13. Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, J.S.

    1995-04-25

    A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image. 3 figs.

  14. Optical imaging of intracranial hemorrhages in newborns: modern strategies in diagnostics and direction for future research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A. N.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Lychagov, V. V.; Bibikova, O. A.; Sindeev, S. S.; Pavlova, O. N.; Shuvalova, E. P.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2014-05-01

    Using Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) we study stress-related intracranial hemorrhages (ICHs) in newborn rats. We investigate a masked stage of ICH development that corresponds to the first 4 h after the stress. We show that this period is characterized by significant changes in the diameter of the sagittal vein and the velocity of the cerebral venous blood flow (CVBF). We discuss diagnostic abilities of wavelet-based methods and consider an adaptive technique allowing us to reveal clearest distinctions in the dynamics of CVBF between normal and stressed newborn rats. Finally, we conclude that the venous insufficiency in newborns and a reduced response of the sagittal vein to adrenaline are related to important prognostic markers of the risk of ICH development.

  15. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  16. Contemporary Chinese pulse diagnosis: a modern interpretation of an ancient and traditional method.

    PubMed

    Bilton, Karen; Hammer, Leon; Zaslawski, Chris

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary Chinese pulse diagnosis (CCPD) is a system of pulse diagnosis utilized by Dr. John He Feng Shen, OMD, and documented by Dr. Leon Hammer, MD, in the book Chinese Pulse Diagnosis, A Contemporary Approach. It is the traditional method of the Ding medical lineage from the Shanghai region and dates to the 15th century in Chinese language texts. The fundamentals of this system are, however, much older and can be directly traced to the Neijing Suwen. Having been passed from the last direct inheritor of Ding knowledge (Dr. Shen) to modern practitioners of Chinese medicine by way of Dr. Hammer and his students, it represents an important system of advanced diagnosis. Although modern diagnostic technology provides very sophisticated diagnoses, for these instruments to be effective, the disease process must already have a physical manifestation. CCPD, on the other hand, provides the earliest warnings of physiological processes, which if left unchecked may result in the subsequent appearance of a disease. This article describes the derivation and the principles of this system of pulse diagnosis and explores its successful integration into the modern practice of Chinese medicine. PMID:24139459

  17. Modern wing flutter analysis by computational fluid dynamics methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Herbert J.; Batina, John T.; Bennett, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    The application and assessment of the recently developed CAP-TSD transonic small-disturbance code for flutter prediction is described. The CAP-TSD code has been developed for aeroelastic analysis of complete aircraft configurations and was previously applied to the calculation of steady and unsteady pressures with favorable results. Generalized aerodynamic forces and flutter characteristics are calculated and compared with linear theory results and with experimental data for a 45 deg sweptback wing. These results are in good agreement with the experimental flutter data which is the first step toward validating CAP-TSD for general transonic aeroelastic applications. The paper presents these results and comparisons along with general remarks regarding modern wing flutter analysis by computational fluid dynamics methods.

  18. Modern wing flutter analysis by computational fluid dynamics methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Herbert J.; Batina, John T.; Bennett, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    The application and assessment of the recently developed CAP-TSD transonic small-disturbance code for flutter prediction is described. The CAP-TSD code has been developed for aeroelastic analysis of complete aircraft configurations and was previously applied to the calculation of steady and unsteady pressures with favorable results. Generalized aerodynamic forces and flutter characteristics are calculated and compared with linear theory results and with experimental data for a 45 deg sweptback wing. These results are in good agreement with the experimental flutter data which is the first step toward validating CAP-TSD for general transonic aeroelastic applications. The paper presents these results and comparisons along with general remarks regarding modern wing flutter analysis by computational fluid dynamics methods.

  19. [The modern state and improvement prospects of community-acquired pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis differential diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Dantsev, V V; Golota, A S; Karpuschenko, V G; Krassi, A B; Kuzin, A A

    2015-05-01

    The current article is dedicated to the modem state and improvement prospects of community-acquired pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis differential diagnostics. According to the official domestic statistics pulmonary tuberculosis continues to be a serious problem for the Russian Federation. One of the tuberculosis prevention most important factors is its early diagnostics. Unrecognized pulmonary tuberculosis is the leading factor of the in-hospital tuberculosis dissemination. On the basis of the current international and domestic guidelines it is shown that in order to improve the community-acquired pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis differential diagnostics it is necessary to introduce mandatory sputum specimens light-emitting diode microscopy and Xpert-testing of all patients admitted with pulmonary tuberculosis suspecion with airspace opacity/consolidation on chest x-ray as well as their isolation until tuberculosis exclusion. PMID:26513862

  20. Method and system for diagnostics of apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Proposed is a method, implemented in software, for estimating fault state of an apparatus outfitted with sensors. At each execution period the method processes sensor data from the apparatus to obtain a set of parity parameters, which are further used for estimating fault state. The estimation method formulates a convex optimization problem for each fault hypothesis and employs a convex solver to compute fault parameter estimates and fault likelihoods for each fault hypothesis. The highest likelihoods and corresponding parameter estimates are transmitted to a display device or an automated decision and control system. The obtained accurate estimate of fault state can be used to improve safety, performance, or maintenance processes for the apparatus.

  1. Nuclear Species-Diagnostic SNP Markers Mined from 454 Amplicon Sequencing Reveal Admixture Genomic Structure of Modern Citrus Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha) with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105) were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species-diagnostic SNP marker set will be useful for systematic estimation of admixture structure of citrus germplasm and for diverse genetic studies. PMID:25973611

  2. Signal processing methods for MFE plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.V.; Casper, T.; Kane, R.

    1985-02-01

    The application of various signal processing methods to extract energy storage information from plasma diamagnetism sensors occurring during physics experiments on the Tandom Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) is discussed. We show how these processing techniques can be used to decrease the uncertainty in the corresponding sensor measurements. The algorithms suggested are implemented using SIG, an interactive signal processing package developed at LLNL.

  3. Potentials and limitations of molecular diagnostic methods in food safety

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, Paola O.

    2008-01-01

    Molecular methods allow the detection of pathogen nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and, therefore, the detection of contamination in food is carried out with high selectivity and rapidity. In the last 2 decades molecular methods have accompanied traditional diagnostic methods in routine pathogen detection, and might replace them in the upcoming future. In this review the implementation in diagnostics of four of the most used molecular techniques (PCR, NASBA, microarray, LDR) are described and compared, highlighting advantages and limitations of each of them. Drawbacks of molecular methods with regard to traditional ones and the difficulties encountered in pathogen detection from food or clinical specimen are also discussed. Moreover, criteria for the choice of the target sequence for a secure detection and classification of pathogens and possible developments in molecular diagnostics are also proposed. PMID:19067016

  4. Differential temperature integrating diagnostic method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Doss, James D.; McCabe, Charles W.

    1976-01-01

    A method and device for detecting the presence of breast cancer in women by integrating the temperature difference between the temperature of a normal breast and that of a breast having a malignant tumor. The breast-receiving cups of a brassiere are each provided with thermally conductive material next to the skin, with a thermistor attached to the thermally conductive material in each cup. The thermistors are connected to adjacent arms of a Wheatstone bridge. Unbalance currents in the bridge are integrated with respect to time by means of an electrochemical integrator. In the absence of a tumor, both breasts maintain substantially the same temperature, and the bridge remains balanced. If the tumor is present in one breast, a higher temperature in that breast unbalances the bridge and the electrochemical cells integrate the temperature difference with respect to time.

  5. Examinations of electron temperature calculation methods in Thomson scattering diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Seungtae; Lee, Jong Ha; Wi, Hanmin

    2012-10-15

    Electron temperature from Thomson scattering diagnostic is derived through indirect calculation based on theoretical model. {chi}-square test is commonly used in the calculation, and the reliability of the calculation method highly depends on the noise level of input signals. In the simulations, noise effects of the {chi}-square test are examined and scale factor test is proposed as an alternative method.

  6. A Modern Incarnation of Tycho's Diurnal Parallax Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchheim, Robert K.

    2011-05-01

    Tycho had rudimentary instrumentation (by modern standards), but he also had a first-rate mind (by any standard). With them, he was able to demonstrate that a comet and a nova were more distant than the Moon. I have investigated the feasibility of replicating similar measurements using very common modern equipment (a DSLR, a spreadsheet, and a star catalog). It appears to be feasible for a science student to replicate - and extend - the great scientist's observations and analysis. I'll describe how the distance to the Moon and the distance to an asteroid can be determined from a single fixed site, through the use of diurnal parallax.

  7. State of diagnostic quandary solved by modern technology: a rare case of Madelung's disease.

    PubMed

    Kyaw, Htoo; Grillo, Michael; Lin, Aung Naing; Kapp, David A

    2016-01-01

    Madelung's disease is a neglected metabolic disease characterised by generalised multiple fatty tissue deposits. A 64-year-old Caucasian woman presented with generalised weakness and symptomatic hypoglycaemia with altered mental status. Physical examination showed very distinct physical characteristics with multiple lumps distributed over the upper body. Her neurological symptoms were solved by giving intravenous glucose and optimisation of medical treatment. Even though she had unique characteristics of Madelung's disease, many physicians, on several occasions, failed to recognise her 'hidden diagnosis'. This diagnostic uncertainty was able to be solved by searching the Internet for similar clinical features and images. This case demonstrates characteristics and unique features of a rare disease that can be seen in a female patient even though it is mostly found in males. PMID:26851254

  8. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, M.L.

    1991-04-30

    This patent describes a method for directly labeling proteins with radionuclides for use in diagnostic imaging and therapy. It comprises: the steps of incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein-containing solution and incubating.

  9. Method of azimuthally stable Mueller-matrix diagnostics of blood plasma polycrystalline films in cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, Yu. A.; Prysyazhnyuk, V. P.; Gavrylyak, M. S.; Gorsky, M. P.; Bachinskiy, V. T.; Vanchuliak, O. Ya.

    2015-02-01

    A new information optical technique of diagnostics of the structure of polycrystalline films of blood plasma is proposed. The model of Mueller-matrix description of mechanisms of optical anisotropy of such objects as optical activity, birefringence, as well as linear and circular dichroism is suggested. The ensemble of informationally topical azimuthally stable Mueller-matrix invariants is determined. Within the statistical analysis of such parameters distributions the objective criteria of differentiation of films of blood plasma taken from healthy and patients with liver cirrhosis were determined. From the point of view of probative medicine the operational characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and accuracy) of the information-optical method of Mueller-matrix mapping of polycrystalline films of blood plasma were found and its efficiency in diagnostics of liver cirrhosis was demonstrated. Prospects of application of the method in experimental medicine to differentiate postmortem changes of the myocardial tissue was examined.

  10. Tuberculosis vaccine with high predicted population coverage and compatibility with modern diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Niels Peter H.; Nrskov-Lauritsen, Sara; Dolganov, Gregory M.; Schoolnik, Gary K.; Lindenstrm, Thomas; Andersen, Peter; Agger, Else Marie; Aagaard, Claus

    2014-01-01

    A central goal in vaccine research is the identification of relevant antigens. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis chromosome encodes 23 early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6) family members that mostly are localized as gene pairs. In proximity to five of the gene pairs are ESX secretion systems involved in the secretion of the ESAT-6 family proteins. Here, we performed a detailed and systematic investigation of the vaccine potential of five possible Esx dimer substrates, one for each of the five ESX systems. On the basis of gene transcription during infection, immunogenicity, and protective capacity in a mouse aerosol challenge model, we identified the ESX dimer substrates EsxD-EsxC, ExsG-EsxH, and ExsW-EsxV as the most promising vaccine candidates and combined them in a fusion protein, H65. Vaccination with H65 gave protection at the level of bacillus CalmetteGurin, and the fusion protein exhibited high predicted population coverage in high endemic regions. H65 thus constitutes a promising vaccine candidate devoid of antigen 85 and fully compatible with current ESAT-6 and culture filtrate protein 10-based diagnostics. PMID:24395772

  11. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    DOEpatents

    Thakur, Mathew L. (Cherry Hill, NJ)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form.

  12. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    DOEpatents

    Thakur, Mathew L. (Cherry Hill, NJ)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form.

  13. Musculoskeletal symptoms and orthopaedic complications in pregnancy: pathophysiology, diagnostic approaches and modern management.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Amit; Nagandla, Kavitha

    2014-08-01

    Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal symptom in pregnancy that can present as lumbar pain or pelvic girdle pain, with significant physical and psychosocial implications. Pelvic girdle pain is more prevalent and results in greater disability than lumbar pain. It is possible to distinguish between these two conditions from a detailed history based on the site of the pain, its intensity, disability and pain provocation tests. Management of low back pain in pregnancy is conservative, with physical exercise for lumbar pain and minimising activities that exacerbate pain, analgesics and bed rest for pelvic girdle pain, as well as avoiding abduction beyond the pain-free zone in labour. There is evidence that stabilising exercises in patients with pelvic girdle pain postpartum have a beneficial effect. Other treatment modalities that have been shown to be safe and effective include pelvic belts, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, spinal manipulative therapy, acupuncture and complementary therapy with yoga. Other orthopaedic complications in pregnancy such as carpal tunnel syndrome, pubic symphysis rupture, transient osteoporosis and osteonecrosis are usually self-limiting with a satisfactory outcome. However, a lack of awareness and failure to recognise these complications can result in long-term morbidity. Knowledge of the preoperative diagnostic investigations, surgical approaches and intraoperative positioning of the mother to avoid gravid uterus compression is vital in orthopaedic emergencies such as lumbar disc herniation, cauda equina syndrome, fractures and acute compartment syndrome of the lower limb to ensure a safe maternal and fetal outcome and to prevent serious disability. Pregnancy is not contraindicated in women with pre-existing orthopaedic complications such as kyphoscoliosis and total hip arthroplasty as there is no evidence to suggest increased maternal or fetal risks. PMID:24904047

  14. [The comparative characteristic of methods of laboratory diagnostic of opisthorchiasis].

    PubMed

    Starostina, O Iu; Paniushkina, I I

    2014-04-01

    The analysis of samples of blood serums and copromaterial from patients was carried out to evaluate effectiveness of diagnostic of opisthorchiasis invasion. The Kato-Miura technique of thick film under cellophane layer and sedimentation technique of acetic etheric precipitation were applied for parasitologic diagnostic. The technique of immunoenzymometric analysis was applied for serological diagnostic. The analysis of detection rate of eggs of opistorchis in copromaterial and level of anti-opistorchis antibodies in samples of blood serum of patients demonstrated the presence of strong direct correlation relationship between these indicators. It is demonstrated that for laboratory diagnostic of opisthorchiasis it is impossible to limit oneself to some single technique. It is established that on the territories with middle and low level of population infection rate of opistorchis it is appropriate to apply complex of methods including analysis of blood serum for presence of specific immunoglobulins to antigens of opistorchis and twice or thrice analysis of feces with copro-ovoscopic methods. PMID:25080800

  15. Patenting genetic diagnostic methods: NGS, GWAS, SNPs and patents.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Charles

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the problems posed by patent claims to genetic diagnostic methods associated with genome-wide association studies (GWAS) adopting methodologies using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). These problems are essentially about experimental reproducibility and the credibility and veracity of reported developments. An analysis of the relevant law demonstrates that the current Australian and United States laws about suitable patentable subject matter differ, and that the current reproducibility (sufficiency, enablement and inutility) standards are unlikely to address these problems. The article concludes that following the United States approach excluding these genetic diagnostic method claims from patenting is one solution. Failing this, improving analysis and quality controls that are now being adopted in the basic research will reduce the nature of the problems, although this will remain problematic for patent examiners and the broader public. PMID:26349382

  16. Four quantitative EMG methods and theirs individual parameter diagnostic value.

    PubMed

    Kurca, E; Drobn, M

    2000-12-01

    Quantitative electromyography (EMG) usage in daily clinical medicine can exclude the investigation results influencing by the electromyographer's subjective factor in needle EMG. The aim of our study was to compare the diagnostic efficiency of these quantitative EMG methods which have found some more consistent application in routine neurologic practice. We have investigated 35 healthy subjects and 59 patients with two basic types of neuromuscular disorders (neuropathies and myopathies) by means of four quantitative EMG methods: 1--modified Buchthal's low threshold MUAPs (motor unit action potentials) analysis; 2--interference EMG pattern Dorfman's and McGill's limited decomposition; 3--interference EMG pattern spectral analysis; 4--interference EMG pattern turns-amplitude analysis. In results analysis parameter's 95% confidence intervals were calculated by Campbell and Gardner and the difference between three subject groups (controls, neuropathies, myopathies) was evaluated by special multidimensional statistics (Hotelling T2 test) using simultaneously all tested parameters of four quantitative EMG methods. The modified Buchthal's low threshold MUAPs analysis was the most effective method in discovering neuropathy and myopathy with area as the best discriminating parameter. The diagnostic power in neuropathies may be increased using selected quantitative EMG methods or theirs individual parameters combinations. Several aspects of applyied quantitative EMG methods and aquired data statistical analysis are discussed. PMID:11155536

  17. [Historical records and modern studies on agarwood production method and overall agarwood production method].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun-Qing; Wei, Jian-He; Zhang, Zheng; Yang, Yun; Liu, Yang-Yang; Meng, Hui; Zhang, Xing-Li; Zhang, Jin-Lian

    2013-02-01

    Agarwood is a precious traditional Chinese medicine with the efficacy of promoting qi circulation and relieving pain, warming middle-jiao, controlling nausea and vomiting, governing inspiration and relieving asthma, therefore it is widely applied in the clinic. Meanwhile, agarwood is also a precious spice. Aquilaria sinensis is the only source of agarwood production in China. Under natural conditions, a healthy A. sinensis tree produces no agarwood. Only if being wounded or infected with fungus can it synthetize and accumulate agarwood. It takes a decade or even several decades to produce agarwood, thus natural agarwood can not meet market demands. The essay summarizes historical records of agarwood production method and modern agarwood production method, in order to provide basis and reference for large-scale production of agarwood. PMID:23667998

  18. Molecular and Nonmolecular Diagnostic Methods for Invasive Fungal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Arvanitis, Marios; Anagnostou, Theodora; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Caliendo, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Invasive fungal infections constitute a serious threat to an ever-growing population of immunocompromised individuals and other individuals at risk. Traditional diagnostic methods, such as histopathology and culture, which are still considered the gold standards, have low sensitivity, which underscores the need for the development of new means of detecting fungal infectious agents. Indeed, novel serologic and molecular techniques have been developed and are currently under clinical evaluation. Tests like the galactomannan antigen test for aspergillosis and the β-glucan test for invasive Candida spp. and molds, as well as other antigen and antibody tests, for Cryptococcus spp., Pneumocystis spp., and dimorphic fungi, have already been established as important diagnostic approaches and are implemented in routine clinical practice. On the other hand, PCR and other molecular approaches, such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), have proved promising in clinical trials but still need to undergo standardization before their clinical use can become widespread. The purpose of this review is to highlight the different diagnostic approaches that are currently utilized or under development for invasive fungal infections and to identify their performance characteristics and the challenges associated with their use. PMID:24982319

  19. FRP bolted flanged connections -- Modern design and fabrication methods

    SciTech Connect

    Blach, A.E.; Sun, L.

    1995-11-01

    Bolted flanged connections for fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) pipes and pressure vessels are of great importance for any user of FRP material in fluid containment applications. At present, no dimensional standards or design rules exist for FRP flanges. Most often, flanges are fabricated to dimensional standards for metallic flanges without questioning their applicability to FRP materials. This paper discusses simplified and exact design methods for composite flanges, based on isotropic material design and on laminate theory design. Both, exact and simplified methods are included. Results of various design methods are then compared with experimental results from strain gage measurements on test pressure vessels. Methods of flange fabrication such as hand lay-up, injection molding, filament winding, and others, are discussed for their relative merits in pressure vessel and piping applications. Both, integral and bonded flanges are covered as applicable to the various methods of fabrication, also the economic implications of these methods. Also treated are the problems of gasket selection, bolting and overbolting, gasket stresses, and leakage of flanged connections.

  20. Traditional East Asian medicine: how to understand and approach diagnostic findings and patterns in a modern scientific framework?

    PubMed

    Birch, Stephen; Alraek, Terje

    2014-05-01

    Research into the diagnostic methods and patterns of traditional East Asian medical (TEAM) systems of practice such as acupuncture and herbal medicine face certain challenges due to the nature of thinking in TEAM and the subjective basis of judgments made in practice. The TEAM-based diagnosis can take into account various findings and signs such as the appearance of the tongue, palpable qualities of the radial pulses, palpable qualities and findings on the abdomen, the complexion of the patient and so on. Both diagnostic findings and the patterns of diagnosis cannot be assumed to have objective bases or to be causally related to the complaints of the patient. However, the diagnoses of TEAM based acupuncture and herbal medicine have tended to look at pictures of the whole patient and rather than focus on a particular symptom, they have looked across a myriad of signs and symptoms to decide or identify the 'pattern' of diagnosis according to the theory in question. Although open for selective and subjective biases each diagnosis pattern always comes with a prescribed treatment tailored to the pattern. Further, the same research requirements needed for the validation of the diagnoses are needed also for these clinical observations and judgments. Hence, it is necessary, albeit challenging for research on TEAM diagnoses to first address these issues before proceeding to more complex investigations such as the development of instruments for making diagnostic observations, instruments for forming diagnostic conclusions or studies investigating the physiological bases of the diagnostic patterns. Preliminary work has started and instruments have been made, but we suggest that any instrumentation must necessarily be first validated by matching of the calibrated or scaled observations or judgments to observations made and agreed upon by relevant experts. Reliability of all observations and judgments are needed before any other tool, technology or more advanced approach can proceed and also whenever the natural system of diagnosis-treatment is applied in clinical trials. In this paper the authors highlight the core problems and describe a step wise process for addressing them. PMID:24788086

  1. A Practical Guide to Modern Methods of Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Larry V.; And Others

    Methods for meta-analysis have evolved dramatically since Gene Glass first proposed the term in 1976. Since that time statistical and nonstatistical aspects of methodology for meta-analysis have been developing at a steady pace. This guide is an attempt to provide a practical introduction to rigorous procedures in the meta-analysis of social…

  2. [Diagnostic methods of central nervous system changes in SLE patients].

    PubMed

    Wozniacka, Anna; Kusmierek, Jacek; Andrzejewska, Iwona; Pe?ka, Marcin; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Bogucki, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune, multiorgan disease, in the course of which central nervous system (CNS) disturbances are usually observed. Pathomechanism of CNS changes is complex and not fully investigated. Neuropathological alterations are often not characteristic, usually caused by vasculopathy, infarction, hemorrhages or infection. Vascular changes are generally disseminated and develop in different time period, sometimes they precede clinical symptoms. Currently applied diagnostic methods and their usefulness in diagnosis of CNS involvement in lupus patients, especially single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), are presented. PMID:16334537

  3. Modern method and instrument for measuring psychic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hideg, Janos; Remes, Peter; Bognar, Laszlo; Agoston, Mihaly

    This paper shows that cortical processing of information quantity can be given in bits, while speed of information processing can be given in bit/sec; therefore the information processing ability can be denoted in algebraical expression. Changes of emotional tension can be objectified by galvanic skin reflex and pulse reaction. This method and device is suitable to measure psychic state of space station personnel and to predict psychic activity.

  4. Designing arrays for modern high-resolution methods

    SciTech Connect

    Dowla, F.U.

    1987-10-01

    A bearing estimation study of seismic wavefields propagating from a strongly heterogeneous media shows that with the high-resolution MUSIC algorithm the bias of the direction estimate can be reduced by adopting a smaller aperture sub-array. Further, on this sub-array, the bias of the MUSIC algorithm is less than those of the MLM and Bartlett methods. On the full array, the performance for the three different methods are comparable. Improvement in bearing estimation in MUSIC with a reduced aperture might be attributed to increased signal coherency in the array. For methods with less resolution, the improved signal coherency in the smaller array is possible being offset by severe loss of resolution and the presence of weak secondary sources. Building upon the characteristics of real seismic wavefields, a design language has been developed to generate, modify, and test other arrays. Eigenstructures of wavefields and arrays have been studied empirically by simulation of a variety of realistic signals. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Methods of comparative proteomic profiling for disease diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Steel, Laura F; Haab, Brian B; Hanash, Samir M

    2005-02-01

    The recent development of numerous technologies for proteome analysis holds the promise of new and more precise methods for disease diagnosis. In this review, we provide an overview of some of these technologies including two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), historically the workhorse of proteomic analysis, as well as some newer approaches such as liquid phase separations combined with mass spectrometry, and protein microarrays. It is evident that each method has its own strengths and weaknesses and no single method will be optimal in all applications. However, the continuing development of innovative strategies for protein separation and analysis is providing a wealth of new tools for multi-dimensional protein profiling that will advance our capabilities in disease diagnostics and our understanding of disease pathology. PMID:15652816

  6. Use of Modern Family Planning Methods in Fishing Communities of Lake Victoria, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nanvubya, Annet; Ssempiira, Julius; Mpendo, Juliet; Ssetaala, Ali; Nalutaaya, Annet; Wambuzi, Mathias; Kitandwe, Paul; Bagaya, Bernard S.; Welsh, Sabrina; Asiimwe, Stephen; Nielsen, Leslie; Makumbi, Fredrick; Kiwanuka, Noah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fishing communities (FCs) in Uganda have high HIV infection rates but poor access to health services including family planning (FP). Although FP is a cost-effective public health intervention, there is a paucity of data on knowledge and use of modern FP in FCs. This study determined knowledge and use of modern FP methods in FCs of Uganda. Methods Data were accrued from a 12-month follow up of 1,688 HIV-uninfected individuals, 18–49 years from 8 FCs along Lake Victoria, between September 2011 and March 2013. Data on knowledge and use of modern FP were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire. Prevalence Risk Ratios with corresponding 95% CIs were used to determine factors associated with Modern FP knowledge and use. Results The mean age was 31.4 years, with nearly half (48.8%) being females while more than half (58.6%) had attained up to primary education level. Knowledge of modern FP was high, 87.5% (1477/1688); significantly higher among females [adj. PRR = 4.84 (95% CI; 3.08, 7.61)], among older respondents (25–29 years) [adj. PRR = 1.83 (95% CI; 1.12, 2.99)] compared to younger ones (18–24 years) and among those conducting business [adj. PRR = 2.42(95% CI; 1.02, 5.74)] relative to those primarily in fishing. Just over a third (35.2%, 595/1688) reported use of at least one modern FP method. Use of modern FP methods was significantly higher among females [adj. PRR = 2.04 (95% CI; 1.56, 2.65, and among those reporting multiple sexual partnerships [adj. PRR = 2.12, 95% CI; 1.63, 2.76)]. Nonuse of modern methods was mostly due to desire for more children (30.6%), fear of side effects (12.2%) and partner refusal (5.2%). Conclusion Despite their high knowledge of FP, FCs have low use of modern FP methods. Key barriers to use of modern FP methods were high fertility desires, fear of perceived side effects and partner refusal of methods. PMID:26512727

  7. Diagnostic methods and treatment modalities of dry eye conditions.

    PubMed

    Holly, F J

    1993-06-01

    One may view dry eye conditions as a group of diseases in which the ocular surface is adversely affected. Tear film instability invariably leads to some degree of cellular surface damage over the cornea and conjunctiva. In turn, ocular epitheliopathy may adversely affect tear film stability. The clinical presentation of the disease may not yield a clue as to its etiology. In recent years considerable progress was made both in the diagnosis and the treatment of the disease and promising studies are planned or are underway. The diagnostic techniques can be divided into four groups. The first is concerned with the clinical presentation. The second is concerned with the bulk properties of the aqueous tears including dynamic characteristics, composition, and colligative properties. The third is tear-film related and includes the film break-up time, evaporation rate, and lipid abnormality. The fourth is concerned with the ocular surface and includes vital staining, impression cytology, and surface microscopy. The most promising attempts are being made in the second group by attempting to elucidate the role of enzyme and enzyme activator activity and inhibitor contents as well as the tear protein profiles and correlating them with the specific disease states. The treatment modalities belong to three major groups aside from surgical intervention; the supplementation, preservation, and the stimulation of tears. The modern version of tear supplementation is expected to include the topical use of efficacious aqueous formulations that typically contain film stabilizing polymers, nutrients, and/or--in the future--biochemically active ingredients such as enzyme activators and inhibitors. PMID:8262709

  8. New Methods and Transducer Designs for Ultrasonic Diagnostics and Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybyanets, A. N.; Naumenko, A. A.; Sapozhnikov, O. A.; Khokhlova, V. A.

    Recent advances in the field of physical acoustics, imaging technologies, piezoelectric materials, and ultrasonic transducer design have led to emerging of novel methods and apparatus for ultrasonic diagnostics, therapy and body aesthetics. The paper presents the results on development and experimental study of different high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducers. Technological peculiarities of the HIFU transducer design as well as theoretical and numerical models of such transducers and the corresponding HIFU fields are discussed. Several HIFU transducers of different design have been fabricated using different advanced piezoelectric materials. Acoustic field measurements for those transducers have been performed using a calibrated fiber optic hydrophone and an ultrasonic measurement system (UMS). The results of ex vivo experiments with different tissues as well as in vivo experiments with blood vessels are presented that prove the efficacy, safety and selectivity of the developed HIFU transducers and methods.

  9. Plasma diagnostic method using intermodulation frequencies in a Langmuir probe

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kim, Yu-Sin; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2013-08-19

    A plasma diagnostic method using intermodulation frequencies is developed. When dual-frequency (ω{sub 1},ω{sub 2}) voltage signals are applied to a probe, the intermodulation frequencies (ω{sub 2}±ω{sub 1}, ω{sub 2}±2ω{sub 1}) between the signals are generated due to the nonlinearity of the sheath. From the analysis of the intermodulation frequencies, the plasma parameters, such as the electron temperature and the plasma density, can be obtained. The measured plasma parameters from this method are compared to the results from the measured electron energy distribution function, and they are in good agreement. Because the intermodulation currents originated from the plasma not from the stray component of the measurement system, an accurate measurement of the plasma parameters is achievable.

  10. Plasma diagnostic method using intermodulation frequencies in a Langmuir probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kim, Yu-Sin; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2013-08-01

    A plasma diagnostic method using intermodulation frequencies is developed. When dual-frequency (?1,?2) voltage signals are applied to a probe, the intermodulation frequencies (?2?1, ?22?1) between the signals are generated due to the nonlinearity of the sheath. From the analysis of the intermodulation frequencies, the plasma parameters, such as the electron temperature and the plasma density, can be obtained. The measured plasma parameters from this method are compared to the results from the measured electron energy distribution function, and they are in good agreement. Because the intermodulation currents originated from the plasma not from the stray component of the measurement system, an accurate measurement of the plasma parameters is achievable.

  11. SAMSAN- MODERN NUMERICAL METHODS FOR CLASSICAL SAMPLED SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    SAMSAN was developed to aid the control system analyst by providing a self consistent set of computer algorithms that support large order control system design and evaluation studies, with an emphasis placed on sampled system analysis. Control system analysts have access to a vast array of published algorithms to solve an equally large spectrum of controls related computational problems. The analyst usually spends considerable time and effort bringing these published algorithms to an integrated operational status and often finds them less general than desired. SAMSAN reduces the burden on the analyst by providing a set of algorithms that have been well tested and documented, and that can be readily integrated for solving control system problems. Algorithm selection for SAMSAN has been biased toward numerical accuracy for large order systems with computational speed and portability being considered important but not paramount. In addition to containing relevant subroutines from EISPAK for eigen-analysis and from LINPAK for the solution of linear systems and related problems, SAMSAN contains the following not so generally available capabilities: 1) Reduction of a real non-symmetric matrix to block diagonal form via a real similarity transformation matrix which is well conditioned with respect to inversion, 2) Solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem with balancing and grading, 3) Computation of all zeros of the determinant of a matrix of polynomials, 4) Matrix exponentiation and the evaluation of integrals involving the matrix exponential, with option to first block diagonalize, 5) Root locus and frequency response for single variable transfer functions in the S, Z, and W domains, 6) Several methods of computing zeros for linear systems, and 7) The ability to generate documentation "on demand". All matrix operations in the SAMSAN algorithms assume non-symmetric matrices with real double precision elements. There is no fixed size limit on any matrix in any SAMSAN algorithm; however, it is generally agreed by experienced users, and in the numerical error analysis literature, that computation with non-symmetric matrices of order greater than about 200 should be avoided or treated with extreme care. SAMSAN attempts to support the needs of application oriented analysis by providing: 1) a methodology with unlimited growth potential, 2) a methodology to insure that associated documentation is current and available "on demand", 3) a foundation of basic computational algorithms that most controls analysis procedures are based upon, 4) a set of check out and evaluation programs which demonstrate usage of the algorithms on a series of problems which are structured to expose the limits of each algorithm's applicability, and 5) capabilities which support both a priori and a posteriori error analysis for the computational algorithms provided. The SAMSAN algorithms are coded in FORTRAN 77 for batch or interactive execution and have been implemented on a DEC VAX computer under VMS 4.7. An effort was made to assure that the FORTRAN source code was portable and thus SAMSAN may be adaptable to other machine environments. The documentation is included on the distribution tape or can be purchased separately at the price below. SAMSAN version 2.0 was developed in 1982 and updated to version 3.0 in 1988.

  12. An Analysis of Inhalation Injury Diagnostic Methods and Patient Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ching, Jessica A; Ching, Yiu-Hei; Shivers, Steven C; Karlnoski, Rachel A; Payne, Wyatt G; Smith, David J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare patient outcomes according to the method of diagnosing burn inhalation injury. After approval from the American Burn Association, the National Burn Repository Dataset Version 8.0 was queried for patients with a diagnosis of burn inhalation injury. Subgroups were analyzed by diagnostic method as defined by the National Burn Repository. All diagnostic methods listed for each patient were included, comparing mortality, hospital days, intensive care unit (ICU) days, and ventilator days (VDs). Z-tests, t-tests, and linear regression were used with a statistical significance of P value of less than .05. The database query yielded 9775 patients diagnosed with inhalation injury. The greatest increase in mortality was associated with diagnosis by bronchoscopy or carbon monoxide poisoning. A relative increase in hospital days was noted with diagnosis by bronchoscopy (9 days) or history (2 days). A relative increase in ICU days was associated with diagnosis according to bronchoscopy (8 days), clinical findings (2 days), or history (2 days). A relative increase in VDs was associated with diagnosis by bronchoscopy (6 days) or carbon monoxide poisoning (3 days). The combination of diagnosis by bronchoscopy and clinical findings increased the relative difference across all comparison measures. The combination of diagnosis by bronchoscopy and carbon monoxide poisoning exhibited decreased relative differences when compared with bronchoscopy alone. Diagnosis by laryngoscopy showed no mortality or association with poor outcomes. Bronchoscopic evidence of inhalation injury proved most useful, predicting increased mortality, hospital, ICU, and VDs. A combined diagnosis determined by clinical findings and bronchoscopy should be considered for clinical practice. PMID:26594867

  13. Diagnostic methods for platelet bacteria screening: current status and developments.

    PubMed

    Strmer, Melanie; Vollmer, Tanja

    2014-02-01

    Bacterial contamination of blood components and the prevention of transfusion-associated bacterial infection still remains a major challenge in transfusion medicine. Over the past few decades, a significant reduction in the transmission of viral infections has been achieved due to the introduction of mandatory virus screening. Platelet concentrates (PCs) represent one of the highest risks for bacterial infection. This is due to the required storage conditions for PCs in gas-permeable containers at room temperature with constant agitation, which support bacterial proliferation from low contamination levels to high titers. In contrast to virus screening, since 1997 in Germany bacterial testing of PCs is only performed as a routine quality control or, since 2008, to prolong the shelf life to 5 days. In general, bacterial screening of PCs by cultivation methods is implemented by the various blood services. Although these culturing systems will remain the gold standard, the significance of rapid methods for screening for bacterial contamination has increased over the last few years. These new methods provide powerful tools for increasing the bacterial safety of blood components. This article summarizes the course of policies and provisions introduced to increase bacterial safety of blood components in Germany. Furthermore, we give an overview of the different diagnostic methods for bacterial screening of PCs and their current applicability in routine screening processes. PMID:24659944

  14. Diagnostic Methods for Platelet Bacteria Screening: Current Status and Developments

    PubMed Central

    Störmer, Melanie; Vollmer, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bacterial contamination of blood components and the prevention of transfusion-associated bacterial infection still remains a major challenge in transfusion medicine. Over the past few decades, a significant reduction in the transmission of viral infections has been achieved due to the introduction of mandatory virus screening. Platelet concentrates (PCs) represent one of the highest risks for bacterial infection. This is due to the required storage conditions for PCs in gas-permeable containers at room temperature with constant agitation, which support bacterial proliferation from low contamination levels to high titers. In contrast to virus screening, since 1997 in Germany bacterial testing of PCs is only performed as a routine quality control or, since 2008, to prolong the shelf life to 5 days. In general, bacterial screening of PCs by cultivation methods is implemented by the various blood services. Although these culturing systems will remain the gold standard, the significance of rapid methods for screening for bacterial contamination has increased over the last few years. These new methods provide powerful tools for increasing the bacterial safety of blood components. This article summarizes the course of policies and provisions introduced to increase bacterial safety of blood components in Germany. Furthermore, we give an overview of the different diagnostic methods for bacterial screening of PCs and their current applicability in routine screening processes. PMID:24659944

  15. Diagnostic methods to assess inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength*

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Pedro; de Albuquerque, Andr Luis Pereira; Santana, Pauliane Vieira; Cardenas, Leticia Zumpano; Ferreira, Jeferson George; Prina, Elena; Trevizan, Patrcia Fernandes; Pereira, Mayra Caleffi; Iamonti, Vinicius; Pletsch, Renata; Macchione, Marcelo Ceneviva; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of (inspiratory and expiratory) respiratory muscles is a common clinical finding, not only in patients with neuromuscular disease but also in patients with primary disease of the lung parenchyma or airways. Although such impairment is common, its recognition is usually delayed because its signs and symptoms are nonspecific and late. This delayed recognition, or even the lack thereof, occurs because the diagnostic tests used in the assessment of respiratory muscle strength are not widely known and available. There are various methods of assessing respiratory muscle strength during the inspiratory and expiratory phases. These methods are divided into two categories: volitional tests (which require patient understanding and cooperation); and non-volitional tests. Volitional tests, such as those that measure maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, are the most commonly used because they are readily available. Non-volitional tests depend on magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerve accompanied by the measurement of inspiratory mouth pressure, inspiratory esophageal pressure, or inspiratory transdiaphragmatic pressure. Another method that has come to be widely used is ultrasound imaging of the diaphragm. We believe that pulmonologists involved in the care of patients with respiratory diseases should be familiar with the tests used in order to assess respiratory muscle function.Therefore, the aim of the present article is to describe the advantages, disadvantages, procedures, and clinical applicability of the main tests used in the assessment of respiratory muscle strength. PMID:25972965

  16. Computer methods for ITER-like materials LIBS diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?epek, Micha?; G sior, Pawe?

    2014-11-01

    Recent development of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) caused that this method is considered as the most promising for future diagnostic applications for characterization of the deposited materials in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which is currently under construction. In this article the basics of LIBS are shortly discussed and the software for spectra analyzing is presented. The main software function is to analyze measured spectra with respect to the certain element lines presence. Some program operation results are presented. Correct results for graphite and aluminum are obtained although identification of tungsten lines is a problem. The reason for this is low tungsten lines intensity, and thus low signal to noise ratio of the measured signal. In the second part artificial neural networks (ANNs) as the next step for LIBS spectra analyzing are proposed. The idea is focused on multilayer perceptron network (MLP) with backpropagation learning method. The potential of ANNs for data processing was proved through application in several LIBS-related domains, e.g. differentiating ancient Greek ceramics (discussed). The idea is to apply an ANN for determination of W, Al, C presence on ITER-like plasma-facing materials.

  17. Diagnostic Methods for Detection of Blood-Borne Candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Cornelius J; Nguyen, M Hong

    2016-01-01

    ?-D-glucan (Fungitell) and polymerase chain reaction-based (T2Candida) assays of blood samples are FDA-approved adjuncts to cultures for diagnosing candidemia and other types of invasive candidiasis, but their clinical roles are unclear. In this chapter, we describe laboratory protocols for performing Fungitell and T2Candida assays. We then discuss step-by-step methods for interpreting test results at the bedside using a Bayesian framework, and for incorporating assays into rational patient management strategies. Prior to interpreting results, clinicians must recognize that test performance varies based on the type of invasive candidiasis being diagnosed. In general, the type of invasive candidiasis that is most likely in a given patient can be identified, and the pretest likelihood of disease estimated. From there, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) for an assay can be calculated. At a population level, tests can be incorporated into screening strategies for antifungal treatment. NPV and PPV thresholds can be defined for discontinuing antifungal prophylaxis or initiating preemptive treatment, respectively. Using the thresholds, it is possible to assign windows of pretest likelihood for invasive candidiasis (and corresponding patient populations) in which tests are most likely to valuable. At the individual patient level, tests may be useful outside of the windows proposed for screening populations. The interpretive and clinical decision-making processes we discuss will be applicable to other diagnostic assays as they enter the clinic, and to existing assays as more data emerge from various populations. PMID:26519076

  18. Interrater Reliability of Diagnostic Methods in Traditional Indian Ayurvedic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bilgrau, Anders Ellern; Toft, Egon; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the interrater reliability of Ayurvedic pulse (nadi), tongue (jivha), and body constitution (prakriti) assessments. Fifteen registered Ayurvedic doctors with 315 years of experience independently examined twenty healthy subjects. Subjects completed self-assessment questionnaires and software analyses for prakriti assessment. Weighted kappa statistics for all 105 pairs of doctors were computed for the pulse, tongue, and prakriti data sets. According to the Landis-Koch scale, the pairwise kappas ranged from poor to slight, slight to fair, and fair to moderate for pulse, tongue, and prakriti assessments, respectively. The average pairwise kappa for pulse, tongue, and prakriti was 0.07, 0.17, and 0.28, respectively. For each data set and pair of doctors, the null hypothesis of random rating was rejected for just twelve pairs of doctors for prakriti, one pair of doctors for pulse examination, and no pairs of doctors for tongue assessment. Thus, the results demonstrate a low level of reliability for all types of assessment made by doctors. There was significant evidence against random rating by software and questionnaire use and by the diagnosis preferred by the majority of doctors. Prakriti assessment appears reliable when questionnaire and software assessment are used, while other diagnostic methods have room for improvement. PMID:24191170

  19. Image processing methods and architectures in diagnostic pathology.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Gloria; Déniz, Oscar; Salido, Jesús; Rojo, Marcial García

    2009-01-01

    Grid technology has enabled the clustering and the efficient and secure access to and interaction among a wide variety of geographically distributed resources such as: supercomputers, storage systems, data sources, instruments and special devices and services. Their main applications include large-scale computational and data intensive problems in science and engineering. General grid structures and methodologies for both software and hardware in image analysis for virtual tissue-based diagnosis has been considered in this paper. This methods are focus on the user level middleware. The article describes the distributed programming system developed by the authors for virtual slide analysis in diagnostic pathology. The system supports different image analysis operations commonly done in anatomical pathology and it takes into account secured aspects and specialized infrastructures with high level services designed to meet application requirements. Grids are likely to have a deep impact on health related applications, and therefore they seem to be suitable for tissue-based diagnosis too. The implemented system is a joint application that mixes both Web and Grid Service Architecture around a distributed architecture for image processing. It has shown to be a successful solution to analyze a big and heterogeneous group of histological images under architecture of massively parallel processors using message passing and non-shared memory. PMID:20430740

  20. Optical caries diagnostics: comparison of laser spectroscopic PNC method with method of laser integral fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masychev, Victor I.

    2000-11-01

    In this research we present the results of approbation of two methods of optical caries diagnostics: PNC-spectral diagnostics and caries detection by laser integral fluorescence. The research was conducted in a dental clinic. PNC-method analyses parameters of probing laser radiation and PNC-spectrums of stimulated secondary radiations: backscattering and endogenous fluorescence of caries-involved bacterias. He-Ne-laser ((lambda) =632,8 nm, 1-2mW) was used as a source of probing (stimulated) radiation. For registration of signals, received from intact and pathological teeth PDA-detector was applied. PNC-spectrums were processed by special algorithms, and were displayed on PC monitor. The method of laser integral fluorescence was used for comparison. In this case integral power of fluorescence of human teeth was measured. As a source of probing (stimulated) radiation diode lasers ((lambda) =655 nm, 0.1 mW and 630nm, 1mW) and He-Ne laser were applied. For registration of signals Si-photodetector was used. Integral power was shown in a digital indicator. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are described in this research. It is disclosed that the method of laser integral power of fluorescence has the following characteristics: simplicity of construction and schema-technical decisions. However the method of PNC-spectral diagnostics are characterized by considerably more sensitivity in diagnostics of initial caries and capability to differentiate pathologies of various stages (for example, calculus/initial caries). Estimation of spectral characteristics of PNC-signals allows eliminating a number of drawbacks, which are character for detection by method of laser integral fluorescence (for instance, detection of fluorescent fillings, plagues, calculus, discolorations generally, amalgam, gold fillings as if it were caries.

  1. ANALOG: a program for estimating paleoclimate parameters using the method of modern analogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweitzer, Peter N.

    1994-01-01

    Beginning in the 1970s with CLIMAP, paleoclimatologists have been trying to derive quantitative estimates of climatic parameters from the sedimentary record. In general the procedure is to observe the modern distribution of some component of surface sediment that depends on climate, find an empirical relationship between climate and the character of sediments, then extrapolate past climate by studying older sediments in the same way. Initially the empirical relationship between climate and components of the sediment was determined using a multiple regression technique (Imbrie and Kipp, 1971). In these studies sea-floor sediments were examined to determine the percentage of various species of planktonic foraminifera present in them. Supposing that the distribution of foraminiferal assemblages depended strongly on the extremes of annual sea-surface temperature (SST), the foraminiferal assemblages (refined through use of varimax factor analysis) were regressed against the average SST during the coolest and warmest months of the year. The result was a set of transfer functions, equations that could be used to estimate cool and warm SST from the faunal composition of a sediment sample. Assuming that the ecological preference of the species had remained constant throughout the last several hundred thousand years, these transfer functions could be used to estimate SSTs during much of the late Pleistocene. Hutson (1980) and Overpeck, Webb, and Prentice (1985) proposed an alternative approach to estimating paleoclimatic parameters. Their 'method of modern analogs' revolved not around the existence of a few climatically-sensitive faunal assemblages but rather on the expectation that similar climatic regimes should foster similar faunal and floral assemblages. From a large pool of modern samples, those few are selected whose faunal compositions are most similar to a given fossil sample. Paleoclimate estimates are derived using the climatic character of only the most similar modern samples, the modern analogs of the fossil sample. This report describes how to use the program ANALOG to carry out the method of modern analogs. It is assumed that the user has faunal census estimates of one or more fossil samples, and one or more sets of faunal data from modern samples. Furthermore, the user must understand the taxonomic categories represented in the data sets, and be able to recognize taxa that are or may be considered equivalent in the analysis. ANALOG provides the user with flexibility in input data format, output data content, and choice of distance measure, and allows the user to determine which taxa from each modern and fossil data file are compared. Most of the memory required by the program is allocated dynamically, so that, on systems that permit program segments to grow, the program consumes only as many system resources as are needed to accomplish its task.

  2. Chronic intraoral pain--assessment of diagnostic methods and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Pigg, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The overall goal of this thesis was to broaden our knowledge of chronic intraoral pain. The research questions were: What methods can be used to differentiate inflammatory, odontogenic tooth pain from pain that presents as toothache but is non-odontogenic in origin? What is the prognosis of chronic tooth pain of non-odontogenic origin, and which factors affect the prognosis? Atypical odontalgia (AO) is a relatively rare but severe and chronic pain condition affecting the dentoalveolar region. Recent research indicates that the origin is peripheral nerve damage: neuropathic pain. The condition presents as tooth pain and is challenging to dentists because it is difficult to distinguish from ordinary toothache due to inflammation or infection. AO is of interest to the pain community because it shares many characteristics with other chronic pain conditions, and pain perpetuation mechanisms are likely to be similar. An AO diagnosis is made after a comprehensive examination and assessment of patients' self-reported characteristics: the pain history. Traditional dental diagnostic methods do not appear to suffice, since many patients report repeated care-seeking and numerous treatment efforts with little or no pain relief. Developing methods that are useful in the clinical setting is a prerequisite for a correct diagnosis and adequate treatment decisions. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is used to assess sensory function on skin when nerve damage or disease is suspected. A variety of stimuli has been used to examine the perception of, for example, touch, temperature (painful and non-painful), vibration, pinprick pain, and pressure pain. To detect sensory abnormalities and nerve damage in the oral cavity, the same methods may be possible to use. Study I examined properties of thermal thresholds in and around the mouth in 30 pain-free subjects: the influence of measurement location and stimulation area size on threshold levels, and time variability of thresholds. Thresholds for cold, warmth and painful heat were measured in four intraoral and two extraoral sites. Measurements were repeated 3 times over 6 weeks, using four sizes of stimulation area (0.125-0.81 cm2). The threshold levels were highly dependent on location but less dependent on measuring probe size and time variability was small, and this knowledge is important for the interpretation of QST results. Study II applied a recently developed standardized QST examination protocol (intended for use on skin) inside the oral cavity. Two trained examiners evaluated 21 pain-free subjects on three occasions over 1-3 weeks, at four sites-three intraoral and one extraoral. Most tests had acceptable reliability and the original test instruments and techniques could be applied intraorally with only minor adjustments. Study III examined the value of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in pain investigations. Twenty patients with AO and 5 with symptomatic apical periodontitis (inflammatory tooth pain) participated. The results indicate that when AO is suspected, addition of CBCT can improve the diagnostic certainty compared to sole use of periapical and panoramic radiographs, especially because of the superior ability of CBCT to exclude inflammation as the pain cause. Study IV assessed the long-term prognosis of AO, and analyzed potential outcome predictors. A comprehensive questionnaire including validated and reliable instruments was used to gather data on patient and pain characteristics and pain consequences from 37 patients in 2002 and 2009. Thirty-five percent of the patients reported substantial overall improvement at follow-up, but almost all still had pain of some degree after many years. The initial high level of emotional distress was unchanged. Low baseline pain intensity predicted improvement over time. PMID:22338784

  3. Multidimensional anatomy of 'modern type depression' in Japan: A proposal for a different diagnostic approach to depression beyond the DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takahiro A; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hayakawa, Kohei; Kubo, Hiroaki; Watabe, Motoki; Teo, Alan R; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2016-01-01

    Japan's prototype of depression was traditionally a melancholic depression based on the premorbid personality known as shūchaku-kishitsu proposed by Mitsuzo Shimoda in the 1930s. However, since around 2000, a novel form of depression has emerged among Japanese youth. Called 'modern type depression (MTD)' by the mass media, the term has quickly gained popularity among the general public, though it has not been regarded as an official medical term. Likewise, lack of consensus guidelines for its diagnosis and treatment, and a dearth of scientific literature on MTD has led to confusion when dealing with it in clinical practice in Japan. In this review article, we summarize and discuss the present situation and issues regarding MTD by focusing on historical, diagnostic, psychosocial, and cultural perspectives. We also draw on international perspectives that begin to suggest that MTD is a phenomenon that may exist not only in Japan but also in many other countries with different sociocultural and historical backgrounds. It is therefore of interest to establish whether MTD is a culture-specific phenomenon in Japan or a syndrome that can be classified using international diagnostic criteria as contained in the ICD or the DSM. We propose a novel diagnostic approach for depression that addresses MTD in order to combat the current confusion about depression under the present diagnostic systems. PMID:26350304

  4. Review of Dercums disease and proposal of diagnostic criteria, diagnostic methods, classification and management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Definition and clinical picture We propose the minimal definition of Dercums disease to be generalised overweight or obesity in combination with painful adipose tissue. The associated symptoms in Dercums disease include fatty deposits, easy bruisability, sleep disturbances, impaired memory, depression, difficulty concentrating, anxiety, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, diabetes, bloating, constipation, fatigue, weakness and joint aches. Classification We suggest that Dercums disease is classified into: I. Generalised diffuse form A form with diffusely widespread painful adipose tissue without clear lipomas, II. Generalised nodular form - a form with general pain in adipose tissue and intense pain in and around multiple lipomas, and III. Localised nodular form - a form with pain in and around multiple lipomas IV. Juxtaarticular form - a form with solitary deposits of excess fat for example at the medial aspect of the knee. Epidemiology Dercums disease most commonly appears between the ages of 35 and 50?years and is five to thirty times more common in women than in men. The prevalence of Dercums disease has not yet been exactly established. Aetiology Proposed, but unconfirmed aetiologies include: nervous system dysfunction, mechanical pressure on nerves, adipose tissue dysfunction and trauma. Diagnosis and diagnostic methods Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and should be made by systematic physical examination and thorough exclusion of differential diagnoses. Advisably, the diagnosis should be made by a physician with a broad experience of patients with painful conditions and knowledge of family medicine, internal medicine or pain management. The diagnosis should only be made when the differential diagnoses have been excluded. Differential diagnosis Differential diagnoses include: fibromyalgia, lipoedema, panniculitis, endocrine disorders, primary psychiatric disorders, multiple symmetric lipomatosis, familial multiple lipomatosis, and adipose tissue tumours. Genetic counselling The majority of the cases of Dercums disease occur sporadically. A to G mutation at position A8344 of mitochondrial DNA cannot be detected in patients with Dercums disease. HLA (human leukocyte antigen) typing has not revealed any correlation between typical antigens and the presence of the condition. Management and treatment The following treatments have lead to some pain reduction in patients with Dercums disease: Liposuction, analgesics, lidocaine, methotrexate and infliximab, interferon ?-2b, corticosteroids, calcium-channel modulators and rapid cycling hypobaric pressure. As none of the treatments have led to long lasting complete pain reduction and revolutionary results, we propose that Dercums disease should be treated in multidisciplinary teams specialised in chronic pain. Prognosis The pain in Dercums disease seems to be relatively constant over time. PMID:22546240

  5. Bayesian analysis of two diagnostic methods for paediatric ringworm infections in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Rath, S; Panda, M; Sahu, M C; Padhy, R N

    2015-09-01

    Quantitatively, conventional methods of diagnosis of tinea capitis or paediatric ringworm, microscopic and culture tests were evaluated with Bayes rule. This analysis would help in quantifying the pervasive errors in each diagnostic method, particularly the microscopic method, as a long-term treatment would be involved to eradicate the infection by the use of a particular antifungal chemotherapy. Secondly, the analysis of clinical data would help in obtaining digitally the fallible standard of the microscopic test method, as the culture test method is taken as gold standard. Test results of 51paediatric patients were of 4categories: 21 samples were true positive (both tests positive), and 13 were true negative; the rest samples comprised both 14 false positive (microscopic test positivity with culture test negativity) and 3 false negative (microscopic test negativity with culture test positivity) samples. The prevalence of tinea infection was 47.01% in the population of 51children. The microscopic test of a sample was efficient by 87.5%, in arriving at a positive result on diagnosis, when its culture test was positive; and, this test was efficient by 76.4%, in arriving at a negative result, when its culture test was negative. But, the post-test probability value of a sample with both microscopic and culture tests would be correct in distinguishing a sample from a sick or a healthy child with a chance of 71.5%. However, since the sensitivity of the analysis is 87.5%, the microscopic test positivity would be easier to detect in the presence of infection. In conclusion, it could be stated that Trychophyton rubrum was the most prevalent species; sensitivity and specificity of treating the infection, by antifungal therapy before ascertaining by the culture method remain as 0.8751 and 0.7642, respectively. A correct/coveted diagnostic method of fungal infection would be could be achieved by modern molecular methods (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry or fluorescence in situ hybridization or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] or restriction fragment length polymorphism or DNA/RNA probes of known fungal taxa) in advanced laboratories. PMID:26271198

  6. Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2009-09-29

    A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

  7. Development of new methods in modern selective organic synthesis: preparation of functionalized molecules with atomic precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananikov, V. P.; Khemchyan, L. L.; Ivanova, Yu V.; Bukhtiyarov, V. I.; Sorokin, A. M.; Prosvirin, I. P.; Vatsadze, S. Z.; Medved'ko, A. V.; Nuriev, V. N.; Dilman, A. D.; Levin, V. V.; Koptyug, I. V.; Kovtunov, K. V.; Zhivonitko, V. V.; Likholobov, V. A.; Romanenko, A. V.; Simonov, P. A.; Nenajdenko, V. G.; Shmatova, O. I.; Muzalevskiy, V. M.; Nechaev, M. S.; Asachenko, A. F.; Morozov, O. S.; Dzhevakov, P. B.; Osipov, S. N.; Vorobyeva, D. V.; Topchiy, M. A.; Zotova, M. A.; Ponomarenko, S. A.; Borshchev, O. V.; Luponosov, Yu N.; Rempel, A. A.; Valeeva, A. A.; Stakheev, A. Yu; Turova, O. V.; Mashkovsky, I. S.; Sysolyatin, S. V.; Malykhin, V. V.; Bukhtiyarova, G. A.; Terent'ev, A. O.; Krylov, I. B.

    2014-10-01

    The challenges of the modern society and the growing demand of high-technology sectors of industrial production bring about a new phase in the development of organic synthesis. A cutting edge of modern synthetic methods is introduction of functional groups and more complex structural units into organic molecules with unprecedented control over the course of chemical transformation. Analysis of the state-of-the-art achievements in selective organic synthesis indicates the appearance of a new trend — the synthesis of organic molecules, biologically active compounds, pharmaceutical substances and smart materials with absolute selectivity. Most advanced approaches to organic synthesis anticipated in the near future can be defined as 'atomic precision' in chemical reactions. The present review considers selective methods of organic synthesis suitable for transformation of complex functionalized molecules under mild conditions. Selected key trends in the modern organic synthesis are considered including the preparation of organofluorine compounds, catalytic cross-coupling and oxidative cross-coupling reactions, atom-economic addition reactions, methathesis processes, oxidation and reduction reactions, synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, design of new homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic systems, application of photocatalysis, scaling up synthetic procedures to industrial level and development of new approaches to investigation of mechanisms of catalytic reactions. The bibliography includes 840 references.

  8. Big Data Analysis Using Modern Statistical and Machine Learning Methods in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Luis; Liuzzi, Juan

    2014-01-01

    In this article we introduce modern statistical machine learning and bioinformatics approaches that have been used in learning statistical relationships from big data in medicine and behavioral science that typically include clinical, genomic (and proteomic) and environmental variables. Every year, data collected from biomedical and behavioral science is getting larger and more complicated. Thus, in medicine, we also need to be aware of this trend and understand the statistical tools that are available to analyze these datasets. Many statistical analyses that are aimed to analyze such big datasets have been introduced recently. However, given many different types of clinical, genomic, and environmental data, it is rather uncommon to see statistical methods that combine knowledge resulting from those different data types. To this extent, we will introduce big data in terms of clinical data, single nucleotide polymorphism and gene expression studies and their interactions with environment. In this article, we will introduce the concept of well-known regression analyses such as linear and logistic regressions that has been widely used in clinical data analyses and modern statistical models such as Bayesian networks that has been introduced to analyze more complicated data. Also we will discuss how to represent the interaction among clinical, genomic, and environmental data in using modern statistical models. We conclude this article with a promising modern statistical method called Bayesian networks that is suitable in analyzing big data sets that consists with different type of large data from clinical, genomic, and environmental data. Such statistical model form big data will provide us with more comprehensive understanding of human physiology and disease. PMID:24987556

  9. [Reporting studies of diagnostic accuracy according to a standard method; the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD)].

    PubMed

    Bossuyt, P M; Reitsma, J B; Bruns, D E; Gatsonis, C A; Glasziou, P P; Irwig, L M; Lijmer, J G; Moher, D; Rennie, D; de Vet, H C W

    2003-02-22

    The objective of the 'Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy' (STARD) initiative is to improve the reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy, so as to allow readers to assess the potential for bias in a study and to evaluate the generalibility of its results. The group searched the literature to identify publications on the appropriate conduct and reporting of diagnostic studies. This was used to draw up a list of potential items. During a consensus meeting, a group of researchers, medical journal editors, and members of professional organisations reduced this list to a usable checklist. Wherever possible, evidence from the literature was used to justify the decisions made. The search for published guidelines about diagnostic research yielded 33 previously published checklists, from which a list of 75 potential items was extracted. At the consensus meeting, participants shortened the list to a 25-item checklist. A generic flow diagram was drawn up to provide guidance on the method for including patients, the order in which tests were to be conducted and the number of patients to undergo the test being evaluated, the reference standard, or both. A scientific publication can only be assessed when the reporting is both correct and complete. Use of the checklist and flow diagram will improve the quality of reports produced, to the advantage of clinicians, researchers, reviewers, journal editors and other interested parties. PMID:12661118

  10. An objective method and measuring equipment for noise control and acoustic diagnostics of motorcars. [acoustic diagnostics on automobile engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacprowski, J.; Motylewski, J.; Miazga, J.

    1974-01-01

    An objective method and apparatus for noise control and acoustic diagnostics of motorcar engines are reported. The method and apparatus let us know whether the noisiness of the vehicle under test exceeds the admissible threshold levels given by appropriate standards and if so what is the main source of the excessive noise. The method consists in measuring both the overall noise level and the sound pressure levels in definite frequency bands while the engine speed is controlled as well and may be fixed at prescribed values. Whenever the individually adjusted threshold level has been exceeded in any frequency band, a self-sustaining control signal is sent.

  11. Jet Noise Diagnostics Supporting Statistical Noise Prediction Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2006-01-01

    The primary focus of my presentation is the development of the jet noise prediction code JeNo with most examples coming from the experimental work that drove the theoretical development and validation. JeNo is a statistical jet noise prediction code, based upon the Lilley acoustic analogy. Our approach uses time-average 2-D or 3-D mean and turbulent statistics of the flow as input. The output is source distributions and spectral directivity. NASA has been investing in development of statistical jet noise prediction tools because these seem to fit the middle ground that allows enough flexibility and fidelity for jet noise source diagnostics while having reasonable computational requirements. These tools rely on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions as input for computing far-field spectral directivity using an acoustic analogy. There are many ways acoustic analogies can be created, each with a series of assumptions and models, many often taken unknowingly. And the resulting prediction can be easily reverse-engineered by altering the models contained within. However, only an approach which is mathematically sound, with assumptions validated and modeled quantities checked against direct measurement will give consistently correct answers. Many quantities are modeled in acoustic analogies precisely because they have been impossible to measure or calculate, making this requirement a difficult task. The NASA team has spent considerable effort identifying all the assumptions and models used to take the Navier-Stokes equations to the point of a statistical calculation via an acoustic analogy very similar to that proposed by Lilley. Assumptions have been identified and experiments have been developed to test these assumptions. In some cases this has resulted in assumptions being changed. Beginning with the CFD used as input to the acoustic analogy, models for turbulence closure used in RANS CFD codes have been explored and compared against measurements of mean and rms velocity statistics over a range of jet speeds and temperatures. Models for flow parameters used in the acoustic analogy, most notably the space-time correlations of velocity, have been compared against direct measurements, and modified to better fit the observed data. These measurements have been extremely challenging for hot, high speed jets, and represent a sizeable investment in instrumentation development. As an intermediate check that the analysis is predicting the physics intended, phased arrays have been employed to measure source distributions for a wide range of jet cases. And finally, careful far-field spectral directivity measurements have been taken for final validation of the prediction code. Examples of each of these experimental efforts will be presented. The main result of these efforts is a noise prediction code, named JeNo, which is in middevelopment. JeNo is able to consistently predict spectral directivity, including aft angle directivity, for subsonic cold jets of most geometries. Current development on JeNo is focused on extending its capability to hot jets, requiring inclusion of a previously neglected second source associated with thermal fluctuations. A secondary result of the intensive experimentation is the archiving of various flow statistics applicable to other acoustic analogies and to development of time-resolved prediction methods. These will be of lasting value as we look ahead at future challenges to the aeroacoustic experimentalist.

  12. Computational methods in the pricing and risk management of modern financial derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, Hans-Peter

    1999-09-01

    In the last 20 years modern finance has developed into a complex mathematically challenging field. Very complicated risks exist in financial markets which need very advanced methods to measure and/or model them. The financial instruments invented by the market participants to trade these risk, the so called derivatives are usually even more complicated than the risks themselves and also sometimes generate new riks. Topics like random walks, stochastic differential equations, martingale measures, time series analysis, implied correlations, etc. are of common use in the field. This is why more and more people with a science background, such as physicists, mathematicians, or computer scientists, are entering the field of finance. The measurement and management of all theses risks is the key to the continuing success of banks. This talk gives insight into today's common methods of modern market risk management such as variance-covariance, historical simulation, Monte Carlo, Greek ratios, etc., including the statistical concepts on which they are based. Derivatives are at the same time the main reason for and the most effective means of conducting risk management. As such, they stand at the beginning and end of risk management. The valuation of derivatives and structured financial instruments is therefore the prerequisite, the condition sine qua non, for all risk management. This talk introduces some of the important valuation methods used in modern derivatives pricing such as present value, Black-Scholes, binomial trees, Monte Carlo, etc. In summary this talk highlights an area outside physics where there is a lot of interesting work to do, especially for physicists. Or as one of our consultants said: The fascinating thing about this job is that Arthur Andersen hired me not ALTHOUGH I am a physicist but BECAUSE I am a physicist.

  13. [Concepts, evaluation methods, diagnostic and prognostic values of implant stability].

    PubMed

    Grognard, Nicolas; Vande Vannet, Bart

    2010-01-01

    The outcome of oral implant treatment is in part focused on the obtained implant stability as outlined in the success criteria as propose by Albrektsson T. & Albrektsson B. (1987) and by Buser et al. (1997). In those criteria, clinical diagnostic testing of implant stability is a rather crude and subjective procedure. Quantitative measurement technology, such as the Periotest and the Osstell Mentor devices do provide more refined and objective tools to diagnose and monitor the state of osseointegration. On the other hand, their power to predict treatment outcome is rather low. PMID:20556937

  14. Diagnostic efficacy of in vitro methods vs. skin testing in patients with inhalant allergies

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, J.P.; Liudahl, J.J.; Young, S.A.; Rodman, S.M. )

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of two selected methods of in vitro allergy testing. Specifically, the PRIST/modified RAST I125 isotope systems and the Quantizyme/modified EAST alkaline phosphatase method were compared. The time, expense, convenience, and diagnostic efficacy of the two procedures are discussed. Special attention is given to the practicality of each method for the practicing physician.

  15. Benchmarking Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: A Public Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Bird, Jeff; Davison, Craig; Volponi, Al; Iverson, R. Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of engine health management (EHM) technology. The need is two-fold: technology developers require relevant data and problems to design and validate new algorithms and techniques while engine system integrators and operators need practical tools to direct development and then evaluate the effectiveness of proposed solutions. This paper presents a publicly available gas path diagnostic benchmark problem that has been developed by the Propulsion and Power Systems Panel of The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) to help address these needs. The problem is coded in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc.) and coupled with a non-linear turbofan engine simulation to produce "snap-shot" measurements, with relevant noise levels, as if collected from a fleet of engines over their lifetime of use. Each engine within the fleet will experience unique operating and deterioration profiles, and may encounter randomly occurring relevant gas path faults including sensor, actuator and component faults. The challenge to the EHM community is to develop gas path diagnostic algorithms to reliably perform fault detection and isolation. An example solution to the benchmark problem is provided along with associated evaluation metrics. A plan is presented to disseminate this benchmark problem to the engine health management technical community and invite technology solutions.

  16. Development of wide area environment accelerator operation and diagnostics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Akito; Furukawa, Kazuro

    2015-08-01

    Remote operation and diagnostic systems for particle accelerators have been developed for beam operation and maintenance in various situations. Even though fully remote experiments are not necessary, the remote diagnosis and maintenance of the accelerator is required. Considering remote-operation operator interfaces (OPIs), the use of standard protocols such as the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) is advantageous, because system-dependent protocols are unnecessary between the remote client and the on-site server. Here, we have developed a client system based on WebSocket, which is a new protocol provided by the Internet Engineering Task Force for Web-based systems, as a next-generation Web-based OPI using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System Channel Access protocol. As a result of this implementation, WebSocket-based client systems have become available for remote operation. Also, as regards practical application, the remote operation of an accelerator via a wide area network (WAN) faces a number of challenges, e.g., the accelerator has both experimental device and radiation generator characteristics. Any error in remote control system operation could result in an immediate breakdown. Therefore, we propose the implementation of an operator intervention system for remote accelerator diagnostics and support that can obviate any differences between the local control room and remote locations. Here, remote-operation Web-based OPIs, which resolve security issues, are developed.

  17. A Study of Successive Over-relaxation Method Parallelization over Modern HPC Languages

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2014-01-01

    Successive over-relaxation (SOR) is a computationally intensive, yet extremely important iterative solver for solving linear systems. Due to recent trends of exponential growth in amount of data generated and increasing problem sizes, serial platforms have proved to be insucient in providing the required computational power. In this paper, we present parallel implementations of red-black SOR method using three modern programming languages namely Chapel, D and Go. We employ SOR method for solving 2D steady-state heat conduction problem. We discuss the optimizations incorporated and the features of these languages which are crucial for improving the program performance. Experiments have been performed using 2, 4, and 8 threads and performance results are compared with serial execution. The analysis of results provides important insights into working of SOR method.

  18. A test of the revised auricular surface aging method on a modern European population.

    PubMed

    Moraitis, Konstantinos; Zorba, Eleni; Eliopoulos, Constantine; Fox, Sherry C

    2014-01-01

    The accurate age estimation of adults is an important step in the construction of the biological profile of skeletonized remains. The auricular surface of the ilium as it was developed in 1985 by Lovejoy et al., is one of the methods employed for age estimation. This study presents the results of a blind test of the revised auricular surface aging method developed by Buckberry and Chamberlain. A sample of 120 individuals from the Athens Collection was used to test this revised aging technique. Almost all features and composite score were positively correlated with known age-at-death. The calculation of bias demonstrated no obvious trend for either overestimation or underestimation of age when all individuals were pooled together. Inaccuracy showed that absolute errors of estimated ages against known ages are substantial. The data generated from this study suggest that the revised method can be reliable for age estimation on a modern European population. PMID:24148103

  19. The Rapid-Heat LAMPellet Method: A Potential Diagnostic Method for Human Urogenital Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Vicente, Belén; López-Abán, Julio; Muro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Urogenital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium is a serious underestimated public health problem affecting 112 million people - particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Microscopic examination of urine samples to detect parasite eggs still remains as definitive diagnosis. This work was focussed on developing a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for detection of S. haematobium DNA in human urine samples as a high-throughput, simple, accurate and affordable diagnostic tool to use in diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis. Methodology/Principal Findings A LAMP assay targeting a species specific sequence of S. haematobium ribosomal intergenic spacer was designed. The effectiveness of our LAMP was assessed in a number of patients´ urine samples with microscopy confirmed S. haematobium infection. For potentially large-scale application in field conditions, different DNA extraction methods, including a commercial kit, a modified NaOH extraction method and a rapid heating method were tested using small volumes of urine fractions (whole urine, supernatants and pellets). The heating of pellets from clinical samples was the most efficient method to obtain good-quality DNA detectable by LAMP. The detection limit of our LAMP was 1 fg/µL of S. haematobium DNA in urine samples. When testing all patients´ urine samples included in our study, diagnostic parameters for sensitivity and specificity were calculated for LAMP assay, 100% sensitivity (95% CI: 81.32%-100%) and 86.67% specificity (95% CI: 75.40%-94.05%), and also for microscopy detection of eggs in urine samples, 69.23% sensitivity (95% CI: 48.21% -85.63%) and 100% specificity (95% CI: 93.08%-100%). Conclusions/Significance We have developed and evaluated, for the first time, a LAMP assay for detection of S. haematobium DNA in heated pellets from patients´ urine samples using no complicated requirement procedure for DNA extraction. The procedure has been named the Rapid-Heat LAMPellet method and has the potential to be developed further as a field diagnostic tool for use in urogenital schistosomiasis-endemic areas. PMID:26230990

  20. Non-Intrusive Optical Diagnostic Methods for Flowfield Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabibi, Bagher M.; Terrell, Charles A.; Spraggins, Darrell; Lee, Ja. H.; Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1997-01-01

    Non-intrusive optical diagnostic techniques such as Electron Beam Fluorescence (EBF), Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF), and Focusing Schlieren (FS) have been setup for high-speed flow characterization and large flowfield visualization, respectively. Fluorescence emission from the First Negative band of N2(+) with the (0,0) vibration transition (at lambda =391.44 nm) was obtained using the EBF technique and a quenching rate of N2(+)* molecules by argon gas was reported. A very high sensitivity FS system was built and applied in the High-Speed Flow Generator (HFG) at NASA LaRC. A LIF system is available at the Advanced Propulsion Laboratory (APL) on campus and a plume exhaust velocity measurement, measuring the Doppler shift from lambda = 728.7 nm of argon gas, is under way.

  1. Diagnostic methods and recommendations for the cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes.

    PubMed

    Clark, Joseph F; Cecil, Kim M

    2015-03-01

    Primary care pediatricians and a variety of specialist physicians strive to define an accurate diagnosis for children presenting with impairment of expressive speech and delay in achieving developmental milestones. Within the past two decades, a group of disorders featuring this presentation have been identified as cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes (CCDS). Patients with these disorders were initially discerned using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain within a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. The objective of this review is to provide the clinician with an overview of the current information available on identifying and treating these conditions. We explain the salient features of creatine metabolism, synthesis, and transport required for normal development. We propose diagnostic approaches for confirming a CCDS diagnosis. Finally, we describe treatment approaches for managing patients with these conditions. PMID:25521922

  2. Raman background photobleaching as a possible method of cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Nikolai N.; Brandt, Nikolai B.; Chikishev, Andrey Y.; Gangardt, Mihail G.; Karyakina, Nina F.

    2001-06-01

    Kinetics of photobleaching of background in Raman spectra of aqueous solutions of plant toxins ricin and ricin agglutinin, ricin binding subunit, and normal and malignant human blood serum were measured. For the excitation of the spectra cw and pulsed laser radiation were used. The spectra of Raman background change upon laser irradiation. Background intensity is lower for the samples with small molecular weight. The cyclization of amino acid residues in the toxin molecules as well as in human blood serum can be a reason of the Raman background. The model of the background photobleaching is proposed. The differences in photobleaching kinetics in the cases of cw and pulsed laser radiation are discussed. It is shown that Raman background photobleaching can be very informative for cancer diagnostics.

  3. [Comparison of calculation methods for diagnostic trials under different sample size].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Hu, Bo; Chen, Tao; Li, Wei

    2010-12-01

    To discuss the calculation methods under different sample size, used for diagnostic trials. The purpose of the diagnostic trial was to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the new method. Equations and results were directly compared. Monte Carlo random simulation was used to validate the results. Sample size obtained from the sampling method was always smaller than from the target value method. Results from simulation showed that the target value method could offer more and larger power. The two sample size determination method showed essential differences of the results, suggesting that the investigator should choose appropriate method in accordance with the study design. If the hypothesis of study was to demonstrate the new diagnostic method which could meet the clinical requirements, only if the target value method provides enough statistical power. PMID:21223674

  4. Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Karra, Srinivasa Rao; Berning, Douglas E.; Smith, C. Jeffrey; Volkert, Wynn A.; Ketring, Alan R.

    1999-01-01

    A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand.

  5. Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Karra, Srinivasa Rao; Berning, Douglas E.; Smith, C. Jeffrey; Volkert, Wynn A.; Ketring, Alan R.

    2000-01-01

    A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand.

  6. Express diagnostic of anaerobic infection and disbacteriosis by optical PNC method in clinical dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Michail T.; Koz'ma, Sergey U.; Taubinsky, Ilia M.; Masychev, Victor I.

    2000-11-01

    In this research a new way of express (real time) diagnostics of anaerobic infection and disbacteriosis is suggested. The express diagnostics of anaerobic infection allows to perform quick assessment of the injury microbiocenosis, the state of gastroenteric tract, the disbacteriosis presence and the degree of its development, to follow up dynamics of microflora variations in the process of medication treatment. The research were performed with optical PNC-method. The basic of the method is in registration of stimulated (secondary) radiations and registration of their space fields, which occur in the process of probing radiation interaction with biological tissues and their active elements. The process is called Photon- undulatory Nonlinear Conversion or in short PNC-process (PNC- method, PNC-diagnostic). The optimal diagnostic PNC-method developed here allows detecting the presence of anaerobic microflora directly at the bed of a patient. It makes possible to control the dynamic of patient rehabilitation process, providing strictly individual assessments.

  7. Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same

    SciTech Connect

    Katti, K.V.; Karra, S.R.; Berning, D.E.; Smith, C.J.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.

    2000-04-25

    A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand.

  8. Frequency-Domain Methods for Characterization of Pulsed Power Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    White, A D; Anderson, R A; Ferriera, T J; Goerz, D A

    2009-07-27

    This paper discusses methods of frequency-domain characterization of pulsed power sensors using vector network analyzer and spectrum analyzer techniques that offer significant simplification over time-domain methods, while mitigating or minimizing the effect of the difficulties present in time domain characterization. These methods are applicable to characterization of a wide variety of sensors.

  9. Colonoscopy, tumors, and inflammatory bowel disease - new diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Kiesslich, R; Hoffman, A; Neurath, M F

    2006-01-01

    Accurate detection of premalignant lesions and early cancers in the colon is essential for curative endoscopic or surgical therapy, since the prognosis for the affected patients is closely related to the size and stage of the neoplastic lesion. Total colonoscopy is the accepted gold standard for screening and surveillance of colorectal cancer. This review summarizes recently published diagnostic developments and key findings in the areas of colonoscopy, colonic tumors, and inflammatory bowel diseases. Relevant findings have been reported for chromo-endoscopy in the diagnosis of colitis-associated neoplasia, as well as flat and depressed adenomas. Real-time Doppler capabilities have now been added to endoscopic optical coherence tomography; the results of large-scale testing of narrow-band imaging endoscopy in the colon are being awaited; and fluorescence imaging has recently been added to the facilities available in video endoscopy. Most importantly, endomicroscopy now for the first time allows single-cell subsurface imaging during ongoing colonoscopy procedures, opening the way to in-vivo molecular and functional imaging. PMID:16429347

  10. [Hypertensive disease: diagnostics and differential methods of antihypertensive therapy].

    PubMed

    Fursov, A N; Potekhin, N P; Chernov, S A; Zakharova, E G; Olondar', N N

    2012-11-01

    Diagnostics of hypertensive disease is performed according two-stage scheme recommended by Society of cardiology of Russian Federation (2010) and adapted by us for examination in Central Military Clinical Hospital n. a. N.N. Burdenko. First stage, as possible, should be carried out in out-patient departments, second stage, as it necessary, in specialized medical treatment facilities. Indications for admission of patient with hypertensive disease are abstrusity of diagnosis and necessity of carrying out of special, often invasive study, for updating of information about the form of arterial hypertension, difficulties in adjustment of antihypertensive therapy. Major criterion for adjustment of antihypertensive therapy is degree of cardiovascular risk. In the beginning of treatment monotherapy is preferable for patients with low and average risk of progression of cardiovascular disease, use of combination of two or three medications in small doses is reasonable for patients with high and very high risk of complications. Three medications were prescribed for 21% of patients, four or five for 14% of patients. PMID:23301291

  11. Method for Acquiring Building Registry Vector Data with Modern Photogrammetric Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewiak, I.; Kraszewski, B.

    2009-09-01

    This article presents a methodology for acquiring vector data to supplement building registry databases via a process of integrating surveying data and photogrammetric data using modern measurement tools and methods. The main portion of the article categorizes such a photogrammetric/surveying measurement system developed following this methodology, describing its functionality particularly in respect to the importing and integration of data in the process of adjusting photogrammetric and surveying observations, using the solution of observation equations proposed by authors. The photogrammetric process of obtaining vector data for the use in the building registry, based on stereo measurements performed on models obtained from images taken by the UltraCam-X large-format aerial digital camera and from image sequences obtained from an ADS-40 pushbroom digital aerial camera, have been analysed. Given the increasing importance of photogrammetric measurements in supplying data for building registry databases, the scope of use of such measurements in relation to existing field survey measurements, was considered. The individual stages in the processing of photogrammetric/surveying data using the proposed application developed by the authors within the MicroStation design environment, were presented and discussed. In conclusion it has been stated, that taking the right methodological approach to acquiring such vector data to supplement building registry databases paves the way to establishing a modern cadastral system.

  12. Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES) User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    This report is a User's Guide for the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES). ProDiMES is a standard benchmarking problem and a set of evaluation metrics to enable the comparison of candidate aircraft engine gas path diagnostic methods. This Matlab (The Mathworks, Inc.) based software tool enables users to independently develop and evaluate diagnostic methods. Additionally, a set of blind test case data is also distributed as part of the software. This will enable the side-by-side comparison of diagnostic approaches developed by multiple users. The Users Guide describes the various components of ProDiMES, and provides instructions for the installation and operation of the tool.

  13. Tokamak physics studies using x-ray diagnostic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Fredrickson, E.; Hsuan, H.; McGuire, K.; Sauthoff, N.R.; Sesnic, S.; Stevens, J.E.

    1987-03-01

    X-ray diagnostic measurements have been used in a number of experiments to improve our understanding of important tokamak physics issues. The impurity content in TFTR plasmas, its sources and control have been clarified through soft x-ray pulse-height analysis (PHA) measurements. The dependence of intrinsic impurity concentrations and Z/sub eff/ on electron density, plasma current, limiter material and conditioning, and neutral-beam power have shown that the limiter is an important source of metal impurities. Neoclassical-like impurity peaking following hydrogen pellet injection into Alcator C and a strong effect of impurities on sawtooth behavior were demonstrated by x-ray imaging (XIS) measurements. Rapid inward motion of impurities and continuation of m = 1 activity following an internal disruption were demonstrated with XIS measurements on PLT using injected aluminum to enhance the signals. Ion temperatures up to 12 keV and a toroidal plasma rotation velocity up to 6 x 10/sup 5/ m/s have been measured by an x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) with up to 13 MW of 85-keV neutral-beam injection in TFTR. Precise wavelengths and relative intensities of x-ray lines in several helium-like ions and neon-like ions of silver have been measured in TFTR and PLT by the XCS. The data help to identify the important excitation processes predicted in atomic physics. Wavelengths of n = 3 to 2 silver lines of interest for x-ray lasers were measured, and precise instrument calibration techniques were developed. Electron thermal conductivity and sawtooth dynamics have been studied through XIS measurements on TFTR of heat-pulse propagation and compound sawteeth. A non-Maxwellian electron distribution function has been measured, and evidence of the Parail-Pogutse instability identified by hard x-ray PHA measurements on PLT during lower-hybrid current-drive experiments.

  14. A Simplified Diagnostic Method for Elastomer Bond Durability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A simplified method has been developed for determining bond durability under exposure to water or high humidity conditions. It uses a small number of test specimens with relatively short times of water exposure at elevated temperature. The method is also gravimetric; the only equipment being required is an oven, specimen jars, and a conventional laboratory balance.

  15. Improving Resolution and Depth of Astronomical Observations via Modern Mathematical Methods for Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, M.; Ottaviani, D.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Pilo, S.; Falcone, M.

    2015-09-01

    In the past years modern mathematical methods for image analysis have led to a revolution in many fields, from computer vision to scientific imaging. However, some recently developed image processing techniques successfully exploited by other sectors have been rarely, if ever, experimented on astronomical observations. We present here tests of two classes of variational image enhancement techniques: "structure-texture decomposition" and "super-resolution" showing that they are effective in improving the quality of observations. Structure-texture decomposition allows to recover faint sources previously hidden by the background noise, effectively increasing the depth of available observations. Super-resolution yields an higher-resolution and a better sampled image out of a set of low resolution frames, thus mitigating problematics in data analysis arising from the difference in resolution/sampling between different instruments, as in the case of EUCLID VIS and NIR imagers.

  16. Time resolved optical diagnostic methods for electric gun systems

    SciTech Connect

    Karasinski, T.; Zocha, K.P.; Zwingel, C.D. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a digital spectrometer system for the analysis of arc-discharge plasmas. A time resolution of about 50 {mu}s is obtained. A theoretical method for the evaluation of the plasma temperature is discussed.

  17. [Unconventional diagnostic and therapeutic methods in environmental medicine].

    PubMed

    Oepen, I

    1998-07-01

    In the sphere of environmental medicine--analogous to other fields like oncology and chronic diseases--not only proven and approved methods, but also unconvential methods are offered, without evidence of efficacy. The application of these methods has the possible consequence of wrong diagnosis and malpractice. Examples are discussed such as Kirlian photography, electroacupuncture according to Voll, bioresonance diagnosis/therapy, kinesiology, regulation therapy according to Rost, "clinical ecology" according to Runow with, among others, the provocation/neutralisation test, a vaccination therapy with E. coli and finally electrosmog as an environmental noxa. Concerning the admissibility of contested methods, statements of medical specialist societies, judgements, and the law of medical products are quoted. In conclusion, the question of the origin of the ideas and alleged results of unconvential medicine is followed up and conclusions are drawn. PMID:9738351

  18. Restrictive Stochastic Item Selection Methods in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Huebner, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes two new item selection methods for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing: the restrictive progressive method and the restrictive threshold method. They are built upon the posterior weighted Kullback-Leibler (KL) information index but include additional stochastic components either in the item selection index or in

  19. Characterizing different defects in multicrystalline silicon solar cells via modern imaging methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Shishu; Zhu, Huishi; Han, Peide

    2015-09-01

    Defects in multicrystalline silicon solar cells such as impurities, gain boundaries, dislocations and metallic impurities have great influence to the final conversion efficiency of devices. Moreover, different kinds of defects and defects at different depth layers in multicrystalline silicon solar cell play different roles to the final performance of devices. This paper proposes a fast technique via electroluminescence imaging method to distinguish different types and depths defects. Different types of defects have various influences to the distribution of extra minority carriers which would result in the distinctions in the final luminescence spectrum and intensity. Therefore, we can recognize these defects via a group of EL images in a few seconds. Also, we found that defects at different depths show a closely relationship with electrical breakdown which would lead to the differences on the final electroluminescence properties. The EL images under different forward-biased and reversed-biased voltages give a clear separation of defects near the front surface, around p-n junction and in bulk material. Light beam induced current (LBIC) imaging is used to verify the methods we proposed. These modern imaging methods could become popular methods in photovoltaic testing field, and we hope our research could give some help in the study of silicon based devices.

  20. International development of methods of analysis for the presence of products of modern biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Cantrill, Richard C

    2008-01-01

    Methods of analysis for products of modern biotechnology are required for national and international trade in seeds, grain and food in order to meet the labeling or import/export requirements of different nations and trading blocks. Although many methods were developed by the originators of transgenic events, governments, universities, and testing laboratories, trade is less complicated if there exists a set of international consensus-derived analytical standards. In any analytical situation, multiple methods may exist for testing for the same analyte. These methods may be supported by regional preferences and regulatory requirements. However, tests need to be sensitive enough to determine low levels of these traits in commodity grain for regulatory purposes and also to indicate purity of seeds containing these traits. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and its European counterpart have worked to produce a suite of standards through open, balanced and consensus-driven processes. Presently, these standards are approaching the time for their first review. In fact, ISO 21572, the "protein standard" has already been circulated for systematic review. In order to expedite the review and revision of the nucleic acid standards an ISO Technical Specification (ISO/TS 21098) was drafted to set the criteria for the inclusion of precision data from collaborative studies into the annexes of these standards. PMID:18296344

  1. A comparison of the modern Lie scaling method to classical scaling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsinelli, J.; Kavvas, M. L.

    2015-10-01

    In the past two decades a new modern scaling technique has emerged from the highly developed theory on the Lie group of transformations. This new method has been applied by engineers to several problems in hydrology and hydraulics including but not limited to groundwater dynamics, sediment transport, and open channel hydraulics. This study attempts to clarify the relationship this new technology has with the classical scaling method based on dimensional analysis, non dimensionalization, and the Buckingham Π theorem. Key points of the Lie group theory, and the application of the Lie scaling transformation, are outlined and a comparison is done with two classical scaling models through two examples: unconfined groundwater flow and contaminant transport. The Lie scaling method produces an invariant scaling transformation of the prototype variables which ensures the dynamics between the model and prototype systems will be preserved. Lie scaling can also be used to determine the conditions under which a complete model is dynamically, kinematically, and geometrically similar to the prototype phenomenon. Similarities between the Lie and classical scaling methods are explained, and the relative strengths and weaknesses of the techniques are discussed.

  2. Microseismic logging: A new hydraulic fracture diagnostic method

    SciTech Connect

    Mahrer, K.D. )

    1993-03-01

    Hydraulic fracture treatments and fluid injections into fractured wells induce cloud of microseismic sources in the fractured zone. This induced seismicity can last for hours after pumping and pervades the fracture. The source-size population distribution ranges from a countable (50 to 500) number of large, individually distinguishable event to a din of background events. Each source radiates wave motion, which can be recorded only in and near the fracture. A new method uses these motion data, recorded in the cased treatment well, to determine the fracture height and azimuth. The height is found by delineating the location and vertical extent of a spatial anomaly in the background-motion data. The azimuth is derived from the particle-motion polarization of the largest events of the microseismic event population. This paper describes the method, exemplary data sets, theory, and simulations that substantiate this method.

  3. Impotence: are the newer diagnostic methods a necessity?

    PubMed

    Saypol, D C; Peterson, G A; Howards, S S; Yazel, J J

    1983-08-01

    Until recently our evaluation of impotent men included a psychiatric evaluation, and history and physical examination by a urologist to determine whether the impotence was organic or psychogenic. After the introduction of specific laboratory methods, such as nocturnal penile tumescence monitoring and penile blood pressure studies, clinicians relied heavily on these tools. We evaluated 33 impotent patients and compared the results of the laboratory methods to the initial diagnoses of the psychiatrist and the urologist to determine if the new methods would confirm our initial impressions or uncover different diagnoses. Thirteen patients were considered to have psychogenic impotence by the clinicians and only 1 patient in this group had evidence of organicity when the laboratory tests were used. Twelve patients were considered to have organic impotence by the clinicians and this was confirmed in 75 per cent of the cases by laboratory testing. Thus, clinical evaluation predicted the outcome of laboratory methods in 92 per cent of the psychogenic group and 75 per cent of the organic group. In addition, postage stamps were used during nocturnal penile tumescence monitoring and in predicting the outcome of nocturnal tumescence monitoring the stamp test had a sensitivity and a specificity of 91 per cent. Many patients presenting with erectile impotence can be evaluated adequately by a psychiatrist and a urologist without the support of expensive laboratory tests. The postage stamp test is useful when nocturnal penile tumescence monitors are not available. Finally, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory is of limited value as a screening device. PMID:6876271

  4. Optical methods for diagnostic of cell-tissue grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timchenko, P. E.; Timchenko, E. V.; Volova, L. T.; Boltovskaya, V. V.; Zherdeva, L. A.; Belousov, N. V.; Pershutkina, S. V.

    2015-08-01

    In this work the results of cell-tissue grafts research with a complex of optical methods - confocal fluorescent microscopy and Raman spectroscopy are presented. It was established that coefficient M scatter is related to irregularity of demineralization process. It was microscopically shown that the quantity of integrated cells into these types of transplants amounts to 20% of its surface.

  5. Calreticulin Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Comparison of Three Diagnostic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Hye; Sevin, Margaux; Ramla, Selim; Truffot, Aurélie; Verrier, Tiffany; Bouchot, Dominique; Courtois, Martine; Bas, Mathilde; Benali, Sonia; Bailly, François; Favre, Bernardine; Guy, Julien; Martin, Laurent; Maynadié, Marc; Carillo, Serge; Girodon, François

    2015-01-01

    Calreticulin (CALR) mutations have recently been reported in 70–84% of JAK2V617F-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), and this detection has become necessary to improve the diagnosis of MPN. In a large single-centre cohort of 298 patients suffering from Essential Thrombocythemia (ET), the JAK2V617F, CALR and MPL mutations were noted in 179 (60%), 56 (18.5%) and 13 (4.5%) respectively. For the detection of the CALR mutations, three methods were compared in parallel: high-resolution melting-curve analysis (HRM), product-sizing analysis and Sanger sequencing. The sensitivity for the HRM, product-sizing analysis and Sanger sequencing was 96.4%, 98.2% and 89.3% respectively, whereas the specificity was 96.3%, 100% and 100%. In our cohort, the product-sizing analysis was the most sensitive method and was the easiest to interpret, while the HRM was sometimes difficult to interpret. In contrast, when large series of samples were tested, HRM provided results more quickly than did the other methods, which required more time. Finally, the sequencing method, which is the reference method, had the lowest sensitivity but can be used to describe the type of mutation precisely. Altogether, our results suggest that in routine laboratory practice, product-sizing analysis is globally similar to HRM for the detection of CALR mutations, and that both may be used as first-line screening tests. If the results are positive, Sanger sequencing can be used to confirm the mutation and to determine its type. Product-sizing analysis provides sensitive and specific results, moreover, with the quantitative measurement of CALR, which might be useful to monitor specific treatments. PMID:26501981

  6. Quantitative interpretation of fossil pollen spectra: Dissimilarity coefficients and the method of modern analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, J. T.; Webb, T.; Prentice, I. C.

    1985-01-01

    Dissimilarity coefficients measure the difference between multivariate samples and provide a quantitative aid to the identification of modern analogs for fossil pollen samples. How eight coefficients responded to differences among modern pollen samples from eastern North America was tested. These coefficients represent three different classes: (1) unweighted coefficients that are most strongly influenced by large-valued pollen types, (2) equal-weight coefficients that weight all pollen types equally but can be too sensitive to variations among rare types, and (3) signal0to-noise coefficients that are intermediate in their weighting of pollen types. The studies with modern pollen allowed definition of critical values for each coefficient, which, when not exceeded, indicate that two pollen samples originate from the same vegetation region. Dissimilarity coefficients were used to compare modern and fossil pollen samples, and modern samples so similar to fossil samples were found that most of three late Quaternary pollen diagrams could be "reconstructed" by substituting modern samples for fossil samples. When the coefficients indicated that the fossil spectra had no modern analogs, then the reconstructed diagrams did not match all aspects of the originals. No modern analogs existed for samples from before 9300 yr B.P. at Kirchner Marsh, Minnesota, and from before 11,000 yr B.P. at Wintergreen Lake, Michigan, but modern analogs existed for almost all Holocene samples from these two sites and Brandreth Bog. New York.

  7. [A brief history of resuscitation - the influence of previous experience on modern techniques and methods].

    PubMed

    Kucmin, Tomasz; P?owa?-Goral, Ma?gorzata; Nogalski, Adam

    2015-02-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is relatively novel branch of medical science, however first descriptions of mouth-to-mouth ventilation are to be found in the Bible and literature is full of descriptions of different resuscitation methods - from flagellation and ventilation with bellows through hanging the victims upside down and compressing the chest in order to stimulate ventilation to rectal fumigation with tobacco smoke. The modern history of CPR starts with Kouwenhoven et al. who in 1960 published a paper regarding heart massage through chest compressions. Shortly after that in 1961Peter Safar presented a paradigm promoting opening the airway, performing rescue breaths and chest compressions. First CPR guidelines were published in 1966. Since that time guidelines were modified and improved numerously by two leading world expert organizations ERC (European Resuscitation Council) and AHA (American Heart Association) and published in a new version every 5 years. Currently 2010 guidelines should be obliged. In this paper authors made an attempt to present history of development of resuscitation techniques and methods and assess the influence of previous lifesaving methods on nowadays technologies, equipment and guidelines which allow to help those women and men whose life is in danger due to sudden cardiac arrest. PMID:25771524

  8. Fraley's syndrome: case report and update on current diagnostic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckier, L.S.; Patel, Y.D.; Fine, E.J.; Koenigsberg, M.

    1988-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman presented with fever, right flank pain, and a clinical diagnosis of pyelonephritis. Work-up revealed the presence of a crossing arterial branch causing obstruction of the superior infundibulum of the right kidney, which is an uncommon cause of nephralgia and urinary infection initially described by Fraley in 1966. Intravenous urography, retrograde pyelography, and angiography remain the mainstay of diagnosis, much as in the initial descriptions of this entity. (/sup 131/I)Hippuran imaging, with analysis of the upper and lower pole regions of interest, provides a simple yet powerful method of evaluating functional and excretory changes in the superior infundibulum, and has proved more efficacious than previously reported whole-kidney renograms. Renal scintigraphy represents a relatively noninvasive method of serial functional examination in this disorder. Ultrasound imaging, by monitoring upper-pole dilatation, may provide complementary morphologic information important for long-term follow-up.

  9. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Duan, Yixiang; Cao, Wenqing

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  10. Modern applications for a total sulfur reduction distillation method - whats old is new again

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of a boiling mixture of hydriodic acid, hypophosphorous acid, and hydrochloric acid to reduce any variety of sulfur compounds has been in use in various applications since the first appearance of this method in the literature in the 1920s. In the realm of sulfur geochemistry, this method remains a useful, but under-utilized technique. Presented here is a detailed description of the distillation set-up and procedure, as well as an overview of potential applications of this method for marine sulfur biogeochemistry/isotope studies. The presented applications include the sulfur isotope analysis of extremely low amounts of sulfate from saline water, the conversion of radiolabeled sulfate into sulfide, the extraction of refractory sulfur from marine sediments, and the use of this method to assess sulfur cycling in Aarhus Bay sediments. Results The STrongly Reducing hydrIodic/hypoPhosphorous/hydrochloric acid (STRIP) reagent is capable of rapidly reducing a wide range of sulfur compounds, including the most oxidized form, sulfate, to hydrogen sulfide. Conversion of as little as approximately 5 micromole sulfate is possible, with a sulfur isotope composition reproducibility of 0.3 permil. Conclusions Although developed many decades ago, this distillation method remains relevant for many modern applications. The STRIP distillation quickly and quantitatively converts sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide which can be readily collected in a silver nitrate trap for further use. An application of this method to a study of sulfur cycling in Aarhus Bay demonstrates that we account for all of the sulfur compounds in pore-water, effectively closing the mass balance of sulfur cycling. PMID:24808759

  11. [Molecular diagnostics and imaging].

    PubMed

    Fink, Christian; Fisseler-Eckhoff, Annette; Huss, Ralf; Nestle, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Molecular diagnostic methods and biological imaging techniques can make a major contribution to tailoring patients' treatment needs with regard to medical, ethical and pharmaco-economic aspects. Modern diagnostic methods are already being used to help identify different sub-groups of patients with thoracic tumours who are most likely to benefit significantly from a particular type of treatment. This contribution looks at the most recent developments that have been made in the field of thoracic tumour diagnosis and analyses the pros and cons of new molecular and other imaging techniques in day-to-day clinical practice. PMID:19521129

  12. Design predictions and diagnostic test methods for hydronic heating systems in ASHRAE standard 152P

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.

    1996-04-01

    A new method of test for residential thermal distribution efficiency is currently being developed under the auspices of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). The initial version of this test method is expected to have two main approaches, or ``pathways,`` designated Design and Diagnostic. The Design Pathway will use builder`s information to predict thermal distribution efficiency in new construction. The Diagnostic Pathway will use simple tests to evaluate thermal distribution efficiency in a completed house. Both forced-air and hydronic systems are included in the test method. This report describes an approach to predicting and measuring thermal distribution efficiency for residential hydronic heating systems for use in the Design and Diagnostic Pathways of the test method. As written, it is designed for single-loop systems with any type of passive radiation/convection (baseboard or radiators). Multiloop capability may be added later.

  13. Digital methods for diagnostics of longitudinal bunch parameters in synchrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhabitsky, V. M.

    2016-01-01

    Methods are discussed for processing a digital signal (proportional to a longitudinal intensity of bunches during their acceleration in the synchrotron) in order to identify the time dependences of (i) a bunch phase relative to a phase of accelerating voltage, (ii) the rms longitudinal dimension of a bunch, and (iii) the intensities of a bunch and a beam (as a batch of circulating bunches). Examples of the dependences obtained for a beam in the nuclotron at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research are presented.

  14. The Application of Modern Nodal Methods to Pwr Reactor Physics Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, M. P.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The objective of this research is to develop efficient computational procedures for PWR reactor calculations, based on modern nodal methods. The analytic nodal method, which is characterised by the use of exact exponential expansions in transverse-integrated equations, is implemented within an existing finite-difference code. This shows considerable accuracy and efficiency on standard benchmark problems, very much in line with existing experience with nodal methods. Assembly powers can be calculated to within 2.0% with just one mesh per assembly. The recovery of fine detail from a nodal solution based on such a coarse mesh requires additional effort. Techniques are develolped in this thesis which allow the basic nodal equations to be used in this reconstruction, and therefore provide a consistent approach. Pin powers can be recovered from assembly-averaged values with little further loss of accuracy. A similar investigation is followed with the transverse leakage distribution. An improvement, which uses known local behaviour, is shown to be very effective in some limited applications, but overall provides little advantage over the much simpler quadratic model. For heterogeneous calculations it is essential that the homogenisation techniques are well matched to the nodal method. The asymmetric design of some assemblies provides a severe test. Techniques are devised that allow some overall representation of this asymmetry to be retained in the reactor calculation, even when using one mesh per assembly. Extensions of this procedure provide an almost exact global representation of a heterogeneous assembly. A complete comparison is performed between reactor calculations at one mesh per pin, and at one mesh per assembly using nodal and homogenisation methods. Homogenisation errors and nodal coarse-mesh errors are shown to be very similar, amounting to about 0.1% on reactor eigenvalue, 2.0% on assembly power and 5.0% on individual pin power.

  15. Method of hepatitis diagnostics of changes in human skin diffuse reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsh, M. L.; Sokol, A. M.; Lomanets, V. S.; Gayka, O. R.

    1999-11-01

    The results on the study of influence of bilirubinum concentration in a human blood on the spectrum of a diffuse reflectivity of his skin are represented. On this basis, the method for hepatitis diagnostics has been developed, and the laboratory device implementing this method has been designed.

  16. Using the Attribute Hierarchy Method to Make Diagnostic Inferences about Examinees' Cognitive Skills in Critical Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Changjiang; Gierl, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply the attribute hierarchy method (AHM) to a subset of SAT critical reading items and illustrate how the method can be used to promote cognitive diagnostic inferences. The AHM is a psychometric procedure for classifying examinees' test item responses into a set of attribute mastery patterns associated with

  17. Comparing historical and modern methods of sea surface temperature measurement - Part 1: Review of methods, field comparisons and dataset adjustments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, J. B. R.

    2013-07-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) has been obtained from a variety of different platforms, instruments and depths over the past 150 yr. Modern-day platforms include ships, moored and drifting buoys and satellites. Shipboard methods include temperature measurement of seawater sampled by bucket and flowing through engine cooling water intakes. Here I review SST measurement methods, studies analysing shipboard methods by field or lab experiment and adjustments applied to historical SST datasets to account for variable methods. In general, bucket temperatures have been found to average a few tenths of a C cooler than simultaneous engine intake temperatures. Field and lab experiments demonstrate that cooling of bucket samples prior to measurement provides a plausible explanation for negative average bucket-intake differences. These can also be credibly attributed to systematic errors in intake temperatures, which have been found to average overly-warm by >0.5 C on some vessels. However, the precise origin of non-zero average bucket-intake differences reported in field studies is often unclear, given that additional temperatures to those from the buckets and intakes have rarely been obtained. Supplementary accurate in situ temperatures are required to reveal individual errors in bucket and intake temperatures, and the role of near-surface temperature gradients. There is a need for further field experiments of the type reported in Part 2 to address this and other limitations of previous studies.

  18. Modern evaluation of liquisolid systems with varying amounts of liquid phase prepared using two different methods.

    PubMed

    Vraníková, Barbora; Gajdziok, Jan; Vetchý, David

    2015-01-01

    Liquisolid systems are an innovative dosage form used for enhancing dissolution rate and improving in vivo bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. These formulations require specific evaluation methods for their quality assurance (e.g., evaluation of angle of slide, contact angle, or water absorption ratio). The presented study is focused on the preparation, modern in vitro testing, and evaluation of differences of liquisolid systems containing varying amounts of a drug in liquid state (polyethylene glycol 400 solution of rosuvastatin) in relation to an aluminometasilicate carrier (Neusilin US2). Liquisolid powders used for the formulation of final tablets were prepared using two different methods: simple blending and spraying of drug solution onto a carrier in fluid bed equipment. The obtained results imply that the amount of liquid phase in relation to carrier material had an effect on the hardness, friability, and disintegration of tablets, as well as their height. The use of spraying technique enhanced flow properties of the prepared mixtures, increased hardness values, decreased friability, and improved homogeneity of the final dosage form. PMID:26075249

  19. Modern Evaluation of Liquisolid Systems with Varying Amounts of Liquid Phase Prepared Using Two Different Methods

    PubMed Central

    Vetchý, David

    2015-01-01

    Liquisolid systems are an innovative dosage form used for enhancing dissolution rate and improving in vivo bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. These formulations require specific evaluation methods for their quality assurance (e.g., evaluation of angle of slide, contact angle, or water absorption ratio). The presented study is focused on the preparation, modern in vitro testing, and evaluation of differences of liquisolid systems containing varying amounts of a drug in liquid state (polyethylene glycol 400 solution of rosuvastatin) in relation to an aluminometasilicate carrier (Neusilin US2). Liquisolid powders used for the formulation of final tablets were prepared using two different methods: simple blending and spraying of drug solution onto a carrier in fluid bed equipment. The obtained results imply that the amount of liquid phase in relation to carrier material had an effect on the hardness, friability, and disintegration of tablets, as well as their height. The use of spraying technique enhanced flow properties of the prepared mixtures, increased hardness values, decreased friability, and improved homogeneity of the final dosage form. PMID:26075249

  20. Gene and genetic diagnostic method patent claims: a comparison under current European and US patent law.

    PubMed

    Huys, Isabelle; Van Overwalle, Geertrui; Matthijs, Gert

    2011-10-01

    The paper focuses on the fundamental debate that is going on in Europe and the United States about whether genes and genetic diagnostic methods are to be regarded as inventions or subject matter eligible for patent protection, or whether they are discoveries or principles of nature and thus excluded from patentability. The study further explores some possible scenarios of American influences on European patent applications with respect to genetic diagnostic methods. Our analysis points out that patent eligibility for genes and genetic diagnostic methods, as discussed in the United States in the Association of Molecular Pathology versus US Patent and Trademark Office decision, is based on a different reasoning compared with the European Patent Convention. PMID:21654725

  1. Characterization and diagnostic methods for geomagnetic auroral infrasound waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Justin J.

    Infrasonic perturbations resulting from auroral activity have been observed since the 1950's. In the last decade advances in infrasonic microphone sensitivity, high latitude sensor coverage, time series analysis methods and computational efficiency have elucidated new types of auroral infrasound. Persistent periods of infrasonic activity associated with geomagnetic sub-storms have been termed geomagnetic auroral infrasound waves [GAIW]. We consider 63 GAIW events recorded by the Fairbanks, AK infrasonic array I53US ranging from 2003 to 2014 and encompassing a complete solar cycle. We make observations of the acoustic features of these events alongside magnetometer, riometer, and all-sky camera data in an effort to quantify the ionospheric conditions suitable for infrasound generation. We find that, on average, the generation mechanism for GAIW is confined to a region centered about ~60 0 longitude east of the anti-Sun-Earth line and at ~770 North latitude. We note furthermore that in all cases considered wherein imaging riometer data are available, that dynamic regions of heightened ionospheric conductivity periodically cross the overhead zenith. Consistent features in concurrent magnetometer conditions are also noted, with irregular oscillations in the horizontal component of the field ubiquitous in all cases. In an effort to produce ionosphere based infrasound free from the clutter and unknowns typical of geophysical observations, an experiment was undertaken at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program [HAARP] facility in 2012. Infrasonic signals appearing to originate from a source region overhead were observed briefly on 9 August 2012. The signals were observed during a period when an electrojet current was presumed to have passed overhead and while the facilities radio transmitter was periodically heating the lower ionosphere. Our results suggest dynamic auroral electrojet currents as primary sources of much of the observed infrasound, with modulation of the electrojets due to energetic particle precipitation, dispersion due to coupling with gravity waves, and reflection and refraction effects in the intervening atmosphere all potential factors in the shaping of the waveforms observed.

  2. New method of acne disease fluorescent diagnostics in natural and fluorescent light and treatment control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimova, L. N.; Berezin, A. N.; Shevchik, S. A.; Kharnas, S. S.; Kusmin, S. G.; Loschenov, V. B.

    2005-08-01

    In the given research the new method of fluorescent diagnostics (FD) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) control of acne disease is submitted. Method is based on simultaneous diagnostics in natural and fluorescent light. PDT was based on using 5-ALA (5- aminolevulinic acid) preparation and 600-730 nanometers radiation. If the examined site of a skin possessed a high endogenous porphyrin fluorescence level, PDT was carried out without 5-ALA. For FD and treatment control a dot spectroscopy and the fluorescent imaging of the affected skin were used.

  3. Diagnostic test accuracy: methods for systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jared M; Klugar, Miloslav; Ding, Sandrine; Carmody, Dennis P; Hakonsen, Sasja J; Jadotte, Yuri T; White, Sarahlouise; Munn, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    Systematic reviews are carried out to provide an answer to a clinical question based on all available evidence (published and unpublished), to critically appraise the quality of studies, and account for and explain variations between the results of studies. The Joanna Briggs Institute specializes in providing methodological guidance for the conduct of systematic reviews and has developed methods and guidance for reviewers conducting systematic reviews of studies of diagnostic test accuracy. Diagnostic tests are used to identify the presence or absence of a condition for the purpose of developing an appropriate treatment plan. Owing to demands for improvements in speed, cost, ease of performance, patient safety, and accuracy, new diagnostic tests are continuously developed, and there are often several tests available for the diagnosis of a particular condition. In order to provide the evidence necessary for clinicians and other healthcare professionals to make informed decisions regarding the optimum test to use, primary studies need to be carried out on the accuracy of diagnostic tests and the results of these studies synthesized through systematic review. The Joanna Briggs Institute and its international collaboration have updated, revised, and developed new guidance for systematic reviews, including systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy. This methodological article summarizes that guidance and provides detailed advice on the effective conduct of systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy. PMID:26355602

  4. Modern Methods of Real-Time Gamma Radiation Monitoring for General Personal Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

    Real-time radiation detectors become an essential part of emergency personnel who may have to respond to unknown accidents, incidents or terrorist attacks, which could involve radioactive material. More and more ordinary citizens are interested in personal radiation protection as well. Reasons include lost sources, nuclear industrial accidents, nuclear or radiological terrorism and the possibility of nuclear weapons being used in a war. People want to have the ability to measure it for themselves and they want to be notified when the radiation levels are increased. To meet this demand, considerable research into new sensors is underway, including efforts to enhance the sensor performance through both the material properties and manufacturing technologies. Deep understanding of physical properties of the materials under the influence of radiation exposure is vital for the effective design of dosimeter devices. Detection of radiation is based on the fact that both the electrical and the optical properties of the materials undergo changes upon the exposure to ionizing radiation. It is believed that radiation causes structural defects. The influence of radiation depends on both the dose and the parameters of the films including their thickness: the degradation is more severe for the higher dose and the thinner films. This paper presents overview of modern methods of real-time gamma radiation monitoring for personal protection of radiation workers and general public and suggests further developments in this area.

  5. A Modern Syllogistic Method in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Logic with Realistic Tautology

    PubMed Central

    Rushdi, Ali Muhammad; Zarouan, Mohamed; Alshehri, Taleb Mansour; Rushdi, Muhammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The Modern Syllogistic Method (MSM) of propositional logic ferrets out from a set of premises all that can be concluded from it in the most compact form. The MSM combines the premises into a single function equated to 1 and then produces the complete product of this function. Two fuzzy versions of MSM are developed in Ordinary Fuzzy Logic (OFL) and in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Logic (IFL) with these logics augmented by the concept of Realistic Fuzzy Tautology (RFT) which is a variable whose truth exceeds 0.5. The paper formally proves each of the steps needed in the conversion of the ordinary MSM into a fuzzy one. The proofs rely mainly on the successful replacement of logic 1 (or ordinary tautology) by an RFT. An improved version of Blake-Tison algorithm for generating the complete product of a logical function is also presented and shown to be applicable to both crisp and fuzzy versions of the MSM. The fuzzy MSM methodology is illustrated by three specific examples, which delineate differences with the crisp MSM, address the question of validity values of consequences, tackle the problem of inconsistency when it arises, and demonstrate the utility of the concept of Realistic Fuzzy Tautology. PMID:26380357

  6. [Methodical features of the molding of diagnostic competences in medical parasitology workers].

    PubMed

    Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Iu; Avdiukhina, T I; Serdiuk, A P; Imamkuliev, K D

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides a rationale for a procedure to mold diagnostic competences in medical workers of the laboratories of therapeutic-and-prophylactic institutions and hygiene and epidemiology centers, Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare. The methodical features of molding diagnostic competences in the above contingents are the design and organization of an educational process by applying systems integration and competence-based approaches; increased active self-directed learning of audience; a procedure to organize its unsupervised extracurricular activities. Professional habits and skills in laboratory specialists should be molded on the basis of didactic principles and in compliance with the found methodical patterns. The eventual result (molded competences) and its compliance with the practical health care requirements is assessed using all control types (incoming, running, intermediate, and ultimate ones). This ensures the stability and predictability of molding diagnostic competences in parasitology specialists. PMID:25850323

  7. Difference of Diagnostic Rates and Analytical Methods in the Test Positions of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Mee; Yong, Sang Yeol; Kim, Jong Heon; Kim, Hee; Park, Sang-Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the differences of diagnostic rates, of the two widely used test positions, in measuring vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) and selecting the most appropriate analytical method for diagnostic criteria for the patients with vertigo. Methods Thirty-two patients with vertigo were tested in two comparative testing positions: turning the head to the opposite side of the evaluating side and bowing while in seated position, and bowing while in supine positions. Abnormalities were determined by prolonged latency of p13 or n23, shortening of the interpeak latency, and absence of VEMP formation. Results Using the three criteria above for determining abnormalities, both the seated and supine positions showed no significant differences in diagnostic rates, however, the concordance correlation of the two positions was low. When using only the prolonged latency of p13 or n23 in the two positions, diagnostic rates were not significantly different and their concordance correlation was high. On the other hand, using only the shortened interpeak latency in both positions showed no significant difference of diagnostic rates, and the degree of agreement between two positions was low. Conclusion Bowing while in seated position with the head turned in the opposite direction to the area being evaluated is found to be the best VEMP test position due to the consistent level of sternocleidomastoid muscle tension and the high level of compliance. Also, among other diagnostic analysis methods, using prolonged latency of p13 or n23 as the criterion is found to be the most appropriate method of analysis for the VEMP test. PMID:24855617

  8. A test of Hartnett's revisions to the pubic symphysis and fourth rib methods on a modern sample.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Catherine E

    2014-05-01

    Estimating age at death is one of the most important aspects of creating a biological profile. Most adult age estimation methods were developed on North American skeletal collections from the early to mid-20th century, and their applicability to modern populations has been questioned. In 2010, Hartnett used a modern skeletal collection from the Maricopia County Forensic Science Centre to revise the Suchey-Brooks pubic symphysis method and the ??can et al. fourth rib methods. The current study tests Hartnett's revised methods as well as the original Suchey-Brooks and ??can et al. methods on a modern sample from the William Bass Skeletal Collection (N = 313, mean age = 58.5, range 19-92). Results show that the Suchey-Brooks and ??can et al. methods assign individuals to the correct phase 70.8% and 57.5% of the time compared with Hartnett's revised methods at 58.1% and 29.7%, respectively, with correctness scores based on one standard deviation of the mean rather than the entire age range. Accuracy and bias scores are significantly improved for Hartnett's revised pubic symphysis method and marginally better for Hartnett's revised fourth rib method, suggesting that the revised mean ages at death of Hartnett's phases better reflect this modern population. Overall, both Hartnett's revised methods are reliable age estimation methods. For the pubic symphysis, there are significant improvements in accuracy and bias scores, especially for older individuals; however, for the fourth rib, the results are comparable to the original ??can et al. methods, with some improvement for older individuals. PMID:24602081

  9. Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Katti, K.V.; Karra, S.R.; Berning, D.E.; Smith, C.J.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.

    1999-01-05

    A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand. 21 figs.

  10. Depression and Spinal Cord Injury: A Review of Diagnostic Methods for Depression, 1985 to 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Amy L.; Armstrong, Kevin J.; Rich, John

    2003-01-01

    Studies of depression in individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI) over a 15-year period were examined to determine if researchers used consistent diagnostic measures. The Beck Depression Inventory was the most frequently used instrument, but there was inconsistency among methods employed and disagreement regarding the inclusion of somatic…

  11. Depression and Spinal Cord Injury: A Review of Diagnostic Methods for Depression, 1985 to 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Amy L.; Armstrong, Kevin J.; Rich, John

    2003-01-01

    Studies of depression in individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI) over a 15-year period were examined to determine if researchers used consistent diagnostic measures. The Beck Depression Inventory was the most frequently used instrument, but there was inconsistency among methods employed and disagreement regarding the inclusion of somatic

  12. Patents on diagnostic methods in Europe under the European Patent Convention (EPC).

    PubMed

    Barba, Michelangelo

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the provisions of the European Patent Convention with regard to diagnostic methods practiced on the human or animal body. Moreover, it is also discussed the relevant jurisprudence (Case Law) interpreting the legal provisions. Some examples based on real cases are also presented and discussed. PMID:21095714

  13. Hydroxyalkyl phosphine gold complexes for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Katti, K.V.; Berning, D.E.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.

    1998-12-01

    A complex and method for making a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical includes a ligand comprising at least one hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group bound to a gold atom to form a gold-ligand complex that is stable in aqueous solutions containing oxygen, serum and other body fluids. 20 figs.

  14. Hydroxyalkyl phosphine gold complexes for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Berning, Douglas E.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Ketring, Alan R.

    1998-01-01

    A complex and method for making same for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical includes a ligand comprising at least one hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group bound to a gold atom to form a gold-ligand complex that is stable in aqueous solutions containing oxygen, serum and other body fluids.

  15. Study on Fault Diagnostics of a Turboprop Engine Using Inverse Performance Model and Artificial Intelligent Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Changduk; Lim, Semyeong

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the health monitoring system of major gas path components of gas turbine uses mostly the model based method like the Gas Path Analysis (GPA). This method is to find quantity changes of component performance characteristic parameters such as isentropic efficiency and mass flow parameter by comparing between measured engine performance parameters such as temperatures, pressures, rotational speeds, fuel consumption, etc. and clean engine performance parameters without any engine faults which are calculated by the base engine performance model. Currently, the expert engine diagnostic systems using the artificial intelligent methods such as Neural Networks (NNs), Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithms (GAs) have been studied to improve the model based method. Among them the NNs are mostly used to the engine fault diagnostic system due to its good learning performance, but it has a drawback due to low accuracy and long learning time to build learning data base if there are large amount of learning data. In addition, it has a very complex structure for finding effectively single type faults or multiple type faults of gas path components. This work builds inversely a base performance model of a turboprop engine to be used for a high altitude operation UAV using measured performance data, and proposes a fault diagnostic system using the base engine performance model and the artificial intelligent methods such as Fuzzy logic and Neural Network. The proposed diagnostic system isolates firstly the faulted components using Fuzzy Logic, then quantifies faults of the identified components using the NN leaned by fault learning data base, which are obtained from the developed base performance model. In leaning the NN, the Feed Forward Back Propagation (FFBP) method is used. Finally, it is verified through several test examples that the component faults implanted arbitrarily in the engine are well isolated and quantified by the proposed diagnostic system.

  16. Modern methods for estimating the strength and lifetime of power equipment subjected to thermal pulsations and vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudakov, A. V.; Slovtsov, S. V.

    2013-01-01

    Modern methods used to estimate the loading of power equipment elements and their lifetime, which may decrease to an essential extent due to temperature pulsations and vibration loads that are sometimes inherent in the working process in power equipment, and which may lead to equipment failures. Procedures for calculating the longevity of power equipment elements experiencing temperature pulsations during their operation are proposed.

  17. Estimation of diagnostic test accuracy without full verification: a review of latent class methods

    PubMed Central

    Collins, John; Huynh, Minh

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a diagnostic test is best evaluated against a reference test that is without error. For many diseases, this is not possible, and an imperfect reference test must be used. However, diagnostic accuracy estimates may be biased if inaccurately verified status is used as the truth. Statistical models have been developed to handle this situation by treating disease as a latent variable. In this paper, we conduct a systematized review of statistical methods using latent class models for estimating test accuracy and disease prevalence in the absence of complete verification. PMID:24910172

  18. Laparoscopic diagnostic peritoneal lavage (L-DPL): A method for evaluation of penetrating abdominal stab wounds

    PubMed Central

    Krausz, Michael M; Abbou, Benyamine; Hershko, Dan D; Mahajna, Ahmad; Duek, Daniel S; Bishara, Bishara; Israelit, Shlomo H

    2006-01-01

    Background The management of penetrating abdominal stab wounds has been the subject of continued reappraisal and controversy. In the present study a novel method which combines the use of diagnostic laparoscopy and DPL, termed laparoscopic diagnostic peritoneal lavage (L-DPL) is described Method Five trauma patients with penetrating injuries to the lower chest or abdomen were included. Standard videoscopic equipment is utilized for the laparoscopic trauma evaluation of the injured patient. When no significant injury is detected, the videoscope is withdrawn and 1000 mL of normal saline is infused through the abdominal trochar into the peritoneal cavity, and the effluent fluid studied for RBCs, WBC, amylase debry, bile as it is uced in regular diagnostic peritoneal lavage Results Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage (L-DPL) was then performed and proved to be negative in all 5 patients. RBC lavage counts above 100,000/mcrl were not considered as a positive lavage result, because the bleeding source was directly observed and controlled laparoscopically. All patients recovered uneventfully and were released within 3 days. This procedure combines the visual advantages of laparoscopy together with the sensitivity and specificty of DPL for the diagnosis of significant penetrating intra-abdominal injury, when the diagnostic strategy of selective consevatism for abdominal stab wounds is adopted. Conclusion A method of laparoscopic diagnostic peritoneal lavage (L-DPL) in hemodynamically stable patients with penetrating lower thoracic or abdominal stab wounds is described. The method is especially applicable for trauma surgeons with only basic experience in laparoscopic technique. This procedure is used to obtain conclusive evidence of significant intra-abdominal injury, confirm peritoneal penetration, control intra-abdominal bleeding, and repair lacerations to the diaphragm and abdominal wall. The combination of laparoscopy and DPL afforded by the L-DPL method adds to the sensitivity and specificity of DPL, and avoids under or over sesitivty, that have limited the use of DPL in the hemodynamically stable trauma patients with suspicious or proven peritoneal penetration. PMID:16759402

  19. Development of a Cast Iron Fatigue Properties Database for use with Modern Design Methods

    SciTech Connect

    DeLa'O, James, D.; Gundlach, Richard, B.; Tartaglia, John, M.

    2003-09-18

    A reliable and comprehensive database of design properties for cast iron is key to full and efficient utilization of this versatile family of high production-volume engineering materials. A database of strain-life fatigue properties and supporting data for a wide range of structural cast irons representing industry standard quality was developed in this program. The database primarily covers ASTM/SAE standard structural grades of ADI, CGI, ductile iron and gray iron as well as an austempered gray iron. Twenty-two carefully chosen materials provided by commercial foundries were tested and fifteen additional datasets were contributed by private industry. The test materials are principally distinguished on the basis of grade designation; most grades were tested in a 25 mm section size and in a single material condition common for the particular grade. Selected grades were tested in multiple sections-sizes and/or material conditions to delineate the properties associated with a range of materials for the given grade. The cyclic properties are presented in terms of the conventional strain-life formalism (e.g., SAE J1099). Additionally, cyclic properties for gray iron and CGI are presented in terms of the Downing Model, which was specifically developed to treat the unique stress-strain response associated with gray iron (and to a lesser extent with CGI). The test materials were fully characterized in terms of alloy composition, microstructure and monotonic properties. The CDROM database presents the data in various levels of detail including property summaries for each material, detailed data analyses for each specimen and raw monotonic and cyclic stress-strain data. The CDROM database has been published by the American Foundry Society (AFS) as an AFS Research Publication entitled ''Development of a Cast Iron Fatigue Properties Database for Use in Modern Design Methods'' (ISDN 0-87433-267-2).

  20. Molecular diagnostic methods for invasive fungal disease: the horizon draws nearer?

    PubMed

    Halliday, C L; Kidd, S E; Sorrell, T C; Chen, S C-A

    2015-04-01

    Rapid, accurate diagnostic laboratory tests are needed to improve clinical outcomes of invasive fungal disease (IFD). Traditional direct microscopy, culture and histological techniques constitute the 'gold standard' against which newer tests are judged. Molecular diagnostic methods, whether broad-range or fungal-specific, have great potential to enhance sensitivity and speed of IFD diagnosis, but have varying specificities. The use of PCR-based assays, DNA sequencing, and other molecular methods including those incorporating proteomic approaches such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS) have shown promising results. These are used mainly to complement conventional methods since they require standardisation before widespread implementation can be recommended. None are incorporated into diagnostic criteria for defining IFD. Commercial assays may assist standardisation. This review provides an update of molecular-based diagnostic approaches applicable to biological specimens and fungal cultures in microbiology laboratories. We focus on the most common pathogens, Candida and Aspergillus, and the mucormycetes. The position of molecular-based approaches in the detection of azole and echinocandin antifungal resistance is also discussed. PMID:25719852

  1. A real-time PCR diagnostic method for detection of Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Madarová, Lucia; Trnková, Katarína; Feiková, Sona; Klement, Cyril; Obernauerová, Margita

    2010-09-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba that can cause primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). While, traditional methods for diagnosing PAM still rely on culture, more current laboratory diagnoses exist based on conventional PCR methods; however, only a few real-time PCR processes have been described as yet. Here, we describe a real-time PCR-based diagnostic method using hybridization fluorescent labelled probes, with a LightCycler instrument and accompanying software (Roche), targeting the Naegleria fowleriMp2Cl5 gene sequence. Using this method, no cross reactivity with other tested epidemiologically relevant prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms was found. The reaction detection limit was 1 copy of the Mp2Cl5 DNA sequence. This assay could become useful in the rapid laboratory diagnostic assessment of the presence or absence of Naegleria fowleri. PMID:19919836

  2. [Significance of modern methods for laboratory detection of rabies agents and identification of the zoonose immunological survey].

    PubMed

    Guliukin, A M

    2014-01-01

    Analytical review of modern methods of the laboratory detection of rabies and findings of our research indicate high sensitivity and specificity of methods for rapid identification of rabies agents, such as ELISA, reverse-transcriptase PCR for identification of the rabies virus genome, and rabies virus isolation in rat Gasserian ganglion neurinoma, as well as their potential to be included into the State Quality Standard for early detection of rabies in animals to reduce the infection risk among humans and animals. PMID:25335412

  3. Comparison of laser spectroscopic PNC method with laser integral fluorescence in optical caries diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masychev, Victor I.

    2001-05-01

    In this research we represent the results of approbation of two methods of optical caries diagnostics: PNC-spectral diagnostics and caries detection by laser integral fluorescence. The research was conducted in a dental clinic. PNC-method analyzes parameters of probing laser radiation and PNC-spectrums of stimulated secondary radiations: backscattering and endogenous fluorescence of caries- involved bacteria. Ia-Ne laser ((lambda) equals632.8 nm, 1-2 mW) was used as a source of probing (stimulated) radiation. For registration of signals, received from intact and pathological teeth PDA-detector was applied. PNC-spectrums were processed by special algorithms, and were displayed on PC monitor. The method of laser integral fluorescence was used for comparison. In this case integral power of fluorescence of human teeth was measured. As a source of probing (stimulated) radiation diode lasers ((lambda) equals655 nm, 0.1 mW and 630 nm, 1 mW) and Ia-Na laser were applied. For registration of signals Si-photodetector was used. Integral power was shown in a digital indicator. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are described in this research. It is disclosed that the method of laser integral power of fluorescence has the following characteristics: simplicity of construction and schema-technical decisions. However the method of PNC-spectral diagnostics are characterized by considerably more sensitivity in diagnostics of initial caries and capability to differentiate pathologies of various stages (for example, calculus/initial caries). Estimation of spectral characteristics of PNC-signals allows eliminating a number of drawbacks, which are character for detection by method of laser integral fluorescence (for instance, detection of fluorescent fillings, plagues, calculus, discolorations generally, amalgam, gold fillings as if it were caries).

  4. Instrumentation for noninvasive express-diagnostics bacteriophages and viruses by optical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moguilnaia, Tatiana A.; Andreev, Gleb I.; Agibalov, Andrey A.; Botikov, Andrey G.; Kosenkov, Evgeniy; Saguitova, Elena

    2004-03-01

    The theoretical and the experimental researches of spectra of absent-minded radiation in medium containing viruses were carried out. The information on spectra luminescence 31 viruses was written down.The new method the express - analysis of viruses in organism of the man was developed. It shall be mentioned that the proposed method of express diagnostics allows detection of infection agent in the organism several hours after infection. It makes it suitable for high efficient testing in blood services for detection and rejection of potential donors infected with such viruses as hepatitis, herpes, Epstein-Barre, cytomegalovirus, and immunodeficiency. Methods of serum diagnostics used for that purpose can detect antibodies to virus only 1-3 months after the person has been infected. The device for the express analysis of 31 viruses of the man was created.

  5. India's Modern Slaves: Bonded Labor in India and Methods of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutros, Heidi

    2005-01-01

    Slavery flourishes in the modern world. In nations plagued by debilitating poverty, individuals unable to afford food, clothing, and shelter may be compelled to make a devastating decision: to sell themselves or their children into slavery. Nowhere in the world is this more common than India. Conservative estimates suggest that there are 10…

  6. Using the Attribute Hierarchy Method to Make Diagnostic Inferences about Examinees' Knowledge and Skills in Mathematics: An Operational Implementation of Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Alves, Cecilia; Majeau, Renate Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply the attribute hierarchy method in an operational diagnostic mathematics program at Grades 3 and 6 to promote cognitive inferences about students' problem-solving skills. The attribute hierarchy method is a psychometric procedure for classifying examinees' test item responses into a set of structured attribute

  7. Adaptation of LASCA method for diagnostics of malignant tumours in laboratory animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ul'yanov, S. S.; Laskavyi, V. N.; Glova, Alina B.; Polyanina, T. I.; Ul'yanova, O. V.; Fedorova, V. A.; Ul'yanov, A. S.

    2012-05-01

    The LASCA method is adapted for diagnostics of malignant neoplasms in laboratory animals. Tumours are studied in mice of Balb/c inbred line after inoculation of cells of syngeneic myeloma cell line Sp.2/0 Ag.8. The appropriateness of using the tLASCA method in tumour investigations is substantiated; its advantages in comparison with the sLASCA method are demonstrated. It is found that the most informative characteristic, indicating the presence of a tumour, is the fractal dimension of LASCA images.

  8. Adaptation of LASCA method for diagnostics of malignant tumours in laboratory animals

    SciTech Connect

    Ul'yanov, S S; Laskavyi, V N; Glova, Alina B; Polyanina, T I; Ul'yanova, O V; Fedorova, V A; Ul'yanov, A S

    2012-05-31

    The LASCA method is adapted for diagnostics of malignant neoplasms in laboratory animals. Tumours are studied in mice of Balb/c inbred line after inoculation of cells of syngeneic myeloma cell line Sp.2/0 Ag.8. The appropriateness of using the tLASCA method in tumour investigations is substantiated; its advantages in comparison with the sLASCA method are demonstrated. It is found that the most informative characteristic, indicating the presence of a tumour, is the fractal dimension of LASCA images.

  9. Disseminated histoplasmosis and AIDS: clinical aspects and diagnostic methods for early detection.

    PubMed

    Corti, M E; Cendoya, C A; Soto, I; Esquivel, P; Trione, N; Villafae, M F; Corbera, K M; Helou, S; Negroni, R

    2000-03-01

    Disseminated histoplasmosis in AIDS patients is the focus of this paper. Cutaneous lesions are reported as a frequent clinical sign. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, blood cultures (lysis-centrifugation technique), bronchoalveolar lavage, and skin lesion scrapings are the most effective diagnostic methods. The identification of a specific antigen in blood and urine may be a rapid means of evaluation and follow-up of patients with this disease. PMID:10763544

  10. Clinical potential of diagnostic methods for the rapid diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in adults.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, N; Kawai, Y; Yamaguchi, T; Ouchi, K; Oka, M

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy and usefulness of three rapid diagnostic methods, ImmunoCard Mycoplasma kit, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings, and the Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS) scoring system (including six parameters), for the early presumptive diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in adults. We performed three rapid diagnostic methods at the same time in four pneumonia groups: 68 cases with M. pneumoniae pneumonia, 133 cases with Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia, 30 cases with Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia, and 20 cases with Legionella pneumonia. The sensitivity and specificity were 35% and 68% for ImmunoCard, 73% and 85% with HRCT, and 83% and 90% with the JRS scoring system, respectively. Among the three rapid diagnostic methods, the JRS scoring system was the most useful tool for initiating the administration of adequate antibiotic therapy for probable M. pneumoniae pneumonia. We suggest that M. pneumoniae pneumonia should be suspected when there is a correlation of more than five parameters in the JRS scoring system (99% specificity). If there is a correlation of three or four parameters in the JRS scoring system, chest computed tomography (CT) findings are helpful for the presumptive diagnosis of M. pneumoniae pneumonia. PMID:21061035

  11. Intermediate processes and critical phenomena: Theory, method and progress of fractional operators and their applications to modern mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingyu; Tan, Wenchang

    2006-06-01

    From point of view of physics, especially of mechanics, we briefly introduce fractional operators (with emphasis on fractional calculus and fractional differential equations) used for describing intermediate processes and critical phenomena in physics and mechanics, their progress in theory and methods and their applications to modern mechanics. Some authors’ researches in this area in recent years are included. Finally, prospects and evaluation for this subject are made.

  12. Bayesian and maximum entropy methods for fusion diagnostic measurements with compact neutron spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Reginatto, Marcel; Zimbal, Andreas

    2008-02-15

    In applications of neutron spectrometry to fusion diagnostics, it is advantageous to use methods of data analysis which can extract information from the spectrum that is directly related to the parameters of interest that describe the plasma. We present here methods of data analysis which were developed with this goal in mind, and which were applied to spectrometric measurements made with an organic liquid scintillation detector (type NE213). In our approach, we combine Bayesian parameter estimation methods and unfolding methods based on the maximum entropy principle. This two-step method allows us to optimize the analysis of the data depending on the type of information that we want to extract from the measurements. To illustrate these methods, we analyze neutron measurements made at the PTB accelerator under controlled conditions, using accelerator-produced neutron beams. Although the methods have been chosen with a specific application in mind, they are general enough to be useful for many other types of measurements.

  13. The Use Potential of Traditional Building Materials for the Realization of Structures by Modern Methods of Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spišáková, Marcela; Mačková, Daniela

    2015-11-01

    The sustainable building has taken off in recent years with many investors looking for new and different methods of construction. The traditional building materials can be made out of natural materials, while others can help to lower energy costs of the occupant once built. Regardless of what the goal of the investor is, traditional building materials and their use is on the rise. The submitted paper provides an overview of natural building materials and possible modern building systems using these construction materials. Based on the questionnaire survey is defined the use potential of traditional building materials for the realization of the construction by methods of modern constructions and then are determined the drivers and barriers of traditional materials through using modern methods of construction. Considering the analysis of the achieved results, we can identify the gaps in the construction market in Slovakia and also to assess the perception of potential investors in the field of traditional building materials use, which is the purpose of submitted paper.

  14. The role of ultrasound and nuclear medicine methods in the preoperative diagnostics of primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Cacko, Marek; Królicki, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PH) represents one of the most common endocrine diseases. In most cases, the disorder is caused by parathyroid adenomas. Bilateral neck exploration has been a widely used treatment method for adenomas since the 20's of the twentieth century. In the last decade, however, it has been increasingly replaced by a minimally invasive surgical treatment. Smaller extent, shorter duration and lower complication rate of such a procedure are emphasized. Its efficacy depends on a precise location of parathyroid tissue during the preoperative imaging. Scintigraphy and ultrasound play a major role in the diagnostic algorithms. The efficacy of both methods has been repeatedly verified and compared. The still-current guidelines of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (2009) emphasize the complementary role of scintigraphy and ultrasonography in the preoperative diagnostics in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. At the same time, attempts are made to improve both these techniques by implementing new study protocols or innovative technologies. Publications have emerged in the recent years in the field of ultrasonography, whose authors pointed out the usefulness of elastography and contrast media. Nuclear medicine studies, on the other hand, focus mainly on the assessment of new radiotracers used in the positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this article is to present, based on literature data, the possibilities of ultrasound and scintigraphy in the preoperative diagnostics in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Furthermore, the main directions in the development of imaging techniques in PH patients were evaluated. PMID:26807297

  15. A new method of H - beam-energy and energy-spread diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtkamp, D. B.; Quick, C. R.

    1990-02-01

    A new method for H - beam-energy and energy-spread diagnostics is proposed. This method is based on the interaction of a short-wavelength (150-300 nm) laser colliding at 0 with a relativistic H - beam. The interaction results in the capability to pump a short-lived resonance in H - below the n = 2 threshold. This resonance, commonly referred to as the Feshbach resonance, autoionizes and produces H 0 particles that are detected as the Feshbach resonance signature. This technique has the potential for measuring the H - energy and energy spread to the precision of a few keV or less.

  16. A novel diagnostic method to detect truncated neurofibromin in neurofibromatosis 1.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Teresa; Piluso, Giulio; Saracino, Dario; Uccello, Rossella; Schettino, Carla; Dato, Clemente; Capaldo, Guglielmo; Giugliano, Teresa; Varriale, Bruno; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Melone, Mariarosa A B

    2015-12-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant genetic condition caused by dominant loss-of-function mutations of the tumor suppressor gene NF1 that encodes neurofibromin, a negative regulator of RAS activity. Mutation analysis of NF1 located at 17q11.2 has been hampered by the large size of the gene, the high rate of new mutations, the lack of mutational clustering, and the presence of several homologous loci. To date, about 80% of the reported NF1 mutations are predicted to result in protein truncation, but very few studies have correlated the causative NF1 mutation with its effect at the protein level. We evaluated a novel diagnostic method to detect truncated forms of neurofibromin in a large cohort of unrelated subjects suspected of having NF1, according to the NIH consensus criteria. Western blot analysis was carried out on protein extracts from patients' leukocytes to highlight the possible presence of altered neurofibromin as a result of mutations in NF1. Truncated neurofibromin was identified in 274/336 patients (81%), confirming the usefulness and reproducibility of the proposed diagnostic approach. Our methodology can be routinely applied in the diagnostic setting, thanks to its simplicity and reliability. Combined with molecular approaches, it may increase the accuracy and efficiency of NF1 genetic testing. We evaluated a novel diagnostic method to detect truncated forms of neurofibromin in patients fulfilling the clinical criteria for Neurofibromatosis 1. Western blot analysis identified truncated neurofibromin in 274/336 patients (81%). Our results indicate that the proposed technique is cheap and reliable, and could ideally be performed as a preliminary biochemical screening before molecular analysis of the NF1 gene. PMID:26478990

  17. A method to detect intercenter differences in the application of contemporary diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M; Coryell, W; Black, D W

    1993-02-01

    The use of specified diagnostic criteria is part of routine psychiatric practice and research. However, there is evidence that the same criteria may be interpreted and applied differently at different research centers. The next question is whether it is possible to detect these systematic intercenter differences in diagnostic practices. An inexpensive, nonlaborious, standardized method is needed that can easily be used at any site. In the present report, we demonstrate how self-report questionnaires can provide a method of detecting systematic differences in the application of contemporary diagnostic criteria. Sixty consecutively admitted inpatients with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder were interviewed with standardized schedules and diagnosed according to two interpretations of the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) and DSM-III endogenous/melancholia criteria. The patients also completed the Inventory to Diagnose Depression, a self-report scale designed to diagnose major depression and subtype patients according to RDC and DSM-III endogenous/melancholia criteria. The interview to self-report ratio for diagnosing endogenous depression and melancholia was associated with diagnosticians' interpretation of the criteria. A broader application of the criteria resulted in a higher ratio. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire could be useful in detecting systematic interinvestigator differences in the broadness or narrowness with which criteria are applied. The advantage of a self-report scale is that it is free from systematic biases and tendencies of clinician raters. Of course, ratings on questionnaires are not free of bias; however, it is less likely that differences between samples will reflect a systematic variation in response set. PMID:8426170

  18. Reviews in Modern Astronomy 12, Astronomical Instruments and Methods at the turn of the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schielicke, Reinhard E.

    The yearbook series Reviews in Modern Astronomy of the Astronomische Gesellschaft (AG) was established in 1988 in order to bring the scientific events of the meetings of the society to the attention of the worldwide astronomical community. Reviews in Modern Astronomy is devoted exclusively to the invited Reviews, the Karl Schwarzschild Lectures, the Ludwig Biermann Award Lectures, and the highlight contributions from leading scientists reporting on recent progress and scientific achievements at their respective research institutes. Volume 12 continues the yearbook series with 16 contributions which were presented during the International Scientific Conference of the AG on ``Astronomical Instruments and Methods at the Turn of the 21st Century'' at Heidelberg from September 14 to 19, 1998

  19. Inversion methods for the measurements of MHD-like density fluctuations by Heavy Ion Beam Diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaquias, A.; Henriques, R. B.; Nedzelsky, I. S.

    2015-09-01

    We report here on the recent developments in the deconvolution of the path integral effects for the study of MHD pressure-like fluctuations measured by Heavy Ion Beam Diagnostic. In particular, we develop improved methods to account for and remove the path integral effect on the determination of the ionization generation factors, including the double ionization of the primary beam. We test the method using the HIBD simulation code which computes the real beam trajectories and attenuations due to electron impact ionization for any selected synthetic profiles of plasma current, plasma potential, electron temperature and density. Simulations have shown the numerical method to be highly effective in ISTTOK within an overall accuracy of a few percent (< 3%). The method here presented can effectively reduce the path integral effects and may serve as the basis to develop improved retrieving techniques for plasma devices working even in higher density ranges. The method is applied to retrieve the time evolution and spatial structure of m=1 and m=2 modes. The 2D MHD mode-like structure is reconstructed by means of a spatial projection of all 1D measurements obtained during one full rotation of the mode. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  20. Advanced Optical Diagnostic Methods for Describing Fuel Injection and Combustion Flowfield Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade advanced optical diagnostic techniques have evolved and matured to a point where they are now widely applied in the interrogation of high pressure combusting flows. At NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), imaging techniques have been used successfully in on-going work to develop the next generation of commercial aircraft gas turbine combustors. This work has centered on providing a means by which researchers and designers can obtain direct visual observation and measurements of the fuel injection/mixing/combustion processes and combustor flowfield in two- and three-dimensional views at actual operational conditions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the chemical and physical processes at the extreme operating conditions of the next generation of combustors is critical to reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency. To accomplish this and other tasks, the diagnostic team at GRC has designed and constructed optically accessible, high pressurer high temperature flame tubes and sectar rigs capable of optically probing the 20-60 atm flowfields of these aero-combustors. Among the techniques employed at GRC are planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) for imaging molecular species as well as liquid and gaseous fuel; planar light scattering (PLS) for imaging fuel sprays and droplets; and spontaneous Raman scattering for species and temperature measurement. Using these techniques, optical measurements never before possible have been made in the actual environments of liquid fueled gas turbines. 2-D mapping of such parameters as species (e.g. OH-, NO and kerosene-based jet fuel) distribution, injector spray angle, and fuel/air distribution are just some of the measurements that are now routinely made. Optical imaging has also provided prompt feedback to researchers regarding the effects of changes in the fuel injector configuration on both combustor performance and flowfield character. Several injector design modifications and improvements have resulted from this feedback. Alternate diagnostic methods are constantly being evaluated as to their suitability as a diagnostic tool in these environments. A new method currently under examination is background oriented Schlieren (BOS) for examining the fuel/air mixing processes. While ratioing the Stokes and anti-Stokes nitrogen lines obtained from spontaneous Raman is being refined for temperature measurement. While the primary focus of the GRC diagnostic work remains optical species measurement and flow stream characterization, an increased emphasis has been placed on our involvement in flame code validation efforts. A functional combustor code should shorten and streamline future combustor design. Quantitative measurements of flow parameters such as temperature, species concentration, drop size and velocity using such methods as Raman and phase Doppler anemometry will provide data necessary in this effort.

  1. Personality Assessment in the Diagnostic Manuals: On Mindfulness, Multiple Methods, and Test Score Discontinuities

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent controversies have illuminated the strengths and limitations of different frameworks for conceptualizing personality pathology (e.g., trait perspectives, categorical models), and stimulated debate regarding how best to diagnose personality disorders (PDs) in DSM-5, and in other diagnostic systems (i.e., the International Classification of Diseases, the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual). In this article I argue that regardless of how PDs are conceptualized and which diagnostic system is employed, multi-method assessment must play a central role in PD diagnosis. By complementing self-reports with evidence from other domains (e.g., performance-based tests), a broader range of psychological processes are engaged in the patient, and the impact of self-perception and self-presentation biases may be better understood. By providing the assessor with evidence drawn from multiple modalities, some of which provide converging patterns and some of which yield divergent results, the assessor is compelled to engage this evidence more deeply. The mindful processing that ensues can help minimize the deleterious impact of naturally occurring information processing bias and distortion on the part of the clinician (e.g., heuristics, attribution errors), bringing greater clarity to the synthesis and integration of assessment data. PMID:25856565

  2. [Modern methods of prehospital bleeding management based on the experience and standards of tactical medicine].

    PubMed

    Kluj, Przemysław; Aleksandrowicz, Dawid; Machała, Waldemar; Gaszyński, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    Isolated limb hemorrhage represents 60% of avoidable deaths and remains the leading cause of death in combat zone. Ideal tourniquet must be light, durable and cheap. They should completely stop the flow of arterial blood in the limb, and their attachment should be quick and easy. Tourniquets applied in correct location save lives by stopping the bleeding. Their use in civil environment appear to be particularly relevant in the mass casualties events. Modern bandages used by the military, were designed mostly in the form of an elastic bandage, which attachment has to be easy and quick. Sequential wrapping of elastic dressing around the wound produces compressive force which aim is to stem the bleeding by pressing vessel from the outside. Dressings are made of materials which adhere well to the wound, causing the seal and leave no fragments in the injured tissue. The combination of all components enables fast and effective application of the dressing in the most demanding conditions. PMID:25771513

  3. High-Accuracy Ultrasound Contrast Agent Detection Method for Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging Systems.

    PubMed

    Ito, Koichi; Noro, Kazumasa; Yanagisawa, Yukari; Sakamoto, Maya; Mori, Shiro; Shiga, Kiyoto; Kodama, Tetsuya; Aoki, Takafumi

    2015-12-01

    An accurate method for detecting contrast agents using diagnostic ultrasound imaging systems is proposed. Contrast agents, such as microbubbles, passing through a blood vessel during ultrasound imaging are detected as blinking signals in the temporal axis, because their intensity value is constantly in motion. Ultrasound contrast agents are detected by evaluating the intensity variation of a pixel in the temporal axis. Conventional methods are based on simple subtraction of ultrasound images to detect ultrasound contrast agents. Even if the subject moves only slightly, a conventional detection method will introduce significant error. In contrast, the proposed technique employs spatiotemporal analysis of the pixel intensity variation over several frames. Experiments visualizing blood vessels in the mouse tail illustrated that the proposed method performs efficiently compared with conventional approaches. We also report that the new technique is useful for observing temporal changes in microvessel density in subiliac lymph nodes containing tumors. The results are compared with those of contrast-enhanced computed tomography. PMID:26411669

  4. Evaluation of avian influenza serologic and virologic diagnostic methods in wild Anseriformes and Charadriiformes.

    PubMed

    Curran, John M; Robertson, Ian D; Ellis, Trevor M; Selleck, Paul W

    2014-03-01

    Evaluation of avian influenza virus (AIV) diagnostic methods, including a nucleoprotein (NP) competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA), hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, type A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR), and embryonating chicken egg (ECE) virus isolation (VI), suggested validity of these tests in wild birds comparable to that reported in poultry. This was determined by analyzing the results from experimental inoculation of three species of wild birds with a low-pathogenicity AIV and from field surveillance data. The NP c-ELISA in a high-AIV prevalence setting had 100% diagnostic sensitivity (Se; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 81.5%-100%) and 91% diagnostic specificity (Sp; 95% CI: 70.8%-98.9%) in negative controls compared with the RRT-PCR. In low-AIV prevalence flocks using a > 60% inhibition positivity threshold, relative to the HI test, c-ELISA performed with 90.5% Se (95% CI: 86.2%-93.8%) and 41.2% Sp (95% CI: 38.1%-44.5%). Assessment of HI suggests a titer > or = 8 is a positive test result in wild-bird sera, and using this titer had 83.3% Se (95% CI: 58.6%-96.4%) in experimentally infected birds. The RRT-PCR diagnostic performance compared with VI in cloacal swabs varied over 2-6 days postinoculation, having high Se (83.3%-100%) and Sp (94.1%-100%) with substantial agreement (kappa = 0.8). The cycle thresholds (C(t)) for the RRT-PCR of C(t) < 37 for positivity and C(t) = 37-40 as indeterminate were found to be valid for the species included in this study. In view of the interpretative diagnostic difficulties in heterogeneous populations of wild birds, this evaluation in three species of wild birds and in surveillance data should provide greater confidence in the application of these methods routinely used in poultry. PMID:24758113

  5. Confusion assessment method: a systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qiyun; Warren, Laura; Saposnik, Gustavo; MacDermid, Joy C

    2013-01-01

    Background Delirium is common in the early stages of hospitalization for a variety of acute and chronic diseases. Objectives To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of two delirium screening tools, the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU). Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo for relevant articles published in English up to March 2013. We compared two screening tools to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria. Two reviewers independently assessed studies to determine their eligibility, validity, and quality. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using a bivariate model. Results Twenty-two studies (n = 2,442 patients) met the inclusion criteria. All studies demonstrated that these two scales can be administered within ten minutes, by trained clinical or research staff. The pooled sensitivities and specificity for CAM were 82% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 69%91%) and 99% (95% CI: 87%100%), and 81% (95% CI: 57%93%) and 98% (95% CI: 86%100%) for CAM-ICU, respectively. Conclusion Both CAM and CAM-ICU are validated instruments for the diagnosis of delirium in a variety of medical settings. However, CAM and CAM-ICU both present higher specificity than sensitivity. Therefore, the use of these tools should not replace clinical judgment. PMID:24092976

  6. New diagnostic methods for laser plasma- and microwave-enhanced combustion.

    PubMed

    Miles, Richard B; Michael, James B; Limbach, Christopher M; McGuire, Sean D; Chng, Tat Loon; Edwards, Matthew R; DeLuca, Nicholas J; Shneider, Mikhail N; Dogariu, Arthur

    2015-08-13

    The study of pulsed laser- and microwave-induced plasma interactions with atmospheric and higher pressure combusting gases requires rapid diagnostic methods that are capable of determining the mechanisms by which these interactions are taking place. New rapid diagnostics are presented here extending the capabilities of Rayleigh and Thomson scattering and resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) detection and introducing femtosecond laser-induced velocity and temperature profile imaging. Spectrally filtered Rayleigh scattering provides a method for the planar imaging of temperature fields for constant pressure interactions and line imaging of velocity, temperature and density profiles. Depolarization of Rayleigh scattering provides a measure of the dissociation fraction, and multi-wavelength line imaging enables the separation of Thomson scattering from Rayleigh scattering. Radar REMPI takes advantage of high-frequency microwave scattering from the region of laser-selected species ionization to extend REMPI to atmospheric pressures and implement it as a stand-off detection method for atomic and molecular species in combusting environments. Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) generates highly excited molecular species and dissociation through the focal zone of the laser. The prompt fluorescence from excited molecular species yields temperature profiles, and the delayed fluorescence from recombining atomic fragments yields velocity profiles. PMID:26170432

  7. Combined Use of Cytogenetic and Molecular Methods in Prenatal Diagnostics of Chromosomal Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Stomornjak-Vukadin, Meliha; Kurtovic-Basic, Ilvana; Mehinovic, Lejla; Konjhodzic, Rijad

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of prenatal diagnostics is to provide information of the genetic abnormalities of the fetus early enough for the termination of pregnancy to be possible. Chromosomal abnormalities can be detected in an unborn child through the use of cytogenetic, molecular- cytogenetic and molecular methods. In between them, central spot is still occupied by cytogenetic methods. In cases where use of such methods is not informative enough, one or more molecular cytogenetic methods can be used for further clarification. Combined use of the mentioned methods improves the quality of the final findings in the diagnostics of chromosomal abnormalities, with classical cytogenetic methods still occupying the central spot. Material and methods: Conducted research represent retrospective-prospective study of a four year period, from 2008 through 2011. In the period stated, 1319 karyotyping from amniotic fluid were conducted, along with 146 FISH analysis. Results: Karyotyping had detected 20 numerical and 18 structural aberrations in that period. Most common observed numerical aberration were Down syndrome (75%), Klinefelter syndrome (10%), Edwards syndrome, double Y syndrome and triploidy (5% each). Within observed structural aberrations more common were balanced chromosomal aberrations then non balanced ones. Most common balanced structural aberrations were as follows: reciprocal translocations (60%), Robertson translocations (13.3%), chromosomal inversions, duplications and balanced de novo chromosomal rearrangements (6.6% each). Conclusion: With non- balanced aberrations observed in the samples of amniotic fluid, non- balanced translocations, deletions and derived chromosomes were equally represented. Number of detected aneuploidies with FISH, prior to obtaining results with karyotyping, were 6. PMID:26005269

  8. DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF AIR QUALITY MODELS USING ADVANCED METHODS WITH SPECIALIZED OBSERVATIONS OF SELECTED AMBIENT SPECIES -PART II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is Part 2 of "Diagnostic Evaluation of Air Quality Models Using Advanced Methods with Specialized Observations of Selected Ambient Species". A limited field campaign to make specialized observations of selected ambient species using advanced and innovative instrumentation f...

  9. Developing and applying modern methods of leakage monitoring and state estimation of fuel at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povarov, V. P.; Tereshchenko, A. B.; Kravchenko, Yu. N.; Pozychanyuk, I. V.; Gorobtsov, L. I.; Golubev, E. I.; Bykov, V. I.; Likhanskii, V. V.; Evdokimov, I. A.; Zborovskii, V. G.; Sorokin, A. A.; Kanyukova, V. D.; Aliev, T. N.

    2014-02-01

    The results of developing and implementing the modernized fuel leakage monitoring methods at the shut-down and running reactor of the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant (NPP) are presented. An automated computerized expert system integrated with an in-core monitoring system (ICMS) and installed at the Novovoronezh NPP unit no. 5 is described. If leaky fuel elements appear in the core, the system allows one to perform on-line assessment of the parameters of leaky fuel assemblies (FAs). The computer expert system units designed for optimizing the operating regimes and enhancing the fuel usage efficiency at the Novovoronezh NPP unit no. 5 are now being developed.

  10. [Significance of physico-chemical procedures and biochemical methods for uremia detoxification and construction of modern artificial kidneys].

    PubMed

    Philippson, C

    1977-12-01

    1. The most well-known principles of artifical kidneys (those which are already in use as well as those which are being developed) and the principles of the partial kidneys are subdivided into a sequence of ordinal numbers. 2. Here these methods are critized partly more briefly, partly more detailed. 3. The author deals with some details of the A-coal-adsorption, in which case the uraemic detoxication is particularly taken into consideration. 4. Then the essential advantages of the use of adsorbents in the uraemic detoxication and in the removal of toxines in general as well as their significance for the construction of modern artificial kidneys are compiled. PMID:343435

  11. Investigation of opportunities of the optical non-invasive diagnostics method for the blood sugar control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastovskaia, Elena A.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Korotaev, Valery V.

    2015-03-01

    The relevance of noninvasive method for determining the blood sugar is caused by necessity of regular monitoring of glucose levels in diabetic patients blood. Traditional invasive method is painful, because it requires a finger pricking. Despite the active studies in the field of non-invasive medical diagnostics, to date the painless and inexpensive instrument for blood sugar control for personal use doesn't exist. It's possible to measure the concentration of glucose in the blood with help of spectrophotometry method. It consists of registering and analyzing the spectral characteristics of the radiation which missed, reflected or absorbed by the object. The authors proposed a measuring scheme for studying the spectral characteristics of the radiation, missed by earlobe. Ultra-violet, visible and near infrared spectral ranges are considered. The paper presents the description of construction and working principles of the proposed special retaining clip and results of experiment with real patient.

  12. [Diagnostic imaging methods of cardiac dysfunction caused by cardiotoxicity of oncological therapy].

    PubMed

    Lelakowska-Pieła, Maria; Słowik, Agnieszka; Kozynacka, Anna; Panek, Maciej; Konduracka, Ewa; Nessler, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Cardiotoxicity of chemotherapy is a serious complication of oncological treatment. Assessment of cardiac function before, during and after cardiotoxic chemotherapy course should be a standard procedure in oncology. There are several methods for evaluation of the changes in myocardium such as: electrocardiography, radiology techniques (RTG, CT, MRI, PET-CT, PET-MRI), echocardiography, radioisotope imaging techniques (scyntygraphy, MUGA, PET), and ultra-structure evaluation in biopsy samples. Nevertheless, there is a continuous need for new diagnostic methods of cardiac dysfunction of great predictive and prognostic importance. Unfortunately advanced imaging techniques are still not available in many oncological centers in Poland. Nowadays to evaluate potential cardiotoxicity of drugs in oncology it is postulated to perform serial echocardiographic examinations as a basal imaging method. Thus constant cooperation between cardiologist and oncologist plays crucial role during chemotherapy. PMID:26891435

  13. Application of Diagnostic/Prognostic Methods to Critical Equipment for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Cleanup Program

    SciTech Connect

    Casazza, Lawrence O.; Jarrell, Donald B.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Meador, Richard J.; Wallace, Dale E.

    2002-02-28

    The management of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project at the Hanford K-Basin in the 100 N Area has successfully restructured the preventive maintenance, spare parts inventory requirements, and the operator rounds data requirements. In this investigation, they continue to examine the different facets of the operations and maintenance (O&M) of the K-Basin cleanup project in search of additional reliability and cost savings. This report focuses on the initial findings of a team of PNNL engineers engaged to identify potential opportunities for reducing the cost of O&M through the application of advanced diagnostics (fault determination) and prognostics (residual life/reliability determination). The objective is to introduce predictive technologies to eliminate or reduce high impact equipment failures. The PNNL team in conjunction with the SNF engineers found the following major opportunities for cost reduction and/or enhancing reliability: (1) Provide data routing and automated analysis from existing detection systems to a display center that will engage the operations and engineering team. This display will be operator intuitive with system alarms and integrated diagnostic capability. (2) Change operating methods to reduce major transients induced in critical equipment. This would reduce stress levels on critical equipment. (3) Install a limited sensor set on failure prone critical equipment to allow degradation or stressor levels to be monitored and alarmed. This would provide operators and engineers with advance guidance and warning of failure events. Specific methods for implementation of the above improvement opportunities are provided in the recommendations. They include an Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) decision support system, introduction of variable frequency drives on certain pump motors, and the addition of limited diagnostic instrumentation on specified critical equipment.

  14. Fluorescent-spectroscopic and imaging methods of investigations for diagnostics of head and neck tumors and control of PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edinak, N. J.; Shental, Victor V.; Komov, D. V.; Vacoulovskaia, E. G.; Tabolinovskaia, T. D.; Abdullin, N. A.; Pustynsky, I.; Chatikchine, V. H.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Agafonov, Vladimir I.; Zuravleva, V.; Lukjanets, Eugeny A.

    1996-01-01

    Methodics of PDT control and fluorescent-spectroscopic diagnostic of head and neck tumors and mammary gland cancer (nodular) with the use of Kr, He-Ne and semiconductor lasers and photosensitizer (PS) -- Al phtalocyanin (Photosense) are discussed. The results show that applied diagnostic methods permit us not only to identify the topology and malignancy of a tumor but also to correct PDT process directly during irradiation.

  15. Evaluation of Three Rapid Diagnostic Methods for Direct Identification of Microorganisms in Positive Blood Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Raquel M.; Bauerle, Elizabeth R.; Fang, Ferric C.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of organisms from positive blood cultures generally takes several days. However, recently developed rapid diagnostic methods offer the potential for organism identification within only a few hours of blood culture positivity. In this study, we evaluated the performance of three commercial methods to rapidly identify organisms directly from positive blood cultures: QuickFISH (AdvanDx, Wolburn, MA), Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture (BC-GP; Nanosphere, Northbrook, IL), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with Sepsityper processing (Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, MA). A total of 159 blood cultures (VersaTREK Trek Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, OH) positive for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as yeast were analyzed with QuickFISH and MALDI-TOF MS. In all, 102 blood cultures were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. For monomicrobial cultures, we observed 98.0% concordance with routine methods for both QuickFISH (143/146) and the BC-GP assay (93/95). MALDI-TOF MS demonstrated 80.1% (117/146) and 87.7% (128/146) concordance with routine methods to the genus and species levels, respectively. None of the methods tested were capable of consistently identifying polymicrobial cultures in their entirety or reliably differentiating Streptococcus pneumoniae from viridans streptococci. Nevertheless, the methods evaluated in this study are convenient and accurate for the most commonly encountered pathogens and have the potential to dramatically reduce turnaround time for the provision of results to the treating physician. PMID:24808235

  16. Regional content-based image retrieval for solar images: Traditional versus modern methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banda, J. M.; Angryk, R. A.

    2015-11-01

    This work presents an extensive evaluation between conventional (distance-based) and modern (search-engine) information retrieval techniques in the context of finding similar Solar image regions within the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission image repository. We compare pre-computed image descriptors (image features) extracted from the SDO mission images in two very different ways: (1) similarity retrieval using multiple distance-based metrics and (2) retrieval using Lucene, a general purpose scalable retrieval engine. By transforming image descriptors into histogram-like signatures and into Lucene-compatible text strings, we are able to effectively evaluate the retrieval capabilities of both methodologies. Using the image descriptors alongside a labeled image dataset, we present an extensive evaluation under the criteria of performance, scalability and retrieval precision of experimental retrieval systems in order to determine which implementation would be ideal for a production level system. In our analysis we performed key transformations to our sample datasets to properly evaluate rotation invariance and scalability. At the end of this work we conclude which technique is the most robust and would yield the best performing system after an extensive experimental evaluation, we also point out the strengths and weaknesses of each approach and theorize on potential improvements.

  17. The Application of Modern Powder Characterisation Methods in Product and Process Development of Solid Dosage Forms.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Tim; Brockbank, Katrina; Armstrong, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry still produces the vast majority of their products, from powdered ingredients, in the form of solid doses. Despite their ubiquity, powders are difficult materials to characterise and understand, as evidenced by the frequent problems encountered during manufacture. The reason for this is their complex rheological behaviour coupled with numerous environmental variations, such as humidity. Equally, the range of processes used to manipulate powders subject them to extremes of stress from high compaction loads seen in compactors to the dispersed state seen in fluidised bed dryers. Thus, it is evident that ensuring that the powders characteristics are compatible with the way they are to be processed is a clear prerequisite for today's Quality by Design driven manufacturing. Modern, computer controlled instrumental techniques, including the dynamic, bulk and shear property measurements have enabled direct measurements of a powders response to aeration, consolidation and flow rate - all at low stresses - as well as quantifying shear and bulk properties (such as density, compressibility and permeability). In order to demonstrate how fully characterising a powder can be used in the design, operation and troubleshooting of processes, this paper will present examples of common pharmaceutical unit operations and the different powder characteristics that most influence the performance of each. PMID:26446474

  18. Modernizing the systematic review process to inform comparative effectiveness: tools and methods.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Byron C; Dahabreh, Issa J; Schmid, Christopher H; Lau, Joseph; Trikalinos, Thomas A

    2013-05-01

    Systematic reviews are being increasingly used to inform all levels of healthcare, from bedside decisions to policy-making. Since they are designed to minimize bias and subjectivity, they are a preferred option to assess the comparative effectiveness and safety of healthcare interventions. However, producing systematic reviews and keeping them up-to-date is becoming increasingly onerous for three reasons. First, the body of biomedical literature is expanding exponentially with no indication of slowing down. Second, as systematic reviews gain wide acceptance, they are also being used to address more complex questions (e.g., evaluating the comparative effectiveness of many interventions together rather than focusing only on pairs of interventions). Third, the standards for performing systematic reviews have become substantially more rigorous over time. To address these challenges, we must carefully prioritize the questions that should be addressed by systematic reviews and optimize the processes of research synthesis. In addition to reducing the workload involved in planning and conducting systematic reviews, we also need to make efforts to increase the transparency, reliability and validity of the review process; these aims can be grouped under the umbrella of 'modernization' of the systematic review process. PMID:24236626

  19. Modern geodetic methods for high-accuracy survey coordination on the example of magnetic exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnoperov, R. I.; Sidorov, R. V.; Soloviev, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    The purposes and problems of the international network of geomagnetic observatories INTERMAGNET are briefly described in the work. The importance of the development of the Russian segment of the network as a part of a system for monitoring and estimating geomagnetic conditions on the Russian territory is emphasized. An example of the use of modern high-precision geodetic equipment for coor-dinate referencing of field geophysical observation is described. Factors that distort the referencing of field observations in problems of survey, engineering, and technical geophysics are listed, as well as those related to detail and high-resolution geophysical surveying and those that require a corresponding accuracy of observation point coordination. The magnetic exploration at the site of the Yamal INTERMAGNET-standard observatory serves an example to describe a technique for geodetic provision of a detailed geophysical survey by means of joint use of differential GNSS measurements and electronic tacheometry. The main advantages and disadvantages of the technique suggested are listed.

  20. BREAST: a novel method to improve the diagnostic efficacy of mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, P. C.; Tapia, K.; Ryan, J.; Lee, W.

    2013-03-01

    High quality breast imaging and accurate image assessment are critical to the early diagnoses, treatment and management of women with breast cancer. Breast Screen Reader Assessment Strategy (BREAST) provides a platform, accessible by researchers and clinicians world-wide, which will contain image data bases, algorithms to assess reader performance and on-line systems for image evaluation. The platform will contribute to the diagnostic efficacy of breast imaging in Australia and beyond on two fronts: reducing errors in mammography, and transforming our assessment of novel technologies and techniques. Mammography is the primary diagnostic tool for detecting breast cancer with over 800,000 women X-rayed each year in Australia, however, it fails to detect 30% of breast cancers with a number of missed cancers being visible on the image [1-6]. BREAST will monitor the mistakes, identify reasons for mammographic errors, and facilitate innovative solutions to reduce error rates. The BREAST platform has the potential to enable expert assessment of breast imaging innovations, anywhere in the world where experts or innovations are located. Currently, innovations are often being assessed by limited numbers of individuals who happen to be geographically located close to the innovation, resulting in equivocal studies with low statistical power. BREAST will transform this current paradigm by enabling large numbers of experts to assess any new method or technology using our embedded evaluation methods. We are confident that this world-first system will play an important part in the future efficacy of breast imaging.

  1. A method for fine positioning of diagnostic packages in inertial confinement fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Tielin; Lee, Kok-Meng

    2011-12-01

    A method based on binocular vision servoing for positioning of a diagnostic package in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments is presented. The general diagnostic instrument manipulator will provide precision three dimension positioning and alignment-to-target capability in ICF experiments. In this work, we focus on the final precise automatic positioning with a binocular vision system. A three dimension image projection vector (IPV), which has an almost linear relationship with the target position in 3D space under the condition of weak perspective, is introduced to extract target position information from binocular image. The difference of the IPV between the current image and the desired image will be used as the input of servo controller. A differential motion model was found for the hybrid manipulator with three degrees of freedom. With this model and the said IPV, the servo strategy will be dramatically simplified compare with general image based visual servo in which the image Jacobian matrix needs estimated online. The experiment result implies that the locating accuracy of the manipulator is less than two pixels. This method can also be used in micromanipulation visual servo field.

  2. [Invasive and non-invasive diagnostic methods for evaluation of hypovolemia in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Gundling, F; Teich, N; Pehl, C; Schepp, W

    2006-12-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis leads to a dramatic fluid loss in the intraperitoneal space which may result in circulatory decompensation. Sequestration of fluid can amount up to 40 percent of the circulating blood volume. The amount of fluid and electrolyte replacement is often misjudged leading to a higher rate of complications and a higher mortality rate of the disease. Furthermore, subsequent and adequate fluid resuscitation seems to influence the prognostic course of the disease by improving the perfusion and oxygenation of the pancreas. Otherwise volume overload may cause cardiopulmonary decompensation in the case of synchronous cardiopulmonary comorbidities. Therefore, an important part of treatment relies on careful haemodynamic monitoring, if necessary managed in an intensive care unit. Usually most patients with acute pancreatitis will be treated on a non-intensive medical ward which allows a differentiated and continuous haemodynamic monitoring only to a limited extent. Apart from monitoring circulatory parameters and measuring central venous pressure, there are other clinical methods, laboratory tests and radiological diagnostic procedures to determine the amount of intravascular fluid deficit and the individual volume demand of patients with acute pancreatitis. Prospective clinical trials for evaluation of pancreatitis-specific volume management do not exist so far. The aim of this review is to provide background information on invasive and non-invasive diagnostic methods for detection of circulatory hypovolemia in acute pancreatitis. PMID:17163376

  3. A method for fine positioning of diagnostic packages in inertial confinement fusion experiments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Tielin; Lee, Kok-Meng

    2011-12-01

    A method based on binocular vision servoing for positioning of a diagnostic package in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments is presented. The general diagnostic instrument manipulator will provide precision three dimension positioning and alignment-to-target capability in ICF experiments. In this work, we focus on the final precise automatic positioning with a binocular vision system. A three dimension image projection vector (IPV), which has an almost linear relationship with the target position in 3D space under the condition of weak perspective, is introduced to extract target position information from binocular image. The difference of the IPV between the current image and the desired image will be used as the input of servo controller. A differential motion model was found for the hybrid manipulator with three degrees of freedom. With this model and the said IPV, the servo strategy will be dramatically simplified compare with general image based visual servo in which the image Jacobian matrix needs estimated online. The experiment result implies that the locating accuracy of the manipulator is less than two pixels. This method can also be used in micromanipulation visual servo field. PMID:22225255

  4. Molecular IR Spectroscopy: New Trends and Methods of Noninvasive Diagnostics of Tissue IN VIVO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyeva, Natalia; Bruch, Reinhard

    1998-05-01

    Fiberoptic evanescent wave Fourier transform infrared (FEW-FTIR) spectroscopy using fiberoptic sensors operated in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) regime in the middle infrared (IR) region of the spectrum (850-1850 cm-1) has recently been applied to the diagnostics of tissues. The method is suitable for noninvasive and rapid (seconds) direct measurements of the spectra of normal and pathological tissues in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. The aim of our studies is the express testing of various tumor tissues at the early stages of their development. The method is expected to be further developed for endoscopic and biopsy applications. We measured the normal skin and malignant tissues in vivo on the surface (directly on patients) in various cases of basaloma, melanoma and nevus. The experiments were performed in the operating room to measure the skin in the depth (under/in the layers of epidermis) of human breast, stomach, lung, and kidney tissues. The breast and skin tissues at different stages of tumor or cancer were distinguished very clearly in spectra of amide, side cyclic and noncyclic hydrogen bonded fragments of aminoacid residuals, phosphate groups and sugars. Computer monitoring is being developed for diagnostics.

  5. Modern Carbonate Field Studies Designed to Direct Inquiry-Based Learning That Teaches Research Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L. E.; Eves, R. L.

    2006-12-01

    Transitioning students from learner to investigator is best accomplished by incorporating research into the undergraduate classroom as a collaborative enterprise between students and faculty. Our course is a two-part design with a focus on a modern carbonate ecosystem and depositional environment on San Salvador Island, Bahamas in order to integrate geology, biology, and environmental science. Content background is provided in the classroom, which focuses on the geology of the Bahamian platform; the biological aspects of Caribbean island marine ecosystems; and the impact of human development on tropical islands. Application of course content is focused during an integrated field study of a specific carbonate environment, e.g. carbonate production in a tidal lagoon. The ultimate goals of the course are (1) identifying and acquiring both disciplinary and interdisciplinary research methodologies, (2) defining a specific investigative problem, (3) conducting `real' [meaningful] research, and (4) communicating research findings in the form of presentations at national meetings and publication in research journals. Assessment is based on specific criteria to be achieved during the research project. Criteria are determined through collaboration between faculty mentors and student researchers. Students are evaluated throughout the research phase with particular attention paid to an understanding of appropriate planning and background research, originality of thought; use of project-specific and appropriate data collection and sampling techniques; and analysis and interpretation of data. Students are expected to submit a final written report containing appropriate conclusions from data analysis and recommendations for further studies. Each student is also required to complete a self-assessment. The interdisciplinary experiences gained by faculty and students have already been incorporated into other courses and have led to publication of results. The course stimulates both faculty and students due to higher than usual levels of faculty-student interaction.

  6. Diagnostic methods to cutaneous leishmaniasis detection in domestic dogs and cats*

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Daliah Alves Coelho; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. In domestic animals such as dogs and cats, the diagnostic consists of clinical, epidemiological and serological tests, which changes among countries all around the world. Because of this diversity in the methods selected, we propose this systematic literature review to identify the methods of laboratory diagnosis used to detect cutaneous leishmaniasis in domestic dogs and cats in the Americas. Articles published in the last 5 years were searched in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, LILACS and Scielo, and we selected 10 papers about cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs and cats in the Americas. In Brazil, often the indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) have been applied. Other countries like United States and Mexico have been using antigenic fractions for antibodies detections by Western blot. ELISA and Western blot showed a higher sensitivity and efficacy in the detection of leishmaniasis. Analysis of sensibility and specificity of the methods was rarely used. Although confirmatory to leishmaniasis, direct methods for parasites detection and polymerase chain reaction showed low positivity in disease detection. We suggested that more than one method should be used for the detection of feline and canine leishmaniasis. Serological methods such as Western blot and enzyme immunoassay have a high efficacy in the diagnosis of this disease.

  7. Adaptation of an ethnographic method for investigation of the task domain in diagnostic radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramey, Judith A.; Rowberg, Alan H.; Robinson, Carol

    1992-07-01

    A number of user-centered methods for designing radiology workstations have been described by researchers at Carleton University (Ottawa), Georgetown University, George Washington University, and University of Arizona, among others. The approach described here differs in that it enriches standard human-factors practices with methods adapted from ethnography to study users (in this case, diagnostic radiologists) as members of a distinct culture. The overall approach combines several methods; the core method, based on ethnographic ''stream of behavior chronicles'' and their analysis, has four phases: (1) first, we gather the stream of behavior by videotaping a radiologist as he or she works; (2) we view the tape ourselves and formulate questions and hypothesis about the work; and then (3) in a second videotaped session, we show the radiologist the original tape and ask for a running commentary on the work, into which, at the appropriate points, we interject our questions for clarification. We then (4) categorize/index the behavior on the ''raw data'' tapes for various kinds of follow-on analysis. We describe and illustrate this method in detail, describe how we analyze the ''raw data'' videotapes and the commentary tapes, and explain how the method can be integrated into an overall user-centered design process based on standard human-factors techniques.

  8. Comparison of four diagnostic methods for detecting rabies viruses circulating in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eun-Kyung; Oh, Yoon-I; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lee, Chung-San; Kim, Seo-Young; Lee, Jeong-A; Song, Jae-Young

    2012-01-01

    It is essential to rapidly and precisely diagnose rabies. In this study, we evaluated four diagnostic methods, indirect fluorescent antibody test (FAT), virus isolation (VI), reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and rapid immunodiagnostic assay (RIDA), to detect rabies in animal brain homogenates. Out of the 110 animal brain samples tested, 20 (18.2%) were positive for rabies according to the FAT. Compared to the FAT, the sensitivities of VI, RT-PCR, and RIDA were 100, 100, and 95%, respectively. The specificities of VI, RT-PCR and RIDA were found to be 100, 100, and 98.9%, respectively. Rabies viruses circulating in Korea were isolated and propagated in murine neuroblastoma (NG108-15) cells with titers ranging from 101.5 to 104.5 TCID50/mL. Although the RIDA findings did not completely coincide with results obtained from FAT, VI, and RT-PCR, RIDA appears to be a fast and reliable assay that can be used to analyze brain samples. In summary, the results from our study showed that VI, RT-PCR, and RIDA can be used as supplementary diagnostic tools for detecting rabies viruses in both laboratory and field settings. PMID:22437535

  9. Interobserver Reliability of Four Diagnostic Methods Using Traditional Korean Medicine for Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Ah; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Alraek, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate the consistency of pattern identification (PI), a set of diagnostic indicators used by traditional Korean medicine (TKM) clinicians. Methods. A total of 168 stroke patients who were admitted into oriental medical university hospitals from June 2012 through January 2013 were included in the study. Using the PI indicators, each patient was independently diagnosed by two experts from the same department. Interobserver consistency was assessed by simple percentage agreement as well as by kappa and AC1 statistics. Results. Interobserver agreement on the PI indicators (for all patients) was generally high: pulse diagnosis signs (AC1 = 0.66–0.89); inspection signs (AC1 = 0.66–0.95); listening/smelling signs (AC1 = 0.67–0.88); and inquiry signs (AC1 = 0.62–0.94). Conclusion. In four examinations, there was moderate agreement between the clinicians on the PI indicators. To improve clinician consistency (e.g., in the diagnostic criteria used), it is necessary to analyze the reasons for inconsistency and to improve clinician training. PMID:25574181

  10. Improving Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing by Balancing Attribute Coverage: The Modified Maximum Global Discrimination Index Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a new item selection method, namely, the modified maximum global discrimination index (MMGDI) method, for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT). The new method captures two aspects of the appeal of an item: (a) the amount of contribution it can make toward adequate coverage of every attribute and (b) the

  11. Development of an HPTLC-based diagnostic method for invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Puri, Alka; Ahmad, Ajaz; Panda, Bibhu Prasad

    2010-08-01

    A rapid, sensitive and specific high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for determination of gliotoxin in Aspergillus infected immunocompromised patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA). Densitometric analysis of gliotoxin was carried out in the absorbance mode at 254 nm after single-step extraction with chloroform. The method uses TLC aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F-254 as a stationary phase and toluene-isoamyl alcohol-methanol (10:0.5:0.5, v/v/v) as mobile phase, which gives compact spot of gliotoxin (R(f) = 0.51). The calibration curve was linear (r(2) > or = 0.994) between peak area and concentration in the tested range of 100-1000 ng spot(-1) with minimum detectable range 0.025 ng mu(-1) of serum sample. The mean +/- SD value of slope and intercept of the standard chromatogram of gliotoxin were found to be 523.2 +/- 1.555635 and 915.8 +/- 30.68843, respectively. The developed method is simple, rapid, precise and less costly than earlier diagnostic methods, and different serum samples can be run on a single TLC plate for comparative analysis. The proposed method can be used to analyze gliotoxin in patient serum for easy, rapid and cost-effective diagnosis of IA. PMID:20033890

  12. Application possibilities of several modern methods of microscopy and microanalysis in forensic science field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotrly, Marek; Turkova, Ivana

    2011-06-01

    The methods of optical and electron microscopy and microanalysis are the linchpin of forensic inorganic analysis. However, their capacity is limited as for the exact identification of pigments and colour layers, and therefore it is essential that they be complemented by other methods of phase microanalysis - powder X-ray microdiffraction (micro pXRD) and FTIR in transmission mode. The classic way of sample division for different methods is not suitable with regard to the inhomogeneity of the sequence of strata. That is why a method was tested that would allow performance of optical microscopy, SEM/EDS(WDS), micro pXRD and FTIR in a nondestructive manner, from an identical spot of a single fragment. The solution can be polished sections - embedded samples and microtome sections. Conductive zerobackground single-crystal silicon plates were developed and tested for sample fixation in SEM, micro pXRD and transmission FTIR. Methods using a focused ion beam - FIB have recently gained importance in the field of electron microscopy. In the forensic sphere they can be employed in examinations of metal materials, technical analyses of documents, post-blast and gunshot residues.

  13. Psychology and Mathematical Method: A Capsule History and a Modern View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses histories of three current issues in the psychology and pedagogy of mathematical thinking: (1) the notion of a "prescriptive method"; (2) "associationism" as an explanation for learning; and (3) Gestaltism. Reviews theoretical perspectives that emerged starting in the mid-twentieth century, including behaviorism, artificial intelligence

  14. Embedded diagnostic, prognostic, and health management system and method for a humanoid robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barajas, Leandro G. (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a humanoid robot with multiple compliant joints, each moveable using one or more of the actuators, and having sensors for measuring control and feedback data. A distributed controller controls the joints and other integrated system components over multiple high-speed communication networks. Diagnostic, prognostic, and health management (DPHM) modules are embedded within the robot at the various control levels. Each DPHM module measures, controls, and records DPHM data for the respective control level/connected device in a location that is accessible over the networks or via an external device. A method of controlling the robot includes embedding a plurality of the DPHM modules within multiple control levels of the distributed controller, using the DPHM modules to measure DPHM data within each of the control levels, and recording the DPHM data in a location that is accessible over at least one of the high-speed communication networks.

  15. Microvascular resistance in essential hypertension and flowmetry as a diagnostic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukjanov, Valdimir F.

    2001-08-01

    New Doppler-Laser flowmetry diagnostic test of functional condition of microcirculation was worked out of find precapillar and postcapillar resistance. Flowmetry was used to measure vasomotion and blood flow after arterial compression, decompression and venous hyperemia were held. Patients of essential hypertension were examined with the help of Doppler-Laser Flowmetry, optical photometry (540 nm). Precapillar resistance included next basis parameters: vasomotion with high frequency (10-16 per/min) and low amplitude, latent time after decompression, large postocclusive reactive hyperemia, absent venous hyperemia. Postcapillar resistance included next basis parameters: vasomotion with low frequency (4-8 per/min) and high amplitude, paradoxical hyperemia in arterial compression, little or absent postocclusive reactive hyperemia, large venous hyperemia. This test-method was applied to select patogenetic treatment of essential hypertension.

  16. Experience with local rectal cancer excision in light of two recent preoperative diagnostic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Accarpio, G.; Scopinaro, G.; Claudiani, F.; Davini, D.; Mallarini, G.; Saitta, S.

    1987-04-01

    This study analyzes the usefulness of two diagnostic methods: endorectal echotomography and adenolymphoscintigraphy. Echotomography is an important means for determining the extent of a tumor beyond the rectal wall, whereas lymphoscintigraphy is useful in demonstrating the metastatic locations in lymph nodes. These two modes of evaluation may permit an evaluation of the extent of the tumor and the possible involvement of regional lymph nodes before a surgical operation. Although the case material is limited, the statistical data can lead one to believe that, in the near future, a reasoned choice will be possible between local excision and abdominoperineal resection. The study includes 60 endorectal echotomographies and 26 lymphoscintigraphies (20 with /sup 99m/Tc colloid and six with /sup 201/Tl colloid).

  17. Assessment of various diagnostic methods of ureaplasma respiratory tract infections in newborns.

    PubMed

    Biernat-Sudolska, Ma?gorzata; Rojek-Zakrzewska, Danuta; Lauterbach, Ryszard

    2006-01-01

    We compared three methods used microbial culturing for detection of ureaplasmas in endotracheal aspirate from 500 prematurely born neonates with respiratory disturbances: BioMerieux test, PCR and microbial culturing. Ureaplasmas were detected in respiratory tracts of 79 (16%) newborns. Correlation of the results of culture with those obtained with the BioMerieux kit, culture with PCR and BioMerieux kit with PCR was 97%, 89% and 90%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of PCR in comparison with culture was 86% and 98%, respectively, and of the BioMerieux kit 96% and 98%. PCR can be recommended in rapid diagnostics of respiratory infections in newborns suffering from respiratory disorders. It allows the detection of ureaplasmas in case of parallel infections and identification of their species. PMID:17019441

  18. A new method for tracking organ motion on diagnostic ultrasound images

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Yoshiki Matsumura, Akihiko; Fukahori, Mai; Minohara, Shin-ichi; Yasuda, Shigeo; Nagahashi, Hiroshi

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Respiratory-gated irradiation is effective in reducing the margins of a target in the case of abdominal organs, such as the liver, that change their position as a result of respiratory motion. However, existing technologies are incapable of directly measuring organ motion in real-time during radiation beam delivery. Hence, the authors proposed a novel quantitative organ motion tracking method involving the use of diagnostic ultrasound images; it is noninvasive and does not entail radiation exposure. In the present study, the authors have prospectively evaluated this proposed method. Methods: The method involved real-time processing of clinical ultrasound imaging data rather than organ monitoring; it comprised a three-dimensional ultrasound device, a respiratory sensing system, and two PCs for data storage and analysis. The study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method by tracking the gallbladder in one subject and a liver vein in another subject. To track a moving target organ, the method involved the control of a region of interest (ROI) that delineated the target. A tracking algorithm was used to control the ROI, and a large number of feature points and an error correction algorithm were used to achieve long-term tracking of the target. Tracking accuracy was assessed in terms of how well the ROI matched the center of the target. Results: The effectiveness of using a large number of feature points and the error correction algorithm in the proposed method was verified by comparing it with two simple tracking methods. The ROI could capture the center of the target for about 5 min in a cross-sectional image with changing position. Indeed, using the proposed method, it was possible to accurately track a target with a center deviation of 1.54 ± 0.9 mm. The computing time for one frame image using our proposed method was 8 ms. It is expected that it would be possible to track any soft-tissue organ or tumor with large deformations and changing cross-sectional position using this method. Conclusions: The proposed method achieved real-time processing and continuous tracking of the target organ for about 5 min. It is expected that our method will enable more accurate radiation treatment than is the case using indirect observational methods, such as the respiratory sensor method, because of direct visualization of the tumor. Results show that this tracking system facilitates safe treatment in clinical practice.

  19. Hybrid digital signal processing and neural networks for automated diagnostics using NDE methods

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Yan, W.

    1993-11-01

    The primary purpose of the current research was to develop an integrated approach by combining information compression methods and artificial neural networks for the monitoring of plant components using nondestructive examination data. Specifically, data from eddy current inspection of heat exchanger tubing were utilized to evaluate this technology. The focus of the research was to develop and test various data compression methods (for eddy current data) and the performance of different neural network paradigms for defect classification and defect parameter estimation. Feedforward, fully-connected neural networks, that use the back-propagation algorithm for network training, were implemented for defect classification and defect parameter estimation using a modular network architecture. A large eddy current tube inspection database was acquired from the Metals and Ceramics Division of ORNL. These data were used to study the performance of artificial neural networks for defect type classification and for estimating defect parameters. A PC-based data preprocessing and display program was also developed as part of an expert system for data management and decision making. The results of the analysis showed that for effective (low-error) defect classification and estimation of parameters, it is necessary to identify proper feature vectors using different data representation methods. The integration of data compression and artificial neural networks for information processing was established as an effective technique for automation of diagnostics using nondestructive examination methods.

  20. Diagnostic Methods of Helicobacter pylori Infection for Epidemiological Studies: Critical Importance of Indirect Test Validation

    PubMed Central

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Among the methods developed to detect H. pylori infection, determining the gold standard remains debatable, especially for epidemiological studies. Due to the decreasing sensitivity of direct diagnostic tests (histopathology and/or immunohistochemistry [IHC], rapid urease test [RUT], and culture), several indirect tests, including antibody-based tests (serology and urine test), urea breath test (UBT), and stool antigen test (SAT) have been developed to diagnose H. pylori infection. Among the indirect tests, UBT and SAT became the best methods to determine active infection. While antibody-based tests, especially serology, are widely available and relatively sensitive, their specificity is low. Guidelines indicated that no single test can be considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and that one should consider the method's advantages and disadvantages. Based on four epidemiological studies, culture and RUT present a sensitivity of 74.2–90.8% and 83.3–86.9% and a specificity of 97.7–98.8% and 95.1–97.2%, respectively, when using IHC as a gold standard. The sensitivity of serology is quite high, but that of the urine test was lower compared with that of the other methods. Thus, indirect test validation is important although some commercial kits propose universal cut-off values. PMID:26904678

  1. Cross method for analysis of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and aggregation coefficient in medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaikina, Irene V.; Furmanchuk, Dmitryi A.

    1998-06-01

    Method of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) measurement is non-specific one. The ESR are tightly correlated to increase or decrease of aggregation coefficient (N). The variations of N could happen due to two main reasons: either changes in concentration of plasma proteins (first of all of fibrinogen) or changes of erythrocyte membrane characteristics (surface charge, transmembrane potential). The cross-method of ESR analysis has been proposed, using blood samples from patient and healthy donor of the same ABO blood groups and Rh-factors. The hematocrit (Ho)-ESR dependencies were measured in four variants: (1) patient's erythrocytes in patient's plasma; (2) patient's erythrocytes in donor's plasma; (3) donor's erythrocytes in donor's plasma; (4) donor's erythrocytes in patient's plasma. On presenting the ESR data for more than 100 patients with different bone marrow disorders after chemotherapy in the coordinates Ho-ESR three conventional zones could be marked out: high-ESR zone, medium zone and zone of low level of Ho. Proposed cross-method allows to estimate which of the two aforementioned reasons results in ESR variation. Some patients revealed not only changed fibrinogen level but additional changes in membrane affinity to fibrinogen. The modificated ESR cross-method opens us some new capacities in medical diagnostics.

  2. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome: the influence of modern diagnostic criteria on epidemiology and on Internet search activity by the public

    PubMed Central

    Gnanappiragasam, Sanjith; Thornhill, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic debilitating condition that is characterised by suprapubic pain and urinary symptoms such as urgency, nocturia and urinary frequency. The prevalence of the condition is increasing due to more inclusive diagnostic criteria. Herein, we review the evolving epidemiology of IC/PBS and investigate health seeking behaviour for the condition through Internet search activity. Study selection was performed in accordance with PRISMA. In addition, global search trends for the terms ‘Interstitial Cystitis’ and ‘Painful Bladder Syndrome’ from 2005 to 2015 were also evaluated using the ‘Google Trends’ search application. The mean search activity per month was recorded and mean activity at annual intervals calculated. Regional search activity by country and city was also measured. Prevalence rates for IC/PBS vary according to diagnostic criteria and range from 2% to 17.3% among the general population. Increased prevalence is associated with female gender and females with one first-degree relative affected. There has been an increase in global mean search activity for IC/PBS on an annual basis since 2005. The greatest increase in search activity was in USA, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, Ireland and India respectively. The top five cities for search activity for IC/PBS were in the USA. As diagnostic criteria for IC/PBS continues to become more inclusive it is likely that the prevalence will continue to increase. This is particularly true for the USA and Canada as these regions have demonstrated the greatest increase in Internet search activity for IC/ PBS. PMID:26816850

  3. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome: the influence of modern diagnostic criteria on epidemiology and on Internet search activity by the public.

    PubMed

    Davis, Niall F; Gnanappiragasam, Sanjith; Thornhill, John A

    2015-10-01

    Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic debilitating condition that is characterised by suprapubic pain and urinary symptoms such as urgency, nocturia and urinary frequency. The prevalence of the condition is increasing due to more inclusive diagnostic criteria. Herein, we review the evolving epidemiology of IC/PBS and investigate health seeking behaviour for the condition through Internet search activity. Study selection was performed in accordance with PRISMA. In addition, global search trends for the terms 'Interstitial Cystitis' and 'Painful Bladder Syndrome' from 2005 to 2015 were also evaluated using the 'Google Trends' search application. The mean search activity per month was recorded and mean activity at annual intervals calculated. Regional search activity by country and city was also measured. Prevalence rates for IC/PBS vary according to diagnostic criteria and range from 2% to 17.3% among the general population. Increased prevalence is associated with female gender and females with one first-degree relative affected. There has been an increase in global mean search activity for IC/PBS on an annual basis since 2005. The greatest increase in search activity was in USA, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, Ireland and India respectively. The top five cities for search activity for IC/PBS were in the USA. As diagnostic criteria for IC/PBS continues to become more inclusive it is likely that the prevalence will continue to increase. This is particularly true for the USA and Canada as these regions have demonstrated the greatest increase in Internet search activity for IC/ PBS. PMID:26816850

  4. Traditional and modern plant breeding methods with examples in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Breseghello, Flavio; Coelho, Alexandre Siqueira Guedes

    2013-09-01

    Plant breeding can be broadly defined as alterations caused in plants as a result of their use by humans, ranging from unintentional changes resulting from the advent of agriculture to the application of molecular tools for precision breeding. The vast diversity of breeding methods can be simplified into three categories: (i) plant breeding based on observed variation by selection of plants based on natural variants appearing in nature or within traditional varieties; (ii) plant breeding based on controlled mating by selection of plants presenting recombination of desirable genes from different parents; and (iii) plant breeding based on monitored recombination by selection of specific genes or marker profiles, using molecular tools for tracking within-genome variation. The continuous application of traditional breeding methods in a given species could lead to the narrowing of the gene pool from which cultivars are drawn, rendering crops vulnerable to biotic and abiotic stresses and hampering future progress. Several methods have been devised for introducing exotic variation into elite germplasm without undesirable effects. Cases in rice are given to illustrate the potential and limitations of different breeding approaches. PMID:23551250

  5. [The modern methods of the electrical stimulation for the management of neurogenic disturbances of urination].

    PubMed

    Shvarts, P G; Borodulina, I V; Fedin, P A

    2015-01-01

    The results of the present study provide materials for the characteristic and the comparative analysis of the methods for electrical stimulation applied for the treatment of neurogenic disorders of urination and illustrate the up-to-date requirements to this therapy taking into consideration the neuroanatomical and neurophysiological features of micturition. One of the most advanced non-pharmacological methods is electrical stimulation and neuromodulation of the urinary bladder function and pelvic floor muscles. The objective of this three-step research was to elucidate the mechanisms of action of electrical stimulation and to compare the effects of tibial and pudendal neuromodulation in 22 patients presenting with ischemic lesions in the brain. The first step included the comprehensive clinical and neuroimaging investigations designed to determine the role of functional asymmetry of cortical and subcortical micturition regulatory centers during the recovery process following the ischemic lesions. At the second stage, afferent and central regulation of micturition was investigated by the method of tibial and pudendal somatosensory evoked potentials in the patients presenting with overactive bladder and acute or chronic cerebral ischemia. At the final step, the optimal parameters of neuromodulation were chosen depending on the form of the urination disorder. It is concluded that the study gave evidence of the high therapeutic effectiveness of tibial and pudendal neuromodulation for the treatment of overactive bladder associated with neurological disorders (including ischemic lesions in the brain). PMID:26285329

  6. A rapid and precise diagnostic method for detecting the Pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Taisei; Aikawa, Takuya; Oeda, Yuka; Karim, Nurul; Kanzaki, Natsumi

    2009-12-01

    ABSTRACT Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, which is a major forest disease in Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, and Portugal. A diagnostic method which is rapid, precise, and simple could greatly help the proper management of this disease. Here, we present a novel detection method using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeting the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA of the nematode. Specificity of the primers and LAMP was confirmed using DNA from various nematode species related to B. xylophilus. Our experimental results suggest that LAMP can detect B. xylophilus faster and with higher sensitivity than the traditional diagnostic method. Moreover, because it does not require expensive equipment or specialized techniques, this LAMP-based diagnostic method has the potential to be used under field conditions. PMID:19900002

  7. Complementary approaches to diagnosing marine diseases: a union of the modern and the classic.

    PubMed

    Burge, Colleen A; Friedman, Carolyn S; Getchell, Rodman; House, Marcia; Lafferty, Kevin D; Mydlarz, Laura D; Prager, Katherine C; Sutherland, Kathryn P; Renault, Tristan; Kiryu, Ikunari; Vega-Thurber, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    Linking marine epizootics to a specific aetiology is notoriously difficult. Recent diagnostic successes show that marine disease diagnosis requires both modern, cutting-edge technology (e.g. metagenomics, quantitative real-time PCR) and more classic methods (e.g. transect surveys, histopathology and cell culture). Here, we discuss how this combination of traditional and modern approaches is necessary for rapid and accurate identification of marine diseases, and emphasize how sole reliance on any one technology or technique may lead disease investigations astray. We present diagnostic approaches at different scales, from the macro (environment, community, population and organismal scales) to the micro (tissue, organ, cell and genomic scales). We use disease case studies from a broad range of taxa to illustrate diagnostic successes from combining traditional and modern diagnostic methods. Finally, we recognize the need for increased capacity of centralized databases, networks, data repositories and contingency plans for diagnosis and management of marine disease. PMID:26880839

  8. Complementary approaches to diagnosing marine diseases: a union of the modern and the classic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burge, Colleen A.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Getchell, Rodman G.; House, Marcia; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Mydlarz, Laura D.; Prager, Katherine C.; Sutherland, Kathryn P.; Renault, Tristan; Kiryu, Ikunari; Vega-Thurber, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Linking marine epizootics to a specific aetiology is notoriously difficult. Recent diagnostic successes show that marine disease diagnosis requires both modern, cutting-edge technology (e.g. metagenomics, quantitative real-time PCR) and more classic methods (e.g. transect surveys, histopathology and cell culture). Here, we discuss how this combination of traditional and modern approaches is necessary for rapid and accurate identification of marine diseases, and emphasize how sole reliance on any one technology or technique may lead disease investigations astray. We present diagnostic approaches at different scales, from the macro (environment, community, population and organismal scales) to the micro (tissue, organ, cell and genomic scales). We use disease case studies from a broad range of taxa to illustrate diagnostic successes from combining traditional and modern diagnostic methods. Finally, we recognize the need for increased capacity of centralized databases, networks, data repositories and contingency plans for diagnosis and management of marine disease.

  9. Fog forecasting: ``old fashioned'' semi-empirical methods from radio sounding observations versus ``modern'' numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtslag, M. C.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Holtslag, A. A. M.

    2010-07-01

    Fog forecasting is a very challenging task due to the local and small-scale nature of the relevant physical processes and land surface heterogeneities. Despite the many research efforts, numerical models remain to have difficulties with fog forecasting, and forecast skill from direct model output is relatively poor. In order to put the progress of fog forecasting in the last decades into a historical perspective, we compare the fog forecasting skill of a semi-empirical method based on radio sounding observations (developed in the 60s and 70s) with the forecasting skill of a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction model (MM5) for The Netherlands. The semi-empirical method under investigation, the Fog Stability Index, depends solely on the temperature difference between the surface and 850 hPa, the surface dew point depression and the wind speed at 850 hPa, and a threshold value to indicate the probability of fog in the coming hours. Using the critical success index (CSI) as a criterion for forecast quality, we find that the Fog Stability Index is a rather successful predictor for fog, with similar performance as MM5. The FSI could even been optimized for different observational stations in the Netherlands. Also, it appears that adding the 10 m wind as a predictor did not increase the CSI score for all stations. The results of the current study clearly indicate that the current state of knowledge requires improvement of the physical insight in different physical processes in order to beat simple semi-empirical methods.

  10. Foucault's method for measuring the speed of light with modern apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vörös, Zoltán; Weihs, Gregor

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce two simple and inexpensive, yet quite accurate versions of the well-known Foucault method for measuring the speed of light. In a compact footprint of just 20 cm by 270 cm with readily available laboratory items, a rotating mirror taken from a laser printer, and a webcam, we obtained c=296\\720+/- 3000 km s-1, and c=302\\295+/- 3000 km s-1, respectively, both within less than a per cent of the defined value. The experiment also prepares students for extracting data through image processing.

  11. Flowfield analysis of modern helicopter rotors in hover by Navier-Stokes method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, G. R.; Raghavan, V.; Duque, E. P. N.

    1991-01-01

    The viscous, three-dimensional, flowfields of UH60 and BERP rotors are calculated for lifting hover configurations using a Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics method with a view to understand the importance of planform effects on the airloads. In this method, the induced effects of the wake, including the interaction of tip vortices with successive blades, are captured as a part of the overall flowfield solution without prescribing any wake models. Numerical results in the form of surface pressures, hover performance parameters, surface skin friction and tip vortex patterns, and vortex wake trajectory are presented at two thrust conditions for UH60 and BERP rotors. Comparison of results for the UH60 model rotor show good agreement with experiments at moderate thrust conditions. Comparison of results with equivalent rectangular UH60 blade and BERP blade indicates that the BERP blade, with an unconventional planform, gives more thrust at the cost of more power and a reduced figure of merit. The high thrust conditions considered produce severe shock-induced flow separation for UH60 blade, while the BERP blade develops more thrust and minimal separation. The BERP blade produces a tighter tip vortex structure compared with the UH60 blade. These results and the discussion presented bring out the similarities and differences between the two rotors.

  12. Transition from the Lactational Amenorrhea Method to other modern family planning methods in rural Bangladesh: barrier analysis and implications for behavior change communication program intervention design.

    PubMed

    Kouyat, Robin Anthony; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Haver, Jaime; McKaig, Catharine; Akter, Nargis; Nash-Mercado, Angela; Baqui, Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    The timely transition from Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)(2) to another modern family planning method contributes to healthy spacing of pregnancies by increasing the adoption of family planning during the first year postpartum. Yet, literature suggests challenges in completing a timely LAM transition. To guide program implementation in Bangladesh, this study identified factors influencing women's transition decisions. Eighty postpartum women, comprising 40 who transitioned from LAM(3) and 40 who did not,(4) participated. Half of each group participated in in-depth interviews to explore the decision-making process. All participants responded to a "Barrier Analysis" questionnaire to identify differences in eight behavioral determinants. More than half of transitioners switched to another modern method before or within the same month that LAM ended. Of the 18 transitioners who delayed,(5) 15 waited for menses to return. For non-transitioners, key barriers included waiting for menses to return, misconceptions on return to fertility, and perceived lack of familial support. The LAM transition can help women prevent unintended pregnancy during the first year postpartum. Increased emphasis on counseling women about the risk of pregnancy, and misconceptions about personal fertility patterns are critical for facilitating the transition. Strategies should also include interventions that train health workers and improve social support. PMID:25710895

  13. Intelligent Condition Diagnosis Method Based on Adaptive Statistic Test Filter and Diagnostic Bayesian Network.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Qiuju; Wang, Kun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-01-01

    A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF) and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN) is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal) and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance ? is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO). To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs) for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26761006

  14. Intelligent Condition Diagnosis Method Based on Adaptive Statistic Test Filter and Diagnostic Bayesian Network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Qiuju; Wang, Kun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-01-01

    A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF) and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN) is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal) and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO). To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs) for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26761006

  15. Pure-rotational spectrometry: a vintage analytical method applied to modern breath analysis.

    PubMed

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W; Droege, Michael W

    2013-09-01

    Pure-rotational spectrometry (PRS) is an established method, typically used to study structures and properties of polar gas-phase molecules, including isotopic and isomeric varieties. PRS has also been used as an analytical tool where it is particularly well suited for detecting or monitoring low-molecular-weight species that are found in exhaled breath. PRS is principally notable for its ultra-high spectral resolution which leads to exceptional specificity to identify molecular compounds in complex mixtures. Recent developments using carbon aerogel for pre-concentrating polar molecules from air samples have extended the sensitivity of PRS into the part-per-billion range. In this paper we describe the principles of PRS and show how it may be configured in several different modes for breath analysis. We discuss the pre-concentration concept and demonstrate its use with the PRS analyzer for alcohols and ammonia sampled directly from the breath. PMID:23774191

  16. A Test of the DSP Sexing Method on CT Images from a Modern French Sample.

    PubMed

    Mestekova, Sarka; Bruzek, Jaroslav; Veleminska, Jana; Chaumoitre, Kathia

    2015-09-01

    The hip bone is considered to be one of the most reliable indicators in sex determination. The aim of this study was to test the reliability of the DSP method for the hip bone proposed by Murail etal. (Bull Mem Soc Anthropol Paris, 17, 2005, 167) on a sample from a present-day population in France (52 males and 54 females). Ten linear measurements were collected from three-dimensional models derived from computed tomography images (CTI). To quantify the proportions of correct sex determinations, a more rigorous posterior probability threshold of 0.95 was applied. Using all 10 measurements, 92.3% of males and 97.2% of females were sexed correctly. The percentage of undetermined specimens varied depending on the used combination of measurements; however, all sexes were assigned with a 100% accuracy. This study proves that DSP is an appropriate and reliable tool for sex determination, based on dimensions obtained from CTI. PMID:26258990

  17. Modern methods and systems for precise control of the quality of agricultural and food production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarjevsky, Sergey S.; Veryasov, Yuri V.; Akinina, Evgeniya V.; Smirnov, Gennady I.

    1999-01-01

    The results on the modeling of non-linear dynamics of strong continuous and impulse radiation in the laser nephelometry of polydisperse biological systems, important from the viewpoint of applications in biotechnologies, are presented. The processes of nonlinear self-action of the laser radiation by the multiple scattering in the disperse biological agro-media are considered. The simplified algorithms of the calculation of the parameters of the biological media under investigation are indicated and the estimates of the errors of the laser-nephelometric measurements are given. The universal high-informative optical analyzers and the standard etalon specimens of agro- objects make the technological foundation of the considered methods and systems.

  18. A study of radioactivity in modern stream gravels and its possible application as a prospecting method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chew, Randall T., III

    1955-01-01

    Traverses along some streams of the Colorado Plateau in areas known to contain minable uranium deposits show that anomalous radiation in the stream gravels can be detected with a suitable counter downstream from the deposits. The amount of radiation is influenced by the size of the uranium deposit, the size of the drainage area of the stream, the grain size of the sediments, and the lithology of the rocks over which the stream flows. The spacing of the stations where readings are taken is controlled by the size of the stream, and special readings are also taken directly downstream from important tributaries. An anomaly is empirically defined as a 10 percent rise over background. Radioactive material from large uranium deposits has been detected as much as 1 mile downstream. Radioactive material from smaller deposits is detachable over shorter distances. The method is slow but appears to be a useful prospecting tool under restricted conditions.

  19. Theory of complicated liquids. Investigation of liquids, solvents and solvent effects with modern theoretical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, Barbara

    2007-03-01

    It is the aim of this work to elucidate the usefulness and feasibility of the first-principles approach and to extend it to the regime of liquid molecular substances of complex structure. Physical and thermodynamic properties of complicated liquids are investigated by means of Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) and also with static quantum chemical methods. The connection between the dynamic and static approach is given by the quantum cluster equilibrium (QCE) theory. Since the QCE theory is not yet well established, a new implementation in the MD post-processing program P EACEMAKER is presented. It can be shown that it is by far more important to include cooperative effects rather than to concentrate the effort on the inclusion of weak dispersion forces not present in current density functionals. Traditionally, investigations of complicated liquids were also undertaken with the tools of simple liquids, because for some problems the size of the system does not allow for a more accurate description. Although linear-scaling techniques are simplifications from the point of view of quantum chemistry, they might be severe improvements when compared to traditional molecular dynamics simulations. For the interpretation of the liquid state the introduction of local properties is inevitable. New methods are presented for the calculation of local dipole moments and for the estimation of hydrogen bond energies in quantum mechanically nondecomposable systems. The latter also allows for the detection of hydrogen bonds in simulations through a wavefunction-based criterion instead of one which is solely grounded on the geometric structure of the atomic nuclei involved. The article then discusses prominent liquids which show properties that are not yet understood. Another part of the work analyzes the effect of solvent molecules on solutes and their reactions in the solvent. Finaly, neoteric solvents, such as ionic liquids are discussed.

  20. HEART Pathway Accelerated Diagnostic Protocol Implementation: Prospective Pre-Post Interrupted Time Series Design and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    Background Most patients presenting to US Emergency Departments (ED) with chest pain are hospitalized for comprehensive testing. These evaluations cost the US health system >$10 billion annually, but have a diagnostic yield for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) of <10%. The history/ECG/age/risk factors/troponin (HEART) Pathway is an accelerated diagnostic protocol (ADP), designed to improve care for patients with acute chest pain by identifying patients for early ED discharge. Prior efficacy studies demonstrate that the HEART Pathway safely reduces cardiac testing, while maintaining an acceptably low adverse event rate. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of HEART Pathway ADP implementation within a health system. Methods This controlled before-after study will accrue adult patients with acute chest pain, but without ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction on electrocardiogram for two years and is expected to include approximately 10,000 patients. Outcomes measures include hospitalization rate, objective cardiac testing rates (stress testing and angiography), length of stay, and rates of recurrent cardiac care for participants. Results In pilot data, the HEART Pathway decreased hospitalizations by 21%, decreased hospital length (median of 12 hour reduction), without increasing adverse events or recurrent care. At the writing of this paper, data has been collected on >5000 patient encounters. The HEART Pathway has been fully integrated into health system electronic medical records, providing real-time decision support to our providers. Conclusions We hypothesize that the HEART Pathway will safely reduce healthcare utilization. This study could provide a model for delivering high-value care to the 8-10 million US ED patients with acute chest pain each year. ClinicalTrial Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02056964; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02056964 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6ccajsgyu) PMID:26800789

  1. Diagnostic imaging methods applied in long-term surveillance after EVAR. Will computed tomography angiography be replaced by other methods?

    PubMed Central

    Stefaniak, Karolina; Gabriel, Marcin; Oszkinis, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular implantation of a stent graft in the abdominal aorta (endovascular aneurysm repair – EVAR) is a widely accepted alternative to open surgery in treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Although EVAR is connected with a significant reduction in the risk of peri- and post-operative complications, it does not eliminate them totally. Long-term surveillance of post-EVAR patients is aimed at early detection of and fast reaction to a group of complications called endovascular leaks. Currently, the gold standard in leak diagnostics is computed tomography angiography (CTA). The other methods are ultrasonography, magnetic resonance (MR) angiography, intra-aneurysm sac pressure measurement, X-ray, and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Despite many analyses based on long-term research, emphasising the high value and competitiveness of less invasive tests such as US or X-ray compared to CTA, it is still difficult for them to win the trust and acceptance of clinicians. The persisting view is that computed tomography is the test that finally resolves any inaccuracies. Consequently, a patient with a number of concurrent diseases is subject to absurdly high radiation exposure and effects of a radiocontrast agent within a short time. It is therefore logical to acknowledge that the EVAR-related risk is catching up with the open surgery risk, while the endovascular procedure is much more costly. Nevertheless, the status of CTA as the gold standard ultimately seems to be unthreatened. This paper presents a description of the diagnostic imaging tests that make it possible to detect any vascular leaks and to develop strategies for therapeutic processes. PMID:26966443

  2. Diagnostic imaging methods applied in long-term surveillance after EVAR. Will computed tomography angiography be replaced by other methods?

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Karolina; Stanisic, Michal; Gabriel, Marcin; Oszkinis, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular implantation of a stent graft in the abdominal aorta (endovascular aneurysm repair - EVAR) is a widely accepted alternative to open surgery in treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Although EVAR is connected with a significant reduction in the risk of peri- and post-operative complications, it does not eliminate them totally. Long-term surveillance of post-EVAR patients is aimed at early detection of and fast reaction to a group of complications called endovascular leaks. Currently, the gold standard in leak diagnostics is computed tomography angiography (CTA). The other methods are ultrasonography, magnetic resonance (MR) angiography, intra-aneurysm sac pressure measurement, X-ray, and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Despite many analyses based on long-term research, emphasising the high value and competitiveness of less invasive tests such as US or X-ray compared to CTA, it is still difficult for them to win the trust and acceptance of clinicians. The persisting view is that computed tomography is the test that finally resolves any inaccuracies. Consequently, a patient with a number of concurrent diseases is subject to absurdly high radiation exposure and effects of a radiocontrast agent within a short time. It is therefore logical to acknowledge that the EVAR-related risk is catching up with the open surgery risk, while the endovascular procedure is much more costly. Nevertheless, the status of CTA as the gold standard ultimately seems to be unthreatened. This paper presents a description of the diagnostic imaging tests that make it possible to detect any vascular leaks and to develop strategies for therapeutic processes. PMID:26966443

  3. On the role of ion-based imaging methods in modern ion beam therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Magallanes, L. Rinaldi, I.; Brons, S.; Marcelos, T. Parodi, K.; Takechi, M.; Voss, B.; Jkel, O.

    2014-11-07

    External beam radiotherapy techniques have the common aim to maximize the radiation dose to the target while sparing the surrounding healthy tissues. The inverted and finite depth-dose profile of ion beams (Bragg peak) allows for precise dose delivery and conformai dose distribution. Furthermore, increased radiobiological effectiveness of ions enhances the capability to battle radioresistant tumors. Ion beam therapy requires a precise determination of the ion range, which is particularly sensitive to range uncertainties. Therefore, novel imaging techniques are currently investigated as a tool to improve the quality of ion beam treatments. Approaches already clinically available or under development are based on the detection of secondary particles emitted as a result of nuclear reactions (e.g., positron-annihilation or prompt gammas, charged particles) or transmitted high energy primary ion beams. Transmission imaging techniques make use of the beams exiting the patient, which have higher initial energy and lower fluence than the therapeutic ones. At the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center, actively scanned energetic proton and carbon ion beams provide an ideal environment for the investigation of ion-based radiography and tomography. This contribution presents the rationale of ion beam therapy, focusing on the role of ion-based transmission imaging methods towards the reduction of range uncertainties and potential improvement of treatment planning.

  4. Reactive flow model development for PBXW-126 using modern nonlinear optimization methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M. J.; Simpson, R. L.; Urtiew, P. A.; Souers, P. C.; Garcia, F.; Garza, R. G.

    1996-05-01

    The initiation and detonation behavior of PBXW-126 has been characterized and is described. PBXW-126 is a composite explosive consisting of approximately equal amounts of RDX, AP, AL, and NTO with a polyurethane binder. The three term ignition and growth of reaction model parameters (ignition+two growth terms) have been found using nonlinear optimization methods to determine the "best" set of model parameters. The ignition term treats the initiation of up to 0.5% of the RDX. The first growth term in the model treats the RDX growth of reaction up to 20% reacted. The second growth term treats the subsequent growth of reaction of the remaining AP/AL/NTO. The unreacted equation of state (EOS) was determined from the wave profiles of embedded gauge tests while the JWL product EOS was determined from cylinder expansion test results. The nonlinear optimization code, NLQPEB/GLO, was used to determine the "best" set of coefficients for the three term Lee-Tarver ignition and growth of reaction model.

  5. A Novel Method for Determining the Phase of T-Wave Alternans: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Sayadi, Omid; Merchant, Faisal M.; Puppala, Dheeraj; Mela, Theofanie; Singh, Jagmeet P.; Heist, E. Kevin; Owen, Chris; Armoundas, Antonis A.

    2013-01-01

    Background T-wave alternans (TWA) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, in order to effectively estimate and suppress TWA, the phase of TWA must be accurately determined. Methods and Results We developed a method that computes the beat-by-beat integral of the T-wave morphology, over time points within the T-wave with positive alternans. Then, we estimated the signed derivative of the T-wave integral sequence which allows the classification of each beat to a binary phase index. In animal studies, we found that this method was able to accurately identify the T-wave phase in artificially induced alternans (p<0.0001). The coherence of the phase increased consistently after acute ischemia induction in all body-surface and intracardiac leads (p<0.0001). Also, we developed a phase resetting detection algorithm that enhances the diagnostic utility of TWA. We further established an algorithm that employs the phase of TWA in order to deliver appropriate polarity pacing pulses (all interventions compared to baseline, p<0.0001 for alternans voltage; p<0.0001 for Kscore), to suppress TWA. Finally, we demonstrated that using the phase of TWA we can suppress spontaneous TWA during acute ischemia; 77.6% for alternans voltage (p<0.0001) and 92.5% for Kscore (p<0.0001). Conclusions We developed a method to quantify the temporal variability of the TWA phase. This method is expected to enhance the utility of TWA in predicting ventricular arrhythmias and SCD and raises the possibility of using upstream therapies to abort a ventricular tachyarrhythmia prior to its onset. PMID:23884196

  6. Perspective ground-based method for diagnostics of the lower ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhmetieva, N. V.; Grigoriev, G. I.; Tolmacheva, A. V.

    We present a new perspective ground-based method for diagnostics of the ionosphere and atmosphere parameters. The method uses one of the numerous physical phenomena observed in the ionosphere illuminated by high-power radio waves. It is a generation of the artificial periodic irregularities (APIs) in the ionospheric plasma. The APIs were found while studying the effects of ionospheric high-power HF modification. It was established that the APIs are formed by a standing wave that occurs due to interference between the upwardly radiated radio wave and its reflection off the ionosphere. The API studies are based upon observation of the Bragg backscatter of the pulsed probe radio wave from the artificial periodic structure. Bragg backscatter occurs if the spatial period of the irregularities is equal to half a wavelength of the probe signal. The API techniques makes it possible to obtain the following information: the profiles of electron density from the lower D-region up to the maximum of the F-layer; the irregular structure of the ionosphere including split of the regular E-layer, the sporadic layers; the vertical velocities in the D- and E-regions of the ionosphere; the turbulent velocities, turbulent diffusion coefficients and the turbopause altitude; the neutral temperatures and densities at the E-region altitudes; the parameters of the internal gravity waves and their spectral characteristics; the relative concentration of negative oxygen ions in the D-region. Some new results obtained by the API technique are discussed .

  7. A mixed methods study of age at diagnosis and diagnostic odyssey for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Siaw H; McClaren, Belinda J; Archibald, Alison Dalton; Weeks, Alice; Langmaid, Tess; Ryan, Monique M; Kornberg, Andrew; Metcalfe, Sylvia A

    2015-10-01

    The delayed diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) may be an ongoing problem internationally. We aimed to ascertain age at diagnosis and explore parents' experiences of the diagnosis of DMD in Australia. Using mixed methods, data were collected from laboratory and clinical record audits of testing for DMD in Victoria and Tasmania, interviews and a national survey of parents regarding their experiences from first noticing symptoms to receiving a diagnosis. The audits revealed that the median age at diagnosis for DMD was 5 years (n=49 during 2005-2010); this age had not changed substantially over this period. Fourteen parents interviewed reported age at diagnosis ranging from 2 to 8 years with a 6 month to 4 year delay between initial concerns about their child's development and receiving the DMD diagnosis. Sixty-two survey respondents reported the median age at diagnosis was 3 years and 9 months, while the median age when symptoms were noticed was 2 years and 9 months. Parents experienced many emotions in their search for a diagnosis and consulted with a wide range of health professionals. Half the survey respondents felt that their child could have been diagnosed earlier. Despite advances in testing technologies and increasing awareness of DMD, the age at diagnosis has remained constant in Australia. This mixed methods study shows that this diagnostic delay continues to have a negative impact on parents' experiences, places families at risk of having a second affected child and may have a deleterious effect on affected children's treatment. PMID:25626706

  8. Rapid diagnostic methods for influenza virus in clinical specimens - A comparative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, A. S.; Olson, B.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of five rapid viral diagnostic techniques for identifying influenza virus in nasopharyngeal aspirates has been made on patients with influenza-like illnesses. Initial results with immune electron microscopy were positive in only one of 11 specimens from which virus was isolated and further work abandoned. Four other rapid tests were carried out on 39 specimens from which influenza virus had been isolated in tissue culture in 28. Of these 28 specimens yielding virus, 24 (85.7 percent) were positive by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) on nasopharyngeal cells, 18 (64.3 percent) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 19 (67.8 percent) by enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA), and 26 (92.8 percent) by a rapid tissue culture amplification method (TCA) in a continuous Rhesus monkey kidney line (LLC-MK2) with identification of virus by fluorescent antibody. In terms of sensitivity, simplicity, and rapidity, a combination of the IFAT and TCA methods seems to be very useful.

  9. A Recalibration of Strong Line Oxygen Abundance Diagnostics via the Direct Method and Implications for the High Redshift Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jonathan S.; Martini, Paul; Andrews, Brett H.

    2016-02-01

    We use direct method oxygen abundances in combination with strong optical emission lines, stellar masses (M?), and star formation rates (SFRs) to recalibrate the N2, O3N2, and N2O2 oxygen abundance diagnostics. We stack spectra of 200,000 star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in bins of M? and SFR offset from the star forming main sequence (? log(SSFR)) to measure the weak emission lines needed to apply the direct method. All three new calibrations are reliable to within 0.10 dex from log (M?/M?) 7.5 - 10.5 and up to at least 200~M? yr-1 in SFR. The N2O2 diagnostic is the least subject to systematic biases. We apply the diagnostics to galaxies in the local universe and investigate the M?-Z-SFR relation. The N2 and O3N2 diagnostics suggest the SFR dependence of the M?-Z-SFR relation varies with both M? and ? log(SSFR), whereas the N2O2 diagnostic suggests a nearly constant dependence on SFR. We apply our calibrations to a sample of high redshift galaxies from the literature, and find them to be metal poor relative to local galaxies with similar M? and SFR. The calibrations do reproduce direct method abundances of the local analogs. We conclude that the M?-Z-SFR relation evolves with redshift.

  10. Traumatic Cerebrovascular Injury Following Severe Head Injury: Proper Diagnostic Timetable and Examination Methods

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Hidetaka; Fuse, Akira; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Igarashi, Yutaka; Watanabe, Akihiro; Suzuki, Go; Hashizume, Akihiro; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic cerebrovascular injury (TCVI) is a serious complication of severe head injury, with a high mortality rate. To establish a proper treatment strategy for TCVI, we investigated patients with a high risk of TCVI according to the Guidelines for the Management of Severe Head Injury (hereafter the Guidelines) to elucidate the validity of the criteria for TCVI in the Guidelines and the appropriate screening timing and methods. Of those transported to our facility between December 2008 and June 2012, 67 individuals with a high risk of TCVI were evaluated to reveal the proper timing and methods of vascular evaluation. Of the 67 patients, 21 had a diagnosis of TCVI based on cerebral angiography, three-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3DCTA), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), accounting for 6.4% of all patients with severe head injury and as high as 31.3% of patients with a high risk of TCVI according to the Guidelines. In addition, according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), outcomes were three deaths due to primary brain injury, six cases of persistent vegetative state, five cases of severe disability, three cases of moderate disability, and four cases of good recovery. Although 3DCTA is a simple and convenient diagnostic method, cerebral angiography is necessary to evaluate dissecting lesions. If patients have any signs or symptoms of TCVI, as described in the Guidelines, cerebral angiography or 3DCTA should be performed as an initial screening method within 72 hours of admission, followed by cerebral angiography on postadmission Day 14 2 to prevent failed diagnosis. PMID:24067766

  11. Absolute calibration method for laser megajoule neutron yield measurement by activation diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Landoas, Olivier; Glebov, Vladimir Yu; Ross, Bertrand; Briat, Michelle; Disdier, Laurent; Sangster, Thomas C; Duffy, Tim; Marmouget, Jean Gabriel; Varignon, Cyril; Ledoux, Xavier; Caillaud, Tony; Thfoin, Isabelle; Bourgade, Jean-Luc

    2011-07-01

    The laser megajoule (LMJ) and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) plan to demonstrate thermonuclear ignition using inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The neutron yield is one of the most important parameters to characterize ICF experiment performance. For decades, the activation diagnostic was chosen as a reference at ICF facilities and is now planned to be the first nuclear diagnostic on LMJ, measuring both 2.45 MeV and 14.1 MeV neutron yields. Challenges for the activation diagnostic development are absolute calibration, accuracy, range requirement, and harsh environment. At this time, copper and zirconium material are identified for 14.1 MeV neutron yield measurement and indium material for 2.45 MeV neutrons. A series of calibrations were performed at Commissariat a? l'Energie Atomique (CEA) on a Van de Graff facility to determine activation diagnostics efficiencies and to compare them with results from calculations. The CEA copper activation diagnostic was tested on the OMEGA facility during DT implosion. Experiments showed that CEA and Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) diagnostics agree to better than 1% on the neutron yield measurement, with an independent calibration for each system. Also, experimental sensitivities are in good agreement with simulations and allow us to scale activation diagnostics for the LMJ measurement range. PMID:21806179

  12. [Is the introduction of innovative methods in cardiovascular diagnostics and therapy to quick?].

    PubMed

    Erbel, R

    2016-03-01

    Andreas Grüntzig can be regarded as the pioneer of modern cardiology. Based on the previous experiences of Charles Dotter in Portland, Oregon, and after many years of preparation as a young 38-year-old physician and consultant he carried out the first percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in a 38-year-old patient in Zurich in 1977, supported by the cardiac surgeons A. Senning and M. Turina. Despite high ranking publications and early preparedness to share his experiences the development of PTCA stagnated and was met with great scepticism. The technique was new, technically difficult and aimed at aortocoronary bypass surgery, which was itself still in its infancy 10 years after the introduction in Cleveland in 1968. Even after several years only two patients per week were admitted for treatment in Zurich. In a similar way the young cardiac surgeon H.R. Andersen was a pioneer in Denmark whose ideas and own experiments with a balloon catheter-assisted aortic valve implantation were not initially taken up by the leading companies of the time and publication of the data suffered lengthy delays. It took 10 years before Prof. A. Cribier in Rouen followed up his ideas and carried out the first valve implantation again in pioneer work after many years of preparation in 2002. Again, the new method for treatment of very old and high risk patients needed many years before it was accepted. The breakthrough only became possible when this new technique began to be used in cardiac surgery after the introduction of hybrid cardiac catheter operating rooms. Despite evidence-based studies innovative methods are not subject to the same criteria throughout Europe with respect to the timely introduction of innovative and validated procedures also in consideration of reimbursement and this has become an important initiative of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). PMID:26873914

  13. [Characteristics of a diagnostic method for tuberculosis infection based on whole blood interferon-gamma assay].

    PubMed

    Harada, Nobuyuki

    2006-11-01

    It is assumed that about 10% of individuals infected with M. tuberculosis (Mtb) develop tuberculosis (Tb), and the remaining 90% suppress contain Mtb through their immune systems, but have a latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). To effectively control Tb, it is essential to detect individuals with LTBI in a Tb outbreak and provide chemoprophylaxis for them. Until recently, the tuberculin skin test (TST) has been the only diagnostic method for LTBI. However, the specificity of TST is low, because the purified protein derivative (PPD) used for TST contains numerous Mtb antigens that are almost identical to BCG antigens or similar to non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) antigens. For this reason, TST may produce positive results in BCG-vaccinated individuals or NTM-infected individuals without Mtb infection. Therefore, it is very difficult to diagnose LTBI in Japan, where BCG vaccination is widely administered. In addition to this, TST has other defects, such as technical variations for injecting PPD or measuring the TST response, the necessity of a return visit to the doctor to measure the TST response 2 days after PPD injection, and the booster effect through reinjection of PPD. More recently, a new diagnostic method that can overcome these defects in TST, QuantiFERON TB-2G (QFT-2G), has been developed. In QFT-2G, two Mtb-specific antigens, ESAT-6 and CFP-10, are used to stimulate whole blood, and based on produced interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), Mtb infection is diagnosed. Since ESAT-6 and CFP-10 are absent from all M. bovis BCG substrains and most of NTM including M. avium, M. intracellulare, but are present in tuberculosis complex (M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum) and only a few strains of NTM, QFT-2G is not affected by prior BCG vaccination nor most of NTM infections. Moreover, as measurement of IFN-gamma can be carried out by machines on the next day following the blood draw, more objective results are obtained more quickly than with TST. It is not necessary to consider the booster effect in QFT-2G as PPD is not injected, nor to revisit the doctor. Thus, QFT-2G overcomes the defects of TST described here. From a clinical trial of QFT-2G in which the subjects were smear-positive, untreated Tb patients and BCG-vaccinated healthy individuals, it has been demonstrated that the specificity and sensitivity of QFT-2G are 98.1% and 89.0%, respectively, and QFT-2G is an excellent diagnostic method. Furthermore, many contact investigations have shown that QFT-2G detects not only active Tb but also LTBI. Several data indicate that frequency of contact with Tb patients correlates well with QFT-2G positive rates in contact investigations. The validity and usefulness of diagnosing LTBI by QFT-2G have been suggested in other countries. In many contact investigations, it has been shown that most contacts who had been diagnosed as LTBI based on TST results were QFT-2G negative, suggesting that as a result, many unnecessary chemoprophylaxes were indicated. On the contrary, many QFT-2G positives were identified in those who were diagnosed to be uninfected with Mtb based on TST. Therefore, as the wide spread of QFT-2G testing in contact investigations would prevent unnecessary chemoprophylaxes and detect true infected individuals more accurately, we hope that more effective Tb control could be performed. Although QFT-2G is an excellent diagnostic method, it is still new, and some questions remain to be answered. For example, the period of converting QFT-2G positive after Mtb infection, alteration of long-term QFT-2G responses after Mtb infection, and the effects of treatment for Tb or LTBI are not fully understood. The behavior of QFT-2G in infants or children is not understood either. Especially in infants, the problem of the blood volume required for the QFT-2G test is the major issue. We are working on these issues to provide more appropriate directions for QFT-2G users, and hope that we can contribute to Tb control. PMID:17154047

  14. Equine babesiosis: seroprevalence, risk factors and comparison of different diagnostic methods in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abutarbush, S M; Alqawasmeh, D M; Mukbel, R M; Al-Majali, A M

    2012-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence and distribution of horse piroplasmosis, to evaluate risk factors associated with the occurrence of the disease and to compare the different diagnostic methods used for this disease. A total of 253 clinically normal horses were sampled, and a collection form was completed for each horse from five of six different climatic zones of Jordan. The sixth zone was not sampled because it did not include horse population. Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) revealed 37 horses (14.6%) positive for Theileria equi, and none of the horses was positive for Babesia caballi. Microscopic examination of thin blood smears and PCR test revealed no positive results for either parasite. Grazing was the only risk factor that was associated with being seropositive to the disease; horses that graze are 11.5 more likely to be seropositive (P<0.05, OR=11.5, CI: 3.292, 39.962). This is the first study to estimate the prevalence of horse babesiosis using serological test and to identify risk factors associated with the disease in Jordan. Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) test appears to be more reliable than microscopic examination and PCR in estimating the seroprevalence of the disease as well as identifying carrier horses to babesiosis. PMID:21771287

  15. Rapid diagnostic method for detection of mumps virus genome by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Okafuji, Takao; Yoshida, Naoko; Fujino, Motoko; Motegi, Yoshie; Ihara, Toshiaki; Ota, Yoshinori; Notomi, Tsugunori; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2005-04-01

    Most mumps patients are clinically diagnosed without any virological examinations, but some diagnosed cases of mumps may be caused by other pathogens or secondary vaccine failure (SVF). To clarify these issues, a sensitive, specific, and rapid diagnostic method is required. We obtained 60 salivary swabs from 34 patients with natural infection during the course of the illness, 10 samples from patients with vaccine-associated parotitis, and 5 samples from patients with SVF. Total RNA was extracted and subjected to reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for genome amplification. We detected mumps virus RNA corresponding to 0.1 PFU by LAMP within 60 min after RNA extraction, with the same sensitivity as RT-nested PCR. Mumps virus was isolated in 30 of 33 samples within day 2, and mumps virus genome was amplified by LAMP in 32 of them. The quantity of virus titer was calculated by monitoring the time to reach the threshold of turbidity. The viral load decreased after day 3 and was lower in patients serologically diagnosed as having SVF with milder illness. Accuracy of LAMP for the detection of mumps virus genome was confirmed; furthermore, it is of benefit for calculating the viral load, which reflects disease pathogenesis. PMID:15814976

  16. A method for the production of composite scintillators for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Nowotny, R; Taubeck, A

    2009-03-21

    Plastic scintillators are used in the dosimetry of photons in radiotherapy. Their use in diagnostic radiology is affected by the drop in response at lower photon energies due to inadequate composition (effective atomic number) and chemical quenching. To compensate for this deficiency, a method for the production of composite polystyrene-based plastic scintillators was devised allowing the incorporation of inorganic scintillation powder. Disks of 10 mm diameter and 1 mm thickness optimized for a flat energy response referred to kerma in air were produced using CaWO(4), ZnS:Ag and CaF(2):Eu as additives. In an HVL range of 2.26-13.69 mmAl, the response was within an interval of +/-2.8% for CaF(2):Eu as additive, +/-3.2% for CaWO(4) and +/-10.9% for ZnS:Ag, respectively. The response of a commercial plastic scintillator (BC470) stays within +/-13.6%. The temperature dependence of the composite scintillator using CaF(2):Eu is lowest with a variation of +3.7% to -3.6% in an interval from 5 degrees C to 45 degrees C. The deficiency in photon absorption at lower energies due to the effective atomic number is reduced but not fully compensated by the additive scintillators. The optimized concentrations were established for the scintillator dimensions used. PMID:19218738

  17. [Osteoiliacography as diagnostic method of vena cava inferior circulation failure in liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Turmakhanov, S T

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension developing in the vena cava system under conditions of cirrhosis results in the formation of collateral blood outflow into vena cava superior (VCS) and inferior, at the same time the carrying capacity of vena cava inferior (VCI) might be limited due both to its fixation in the rigid diaphragm ring and to the fact that the hepatic segment of VCI is compressed by regenerated nodes. The increased volume of blood outflow via VCI with a simultaneous constriction of its hepatic segment results in the development of caval hypertention which even more complicates the transhepatic blood flow. Increased pressure in the VCI system with the formation of suprahepatic postsinusoidal block creates additional considerable barriers for blood outflow from the liver aggravating the failure of portal circulation, creating vicious circle that leads to decompensation of both regional visceral and common venous hemodynamics. The author describes the method of diagnosing cava-caval crossflows from VCI to VCS. The condition of VCI and cava-caval crossflows under liver cirrhosis is an important component in complex diagnostics. PMID:22880426

  18. Development of a benchtop baking method for chemically leavened crackers. I. Identification of a diagnostic formula and procedure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. In order to identify a diagnostic cracker formula, the effects of leavening system (sodium bicarbonate, monocalcium phosphate, and ammonium b...

  19. A Comparison of US and Korean Students' Mathematics Skills Using a Cognitive Diagnostic Testing Method: Linkage to Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im, Seongah; Park, Hye Jin

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were (a) to compare US and Korean 8th graders' mastery of knowledge and skills in the mathematics test of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 using a cognitive diagnostic testing method and (b) to find links between teachers' instruction and students' mastery of mathematics

  20. Development of practical diagnostic methods for monitoring rice bacterial panicle blight disease and evaluation of rice germplasm for resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was initiated to understand Burkholderia glumae (major causal agent for bacterial panicle blight disease of rice) to develop practical diagnostic methods for monitoring the disease; and to evaluate rice germplasm for resistance. B. glumae was frequently isolated from symptomatic panicles on...

  1. Development of practical diagnostic methods for monitoring rice bacterial panicle blight disease and evaluation of rice germplasm for resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was initiated to understand Burkholderia glumae, the major causal agent for bacterial panicle blight disease of rice; to develop practical diagnostic methods for monitoring the disease; and to evaluate rice germplasm for resistance. Burkholderia glumae was frequently isolated from infected p...

  2. Development of Monitoring and Diagnostic Methods for Robots Used In Remediation of Waste Sites - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.

    2000-04-01

    This project is the first evaluation of model-based diagnostics to hydraulic robot systems. A greater understanding of fault detection for hydraulic robots has been gained, and a new theoretical fault detection model developed and evaluated.

  3. Physics-Based Methods of Failure Analysis and Diagnostics in Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Luchinsky, Dmitry Georgievich; Hafiychuk, Vasyl Nmn; Osipov, Viatcheslav V.; Patterson-Hine, F. Ann

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Health Management (IHM) for the future aerospace systems requires to interface models of multiple subsystems in an efficient and accurate information environment at the earlier stages of system design. The complexity of modern aeronautic and aircraft systems (including e.g. the power distribution, flight control, solid and liquid motors) dictates employment of hybrid models and high-level reasoners for analysing mixed continuous and discrete information flow involving multiple modes of operation in uncertain environments, unknown state variables, heterogeneous software and hardware components. To provide the information link between key design/performance parameters and high-level reasoners we rely on development of multi-physics performance models, distributed sensors networks, and fault diagnostic and prognostic (FD&P) technologies in close collaboration with system designers. The main challenges of our research are related to the in-flight assessment of the structural stability, engine performance, and trajectory control. The main goal is to develop an intelligent IHM that not only enhances components and system reliability, but also provides a post-flight feedback helping to optimize design of the next generation of aerospace systems. Our efforts are concentrated on several directions of the research. One of the key components of our strategy is an innovative approach to the diagnostics/prognostics based on the real time dynamical inference (DI) technologies extended to encompass hybrid systems with hidden state trajectories. The major investments are into the multiphysics performance modelling that provides an access of the FD&P technologies to the main performance parameters of e.g. solid and liquid rocket motors and composite materials of the nozzle and case. Some of the recent results of our research are discussed in this chapter. We begin by introducing the problem of dynamical inference of stochastic nonlinear models and reviewing earlier results. Next, we present our analytical approach to the solution of this problem based on the path integral formulation. The resulting algorithm does not require an extensive global search for the model parameters, provides optimal compensation for the effects of dynamical noise, and is robust for a broad range of dynamical models. In the following Section the strengths of the algorithm are illustrated illustrated by inferring the parameters of the stochastic Lorenz system and comparing the results with those of earlier research. Next, we discuss a number of recent results in application to the development of the IHM for aerospace system. Firstly, we apply dynamical inference approach to a solution of classical three tank problems with mixed unknown continuous and binary parameters. The problem is considered in the context of ground support system for filling fuel tanks of liquid rocket motors. It is shown that the DI algorithm is well suited for successful solution of a hybrid version of this benchmark problem even in the presence of additional periodic and stochastic perturbation of unknown strength. Secondly, we illustrate our approach by its application to an analysis of the nozzle fault in a solid rocket motor (SRM). The internal ballistics of the SRM is modelled as a set of one-dimensional partial differential equations coupled to the dynamics of the propellant regression. In this example we are specifically focussed on the inference of discrete and continuous parameters of the nozzle blocking fault and on the possibility of an application of the DI algorithm to reducing the probability of "misses" of an on-board FD&P for SRM. In the next section re-contact problem caused by first stage/upper stage separation failure is discussed. The reaction forces imposed on the nozzle of the upper stage during the re-contact and their connection to the nozzle damage and to the thrust vector control (TVC) signal are obtained. It is shown that transient impact induced torquean be modelled as a response of an effective damped oscillator. A possible application of the DI algorithm to the inference of damage parameters and predicting fault dynamics ahead of time using the actuator signal is discussed. Finally, we formulate Bayesian inferential framework for development of the IHM system for in-flight structural health monitoring (SHM) of composite materials. We consider the signal generated by piezoelectric actuator mounted on composite structure generating elastic waves in it. The signal received by the sensor is than compared with the baseline signal. The possibility of damage inference is discussed in the context of development of the SHM.

  4. Comparing historical and modern methods of Sea Surface Temperature measurement - Part 2: Field comparison in the Central Tropical Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, J. B. R.; Matthews, J. B.

    2012-09-01

    Discrepancies between historical Sea Surface Temperature (SST) datasets have been partly ascribed to use of different adjustments for variable measurement methods. Until recently adjustments had only been applied to bucket temperatures from the late 19th and early 20th century, with the aim of correcting their supposed coolness relative to engine cooling water intake temperatures (EIT). In the UK Met Office Hadley Centre SST 3 dataset (HadSST3) adjustments are applied to observations over its full duration, including those obtained by other methods. Here we evaluate such adjustments by direct field comparison of historical and modern methods of SST measurement. We compare wood, canvas and rubber bucket temperatures to 3 m seawater intake temperature along a Central Tropical Pacific transect conducted in May and June 2008. In contrast to the prevailing view we find no average differences between bucket temperatures obtained with different bucket types. Moreover, we observe strong near-surface temperature gradients day and night, indicating intake and bucket temperatures cannot be considered equivalent in this region. We suggest engine intake temperatures are unreliable as a source of SST given that they are often obtained by untrained non-scientist observers with low precision, inaccurate instruments at unknown intake depth. Using a physical model we demonstrate that warming of intake seawater by engine room air is unlikely a cause of negative average bucket-intake temperature differences, as sometimes suggested. We propose removal of intake temperatures and bucket adjustments from historical SST records and posit this will lead to their better capture of real long-term trends.

  5. Evaluation of modern DFT functionals and G3n-RAD composite methods in the modelization of organic singlet diradicals.

    PubMed

    López-Carballeira, Diego; Ruipérez, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The evaluation of four high-level composite methods based on the modification of Gaussian-3 (G3) theory for radicals and 18 exchange-correlation density functionals, including modern long-range and dispersion-corrected functionals, in the modelization of singlet diradicals has been performed in this work. Structural parameters and properties such as singlet-triplet gaps, electron affinities, ionization potentials, dipole moments, enthalpies of formation, and bond dissociation energies have been calculated in a set of six well-characterized singlet diradicals, and benchmarked against experimental data and wavefunction-based CASSCF/CASPT2 calculations. The complexity of the open-shell singlet ground state is revealed in the difficulties to properly represent the diradical character reported by some DFT functionals, specially those that do not comprise a certain amount of Hartree-Fock exchange in their formulation. We find that STGs, EAs, dipole moments, and thermochemical properties are, in general, satisfactorily calculated, while for IPs larger deviations with respect to the experiments are found in all cases. The best overall performance is accounted for by hybrid functionals, including some of the long-range corrected functionals, but also pure functionals, comprising the kinetic energy density in their formulation, are found to be competent. Composite methods perform satisfactorily, especially G3(MP2)-RAD and G3X(MP2)-RAD, which calculate singlet-triplet gaps and electron affinities more accurately. On the other hand, G3-RAD and G3X-RAD provide better ionization potentials. This study emphasizes that the use of recently developed functionals, within the broken symmetry approximation, is an appropriate tool for the simulation of organic singlet diradicals, with similar accuracy compared to more expensive composite methods. Nevertheless, suitable selection of the methodology is still crucial for the accomplishment of accurate results. PMID:26970954

  6. Thermodynamic evaluation and restoration of volcanic gas analyses: an example based on modern collection and analytical methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerlach, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    Thermodynamic evaluation and restoration procedures are applied to a set of 10 volcanic gas analyses obtained by modern collection and analytical methods. The samples were collected from a vigorously fuming fissure during episode 1 of the Puu Oo eruption of Kilauea Volcano in 1983. A variety of analytical techniques were used to determine the gas compositions. In most samples, the combined amounts of N2 + Ar + O2 are far less abundant than H2, CO, or H2S, suggesting little or no contamination or reaction with atmospheric gases. Thermodynamic evaluation shows that 6 of the 10 analyses are equilibrium compositions, and 4 analyses are disequilibrium compositions. Three of the disequilibrium analyses involve samples affected by minor spilling of NaOH solution from the sample bottles during collection. The deviation of these analyses from equilibrium is dominated by the effects of disequilibrium water-loss. The fourth disequilibrium analysis is contaminated with meteoric water. In all 4 cases, the restoration procedures retrieve the original equilibrium compositions. -from Author

  7. Exploration of Analysis Methods for Diagnostic Imaging Tests: Problems with ROC AUC and Confidence Scores in CT Colonography

    PubMed Central

    Mallett, Susan; Halligan, Steve; Collins, Gary S.; Altman, Doug G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Different methods of evaluating diagnostic performance when comparing diagnostic tests may lead to different results. We compared two such approaches, sensitivity and specificity with area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC AUC) for the evaluation of CT colonography for the detection of polyps, either with or without computer assisted detection. Methods In a multireader multicase study of 10 readers and 107 cases we compared sensitivity and specificity, using radiological reporting of the presence or absence of polyps, to ROC AUC calculated from confidence scores concerning the presence of polyps. Both methods were assessed against a reference standard. Here we focus on five readers, selected to illustrate issues in design and analysis. We compared diagnostic measures within readers, showing that differences in results are due to statistical methods. Results Reader performance varied widely depending on whether sensitivity and specificity or ROC AUC was used. There were problems using confidence scores; in assigning scores to all cases; in use of zero scores when no polyps were identified; the bimodal non-normal distribution of scores; fitting ROC curves due to extrapolation beyond the study data; and the undue influence of a few false positive results. Variation due to use of different ROC methods exceeded differences between test results for ROC AUC. Conclusions The confidence scores recorded in our study violated many assumptions of ROC AUC methods, rendering these methods inappropriate. The problems we identified will apply to other detection studies using confidence scores. We found sensitivity and specificity were a more reliable and clinically appropriate method to compare diagnostic tests. PMID:25353643

  8. Comparing historical and modern methods of sea surface temperature measurement - Part 2: Field comparison in the central tropical Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, J. B. R.; Matthews, J. B.

    2013-07-01

    Discrepancies between historical sea surface temperature (SST) datasets have been partly ascribed to use of different adjustments to account for variable measurement methods. Until recently, adjustments had only been applied to bucket temperatures from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with the aim of correcting their supposed coolness relative to engine cooling water intake temperatures. In the UK Met Office Hadley Centre SST 3 dataset (HadSST3), adjustments have been applied over its full duration to observations from buckets, buoys and engine intakes. Here we investigate uncertainties in the accuracy of such adjustments by direct field comparison of historical and modern methods of shipboard SST measurement. We compare wood, canvas and rubber bucket temperatures to 3 m seawater intake temperature along a central tropical Pacific transect conducted in May and June 2008. We find no average difference between the temperatures obtained with the different bucket types in our short measurement period (∼1 min). Previous field, lab and model experiments have found sizeable temperature change of seawater samples in buckets of smaller volume under longer exposure times. We do, however, report the presence of strong near-surface temperature gradients day and night, indicating that intake and bucket measurements cannot be assumed equivalent in this region. We thus suggest bucket and buoy measurements be considered distinct from intake measurements due to differences in sampling depth. As such, we argue for exclusion of intake temperatures from historical SST datasets and suggest this would likely reduce the need for poorly field-tested bucket adjustments. We also call for improvement in the general quality of intake temperatures from Voluntary Observing Ships. Using a physical model we demonstrate that warming of intake seawater by hot engine room air is an unlikely cause of overly warm intake temperatures. We suggest that reliable correction for such warm errors is not possible since they are largely of unknown origin and can be offset by real near-surface temperature gradients.

  9. Diagnostic Comparisons of Near-Earth Object Identification using Slit Spectroscopy and Slitless Grating Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, E.; Ryan, W.

    2014-09-01

    Space object identification and characterization is an important component of Space Situational Awareness (SSA). Through an Air Force collaboration that has provided a visible wavelength, low-resolution spectrometer, researchers at the Magdalena Ridge Observatory 2.4-meter telescope (located in New Mexico) have been investigating the advantages and disadvantages of using slit spectroscopy versus slitless grating methods to characterize artificial Earth-orbiting objects. The objective is to develop a method that returns useful diagnostic information with a minimal investment in observational monitoring time. However, spectral measurements are a desirable component of characterization studies of natural objects in near-Earth orbit as well. Therefore, in 2012, we began to extend this instrumentation beyond its SSA applications to the study of Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). The typical lifetimes of NEAs are up to three orders of magnitude shorter than the typical timescales associated with the main asteroid belt. Therefore, the current NEA population is a relatively recent product that has to be continually re-supplied. Spectroscopic analysis of NEAs helps characterize their taxonomic distribution and identify potential source regions which would then enhance our understanding of the origin of the current population. Although this is of interest scientifically, it can also help estimate the magnitude of the hazard threat from still undiscovered asteroids as well as provide guidance to optimize ground-based telescope search strategies. Slit-based spectroscopy is time consuming and has limitations on how faint an object can be studied. Therefore, the goal of this current project is to determine whether a lower resolution (by a factor of 10 with respect to the slit-based spectrometer), readily available slitless grating is sufficient for rough taxonomic classification in the study of fainter target-of-opportunity NEAs. The grating provides spectral information in 20nm wavelength bands that has proven useful for material identifications of relatively bright geostationary satellites (Dao, et al. 2013). However, this arrangement results in a higher background noise. Therefore, we are testing this method among a range of lunar phases to examine the limitations of slitless spectroscopy for faint asteroid targets.

  10. The diagnostic method has a strong influence on classification of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Escourrou, Pierre; Grote, Ludger; Penzel, Thomas; Mcnicholas, Walter T; Verbraecken, Johan; Tkacova, Rosa; Riha, Renata L; Hedner, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Polygraphy (PG) and polysomnography (PSG) are used in clinical settings in Europe for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but their equivalence in unselected clinical cohorts is unknown. We hypothesized that the method would affect both diagnostic outcomes and disease severity stratification. Data from 11 049 patients in the multi-centre European Sleep Apnea Cohort (ESADA) with suspected OSA (male and female, aged 18-80 years) were used in two groups of patients to compare PG (n = 5745) and PSG (n = 5304). Respiratory events were scored using the 2007 American Association of Sleep Medicine (AASM) criteria. In subjects who underwent PSG, mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) using sleep time (AHIPSG 31.0 ± 26.1 h(-1) ) and total analysed time (TAT) (AHITAT 24.7 ± 22.0 h(-1) ) were higher than in subjects who underwent PG (AHIPG 22.0 ± 23.5 h(-1) ) (P < 0.0001). The oxygen desaturation index (ODI) was lower in subjects investigated with PG (ODIPG 18.4 ± 21.7 h(-1) ) compared to subjects investigated with PSG (ODIPSG 23.0 ± 25.3 h(-1) ) but not different when the PSG was indexed by TAT (ODITAT 18.6 ± 21.4 h(-1) , P < 0.65). The proportion of patients with an AHI ≥ 15 was 64% in the subjects who underwent PSG and 47% in the subjects who underwent PG (P < 0.001). Overall, patients investigated using PG are likely to have a 30% lower AHI on average, compared to patients investigated by PSG. This study suggests that PG interpreted using standard guidelines results in underdiagnosis and misclassification of OSA. We advocate the development of PG-specific guidelines for the management of OSA patients. PMID:26511017

  11. How Do Zoos "Talk" to Their General Visitors? Do Visitors "Listen"? A Mixed Method Investigation of the Communication between Modern Zoos and Their General Visitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Katie; McConney, Andrew; Mansfield, Caroline F.

    2014-01-01

    Modern zoos utilise a variety of education tools for communicating with visitors. Previous research has discussed the benefits of providing multiple education communications, yet little research provides an indication of what communications are being employed within zoos today. This research is a two-phased, mixed-methods investigation into the

  12. How Do Zoos "Talk" to Their General Visitors? Do Visitors "Listen"? A Mixed Method Investigation of the Communication between Modern Zoos and Their General Visitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Katie; McConney, Andrew; Mansfield, Caroline F.

    2014-01-01

    Modern zoos utilise a variety of education tools for communicating with visitors. Previous research has discussed the benefits of providing multiple education communications, yet little research provides an indication of what communications are being employed within zoos today. This research is a two-phased, mixed-methods investigation into the…

  13. Modern Analytical Methods Applied to Earth and Planetary Sciences for Micro, Nano and Pico Space Devices and Robots in Landing Site Selection and Surface Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizi, P. G.; Brczi, Sz.; Horvth, I.; Horvth, A. F.; Vizi, J. Cs.

    2014-11-01

    Fleet of Nano and Pico Sized Space Devices and Robots (NPSDR) are deployable to realize and accomplish in situ modern analytical methods in wide range of Earth and planetary sciences. Shorter time and bigger field of surfaces and volumes of space.

  14. Different optical diagnostic methods for defining the corner-turning distances of detonating high-explosive charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, Manfred

    1997-05-01

    The Corner Turning Distance (CTD) can be measured with different optical diagnostic methods or also with FXR. The CTD's are important values of the detonability of high explosive (HE) charges or indicate at what distance or radius they are able to change a forward detonation in a radial detonation direction. The less sensitive HE's have an increasing problem with this phenomenon. It will be presented an overview of the different, especially the optical diagnostic methods. Their advantages and disadvantages will be illustrated on a number of typical examples. Simple tests which give only the CTD's, and more scientific arrangements allow also to define the so-called dark or dead zones. The CTD values given also good indication for insufficient initiation strength. With this method explosive trains can be also checked very well in their initiation limitations.

  15. Studies of the physical aspects of intumescence using advance diagnostics methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Hussain; Huang, Hua Wei; Zhang, Yang

    2014-04-01

    The use of intumescent paints as an active fire protection method has gained immense interest in recent years. A significant aspect of research has focused on studying the chemical aspects of the system to improve performance. The dynamics and physical aspects of intumescence in real time fire conditions are still unclear. The present research uses an experimental approach where diagnostics techniques such as thermal imaging camera was used to study intumescent characteristics that have been not been reported in great detail. T-panels are a substitute to the most commonly used part in construction, the I-beam. Studies were conducted using a cone calorimeter that provided a uniform heat flux through radiation on steel T-panel samples. The complex nature of char movement was recorded and a novel algorithm was used to track the growing char laye07r. The samples are designed to cater to different fire conditions. Therefore, the degree of intumescence was observed to be very different in the samples. The samples designed for low temperature cellulosic fires focus on high degree of intumesce. Whereas, mechanical strength is the focus for samples used in high temperature turbulent hydrocarbon fire conditions. The variation in the internal structure of the sample is presented. Furthermore, the phenomenon is phase shift is discussed. The phase shift is an essential part of the process of intumescence when the majority of intumescence occurs. It was observed to be different in all the samples. The movement of the samples is a property of great interest. This is because if any part of the substrate is exposed then the formulation does not meet strict commercialisation criterion. The movement was diagonal in nature as compared to flat panels where it is perpendicular. This is due tot the heating pattern of the plate that results in the web part of the panel to influence the growth of char on the flange part of the panel. A special case of char cracking is also highlighted and using image processing algorithm on the thermal imaging data. A quantitative method of analsysis is presented to an otherwise commonly qualitative nature of experimental study in this field.

  16. Studies of the physical aspects of intumescence using advance diagnostics methods

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, Hussain Huang, Hua Wei Zhang, Yang

    2014-04-11

    The use of intumescent paints as an active fire protection method has gained immense interest in recent years. A significant aspect of research has focused on studying the chemical aspects of the system to improve performance. The dynamics and physical aspects of intumescence in real time fire conditions are still unclear. The present research uses an experimental approach where diagnostics techniques such as thermal imaging camera was used to study intumescent characteristics that have been not been reported in great detail. T-panels are a substitute to the most commonly used part in construction, the I-beam. Studies were conducted using a cone calorimeter that provided a uniform heat flux through radiation on steel T-panel samples. The complex nature of char movement was recorded and a novel algorithm was used to track the growing char laye07r. The samples are designed to cater to different fire conditions. Therefore, the degree of intumescence was observed to be very different in the samples. The samples designed for low temperature cellulosic fires focus on high degree of intumesce. Whereas, mechanical strength is the focus for samples used in high temperature turbulent hydrocarbon fire conditions. The variation in the internal structure of the sample is presented. Furthermore, the phenomenon is phase shift is discussed. The phase shift is an essential part of the process of intumescence when the majority of intumescence occurs. It was observed to be different in all the samples. The movement of the samples is a property of great interest. This is because if any part of the substrate is exposed then the formulation does not meet strict commercialisation criterion. The movement was diagonal in nature as compared to flat panels where it is perpendicular. This is due tot the heating pattern of the plate that results in the web part of the panel to influence the growth of char on the flange part of the panel. A special case of char cracking is also highlighted and using image processing algorithm on the thermal imaging data. A quantitative method of analsysis is presented to an otherwise commonly qualitative nature of experimental study in this field.

  17. Atomic Resonance Radiation Energetics Investigation as a Diagnostic Method for Non-Equilibrium Hypervelocity Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Scott A.; Bershader, Daniel; Sharma, Surendra P.; Deiwert, George S.

    1996-01-01

    Absorption measurements with a tunable vacuum ultraviolet light source have been proposed as a concentration diagnostic for atomic oxygen, and the viability of this technique is assessed in light of recent measurements. The instrumentation, as well as initial calibration measurements, have been reported previously. We report here additional calibration measurements performed to study the resonance broadening line shape for atomic oxygen. The application of this diagnostic is evaluated by considering the range of suitable test conditions and requirements, and by identifying issues that remain to be addressed.

  18. Chemical differentiation of Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang, a Chinese medicine formula, prepared by traditional and modern decoction methods using UPLC/Q-TOFMS-based metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jian-Bo; Bai, Xu; Cai, Xiu-Jiang; Rao, Yi; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2013-09-01

    In order to evaluate chemical consistency between traditional and modern decoctions of Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang (DCQT), a classical Chinese medicine formula commonly used in the treatment of digestive diseases, an ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOFMS) combined with multivariate statistical analysis was established to globally characterize the chemical profile and discover differentiating chemical markers. Two kinds of decoctions, namely traditional decoction (multi-step decoction of constituent herbs), and modern decoction (one-step decoction of all herbs), were prepared and subjected to UPLC-MS analysis, the datasets of tR-m/z pairs, ion intensities and sample codes were processed with supervised orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to comprehensively compare the chemical difference between these two kinds of decoction samples. The global chemical difference was found between traditional and modern decoctions, and rhein, sennoside A/B, diosmetin, magnoloside B and naringin were the components contributing most to these differences. Based on the fact that traditional decoction of DCQT presents the higher concentration of rhein and sennoside A/B, mainly contributed to laxative activity of DCQT, the purgative effect of traditional decoction might be more potent, compared with modern decoction. However, the comparative study on purgative effect of traditional and modern DCQT remains to be further investigated using pharmacological approaches. Our findings also provide the early scientific evidence of traditional decoction method of DCQT. PMID:23685412

  19. Personality Assessment in the Diagnostic Manuals: On Mindfulness, Multiple Methods, and Test Score Discontinuities.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Recent controversies have illuminated the strengths and limitations of different frameworks for conceptualizing personality pathology (e.g., trait perspectives, categorical models), and stimulated debate regarding how best to diagnose personality disorders (PDs) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), and in other diagnostic systems (i.e., the International Classification of Diseases, the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual). In this article I argue that regardless of how PDs are conceptualized and which diagnostic system is employed, multimethod assessment must play a central role in PD diagnosis. By complementing self-reports with evidence from other domains (e.g., performance-based tests), a broader range of psychological processes are engaged in the patient, and the impact of self-perception and self-presentation biases can be better understood. By providing the assessor with evidence drawn from multiple modalities, some of which provide converging patterns and some of which yield divergent results, a multimethod assessment compels the assessor to engage this evidence more deeply. The mindful processing that ensues can help minimize the deleterious impact of naturally occurring information processing bias and distortion on the part of the clinician (e.g., heuristics, attribution errors), bringing greater clarity to the synthesis and integration of assessment data. PMID:25856565

  20. An Informal Reading Readiness Inventory: A Diagnostic Method of Predicting First Grade Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carolyn C.; Koenke, Karl

    A study was undertaken to create and validate a diagnostic, task-based Informal Reading Readiness Inventory (IRRI). IRRI subtests were created to reflect four areas found to be important in reading readiness: awareness of self and media, language experience, reasoning, and phonics. Prereading curriculum components formed the basis for test item

  1. Diagnostic methods for mastitis in cows are not appropriate for use in humans: commentary.

    PubMed

    Kvist, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare workers are now being targeted for marketing of diagnostic tools for mastitis that were developed for the dairy industry and which aim to provide information regarding choice of antibiotic treatment. Meanwhile, scientists are striving to understand how the human microbiome affects health and wellbeing and the importance of maintenance of bacterial balance in the human body. Breast milk supplies a multitude of bacteria to populate the baby's intestinal tract and kick-start the immune system. Researchers propose a paradigm shift in the understanding of bacterial content in breast milk and an alternative paradigm for the understanding of lactational mastitis: there is the beginning of evidence that many cases of lactational mastitis will resolve spontaneously. An international group of researchers is attempting to answer how dietary habits, birth mode, genetics and environmental factors may impact the bacterial content of breast milk. Until we have more comprehensive knowledge about the human milk microbiome, diagnostic aids for identification of women in need of antibiotic therapy for mastitis remain unreliable. Diagnostic aids could lead to the injudicious use of antibiotic therapy, which in turn may rob the infant of bacteria valuable for development of its immune system. The marketing of diagnostic aids for use in human medicine, that were originally developed for use in cows, is neither evidence-based nor good ethical practice. PMID:26877759

  2. Mutual Information Item Selection Method in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing with Short Test Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) purports to combine the strengths of both CAT and cognitive diagnosis. Cognitive diagnosis models aim at classifying examinees into the correct mastery profile group so as to pinpoint the strengths and weakness of each examinee whereas CAT algorithms choose items to determine those…

  3. Mutual Information Item Selection Method in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing with Short Test Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) purports to combine the strengths of both CAT and cognitive diagnosis. Cognitive diagnosis models aim at classifying examinees into the correct mastery profile group so as to pinpoint the strengths and weakness of each examinee whereas CAT algorithms choose items to determine those

  4. Ischemic Stroke Detection System with a Computer-Aided Diagnostic Ability Using an Unsupervised Feature Perception Enhancement Method

    PubMed Central

    Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Wu, Ming-Chi; Chin, Chiun-Li; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Lee, Ming-Sian; Chang, Hao-Yan

    2014-01-01

    We propose an ischemic stroke detection system with a computer-aided diagnostic ability using a four-step unsupervised feature perception enhancement method. In the first step, known as preprocessing, we use a cubic curve contrast enhancement method to enhance image contrast. In the second step, we use a series of methods to extract the brain tissue image area identified during preprocessing. To detect abnormal regions in the brain images, we propose using an unsupervised region growing algorithm to segment the brain tissue area. The brain is centered on a horizontal line and the white matter of the brain's inner ring is split into eight regions. In the third step, we use a coinciding regional location method to find the hybrid area of locations where a stroke may have occurred in each cerebral hemisphere. Finally, we make corrections and mark the stroke area with red color. In the experiment, we tested the system on 90 computed tomography (CT) images from 26 patients, and, with the assistance of two radiologists, we proved that our proposed system has computer-aided diagnostic capabilities. Our results show an increased stroke diagnosis sensitivity of 83% in comparison to 31% when radiologists use conventional diagnostic images. PMID:25610453

  5. Trends in Modern Subject Analysis with Reference to Text Derivative Indexing and Abstracting Methods: The State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Kieth C.

    1972-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the information explosion of the last thirty years and the various attempts made to organize that information in new ways. Section B offers a brief historic review of modern classification and subject heading theory. Section C reviews the literature of automatic indexing, automatic abstracting, and automatic

  6. Astrometrie moderne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalevsky, Jean

    Les parallaxes trigonomtriques, les dimensions et les mouvements propres des astres sont des paramtres fondamentaux pour l'astronomie. Ce livre dcrit les mthodes de l'astromtrie moderne, en particulier les progrs remarquables relatifs aux gains de prcision, les techniques interfromtriques et laser, ainsi que les instruments d'astromtrie spatiale, notamment HIPPARCOS. Le livre commence par une introduction l'astromtrie, aux principes d'optique physique et l'astronomie fondamentale. Les chapitres suivants sont consacrs l'tude des principaux instruments, classiques et modernes. Ce cours profess l'Observatoire de Paris s'adresse aux tudiants en astronomie.

  7. Latent-Class Methods to Evaluate Diagnostics Tests for Echinococcus Infections in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hartnack, Sonja; Budke, Christine M.; Craig, Philip S.; Jiamin, Qiu; Boufana, Belgees; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Torgerson, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of canine echinococcosis can be a challenge in surveillance studies because there is no perfect gold standard that can be used routinely. However, unknown test specificities and sensitivities can be overcome using latent-class analysis with appropriate data. Methodology We utilised a set of faecal and purge samples used previously to explore the epidemiology of canine echinococcosis on the Tibetan plateau. Previously only the purge results were reported and analysed in a largely deterministic way. In the present study, additional diagnostic tests of copro-PCR and copro-antigen ELISA were undertaken on the faecal samples. This enabled a Bayesian analysis in a latent-class model to examine the diagnostic performance of a genus specific copro-antigen ELISA, species-specific copro-PCR and arecoline purgation. Potential covariates including co-infection with Taenia, age and sex of the dog were also explored. The dependence structure of these diagnostic tests could also be analysed. Principle findings The most parsimonious result, indicated by deviance-information criteria, suggested that co-infection with Taenia spp. was a significant covariate with the Echinococcus infection. The copro-PCRs had estimated sensitivities of 89% and 84% respectively for the diagnoses of Echinococcus multilocularis and E. granulosus. The specificities for the copro-PCR were estimated at 93 and 83% respectively. Copro-antigen ELISA had sensitivities of 55 and 57% for the diagnosis of E. multilocularis and E. granulosus and specificities of 71 and 69% respectively. Arecoline purgation with an assumed specificity of 100% had estimated sensitivities of 76% and 85% respectively. Significance This study also shows that incorporating diagnostic uncertainty, in other words assuming no perfect gold standard, and including potential covariates like sex or Taenia co-infection into the epidemiological analysis may give different results than if the diagnosis of infection status is assumed to be deterministic and this approach should therefore be used whenever possible. PMID:23459420

  8. A REFINED QSO SELECTION METHOD USING DIAGNOSTICS TESTS: 663 QSO CANDIDATES IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dae-Won; Protopapas, Pavlos; Trichas, Markos; Alcock, Charles; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Khardon, Roni; Byun, Yong-Ik

    2012-03-10

    We present 663 QSO candidates in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) selected using multiple diagnostics. We started with a set of 2566 QSO candidates selected using the methodology presented in our previous work based on time variability of the MACHO LMC light curves. We then obtained additional information for the candidates by crossmatching them with the Spitzer SAGE, the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Chandra, the XMM, and an LMC UBVI catalog. Using this information, we specified six diagnostic features based on mid-IR colors, photometric redshifts using spectral energy distribution template fitting, and X-ray luminosities in order to further discriminate high-confidence QSO candidates in the absence of spectra information. We then trained a one-class Support Vector Machine model using the diagnostics features of the confirmed 58 MACHO QSOs. We applied the trained model to the original candidates and finally selected 663 high-confidence QSO candidates. Furthermore, we crossmatched these 663 QSO candidates with the newly confirmed 151 QSOs and 275 non-QSOs in the LMC fields. On the basis of the counterpart analysis, we found that the false positive rate is less than 1%.

  9. A Refined QSO Selection Method Using Diagnostics Tests: 663 QSO Candidates in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Won; Protopapas, Pavlos; Trichas, Markos; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Khardon, Roni; Alcock, Charles; Byun, Yong-Ik

    2012-03-01

    We present 663 QSO candidates in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) selected using multiple diagnostics. We started with a set of 2566 QSO candidates selected using the methodology presented in our previous work based on time variability of the MACHO LMC light curves. We then obtained additional information for the candidates by crossmatching them with the Spitzer SAGE, the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Chandra, the XMM, and an LMC UBVI catalog. Using this information, we specified six diagnostic features based on mid-IR colors, photometric redshifts using spectral energy distribution template fitting, and X-ray luminosities in order to further discriminate high-confidence QSO candidates in the absence of spectra information. We then trained a one-class Support Vector Machine model using the diagnostics features of the confirmed 58 MACHO QSOs. We applied the trained model to the original candidates and finally selected 663 high-confidence QSO candidates. Furthermore, we crossmatched these 663 QSO candidates with the newly confirmed 151 QSOs and 275 non-QSOs in the LMC fields. On the basis of the counterpart analysis, we found that the false positive rate is less than 1%.

  10. Update on diabetes diagnosis: a historical review of the dilemma of the diagnostic utility of glycohemoglobin A1c and a proposal for a combined glucose-A1c diagnostic method.

    PubMed

    Aldasouqi, Saleh A; Gossain, Ved V

    2012-01-01

    The role of glycohemoglobin A1c (A1c) for the diagnosis of diabetes has been debated for over three decades. Recently, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) has recommended adding A1c as an additional criterion for diabetes diagnosis. In view of the continued debate about the diagnostic utility of A1c, and in view of the unabated burden of undiagnosed diabetes, the search for alternative diagnostic methods is discussed. A historical literature review is provided, in view of the new ADA diagnostic guidelines, and a proposal is provided for combining A1c and a glucose measurement as a diagnostic alternative/adjunct to the use of a single criterion. This proposal is based on the non-overlapping of the advantages and disadvantages of these individual tests. The cost-effectiveness of this method remains to be tested. PMID:22588455

  11. Modern optical diagnostics in engine research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leipertz, A.; Wensing, M.

    2007-10-01

    Different optical diagnistic techniques are used to gain insight into the single steps forming the functioning chain of the engine combustion process and the complex interplay between these single steps. Examples are given for the application of Mie scattering, laser-induced fluorescence, Raman scattering, CARS and laser-induced incandescence to study diesel engine, SI engine and HCCI combustion processes. The careful adaptation of each optical tool to one part of the engine process makes it possible to get valuable information with minimum change of the process investigated. The paper demonstrates that in addition to conventional engine measurement techniques, a number of different optical techniques must be applied -- and sometimes simultaneously -- to successfully determine the critical parameters of the processes and to investigate their influences on the performance and the quality of real engine combustion.

  12. [Modern magnetic resonance imaging of the liver].

    PubMed

    Hedderich, D M; Weiss, K; Maintz, D; Persigehl, T

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver has become an essential tool in the radiological diagnostics of both focal and diffuse diseases of the liver and is subject to constant change due to technological progress. Recently, important improvements could be achieved by innovations regarding MR hardware, sequences and postprocessing methods. The diagnostic spectrum of MRI could be broadened particularly due to new examination sequences, while at the same time scanning time could be shortened and image quality has been improved. The aim of this article is to explain both the technological background and the clinical application of recent MR sequence developments and to present the scope of a modern MRI protocol for the liver. PMID:26628259

  13. Trichomoniasis: a brief review of diagnostic methods and our experience with real-time PCR for detecting infection.

    PubMed

    Šoba, Barbara; Skvarč, Miha; Matičič, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection, and it is caused by the protozoan flagellate Trichomonas vaginalis. Although highly prevalent in sexually active women, it has long been overlooked in other groups of potentially infected people. Recently, studies have shown that trichomoniasis increases the risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus and can cause adverse outcomes of pregnancy, which has increased interest in T. vaginalis and increased the need for highly sensitive diagnostic tests. This article summarizes the diagnostic methods most commonly used in the diagnosis of trichomoniasis, including the most sensitive and specific nucleic acid amplification tests. It also presents the results of our study comparing the performance of wet mount microscopy and culture to real-time PCR for detecting the parasite. PMID:25770306

  14. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Studies Evaluating Diagnostic Test Accuracy: A Practical Review for Clinical Researchers-Part II. Statistical Methods of Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juneyoung; Kim, Kyung Won; Choi, Sang Hyun; Huh, Jimi

    2015-01-01

    Meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies differs from the usual meta-analysis of therapeutic/interventional studies in that, it is required to simultaneously analyze a pair of two outcome measures such as sensitivity and specificity, instead of a single outcome. Since sensitivity and specificity are generally inversely correlated and could be affected by a threshold effect, more sophisticated statistical methods are required for the meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy. Hierarchical models including the bivariate model and the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic model are increasingly being accepted as standard methods for meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. We provide a conceptual review of statistical methods currently used and recommended for meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. This article could serve as a methodological reference for those who perform systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. PMID:26576107

  15. Validity of Optical Coherence Tomography as a Diagnostic Method for Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema.

    PubMed

    Azrak, Cesar; Baeza-Daz, Manuel Vicente; Palazn-Bru, Antonio; Hernndez-Martnez, Carmen; Navarro-Navarro, Ada; Martnez-Toldos, Jos Juan; Gil-Guilln, Vicente Francisco

    2015-09-01

    To validate optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the diagnosis of referable retinopathy (severe, very severe or proliferative retinopathy, and macular edema) in diabetic patients. We performed a cross-sectional observational study. A random sample was analyzed comprising 136 eyes of diabetic patients referred to the hospital in Elche (Spain) with suspected referable retinopathy between October 2012 and June 2013. Primary variable: Referable retinopathy measured by ophthalmological examination of the retina. OCT data included: central foveal thickness, presence of intraretinal fluid, and fundus photographs. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated to determine the minimum thickness value with a positive likelihood ratio >10. To determine the validity of OCT, the following diagnostic test was defined: Positive: if the patient had at least 1 of these criteria: foveal thickness greater than the point obtained on the previously defined ROC curve, intraretinal fluid, abnormal fundus photographs; Negative: none of the above criteria. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and Kappa statistic were determined. Of the 136 eyes, 48 had referable retinopathy (35.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.3-43.3). The minimum thickness value with a positive likelihood ratio >10 was 275??m. The diagnostic test constructed showed: sensitivity, 91.67% (95% CI: 79.13-97.30); specificity, 93.18% (95% CI: 85.19-97.20); positive predictive value, 88.00% (95% CI: 75.00-95.03); negative predictive value, 95.35% (95% CI: 87.87-98.50); positive likelihood ratio, 13.44 (95% CI: 6.18-29.24); negative likelihood ratio, 0.09 (95% CI: 0.03-0.23). The Kappa value was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.75-0.94, P?diagnostic test for referable diabetic retinopathy with type A evidence. Nevertheless, studies are needed to determine the validity of this test in the general diabetic population. PMID:26402819

  16. Performance factors as a basis of practical fault detection and diagnostic methods for air-handling units

    SciTech Connect

    Kaerki, S.H.; Karjalainen, S.J.

    1999-07-01

    The technical term performance is defined as how well a system fulfills its intended purpose in different operational circumstances. This paper describes the process of establishing the performance factors of air-handling units (AHUs), defining the performance requirements, and connecting them to fault detection and diagnosis methods. The most important performance requirements of AHUs are related to heating and cooling energy, the supply airflow rate and purity, energy efficiency, and control quality. Many solutions made during different life-cycle phases affect the final system performance. These solutions are discussed in this paper. Diagnostic tools and methods can be developed for monitoring the defined performance criteria. Practical FDD methods have been developed for the system considered here. The methods are simple and easy to apply in practice. Methods for monitoring the heat recovery unit and the AHU energy use are presented. Examples of utilizing characteristic curves and fault-symptom trees are also described.

  17. Evaluation of diagnostic methods for the detection of Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsy specimens of dyspeptic patients

    PubMed Central

    Ramis, Ivy Bastos; de Moraes, Ernani Pinho; Fernandes, Mrcia Silveira; Mendoza-Sassi, Raul; Rodrigues, Obirajara; Juliano, Carlos Renan Varela; Scaini, Carlos James; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects nearly 50% of the worlds population. This microorganism is accepted as the most important agent of gastritis and as a risk factor for peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. Currently many diagnostic methods exist for detecting H. pylori, however they all have limitations, thus it is recommend a combination of at least two methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic methods, such as in-house urease test, culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), for the detection of the H. pylori in gastric biopsy specimens of 144 dyspeptic patients, using as gold standard the association between histology and rapid urease test. According to the gold standard used in this study, 48 (33.3%) patients were infected with H. pylori, while 96 (66.7%) were classified as not infected. The in-house urease test and the PCR were the most sensitive methods (100%), followed by culture (85.4%). However, the inhouse urease test and the culture were the most specific (100%), followed by PCR (75%). In conclusion, this study showed that, in comparison with the combination of histology and rapid urease test, the in-house urease test and the PCR presented 100% of sensitivity in the diagnosis of gastric infection by H. pylori, while the in-house urease test and the culture reached 100% of specificity. These finding suggest that the combination of two or more methods may improve the accuracy of the H. pylori detection. PMID:24031905

  18. Concurrent malaria and dengue Fever: a need for rapid diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Manish; Kanhere, Sujata; Phadke, Varsha; George, Riya

    2014-01-01

    Malaria and dengue fever are endemic in the South-East Asian region including India. Both the illnesses share similar symptomatology, but differ in certain respects such as different- causative organisms and mosquito vector with diverse habitat. Hence, concurrent malaria and dengue fever in the same patient is said to be unusual. There have been cases of concurrent malaria and dengue, but they are scarce from highly endemic region like ours. Here, we describe three unusual cases of Plasmodium vivax and dengue co-infection diagnosed by use of rapid diagnostic tests. Early diagnosis and timely intervention is crucial in managing such patients. PMID:25657963

  19. Genetic mutation underlying orthostatic intolerance and diagnostic and therapeutic methods relating thereto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, David (Inventor); Blakely, Randy D. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Isolated polynucleotide molecules and peptides encoded by these molecules are used in the analysis of human norepinephrine (NE) transporter variants, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, relating to a human NE transporter polymorphism. By analyzing genomic DNA or amplified genomic DNA, or amplified cDNA derived from mRNA, it is possible to type a human NE transporter with regard to the human NE transporter polymorphism, for example, in the context of diagnosing and treating NE transport impairments, and disorders associated with NE transport impairments, such as orthostatic intolerance.

  20. Application Research of Two Real-Time Fault Diagnostic Methods in the Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chun-Li Xie; Yong-Kuo Liu; Hong Xia

    2006-07-01

    In order to guarantee the safety of nuclear power plants (NPP), we built two real-time fault diagnosis systems adopting VISUAL BAS6.0 programming language, which apply neural network technology and data fusion technology respectively. The fault diagnosis systems interchange data with the simulator timely utilizing communication interface. We insert faults on simulator to test the two systems on line. The advantages and disadvantages are illuminated and contrasted through analyzing the faults diagnostic results off- line, which establish the foundation for the further research and application to the fault diagnosis system of the nuclear power plants. (authors)

  1. Modernization of the Method of Line-Line Intersection Using Rtn Gnss Technology for Determining the Position of Corners of Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzyżek, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Carrying out measurements of buildings with RTN GNSS technology in difficult environmental conditions appears to be a major challenge for many surveyors. Achieving the required accuracy of the position of a building structure is often a difficult, and sometimes even an impossible task to perform. This paper presents an innovative solution to increase the reliability of determining the coordinates of building corners, by modernizing the results obtained from the indirect method of measurement of line-line intersection by the socalled half-angle method. Generally speaking, the half-angle method is to verify the angular values in determined points (corners of buildings) from the method of intersection of the base point lines. Optimization of this method involves reducing deformation of a building, which has been determined in real time, taking into account only the classical method of line-line intersection. In order to obtain optimized measurement results, the conversion of the obtained results to the convergent values relative to the most probable coordinates is performed. Based on a detailed comparative and statistical analyses, it can be concluded that the modernized method of line intersection, employed in the RTN GNSS mode with the half-angle method, greatly improves the reliability of determining corners of buildings (X and Y coordinates), as well as provides an exact reflection of the geometric shape of a structure.

  2. Use of Expert Panels to Define the Reference Standard in Diagnostic Research: A Systematic Review of Published Methods and Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Bertens, Loes C. M.; Broekhuizen, Berna D. L.; Naaktgeboren, Christiana A.; Rutten, Frans H.; Hoes, Arno W.; van Mourik, Yvonne; Moons, Karel G. M.; Reitsma, Johannes B.

    2013-01-01

    Background In diagnostic studies, a single and error-free test that can be used as the reference (gold) standard often does not exist. One solution is the use of panel diagnosis, i.e., a group of experts who assess the results from multiple tests to reach a final diagnosis in each patient. Although panel diagnosis, also known as consensus or expert diagnosis, is frequently used as the reference standard, guidance on preferred methodology is lacking. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of methods used in panel diagnoses and to provide initial guidance on the use and reporting of panel diagnosis as reference standard. Methods and Findings PubMed was systematically searched for diagnostic studies applying a panel diagnosis as reference standard published up to May 31, 2012. We included diagnostic studies in which the final diagnosis was made by two or more persons based on results from multiple tests. General study characteristics and details of panel methodology were extracted. Eighty-one studies were included, of which most reported on psychiatry (37%) and cardiovascular (21%) diseases. Data extraction was hampered by incomplete reporting; one or more pieces of critical information about panel reference standard methodology was missing in 83% of studies. In most studies (75%), the panel consisted of three or fewer members. Panel members were blinded to the results of the index test results in 31% of studies. Reproducibility of the decision process was assessed in 17 (21%) studies. Reported details on panel constitution, information for diagnosis and methods of decision making varied considerably between studies. Conclusions Methods of panel diagnosis varied substantially across studies and many aspects of the procedure were either unclear or not reported. On the basis of our review, we identified areas for improvement and developed a checklist and flow chart for initial guidance for researchers conducting and reporting of studies involving panel diagnosis. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24143138

  3. Method for assessing the reliability of molecular diagnostics based on multiplexed SERS-coded nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Steven Y; Som, Madhura; Liu, Jonathan T C

    2013-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles have been engineered to generate unique fingerprint spectra and are potentially useful as bright contrast agents for molecular diagnostics. One promising strategy for biomedical diagnostics and imaging is to functionalize various particle types ("flavors"), each emitting a unique spectral signature, to target a large multiplexed panel of molecular biomarkers. While SERS particles emit narrow spectral features that allow them to be easily separable under ideal conditions, the presence of competing noise sources and background signals such as detector noise, laser background, and autofluorescence confounds the reliability of demultiplexing algorithms. Results obtained during time-constrained in vivo imaging experiments may not be reproducible or accurate. Therefore, our goal is to provide experimentalists with a metric that may be monitored to enforce a desired bound on accuracy within a user-defined confidence level. We have defined a spectral reliability index (SRI), based on the output of a direct classical least-squares (DCLS) demultiplexing routine, which provides a measure of the reliability of the computed nanoparticle concentrations and ratios. We present simulations and experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of this strategy, which can potentially be utilized for a range of instruments and biomedical applications involving multiplexed SERS nanoparticles. PMID:23620806

  4. The use of CA-IX as a diagnostic method for oral leukoplakia.

    PubMed

    Prez-Sayns, M; Surez-Pearanda, J M; Torres-Lpez, M; Supuran, C T; Gndara-Vila, P; Gayoso-Diz, P; Barros-Angueira, F; Gallas-Torreira, M; Garca-Garca, A

    2015-02-01

    The presence and degree of dysplasia are important diagnostic and prognostic criteria for oral leukoplakia, but evaluation of dysplasia is difficult and subjective. Carbonic anhydrase-IX (CA-IX) is expressed primarily in tumor cells and is considered a specific hypoxia marker. We investigated the role of CA-IX in oral leukoplakia. We investigated 30 specimens of oral leukoplakia and 35 dysplasia specimens adjacent to the tumor margin. We analyzed clinical variables including age, sex, degree of dysplasia, and smoking, clinical appearance of leukoplakia, number of lesions, location, size, clinical monitoring, malignant transformation and recurrence. For the immunohistochemical study, we used a noncommercial monoclonal antibody against human CA-IX MAb M75. We found greater CA-IX positivity in nonsmokers, erythroplakia and mottled leukoplakia, those located on the tongue, patients with multiple lesions, 2-4 cm leukoplakias and in recurrent cases, although differences were not statistically significant. All lesions in all samples without dysplasia were negative for CA-IX; however, for all other categories of dysplasia, the percentages of positivity and negativity varied. Regarding the diagnostic index values, we found a sensitivity of 32%, specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 13%. Leukoplakias appear mainly in females and potentially are malignant; more than 90% have some degree of dysplasia, and therefore require close clinical and histopathological monitoring. The CA-IX immunohistochemical marker may be useful for screening samples without dysplasia owing to its high specificity. PMID:25297562

  5. Biogeosystem technique as a method to overcome the Biological and Environmental Hazards of modern Agricultural, Irrigational and Technological Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinitchenko, Valery; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Zinchenko, Vladimir; Zarmaev, Ali; Magomadov, Ali; Chernenko, Vladimir; Startsev, Viktor; Bakoev, Serojdin; Dikaev, Zaurbek

    2014-05-01

    Modern challenge for humanity is to replace the paradigm of nature use and overcome environmental hazards of agronomy, irrigation, industry, and other human activities in biosphere. It is utterly reasonable to stop dividing biosphere on shares - the human habitat and the environment. In the 21st century it is an outdated anthropocentrism. Contradicting himself to biosphere Humankind has the problems. The new paradigm of biosphere control by methods of Biogeosystem technique is on agenda of Humankind. Key directions of Biogeosystem technique. Tillage. Single rotary milling 20…30-50…60 sm soil layer optimizes the evolution and environment of soil, creates a favorable conditions for the rhizosphere, increases the biological productivity of biosphere by 30-50% compared to the standard agricultural practices for the period up to 40 years. Recycle material. Recycling of mineral and organic substances in soil layer of 20…30-50…60 sm in rotary milling soil processing provides wastes clean return to biosphere. Direct intrasoil substances synthesis. Environmentally friendly robot wasteless nanotechnology provides direct substances synthesis, including fertilizers, inside the soil. It eliminates the prerequisites of the wastes formation under standard industrial technologies. Selective substance's extraction from soil. Electrochemical robotic nanotechnology provides selective substances extraction from soil. The technology provides recovery, collection and subsequent safe industrial use of extracted substances out of landscape. Saving fresh water. An important task is to save fresh water in biosphere. Irrigation spends water 4-5 times more of biological requirements of plants, leads to degradation of soil and landscape. The intrasoil pulse continuous-discrete paradigm of irrigation is proposed. It provides the soil and landscape conservation, increases the biological productivity, save the fresh water up to 10-20 times. The subsurface soil rotary processing and intrasoil pulsed continuous-discrete irrigation provide environmentally safe disposal of municipal, industrial, biological and agricultural wastes. Hazardous chemical and biological agents are under the soil surface. It provided a medical and veterinary safety of environment. Biogeosystem technic controls the equilibria in the soil and soil solution, prevents excessive mineralization of organic matter in the surface layers of soil. Simultaneously a soil chemical reduction excluded, biological substance do not degrade to gases. Products of organic matter decomposition are directed to the food chain, 100% waste recycling is obtained. Biogeosystems technique allows producing more biological products hence to recycle excessive amount of man-made CO2 and other substances. Biogeosystems technique increases the rate of photosynthesis of the biosphere, the degree of air ionization. This enhances the formation of rains over land, ensures stability of the ionosphere, magnetosphere and atmosphere of Earth. The nowadays technologies allow applying technical solutions based on Biogeosystem technique, there is unique opportunity to accelerate the noosphere new technological platform.

  6. Cyberspace modernization :

    SciTech Connect

    Keliiaa, Curtis M.; McLane, Victor N.

    2014-07-01

    A common challenge across the communications and information technology (IT) sectors is Internet + modernization + complexity + risk + cost. Cyberspace modernization and cyber security risks, issues, and concerns impact service providers, their customers, and the industry at large. Public and private sectors are struggling to solve the problem. New service opportunities lie in mobile voice, video, and data, and machine-to-machine (M2M) information and communication technologies that are migrating not only to predominant Internet Protocol (IP) communications, but also concurrently integrating IP, version 4 (IPv4) and IP, version 6 (IPv6). With reference to the Second Internet and the Internet of Things, next generation information services portend business survivability in the changing global market. The planning, architecture, and design information herein is intended to increase infrastructure preparedness, security, interoperability, resilience, and trust in the midst of such unprecedented change and opportunity. This document is a product of Sandia National Laboratories Tribal Cyber and IPv6 project work. It is a Cyberspace Modernization objective advisory in support of bridging the digital divide through strategic partnership and an informed path forward.

  7. Modern NMR Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelinski, Lynn W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses direct chemical information that can be obtained from modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, concentrating on the types of problems that can be solved. Shows how selected methods provide information about polymers, bipolymers, biochemistry, small organic molecules, inorganic compounds, and compounds oriented in a magnetic

  8. Diagnosing Delirium in Hospitalized Elderly Patients with Dementia: Adapting the Confusion Assessment Method to ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Christine; Kreisel, Stefan H.; Oster, Peter; Driessen, Martin; Arolt, Volker; Inouye, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) performs well in DSM-IV delirium screening, but the ICD-10 classification utilizes more delirium symptoms. Objectives To compare performance characteristics of the CAM algorithm for screening and delirium diagnosis with ICD-10 and DSM-IV delirium criteria in high-risk patients. Design Prospective cohort study Setting Academic geriatric hospital Participants 102 patients, aged 80100 years, hospitalized for acute medical illness. Measurements Complete CAM instrument (9 items), scored using the 4-item CAM diagnostic algorithm. Gold standard classification of delirium was rated independently by expert consensus, based on DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria for delirium. Results In 79 hospitalized patients, the CAM performed well for delirium screening (delirium prevalence of 24% by DSM-IV and 14% by ICD-10). Of all CAM features, acute onset and fluctuating course are most important for diagnosis (area under the curve, AUC, 0.92 in DSM-IV and 0.83 in ICD-10). Compared with the DSM-IV reference standard, the CAM diagnostic algorithm had a sensitivity of 0.74, specificity of 1.0, and AUC of 0.88; compared with ICD-10, which had a sensitivity of 0.82, specificity of 0.91, and AUC of 0.85. Adding psychomotor change to the CAM algorithm improves specificity to 97% but sensitivity is reduced to 55% for ICD-10 (AUC 0.96). Alternatively, applying psychomotor change sequentially to only the group identified with no delirium by the CAM algorithm improves sensitivity to 91% with specificity of 85% (AUC 0.95). Conclusion While the CAM diagnostic algorithm performs well against a DSM-IV reference standard, adding psychomotor change to the CAM algorithm improves specificity and diagnostic value against ICD-10 criteria over all in aged individuals with dementia, and improves sensitivity and screening performance when applied sequentially in CAM-negative individuals. PMID:22881707

  9. Validity of Optical Coherence Tomography as a Diagnostic Method for Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Azrak, Cesar; Baeza-Díaz, Manuel Vicente; Palazón-Bru, Antonio; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Navarro-Navarro, Aída; Martínez-Toldos, José Juan; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To validate optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the diagnosis of referable retinopathy (severe, very severe or proliferative retinopathy, and macular edema) in diabetic patients. We performed a cross-sectional observational study. A random sample was analyzed comprising 136 eyes of diabetic patients referred to the hospital in Elche (Spain) with suspected referable retinopathy between October 2012 and June 2013. Primary variable: Referable retinopathy measured by ophthalmological examination of the retina. OCT data included: central foveal thickness, presence of intraretinal fluid, and fundus photographs. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated to determine the minimum thickness value with a positive likelihood ratio >10. To determine the validity of OCT, the following diagnostic test was defined: Positive: if the patient had at least 1 of these criteria: foveal thickness greater than the point obtained on the previously defined ROC curve, intraretinal fluid, abnormal fundus photographs; Negative: none of the above criteria. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and Kappa statistic were determined. Of the 136 eyes, 48 had referable retinopathy (35.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.3–43.3). The minimum thickness value with a positive likelihood ratio >10 was 275 μm. The diagnostic test constructed showed: sensitivity, 91.67% (95% CI: 79.13–97.30); specificity, 93.18% (95% CI: 85.19–97.20); positive predictive value, 88.00% (95% CI: 75.00–95.03); negative predictive value, 95.35% (95% CI: 87.87–98.50); positive likelihood ratio, 13.44 (95% CI: 6.18–29.24); negative likelihood ratio, 0.09 (95% CI: 0.03–0.23). The Kappa value was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.75–0.94, P < 0.001. This study constructed a diagnostic test for referable diabetic retinopathy with type A evidence. Nevertheless, studies are needed to determine the validity of this test in the general diabetic population. PMID:26402819

  10. Improved Data Acquisition Methods for Uninterrupted Signal Monitoring and Ultra-Fast Plasma Diagnostics in LHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Hideya; Imazu, Setsuo; Ohsuna, Masaki; Kojima, Mamoru; Nonomura, Miki; Shoji, Mamoru; Emoto, Masahiko; Yoshida, Masanobu; Iwata, Chie; Miyake, Hitoshi; Nagayama, Yoshio; Kawahata, Kazuo

    To deal with endless data streams acquired in LHD steady-state experiments, the LHD data acquisition system was designed with a simple concept that divides a long pulse into a consecutive series of 10-s “subshots”. Latest digitizers applying high-speed PCI-Express technology, however, output nonstop gigabyte per second data streams whose subshot intervals would be extremely long if 10-s rule was applied. These digitizers need shorter subshot intervals, less than 10-s long. In contrast, steady-state fusion plants need uninterrupted monitoring of the environment and device soundness. They adopt longer subshot lengths of either 10 min or 1 day. To cope with both uninterrupted monitoring and ultra-fast diagnostics, the ability to vary the subshot length according to the type of operation is required. In this study, a design modification that enables variable subshot lengths was implemented and its practical effectiveness in LHD was verified.

  11. [Evaluation of the diagnostic reagents which detect group A Streptococcus with the immunochromatographical method].

    PubMed

    Kojima, Tadashi; Arai, Miyuki; Sadamoto, Shinya; Ikedo, Masanari; Yui, Ikuko

    2002-01-01

    Dipstick 'Eiken' Strep A was evaluated for this sensitivity and specificity. Dipstick 'Eiken' Strep A had a capacity to detect Group A Streptococcus in 1.5x10(5) cfu/swab. The sensitivity of Dipstick 'Eiken' Strep A was 4 times higher than the sensitivity of the latex agglutination test (Serodirect 'Eiken' Strep A) and was almost the same as the immunochromatography test (TESTPACK Plus STREP A, CLEARVIEW STREP A and ImmunoCard STAT! STREP A TEST). No cross reaction was observed among 27 strains of 25 species microorganisms with Dipstick 'Eiken' Strep A. Dipstick 'Eiken' Strep A was compared with TESTPACK Plus STREP A among throat swabs from 50 patients with pharyngitis. Dipstick 'Eiken' Strep A had a sensitivity of 92.9%, a specificity of 90.5% and an agreement of 91.8%. Dipstick 'Eiken' Strep A is found to be useful diagnostic assay in the clinical laboratories. PMID:11895425

  12. Diagnostic methods for African horsesickness virus using monoclonal antibodies to structural and non-structural proteins.

    PubMed

    Ranz, A I; Miguet, J G; Anaya, C; Venteo, A; Corts, E; Vela, C; Sanz, A

    1992-11-01

    A panel of 32 hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reactive with African horsesickness virus serotype 4 (AHSV-4) has been developed. Four of the MAbs recognized the major core antigen VP7, twenty recognized the outer capsid protein VP2 and eight reacted with the non-structural protein NS1. With the VP7-specific MAbs a rapid and sensitive double antibody sandwich immunoassay has been developed to detect viral antigen in infected Vero cells and in spleen tissue from AHSV-infected horses. The sensitivity of the assay is 10 ng viral antigen per 100 microliters. The NS1-specific MAbs allowed visualization by immunofluorescence of tubule-like structures in the cytoplasm of infected Vero cells. This can be very useful as a confirmatory diagnostic procedure. The antigenic map of the outer capsid VP2 protein with MAbs is also reported. PMID:1481354

  13. DIAGNOSTIC CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION USING THE MEDRAD AVANTA FLUID MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AS COMPARED TO THE TRADITIONAL MANUAL INJECTION METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    Winniford, Michael D

    2013-02-08

    Nearly 4 million patient procedures performed annually in US cardiac catheterization laboratories utilize contrast media to achieve vessel opacification. The amount of contrast media used is variable and depends on the complexity of the procedure, the method of contrast delivery as well as the skill-level of the operator. Since the total amount of contrast used for each procedure can have both patient safety and economic implications, it is essential for cardiologists to have the ability to control contrast delivery such that optimal angiographic image quality is achieved using the least amount of contrast. Although the complication rate associated with cardiac catheterization remains low, the most common serious complication, contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), is associated with poor prognosis and a high mortality rate. Numerous interventional strategies for preventing and reducing the severity of CIN have demonstrated varying degrees of clinical benefit, but none has been shown to reliably prevent this serious complication. To date, the most effective approach for reducing the risk of CIN is to properly hydrate the patient and to minimize the amount of contrast media administered. Automated injection systems are intended for use in virtually all cardiac catheterization procedures and have numerous features which can provide potential advantages over traditional methods. With automated injection technology the operator is able to control and precisely monitor contrast delivery. Additionally, the MEDRAD Avanta Fluid Management Injection System utilizes a sterile contrast reservoir which eliminates the need to discard unused contrast in individual opened containers following each procedure. Considering that an average of 50% of opened contrast media is wasted using manual injection methods, this savings can provide a substantial economic benefit. Automated systems also facilitate the use of smaller (5 French) catheter sizes. Precise flow control and the use of smaller diameter catheters have both been shown to reduce the volume of contrast administered. The use of smaller size catheters also permits more rapid hemostasis, thus allowing shorter ambulation time without the need for costly wound closure devices. These factors can result in enhanced patient satisfaction as well as more efficient management of post-procedure rooms. The intent of this study was to demonstrate that using the MEDRAD Avanta Fluid Management Injection System (MEDRAD, INC., Pittsburgh, PA) for coronary diagnostic procedures can produce a reduction in the volume of contrast administered without loss of operational quality or efficiency. In addition, this study will explore procedure time and efficiency in an effort to minimize the amount of ionizing radiation delivered to the patient as well as the diagnostic team members. Study Design This is a post-market study designed to collect data during diagnostic cardiac catheterization when utilizing 5FR or 6FR catheters in conjunction with the Avanta Fluid Management System or a manual manifold injection method control group. A minimum of 420 patients scheduled for diagnostic cardiac catheterization will be enrolled in the study cohort. Patients will be assigned into the following two groups. Group 1: Catheterization with 5FR or 6FR catheters, using the traditional manual manifold injection method for contrast media delivery which is defined as manual hand injection of contrast media through a 3 or 4 port manifold and left ventriculography performed via standard fixed rate power injection. Group 2: Catheterization with 5FR or 6FR catheters, using the MEDRAD Avanta system for contrast media delivery. Study endpoints include volume of contrast media administered during diagnostic cardiac catheterization, volume of contrast media wasted post-procedure, procedure time (defined as the time from first catheter insertion to last diagnostic catheter removal), fluoroscopy time and angiographic image quality. The study demonstrated that use of the Advanta system reduced overall contrast utilization by decreasing the amount of contrast administered to the patient and reducing the amount of contrast wasted during preparation and post-procedure clean-up. The quality of the angiographic images and the radiation expsure to the patient ere not affected.

  14. [Modern imaging of liver and pancreatic neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Mtka, Ilona; Bikhazi, Ziad; Bartha, va; Palk, Andrs

    2015-03-01

    Modern imaging modalities play an outstanding role in the detection, characterization, staging, therapy planning, treatment outcome evaluation and follow-up of patients with liver and pancreatic neoplasms. Diagnostic performance and accuracy of the available modalities are continuously improving therefore, it is necessary to overview from time to time the diagnostic protocols and algorithms. PMID:25763911

  15. Development of monitoring and diagnostic methods for robots used in remediation of waste sites. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Tecza, J.

    1998-06-01

    'Safe and efficient clean up of hazardous and radioactive waste sites throughout the DOE complex will require extensive use of robots. This research effort focuses on developing Monitoring and Diagnostic (M and D) methods for robots that will provide early detection, isolation, and tracking of impending faults before they result in serious failure. The utility and effectiveness of applying M and D methods to hydraulic robots has never been proven. The present research program is utilizing seeded faults in a laboratory test rig that is representative of an existing hydraulically-powered remediation robot. This report summarizes activity conducted in the first 9 months of the project. The research team has analyzed the Rosie Mobile Worksystem as a representative hydraulic robot, developed a test rig for implanted fault testing, developed a test plan and agenda, and established methods for acquiring and analyzing the test data.'

  16. Medical diagnostic system based on image receivers of various spectral ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siniakova, Olga G.; Ishmuhametov, Airat I.

    1996-04-01

    The medical diagnostics is one of the most important spheres of application of measuring and diagnostic systems based on introscopy methods. The modern medical introscopy diagnostics has in its arsenal many various devices using x-ray radiation with energy from 10 to 100 keV (roentgenological diagnostics, x-ray computer tomography), gamma radiation of radionuclides with energy 10 - 300 keV (radionuclide diagnostics), infrared radiation of human body (thermovision), optical radiation range (endoscopic diagnostics). The application of high- frequency sound fluctuations (ultrasonography) is also effective for tasks of medical diagnostics. The microwave sources based on nuclear magnetic resonance (magnetic resonance imaging) are used for reception the images of internal structures of human body. The prompt development of modern medical introscopy diagnostics observable in last years is connected first of all with wide application of computer facilities for receiving, processing, restoration and analysis of images. It gives the additional opportunity to increase the reliability, accuracy, sensitivity and timeliness of diagnostic decisions. The images received both by scintillation gamma camera and by specialized x-ray or gamma radiation video camera based on charge- coupled devices can be used for evaluation of structural and functional state of vital organs and systems. One of the main tasks at development of medical diagnostic systems is the reduction of optical image to form that maximally facilitates its analysis to the doctor. The article considers the diagnostic system oriented on receiving, processing and evaluating data of radionuclide imaging studies.

  17. Modern concepts of caries measurement.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N B

    2004-01-01

    Following the consideration of several recent systematic and other reviews, there is a growing professional and scientific consensus that caries measurement methodology in caries clinical trials (CCT) should be updated to reflect progress made elsewhere in cariology. In this paper, therefore, "modern" means accepted in contemporary dental research and dental practice on the basis of sound research evidence--not necessarily new or requiring the use of new technology. Caries measurement should be seen in the context of the objectives of modern clinical caries management and the continuum of disease states, ranging from sub-surface carious changes through to more advanced lesions. Measurement concepts can be applied to at least three levels: the tooth surface, the individual, or the group/population. All are relevant to CCTs. Modern clinical caries management can be seen as comprised of seven discrete but linked steps (Steps 2, 3, and 4 are directly concerned with measurement.): (1) 'Caries detection' represents a yes/no decision as to whether caries is present; (2) lesion measurement assesses defined stages of the caries process, taking into account the histopatholgical morphology and appearance of different sizes and types of lesion and the diagnostic threshold(s) being used; (3) lesion monitoring by repeated measures at a series of examinations is used when lesions are less advanced than the stage judged to require operative intervention (A comparison of serial measurements permits the efficacy of preventive care aiming either to arrest or to reverse the lesion to be assessed.); (4) caries activity measures would be very valuable, but are relatively poorly developed and tested at present; (5) diagnosis, prognosis, and clinical decision-making are the important human processes in which all the information obtained from steps 1 to 4 is synthesised; (6) interventions/treatments, both preventive and operative, are now routinely used for caries management; and (7) outcome of caries control/management assesses caries management by examining evidence on the long-term outcomes. A challenge for the future is to define a range of optimal caries measurement methods--in use or in development in recent trials, in clinical practice, and/or in caries epidemiology--that will best contribute to more efficient, modern caries clinical trials. PMID:15286121

  18. Diagnostic Methods for Food-Borne Pathogen Detection and Antimicrobial Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate and rapid detection of pathogens and their antimicrobial resistance is an important tool for ensuring public health. Antimicrobial resistance detection can be classified into phenotypic methods and genotypic methods. In contrast to the phenotypic methods that are laborious and time-consumi...

  19. Comparison of Resource Requirements for a Wind Tunnel Test Designed with Conventional vs. Modern Design of Experiments Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLoach, Richard; Micol, John R.

    2011-01-01

    The factors that determine data volume requirements in a typical wind tunnel test are identified. It is suggested that productivity in wind tunnel testing can be enhanced by managing the inference error risk associated with evaluating residuals in a response surface modeling experiment. The relationship between minimum data volume requirements and the factors upon which they depend is described and certain simplifications to this relationship are realized when specific model adequacy criteria are adopted. The question of response model residual evaluation is treated and certain practical aspects of response surface modeling are considered, including inference subspace truncation. A wind tunnel test plan developed by using the Modern Design of Experiments illustrates the advantages of an early estimate of data volume requirements. Comparisons are made with a representative One Factor At a Time (OFAT) wind tunnel test matrix developed to evaluate a surface to air missile.

  20. [MODERN METHODS OF PROGNOSTICATION OF THE RECURRENCES OCCURRENCE AFTER SURGICAL TREATMENT OF THE MAMMARY GLAND BENIGN TUMORS].

    PubMed

    Usenko, O Yu; Romak, R P

    2015-05-01

    Modern schemes of the recurrences predicting after surgical treatment of benign tumors of mammary gland (BTMG) were estimated. In accordance to data of retrospective investigation obtained, the recurrences occurrence rate through a five-year period of observation have constituted 2.3%. While doing prospective observation, the recurrences after treatment have occurred in 12 (24.0%) patients, suffering phylloid histologic form of tumor. The BTMG recurrences were noted predominantly in women--carriers of mutant alleles with polymorphism rs8190924 of gene GSR and AA rs3763511--of gene DKK4. Nethertheless, there are no data, which confirm the recurrence occurrence risk to be considered genetically determinated, the possibilities ratio for this kind of polymorphism have costituted 12.0 (trustworthy interval 95% 0.8 - 14.9). PMID:26419038

  1. Cellphone camera imaging of a periodically patterned chip as a potential method for point-of-care diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ritu; Reifenberger, Ronald G; Kulkarni, Giridhar U

    2014-03-26

    In this study, we demonstrate that a disposable chip periodically patterned with suitable ligands, an ordinary cellphone camera, and a simple pattern recognition software, can potentially be used for quantitative diagnostics. A key factor in this demonstration is the design of a calibration grid around the chip that, through a contrast transfer process, enables reliable analysis of the images collected under variable ambient lighting conditions. After exposure to a dispersion of amine terminated silica beads used as analyte mimicking pathogens, an epoxy-terminated glass substrate microcontact printed with octadecyltrichlorosilane (250 ?m periodicity) developed a characteristic pattern of beads which could be easily imaged with a cellphone camera of 3.2 MP pixels. A simple pattern recognition algorithm using fast Fourier transform produced a quantitative estimate of the analyte concentration present in the test solution. In this method importantly, neither the chip fabrication process nor the fill-factor of the periodic pattern need be perfect to arrive at a conclusive diagnosis. The method suggests a viable platform that may potentially find use in fault-tolerant and robust point-of-care diagnostic applications. PMID:24564576

  2. Novel readout method for molecular diagnostic assays based on optical measurements of magnetic nanobead dynamics.

    PubMed

    Donolato, Marco; Antunes, Paula; Bejhed, Rebecca S; Zardán Gómez de la Torre, Teresa; Østerberg, Frederik W; Strömberg, Mattias; Nilsson, Mats; Strømme, Maria; Svedlindh, Peter; Hansen, Mikkel F; Vavassori, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate detection of DNA coils formed from a Vibrio cholerae DNA target at picomolar concentrations using a novel optomagnetic approach exploiting the dynamic behavior and optical anisotropy of magnetic nanobead (MNB) assemblies. We establish that the complex second harmonic optical transmission spectra of MNB suspensions measured upon application of a weak uniaxial AC magnetic field correlate well with the rotation dynamics of the individual MNBs. Adding a target analyte to the solution leads to the formation of permanent MNB clusters, namely, to the suppression of the dynamic MNB behavior. We prove that the optical transmission spectra are highly sensitive to the formation of permanent MNB clusters and, thereby to the target analyte concentration. As a specific clinically relevant diagnostic case, we detect DNA coils formed via padlock probe recognition and isothermal rolling circle amplification and benchmark against a commercial equipment. The results demonstrate the fast optomagnetic readout of rolling circle products from bacterial DNA utilizing the dynamic properties of MNBs in a miniaturized and low-cost platform requiring only a transparent window in the chip. PMID:25539065

  3. A diagnostic for determining the quality of single-reference electron correlation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    It was recently proposed that the Euclidian norm of the t(sub 1) vector of the coupled cluster wave function (normalized by the number of electrons included in the correlation procedure) could be used to determine whether a single-reference-based electron correlation procedure is appopriate. This diagnostic, T(sub 1) is defined for use with self-consistent-field molecular orbitals and is invariant to the same orbital rotations as the coupled cluster energy. T(sub 1) is investigated for several different chemical systems which exhibit a range of multireference behavior, and is shown to be an excellent measure of the importance of non-dynamical electron correlation and is far superior to C(sub 0) from a singles and doubles configuration interaction wave function. It is further suggested that when the aim is to recover a large fraction of the dynamical electron correlation energy, a large T(sub 1) (i.e., greater than 0.02) probably indicates the need for a multireference electron correlation procedure.

  4. A diagnostic for determining the quality of single-reference electron correlation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    It was recently proposed that the Euclidian norm of the t sub 1 vector of the coupled cluster wave function (normalized by the number of electrons included in the correlation procedure) could be used to determine whether a single-reference-based electron correlation procedure is appropriate. This diagnostic, T sub 1, is defined for use with self consistent field molecular orbitals and is invariant to the same orbital rotations as the coupled cluster energy. T sub 1 is investigated for several different chemical systems which exhibit a range of multireference behavior, and is shown to be an excellent measure of the importance of nondynamical electron correlation and is far superior to C sub 0 from a singles and doubles configuration interaction wave function. It is further suggested that when the aim is to recover a large fraction of the dynamical electron correlation energy, a large T sub 1 (i.e., greater than 0.02) probably indicates the need for a multireference electron correlation procedure.

  5. Electrodiffusion Method of Near-Wall Flow Diagnostics in Microfluidic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tihona, J.; P?nkavov, V.; Stanovsk, P.; Vejraka, J.

    2015-05-01

    The electrodiffusion technique has been mostly used for the near-wall flow diagnostics on large scales. A novel technique for fabrication of plastic microfluidic systems with integrated metal microelectrodes (called technique of sacrificed substrate) enables us to produce microfluidic devices with precisely shaped sensors for wall shear stress measurements. Several micrometer thick gold sensors, which are built-in a plastic substrate, exhibit good mechanical resistance and smoothness. Proper functioning of prepared chips with microsensors has been first tested in various calibration experiments (polarization curve, sensor response to polarization set-up, steady flow calibration, temperature dependence of diffusivity). Our first results obtained for separating/reattaching flow behind a backward-facing step and for gas-liquid Taylor flow in microchannels then demonstrate its applicability for the detection of near-wall flow reversal, the delimitation of flow - recirculation zones, and the determination of wall shear stress response to moving bubbles. Other applications of these sensors in microfluidics (e.g. characterization of liquid films, capillary waves, bubbles or drops) can be also envisaged.

  6. Recent observations on leptospirosis in Northern Ireland and their bearing on current diagnostic methods

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, T. S.

    1966-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to assess the present importance of leptospiral infections in Northern Ireland, and in particular to look for evidence of infection by leptospiral serotypes other than L. icterohaemorrhagiae and L. canicola. Blood samples from 335 patients, sent to the laboratory for a variety of tests, were examined. After initial screening with five groups of pooled antigens, tests for leptospiral agglutinins were completed with formolized antigens prepared from 13 different serotypes. In seven patients a diagnosis of acute leptospirosis was made while nine others showed serological evidence of previous leptospiral infection. Attempts to isolate leptospirae by culture from 29 blood samples were unsuccessful. The serological results indicate that two additional leptospiral serotypes, namely L. ballum and L. bratislava, are causing human infection in Northern Ireland, and presumably also in other parts of the British Isles. Some clinical and epidemiological features associated with different types of leptospiral infection are described. It is stressed that leptospirosis is essentially a febrile illness, that meningeal symptoms are common, and that (contrary to popular belief) jaundice is by no means a constant occurrence. The implications of these findings are discussed, with special reference to the diagnosis of leptospiral infections. Laboratory diagnostic procedures are briefly reviewed, and the possible deficiencies of the agglutination test commonly used in Britain are pointed out. Some suggestions are made concerning both clinical and laboratory aspects of diagnosis, and the need for a reliable screening test for all forms of leptospiral infection is emphasized. PMID:5919352

  7. Molecular method for the detection of Andes hantavirus infection: validation for clinical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Vial, Cecilia; Martinez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Rios, Susana; Martinez, Jessica; Vial, Pablo A; Ferres, Marcela; Rivera, Juan C; Perez, Ruth; Valdivieso, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is a severe disease caused by exposure to New World hantaviruses. Early diagnosis is difficult due to the lack of specific initial symptoms. Antihantavirus antibodies are usually negative until late in the febrile prodrome or the beginning of cardiopulmonary phase, while Andes hantavirus (ANDV) RNA genome can be detected before symptoms onset. We analyzed the effectiveness of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) as a diagnostic tool detecting ANDV-Sout genome in peripheral blood cells from 78 confirmed hantavirus patients and 166 negative controls. Our results indicate that RT-qPCR had a low detection limit (~10 copies), with a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 94.9%. This suggests the potential for establishing RT-qPCR as the assay of choice for early diagnosis, promoting early effective care of patients, and improving other important aspects of ANDV infection management, such as compliance of biosafety recommendations for health personnel in order to avoid nosocomial transmission. PMID:26508102

  8. Diagnostic methods of a bladed disc mode shape evaluation used for shrouded blades in steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strnad, Jaromir; Liska, Jindrich

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with advanced methods for the evaluation of a bladed disc behavior in terms of the wheel vibration and blade service time consumption. These methods are developed as parts of the noncontact vibration monitoring system of the steam turbine shrouded blades. The proposed methods utilize the time-frequency processing (cross spectra) and the method using least squares to analyse the data from the optical and magnetoresistive sensors, which are mounted in the stator radially above the rotor blades. Fundamentally, the blade vibrations are detected during the blade passages under the sensors and the following signal processing, which covers also the proposed methods, leads to the estimation of the blade residual service life. The prototype system implementing above mentioned techniques was installed into the last stage of the new steam turbine (LP part). The methods for bladed disc mode shape evaluation were successfully verified on the signals, which were obtained during the commission operation of the turbine.

  9. ICALEO '89 - Optical methods in flow and particle diagnostics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Oct. 15-20, 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Marshall B.

    Various papers on optical methods in flow and particle diagnostics are presented. Individual topics addressed include: swirl effects on confined flows in a model of a dump combustor, new analog optical method for data evaluation in laser Doppler anemometry, catadioptric optics for laser Doppler velocimeter applications, mapping of velocity flow field using the laser two-focus technique, engineering applications of particle image velocimeters, quantitative fluid flow analysis by laser velocimetry and numerical processing, optical analysis of particle image velocimetry data. Also discussed are: measuring turbulence in reversing flows by particle image velocimeter, two-color particle velocimetry, data evaluation in particle image velocimetry using spatial light modulator, statistical investigation of errors in particle image velocimetry, optimization of particle image velocimeters, visualization of internal structure in volumetric data, scalar measurements in two, three, and four dimensions.

  10. Methods Developed by the Tools for Engine Diagnostics Task to Monitor and Predict Rotor Damage in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Smith, Kevin; Raulerson, David; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Brasche, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Tools for Engine Diagnostics is a major task in the Propulsion System Health Management area of the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention project under NASA s Aviation Safety Program. The major goal of the Aviation Safety Program is to reduce fatal aircraft accidents by 80 percent within 10 years and by 90 percent within 25 years. The goal of the Propulsion System Health Management area is to eliminate propulsion system malfunctions as a primary or contributing factor to the cause of aircraft accidents. The purpose of Tools for Engine Diagnostics, a 2-yr-old task, is to establish and improve tools for engine diagnostics and prognostics that measure the deformation and damage of rotating engine components at the ground level and that perform intermittent or continuous monitoring on the engine wing. In this work, nondestructive-evaluation- (NDE-) based technology is combined with model-dependent disk spin experimental simulation systems, like finite element modeling (FEM) and modal norms, to monitor and predict rotor damage in real time. Fracture mechanics time-dependent fatigue crack growth and damage-mechanics-based life estimation are being developed, and their potential use investigated. In addition, wireless eddy current and advanced acoustics are being developed for on-wing and just-in-time NDE engine inspection to provide deeper access and higher sensitivity to extend on-wing capabilities and improve inspection readiness. In the long run, these methods could establish a base for prognostic sensing while an engine is running, without any overt actions, like inspections. This damage-detection strategy includes experimentally acquired vibration-, eddy-current- and capacitance-based displacement measurements and analytically computed FEM-, modal norms-, and conventional rotordynamics-based models of well-defined damages and critical mass imbalances in rotating disks and rotors.

  11. Diagnostic Criteria for Problematic Internet Use among U.S. University Students: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; O'Brien, Jennifer E; Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O

    2016-01-01

    Empirical studies have identified increasing rates of problematic Internet use worldwide and a host of related negative consequences. However, researchers disagree as to whether problematic Internet use is a subtype of behavioral addiction. Thus, there are not yet widely accepted and validated diagnostic criteria for problematic Internet use. To address this gap, we used mixed-methods to examine the extent to which signs and symptoms of problematic Internet use mirror DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for substance use disorder, gambling disorder, and Internet gaming disorder. A total of 27 university students, who self-identified as intensive Internet users and who reported Internet-use-associated health and/or psychosocial problems were recruited. Students completed two measures that assess problematic Internet use (Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire and the Compulsive Internet Use Scale) and participated in focus groups exploring their experiences with problematic Internet use. Results of standardized measures and focus group discussions indicated substantial overlap between students' experiences of problematic Internet use and the signs and symptoms reflected in the DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorder, gambling disorder, and Internet gaming disorder. These signs and symptoms included: a) use Internet longer than intended, b) preoccupation with the Internet, c) withdrawal symptoms when unable to access the Internet, d) unsuccessful attempts to stop or reduce Internet use, e) craving, f) loss of interest in hobbies or activities other than the Internet, g) excessive Internet use despite the knowledge of related problems, g) use of the Internet to escape or relieve a negative mood, and h) lying about Internet use. Tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, and recurrent Internet use in hazardous situations were uniquely manifested in the context of problematic Internet use. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:26751569

  12. Diagnostic Criteria for Problematic Internet Use among U.S. University Students: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen; O’Brien, Jennifer E.; Snyder, Susan M.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2016-01-01

    Empirical studies have identified increasing rates of problematic Internet use worldwide and a host of related negative consequences. However, researchers disagree as to whether problematic Internet use is a subtype of behavioral addiction. Thus, there are not yet widely accepted and validated diagnostic criteria for problematic Internet use. To address this gap, we used mixed-methods to examine the extent to which signs and symptoms of problematic Internet use mirror DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for substance use disorder, gambling disorder, and Internet gaming disorder. A total of 27 university students, who self-identified as intensive Internet users and who reported Internet-use-associated health and/or psychosocial problems were recruited. Students completed two measures that assess problematic Internet use (Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire and the Compulsive Internet Use Scale) and participated in focus groups exploring their experiences with problematic Internet use. Results of standardized measures and focus group discussions indicated substantial overlap between students’ experiences of problematic Internet use and the signs and symptoms reflected in the DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorder, gambling disorder, and Internet gaming disorder. These signs and symptoms included: a) use Internet longer than intended, b) preoccupation with the Internet, c) withdrawal symptoms when unable to access the Internet, d) unsuccessful attempts to stop or reduce Internet use, e) craving, f) loss of interest in hobbies or activities other than the Internet, g) excessive Internet use despite the knowledge of related problems, g) use of the Internet to escape or relieve a negative mood, and h) lying about Internet use. Tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, and recurrent Internet use in hazardous situations were uniquely manifested in the context of problematic Internet use. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:26751569

  13. Microbial food safety: Potential of DNA extraction methods for use in diagnostic metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Josefsen, Mathilde H; Andersen, Sandra C; Christensen, Julia; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    The efficiency of ten widely applied DNA extraction protocols was evaluated for suitability for diagnostic metagenomics. The protocols were selected based on a thorough literature study. Chicken fecal samples inoculated with about 1×10(3) and 1×10(6) CFU/g Campylobacter jejuni were used as a model. The evaluation was performed based on total DNA yield measured by fluorometry, and quality and quantity of C. jejuni DNA measured by real-time PCR. There was up to a 25-fold variance between the lowest (NucliSens miniMAG, BIOMÉRIEUX) and highest (PowerLyzer PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit, MO BIO Laboratories) yielding protocols. The PowerLyzer PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit performed significantly better than all other protocols tested. Selected protocols were modified, i.e., extended heating and homogenization, resulting in increased yields of total DNA. For QIAamp Fast DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen) a 7-fold increase in total DNA was observed following the protocol for human DNA analysis and including a 5 min heating step at 70°C. For the PowerLyzer PowerSoil and the PowerFecal DNA Isolation Kit (MO BIO Laboratories) the total DNA fold increase was 1.6 to 1.8 when including an extra 10 min of bead-vortexing. There was no correlation between the yield of total DNA and the amount of PCR-amplifiable DNA from C. jejuni. The protocols resulting in the highest yield of total DNA did not show correspondingly increased levels of C. jejuni DNA as determined by PCR. In conclusion, substantial variation in the efficiency of the protocols to extract DNA was observed. The highest DNA yield was obtained with the PowerLyzer PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit, whereas the FastDNA SPIN Kit for Feces (MP Biomedicals) resulted in the highest amount of PCR-amplifiable C. jejuni DNA. PMID:25937085

  14. Application of molecular diagnostic methods to penaeid shrimp diseases: advances of the past 10 years for control of viral diseases in farmed shrimp.

    PubMed

    Lightner, D V; Poulos, B T; Tang-Nelson, K F J; Pantoja, C R; Nunan, L M; Navarro, S A; Redman, R M; Mohney, L L

    2006-01-01

    The most important diseases of farmed penaeid shrimp have infectious aetiologies. Among these are diseases with viral, rickettsial, bacterial, fungal and parasitic aetiologies. Diagnostic methods for these pathogens include the traditional methods of gross pathology, histopathology, classical microbiology, animal bioassay, antibody-based methods, and molecular methods using DNA probes and DNA amplification. While methods using clinical chemistry and tissue culture are standard methods in veterinary and human diagnostic laboratories, the former has not been routinely applied to the diagnosis of penaeid shrimp diseases and the latter has yet to be developed, despite considerable research and development efforts that have spanned the past 40 years. No continuous shrimp cell lines, or lines from other crustaceans, have been developed. Hence, when molecular methods began to be routinely applied to the diagnosis of infectious diseases in humans and domestic animals in the mid- to late 1980s, the technology was applied to the diagnosis of certain important diseases of penaeid shrimp for which only classical diagnostic methods were previously available. A DNA hybridization assay for the parvovirus IHHNV was the first molecular test developed for a shrimp disease. This was followed within a year by the first PCR test for MBV, an important baculovirus disease of shrimp. Today, shrimp disease diagnostic laboratories routinely use molecular tests for diagnostic and surveillance purposes for most of the important penaeid shrimp diseases. PMID:17058487

  15. Comparisons among the diagnostic methods used for the detection of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Saurab Kishore; Rahman, Farjana; Mostofa Kamal, S M; Noor, Rashed

    2012-12-01

    The present study was an attempt to establish a suitable method for the effective diagnosis of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Bangladesh. In this regard, detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from 390 different extra-pulmonary specimens was performed by Bright-Field microscopy, light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy and Lowenstein-Jensen culture methods, followed by an extensive comparison among these methods. M. tuberculosis was detected in 53 cases through the conventional Lowenstein-Jensen culture method; 49 cases were detected under Bright-Field microscope, whereas the light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy detected 64 cases. Out of 53 culture-positive isolates, 12 were found to be multi-drug resistant. Light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy was found to be more sensitive and effective than both the Bright-Field microscopy and the Lowenstein-Jensen culture methods. Incidentally, light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy appeared imperative to detecting the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. PMID:26785622

  16. [A critical evaluation of unconventional diagnostic and therapeutic methods in dentistry].

    PubMed

    Oepen, I

    1992-08-01

    Unconventional, i.e. disputed medical methods are offered to many patients. However, the propagated effects of such methods could not be confirmed by controlled studies. So, neither any risk taken by the use of these methods, can be justified nor are any costs for treatment vindicated. In future, and contrary to the prevailing attitude, these facts should become a matter of more serious concern, the more so, as with harmonization of EG legal regulations, adaptation to those European countries in which unconventional medical methods are evaluated more critical than in Germany, is to be expected. The following methods are discussed in detail: regulation thermography, Lscher's test, homeopathy, homeopathy autoblood therapy, nosoden therapy, acupuncture, magnetic field therapy, ozone therapy, Mora therapy, lymph drainage, management of symbiosis, and anthroposophical medicine. PMID:1526616

  17. Essential Experimental Methods for Identifying Bonghan Systems as a Basis for Korean Medicine: Focusing on Visual Materials from Original Papers and Modern Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon-Gi; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Lee, Ki-Bog

    2015-01-01

    In the 1960s, through studies on Korean Medicine, Bonghan Kim proposed the Bonghan systems (BS) as the anatomical reality of the acupuncture meridians based on various experimental data. Since 2002, several groups, mainly led by a team at Seoul National University, who renamed the BS as the primo vascular system (PVS), have published around 70 papers showing biological structures corresponding to the BS. However, it is still difficult for other researchers to find them, especially under the skin, which Bonghan Kim first reported as acupuncture points, due to similar-looking biological tissues, for example, the lymphatic vessels, and such artifacts as blood clots or fascia debris. To solve these drawbacks, we examined the main methods for identifying the BS by comparing the original papers with the modern outcomes in terms of the common physical/chemical characteristics of the BS. In addition, effective methods of staining and microscopic observations discovered by modern teams are synthetically explained using visual materials such as diagrams and photos. Through the essentially organized methods in this review paper, we suggest that one can find the BS under the skin as putative acupuncture points by tracing the intraexternal BS, from which a new Korean Medicine will be born. PMID:26539230

  18. Essential Experimental Methods for Identifying Bonghan Systems as a Basis for Korean Medicine: Focusing on Visual Materials from Original Papers and Modern Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hoon-Gi; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Lee, Ki-Bog

    2015-01-01

    In the 1960s, through studies on Korean Medicine, Bonghan Kim proposed the Bonghan systems (BS) as the anatomical reality of the acupuncture meridians based on various experimental data. Since 2002, several groups, mainly led by a team at Seoul National University, who renamed the BS as the primo vascular system (PVS), have published around 70 papers showing biological structures corresponding to the BS. However, it is still difficult for other researchers to find them, especially under the skin, which Bonghan Kim first reported as acupuncture points, due to similar-looking biological tissues, for example, the lymphatic vessels, and such artifacts as blood clots or fascia debris. To solve these drawbacks, we examined the main methods for identifying the BS by comparing the original papers with the modern outcomes in terms of the common physical/chemical characteristics of the BS. In addition, effective methods of staining and microscopic observations discovered by modern teams are synthetically explained using visual materials such as diagrams and photos. Through the essentially organized methods in this review paper, we suggest that one can find the BS under the skin as putative acupuncture points by tracing the intraexternal BS, from which a new Korean Medicine will be born. PMID:26539230

  19. CONCEPTUAL MODELS AND METHODS TO GUIDE DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH INTO CAUSES OF IMPAIRMENT TO AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods and conceptual models to guide the development of tools for diagnosing the causes of biological impairment within aquatic ecosystems of the United States are described in this report. The conceptual models developed here address nutrients, suspended and bedded sediments (...

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of Kato-Katz, FLOTAC, Baermann, and PCR methods for the detection of light-intensity hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis infections in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Stefanie; Salim, Nahya; Schindler, Tobias; Karagiannis Voules, Dimitrios A; Rothen, Julian; Lweno, Omar; Mohammed, Alisa S; Singo, Raymond; Benninghoff, Myrna; Nsojo, Anthony A; Genton, Blaise; Daubenberger, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    Sensitive diagnostic tools are crucial for an accurate assessment of helminth infections in low-endemicity areas. We examined stool samples from Tanzanian individuals and compared the diagnostic accuracy of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the FLOTAC technique and the Kato-Katz method for hookworm and the Baermann method for Strongyloides stercoralis detection. Only FLOTAC had a higher sensitivity than the Kato-Katz method for hookworm diagnosis; the sensitivities of PCR and the Kato-Katz method were equal. PCR had a very low sensitivity for S. stercoralis detection. The cycle threshold values of the PCR were negatively correlated with the logarithm of hookworm egg and S. stercoralis larvae counts. The median larvae count was significantly lower in PCR false negatives than true positives. All methods failed to detect very low-intensity infections. New diagnostic approaches are needed for monitoring of progressing helminth control programs, confirmation of elimination, or surveillance of disease recrudescence. PMID:24445211

  1. Diagnostic Accuracy of KatoKatz, FLOTAC, Baermann, and PCR Methods for the Detection of Light-Intensity Hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis Infections in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Knopp, Stefanie; Salim, Nahya; Schindler, Tobias; Karagiannis Voules, Dimitrios A.; Rothen, Julian; Lweno, Omar; Mohammed, Alisa S.; Singo, Raymond; Benninghoff, Myrna; Nsojo, Anthony A.; Genton, Blaise; Daubenberger, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Sensitive diagnostic tools are crucial for an accurate assessment of helminth infections in low-endemicity areas. We examined stool samples from Tanzanian individuals and compared the diagnostic accuracy of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the FLOTAC technique and the KatoKatz method for hookworm and the Baermann method for Strongyloides stercoralis detection. Only FLOTAC had a higher sensitivity than the KatoKatz method for hookworm diagnosis; the sensitivities of PCR and the KatoKatz method were equal. PCR had a very low sensitivity for S. stercoralis detection. The cycle threshold values of the PCR were negatively correlated with the logarithm of hookworm egg and S. stercoralis larvae counts. The median larvae count was significantly lower in PCR false negatives than true positives. All methods failed to detect very low-intensity infections. New diagnostic approaches are needed for monitoring of progressing helminth control programs, confirmation of elimination, or surveillance of disease recrudescence. PMID:24445211

  2. Diagnostic and treatment methods used by chiropractors: A random sample survey of Canada’s English-speaking provinces

    PubMed Central

    Puhl, Aaron A.; Reinhart, Christine J; Injeyan, H. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It is important to understand how chiropractors practice beyond their formal education. The objective of this analysis was to assess the diagnostic and treatment methods used by chiropractors in English-speaking Canadian provinces. Methods: A questionnaire was created that examined practice patterns amongst chiropractors. This was sent by mail to 749 chiropractors, randomly selected and stratified proportionally across the nine English-speaking Canadian provinces. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. Data were entered into an Excel spreadsheet, and descriptive statistics were calculated. Results: The response rate was 68.0%. Almost all (95.1%) of respondents reported performing differential diagnosis procedures with their new patients; most commonly orthopaedic testing, palpation, history taking, range of motion testing and neurological examination. Palpation and painful joint findings were the most commonly used methods to determine the appropriate joint to apply manipulation. The most common treatment methods were manual joint manipulation/mobilization, stretching and exercise, posture/ergonomic advice and soft-tissue therapies. Conclusions: Differential diagnosis is a standard part of the assessment of new chiropractic patients in English-speaking Canadian provinces and the most common methods used to determine the site to apply manipulation are consistent with current scientific literature. Patients are treated with a combination of manual and/or manipulative interventions directed towards the joints and/or soft-tissues, as well as exercise instruction and postural/ergonomic advice. PMID:26500362

  3. Some Recent Advances of Ultrasonic Diagnostic Methods Applied to Materials and Structures (Including Biological Ones)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Lucio; Nobile, Stefano

    This paper gives an overview of some recent advances of ultrasonic methods applied to materials and structures (including biological ones), exploring typical applications of these emerging inspection technologies to civil engineering and medicine. In confirmation of this trend, some results of an experimental research carried out involving both destructive and non-destructive testing methods for the evaluation of structural performance of existing reinforced concrete (RC) structures are discussed in terms of reliability. As a result, Ultrasonic testing can usefully supplement coring thus permitting less expensive and more representative evaluation of the concrete strength throughout the whole structure under examination.

  4. Holocene core logs and site methods for modern reef and head-coral cores - Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, Todd D.; Reich, Christopher D.; DeLong, Kristine L.; Poore, Richard Z.; Brock, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The Dry Tortugas are a series of islands, banks, and channels on a carbonate platform off the west end of the Florida Keys. Antecedent topography of the Dry Tortugas reflects carbonate accumulations of the last interglacial (marine isotope substage 5e, ~ 125,000 years ago, ka) when sea level was ~ 6 to 7 meters (m) higher than present (Schrag and others, 2002). The substage 5e surface was subsequently lithified and modified during subaerial exposure associated with lower sea level from ~ 120 ka to 8 ka. The lithified late Pleistocene carbonates are known as the Key Largo Limestone, a coral reef (Hoffmeister and Multer, 1964; Multer and others, 2002), and the Miami Limestone, a tidal-bar oolite (Sanford, 1909; Hoffmeister, 1974). The Holocene and modern sediments and reefs of the Dry Tortugas then accreted during the rise of sea level associated with the end of the last glacial and the start of the current interglacial (marine isotope Stage 1). With the exception of a half dozen or so islands, the Dry Tortugas region has been submerged for approximately 8,000 years, allowing conditions suitable for coral reef formation once again. The Holocene reef accumulation varies in thickness due to the antecedent topography. The reefs are composed of massive head corals such as species of Montastraea, Siderastrea, and Diploria (Swart and others, 1996; Cohen and McConnaughey, 2003) and rest atop the Pleistocene Key Largo Limestone high (Shinn and others, 1977). The coral reefs within the Dry Tortugas represent a windward reef margin relative to dominant wind and wave energies (Hine and Mullins, 1983; Mallinson and others, 1997; Mallinson and others, 2003).

  5. Approach for Wide Use of Diagnostic Method for XLPE Cables Using Harmonics in AC Loss Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, Tomiyuki; Nakade, Masahiko; Yagi, Yukihiro; Ishii, Noboru

    Water tree is one of the degradation aspects of XLPE cables used for under-ground distribution or transmission lines. We have developed the loss current method using 3rd harmonic in AC loss current for cable diagnosis. Harmonic components in loss current arise as a result of the non-linear voltage-current characteristics of water trees. We confirmed that the 3rd harmonic in AC loss current had good correlation with water tree growth and break down strength. After that, we have applied this method to the actual 66kV XLPE cable lines. Up to now, the number of the application results is more than 130 lines. In case of cable lines terminated at gas-insulated switchgear (GIS), we have to remove the lightning arrestor (LA) and the potential transformer (PT) out of the test circuit. The reason is that we are afraid that each of LA and PT disturbs the degradation signal from cable lines. It takes extra time (1 or 2 days) and costs more to remove LA and PT in GIS out of a circuit. In order to achieve easy and reasonable diagnosis, we have developed a new method for cable lines terminated at GIS, by utilizing a technique, which enables to reduce signal of LA and PT from disturbed signal of cable lines. We confirmed the effect of the new method by experiments with actual cables.

  6. Development and trial of a new method of image enhancement for ultrasonic medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulberg, N. S.; Yakovleva, T. V.; Kamalov, Yu. R.; Sandrikov, V. A.; Osipov, L. V.; Belov, P. A.

    2009-10-01

    The subject of this work is the problem of separation of noise from informative texture elements taking into account special features of the ultrasonic image. A mathematical model is developed that describes statistical and spectral properties of different elements of image texture. A noise-suppression procedure based on the developed mathematical model is implemented. The method passed clinical trials that proved its efficiency.

  7. Plasma diagnostics using floating harmonics method and recent results in processing plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chinwook

    2009-10-01

    Recently, a floating harmonics method for processing plasma has been developed [1]. When a sinusoidal voltage is applied on a probe at a floating potential, the current flowing through the probe has many harmonics due to the nonlinearity of sheath. From the harmonic current components, plasma densities and electron temperatures can be found. There are many advantages of this method such as relative low voltages (a few V), good time resolution (msec), no perturbation (no net current), immune to rf interference, strong to contamination on probes. In this presentation, some improvement of this method and some measurements in various processing plasma reactors (SF6, CF4, N2, Ar, etc) as well as relevant physics will be given. Electron energy distribution function (EEDF) measurement based on the harmonic method and refinement technique for the EEDF will be given. A 2D wafer type probe array for 2D plasma density profile was developed and 2D plasma density profiles in an ICP at various conditions will be presented. [4pt] [1] MH Lee, SH Jang and CW Chung, J. Appl. Phys, 101, 033305 (2007)

  8. FLOTAC for the diagnosis of Hymenolepis spp. infection: proof-of-concept and comparing diagnostic accuracy with other methods.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Peter; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Bruschi, Fabrizio; Matthys, Barbara; Lohourignon, Laurent K; Castagna, Barbara; Maurelli, Maria P; Morgoglione, Maria E; Utzinger, Jrg; Rinaldi, Laura

    2012-08-01

    Hymenolepis nana is the most common cestode parasitizing humans, yet it is under-diagnosed. We determined the optimal flotation solution (FS) for the diagnosis of this intestinal parasite with the FLOTAC method, and compared its diagnostic accuracy with an ether-concentration technique and the Kato-Katz method. Zinc sulphate (specific gravity 1.20) proved to be the best-performing FS. Using this FS, we detected 65 H. nana infections among 234 fixed fecal samples from Tajik and Sahrawi children (prevalence 27.8 %). The ether-concentration technique detected 40 infections (prevalence 17.1 %) in the same samples. Considering the combined results as a reference, the sensitivities of FLOTAC and ether-concentration were 95.6 % and 58.8 %, respectively. The Kato-Katz method resulted in a prevalence of only 8.7 %. In terms of eggs per gram of stool, a significantly (P <0.05) higher value was obtained with the FLOTAC and Kato-Katz techniques compared to ether-concentration. In another study carried out in China, the FLOTAC method detected six Hymenolepis diminuta infections in 302 fecal samples, whereas five samples were found positive with the Kato-Katz technique. We conclude that FLOTAC is an accurate coprodiagnostic technique for H. nana and H. diminuta, two species which join a growing list of intestinal parasites that can be reliably diagnosed by this technique. PMID:22461006

  9. [Pleural puncture biopsy--a diagnostic method in serofibrinous tuberculous pleurisy in children].

    PubMed

    Murgoci, G; Galbenu, P

    1989-01-01

    The biopsy of the parietal biopsy with the help of a needle has become an essential method of diagnosis in the adult patients with a pleural malady of an unknown etiology and may become a complementary paraclinical method in children. A sure diagnosis in the tubercular serofibrinous pleurisy with children is made by rendering evident the Koch bacillus on the direct test or in culture and by rendering evident the tubercular lesions on fragments of pleural biopsy puncture. The study is supported on the results obtained at the pleural biopsy puncture performed on a number of 6 children. In four cases out of six the histological test of the pleural fragment has rendered evident the presence of tubercular lymphoepithelioid nodulus with central necrosis, thus carrying the argument of certitude. The pleural biopsy puncture allows an early and sure diagnosis in over two-thirds of the pleurisies of a tubercular etiology. PMID:2554468

  10. [Pleural puncture biopsy--a diagnostic method in tuberculous serofibrinous pleurisy in children].

    PubMed

    Murgoci, G; Galbenu, P

    1991-01-01

    The biopsy of the parietal pleura with a special needle has become an essential diagnosis method in the adult patients with pleural disease of unknown etiology, and might become a complementary paraclinical method for children also. The certitude diagnosis in tuberculous serous fibrinous pleurisy of the child is laid on evidencing Koch's bacillus at the direct examination or in culture, and on fragments of pleural biopsy puncture, in evidencing the lesions. The study is based on the results obtained in the pleural biopsy puncture made on 6 children. The histologic examination of the pleural fragment showed, in 4 cases of 6, the presence of tuberculous lymphoepithelioid nodules, with central caseous necrosis thus granting certitude to the diagnosis. The pleural biopsy puncture permits an early and certain diagnosis in more than 2/3 of the pleurisies of tuberculous etiology. PMID:1667594

  11. New immunohistochemical method for improved myotonia and chloride channel mutation diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Penttil, Sini; Suominen, Tiina; Kaakinen, Mika; Burge, James; Haworth, Andrea; Sud, Richa; Schorge, Stephanie; Haapasalo, Hannu; Sandell, Satu; Metsikk, Kalervo; Hanna, Michael; Udd, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to validate the immunohistochemical assay for the diagnosis of nondystrophic myotonia and to provide full clarification of clinical disease to patients in whom basic genetic testing has failed to do so. Methods: An immunohistochemical assay of sarcolemmal chloride channel abundance using 2 different ClC1-specific antibodies. Results: This method led to the identification of new mutations, to the reclassification of W118G in CLCN1 as a moderately pathogenic mutation, and to confirmation of recessive (Becker) myotonia congenita in cases when only one recessive CLCN1 mutation had been identified by genetic testing. Conclusions: We have developed a robust immunohistochemical assay that can detect loss of sarcolemmal ClC-1 protein on muscle sections. This in combination with gene sequencing is a powerful approach to achieving a final diagnosis of nondystrophic myotonia. PMID:23152584

  12. Diagnostics of Susabi-nori (Porphyra Yezoensis) by Laser-Induced Fluorescence Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Tamotsu; Nakamura, Yuki; Takahashi, Kunio; Kaneko, Shohei; Shimada, Yuji

    Susabi-nori (Porphyra yezoensis) was diagnosed by means of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method. Fluorescence peaks located at approximately 580, 660, 685 and 720 nm were observed in the LIF spectra of Susabi-nori. In the spectrum of the sample infected with the red rot disease, the intensity of 580 nm peak was relatively high as compared with that of the control sample. On the other hand, the intensities of 580 nm and 660 nm peaks drastically decreased by the influence of the chytrid disease. Furthermore, the intensity of the 580 nm peak increased by dipping into fresh water. These results indicate that LIF spectra of Susabi-nori are affected by the diseases and the stress of fresh water and that the diseases and the stress of Susabi-nori can be diagnosed by the LIF method.

  13. Estimation of Instantaneous Gas Exchange in Flow-Through Respirometry Systems: A Modern Revision of Bartholomew's Z-Transform Method

    PubMed Central

    Pendar, Hodjat; Socha, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Flow-through respirometry systems provide accurate measurement of gas exchange over long periods of time. However, these systems have limitations in tracking rapid changes. When an animal infuses a metabolic gas into the respirometry chamber in a short burst, diffusion and airflow in the chamber gradually alter the original signal before it arrives at the gas analyzer. For single or multiple bursts, the recorded signal is smeared or mixed, which may result in dramatically altered recordings compared to the emitted signal. Recovering the original metabolic signal is a difficult task because of the inherent ill conditioning problem. Here, we present two new methods to recover the fast dynamics of metabolic patterns from recorded data. We first re-derive the equations of the well-known Z-transform method (ZT method) to show the source of imprecision in this method. Then, we develop a new model of analysis for respirometry systems based on the experimentally determined impulse response, which is the response of the system to a very short unit input. As a result, we present a major modification of the ZT method (dubbed the EZT method) by using a new model for the impulse response, enhancing its precision to recover the true metabolic signals. The second method, the generalized Z-transform (GZT) method, was then developed by generalizing the EZT method; it can be applied to any flow-through respirometry system with any arbitrary impulse response. Experiments verified that the accuracy of recovering the true metabolic signals is significantly improved by the new methods. These new methods can be used more broadly for input estimation in variety of physiological systems. PMID:26466361

  14. Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents

    DOEpatents

    Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G.; Dees, H.C.

    1998-11-10

    A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. 13 figs.

  15. Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents

    DOEpatents

    Wachter, Eric A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fisher, Walter G. (Knoxville, TN); Dees, H. Craig (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent.

  16. Methods for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents

    DOEpatents

    Wachter, Eric A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fisher, Walter G. (Knoxville, TN); Dees, H. Craig (Knoxville, TN)

    2008-03-18

    A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method comprises the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention also provides a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent.

  17. Mesenteric vascular occlusion: a new diagnostic method using a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody reactive with platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Zamora, P.O. )

    1989-06-01

    A new method for diagnosing mesenteric vaso-occlusive bowel disease with the use of radioimmunoscintigraphy was developed and tested in experimental models of arterial and venous disease, as well as in a model simulating bowel strangulation. The method involves the use of a monoclonal antibody fragment mixture that binds to platelets. The antibody was labeled with technetium-99m, and imaging was performed with a gamma camera in the planar and single photon emission computed tomography modes. This method allowed visualization of areas of ischemia of 1-6 hours duration in bowel loops in 19 dogs 90-180 minutes after injection of the radiolabeled antibody. No bowel radioactivity accumulation occurred in dogs that underwent the same surgical procedure but were given a nonspecific Tc-99m-labeled antibody or in normal dogs given the specific antibody. It appears that the radiolabeled antibody used, which has higher reactivity with human platelets than with dog platelets, will be a good agent for noninvasive diagnosis of mesenteric vaso-occlusive disease in humans. It may also play a role in the intraoperative determination of the extent and location of ischemic bowel segments.

  18. Target detection in diagnostic ultrasound: Evaluation of a method based on the CLEAN algorithm.

    PubMed

    Masoom, Hassan; Adve, Raviraj S; Cobbold, Richard S C

    2013-02-01

    A technique is proposed for the detection of abnormalities (targets) in ultrasound images using little or no a priori information and requiring little operator intervention. The scheme is a combination of the CLEAN algorithm, originally proposed for radio astronomy, and constant false alarm rate (CFAR) processing, as developed for use in radar systems. The CLEAN algorithm identifies areas in the ultrasound image that stand out above a threshold in relation to the background; CFAR techniques allow for an adaptive, semi-automated, selection of the threshold. Neither appears to have been previously used for target detection in ultrasound images and never together in any context. As a first step towards assessing the potential of this method we used a widely used method of simulating B-mode images (Field II). We assumed the use of a 256 element linear array operating at 3.0MHz into a water-like medium containing a density of point scatterers sufficient to simulate a background of fully developed speckle. Spherical targets with diameters ranging from 0.25 to 6.0mm and contrasts ranging from 0 to 12dB relative to the background were used as test objects. Using a contrast-detail analysis, the probability of detection curves indicate these targets can be consistently detected within a speckle background. Our results indicate that the method has considerable promise for the semi-automated detection of abnormalities with diameters greater than a few millimeters, depending on the contrast. PMID:22853949

  19. [Assessment of diagnostic methods for the catheter-related bloodstream infections in intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Ataman Hatipo?lu, Ci?dem; Ipekkan, Korhan; Oral, Behi; Onde, Ufuk; Bulut, Cemal; Demirz, Ali Pekcan

    2011-01-01

    The majority of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) are associated with central venous catheters (CVCs) and most of them develop in patients staying at intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of this study was to assess the performance of different methods for the diagnosis of CR-BSI in neurology and neurosurgery ICUs of our hospital. This prospective study was carried out between January 2007 and January 2008 and all of the patients were followed daily for CR-BSI after the insertion of CVCs. Blood cultures were taken simultaneously from the catheter lumen and from at least one peripheral vein when there was a suspicion of CR-BSI. Additionally, from patients whose CVCs were removed, catheter tip cultures were taken and from patients with exit site infection, cultures of the skin surrounding the catheter entrance were taken. Catheter tip cultures were done by using quantitative and semiquantitative culture methods. Blood cultures taken from the catheter lumen and peripheral vein were incubated in the BACTEC 9050 (Becton Dickinson, USA) automated blood culture system. Gram and acridine orange (AO) staining were used for the smears prepared from the catheter tips and blood cultures. To evaluate the value of culture and staining methods in the diagnosis of CR-BSI; sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) of each method were determined. A total of 148 patients (66 male, 82 female; age range: 1-94 years, mean age: 58.7 21.8 years) were included in the study, of whom 67 (45.3%) were from neurology and 81 (54.7%) were from neurosurgery ICUs. One hundred ninety-nine CVC application performed in 148 patients were evaluated. Mean duration of catheterization was 8.5 5.2 days. Thirty-two episodes of CR-BSI among 199 catheterizations (16%) in 29 patients among a total of 148 patients (19.6%) were determined. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (8/32; 25%), penicillin-resistant Enterococcus spp. (8/32; 25%) and Candida albicans (4/32; 12.5%). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPVs of the quantitative and semiquantitative culture methods of the catheter tip and the differential time to positivity (positive result obtained at least two hours earlier in blood cultures drawn through the catheter than the peripheral blood cultures which were taken simultaneously) between blood cultures drawn through the catheter and those drawn from the peripheral vein were 100% for the diagnosis of CR-BSI. Sensitivity and NPV of the isolation method of the same microorganism from blood culture drawn through the catheter and drawn from the peripheral vein were 100%, specificity was 85% and PPV was 88% for the diagnosis of CR-BSI. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPVs of Gram and drawn simultaneously from the peripheral vein and quantitative and semiquantitative cultures of the catheter tip in patients with removed catheter, were important factors in terms of diagnosis of CR-BSI. It was also concluded that AO staining could provide additional benefit in the diagnosis of CR-BSI since it has higher sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPVs for peripheral blood cultures and catheter tip cultures compared to Gram staining. PMID:21341162

  20. Liver fibrosis in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfection: Diagnostic methods and clinical impact

    PubMed Central

    Sagnelli, Caterina; Martini, Salvatore; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Pasquale, Giuseppe; Macera, Margherita; Zampino, Rosa; Coppola, Nicola; Sagnelli, Evangelista

    2015-01-01

    Several non-invasive surrogate methods have recently challenged the main role of liver biopsy in assessing liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-monoinfected and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected patients, applied to avoid the well-known side effects of liver puncture. Serological tests involve the determination of biochemical markers of synthesis or degradation of fibrosis, tests not readily available in clinical practice, or combinations of routine tests used in chronic hepatitis and HIV/HCV coinfection. Several radiologic techniques have also been proposed, some of which commonly used in clinical practice. The studies performed to compare the prognostic value of non-invasive surrogate methods with that of the degree of liver fibrosis assessed on liver tissue have not as yet provided conclusive results. Each surrogate technique has shown some limitations, including the risk of over- or under-estimating the extent of liver fibrosis. The current knowledge on liver fibrosis in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients will be summarized in this review article, which is addressed in particular to physicians involved in this setting in their clinical practice. PMID:26523204

  1. On re-initialization methods and spin-up periods effects on WRF precipitation diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Juan; Carvalho, Ana; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Rocha, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    In the scope of regional climate downscaling, with special focus on precipitation in complex terrain, several methods of dynamical downscaling with frequent re-initializations are being tested. In a configuration of three nested domains centered on a mountainous region in north-central Portugal with a complex topography, the WRF-ARW model is applied to the rainy periods during the first half of 2012. The large-scale data that are downscaled are those of the ERA Interim reanalysis of the ECMWF. The tests are designed to answer two questions regarding frequent re-initializations. The first concerns the spin-up period needed by the model to produce realistic precipitation predictions; the second relates to the initial conditions of each re-initialization. For every downscaling period, several initial conditions were tested: (1) interpolation of the large scale data into the computational domain of the study area; (2) 4DVAR assimilation of data from the ds351.4 and ds461.0 datasets from the CISL research data archive; (3) the same as under (2) butwith the assimilation of observed rainfall data. For each of the initialization tests described above, three spin-up periods were tested: 6h, 12h and 18h. The results of the different simulations are compared mutually as well as with the data from a dense network of automatic rain gauges that was installed in the domain for that specific purpose. The advantages and disadvantages of each method will be discussed in detail.

  2. [Comparison of the diagnostic methods for studying parvovirus and rotavirus infections of dogs].

    PubMed

    Klbl, S; Vogel, I; Modli, M; Gerstl, F

    1990-07-01

    79 feces samples of dogs between 7 weeks till 13.5 years of age, showing clinical signs of a hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, were tested by a commercial ELISA (DiaSystems Canine Parvo, Tech-America) for Canine Parvovirus (CPV) and by two Latex-Agglutination tests for Rotavirus (30 probes were tested by Rota Screen, 49 samples by Slidex Rota-Kit 2, both tests from BioMerieux). All samples were also examined by electron microscopy. The results of the simultaneous investigations showed 28 times positive and 28 times negative for CPV (70.9%). In 93.7% the investigations for Rotavirus-infection showed identical results by the Latex-Agglutination and electron microscopy: 73 samples were negative, one case showed a positive reaction. In 4 feces samples Rotavirus could only be detected by the Latex-test. In one sample a double-infection (CPV/Rotavirus) could be observed by all methods, in two cases the double-infection was only found by using the Latex-Agglutination. No other viruses could be found by the electron microscope than those described above. The results and the performance of the methods are discussed and compared with the data of other authors. PMID:2167658

  3. The sensitivity of clinical diagnostic methods in the diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Onde, M E; Ozge, A; Senol, M G; Togrol, E; Ozdag, F; Saracoglu, M; Misirli, H

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the sensitivity of various methods for the clinical diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A total of 147 randomly selected patients with diabetes mellitus and 65 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were evaluated by various clinical (the neuropathy symptom score [NSS], the neuropathy disability score [NDS], vibration perception thresholds [VPTs], Tinel's sign and Phalen's sign), laboratory (fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels) and electro-physiological (nerve conduction studies, H-reflex and F-wave measurements) methods. In the patient group, 8.2% had an abnormal NSS, 28.5% had a positive Phalen's sign, 32.6% had a positive Tinel's sign, 42.8% had an abnormal VPT and 57.1% had an abnormal NDS. Significant correlations were found between electro-physiologically confirmed neuropathy and the two provocation tests and abnormal VPTs. In conclusion, assessment with a complete neurological examination and standard electrophysiological tests is very important for the diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and the prevention of morbidity in patients with or without symptoms. PMID:18230269

  4. Model-based performance monitoring: Review of diagnostic methods and chiller case study

    SciTech Connect

    Haves, Phil; Khalsa, Sat Kartar

    2000-05-01

    The paper commences by reviewing the variety of technical approaches to the problem of detecting and diagnosing faulty operation in order to improve the actual performance of buildings. The review covers manual and automated methods, active testing and passive monitoring, the different classes of models used in fault detection, and methods of diagnosis. The process of model-based fault detection is then illustrated by describing the use of relatively simple empirical models of chiller energy performance to monitor equipment degradation and control problems. The CoolTools(trademark) chiller model identification package is used to fit the DOE-2 chiller model to on-site measurements from a building instrumented with high quality sensors. The need for simple algorithms to reject transient data, detect power surges and identify control problems is discussed, as is the use of energy balance checks to detect sensor problems. The accuracy with which the chiller model can be expected! to predict performance is assessed from the goodness of fit obtained and the implications for fault detection sensitivity and sensor accuracy requirements are discussed. A case study is described in which the model was applied retroactively to high-quality data collected in a San Francisco office building as part of a related project (Piette et al. 1999).

  5. A rapid method for the simulation of filtered X-ray spectra in diagnostic imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, Charles W., III

    The introduction and rapid growth of various digital and computed radiography systems and their application to traditional projection radiography, tomography, fluoroscopy, and dual energy imaging, makes it desirable to accurately simulate these systems, in order to provide the best clinical images possible. This work presents methods for predicting Bremsstrahlung and Characteristic x-ray spectra and the corresponding energy deposited by those spectra, packaged in a FORTRAN95 program dubbed XSPECT version 4. The primary difference between this and other commonly available analytical models is XSPECT version 4's ability to account for electron distributions (depth, angular orientation, and number as a function of electron energy) within the target. These improvements give XSPECT version 4 an accuracy level similar to that of Monte Carlo methods, but with a significant computational savings. This savings in processing time is required in system optimizations given the large number of spectra generated in optimizing a single x-ray tube. Given an accurate x-ray spectra, that spectra can be attenuated through a subject, patient doses can be determined, the appropriate detector response can be applied and one can determine optimal radiographic techniques for particular systems and images. One proposed innovation of this method is to measure the exposure of an individual x-ray tube through several attenuator thicknesses and compare plots of those exposures to those of computed estimates. Then by iteratively adding and subtracting attenuator thickness in the computed estimates the plot of measured and computed exposures can be aligned. This then minimizes the small errors resulting from unknown intrinsic and added filtration thicknesses in the x-ray tube. The results from these simulations are verified by direct comparison to existing measured x-ray spectra and the Monte Carlo routine PENELOPE. The matching of XSPECT version 4 to PENELOPE was excellent. Matching to the measured Mercier data was also quite good, in general within 5% of the peak measured x-ray intensity. The last dataset, that of the FDA, showed much poorer matching in general to about 80% of the measured peak values. However, a consistent offset of the peak intensity (lower in energy and higher in intensity) may indicate that the FDA spectra had a small amount of intrinsic filtration included which was not included in initial FDA estimates.

  6. Some new diagnostic methods for the active HF heating in the D-region ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kero, A.; Vierinen, J.; Virtanen, I.

    2007-05-01

    According to present models the EISCAT Heater Facility is capable of increasing the electron temperature by a factor of ten in the D-region ionosphere. However, this maximum effect has not been verified by any radar observation yet. This is mostly due to lack of appropriate incoherent scatter data analysis package for the heated D region. Here we introduce a new nonlinear MCMC fitting of the theoretical autocorrelation function to detected lag profiles. This data analysis method is applied for the previous Finnish Eiscat campaign in November 2006, where three dedicated heater and radar experiments were carried out in order to quantify the active heating effect. The standard Eiscat ARC-D program and a newly designed SIPPI experiment, which is based on the direct sampling of the backscattered signal, were used in turns for the VHF radar. All the three experiments were successful technically and in terms of geophysical conditions. Preliminary results are shown in this presentation.

  7. Does restorer need a scanner? Optical methods in canvas painting diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górecka, Katarzyna; Rzeszutek, Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    The principal rule of the conservation process is an individual approach to every piece of art. Easel paintings are varying regarding their forms (shape), technique and technology and behave differently in various conditions. In order to carry out initial researches of the particular object several noninvasive analyzes are performed. However, none of these methods give information about geometric shape of the object and metric analysis of its surface. This gap in the field of initial optical analysis, may be filled with optical 3D scanning. From conservators' point of view, we may say that a laser scanner slowly becomes an indispensable and daily work tool in the diagnosis and conservation methodology of the canvas paintings.

  8. Infective Arthritis: Bacterial 23S rRNA Gene Sequencing as a Supplementary Diagnostic Method.

    PubMed

    Moser, Claus; Andresen, Keld; Kjerulf, Anne; Salamon, Suheil; Kemp, Michael; Christensen, Jens Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Consecutively collected synovial fluids were examined for presence of bacterial DNA (a 700-bp fragment of the bacterial 23S rRNA gene) followed by DNA sequencing of amplicons, and by conventional bacteriological methods. One or more microorganisms were identified in 22 of the 227 synovial fluids (9,7%) originating from 17 patients. Sixteen of the patients had clinical signs of arthritis. For 11 patients molecular and conventional bacterial examinations were in agreement. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, were detected in synovial fluids from 6, 2 and 2 patients, respectively. In 3 patients only 23S rRNA analysis was positive; 2 synovial fluids contained S. dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis and 1 S. pneumoniae). The present study indicates a significant contribution by PCR with subsequent DNA sequencing of the 23S rRNA gene analysis in recognizing and identification of microorganisms from synovial fluids. PMID:19088916

  9. Measurement and Analysis of Olfactory Responses with the Aim of Establishing an Objective Diagnostic Method for Central Olfactory Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Tominori; Wang, Li-Qun; Miwakeichi, Fumikazu; Tonoike, Mitsuo; Kaneda, Teruo

    In order to establish a new diagnostic method for central olfactory disorders and to identify objective indicators, we measured and analyzed brain activities in the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus, region of responsibility for central olfactory disorders. The relationship between olfactory stimulation and brain response at region of responsibility can be examined in terms of fitted responses (FR). FR in these regions may be individual indicators of changes in brain olfactory responses. In the present study, in order to non-invasively and objectively measure olfactory responses, an odor oddball task was conducted on four healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a odorant stimulator with blast-method. The results showed favorable FR and activation in the parahippocampal gyrus or uncus in all subjects. In some subjects, both the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus were activated. Furthermore, activation was also confirmed in the cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and insula. The hippocampus and uncus are known to be involved in the olfactory disorders associated with early-stage Alzheimer's disease and other olfactory disorders. In the future, it will be necessary to further develop the present measurement and analysis method to clarify the relationship between central olfactory disorders and brain activities and establish objective indicators that are useful for diagnosis.

  10. [HCMV infections after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation--diagnostic methods and importance of viral DNA level monitoring].

    PubMed

    Bocian, Joanna; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    HCMV infection is very common. The virus infects 30-90% of population. In immunocompromised patients effective elimination of the virus by immune system is limited by immunosuppressive therapy. Active hCMV infection after HSCT can lead to severe posttransplant complications, graft failure or even death. In addition to direct effects of hCMV infection the virus can cause indirect effects in transplant recipients such as increased immunosuppression or GvHD development/progression. Laboratory diagnostic of hCMV infections after HSCT is now routinely used. Fast and sensitive molecular methods that detect hCMV genetic material are found particularly useful. Quantitative methods, such as R-T PCR, enable identification of patients at high risk of developing hCMV disease and fast employment of appropriate prophylaxis or treatment. Moreover it allows precise monitoring of treatment efficiency and facilitates therapy - related decisions. In last years pre-emptive therapy, which depends on viral load molecular monitoring, significantly reduced morbidity and mortality of active hCMV infections in HSCT recipients. Selective prophylaxis approach enables reduction of patients treated with toxic antiviral therapy which is associated with delayed restoration of virus - specific immune response. Occurrence of symptomatic hCMV disease is still associated with high mortality among HSCT recipients. HCMV infection diagnosis requires further development. Quantitative methods should be unified and optimized. PMID:25720612

  11. Diagnostic Applications and Methods to Isolate Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) from Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Cha-Mei

    2013-03-01

    Each year a million new cancer cases are diagnosed in the United States. Ninety percent of the deaths will be the result of metastasis, not from the primary tumor. Tissue biopsy is a universally accepted tool for cancer diagnosis and determination of treatment. The procedure varies, but is invasive, costly, and can be fatal, and for these reasons is seldom repeated after initial diagnosis. Monitoring of treatment response and for possible relapse is usually done by CT or MRI scan, both of which are expensive and require the tumor to change size perceptibly. Further, cancer can mutate or develop resistance to therapeutics and require modification of the treatment regimen. The initial tissue biopsy often cannot reflect the disease as it progresses, requiring new biopsy samples to determine a change of treatment. All carcinomas, about 80% of all cancer, shed tumor cells into the circulation, most often at the later stages when treatment is more critical. These circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are the cause of metastasis, and can be isolated from patient blood to serve as ``liquid biopsy''. These CTCs contain a valuable trove of information that help both patient and clinician understand disease status. In addition to counting the number of CTCs (known to be a prognostic indicator of survival), CTCs can provide biomarker information such as protein expressions and gene mutations, amplifications, and translocations. This information can be used to determine treatment. During treatment, the number of intact and apoptotic CTCs can be measured on a repeated basis to measure the patient's response to treatment and disease progression. Following treatment, liquid biopsy can be repeated at regular intervals to watch for relapse. Methods to isolate CTCs can be grouped into three categories: i) immunocapture based on surface markers of CTCs, ii) size exclusion based on CTC size, typically larger than blood cells, and iii) negative selection utilizing red blood cell lysis, white blood cell depletion or FICOLL. Various implementations of the CTC isolation methods will be presented.

  12. Applying Automated MR-Based Diagnostic Methods to the Memory Clinic: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Klppel, Stefan; Peter, Jessica; Ludl, Anna; Pilatus, Anne; Maier, Sabrina; Mader, Irina; Heimbach, Bernhard; Frings, Lars; Egger, Karl; Dukart, Juergen; Schroeter, Matthias L; Perneczky, Robert; Hussermann, Peter; Vach, Werner; Urbach, Horst; Teipel, Stefan; Hll, Michael; Abdulkadir, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that fully automated pattern recognition methods applied to structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) aid in the diagnosis of dementia, but these conclusions are based on highly preselected samples that significantly differ from that seen in a dementia clinic. At a single dementia clinic, we evaluated the ability of a linear support vector machine trained with completely unrelated data to differentiate between Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Lewy body dementia, and healthy aging based on 3D-T1 weighted MRI data sets. Furthermore, we predicted progression to AD in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at baseline and automatically quantified white matter hyperintensities from FLAIR-images. Separating additionally recruited healthy elderly from those with dementia was accurate with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.97 (according to Fig.4). Multi-class separation of patients with either AD or FTD from other included groups was good on the training set (AUC > ?0.9) but substantially less accurate (AUC?=?0.76 for AD, AUC?=?0.78 for FTD) on 134 cases from the local clinic. Longitudinal data from 28 cases with MCI at baseline and appropriate follow-up data were available. The computer tool discriminated progressive from stable MCI with AUC?=?0.73, compared to AUC?=?0.80 for the training set. A relatively low accuracy by clinicians (AUC?=?0.81) illustrates the difficulties of predicting conversion in this heterogeneous cohort. This first application of a MRI-based pattern recognition method to a routine sample demonstrates feasibility, but also illustrates that automated multi-class differential diagnoses have to be the focus of future methodological developments and application studies. PMID:26401773

  13. Methods and means of measuring control and diagnostics of biological tissues in vivo based on measurements of color coordinates and multispectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruk, Vasil; Kvaternyuk, S. Olena; Kvaternyuk, Sergii; Mokanyuk, Olexander; Yekenina, Lesya; Wjcik, Waldemar; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Baglan, Imanbek

    2015-12-01

    The method and a diagnostic tool based on a digital colorimetry and multispectral images of biological tissues are improved and developed. The method consists of measuring the color coordinates in the biological tissue, or XYZ coordinates in n-dimensional multispectral space in a diffuse light from the standard light source.

  14. Diagnostic Accuracy and Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Methods for Detection of Soil-Transmitted Helminths in a Post-Treatment Setting in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kepha, Stella; Kihara, Jimmy H.; Njenga, Sammy M.; Pullan, Rachel L.; Brooker, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC methods for detection of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in a post-treatment setting in western Kenya. A cost analysis also explores the cost implications of collecting samples during school surveys when compared to household surveys. Methods Stool samples were collected from children (n?=?652) attending 18 schools in Bungoma County and diagnosed by the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC coprological methods. Sensitivity and additional diagnostic performance measures were analyzed using Bayesian latent class modeling. Financial and economic costs were calculated for all survey and diagnostic activities, and cost per child tested, cost per case detected and cost per STH infection correctly classified were estimated. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the impact of various survey parameters on cost estimates. Results Both diagnostic methods exhibited comparable sensitivity for detection of any STH species over single and consecutive day sampling: 52.0% for single day Kato-Katz; 49.1% for single-day Mini-FLOTAC; 76.9% for consecutive day Kato-Katz; and 74.1% for consecutive day Mini-FLOTAC. Diagnostic performance did not differ significantly between methods for the different STH species. Use of Kato-Katz with school-based sampling was the lowest cost scenario for cost per child tested ($10.14) and cost per case correctly classified ($12.84). Cost per case detected was lowest for Kato-Katz used in community-based sampling ($128.24). Sensitivity analysis revealed the cost of case detection for any STH decreased non-linearly as prevalence rates increased and was influenced by the number of samples collected. Conclusions The Kato-Katz method was comparable in diagnostic sensitivity to the Mini-FLOTAC method, but afforded greater cost-effectiveness. Future work is required to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of STH surveillance in different settings. PMID:24810593

  15. Sex determination from the second cervical vertebra: a test of Wescott's method on a modern American sample.

    PubMed

    Bethard, Jonathan D; Seet, Billie L

    2013-01-01

    Numerous methods for establishing a biological profile exist; however, many of these methods rely on the recovery of several specific bones or on fragile skeletal elements that are sometimes irrecoverable. It is for this reason new methods utilizing other previously under-documented bones should be established and tested by the forensic anthropological community. This study tests the accuracy of Wescott's (J Forensic Sci 2000;45(2)) method for determining sex from the second cervical vertebra. Specimens were drawn from the donated skeletal collection curated at the Hamilton County Forensic Center (n = 57) and the William M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection (n = 243). Both intra- and inter-observer error rates were low and accurate classifications ranged from 78% (females-Function 1) to 90.6% (males-Function 5). Of the five functions, Function 4 achieved the highest overall accuracy, with 260 individuals (86.7%) falling into the correct category. Overall, this method is an effective classificatory tool for sex estimation. PMID:22563852

  16. Evidence of increased mass fraction of NO 2 within real-world NO x emissions of modern light vehicles — derived from a reliable online measuring method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Robert; Weilenmann, Martin; Favez, Jean-Yves

    Ambient roadside concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) have stabilized in recent years while concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NO x) decline. Oxidation catalytic converters of modern vehicles facilitating the formation of NO 2 in the exhaust line, especially in diesel cars equipped with original equipment manufacturer (OEM) particle filters, are assumed to be responsible. NO 2 is toxic and increased proportions of NO 2 in total NO x in the atmosphere cause higher ambient ozone concentrations. These observations lead to a need for reliable emission factors for NO and NO 2 for road vehicles, while only NO x is recorded in standard emission measurements. In this regard, it was recently shown that NO 2 needs to be detected by an adequate online measuring method. The present work provides novel insight into these topics gained from an experimental campaign carried out with modern gasoline and diesel vehicles of certification categories Euro 3 and Euro 4. Reliable emission factors for NO and NO 2 are presented for different driving situations, such as real-world driving, cold start and statutory tests, together with corresponding particle emission data. Highest emissions of NO x are recorded for diesel cars equipped with OEM particle filters with mass ratios of NO 2 within NO x of up to 70%. The NO x emissions exceed the statutory emission limit and real-world emissions are even more pronounced, especially in urban driving conditions. Their particle emissions are greatly reduced, but the contribution of NO 2 to soot oxidation is thought to be minor.

  17. Applications of the LIF method for the diagnostics of the combustion process of gas-IC-engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchweger, Wolfram; Haslacher, Rainer; Hallmannsegger, Michael; Gerke, Udo

    2007-08-01

    Within the underlying project, the task was to develop methods for optical measurements in a hydrogen-fuelled engine with direct-injection, with the goal of measuring the jet patterns during injection, the stratification of the charge at ignition point and the propagation of the flame during combustion. Therefore, the method of planar laser-induced-fluorescence (PLIF) was chosen. In order to apply this technique for the named tasks, particular methods the visualisation of fuel distribution and the flame front were developed. The measurements were carried out on a single cylinder research engine installed at the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines at Graz University of Technology. This engine features optical access through a quartz-glass liner and a window in the piston while providing a layout equivalent to modern passenger car engines and the possibility to operate in fired mode. As it is hardly feasible to directly excite molecular hydrogen by means of laser light, it is necessary to add a tracer substance to the fuel that provides high fluorescence intensity while not changing the properties of the fuel. Consequently, Triethylamine was chosen as a tracer to be mixed with hydrogen at 200 ppm, which allows it to be used up to a maximum pressure of 200 bar while still providing a strong LIF signal. Due to the excellent linearity of the signal to the local air/fuel-ratio it was possible to develop a method for the calibration of the images in order to compensate for inhomogeneities of the laser beam and staining of the optical access and to ultimately allow a quantification of the fuel distribution. The results are images scaled on air/fuel-ratio which can be used for a direct optimisation of mixture formation processes and the validation of CFD-models. For the analysis of the combustion process the method was adapted with two different approaches. For homogeneous charges a new method was applied by marking the flame front using the tracer within the fuel, so that both are burned together. However, as this method is limited to measurements with a homogeneous distribution of tracer within the measured volume, an alternative technique had to be applied for the measurement of stratified charges. In this case, a direct visualisation of the flame front was achieved by exciting the OH-radicals formed during combustion. As this method has significantly increased demands on measuring equipment and is more time consuming, both methods are used in parallel on specific measuring tasks.

  18. [Modern methods for the evaluation of qualitative and quantitative changes in the characteristics of intestinal and vaginal microflora].

    PubMed

    Efimov, B A; Kafarskaia, L I; Korshunov, V M

    2002-01-01

    Disturbances in normal intestinal and vaginal microflora in women have recently become quite frequent. This accounts for the need of bacteriological laboratories for introduction of reliable methods for the diagnosis of such disturbances. Correct methodological approaches to objective evaluation of the state of intestinal and vaginal microflora are described. The methods used in the study of anaerobic microflora (lacto- and bifidobacteria, eubacteria, peptostreptococci, clostridia, bacteriods, fusobacteria) and facultative anaerobic microorganisms (enterobacteria, staphylococci, streptococci, Gardnerella, fungi of the genus Candida) have been analyzed. All stages of the study are described in consecutive order: the transportation of the material under study, its treatment in a laboratory, the spectrum of selective nutrient media for the isolation of microorganisms, methods of their identification. PMID:12449705

  19. [The new diagnostic methods of CADASIL as differential diagnosis of HDLS].

    PubMed

    Ueda, Akihiko; Ando, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    Both hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids (HDLS) and cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) are autosomal dominant white matter diseases. First symptoms of HDLS are cognitive decline or dementia, while those of CADASIL are migraine or ischemic infarcts. Family histories of young patients with stroke are important, because most of patients with CADASIL have these family histories. Temporal pole lesions are specific for CADASIL. However, some of the patients have no such lesions. We should differ CADASIL from non-CADASIL by evaluation of family history or the other MRI findings such as confluent external capsular lesions or multiple white matter medullary infarcts. Coronal views of MRI are useful for differentiating ischemic lesions from demyelinated lesions, even if horizontal views of MRI give little information. In addition, evaluation of immunohistochemical staining of Notch3 by frozen skin samples is useful for diagnosis. We discovered the methods of detecting light microscopic findings of GOM in frozen section. To reveal the pathogenesis of CADASIL, it is indispensable to analyze the chemical nature of GOM by histochemical stainings. We are going to analyze coexist proteins or materials in small arterial granular degeneration by proteomics of LC/ MS/ MS. PMID:25672735

  20. Poisoning of wild birds from exposure to anticholinesterase compounds and lead: diagnostic methods and selected cases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Smith, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate compounds have largely replaced chlorinated hydrocarbons for pesticidal use in the United States, and many cases of poisoning resulting from exposure to these anticholinesterase agents have occurred in free-living birds. Although lead shot has been prohibited for waterfowl hunting throughout the United States since 1991, lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead shot is still occasionally seen in wild birds, and lead poisoning from the ingestion of fishing sinkers is an emerging issue of concern. A thorough history, a complete necropsy evaluation, and appropriate laboratory analysis of tissues are required to diagnose toxicoses in wild birds, including those caused by anticholinesterase compounds and lead. The interpretation of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity results depends on the methods of analysis and comparison with expected normal enzyme activities in brain tissue from the same species. Although lead residues in tissues vary among species, many lead poisoned birds have tissue residues that are much higher than the lower threshold commonly accepted for a diagnosis of lead poisoning. We review histories, necropsy findings, and analytical methodologies and results for selected anticholinesterase and lead poisoning cases diagnosed in wild raptors, waterfowl, and loons.

  1. Diagnostics of 3D Scaffolds by the Method of X-Ray Phase Contrast Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al'tapova, V. R.; Khlusov, I. A.; Karpov, D. A.; Chen, F.; Baumbach, T.; Pichugin, V. F.

    2014-02-01

    Polymers are one of the most interesting classes of materials for bioengineering due to their high biocompatibility and the possibility of regulating their strength and degradation. In bioengineering, the design of a polymer scaffold determines the functional possibilities of the scaffold and its possible medical applications. Traditionally, the design of polymer scaffolds is analyzed with the help of two-dimensional visualization methods, such as optical and electron microscopy, and computer tomography. However, the x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum is only insignificantly absorbed by polymers and soft tissue, which means that it does not support computer tomography with sufficient contrast. The present work investigates visualization with the help of an interferometer based on the Talbot effect for three-dimensional visualization of a polymer scaffold in absorption, phase, and dark-field contrasts. A comparison of images obtained by x-ray visualization with histological sections of the scaffold is made. Phase contrast has made it possible to visualize the polymer structure and growth of soft tissues in the volume of the scaffold. In the future, it will be possible to use phase contrast for three-dimensional visualization of polymer scaffolds and soft tissues in vivo as well as in vitro.

  2. Non-invasive diagnostic methods for investigating the quality of Žilina airport's runway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slabej, Martin; Grinč, Michal; Kováč, Matúš; Decký, Martin; Šedivý, Štefan

    2015-09-01

    The Žilina airport was after almost 50 years of use measured by non-invasive methods including GPR and Profilograph GE in order to investigate the quality of the runway pavement at the chosen spots. Since it was just a pilot action, a sample of survey was carried out. The testing spots were placed where the geologic drill core J02 have been drilled out. The measurements performed by Profilograph GE were used to verify the quality of the pavement surface in term longitudinal unevenness by means of index IRI and C. The GPR survey was performed in 3D geometry, hence in the x- and y-direction. A horn type antenna with central frequency of 2 GHz was used on the test field in order to verify the thicknesses of pavement construction layers. Here, the result of a 3D survey is presented. The investigation confirms two sub-horizontal construction layers of the runway pavement. In some areas the GPR interpretation was not possible due to the signal attenuation. This significant signal attenuation is found mainly in the areas where the linear cracks are situated.

  3. Neuroimaging of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis (CVT) Old Dilemma and the New Diagnostic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Walecki, Jerzy; Mruk, Bartosz; Nawrocka-Laskus, Ewa; Piliszek, Agnieszka; Przelaskowski, Artur; Sklinda, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Cerebral venous thrombosis is a relatively uncommon neurologic disorder that is potentially reversible with prompt diagnosis and appropriate medical care. The pathogenesis is multifactorial and the disease may occur at any age. CVT is often associated with nonspecific symptoms. Radiologists play a crucial role in patient care by providing early diagnosis through interpretation of imaging studies. Underdiagnosis or misdiagnosis can increase the risk of severe complications, including hemorrhagic stroke or death. The purpose of this study is to investigate radiological and clinical characteristics of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) based on material from 34 patients under care of our hospital. Material/Methods A total of 34 patients were diagnosed with CVT from August 2009 until March 2015. A clinical and radiological database of patients with final diagnosis of CVT was analyzed. Results Patient group included 22 women and 12 men at a mean age of 48.7 years (ranging from 27 to 77 years). In the study group 8 patients (23.5%) suffered from hemorrhagic infarction, whereas 16 patients (47%) were diagnosed with venous infarction without hemorrhage. Thirty patients (88%) had transverse sinus thrombosis. Conclusions According to our study, CVT was more prevalent in women. Transverse sinus was the most common location. Among all age groups, the highest prevalence was seen in the fifth decade (n=14). Contrast-enhanced CT and MR venography were the most sensitive imaging modalities. PMID:26251677

  4. Clinical diagnostic of pleural effusions using a high-speed viscosity measurement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurth, Cedric; Klein, Katherine; van Nimwegen, Lena; Korn, Ronald; Vijayaraghavan, Krishnaswami; Zenhausern, Frederic

    2011-08-01

    We present a novel bio-analytical method to discriminate between transudative and exudative pleural effusions based on a high-speed video analysis of a solid glass sphere impacting a liquid. Since the result depends on the solution viscosity, it can ultimately replace the battery of biochemical assays currently used. We present results obtained on a series of 7 pleural effusions obtained from consenting patients by analyzing both the splash observed after the glass impactor hits the liquid surface, and in a configuration reminiscent of the drop ball viscometer with added sensitivity and throughput provided by the high-speed camera. The results demonstrate distinction between the pleural effusions and good correlation with the fluid chemistry analysis to accurately differentiate exudates and transudates for clinical purpose. The exudative effusions display a viscosity around 1.39 0.08 cP whereas the transudative effusion was measured at 0.89 0.09 cP, in good agreement with previous reports.

  5. Accuracy of Colposcopically Guided Diagnostic Methods for the Detection of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Müller, K.; Soergel, P.; Hillemanns, P.; Jentschke, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Many factors can affect the accuracy of colposcopically guided biopsy, endocervical curettage (ECC) and differential cytology, all of which are standard, minimally invasive procedures used to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Method: All conizations carried out between 2007 and 2013 in the gynecological department of Hannover Medical School were retrospectively reviewed. The agreement between colposcopic diagnosis and histology was evaluated retrospectively. The analysis included 593 complete datasets out of a total of 717 cases treated. Results: The overall agreement was 85.5 %; the accuracy was significantly higher (p = 0.029) when three biopsy specimens were taken rather than just one. The agreement between diagnosis and histological findings from conization was highest for women < 30 years (90.7 %) and lowest for women > 50 years (72.1 %; p = 0.008). The agreement between preoperative differential cytology and histology results after conization was 86.7 % and improved as patient age increased (p = 0.035). The agreement between ECC findings and the results of conization was only 49.1 % irrespective of patient age, transformation zone or the patientʼs menopausal status. Conclusion: The accuracy of colposcopically guided biopsy appears to increase when three biopsy specimens are taken and is particularly high for younger patients. Differential cytology was also found to be highly accurate and is particularly useful for patients aged more than 50 years. The accuracy of ECC was significantly lower; however ECC can provide important additional information in selected cases. PMID:26941452

  6. Comparison of three diagnostic methods for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free range chickens.

    PubMed

    Hamidinejat, H; Nabavi, L; Mayahi, M; Ghourbanpoor, M; Pourmehdi Borojeni, M; Norollahi Fard, S; Shokrollahi, M

    2014-09-01

    Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free range chickens is an indicator of the prevalence and distribution pattern of T. gondii in the environment. For this purpose, serologic assays especially modified agglutination test (MAT) is the main approach in the literature. The main goal of this study was to compare the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on amplification of first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) of ribosomal DNA gene, ELISA, and MAT to demonstrate T. gondii infection in free range chicken. A total of 106 adult free - range chickens were killed. Blood, whole heart and brain samples were taken. Sera were examined for the presence of T. gondii antibodies by ELISA and MAT as well. Selected tissues were used for PCR and bioassay in mice. The results revealed that 48.11%, 51.89%, 46.23% and 27.36% of chickens were positive in ELISA, MAT, PCR and bioassay in mice respectively. Good correlation between the results of PCR, ELISA and MAT were detected, but not with bioassay in mice. Compared with PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 92.16% and 96.36% respectively and also for MAT, the sensitivity was 81.81% and the specificity was 92.15%. The specific diagnosis of T. gondii infection in chickens is central to a better understanding of the epidemiology and dynamics of transmission among the various host population and is particularly important for planning effective optimal prevention and control programs. Our data in the present study demonstrated that PCR, ELISA and the MAT are helpful and precise methods to detect T. gondii in naturally infected free-range chickens. PMID:25382478

  7. Computer-aided diagnostic method for classification of Alzheimer's disease with atrophic image features on MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Yoshiura, Takashi; Kumazawa, Seiji; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Koga, Hiroshi; Mihara, Futoshi; Honda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Shuji; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2008-03-01

    Our goal for this study was to attempt to develop a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) method for classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with atrophic image features derived from specific anatomical regions in three-dimensional (3-D) T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. Specific regions related to the cerebral atrophy of AD were white matter and gray matter regions, and CSF regions in this study. Cerebral cortical gray matter regions were determined by extracting a brain and white matter regions based on a level set based method, whose speed function depended on gradient vectors in an original image and pixel values in grown regions. The CSF regions in cerebral sulci and lateral ventricles were extracted by wrapping the brain tightly with a zero level set determined from a level set function. Volumes of the specific regions and the cortical thickness were determined as atrophic image features. Average cortical thickness was calculated in 32 subregions, which were obtained by dividing each brain region. Finally, AD patients were classified by using a support vector machine, which was trained by the image features of AD and non-AD cases. We applied our CAD method to MR images of whole brains obtained from 29 clinically diagnosed AD cases and 25 non-AD cases. As a result, the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve obtained by our computerized method was 0.901 based on a leave-one-out test in identification of AD cases among 54 cases including 8 AD patients at early stages. The accuracy for discrimination between 29 AD patients and 25 non-AD subjects was 0.840, which was determined at the point where the sensitivity was the same as the specificity on the ROC curve. This result showed that our CAD method based on atrophic image features may be promising for detecting AD patients by using 3-D MR images.

  8. Capacity-loss diagnostic and life-time prediction in lithium-ion batteries: Part 1. Development of a capacity-loss diagnostic method based on open-circuit voltage analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tiansi; Pei, Lei; Wang, Tingting; Lu, Rengui; Zhu, Chunbo

    2016-01-01

    Effective capacity-loss diagnosis and life-time prediction are the foundations of battery second-use technology and will play an important role in the development of the new energy industry. Of the two, the capacity-loss diagnostic, as a precondition of the life-time prediction, needs to be studied first. Performing a capacity-loss diagnosis for an aging cell consists of finding the decisive degradation mechanisms for the cell's capacity degradation. Because a cell's capacity just equals the span of the open-circuit voltage (OCV), when suspect degradation mechanisms affect a cell's capacity, they will leave corresponding and particular clues in the OCV curve. Taking a cell's OCV as the diagnostic indicator, a multi-mechanistic and non-destructive diagnostic method is developed in this paper. To establish an unambiguous relationship between OCV changes and the combinations of the decisive mechanisms, all the possible OCV changes under various aging situations are systematically analyzed based on a novel simultaneous coordinate system, in which the effects of each suspect capacity-loss mechanism on the OCV curve can be clearly represented. As a summary of the analysis results, a straightforward diagnostic flowchart is presented. By following the flowchart, an aging cell can be diagnosed within three steps by observation of the OCV changes.

  9. Fighting an old disease with modern tools: characteristics and molecular detection methods of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Engstrm, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient disease, but not a disease of the past. The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of TB, demands new measures to combat the situation. Rapid and accurate detection of the pathogen, and its drug susceptibility pattern, is essential for timely initiation of treatment, and ultimately, control of the disease. Molecular-based methods offer a great chance to improve detection of drug-resistant TB; however, their development and usage should be accompanied with a profound understanding of drug resistance mechanisms and circulating M. tuberculosis strains in specific settings, as otherwise, the usefulness of such tests may be limited. This review gives an overview of the history of TB treatment and drug resistance, drug resistance mechanisms for the most commonly used drugs and molecular methods designed to detect drug-resistant strains. PMID:26167849

  10. Development of rapid, sensitive and non-radioactive tissue-blot diagnostic method for the detection of citrus greening.

    PubMed

    Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Miyata, Shin-Ichi; Ghosh, Dilip; Irey, Mike; Garnsey, Stephen M; Gowda, Siddarame

    2013-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is caused by Gram-negative, phloem-limited ?-proteobacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', vectored by the psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Citrus plants infected by the HLB bacterium may not show visible symptoms sometimes for years following infection and non-uniform distribution within the tree makes the detection of the pathogen very difficult. Efficient management of HLB disease requires rapid and sensitive detection early in the infection followed by eradication of the source of pathogen and the vector. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based method is most commonly employed for screening the infected/suspected HLB plants and psyllids. This is time consuming, cumbersome and not practical for screening large number of samples in the field. To overcome this, we developed a simple, sensitive, non-radioactive, tissue-blot diagnostic method for early detection and screening of HLB disease. Digoxigenin labeled molecular probes specific to 'Ca. L. asiaticus' nucleotide sequences have been developed and used for the detection of the pathogen of the HLB disease. The copy number of the target genes was also assessed using real-time PCR experiments and the optimized real-time PCR protocol allowed positive 'Ca. L. asiaticus' detection in citrus samples infected with 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterium. PMID:23660459

  11. Comparison of pre-analytical FFPE sample preparation methods and their impact on massively parallel sequencing in routine diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Heydt, Carina; Fassunke, Jana; Knstlinger, Helen; Ihle, Michaela Angelika; Knig, Katharina; Heukamp, Lukas Carl; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Odenthal, Margarete; Bttner, Reinhard; Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years, massively parallel sequencing has rapidly evolved and has now transitioned into molecular pathology routine laboratories. It is an attractive platform for analysing multiple genes at the same time with very little input material. Therefore, the need for high quality DNA obtained from automated DNA extraction systems has increased, especially to those laboratories which are dealing with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) material and high sample throughput. This study evaluated five automated FFPE DNA extraction systems as well as five DNA quantification systems using the three most common techniques, UV spectrophotometry, fluorescent dye-based quantification and quantitative PCR, on 26 FFPE tissue samples. Additionally, the effects on downstream applications were analysed to find the most suitable pre-analytical methods for massively parallel sequencing in routine diagnostics. The results revealed that the Maxwell 16 from Promega (Mannheim, Germany) seems to be the superior system for DNA extraction from FFPE material. The extracts had a 1.3-24.6-fold higher DNA concentration in comparison to the other extraction systems, a higher quality and were most suitable for downstream applications. The comparison of the five quantification methods showed intermethod variations but all methods could be used to estimate the right amount for PCR amplification and for massively parallel sequencing. Interestingly, the best results in massively parallel sequencing were obtained with a DNA input of 15 ng determined by the NanoDrop 2000c spectrophotometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). No difference could be detected in mutation analysis based on the results of the quantification methods. These findings emphasise, that it is particularly important to choose the most reliable and constant DNA extraction system, especially when using small biopsies and low elution volumes, and that all common DNA quantification techniques can be used for downstream applications like massively parallel sequencing. PMID:25105902

  12. Investigation of the Utilization of Modern Industrial Methods, Processes, Ergonomics, and the Internet in the Scientific Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myer, Spencer S., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    On Oct. 1, 2001 Cleveland State University and NASA Glenn Research Center embarked on the above named cooperative agreement. Because NASA's research facilities often exhibit instances where the failure to use state-of-the-art technologies and methods to improve on outmoded systems of interface and control, and this runs contrary to the NASA philosophy of "faster, better, and cheaper", it was deemed an ideal opportunity for this collaboration. The main objectives of the proposed effort were to research and investigate the use of the latest technologies, methods, techniques, etc. which pertain to control and interface with industrial and research systems and facilities. The work was done in large part at NASA Glenn Research Center, using selected research facilities as real-world laboratories; such as certain Microgravity Science Division and Space Station projects. Microgravity Science Division at Glenn Research Center designs and builds experiments to be flown on the Space Shuttle and eventually on the International Space Station. Economy of space, weight, complexity, data storage, ergonomics, and many other factors present problems that also exist in industry. Many of the solutions can come from the same areas of study mentioned above.

  13. Diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection and diagnosis of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in animals requires a laboratory test since disease from IAV presents no pathognomonic signs. Diagnosis and surveillance of animal influenza focuses on the detection of virus or type specific antibodies. Whether one targets the virus or ...

  14. Sinusitis. Diagnostic methods.

    PubMed Central

    Revonta, M.; Blokmanis, A.

    1994-01-01

    Sinusitis, which primarily involves the anterior ethmoid air cells, can spread to the larger sinus cavities to cause acute and chronic secondary infection. Endoscopic and computed tomographic techniques enable earlier diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and permanent cure. Primary care physicians should try to identify the disease before it reaches a stage where endoscopic control becomes difficult. Ultrasonography is now used in Europe to diagnose sinusitis and initiate treatment. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7841828

  15. On the understanding and development of modern physical neurorehabilitation methods: robotics and non-invasive brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Dylan J

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of physical disability in the community resulting from neurological dysfunction is predicted to increase in the coming years. The impetus for immediate and critical evaluation of physical neurorehabilitation strategies stems from the largely incomplete recovery following neurological damage, questionable efficacy of individual rehabilitation techniques, and the progressive acceptance of evidence-based medicine. The emergent technologies of non-invasive brain stimulation (NBS) and rehabilitation robotics enable a better understanding of the recovery process, as well as the mechanisms and effectiveness of intervention. With a more precise grasp of the relationship between dysfunctional and treatment-related plasticity, we can anticipate a move toward highly controlled and individualised prescription of rehabilitation. Both robotics and NBS can also be used to enhance motor control and learning in patients with neurological dysfunction. The merit of these contemporary methods as investigative and rehabilitation tools requires clarification and discussion. In this thematic series, five cohesive and eloquent papers address this issue from leading clinicians and scientists in the fields of robotics, NBS, plasticity and motor learning. PMID:19183466

  16. A molecular method to assess bioburden embedded within silicon-based resins used on modern spacecraft materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stam, Christina N.; Bruckner, James; Spry, J. Andy; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; La Duc, Myron T.

    2012-07-01

    Current assessments of bioburden embedded in spacecraft materials are based on work performed in the Viking era (1970s), and the ability to culture organisms extracted from such materials. To circumvent the limitations of such approaches, DNA-based techniques were evaluated alongside established culturing techniques to determine the recovery and survival of bacterial spores encapsulated in spacecraft-qualified polymer materials. Varying concentrations of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores were completely embedded in silicone epoxy. An organic dimethylacetamide-based solvent was used to digest the epoxy and spore recovery was evaluated via gyrB-targeted qPCR, direct agar plating, most probably number analysis, and microscopy. Although full-strength solvent was shown to inhibit the germination and/or outgrowth of spores, dilution in excess of 100-fold allowed recovery with no significant decrease in cultivability. Similarly, qPCR (quantitative PCR) detection sensitivities as low as ~103 CFU ml-1 were achieved upon removal of inhibitory substances associated with the epoxy and/or solvent. These detection and enumeration methods show promise for use in assessing the embedded bioburden of spacecraft hardware.

  17. Patient accounts of diagnostic testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia: comparing responses to genetic and non-genetic testing methods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Continuing developments in genetic testing technology together with research revealing gene-disease associations have brought closer the potential for genetic screening of populations. A major concern, as with any screening programme, is the response of the patient to the findings of screening, whether the outcome is positive or negative. Such concern is heightened for genetic testing, which it is feared may elicit stronger reactions than non-genetic testing. Methods This paper draws on thematic analysis of 113 semi-structured interviews with 39 patients being tested for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), an inherited predisposition to early-onset heart disease. It examines the impact of disease risk assessments based on both genetic and non-genetic information, or solely non-genetic information. Results The impact of diagnostic testing did not seem to vary according to whether or not genetic information was used. More generally, being given a positive or negative diagnosis of FH had minimal discernible impact on people's lives as they maintained the continuity of their beliefs and behaviour. Conclusions The results suggest that concerns about the use of genetic testing in this context are unfounded, a conclusion that echoes findings from studies in this and other health contexts. PMID:22994377

  18. Review of diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography using several endoscopic methods in patients with surgically altered gastrointestinal anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Shimatani, Masaaki; Takaoka, Makoto; Tokuhara, Mitsuo; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Ikeura, Tsukasa; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2015-01-01

    The endoscopic approach for biliary diseases in patients with surgically altered gastrointestinal anatomy (SAGA) had been generally deemed impractical. However, it was radically made feasible by the introduction of double balloon endoscopy (DBE) that was originally developed for diagnosis and treatments for small-bowel diseases. Followed by the subsequent development of single-balloon endoscopy (SBE) and spiral endoscopy (SE), interventions using several endoscopes for biliary disease in patients with SAGA widely gained an acceptance as a new modality. Many studies have been made on this new technique. Yet, some problems are to be solved. For instance, the mutual unavailability among devices due to different working lengths and channels, and unestablished standardization of procedural techniques can be raised. Additionally, in an attempt to standardize endoscopic procedures, it is important to evaluate biliary cannulating methods by case with existence of papilla or not. A full comprehension of the features of respective scope types is also required. However there are not many papers written as a review. In our manuscript, we would like to evaluate and make a review of the present status of diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography applying DBE, SBE and SE for biliary diseases in patients with SAGA for establishment of these modalities as a new technology and further improvement of the scopes and devices. PMID:26078830

  19. Development of a laser cleaning method for the first mirror surface of the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostics on ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, A. P.; Buzinskij, O. I.; Gubsky, K. L.; Nikitina, E. A.; Savchenkov, A. V.; Tarasov, B. A.; Tugarinov, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    A set of optical diagnostics is expected for measuring the plasma characteristics in ITER. Optical elements located inside discharge chambers are exposed to an intense radiation load, sputtering due to collisions with energetic atoms formed in the charge transfer processes, and contamination due to recondensation of materials sputtered from different parts of the construction of the chamber. Removing the films of the sputtered materials from the mirrors with the aid of pulsed laser radiation is an efficient cleaning method enabling recovery of the optical properties of the mirrors. In this work, we studied the efficiency of removal of metal oxide films by pulsed radiation of a fiber laser. Optimization of the laser cleaning conditions was carried out on samples representing metal substrates polished with optical quality with deposition of films on them imitating the chemical composition and conditions expected in ITER. It is shown that, by a proper selection of modes of radiation exposure to the surface with a deposited film, it is feasible to restore the original high reflection characteristics of optical elements.

  20. Choice of a Spectral Range for Measuring Temperature Fields in a Flame and Recording High-temperature Objects Screened by the Flame Using IR Diagnostic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboda, E. L.; Reino, V. V.; Agafontsev, M. V.

    2015-06-01

    Results of experimental investigations of radiation spectra of flame produced from combustion of different fuels are presented. Based on an analysis of the spectra, the well-founded choice of spectral ranges for IR diagnostic methods is performed to measure temperature fields in the flame and to record high-temperature objects screened by the flame.

  1. Development of a quantitative diagnostic method of estrogen receptor expression levels by immunohistochemistry using organic fluorescent material-assembled nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Gonda, Kohsuke; Miyashita, Minoru; Watanabe, Mika; Takahashi, Yayoi; Goda, Hideki; Okada, Hisatake; Nakano, Yasushi; Tada, Hiroshi; Amari, Masakazu; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic fluorescent material-assembled nanoparticles for IHC were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New nanoparticle fluorescent intensity was 10.2-fold greater than Qdot655. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticle staining analyzed a wide range of ER expression levels in tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticle staining enhanced the quantitative sensitivity for ER diagnosis. -- Abstract: The detection of estrogen receptors (ERs) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using 3,3 Prime -diaminobenzidine (DAB) is slightly weak as a prognostic marker, but it is essential to the application of endocrine therapy, such as antiestrogen tamoxifen-based therapy. IHC using DAB is a poor quantitative method because horseradish peroxidase (HRP) activity depends on reaction time, temperature and substrate concentration. However, IHC using fluorescent material provides an effective method to quantitatively use IHC because the signal intensity is proportional to the intensity of the photon excitation energy. However, the high level of autofluorescence has impeded the development of quantitative IHC using fluorescence. We developed organic fluorescent material (tetramethylrhodamine)-assembled nanoparticles for IHC. Tissue autofluorescence is comparable to the fluorescence intensity of quantum dots, which are the most representative fluorescent nanoparticles. The fluorescent intensity of our novel nanoparticles was 10.2-fold greater than quantum dots, and they did not bind non-specifically to breast cancer tissues due to the polyethylene glycol chain that coated their surfaces. Therefore, the fluorescent intensity of our nanoparticles significantly exceeded autofluorescence, which produced a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio on IHC-imaged cancer tissues than previous methods. Moreover, immunostaining data from our nanoparticle fluorescent IHC and IHC with DAB were compared in the same region of adjacent tissues sections to quantitatively examine the two methods. The results demonstrated that our nanoparticle staining analyzed a wide range of ER expression levels with higher accuracy and quantitative sensitivity than DAB staining. This enhancement in the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity for ERs using our immunostaining method will improve the prediction of responses to therapies that target ERs and progesterone receptors that are induced by a downstream ER signal.

  2. Molecular diagnostics in genodermatoses.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Julie V

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, there has been tremendous progress in elucidating the molecular bases of genodermatoses. The interface between genetics and dermatology has broadened with the identification of "new" heritable disorders, improved recognition of phenotypic spectrums, and integration of molecular and clinical data to simplify disease categorization and highlight relationships between conditions. With the advent of next-generation sequencing and other technological advances, dermatologists have promising new tools for diagnosis of genodermatoses. This article first addresses phenotypic characterization and classification with the use of online databases, considering concepts of clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Indications for genetic testing related to medical care and patient/family decision making are discussed. Standard genetic testing is reviewed, including resources for finding specialized laboratories, methods of gene analysis, and patient/family counseling. The benefits and challenges associated with multigene panels, array-based analysis (eg, copy number variation, linkage, and homozygosity), and whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing are then examined. Specific issues relating to molecular analysis of mosaic skin conditions and prenatal/preimplantation diagnosis are also presented. Use of the modern molecular diagnostics described herein enhance our ability to counsel, monitor, and treat patients and families affected by genodermatoses, with broader benefits of providing insights into cutaneous physiology and multifactorial skin disorders. PMID:23174491

  3. Numerical simulations used for a validity check on the laser induced photo-detachment diagnostic method in electronegative plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudini, N.; Taccogna, F.; Bendib, A.; Aanesland, A.

    2014-06-01

    Laser photo-detachment is used as a method to measure or determine the negative ion density and temperature in electronegative plasmas. In essence, the method consists of producing an electropositive channel (negative ion free region) via pulsed laser photo-detachment within an electronegative plasma bulk. Electrostatic probes placed in this channel measure the change in the electron density. A second pulse might be used to track the negative ion recovery. From this, the negative ion density and temperature can be determined. We study the formation and relaxation of the electropositive channel via a two-dimensional Particle-In-Cell/Mote Carlo collision model. The simulation is mainly carried out in a Hydrogen plasma with an electronegativity of ? = 1, with a parametric study for ? up to 20. The temporal and spatial evolution of the plasma potential and the electron densities shows the formation of a double layer (DL) confining the photo-detached electrons within the electropositive channel. This DL evolves into two fronts that move in the opposite directions inside and outside of the laser spot region. As a consequence, within the laser spot region, the background and photo-detached electron energy distribution function relaxes/thermalizes via collisionless effects such as Fermi acceleration and Landau damping. Moreover, the simulations show that collisional effects and the DL electric field strength might play a non-negligible role in the negative ion recovery within the laser spot region, leading to a two-temperature negative ion distribution. The latter result might have important effects in the determination of the negative ion density and temperature from laser photo detachment diagnostic.

  4. Anthropometric and Biochemical Characteristics of Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Diagnosed by Non-Invasive Diagnostic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Novakovic, Tatjana; Mekic, Mevludin; Smilic, Ljiljana; Smilic, Tanja; Inić-Kostic, Biljana; Jovicevic, Ljiljana; Mirkovic, Zlatica; Milinic, Srbislava

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Non-alcoholic (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of disease states, from steatosis (fatty liver) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (also called NASH steatosis with inflammatory changes) followed by progression to fibrosis and cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma Excess liver fat is believed to be a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and not surprisingly NASH is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes in humans. Aim of the study: is to establish anthropometric and biochemical specificities in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis diagnosed with non-invasive diagnostic methods Material and methods: Study enrolled 170 participants, 130 with NASH steatosis. The non-alcoholic group (control), consisted of 40 normal weight patients without metabolic syndrome. Alcohol intake was estimated with established protocol. Routine biochemistry analysis were performed by standard laboratory procedures; serum levels of serum levels of fasting cholesterol and triglycerides, fasting glucose and insulin, insulin resistance estimated by HOMA index (Homeostasis model assessment), biochemistry tests and a liver ultrasound examination. Results: In study participants group, patients were more obese comparing with controls p < 0, 01, waist line extent also was of greater statistical significance in the non-alcoholic group fatty liver (p < 0, 01). Comparing biochemical parameter values, significant statistical deference has been noted in glaucosis and insulin levels, total cholesterol and gama-glutamil transferase levels, between groups (p<0, 01). Fasting glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR were significantly greater in study cohort group patients, as was significantly positive correlation between BMI and waist line extent. Conclusion: Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver are excessively obese, have greater waist line extent, consequently insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, risk factors known to be associated with the development of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24783906

  5. Numerical simulations used for a validity check on the laser induced photo-detachment diagnostic method in electronegative plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Oudini, N.; Taccogna, F.; Aanesland, A.

    2014-06-15

    Laser photo-detachment is used as a method to measure or determine the negative ion density and temperature in electronegative plasmas. In essence, the method consists of producing an electropositive channel (negative ion free region) via pulsed laser photo-detachment within an electronegative plasma bulk. Electrostatic probes placed in this channel measure the change in the electron density. A second pulse might be used to track the negative ion recovery. From this, the negative ion density and temperature can be determined. We study the formation and relaxation of the electropositive channel via a two-dimensional Particle-In-Cell/Mote Carlo collision model. The simulation is mainly carried out in a Hydrogen plasma with an electronegativity of α = 1, with a parametric study for α up to 20. The temporal and spatial evolution of the plasma potential and the electron densities shows the formation of a double layer (DL) confining the photo-detached electrons within the electropositive channel. This DL evolves into two fronts that move in the opposite directions inside and outside of the laser spot region. As a consequence, within the laser spot region, the background and photo-detached electron energy distribution function relaxes/thermalizes via collisionless effects such as Fermi acceleration and Landau damping. Moreover, the simulations show that collisional effects and the DL electric field strength might play a non-negligible role in the negative ion recovery within the laser spot region, leading to a two-temperature negative ion distribution. The latter result might have important effects in the determination of the negative ion density and temperature from laser photo detachment diagnostic.

  6. A novel and rapid diagnostic method for discriminating between feces of sika deer and Japanese serow by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, T; Horino, S; Ichihara, Y

    2015-08-01

    Severe damages to natural vegetation, agriculture, and forestry caused by overpopulation of sika deer (Cervus nippon) have markedly increased in Japan in recent years. To devise a population management plan of sika deer, information on the distribution and population size of the animal in each region is indispensable. An easy and effective method to obtain this information is to count the fecal pellets in the field. However, the habitat of sika deer in Japan overlaps that of Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus). Additionally, it is difficult to discriminate between the feces of both animals. Here, we present a rapid and precise diagnostic method for discriminating between the feces of sika deer and Japanese serow using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeting cytochrome b gene in the mitochondrial DNA. Our results showed that the LAMP can discriminate between the feces of sika deer and Japanese serow, and the method is simpler and more sensitive than the conventional molecular diagnostic method. Since LAMP method does not require special skills for molecular biology techniques, even the field researchers who have never done a molecular experiment can easily carry out the protocol. In addition, the entire protocol, from DNA extraction from fecal pellet to identification of species, takes only about 75min and does not require expensive equipment. Hence, this diagnostic method is simple, fast, and accessible to anyone. As such, the method can be a useful tool to estimate distribution and population size of sika deer. PMID:26084704

  7. Modern sports eye injuries

    PubMed Central

    Capo Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falco-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Methods: Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Results: Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Conclusions: Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory. PMID:14609827

  8. Integrated diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunthausen, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

  9. Modern Method for Preventive Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Howard D.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a system at Michigan State University that comprises 16 separate programs and schedules 25,000 manhours of preventive maintenance. With information about preventive maintenance for over 100,000 units stored in its computer, the university saves personnel, time, and energy. (Author/MLF)

  10. An overview of the applied definitions and diagnostic methods to assess exercise oscillatory ventilation--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Justien; Beckers, Paul; Vanroy, Christel; Volckaerts, Tess; Vrints, Christiaan; Vissers, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The variable "exercise oscillatory ventilation" (EOV), assessed during cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), recently became a fundamental prognostic parameter in patients with heart failure. In literature, various definitions are suggested, but an uniformly accepted description to identify EOV still lacks. We performed a systematic review of the literature in order to determine the different definitions and diagnostic techniques to assess EOV. A systematic search strategy was established and executed in seven databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Clinical Trials, Science Direct, Pedro, Web Of Science library and Medline (Ovid)) resulting in 605 citations after de-duplication. Full-text articles (n=124) were assessed for eligibility, resulting in 75 citations. The review accounted 17,440 patients of whom 4,638 subjects presented EOV. Seven studies described EOV in a non-heart failure population accounting 168 EOV subjects. The definitions could be categorized in nine subdivisions of which four (n=43) referred to an original description. The other subdivisions were combinations of the original definitions (n=11), quantifications (n=4), computational (n=3), vaguely described (n=8) or not defined (n=6). Symptom limited maximal exercise tests were conducted to assess EOV, however the modes, protocols, software and data sampling were divers. Heterogeneity in the numerous definitions to identify EOV and the vaguely described assessment methods are hindering the evolution to a standardized uniformly accepted definition and technique to identify this abnormal breathing pattern. Unity in definition and international adopted assessment is warranted to strengthen its validity as a prognostic marker and could promote communication. It may facilitate clinical trials on pathophysiology and origin of EOV. PMID:25918072

  11. Evaluation of Unbiased Next-Generation Sequencing of RNA (RNA-seq) as a Diagnostic Method in Influenza Virus-Positive Respiratory Samples

    PubMed Central

    Indenbirken, Daniela; Meyer, Thomas; Lütgehetmann, Marc; Lellek, Heinrich; Spohn, Michael; Aepfelbacher, Martin; Alawi, Malik; Grundhoff, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Unbiased nontargeted metagenomic RNA sequencing (UMERS) has the advantage to detect known as well as unknown pathogens and, thus, can significantly improve the detection of viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal sequences in public health settings. In particular, conventional diagnostic methods successfully identify the putative pathogenic agent in only 30% to 40% of respiratory specimens from patients with acute respiratory illness. Here, we applied UMERS to 24 diagnostic respiratory specimens (bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL] fluid, sputum samples, and a swab) from patients with seasonal influenza infection and 5 BAL fluid samples from patients with pneumonia that tested negative for influenza to validate RNA sequencing as an unbiased diagnostic tool in comparison to conventional diagnostic methods. In addition to our comparison to PCR, we evaluated the potential to retrieve comprehensive influenza virus genomic information and the capability to detect known superinfecting pathogens. Compared to quantitative real-time PCR for influenza viral sequences, UMERS detected influenza viral sequences in 18 of 24 samples. Complete influenza virus genomes could be assembled from 8 samples. Furthermore, in 3 of 24 influenza-positive samples, additional viral pathogens could be detected, and 2 of 24 samples showed a significantly increased abundance of individual bacterial species known to cause superinfections during an influenza virus infection. Thus, analysis of respiratory samples from known or suspected influenza patients by UMERS provides valuable information that is relevant for clinical investigation. PMID:25972420

  12. Evaluation of Unbiased Next-Generation Sequencing of RNA (RNA-seq) as a Diagnostic Method in Influenza Virus-Positive Respiratory Samples.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Nicole; Indenbirken, Daniela; Meyer, Thomas; Ltgehetmann, Marc; Lellek, Heinrich; Spohn, Michael; Aepfelbacher, Martin; Alawi, Malik; Grundhoff, Adam

    2015-07-01

    Unbiased nontargeted metagenomic RNA sequencing (UMERS) has the advantage to detect known as well as unknown pathogens and, thus, can significantly improve the detection of viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal sequences in public health settings. In particular, conventional diagnostic methods successfully identify the putative pathogenic agent in only 30% to 40% of respiratory specimens from patients with acute respiratory illness. Here, we applied UMERS to 24 diagnostic respiratory specimens (bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL] fluid, sputum samples, and a swab) from patients with seasonal influenza infection and 5 BAL fluid samples from patients with pneumonia that tested negative for influenza to validate RNA sequencing as an unbiased diagnostic tool in comparison to conventional diagnostic methods. In addition to our comparison to PCR, we evaluated the potential to retrieve comprehensive influenza virus genomic information and the capability to detect known superinfecting pathogens. Compared to quantitative real-time PCR for influenza viral sequences, UMERS detected influenza viral sequences in 18 of 24 samples. Complete influenza virus genomes could be assembled from 8 samples. Furthermore, in 3 of 24 influenza-positive samples, additional viral pathogens could be detected, and 2 of 24 samples showed a significantly increased abundance of individual bacterial species known to cause superinfections during an influenza virus infection. Thus, analysis of respiratory samples from known or suspected influenza patients by UMERS provides valuable information that is relevant for clinical investigation. PMID:25972420

  13. ICALEO '90 - Optical methods in flow and particle diagnostics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Boston, MA, Nov. 4-9, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attention is given to multiple species CARS in turbulent jet flames, simultaneous measurements of temperature and density in air flows using UV laser spectroscopy, a combination of multispecies Raman scattering with molecular fluorescence, planar laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics for large scale test facilities, evidence of local stagnation in supersonic mixing layers using 1D laser Rayleigh and Raman scattering, vorticity field measurements using laser induced photochemical anemometry, and combustion diagnostics by 2D laser induced fluorescence using tunable excimer lasers. Attention is also given to a single laser apparatus for writing patterns into unseeded air, single exposure double frame particle image velocimeters, holographic recording of 3D flow configurations for particle image velocimetry, and flow field diagnostics by spectrally filtered Rayleigh scattering. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  14. ICALEO '90 - Optical methods in flow and particle diagnostics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Boston, MA, Nov. 4-9, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Attention is given to multiple species CARS in turbulent jet flames, simultaneous measurements of temperature and density in air flows using UV laser spectroscopy, a combination of multispecies Raman scattering with molecular fluorescence, planar laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics for large scale test facilities, evidence of local stagnation in supersonic mixing layers using 1D laser Rayleigh and Raman scattering, vorticity field measurements using laser induced photochemical anemometry, and combustion diagnostics by 2D laser induced fluorescence using tunable excimer lasers. Attention is also given to a single laser apparatus for writing patterns into unseeded air, single exposure double frame particle image velocimeters, holographic recording of 3D flow configurations for particle image velocimetry, and flow field diagnostics by spectrally filtered Rayleigh scattering.

  15. Physical diagnosis versus modern technology. A review.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, F. T.

    1990-01-01

    The role of physical diagnosis in an age of modern diagnostic technology has been evaluated by investigators assessing specific techniques in a number of areas, though there has been no systematic comprehensive study of the sensitivity, specificity, cost-benefit ratio, and reliability of physical diagnosis relative to technologic diagnostic tools. In a review of published studies comparing physical with nonphysical diagnostic techniques, the startling accuracy of physical diagnosticians in some areas contrasts sharply with the extremely poor correlation of physical findings with autopsy or imaging studies in others. In a time of constricting financial resources, physicians-and those who teach or judge physicians' skills-must begin to compare physical and nonphysical diagnostic techniques rigorously so that the best, safest, and least expensive diagnostic test is chosen in each clinical situation. PMID:2190412

  16. Use of the Attribute Hierarchy Method for Development of Student Cognitive Models and Diagnostic Assessments in Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrigan, S.; Brodsky, L. M.; Loper, S.; Brown, N.; Curley, J.; Baker, J.; Goss, M.; Castek, J.; Barber, J.

    2010-12-01

    There is a recognized need to better understand student learning in the geosciences (Stofflet, 1994; Zalles, Quallmalz, Gobert and Pallant, 2007). Educators, cognitive psychologists and practicing scientists have also called for instructional approaches that support deep conceptual development (Manduca, Mogk and Stillings, 2004, Libarkin and Kurdziel, 2006). In both cases there is an important role for educational measures that can generate descriptions of how student understanding develops over time and inform instruction. The presenters will suggest one way of responding to these needs by describing the Attribute Hierarchy Method (AHM) of assessment (Leighton, Gierl and Hunka, 2004; Gierl, Cui, Wang and Zhou, 2008) as enacted in a large-scale earth science curriculum development project funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The AHM is one approach to criterion referenced, diagnostic assessment that ties measure design to cognitive models of student learning in order to support justified inferences about students’ understanding and the knowledge required for continued development. The Attribute Hierarchy Method bears potential for researchers and practitioners interested in learning progressions and solves many problems associated with making meaningful, justified inferences about students’ understanding based on their assessment performances. The process followed to design and develop the project’s cognitive models as well as a description of how they are used in subsequent assessment task design will be emphasized in order to demonstrate how the AHM may be applied in the context of geoscience education. Results from over twenty student cognitive interviews, and two hypothesized cognitive models -- one describing a student pathway for understanding rock formation and a second describing a student pathway for increasingly sophisticated use of maps and models in the geosciences - are also described. Sample assessment items will be provided as indications of the final assessment measures. The project’s efforts to create an on-line geoscience curriculum for use in the middle school grades that adapts to student performances by customizing whole lessons, grouping assignments or student feedback will provide a broader context for the discussion.

  17. Diagnosing Examinees' Attributes-Mastery Using the Bayesian Inference for Binomial Proportion: A New Method for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun Seok John

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA) is a new theoretical framework for psychological and educational testing that is designed to provide detailed information about examinees' strengths and weaknesses in specific knowledge structures and processing skills. During the last three decades, more than a dozen psychometric models have been developed

  18. Tear-off patterning: a simple method for patterning nitrocellulose membranes to improve the performance of point-of-care diagnostic biosensors.

    PubMed

    Song, Mun-Bum; Joung, Hyou-Arm; Oh, Young Kyoung; Jung, Kwonyoung; Ahn, Young Deok; Kim, Min-Gon

    2015-07-21

    This article describes a new method, referred to as "tear-off patterning," for patterning nitrocellulose (NC) membranes in order to fabricate NC-based point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices. Paper-based microfluidic sensors usually employ hydrophobic barrier coatings such as paraffin wax on either paper or membranes. Herein, complex patterns were fabricated by stamping the target area with dimethyl sulfoxide before tearing off the stamped area. Fluid flow and morphological analyses were performed in order to characterize the patterned membranes. Furthermore, the myoglobin and creatine kinase-MB levels in human serum were measured simultaneously using a dual-fluidic-channel-patterned NC membrane in order to confirm the usefulness of the patterning method for fabricating POC biosensors. The proposed method for patterning NC membranes offers clear advantages, such as the ability to fabricate complex designs and patterns without a hydrophobic barrier after protein immobilization in a laboratory and in a simple, low-cost manner. We believe that this method can be used to develop various POC diagnostic biosensors at the research and development stage and can help improve the performance and features of POC diagnostic devices. PMID:26062104

  19. Probe diagnostics in the far scrape-off layer plasma of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak using a sideband harmonic method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hong, Suk-Ho; Park, Il-Seo; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kang, Hyun-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-01

    Plasma characteristics in the far scrape-off layer region of tokamak play a crucial role in the stable plasma operation and its sustainability. Due to the huge facility, electrical diagnostic systems to measure plasma properties have extremely long cable length resulting in large stray current. To overcome this problem, a sideband harmonic method was applied to the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak plasma. The sideband method allows the measurement of the electron temperature and the plasma density without the effect of the stray current. The measured plasma densities are compared with those from the interferometer, and the results show reliability of the method. PMID:26724028

  20. Probe diagnostics in the far scrape-off layer plasma of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak using a sideband harmonic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hong, Suk-Ho; Park, Il-Seo; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kang, Hyun-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-01

    Plasma characteristics in the far scrape-off layer region of tokamak play a crucial role in the stable plasma operation and its sustainability. Due to the huge facility, electrical diagnostic systems to measure plasma properties have extremely long cable length resulting in large stray current. To overcome this problem, a sideband harmonic method was applied to the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak plasma. The sideband method allows the measurement of the electron temperature and the plasma density without the effect of the stray current. The measured plasma densities are compared with those from the interferometer, and the results show reliability of the method.

  1. Sedimentology of rocky shorelines: 1. A review of the problem, with analytical methods, and insights gained from the Hulopoe Gravel and the modern rocky shoreline of Lanai, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felton, E. Anne

    2002-10-01

    Hypotheses advanced concerning the origin of the Pleistocene Hulopoe Gravel on Lanai include mega-tsunami, abandoned beach, 'multiple event,' rocky shoreline, and for parts of the deposit, Native Hawaiian constructions and degraded lava flow fronts. Uplift of Lanai shorelines has been suggested for deposits occurring up to at least 190 m. These conflicting hypotheses highlight problems with the interpretation of coarse gravel deposits containing marine biotic remains. The geological records of the processes implied by these hypotheses should look very different. Discrimination among these or any other hypotheses for the origins of the Hulopoe Gravel will require careful study of vertical and lateral variations in litho- and biofacies, facies architecture, contact relationships and stratal geometries of this deposit. Observations of modern rocky shorelines, particularly on Lanai adjacent to Hulopoe Gravel outcrops, have shown that distinctive coarse gravel facies are present, several of which occur in specific geomorphic settings. Tectonic, isostatic and eustatic changes which cause rapid shoreline translations on steep slopes favour preservation of former rocky shorelines and associated sedimentary deposits both above and below sea level. The sedimentary record of those shorelines is likely to be complex. The modern rocky shoreline sedimentary environment is a hostile one, largely neglected by sedimentologists. A range of high-energy processes characterize these shorelines. Long-period swell, tsunami and storm waves can erode hard bedrock and generate coarse gravel. They also erode older deposits, depositing fresh ones containing mixtures of materials of different ages. Additional gravelly material may be contributed by rivers draining steep hinterlands. To fully evaluate rocky shoreline deposition in the broadest sense, for both the Hulopoe Gravel and other deposits, sedimentary facies models are needed for rocky shorelines occurring in a range of settings. Recognition and description of rocky shoreline deposits are crucial for correctly interpreting the geological history of oceanic and volcanic arc islands, for distinguishing between ancient tsunami and storm deposits, and for interpreting coarse-grained deposits preserved on high energy coasts of continents. Problems include not only the absence of appropriate sedimentary facies models linking rocky shoreline deposits and environments but also, until recently, lack of a systematic descriptive scheme applicable to coarse gravel deposits generally. Two complementary methods serve to integrate the wide range of bed and clast attributes and parameters which characterize complex coarse gravel deposits. The composition and fabric (CAF) method has a materials focus, providing detailed description of attributes of the constituent clasts, petrology, the proportions of gravel, sand and mud, and the ways in which these materials are organized. The sedimentary facies model building (FMB) method emphasizes the organization of a deposit on a bed-by-bed basis to identify facies and infer depositional processes. The systematic use of a comprehensive gravel fabric and petrography log (GFPL), in conjunction with detailed vertical profiles, provides visual representations of a range of deposit characteristics. Criteria useful for distinguishing sedimentary facies in the Hulopoe Gravel are: grain-size modes, amount of matrix, bed geometry, sedimentary structures, bed fabric and clast roundness.

  2. Modern problems of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    The role of energy and methods of its saving for the development of human society and life are analyzed. The importance of future use of space energy flows and energy of water and air oceans is emphasized. The authors consider the idea of the unit for production of electric energy and pure substances using sodium chloride which reserves are limitless on the planet. Looking retrospectively at the development of power engineering from the elementary fire to modern electric power station, we see that the used method of heat production, namely by direct interaction of fuel and oxidizer, is the simplest. However, it may be possible to combust coal, i.e., carbon in salt melt, for instance, sodium chloride that would be more rational and efficient. If the stated problems are solved positively, we would master all energy properties of the substance; and this is the main problem of thermodynamics being one of the sciences on energy.

  3. Diagnostic apparatus and method for use in the alignment of one or more laser means onto a fiber optics interface

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Steve A.; Shannon, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Diagnostic apparatus for use in determining the proper alignment of a plurality of laser beams onto a fiber optics interface is disclosed. The apparatus includes a lens assembly which serves two functions, first to focus a plurality of laser beams onto the fiber optics interface, and secondly to reflect and image the interface using scattered light to a monitor means. The monitor means permits indirect observation of the alignment or focusing of the laser beams onto the fiber optics interface.

  4. Diagnostic apparatus and method for use in the alignment of one or more laser means onto a fiber optics interface

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, S.A.; Shannon, R.R.

    1985-01-18

    Diagnostic apparatus for use in determining the proper alignment of a plurality of laser beams onto a fiber optics interface is disclosed. The apparatus includes a lens assembly which serves two functions, first to focus a plurality of laser beams onto the fiber optics interface, and secondly to reflect and image the interface using scattered light to a monitor means. The monitor means permits indirect observation of the alignment or focusing of the laser beams onto the fiber optics interface.

  5. Evaluating College Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Modern Physics: Test of Understanding on Concepts of Modern Physics (TUCO-MP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akarsu, Bayram

    2011-01-01

    In present paper, we propose a new diagnostic test to measure students' conceptual knowledge of principles of modern physics topics. Over few decades since born of physics education research (PER), many diagnostic instruments that measure students' conceptual understanding of various topics in physics, the earliest tests developed in PER are Force…

  6. [Methods of mathematical modeling in morphological diagnostics of Chernobyl factor influence on the testes of coal miners of Donbas--the Chernobyl disaster fighters].

    PubMed

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2014-01-01

    The morphometric estimation of parenchyma and stroma condition included the determination of 29 parameters in testicles at 27 persons. The mathematical model of morphogenesis of testicles was created by Bayes' method. The method of differential diagnosis of testicles tissues' changes conditioned by the influence of the Chernobyl factor and/or unfavorable terms of the work in underground coal mines have been worked out. Its practical use provides exactness and reliability of the diagnosis (not less than 95%), independence from the level of the qualification and personal experience of the doctor, allows us to unify, optimize and individualize the diagnostic algorithms, answer the requirements of evidential medicine. PMID:24908955

  7. Nanodevices in diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ye; Fine, Daniel H.; Tasciotti, Ennio; Bouamrani, Ali; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    The real-time, personalized and highly sensitive early-stage diagnosis of disease remains an important challenge in modern medicine. With the ability to interact with matter at the nanoscale, the development of nanotechnology architectures and materials could potentially extend subcellular and molecular detection beyond the limits of conventional diagnostic modalities. At the very least, nanotechnology should be able to dramatically accelerate biomarker discovery, as well as facilitate disease monitoring, especially of maladies presenting a high degree of molecular and compositional heterogeneity. This article gives an overview of several of the most promising nanodevices and nanomaterials along with their applications in clinical practice. Significant work to adapt nanoscale materials and devices to clinical applications involving large interdisciplinary collaborations is already underway with the potential for nanotechnology to become an important enabling diagnostic technology. PMID:20229595

  8. Computerized method for evaluating diagnostic image quality of calcified plaque images in cardiac CT: Validation on a physical dynamic cardiac phantom

    SciTech Connect

    King, Martin; Rodgers, Zachary; Giger, Maryellen L.; Bardo, Dianna M. E.; Patel, Amit R.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: In cardiac computed tomography (CT), important clinical indices, such as the coronary calcium score and the percentage of coronary artery stenosis, are often adversely affected by motion artifacts. As a result, the expert observer must decide whether or not to use these indices during image interpretation. Computerized methods potentially can be used to assist in these decisions. In a previous study, an artificial neural network (ANN) regression model provided assessability (image quality) indices of calcified plaque images from the software NCAT phantom that were highly agreeable with those provided by expert observers. The method predicted assessability indices based on computer-extracted features of the plaque. In the current study, the ANN-predicted assessability indices were used to identify calcified plaque images with diagnostic calcium scores (based on mass) from a physical dynamic cardiac phantom. The basic assumption was that better quality images were associated with more accurate calcium scores. Methods: A 64-channel CT scanner was used to obtain 500 calcified plaque images from a physical dynamic cardiac phantom at different heart rates, cardiac phases, and plaque locations. Two expert observers independently provided separate sets of assessability indices for each of these images. Separate sets of ANN-predicted assessability indices tailored to each observer were then generated within the framework of a bootstrap resampling scheme. For each resampling iteration, the absolute calcium score error between the calcium scores of the motion-contaminated plaque image and its corresponding stationary image served as the ground truth in terms of indicating images with diagnostic calcium scores. The performances of the ANN-predicted and observer-assigned indices in identifying images with diagnostic calcium scores were then evaluated using ROC analysis. Results: Assessability indices provided by the first observer and the corresponding ANN performed similarly (AUC{sub OBS1}=0.80 [0.73,0.86] vs AUC{sub ANN1}=0.88 [0.82,0.92]) as that of the second observer and the corresponding ANN (AUC{sub OBS2}=0.87 [0.83,0.91] vs AUC{sub ANN2}=0.90 [0.85,0.94]). Moreover, the ANN-predicted indices were generated in a fraction of the time required to obtain the observer-assigned indices. Conclusions: ANN-predicted assessability indices performed similar to observer-assigned assessability indices in identifying images with diagnostic calcium scores from the physical dynamic cardiac phantom. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of using computerized methods for identifying images with diagnostic clinical indices in cardiac CT images.

  9. Modern Brain Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Ramon F.; Cha, Soonmee

    2015-01-01

    The imaging and clinical management of patients with brain tumor continue to evolve over time and now heavily rely on physiologic imaging in addition to high-resolution structural imaging. Imaging remains a powerful noninvasive tool to positively impact the management of patients with brain tumor. This article provides an overview of the current state-of-the art clinical brain tumor imaging. In this review, we discuss general magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods and their application to the diagnosis of, treatment planning and navigation, and disease monitoring in patients with brain tumor. We review the strengths, limitations, and pitfalls of structural imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging techniques, MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography/MR, and functional imaging. Overall this review provides a basis for understudying the role of modern imaging in the care of brain tumor patients. PMID:25977902

  10. Diagnostic anatomy and diagnostics of enthesal pathologies of the rotator cuff

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Detailed anatomy, crucial in modern high-definition diagnostics imaging, is a base for understanding diagnostic images and the nature of the diagnosed disease. The aim of this paper is presentation of a new anatomical model of the rotator cuff, which includes definition of tendinous and capsule-ligamentous layers as equally important to rotator cuff function understanding. Schematic and diagnostic (ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging) anatomy of the rotator cuff based on the core tendon concept is presented. Appropriate tissue layers of the cuff are discussed in detail. In the diagnostics part some enthesal pathologies of the rotator cuff are presented. Material and methods New anatomical data was analyzed in the context of rotator cuff layers their presence, thickness and structure observed on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonographic images. Conclusions Rotator cuff should be regarded as a multilayer structure consisting of fused fibers of tendons and capsuloligamentous complex. The thickness of these layers is comparable therefore it is important to realize that capsular pathologies may become a serious obstacle to normal shoulder joint function. Understanding of anatomical rotator cuff layers explains the formation of calcific cavities within the rotator cuff. In fact between layers of the cuff. Calcific cavities are a sequelae of chronic enthesopathy/enthesal tear with hydroxyapatite filling and probably delaminating the tendinous layer from the capsuloligamentous one. PMID:26674384

  11. Modern technology calls for a modern approach to classification of epileptic seizures and the epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Lders, Hans O; Amina, Shahram; Baumgartner, Christopher; Benbadis, Selim; Bermeo-Ovalle, Adriana; Devereaux, Michael; Diehl, Beate; Edwards, Jonathan; Baca-Vaca, Guadalupe Fernandez; Hamer, Hajo; Ikeda, Akio; Kaiboriboon, Kitti; Kellinghaus, Christoph; Koubeissi, Mohamad; Lardizabal, David; Lhatoo, Samden; Lders, Jrgen; Mani, Jayanti; Mayor, Luis Carlos; Miller, Jonathan; Noachtar, Soheyl; Pestana, Elia; Rosenow, Felix; Sakamoto, Americo; Shahid, Asim; Steinhoff, Bernhard J; Syed, Tanvir; Tanner, Adriana; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2012-03-01

    In the last 10-15 years the ILAE Commission on Classification and Terminology has been presenting proposals to modernize the current ILAE Classification of Epileptic Seizures and Epilepsies. These proposals were discussed extensively in a series of articles published recently in Epilepsia and Epilepsy Currents. There is almost universal consensus that the availability of new diagnostic techniques as also of a modern understanding of epilepsy calls for a complete revision of the Classification of Epileptic Seizures and Epilepsies. Unfortunately, however, the Commission is still not prepared to take a bold step ahead and completely revisit our approach to classification of epileptic seizures and epilepsies. In this manuscript we critically analyze the current proposals of the Commission and make suggestions for a classification system that reflects modern diagnostic techniques and our current understanding of epilepsy. PMID:22332669

  12. [Utilization of the Famacha method in individual clinic diagnostic of haemonchosis in sheep of south-west of Minas Gerais State].

    PubMed

    Abro, Diana Cuglovici; Abro, Silvana; Viana, Carlos Henrique Cabral; do Valle, Claudia Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Famacha method in individual clinical diagnosis of haemonchosis in sheep from the south-west of Minas Gerais. Fifty crossbred Santa Ins ewes were evaluated during 5 months as for conjunctival mucous colour (Famacha method), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Faecal Egg Counts (FEC), body score and clinic alterations. The score Famacha observed was from 1 to 3, the body score from 2 to 5, the PCV from 20 to 47%, and FEC from 0 to 7,750. The correlations between the parameters evaluated, except Famacha with body score, were highly significant (P < 0.0001). The main genus identified in the coprocultures was Haemonchus (87-100% of total larvae, +/- 93.5%). We observed reduction of 87.33% in the use of anthelmintics on the property. It was concluded that the Famacha method, associated with other diagnostic methods, is a useful tool to detect hemonchosis in sheep. PMID:20385064

  13. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  14. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  15. ID Learning Unit—Diagnostics Update: Current Laboratory Methods for Rapid Pathogen Identification in Patients With Bloodstream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Rubach, Matthew P.; Hanson, Kimberly E.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic assays that rapidly identify bloodstream pathogens have the potential to improve patient outcomes and antibiotic stewardship efforts. Current tests are based on the detection of nucleic acids that are specific to a targeted pathogen or based on organism identification using mass spectrometry. Most rapid assays require a positive blood culture as their sample input and expedite pathogen identification by 24–72 hours. For those assays that also report detection of drug resistance markers, information on antimicrobial resistance is expedited by 48–96 hours. This learning unit reviews the basic principles of rapid microorganism identification assays for bloodstream infections with the aim of assisting clinicians in the interpretation and optimal utilization of test results. PMID:26719845

  16. Local recurrence after sphincter-saving resection for rectal and rectosigmoid carcinoma: Value of various diagnostic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Grabbe, E.; Winkler, R.

    1985-05-01

    The authors reviewed 51 cases of local recurrence after sphincter-saving resection for rectal and rectosigmoid carcinoma to assess the sensitivity of current diagnostic procedures. A combination of followup serum CEA levels and rectoscopy was found to be most efficient during the first two years after surgery in terms of the time frequency, and location of the recurrence as well as the cost-benefit ratio. On the other hand, almost all recurrent lesions developed extraluminally, infiltrating the suture line secondarily; moreover, one fourth extended outside the bowel wall. Thus in addition to endoscopy, CT is useful as a means of defining the entire mass at the anastomosis as well as detecting pericolic recurrence and is essential if repeat resection is contemplated.

  17. [Pathology diagnostics by human breath analyze].

    PubMed

    Kopylov, F Iu; Syrkin, A L; Chomakhidze, P Sh; Bykova, A A; Shaltaeva, Iu R; Beliakov, V V; Pershenkov, V S; Samotaev, N N; Golovin, A V; Vasil'ev, V K; Malkin, E K; Gromov, E A; Ivanov, I A; Lipatov, D Iu; Iakovlev, D Iu

    2013-01-01

    Modern medicine experiences deficit of inexpensive rapid screening technologies despite progress in the development of diagnostic methods for various diseases. A promising approach is the analysis of exhaled air known to contain thousands of volatile organic substances whose composition differs considerably in health and disease. We isolated certain compounds that may be used as biomarkers of cardiovascular pathology (nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, pentane, isoprene, acetone). There is a variety of methods for the detection of substances in the exhaled air; such as gas spectrography, mass spectrometry, etc. However, ion mobility spectrometry appears the most suitable technique for the purpose of screening studies due to its high speed and sensitivity, small size of the apparatus, and possibility to measure trace amounts of the substances of interest. Possibilities to diagnose lung cancer based on exhaled air composition are considered. PMID:25696945

  18. Predictive research methods of enamel and dentine for initial caries detection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Currently, various research methods of enamel and dentine for precautionary diagnostics of initial caries forms are developed; however, the vast majority of these do not provide objective criteria of caries diagnostics or are very difficult to perform. Therefore, the search of diagnostics and enamel research methods, which will allow predicting caries emergence and to carry out personalised prevention of this pathology, is necessary. In this review, modern diagnostic methods that allow understanding the main aspects of caries process, assess the risk of its development, and also suggest the possibility of emergency prevention of caries progression in the nearest future are presented. PMID:23800183

  19. Evolving diagnostic criteria for multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy historically defined by the presence of end-organ damage, specifically, hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia, and bone lesions (CRAB features) that can be attributed to the neoplastic process. In 2014, the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) updated the diagnostic criteria for MM to add specific biomarkers that can be used to make the diagnosis of the disease in patients who did not have CRAB features. In addition, the update allows modern imaging methods including computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography-CT to diagnose MM bone disease. These changes enable early diagnosis, and allow the initiation of effective therapy to prevent the development of end-organ damage in patients who are at the highest risk. This article reviews these and several other clarifications and revisions that were made to the diagnostic criteria for MM and related disorders. The updated disease definition for MM also automatically resulted in a revision to the diagnostic criteria for the asymptomatic phase of the disease termed smoldering MM (SMM). Thus the current diagnosis and risk-stratification of SMM is also reviewed in this article. Using specific prognostic factors, it is possible to identify a subset of patients with SMM who have a risk of progression to MM of 25% per year (high-risk SMM). An approach to the management of patients with low- and high-risk SMM is discussed. PMID:26637733

  20. Myth and Modern Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patai, Raphael

    Various theories about the purpose of myth are described briefly, and then the place of myth in modern life is explored. Modern man is found to still create his own myths, and his life is still influenced by mythical prototypes and images. Myths, mythical beliefs, and mythical thinking are discovered in socialist, Communist, and totalitarian…

  1. Myth and Modern Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patai, Raphael

    Various theories about the purpose of myth are described briefly, and then the place of myth in modern life is explored. Modern man is found to still create his own myths, and his life is still influenced by mythical prototypes and images. Myths, mythical beliefs, and mythical thinking are discovered in socialist, Communist, and totalitarian

  2. MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JACKSON, R. GRAHAM

    CHOICES AND ISSUES IN SELECTING MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS ARE DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT. BACKGROUND INFORMATION IS INTRODUCED IN TERMS OF REASONS FOR ABANDONMENT, THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SCHOOL BUILDING OBSOLESCENCE, AND PROBLEMS IN THE MODERNIZATION PROCESS. INTERIOR PARTITIONS ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF BUILDING MATERIALS,…

  3. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography as a Diagnostic Method for Determination of Gingival Thickness and Distance between Gingival Margin and Bone Crest

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Germana Jayme; Ruiz, Luis Fernando Naldi; de Alencar, Ana Helena Gonçalves; Porto, Olavo César Lyra; Estrela, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a diagnostic method for determination of gingival thickness (GT) and distance between gingival margin and vestibular (GMBC-V) and interproximal bone crests (GMBC-I). GT and GMBC-V were measured in 348 teeth and GMBC-I was measured in 377 tooth regions of 29 patients with gummy smile. GT was assessed using transgingival probing (TP), ultrasound (US), and CBCT, whereas GMBC-V and GMBC-I were assessed by transsurgical clinical evaluation (TCE) and CBCT. Statistical analyses used independent t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and simple linear regression. Difference was observed for GT: between TP, CBCT, and US considering all teeth; between TP and CBCT and between TP and US in incisors and canines; between TP and US in premolars and first molars. TP presented the highest means for GT. Positive correlation and linear regression were observed between TP and CBCT, TP and US, and CBCT and US. Difference was observed for GMBC-V and GMBC-I using TCE and CBCT, considering all teeth. Correlation and linear regression results were significant for GMBC-V and GMBC-I in incisors, canines, and premolars. CBCT is an effective diagnostic method to visualize and measure GT, GMBC-V, and GMBC-I. PMID:25918737

  4. Isolation and identification of Duck tembusu virus strain lH and development of latex-agglutination diagnostic method for rapid detection of antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanxi; Wen, Yaping; Yifan Huang; Wu, Yijian; Cai, Yilong; Xu, Lihui; Wang, Changkang; Li, Ang; Wu, Baocheng; Chen, Jilong

    2014-12-01

    SUMMARY. An outbreak of egg-drop syndrome occurred on a Sheldrake duck farm in Longhai in Fujian Province, China, in 2012. The main clinical symptoms were sharply reduced egg production, crooked necks, and death. We isolated the virus from the sick ducks, identified it, and observed the histopathologic changes after viral infection. We detected viral RNA in the blood and feces of the infected ducks and developed a latex-agglutination diagnostic method to detect anti-Tembusu-virus antibodies. Our results show that the pathogenic virus is a Tembusu virus. The histopathologic changes included follicular cell degeneration and necrosis, follicular cavity filled with blood cells, massive necrosis in the brain, and degeneration and necrosis of the nerve and glial cells. When the transmission of the virus in the infected ducks was studied, the duck blood was positive for viral nucleic acid for up to 29 days, and the feces were positive for viral nucleic acid for up to 13 days. We successfully established a simple, rapid, and easy- to-use latex-agglutination diagnostic method for the detection of antibodies against duck Tembusu virus. PMID:25619007

  5. Electrogram-Guidance: A Method to Increase the Precision and Diagnostic Yield of Endomyocardial Biopsy for Suspected Cardiac Sarcoidosis and Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jackson J.; Hebl, Virginia B.; DeSimone, Christopher V.; Madhavan, Malini; Nanda, Sudip; Kapa, Suraj; Maleszewski, Joseph J.; Edwards, William D.; Reeder, Guy; Cooper, Leslie T.; Asirvatham, Samuel J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) is of value in determining the underlying etiology of a cardiomyopathy. The sensitivity, however, for focal disorders, such as lymphocytic myocarditis and cardiac sarcoidosis (CS), is low. The sensitivity of routine fluoroscopically guided EMB is low. Abnormal intracardiac electrograms are seen at sites of myocardial disease. However, the exact value for electrogram-guided EMB is unknown. Methods We report eleven patients who underwent electrogram-guided EMB for evaluation of myocarditis and CS. We describe the method used to perform the procedure and correlate electrogram characteristics with pathologic and clinical outcomes. Results Of 40 total biopsy specimens taken from 11 patients, 19 had electrogram voltage <5mV, all of which resulted in histopathologic abnormality (100% specificity and positive predictive value). A voltage amplitude cutoff value of 5mV had substantially higher sensitivity (70% vs 26%) and negative predictive value (62%) than 1.5mV. Abnormal electrogram appearance at biopsy site had good sensitivity (67%) and specificity (92%) in predicting abnormal myocardium. Normal signals with voltage greater than 5 mV signified normal myocardium with no significant diagnostic yield. Biopsy results guided therapy in all patients including 5 with active myocarditis or CS, all of whom subsequently received immunosuppressive therapy. There were no procedural complications. Conclusions In patients with suspected myocarditis or CS, electrogram-guided EMB targeting sites with abnormal or low-amplitude electrograms may increase the diagnostic yield for detecting abnormal pathologic findings. PMID:25194292

  6. Take off your genes and let the doctor have a look: why the Mayo and Myriad decisions have invalidated method claims for genetic diagnostic testing.

    PubMed

    Bergin, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Ass'n for Molecular Pathology v. U.S. Patent & Trade Office sent shockwaves through the legal community, when the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York rejected a series of patents held by Myriad Genetics, Inc. The court invalidated all of Myriad's compositional patents for human genes and its method patents for diagnosing genetic predispositions to breast cancer. While commentators have discussed the ethical implications of allowing patent rights to human genes in great detail, the Court's ruling on Myriad's method claims went by comparatively unnoticed. The ability to test a patient's genetic profile for predisposition to cancer and other diseases is an incredible achievement in the field of personalized medicine. Whether these tests deserve patent protection is a hotly debated issue that involves weighing the interests of both incentivizing research and making these tests available to the general public. This Comment analyzes the legal framework established by the Supreme Court and U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit to decide patent eligibility for genetic diagnostic tests. It concludes that, while the world was spellbound by the ethical quandary of compositional claims on human genes, the recent Supreme Court and Federal Circuit decisions have surreptitiously eliminated genetic diagnostic tests as patentable subject matter under 101 of the United States Patent Act. PMID:25335200

  7. Fungal Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, Thomas R.; Wickes, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of fungal infection is critical to effective treatment. There are many impediments to diagnosis such as a diminishing number of clinical mycologists, cost, time to result, and requirements for sensitivity and specificity. In addition, fungal diagnostics must meet the contrasting needs presented by the increasing diversity of fungi found in association with the use of immunosuppressive agents in countries with high levels of medical care and the need for diagnostics in resource-limited countries where large numbers of opportunistic infections occur in patients with AIDS. Traditional approaches to diagnosis include direct microscopic examination of clinical samples, histopathology, culture, and serology. Emerging technologies include molecular diagnostics and antigen detection in clinical samples. Innovative new technologies that use molecular and immunoassay platforms have the potential to meet the needs of both resource-rich and resource-limited clinical environments. PMID:24692193

  8. The Use of Image-Spectroscopy Technology as a Diagnostic Method for Seed Health Testing and Variety Identification

    PubMed Central

    Vrešak, Martina; Halkjaer Olesen, Merete; Gislum, René; Bavec, Franc; Ravn Jørgensen, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Application of rapid and time-efficient health diagnostic and identification technology in the seed industry chain could accelerate required analysis, characteristic description and also ultimately availability of new desired varieties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of multispectral imaging and single kernel near-infrared spectroscopy (SKNIR) for determination of seed health and variety separation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm. & Camus). The analysis, carried out in autumn 2013 at AU-Flakkebjerg, Denmark, included nine winter triticale varieties and 27 wheat varieties provided by the Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences Maribor, Slovenia. Fusarium sp. and black point disease-infected parts of the seed surface could successfully be distinguished from uninfected parts with use of a multispectral imaging device (405–970 nm wavelengths). SKNIR was applied in this research to differentiate all 36 involved varieties based on spectral differences due to variation in the chemical composition. The study produced an interesting result of successful distinguishing between the infected and uninfected parts of the seed surface. Furthermore, the study was able to distinguish between varieties. Together these components could be used in further studies for the development of a sorting model by combining data from multispectral imaging and SKNIR for identifying disease(s) and varieties. PMID:27010656

  9. A diagnostic study on folium and orchil dyes with non-invasive and micro-destructive methods.

    PubMed

    Aceto, Maurizio; Arrais, Aldo; Marsano, Francesco; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Idone, Ambra; Gulmini, Monica

    2015-05-01

    Folium and orchil are dyes of vegetal origin. Folium is obtained from Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) A. Juss., whereas orchil is obtained from Roccella and other genera of lichens. These dyes were used in the past to impart purple hue to paintings and textiles as substitutes for the more prised Tyrian purple dye, obtained from shellfish. Despite several citations in ancient technical treatises dating back at least to the Greek-Roman age, the identification of these dyes in artworks is rare. In the case of folium, an additional drawback is that its composition is presently unknown. In this work different non-invasive (FT-IR, FT-Raman, fibre optic reflectance spectrophotometry, spectrofluorimetry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and micro-invasive (surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) techniques were used in order to increase the diagnostic information available on these dyes. Measurements were carried out on the dyes extracted from raw materials and on painted or dyed parchments. The possibility to distinguish between folium and orchil by chemical analysis is discussed. PMID:25703360

  10. A diagnostic study on folium and orchil dyes with non-invasive and micro-destructive methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Arrais, Aldo; Marsano, Francesco; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Idone, Ambra; Gulmini, Monica

    2015-05-01

    Folium and orchil are dyes of vegetal origin. Folium is obtained from Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) A. Juss., whereas orchil is obtained from Roccella and other genera of lichens. These dyes were used in the past to impart purple hue to paintings and textiles as substitutes for the more prised Tyrian purple dye, obtained from shellfish. Despite several citations in ancient technical treatises dating back at least to the Greek-Roman age, the identification of these dyes in artworks is rare. In the case of folium, an additional drawback is that its composition is presently unknown. In this work different non-invasive (FT-IR, FT-Raman, fibre optic reflectance spectrophotometry, spectrofluorimetry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and micro-invasive (surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) techniques were used in order to increase the diagnostic information available on these dyes. Measurements were carried out on the dyes extracted from raw materials and on painted or dyed parchments. The possibility to distinguish between folium and orchil by chemical analysis is discussed.

  11. Development of Monitoring and Diagnostic Methods for Robots Used in Remediation of Waste Sites 1999 Technical Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Michael

    1999-06-01

    The final assembly of the test rig was completed in January 1999 (see Figure 1). The test rig incorporated a wheel motor typical of those used for hydraulic robots, and allowed wheel motor loading at expected operating conditions. The rig included instrumentation, as shown in Figure 2, for acquisition of key parameters for both unfaulted baseline and inserted fault runs. Checkout of the test rig was accomplished in two phases. In the first phase, only the wheel motor was connected to the hydraulic supply and the driven pump disconnected. With the rig in this configuration, operation of the wheel motor control loop and the monitoring and diagnostic (M&D) data acquisition system was verified. In the second phase, the driven pump was connected to the wheel motor and the operation of the rig under load was confirmed and unfaulted baseline data were acquired. A list of 13 faults was developed (see Table 1). All faults were inserted and data were acquired. The data files were electronically transmitted to Rice University for analysis using Analytical Redundancy (AR), a model-based static space technique that derives the maximum number of independent tests of the consistency of sensor data with the linearized system model and past sensor and control inputs.

  12. Biomedical lab on glass slide for crystallo-optic diagnostics: high technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Dmitri B.; Mintz, Rafail I.

    1997-05-01

    The unique analytic potential of biofluids crystallooptic diagnostics (COD) is determined by visualization of aggregation properties and molecular biofluid organization, that reflect an important information about functional state of separate systems as well as about the physiological status of the whole organism. Extraction, visualization and processing of the diagnostic information are supplied by the smart-technology. COD techniques experience in studies of bile, urine, liquor, tear, saliva, blood and other biological fluids is generalized: crystallooptic diagnosticums are the pool of analytical system 'Mesotest'. Combining of biofluids COD with the modern computer technologies transfer such methods into the category of intellectual prompts.

  13. Comparison of the time behavior in the separation of light and heavy materials in X-ray backscattered method as a diagnostic tool in inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faezeh, Rahmani; Sepideh Sadat, Azimi; Esmaiel, Bayat; Vahid, Dost Mohammadi

    2016-03-01

    X-ray backscattered method based on Compton backscattering is used in the inspection field. In contrast to transmission method, source and detectors are positioned on one side of the target, so in the situation that transmission inspection is difficult, X-ray backscattered method can be provided suitable data in the inspection field. Also, detection of hidden explosives and narcotic materials are very difficult or impossible in transmission methods. High intensity backscattered beam from light materials (low-Z), such as explosives and narcotics, in comparison to the heavy materials (high-Z), made this method as the strong technique in inspection. X-ray and gamma photons scattered by the light material (such as PE and PTFE) as well as heavy material (such as Fe and Cu) were studied using MCNPX2.6 Monte Carlo code. The results showed that rise time of pulse from light materials are slower than that of from heavy materials due to multi scattering of low energy photons in the light ones, so time expansion would occur in signals from light elements. If measurement is possible, the difference in time behavior can be used as a novel method in complementary diagnostic tool beside the use of pulse height in X-ray backscattered method.

  14. Method for estimating the propagation direction of a coherent plasma structure using a one-dimensional diagnostic array

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, T.; Birkenmeier, G.; Wolfrum, E.; Stroth, U.; Laggner, F. M.; Willensdorfer, M.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.

    2014-08-15

    This article proposes a new method to evaluate basic characteristics of the dynamics of a coherent plasma structure (blob). With this method, one can evaluate the propagation angle of a blob in a two-dimensional plasma cross section as well as the blob velocity, size, and amplitude from one-dimensional data. The method is applied to blob measurements from the Lithium beam emission spectroscopy system in ASDEX-Upgrade. Statistical features of the observed blob velocities, angles of propagation, blob sizes, and amplitudes are discussed. The validity of the method is examined by comparing two values of the propagation angle that are evaluated in an independent manner.

  15. [METHODS OF MATHEMATICAL MODELING IN MORPHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF CHORNOBYL FACTOR INFLUENCE ON PROSTATE GLAND OF COAL MINERS-- THE CHERNOBYL DISASTER FIGHTERS].

    PubMed

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2014-01-01

    The morphometric estimation of parenchyma and stroma condition included the determination of 25 parameters in a prostate gland at 27 persons. The mathematical model of morphogenesis of prostate gland was created by Bayes' method. The method of differential diagnosis of a prostate gland tissues' changes conditioned by the influence of the Chernobyl factor and/or unfavorable terms of the work in underground coal mines have been worked out. Its practical use provides exactness and reliability of the diagnosis (not less than 95%), independence from the level of the qualification and personal experience of the doctor, allows us to unify, optimize and individualize the diagnostic algorithms, answer the requirements of evidential medicine. PMID:26118078

  16. Modern Physics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Jorge; Correa, Jose

    1999-10-01

    Due to the lack of laboratories for introductory modern physics classes, Dr. Jorge A. Lopez and Mr. Jose Ricardo Correa from the UTEP Physics Department work in the development of computer simulations of important modern physics experiments for the aforementioned physics classes. The presentation will inform the audience about this resource in the instruction of introductory modern physics as well as the success it has had. Introductory modern physics classes expose students to radically new concepts that defy common sense. As if this was not hard enough, students encounter a lack of hands-on activities due to the lack of lab equipment for their modern physics class. This is to be understood since most of the experiments cannot be performed in the conditions university laboratories provide and at the undergraduate level organization. Therefore, much time and effort have been devoted to the development of computer simulations of key modern physics experiments. These virtual experiments are a great alternative that will alleviate the limitations physics professors face when teaching introductory modern physics courses in addition to enchance student understanding.

  17. Using the Attribute Hierarchy Method to Make Diagnostic Inferences about Examinees' Cognitive Skills in Algebra on the SAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Wang, Changjiang; Zhou, Jiawen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply the attribute hierarchy method (AHM) to a sample of SAT algebra items administered in March 2005. The AHM is a psychometric method for classifying examinees' test item responses into a set of structured attribute patterns associated with different components from a cognitive model of task performance. An

  18. Diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Morris, Peter; Perkins, Alan

    2012-04-21

    Physical techniques have always had a key role in medicine, and the second half of the 20th century in particular saw a revolution in medical diagnostic techniques with the development of key imaging instruments: x-ray imaging and emission tomography (nuclear imaging and PET), MRI, and ultrasound. These techniques use the full width of the electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma rays to radio waves, and sound. In most cases, the development of a medical imaging device was opportunistic; many scientists in physics laboratories were experimenting with simple x-ray images within the first year of the discovery of such rays, the development of the cyclotron and later nuclear reactors created the opportunity for nuclear medicine, and one of the co-inventors of MRI was initially attempting to develop an alternative to x-ray diffraction for the analysis of crystal structures. What all these techniques have in common is the brilliant insight of a few pioneering physical scientists and engineers who had the tenacity to develop their inventions, followed by a series of technical innovations that enabled the full diagnostic potential of these instruments to be realised. In this report, we focus on the key part played by these scientists and engineers and the new imaging instruments and diagnostic procedures that they developed. By bringing the key developments and applications together we hope to show the true legacy of physics and engineering in diagnostic medicine. PMID:22516558

  19. The modern trends of the evolution laser information technology in oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikov, A. A.; Svirin, V. N.

    2008-04-01

    Laser-optical information technologies and devices develop since the 70- years at the end of 20 century and are broadly used for diagnostics and treatment of oncological diseases to date. Although such methods as photodynamic therapy (PDT), laser-induce thermotherapy (LITT), fluorescent diagnostics and spectrophotometry already more than 30 years are used for treatment and diagnostics of oncological diseases, nevertheless, they are enough new methods and, as a rule, are used in large scientific centers and medical institutions. This is bound, first of all, with lack of information on modern method of cancer treatment, the absence of widely available laser procedures and corresponding devices in the polyclinics and even in district hospitals, as well as insufficient understanding of application areas, where laser methods has an advantage by comparison, for instance, with beam or chemotherapy. At present day laser methods are fast upcoming direction of the treatment oncological diseases. This is explained by progress in development essentially laser, particularly diode, improvement electronic and computing components and broad introduction software-algorithmic methods of control the undertaking therapeutic and diagnostic procedures. In article are considered new laser methods of the undertaking diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and is shown that introduction multiwave laser radiation for probe and influences on tissue, the different methods of the determination of the functional state of tissues, realization of the on-line diagnostics when carrying out the therapeutic procedures, automatic control systems of the power laser radiation, which depends on state patient tissue, as well as software-algorithmic methods of management session therapeutic and diagnostic procedures greatly raises efficiency of the treatment oncological diseases. On an example of the multipurpose laser therapeutic devices("MLTA") developed and introduced in clinical practice and multipurpose laser diagnostic complexes ("MLDC"), the realizing offered methods, are shown the basic tendencies of development laser methods in oncology, concrete technical decisions and the experimental clinical material showing increase of efficiency of treatment of a cancer at their realization are resulted. It is shown, that realization of the offered methods and technical technologies opens new competitive advantages laser technologies in comparison with beam and chemical-therapy at treatment of oncological diseases.

  20. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the pancreas--a method beyond its potential or a new diagnostic standard?

    PubMed

    Badea, Radu; Seicean, Andrada; Diaconu, Brindusa; Stan-Iuga, Roxana; Sparchez, Zeno; Tantau, Marcel; Socaciu, Mihai

    2009-06-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a relatively new technique, currently used for liver tumors diagnosis. Newer contrast agents are composed of stabilized micro-bubbles capable of traversing the capillary circulation. Lately, the method has also been used in the assessment of pancreatic disorders. Pulse inversion harmonic imaging allows the assessment of the hypervascularised masses as neuroendocrine tumors, of the hypoperfused masses as adenocarcinomas and of the necrotic areas in acute pancreatitis. Also, this imaging method allows a better assessment of the pancreatic tumor resectability and the identification of septa inside the cystic lesion. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound might represent a valuable additional imaging method to contrast CT for selected cases. PMID:19565060

  1. A real-time laser feedback control method for the three-wave laser source used in the polarimeter-interferometer diagnostic on Joint-TEXT tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, C. Y.; Chen, J. Li, Q.; Liu, Y.; Gao, L.

    2014-12-15

    A three-wave laser polarimeter-interferometer, equipped with three independent far-infrared laser sources, has been developed on Joint-TEXT (J-TEXT) tokamak. The diagnostic system is capable of high-resolution temporal and phase measurement of the Faraday angle and line-integrated density. However, for long-term operation (>10 min), the free-running lasers can lead to large drifts of the intermediate frequencies (?100?500 kHz/10 min) and decay of laser power (?10%?20%/10 min), which act to degrade diagnostic performance. In addition, these effects lead to increased maintenance cost and limit measurement applicability to long pulse/steady state experiments. To solve this problem, a real-time feedback control method of the laser source is proposed. By accurately controlling the length of each laser cavity, both the intermediate frequencies and laser power can be simultaneously controlled: the intermediate frequencies are controlled according to the pre-set values, while the laser powers are maintained at an optimal level. Based on this approach, a real-time feedback control system has been developed and applied on J-TEXT polarimeter-interferometer. Long-term (theoretically no time limit) feedback of intermediate frequencies (maximum change less than 12 kHz) and laser powers (maximum relative power change less than 7%) has been successfully achieved.

  2. A real-time laser feedback control method for the three-wave laser source used in the polarimeter-interferometer diagnostic on Joint-TEXT tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, C. Y.; Chen, J.; Li, Q.; Liu, Y.; Gao, L.

    2014-12-01

    A three-wave laser polarimeter-interferometer, equipped with three independent far-infrared laser sources, has been developed on Joint-TEXT (J-TEXT) tokamak. The diagnostic system is capable of high-resolution temporal and phase measurement of the Faraday angle and line-integrated density. However, for long-term operation (>10 min), the free-running lasers can lead to large drifts of the intermediate frequencies (100-500 kHz/10 min) and decay of laser power (10%-20%/10 min), which act to degrade diagnostic performance. In addition, these effects lead to increased maintenance cost and limit measurement applicability to long pulse/steady state experiments. To solve this problem, a real-time feedback control method of the laser source is proposed. By accurately controlling the length of each laser cavity, both the intermediate frequencies and laser power can be simultaneously controlled: the intermediate frequencies are controlled according to the pre-set values, while the laser powers are maintained at an optimal level. Based on this approach, a real-time feedback control system has been developed and applied on J-TEXT polarimeter-interferometer. Long-term (theoretically no time limit) feedback of intermediate frequencies (maximum change less than 12 kHz) and laser powers (maximum relative power change less than 7%) has been successfully achieved.

  3. Discordance rate, a new concept for combining diagnostic decisions with analytical performance characteristics. 1. Application in method or sample system comparisons and in defining decision limits.

    PubMed

    Haeckel, Rainer; Wosniok, Werner; Puentmann, Isabel

    2003-03-01

    Method comparison studies are usually evaluated by several statistical tests (e.g., regression analysis) which sufficiently describe the analytical (dis)agreement between the results of two procedures. However, they do not provide any information how differences, if observed, influence diagnostic decision making. A novel statistical approach is described to test the clinical relevance of differences between two analytical procedures. The new procedure requires a population-based probability which describes the distribution of values within the population under study and an analytical probability quantifying the risk of errors due to replacing one method by the other. The population probability was derived from 171 subjects from two outpatient departments (internal medicine and dermatology) who were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test because type 2 diabetes mellitus was suspected. The analytical probability was determined from duplicate glucose measurements in venous and capillary blood, and venous plasma in the fasting and 2 h post-challenge state by the routine method used in a central laboratory (Ebio analyzer) and a (POCT) glucometer (Elite). The two probabilities were combined into one "error rate" (discordance rate). The new concept was applied to three examples. In the first example, a comparison between two analytical systems led to discordance rates above 15%. After transforming the Elite analyzer results by a regression function, the discordance rate decreased below 5%, which was considered to be acceptable for the diagnostic purpose studied. In the second example, discordance rates were estimated by comparing different sample systems with each other. The use of whole blood in comparison with venous plasma led to discordance rates of 5-7% for venous blood and 7-10% for capillary blood. The same data set was also used in a third example to derive decision limits for capillary and venous blood from the established plasma values. The proposed procedure estimates the diagnostic error rate based on analytic performance characteristics and population probabilities. It extends the concept of (un)efficiency by including the effect of variability about a decision limit and the distribution of the measurement values in the patient population. PMID:12705345

  4. Application of different atomic force microscopy methods for detailed diagnostics of gold nanocoatings on a single-crystal sapphire surface

    SciTech Connect

    Muslimov, A. E. Volkov, Yu. O.; Asadchikov, V. E.; Kanevskii, V. M.; Roshchin, B. S.; Vlasov, V. P.

    2011-05-15

    Gold nanodots and clusters deposited on sapphire substrates with a regular nanorelief have been investigated by atomic force microscopy. It is shown that the phase-contrast method combined with contact force spectroscopy makes it possible to identify these nanostructures and describe some of their physical properties.

  5. Diagnostic Efficiency of Several Methods of Identifying Socially Rejected Children and Effect of Participation Rate on Classification Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark; Gumbiner, Laura M.; Johnson, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Social rejection is associated with a wide variety of negative outcomes. Early identification of social rejection and intervention to minimize its negative impact is thus important. However, sociometric methods, which are considered high in validity for identifying socially rejected children, are frequently not used because of (a) procedural…

  6. [Visualization of symmetric striopallidodentate calcinosis by using high-resolution susceptibility-weighted MR imaging. An account of the impact of different diagnostic methods of M. Fahr].

    PubMed

    Bttcher, J; Sauner, D; Jentsch, A; Mentzel, H-J; Becker, H; Reichenbach, J R; Kaiser, W A

    2004-04-01

    Bilateral striopallidodentate calcinosis, also known as Fahr's disease, is characterized by symmetric calcifications of the basal ganglia, thalami, dentate nuclei of the cerebellum and white matter of the cerebral hemispheres. Besides the common idiopathic etiology of bilateral intracerebral calcinosis, alterations of calcium metabolism are present in rare cases, which are especially caused by hormonal dysfunction of the parathyroids. Advanced imaging techniques, such as CT and MRI, demonstrate increasing relevance regarding diagnosis of bilateral striopallidodentate calcinosis. Intracranial calcifications are routinely observed with high sensitivity by CT. On MR images calcifications exhibit different signal intensities, which depend on the stage of the disease, differences in calcium metabolism and the compound of these calcifications. Application of a new high-resolution, susceptibility-weighted MR sequence allows detailed visualization of the intracerebral calcifications in Fahr's disease. Further diagnostic methods and important aspects regarding clinical manifestation of bilateral striopallidodentate calcinosis are also discussed. PMID:15085269

  7. A study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations and source identifications by methods of diagnostic ratio and principal component analysis at Taichung chemical Harbor near Taiwan Strait.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Ho, Tse-Tsung

    2006-08-01

    Fine (PM(2.5)) and Coarse (PM(2.5-10)) particulates concentrations of ambient air particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured simultaneously from February 2004 to January 2005 at the Taichung Harbor (TH) sampling site near Taiwan of central Taiwan. Particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were collected on quartz filters, the collected sample used soxhlet analytical method extracted with a dichloromethane (DCM)/n-hexane mixture (50/50, v/v) for 24h, and then the extracts were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. The results indicated that vehicle emissions, coal combustion, incomplete combustion and pyrolysis of fuel and oil burning were the main source of PAHs near Taiwan Strait of central Taiwan. Diagnostic ratio and principal component analysis (PCA) were also used to characterize and identify PAHs emission source in this study. PMID:16406483

  8. Diagnostics and Microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Balch, J.W.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses activities of the Diagnostics and Microelectronics thrust area which conducts activities in semiconductor devices and semiconductor fabrication technology for programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our multidisciplinary engineering and scientific staff use modern computational tools and semi-conductor microfabrication equipment to develop high-performance devices. Our work concentrates on three broad technologies of semiconductor microdevices: (1) silicon on III-V semiconductor microeletronics, (2) lithium niobate-based and III-V semiconductor-based photonics, and (3) silicon-based micromaching for application to microstructures and microinstruments. In FY-92, we worked on projects in seven areas, described in this report: novel photonic detectors; a wideband phase modulator; an optoelectronic terahertz beam system; the fabrication of microelectrode electrochemical sensors; diamond heatsinks; advanced micromachining technologies; and electrophoresis using silicon microchannels.

  9. Diagnostics and microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balch, J. W.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses activities of the Diagnostics and Microelectronics thrust area which conducts activities in semiconductor devices and semiconductor fabrication technology for programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our multidisciplinary engineering and scientific staff use modern computational tools and semi-conductor microfabrication equipment to develop high-performance devices. Our work concentrates on three broad technologies of semiconductor microdevices: (1) silicon on 3-5 semiconductor microelectronics, (2) lithium niobate-based and 3-5 semiconductor-based photonics, and (3) silicon-based micromachining for application to microstructures and microinstruments. In FY-92, we worked on projects in seven areas. The projects are described in this report: novel photonic detectors; a wideband phase modulator; an optoelectronic terahertz beam system; the fabrication of microelectrode electrochemical sensors; diamond heatsinks; advanced micromachining technologies; and electrophoresis using silicon microchannels.

  10. Local anisotropy of muon flux - The basis of the method of muon diagnostics of extra-terrestrial space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astapov, I. I.; Barbashina, N. S.; Dmitrieva, A. N.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Shutenko, V. V.; Yakovleva, E. I.; Yashin, I. I.

    2015-12-01

    A new method for the analysis of spatial and angular characteristics of the cosmic ray muon flux registered in the hodoscopic mode using a single setup - the muon hodoscope - is presented. Various parameters of the muon flux anisotropy and methods of calculation of these parameters are discussed. It is shown that the horizontal projection of the muon flux relative anisotropy vector which characterizes lateral (horizontal) displacement of the muon flux angular distribution is the sensitive parameter to a variety of nonstationary processes in the heliosphere. The experimental data on the variation of the muon flux anisotropy during the passage of various irregularities in the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field in the Earth's vicinity are presented.

  11. Swab Sample Transfer for Point-Of-Care Diagnostics: Characterization of Swab Types and Manual Agitation Methods

    PubMed Central

    Panpradist, Nuttada; Toley, Bhushan J.; Zhang, Xiaohong; Byrnes, Samantha; Buser, Joshua R.; Englund, Janet A.; Lutz, Barry R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The global need for disease detection and control has increased effort to engineer point-of-care (POC) tests that are simple, robust, affordable, and non-instrumented. In many POC tests, sample collection involves swabbing the site (e.g., nose, skin), agitating the swab in a fluid to release the sample, and transferring the fluid to a device for analysis. Poor performance in sample transfer can reduce sensitivity and reproducibility. Methods In this study, we compared bacterial release efficiency of seven swab types using manual-agitation methods typical of POC devices. Transfer efficiency was measured using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Staphylococcus aureus under conditions representing a range of sampling scenarios: 1) spiking low-volume samples onto the swab, 2) submerging the swab in excess-volume samples, and 3) swabbing dried sample from a surface. Results Excess-volume samples gave the expected recovery for most swabs (based on tip fluid capacity); a polyurethane swab showed enhanced recovery, suggesting an ability to accumulate organisms during sampling. Dry samples led to recovery of ?2030% for all swabs tested, suggesting that swab structure and volume is less important when organisms are applied to the outer swab surface. Low-volume samples led to the widest range of transfer efficiencies between swab types. Rayon swabs (63 L capacity) performed well for excess-volume samples, but showed poor recovery for low-volume samples. Nylon (100 L) and polyester swabs (27 L) showed intermediate recovery for low-volume and excess-volume samples. Polyurethane swabs (16 L) showed excellent recovery for all sample types. This work demonstrates that swab transfer efficiency can be affected by swab material, structure, and fluid capacity and details of the sample. Results and quantitative analysis methods from this study will assist POC assay developers in selecting appropriate swab types and transfer methods. PMID:25181250

  12. Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization as a plume diagnostic tool in laser evaporation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, John H.; Galicia, Marsha C.; Vertes, Akos

    2002-09-01

    Laser evaporation techniques, including matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), are attracting increasing attention due to their ability to deposit thin layers of undegraded synthetic and biopolymers. Laser evaporation methods can be implemented in reflection geometry with the laser and the substrate positioned on the same side of the target. In some applications (e.g. direct write, DW), however, transmission geometry is used, i.e. the thin target is placed between the laser and the substrate. In this case, the laser pulse perforates the target and transfers some target material to the substrate. In order to optimize evaporation processes it is important to know the composition of the target plume and the material deposited from the plume. We used a recently introduced analytical method, atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (AP-MALDI) to characterize the ionic components of the plume both in reflection and in transmission geometry. This technique can also be used to directly probe materials deposited on surfaces (such as glass slides) by laser evaporation methods. The test compound (small peptides, e.g. Angiotensin I, ATI or Substance P) was mixed with a MALDI matrix (?-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), sinapinic acid (SA) or 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB)) and applied to the stainless steel (reflection geometry) or transparent conducting (transmission geometry) target holder. In addition to the classical dried droplet method, we also used electrospray target deposition to gain better control of crystallite size, thickness and homogeneity. The target was mounted in front of the inlet orifice of an ion trap mass spectrometer (IT-MS) that sampled the ionic components of the plume generated by a nitrogen laser. We studied the effect of several parameters, such as, the orifice to target distance, illumination geometry, extracting voltage distribution and sample preparation on the generated ions. Various analyte-matrix and matrix-matrix cluster ions were observed with relatively low abundance of the matrix ions.

  13. [Development of diagnostic test system based on fluorescent polarization immunoassay method for detection of antibodies to HCV nucleocapsid protein].

    PubMed

    Sharyshev, A A; Bazhenov, A I; Shibnev, V A

    2013-01-01

    The antigen activity of the synthetic fluorescently labeled peptides, overlapping immunoresponsive epitops a.a. 7-19, 20-34 from N-end part and a.a. 73-85 from the central area of the nucleocapsid protein of C hepatitis virus, was tested using the method of fluorescent polarization immunoassay (FPIA) with 40 samples of the blood serum of patients with viral C hepatitis. A comparative study of analytic characteristics of FPIA method was performed, based on the application of synthesized peptides, as well as of the commercial ELISA test system (BEST anti-HCV-test 4, Vector Best Ltd.). The performed research revealed that the developed method has a high specificity and sensitivity level. The comparability of summary FPIA results with the commercial ELISA test system was 85%, which evidences the prospects of further research in this direction. The principal possibility of the application of the polarization fluorescent immunoassay for the determination of antibodies to the nucleocapsid protein of the C hepatitis virus in clinical serum samples was demonstrated. PMID:23785770

  14. Modern diagnostic and therapeutic interventional radiology in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Eddie W. F.; Chin, Kwang; Sedlaczek, Oliver; Steinke, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Imaging has an important role in the multidisciplinary management of primary lung cancer. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art imaging modalities used for the evaluation, staging and post-treatment follow-up and surveillance of lung cancers, and image-guided percutaneous techniques for biopsy to confirm the diagnosis and for local therapy in non-surgical candidates. PMID:24163744

  15. Diagnostic Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Antczak-Bouckoms, Alexia; Tulloch, J.F.C.; Bouckoms, Anthony J.; Keith, David; Lavori, Phillip

    1990-01-01

    Diagnostic or screening tests are used to help determine whether or not a patient has a certain condition or disease. The ability of a diagnostic test to correctly classify subjects is expressed by the four test characteristicssensitivity, specificity, predictive value positive, and predictive value negative. This paper describes these characteristics and discusses methods for choosing optimal tests or cutoff points to maximize expected value considering the consequences of incorrect diagnoses. Data drawn from ongoing studies of facial pain are used to illustrate some of these concepts. PMID:2085196

  16. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of four odontological methods for age evaluation in Italian children at the age threshold of 14 years using ROC curves.

    PubMed

    Pinchi, Vilma; Pradella, Francesco; Vitale, Giulia; Rugo, Dario; Nieri, Michele; Norelli, Gian-Aristide

    2016-01-01

    The age threshold of 14 years is relevant in Italy as the minimum age for criminal responsibility. It is of utmost importance to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of every odontological method for age evaluation considering the sensitivity, or the ability to estimate the true positive cases, and the specificity, or the ability to estimate the true negative cases. The research aims to compare the specificity and sensitivity of four commonly adopted methods of dental age estimation - Demirjian, Haavikko, Willems and Cameriere - in a sample of Italian children aged between 11 and 16 years, with an age threshold of 14 years, using receiver operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC). In addition, new decision criteria are developed to increase the accuracy of the methods. Among the four odontological methods for age estimation adopted in the research, the Cameriere method showed the highest AUC in both female and male cohorts. The Cameriere method shows a high degree of accuracy at the age threshold of 14 years. To adopt the Cameriere method to estimate the 14-year age threshold more accurately, however, it is suggested - according to the Youden index - that the decision criterion be set at the lower value of 12.928 for females and 13.258 years for males, obtaining a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 88% in females, and a sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 92% in males. If a specificity level >90% is needed, the cut-off point should be set at 12.959 years (82% sensitivity) for females. PMID:25748440

  17. A non-invasive genomic diagnostic method for bladder cancer using size-based filtration and microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yong; Yi, Linglu; Lin, Xuexia; Lin, Ling; Li, Haifang; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2015-11-01

    Bladder cancer (BC) cells spontaneously exfoliated in the urine of patients with BC. Detection of exfoliated tumor cells has clinical significance in cancer therapy because it would enable earlier non-invasive screening, diagnosis, or prognosis of BC. In this research, a method for analyzing genetic abnormalities of BC cells collected from urine samples was developed. Target BC cells were isolated by filtration. To find conditions that achieve high cell recovery, we investigated the effects of filter type, concentration of fixative, and flow rate. Cells captured on the filter membrane were completely retrieved within 15s. Selected genes for genomic analysis, mutated genes (FGFR3, TERT and HRAS) and methylated genes (ALX4, RALL3, MT1A, and RUNX3) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and subsequently, were identified by microchip electrophoresis (MCE). Analysis by MCE reduces the risk of contamination, sample consumption, and analysis time. Our developed approach is economical, effectively isolates cancer cells, and permits flexible molecular characterization, all of which make this approach a promising method for non-invasive BC detection. PMID:26452803

  18. Development of Companion Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Mankoff, David A; Edmonds, Christine E; Farwell, Michael D; Pryma, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient's cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods as companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has "hit" the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-targeted therapy. The review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic. PMID:26687857

  19. Correlation of Parathormone and the Serum Values of Acidum Uricum with Calcium Nephrolithiasis Examined by Three Different Methods of Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Milicevic, Snjezana; Bijelic, Radojka; Jakovljevic, Branislava

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Urolithiasis is a multifactorial disease. Changes in social and economic living conditions have generated changes in chemical composition of urolith too. Although calcium is a predominant crystalline constituent of kidney stones in 80% of cases, metabolic disorders are not the main reason for their formation. Hyperparathyroidism may be a cause of occurrence of calcium lithiasis, however, the biggest number of its occurrence is not a consequence of elevated values of parathormone. Acid uric has a pervasive presence in all body fluids. The serum level of acid uric is determined by its rate of synthesis, rate of excretion by kidney and gastrointestinal tract, and metabolism. Goal. The goal of our study is to determine a correlation of calcium lithiasis of the upper part of the urinary tract with the parathormone values and the concomitant values of acidum uricum. Material and methods. The study was prospective and included 120 patients with calcium lithiasis of the upper part of urinary tract, divided in three age categories, 20-40 years, 40-60 years and older than 60 years. The diagnosis of calcium lithiasis of the upper part of the urinary tract was made on the basis of urinary tract ultrasonography, and kidney-ureter-bladder radiography (KUB) /intravenous urography (IVU), urine culture and chemical analysis of stone with patients who had a spontaneous emission of stone or following some of the methods for active removal of stone; with some patients non-contrast (NCCT) was carried out too. All patients were subjected to the laboratory analysis of the serum level of acidum uricum and parathormone. Results. With observed 120 patients suffering from calcium urolithiasis, who belonged to adult population, no patient had an elevated value of parathormone, while three patients (2.5%) had the values of acidum uricum higher than the reference values. The average value (for both parameters) was the lowest with the youngest patients and vice versa, and only in the group of 40 to 60 years of age there were patients whose values of the acidum uricum parameter was outside the interval of reference values; the other age groups did not have such values. Based on the analysis of the variance, as a statistical method, it was determined that the average values of acidum uricum in different age groups were statistically significantly different, which is not the case for the parameter parathormone. (p>0,05). Conclusion. The biggest number of nephrolithiasis is not a consequence of elevated values of parathormone. Hyperuricosemia may be present with calcium urolithiasis, without participation in forming kidney stones, most probably as an indirect sign of the existence of the initial insulin resistance and metabolic disease. PMID:26236076

  20. Preliminary evaluation of diagnostic tests for avian influenza using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Method in an emergency surveillance.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takehisa; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Nishiguchi, Akiko; Kobayashi, Sota; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Saito, Takehiko; Mase, Masaji; Okamatsu, Masatoshi

    2007-06-01

    In June 2005, an outbreak of avian influenza (AI) caused by a low pathogenic H5N2 virus was identified in Japan. A serological surveillance was conducted because the infected chickens did not show any clinical signs. The Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method was used to evaluate the performances of serological HI and AGP tests because there was not enough time when the surveillance was initiated to conduct a test evaluation. The sensitivity of the AGP test (0.67) was lower than that of the HI test (0.99), while the specificities were high for both tests (0.96 for AGP and 0.90 for HI). Based on the low sensitivity of the AGP test, the HI test was used for primary screening in later stages of the epidemic. PMID:17611370

  1. Perspectives in Intraoperative Diagnostics of Human Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Tyurikova, O.; Dembitskaya, Y.; Yashin, K.; Mishchenko, M.; Vedunova, M.; Medyanik, I.; Kazantsev, V.

    2015-01-01

    Amongst large a variety of oncological diseases, malignant gliomas represent one of the most severe types of tumors. They are also the most common type of the brain tumors and account for over half of the astrocytic tumors. According to different sources, the average life expectancy of patients with various glioblastomas varies between 10 and 12 months and that of patients with anaplastic astrocytic tumors between 20 and 24 months. Therefore, studies of the physiology of transformed glial cells are critical for the development of treatment methods. Modern medical approaches offer complex procedures, including the microsurgical tumor removal, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, supplemented with photodynamic therapy and immunotherapy. The most radical of them is surgical resection, which allows removing the largest part of the tumor, reduces the intracranial hypertension, and minimizes the degree of neurological deficit. However, complete removal of the tumor remains impossible. The main limitations are insufficient visualization of glioma boundaries, due to its infiltrative growth, and the necessity to preserve healthy tissue. This review is devoted to the description of advantages and disadvantages of modern intraoperative diagnostics of human gliomas and highlights potential perspectives for development of their treatment. PMID:26543495

  2. Perspectives in Intraoperative Diagnostics of Human Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Tyurikova, O; Dembitskaya, Y; Yashin, K; Mishchenko, M; Vedunova, M; Medyanik, I; Kazantsev, V

    2015-01-01

    Amongst large a variety of oncological diseases, malignant gliomas represent one of the most severe types of tumors. They are also the most common type of the brain tumors and account for over half of the astrocytic tumors. According to different sources, the average life expectancy of patients with various glioblastomas varies between 10 and 12 months and that of patients with anaplastic astrocytic tumors between 20 and 24 months. Therefore, studies of the physiology of transformed glial cells are critical for the development of treatment methods. Modern medical approaches offer complex procedures, including the microsurgical tumor removal, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, supplemented with photodynamic therapy and immunotherapy. The most radical of them is surgical resection, which allows removing the largest part of the tumor, reduces the intracranial hypertension, and minimizes the degree of neurological deficit. However, complete removal of the tumor remains impossible. The main limitations are insufficient visualization of glioma boundaries, due to its infiltrative growth, and the necessity to preserve healthy tissue. This review is devoted to the description of advantages and disadvantages of modern intraoperative diagnostics of human gliomas and highlights potential perspectives for development of their treatment. PMID:26543495

  3. Task-Oriented Comparison of Power Spectral Density Estimation Methods for Quantifying Acoustic Attenuation in Diagnostic Ultrasound Using a Reference Phantom Method

    PubMed Central

    Rosado-Mendez, Ivan M.; Nam, Kibo; Hall, Timothy J.; Zagzebski, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Reported here is a phantom-based comparison of methods for determining the power spectral density of ultrasound backscattered signals. Those power spectral density values are then used to estimate parameters describing ?(f), the frequency dependence of the acoustic attenuation coefficient. Phantoms were scanned with a clinical system equipped with a research interface to obtain radiofrequency echo data. Attenuation, modeled as a power law ?(f)=?0f?, was estimated using a reference phantom method. The power spectral density as estimated using the short-time Fourier transform (STFT), Welch's periodogram, and Thomson's multitaper technique, and performance was analyzed when limiting the size of the parameter estimation region. Errors were quantified by the bias and standard deviation of the ?0 and ? estimates, and by the overall power-law fit error. For parameter estimation regions larger than ~34 pulse lengths (~1cm for this experiment), an overall power-law fit error of 4% was achieved with all spectral estimation methods. With smaller parameter estimation regions as in parametric image formation, the bias and standard deviation of the ?0 and ? estimates depended on the size of the parameter estimation region. Here the multitaper method reduced the standard deviation of the ?0 and ? estimates compared to those using the other techniques. Results provide guidance for choosing methods for estimating the power spectral density in quantitative ultrasound. PMID:23858055

  4. A back projection dosimetry method for diagnostic and orthovoltage x-ray from 40 to 140 kVp for patients and phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afrashteh, Hossein

    2005-07-01

    Patient dosimetry in practice is involved with time consuming, tedious calculations during the measurement process. There is a need for a straight forward and accurate method to perform patient dosimetry when required. A back projection dosimetry method for patient/phantom using Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) and its corresponding Exit Surface Dose with an average value for attenuation coefficient (mu), (e.g., mean effective attenuation coefficient (mu`)), was developed. The method focused on low energy X-ray units (40--140 kVp), primarily for conventional diagnostic radiography and low energy radiation therapy procedures. The assumption is that it may be used for similar concepts and modalities within the same energy range, (e.g., fluoroscopy, where the skin injuries have been common in the past, or mammography, where the radiation carcinogenesis has been a matter of concern). A new Gafchromic film, XR-QA, as a precision dosimeter was assessed and used with this algorithm. Due to the fact that the dose range often seen in conventional radiography exams in most cases is not high enough to activate the sensitive layer of this film sufficiently, the measured net Optical Density (OD) changes were not substantial enough. Therefore, a conventional and relatively low speed dental film, DF58 Ultra, was used. Various thicknesses of Acrylic, a tissue equivalent material, were used with the algorithm. When compared with the other sources and reference data, the results from the developed mathematical algorithm are in a reasonable agreement with these values. The developed method is straight forward, and within the acceptable accuracy range. The back projection dosimetry method is effective and may be used individually for the desired body parts or fetus areas, depending on the clinical practice and interests.

  5. Determining similarity in histological images using graph-theoretic description and matching methods for content-based image retrieval in medical diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Computer-based analysis of digitalized histological images has been gaining increasing attention, due to their extensive use in research and routine practice. The article aims to contribute towards the description and retrieval of histological images by employing a structural method using graphs. Due to their expressive ability, graphs are considered as a powerful and versatile representation formalism and have obtained a growing consideration especially by the image processing and computer vision community. Methods The article describes a novel method for determining similarity between histological images through graph-theoretic description and matching, for the purpose of content-based retrieval. A higher order (region-based) graph-based representation of breast biopsy images has been attained and a tree-search based inexact graph matching technique has been employed that facilitates the automatic retrieval of images structurally similar to a given image from large databases. Results The results obtained and evaluation performed demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of graph-based image retrieval over a common histogram-based technique. The employed graph matching complexity has been reduced compared to the state-of-the-art optimal inexact matching methods by applying a pre-requisite criterion for matching of nodes and a sophisticated design of the estimation function, especially the prognosis function. Conclusion The proposed method is suitable for the retrieval of similar histological images, as suggested by the experimental and evaluation results obtained in the study. It is intended for the use in Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR)-requiring applications in the areas of medical diagnostics and research, and can also be generalized for retrieval of different types of complex images. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1224798882787923. PMID:23035717

  6. Modern Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ping

    This book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the development of modern Chinese from the late 19th century up to the 1990s, concentrating on three major aspects: modern spoken Chinese, modern written Chinese, and the modern Chinese writing system. It describes and analyzes in detail, from historical and sociolinguistic perspectives,

  7. Comparative diagnostic value of a new computerized vectorcardiographic method (cardiogoniometry) and other noninvasive tests in medically treated patients with chest pain

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, A.; Hoeflin, F.H.; Herrmann, H.J.; Wolf, C.; Gurtner, H.P.; Roesler, H.

    1987-05-01

    The diagnostic value of cardiogoniometry (CGM), a new computerized vectorcardiographic method, for the identification of coronary artery disease was compared with other noninvasive tests in 48 medically treated patients with chest pain. Coronary angiography revealed one-vessel disease in 18, two- or three-vessel disease in 21, and normal coronary arteries in 9 patients. Cardiogoniometry was less sensitive (63%) than thallium-/sup 201/ (201T1) scanning (82%), but slightly more sensitive than the exercise ECG (50%) or a recently proposed parameter of exercise performance (50%). On the other hand, specificity was comparable among these tests (exercise ECG 78%, thallium-201 scanning 72%, CGM 67%, new parameter of exercise performance 66%). Moreover, the false negative rate of noninvasive testing was reduced from 8 to 3% when CGM was added to thallium-201 scanning and exercise ECG. Our findings indicate that in view of the easier feasibility with computerized technology, the future role of vectorcardiographic methods such as CGM in the noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease should be redefined.

  8. Advances in the processing of policromat images as diagnostic method to determine white spot syndrome virus in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez-Sanchez, Cristina M.; Alvarez-Borrego, Josue; Montoya-Rodriguez, L.; Garcia-Gasca, A.; Fajer Avila, Emma J.; Pacheco-Marges, R.

    2004-10-01

    White spot syndrome (WSSV) is a viral disease which affects many crustacean species including commercial shrimps. Adequate, precise and quick methods to diagnose on time the presence of the disease in order to apply different strategies to avoid the dispersion and to reduce mortalities is necessary. Histopathology is an important diagnostic method. However, histopathology has the problem that requires time to prepare the histological slides and time to arrive to some diagnosis because this depend on the nature of the tissues, the pathogen(s) to find, the number of organisms, number of slides to analyze and the skill of the technician. This paper try to demonstrate the sensibility of one digital system of processing and recognition of images using color correlation with phase filters, to identify inclusion bodies of WSSV. Infected tissues were processed to obtain histological slides and to verify that the inclusion bodies observed were of WSV, in situ hybridization were carried out. The sensibility results of the recognition of the inclusion bodies of WSSV with the color correlation program was 86.1%. The highest percentage of recognition was in nervous system and tegument glands with 100%. The values in the stomach epithelium and heart tissue was 78.45% of recognition. Tissues with the lowest recognition values were lymphoid organ and hematopoietic tissue. It is necessary further studies to increase the sensibility and to obtain the specificity.

  9. Modern Rock Poetry: English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Nancy; Garcia, Leticia

    In this guide to a quinmester course in which the student examines and analyzes the themes and techniques of the rock poet in the lyrics of modern rock music, performance objectives, course content, teaching strategies, learning activities, and lists of student and teacher resources are provided. (DB)

  10. Principles of Modern Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beim, George

    This book is written to give a better understanding of the principles of modern soccer to coaches and players. In nine chapters the following elements of the game are covered: (1) the development of systems; (2) the principles of attack; (3) the principles of defense; (4) training games; (5) strategies employed in restarts; (6) physical fitness…

  11. Medicalized weapons & modern war.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    "Medicalized" weapons--those that rely on advances in neuroscience, physiology, and pharmacology--offer the prospect of reducing casualties and protecting civilians. They could be especially useful in modern asymmetric wars in which conventional states are pitted against guerrilla or insurgent forces. But may physicians and other medical workers participate in their development? PMID:20166514

  12. Principles of Modern Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beim, George

    This book is written to give a better understanding of the principles of modern soccer to coaches and players. In nine chapters the following elements of the game are covered: (1) the development of systems; (2) the principles of attack; (3) the principles of defense; (4) training games; (5) strategies employed in restarts; (6) physical fitness

  13. Modern Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a detailed discussion of the theory and practice of modern regression discontinuity (RD) analysis for estimating the effects of interventions or treatments. Part 1 briefly chronicles the history of RD analysis and summarizes its past applications. Part 2 explains how in theory an RD analysis can identify an average effect of…

  14. Modern programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  15. Modern Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a detailed discussion of the theory and practice of modern regression discontinuity (RD) analysis for estimating the effects of interventions or treatments. Part 1 briefly chronicles the history of RD analysis and summarizes its past applications. Part 2 explains how in theory an RD analysis can identify an average effect of

  16. Modern Biotechnology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  17. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  18. Gnotobiology in modern medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podoprigora, G. I.

    1980-01-01

    A review is given of currently accepted theories and applications of gnotobiology. A brief history of gnotobiology is supplied. Problems involved in creating germ-free gnotobiota and the use of these animals in experimental biology are cited. Examples of how gnotobiology is used in modern medical practice illustrate the future prospects for this area of science.

  19. Analysis of Protrusio Acetabuli Using a CT-based Diagnostic Method in Korean Patients with Marfan Syndrome: Prevalence and Association with Other Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kwang Jin; Yang, Jeong Hoon; Jang, Shin Yi; Lee, Seung Hwa; Gwag, Hye Bin; Chung, Tae-Young; Huh, June; Ki, Chang-Seok; Sung, Kiick; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Kim, Sung Mok; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Kim, Duk-Kyung

    2015-09-01

    A new CT-based diagnostic method of protrusio acetabuli (PA) was introduced. However, prevalence of PA by this method and correlation between PA and other manifestations of Marfan syndrome (MFS) is unknown in Korean MFS patients. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of PA diagnosed by a CT-based method in Korean patients with MFS, the association of PA with other manifestations of MFS, and the contribution of PA to MFS diagnosis. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 146 MFS patients with the presence of a causative FBN1 mutation and 146 age- and sex-matched controls from a single tertiary care center. All MFS patients underwent a complete assessment of criteria based on the revised Ghent nosology. PA was assessed quantitatively using a CT-based circle-wall distance (CWD) method. PA was diagnosed in 77.4% of patients in the MFS group and in 11.0% of the control group. CWD was significantly different between the two groups (1.50 mm vs. -0.64 mm, P<0.001). The presence of PA did not correlate with the presence of ectopia lentis, aortic root diameter, or history of aortic dissection. The presence of PA did not have a significant impact on the final diagnosis of MFS. Even though the presence of PA does not related to the cardinal clinical features of MFS or influence MFS diagnosis, its presence may be helpful for the suspicion of MFS when aortic dissection or aneurysm is found on CT angiography of the aorta because of the high frequency of PA in MFS patients. PMID:26339165

  20. The Downside of Diagnostic Imaging

    Cancer.gov

    An article about radiation exposure during computed tomography and nuclear imaging procedures and the risk of cancer. Several studies released in 2009 have helped to quantify the risk and the growing use of these diagnostic imaging methods.