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1

[Modern angiological diagnostic methods].  

PubMed

The tasks of apparative examination methods in the angiologic diagnostics are explained. Apart from the mechanical oscillography the possibilities of registration and evaluation of the peripheral pulse wave are discussed. As quantitative examination method the plethysmography is broadly used. The most important applications of the ultrasound-Doppler-technique are described. PMID:473831

Grossmann, K

1979-04-15

2

[Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].  

PubMed

Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders. PMID:17471820

Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Ma?gorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

2006-01-01

3

[Modern diagnostic imaging: MR urography].  

PubMed

MR-urography presents a new diagnostic approach to the urinary system, resulting in images comparable to those known from i.v.-urography. T2-weighted MR-urograms demonstrate static fluid without ionizing radiation or nephrotoxic contrast media. The excretory renal function can be examined by the use of gadolinium-enhanced T1-urography. The degree and cause of ureteric obstruction can be diagnosed with high sensitivity and specificity. On the other hand, urolithiasis is frequently misdiagnosed by MR-urography and, in this case, spiral CT should be used. Pediatric or pregnant patients can be examined as well as donors before and patients after renal transplantation. Furthermore, in case of a tumor MR-imaging, including MR-angiography, is a potential diagnostic "all-in-one" approach. PMID:12524940

Cohnen, M; Jung, G; Fritz, B; Saleh, A; Fürst, G; Mödder, U

2002-11-01

4

[Modern diagnostic approaches to malignant hyperthermia susceptibility].  

PubMed

Malignant hyperthermia is a well-known rare life-threatening autosomal-dominant pharmacogenetic disease, The arti- cle deals with a halothane-caffeine contracture test. The test is a model of muscle reaction to triggers in-vitro and it is the "golden standard" for malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) diagnosis. Genetic analysis is less invasive, but its sensitivity is significantly lower. The review discusses both the methods which are essential to be completely reproduced in Russia, and their role in modern approach to MHS diagnosis. PMID:25549489

Kazantseva, A A; Lebedinski?, K M

2014-01-01

5

Modern Methods of Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After a brief survey of the commonly used single-value test methods, the importance of the determination of the incipient knock for the octane number is discussed and improvements suggested for the knock testing in the CFR engine. The DVL supercharge test method with its superiority of direct determination of fuel knock in each single cylinder of an airplane engine without involving structural changes, is described and the advantages of a multiple-value method enumerated. A diagrammatic presentation of the knock characteristics is presented.

Seeber, F

1939-01-01

6

Modern diagnostic approach to hereditary xanthinuria.  

PubMed

Hereditary xanthinuria (HX) is a rare inherited disorder caused by a deficiency of xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (XDH/XO). Missing XDH/XO activity leads to undetectable levels of uric acid excessively replaced by xanthine in serum/urine. The allopurinol loading test has been traditionally used to differentiate between HX types I and II. Final confirmation of HX has been based on the biopsy finding of the absent XDH/XO activity in the small intestine or liver. We present the clinical, biochemical, ultrasound and molecular genetics findings in three new patients with HX and suggest a simple three-step approach to be used for diagnosis, typing and confirmation of HX. In the first step, the diagnosis of HX is determined by extremely low serum/urinary uric acid excessively replaced by xanthine. Second, HX is typed using urinary metabolomics. Finally, the results are confirmed by molecular genetics. We advocate for this safe and non-invasive diagnostic algorithm instead of the traditional allopurinol loading test and intestinal or liver biopsy used in the past. PMID:25370766

Mraz, Martin; Hurba, Olha; Bartl, Josef; Dolezel, Zdenek; Marinaki, Anthony; Fairbanks, Lynette; Stiburkova, Blanka

2015-02-01

7

Methods in graphologic diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grapho~ogic diagnostics is part of the science of the expressions. The history of the lore of the expressive movements through the centuries, may be summed up in the following .antithesi~s. On the one hand, expression was explained away and dissolved, as it were, in an anatomy of the muscles and a physiology of the muscular movement. On the other hand~

Wladimir Eliasberg

1952-01-01

8

[Novel methods for dementia diagnostics].  

PubMed

Novel diagnostic methods, such as cerebrospinal fluid-based neurochemical dementia diagnostics (CSF-NDD) and [18F] amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) are meanwhile recommended for specific indications by international guidelines for the improved early and differential diagnostics of multigenic (sporadic) Alzheimer's dementia (AD). In the case of CSF-NDD the German neuropsychiatric guidelines have already been validated on the S3 level of evidence (http://www.DGPPN.de) and the additional consideration of [18F] amyloid-PET in the current update of the guidelines is to be expected. By means of CSF-NDD and/or [18F] amyloid-PET a predictive diagnosis of incipient (preclinical) AD is also possible for patients at high risk for AD who are in prodromal stages, such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). As accompanying (secondary) preventive therapy of AD cannot be offered a predictive molecular dementia diagnostics is not recommended by the German neuropsychiatric dementia guidelines (http://www.DGPPN.de). However, novel diagnostic approaches, which offer molecular positive diagnostics of AD have already gained high relevance in therapy research as they allow promising preventive treatment avenues to be validated directly in the clinical trial. Moreover, future blood-based dementia diagnostics by means of multiplex assays is becoming increasingly more feasible; however, so far corresponding proteomic or epigenetic assays could not be consistently validated in independent studies. PMID:25801947

Wiltfang, J

2015-04-01

9

Computational Chemistry Using Modern Electronic Structure Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various modern electronic structure methods are now days used to teach computational chemistry to undergraduate students. Such quantum calculations can now be easily used even for large size molecules.

Bell, Stephen; Dines, Trevor J.; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Withnall, Robert

2007-01-01

10

[Real time diagnostics of instantaneous temperature of combustion and explosion process by modern spectroscopy].  

PubMed

The combustion temperature is one of the important parameters to express flame combustion and explosion characteristics. It will effectively guide the design and manufacture of new model explosives, industrial explosive materials, and weapons. The recent developments and applications of real time diagnostics of instantaneous temperature of combustion and explosion processes by modern spectroscopic methods, such as atomic absorption-emission method, atomic emission two-line spectroscopy, atomic emission multiline spectroscopy, molecular rotation-vibration spectroscopy, coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and plane laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), were reviewed in this paper. The maximum time resolution of atomic absorption-emission method is 25 microseconds. The time resolution of atomic emission two-line spectroscopy can reach 0.1 microsecond. These two methods can completely suit the need of real time and instantaneous temperature diagnostics of violent explosion and flame combustion. Other methods will also provide new effective research methods for the processes and characteristics of combustion, flame and explosion. PMID:12961909

Zhou, Xue-tie; Wang, Jun-de; Li, Yan; Liu, Da-bing

2003-04-01

11

A modern diagnostic approach for automobile systems condition monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important topic in automotive research and development is the area of active and passive safety systems. In general, it is grouped in active safety systems to prevent accidents and passive systems to reduce the impact of a crash. An example for an active system is ABS while a seat belt tensioner represents the group of passive systems. Current developments in the automotive industry try to link active with passive system components to enable a complete event sequence, beginning with the warning of the driver about a critical situation till the automatic emergency call after an accident. The cross-linking has an impact on the current diagnostic approach, which is described in this paper. Therefore, this contribution introduces a new diagnostic approach for automotive mechatronic systems. The concept is based on monitoring the messages which are exchanged via the automotive communication systems, e.g. the CAN bus. According to the authors' assumption, the messages on the bus are changing between faultless and faulty vehicle condition. The transmitted messages of the sensors and control units are different depending on the condition of the car. First experiments are carried and in addition, the hardware design of a suitable diagnostic interface is presented. Finally, first results will be presented and discussed.

Selig, M.; Shi, Z.; Ball, A.; Schmidt, K.

2012-05-01

12

[Challenges of the modern antibody diagnostics in kidney transplantation].  

PubMed

Overcoming antibody mediated rejection is of increasing interest in the field of transplantation immunology. The recipient's antibodies against the graft human leukocyte antigens are responsible for antibody mediated graft injury. Introduction of the solid phase immunoassay technology radically changed the monitoring practice of antibodies against human leukocyte antigens, and this has consequences both for pretransplant and posttransplant phases, though our knowledge about the clinical interpretation of the detected antibodies is limited. This integrating review reports recommendations and algorithms regarding the management of kidney transplant patients. The detection of complement activation combined with the solid phase techniques is a promising new approach in antibody testing. The C4d and especially the more sensitive C1q methods have the potential to answer pivotal questions about the clinical relevance of antibodies. Answering the questions that the applied new methods raised and reviewing the recommendations are needed to remain up to date with this dynamically developing field. PMID:25381657

Wettstein, Dániel; Szentiványi, Dorottya

2014-11-16

13

On the procedure and methods in modern furniture Green design  

Microsoft Academic Search

With times of ecological civilization coming, Green design is the new horizon of modern furniture innovation and development. Based on the theories of green design, the paper explored the strategies, methods and procedures of green design for modern furniture and described the framework of implementation. Finally, studying expectation of green design for modern furniture was given.

Hanning Zhang; Jifeng Xu

2010-01-01

14

Modern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article gives an overview of the most important problems of modern meteoric astronomy and briefly describes ways and methods of their solutions. Particular attention is paid to the construction and arrangement of meteoric video cameras intended for registration of the meteoric phenomena as the main method of obtaining reliable and objective observational data on the basis of which the solution of the described tasks is possible.

Bagrov, A. V.; Leonov, V. A.; Attia, G. F.; Ghoneim, R.

2014-06-01

15

Overview of computational structural methods for modern military aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational structural methods are essential for designing modern military aircraft. This briefing deals with computational structural methods (CSM) currently used. First a brief summary of modern day aircraft structural design procedures is presented. Following this, several ongoing CSM related projects at Northrop are discussed. Finally, shortcomings in this area, future requirements, and summary remarks are given.

Kudva, J. N.

1992-01-01

16

Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*  

PubMed Central

This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice. PMID:17579968

Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2009-01-01

17

[The role of biomarkers in diagnostics and forecasting of effectiveness of modern therapy of rheumatoid arthritis].  

PubMed

The rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most severe and widespread systemic inflammatory autoimmune diseases. The modern laboratory diagnostic of rheumatoid arthritis includes detection of large spectrum of biomarkers (autoantibodies, indicators of acute phase of inflammation, cytokines, markers of activation of endothelium, subpopulations of lymphocytes, products of metabolism of bone and cartilaginous tissue, genetic markers) in blood, synovial fluid, and synovial tissue. Alongside with common techniques of immunodiagnostics, the multiplex analysis of biomarkers based on genetic, transcript and proteomic technologies is applied. The results of identification of biomarkers are an important instrument of early diagnostics, activity evaluation, severity of disease course and disease prognosis and effectiveness of applied therapy. Among biomarkers associated with rheumatoid arthritis the most clinical value have antibodies (rheumatoid factor class IgM, antibodies to citrullinized proteins) and acute phase indicators (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein) which are diagnostic criteria of rheumatoid arthritis and can be used in evaluation of prognosis of this disease. On basis of multi-parametric analysis of 12 key proteins of blood serum the new index of activity of rheumatoid arthritis (Vectra DA) is developed Nowadays, the potential biomarkers are detected providing to implement immunologic monitoring and prognosis of effectiveness of therapy of rheumatoid arthritis with genetic engineering biologic preparations. The laboratory tests are developed to evaluate immunogenicity of genetic engineering biologic preparations and diagnostic of latent tuberculosis infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis against the background of therapy with using this group of pharmaceuticals. PMID:24340741

Aleksandrova, E N; Novikov, A A; Nasonov, E L

2013-08-01

18

Modern Birth Control Methods Could Avoid 15 Million Unwanted Pregnancies  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Modern Birth Control Methods Could Avoid 15 Million Unwanted Pregnancies: ... Preidt Wednesday, February 4, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Birth Control Women's Health WEDNESDAY, Feb. 4, 2015 (HealthDay ...

19

Leaf Histology--Two Modern Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two methods for examining leaf structure are presented; both methods involve use of "superglue." The first method uses the glue to form a thin, permanent, direct replica of a leaf surface on a microscope slide. The second method uses the glue to examine the three-dimensional structure of spongy mesophyll. (JN)

Freeman, H. E.

1984-01-01

20

Genetic Diagnostic Methods for Inherited Eye Diseases  

PubMed Central

Accurate molecular diagnosis of genetic eye diseases has proven to be of great importance because of the prognostic and therapeutic value of an accurate ascertainment of the underlying genetic mutation. Efforts continue in diagnostic laboratories to develop strategies that allow the discovery of responsible gene/mutations in the individual patient using the least number of assays and economizing on the expenses and time involved in the process. Once the ophthalmologist has made the best possible clinical diagnosis, blood samples are obtained for genetic testing. In this paper we will review the basic laboratory methods utilized to identify the chromosomal or mutational etiology of genetic diseases that affect the eye. PMID:21572730

Gabriel, Luis A. R.; Traboulsi, Elias I.

2011-01-01

21

Method and computer program product for maintenance and modernization backlogging  

DOEpatents

According to one embodiment, a computer program product for determining future facility conditions includes a computer readable medium having computer readable program code stored therein. The computer readable program code includes computer readable program code for calculating a time period specific maintenance cost, for calculating a time period specific modernization factor, and for calculating a time period specific backlog factor. Future facility conditions equal the time period specific maintenance cost plus the time period specific modernization factor plus the time period specific backlog factor. In another embodiment, a computer-implemented method for calculating future facility conditions includes calculating a time period specific maintenance cost, calculating a time period specific modernization factor, and calculating a time period specific backlog factor. Future facility conditions equal the time period specific maintenance cost plus the time period specific modernization factor plus the time period specific backlog factor. Other embodiments are also presented.

Mattimore, Bernard G; Reynolds, Paul E; Farrell, Jill M

2013-02-19

22

Modern Statistical Methods for GLAST Event Analysis  

E-print Network

We describe a statistical reconstruction methodology for the GLAST LAT. The methodology incorporates in detail the statistics of the interactions of photons and charged particles with the tungsten layers in the LAT, and uses the scattering distributions to compute the full probability distribution over the energy and direction of the incident photons. It uses model selection methods to estimate the probabilities of the possible geometrical configurations of the particles produced in the detector, and numerical marginalization over the energy loss and scattering angles at each layer. Preliminary results show that it can improve on the tracker-only energy estimates for muons and electrons incident on the LAT.

Robin D. Morris; Johann Cohen-Tanugi

2007-03-28

23

The "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" as a Major Form of Dehumanization in the Modern World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) is one of the most successful technologies in modern times. In spite of well-argued critiques, the DSM and the idea of "mental illness" on which it is based flourish, with ever more (mis)behaviors labeled as brain diseases. Problems in living and related distress…

Gambrill, Eileen

2014-01-01

24

Ultrasensitive microanalytical diagnostic methods for rickettsial pathogens  

SciTech Connect

A strategic CRADA was established between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) at Galveston to address pressing needs for US protection against biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and emerging infectious diseases. The combination of unique expertise and facilities at UTMB and SNL enabled interdisciplinary research efforts in the development of rapid and accurate diagnostic methods for early detection of trace priority pathogen levels. Outstanding postdoctoral students were also trained at both institutions to help enable the next generation of scientists to tackle the challenging interdisciplinary problems in the area of biodefense and emerging infectious diseases. Novel approaches to diagnostics were developed and the both the speed of assays as well as the detection sensitivity were improved by over an order of magnitude compared to traditional methods. This is a significant step toward more timely and specific detection of dangerous infections. We developed in situ polymerized porous polymer monoliths that can be used as (1) size exclusion elements for capture and processing of rickettsial infected cells from a sample, (2) photopatternable framework for grafting high densities of functionalized antibodies/fluorescent particles using novel monolith chemistry. Grafting affinity reagents specific to rickettsial particles enables rapid, ultra-sensitive assays by overcoming transport limitations of traditional planar assay approaches. We have selectively trapped particles and bacteria at the cell trap and have also detected picomolar mouse IL-6 captured with only 20 minutes total incubation times using the densely patterned monolith framework. As predicted, the monolith exhibits >10x improvements in both capture speed and capture density compared to traditional planar approaches. The most significant advancements as part of this CRADA is the optimization of techniques allowing the detection of <10 rickettsial cells in a whole blood sample. This detection limit is over 2 orders of magnitude more sensitive that previously reported methods and overcomes a key hurdle in ability to sense dangerous infections before they are too late to treat and contain. We also showed that in the new format, cross-reactivity with interfering species is reduced thereby increasing the specificity of such tests. Promising options to treat whole blood and avoid clogging and non-specific fouling of sensors were also developed.

Hatch, A. V.

2012-03-01

25

Electron-Beam Diagnostic Methods for Hypersonic Flow Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this work was the evaluation of the use of electron-bean fluorescence for flow measurements during hypersonic flight. Both analytical and numerical models were developed in this investigation to evaluate quantitatively flow field imaging concepts based upon the electron beam fluorescence technique for use in flight research and wind tunnel applications. Specific models were developed for: (1) fluorescence excitation/emission for nitrogen, (2) rotational fluorescence spectrum for nitrogen, (3) single and multiple scattering of electrons in a variable density medium, (4) spatial and spectral distribution of fluorescence, (5) measurement of rotational temperature and density, (6) optical filter design for fluorescence imaging, and (7) temperature accuracy and signal acquisition time requirements. Application of these models to a typical hypersonic wind tunnel flow is presented. In particular, the capability of simulating the fluorescence resulting from electron impact ionization in a variable density nitrogen or air flow provides the capability to evaluate the design of imaging instruments for flow field mapping. The result of this analysis is a recommendation that quantitative measurements of hypersonic flow fields using electron-bean fluorescence is a tractable method with electron beam energies of 100 keV. With lower electron energies, electron scattering increases with significant beam divergence which makes quantitative imaging difficult. The potential application of the analytical and numerical models developed in this work is in the design of a flow field imaging instrument for use in hypersonic wind tunnels or onboard a flight research vehicle.

1994-01-01

26

Oxygen abundance methods in the SDSS: view from modern statistics  

E-print Network

Our purpose is to find which is the most reliable one among various oxygen abundance determination methods. We will test the validity of several different oxygen abundance determination methods using methods of modern statistics. These methods include Bayesian analysis and information scoring. We will analyze a sample of $\\sim$6000 $\\hii$ galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic observations data release four. All methods that we used drew the same conclusion that the $T_e$ method is a more reliable oxygen abundance determination methods than the Bayesian metallcity method under the existing telescope ability. The ratios of the likelihoods between the different kinds of methods tell us that the $T_e$, $P$, and $O3N2$ methods are consistent with each other because the $P$ and $O3N2$ method are calibrated by $T_e$-method. The Bayesian and $R_{23}$ method are consistent with each other because both are calibrated by a galaxy model. In either case, the $N2$ method is an {\\it unreliable} method.

F. Shi; G. Zhao; James Wicker

2007-10-24

27

Diagnostic Methods for Deep Vein Thrombosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is unreliable, and treatment should not be undertaken without objective confirmation. The traditional ‘gold standard’ for the diagnosis of DVT has been venography, but ultrasonic imaging has now replaced venography as the new diagnostic standard in many hospitals. A variety of noninvasive physiologic tests are also useful in selected circumstances. These include plethysmography,

Brownell Wheeler

1995-01-01

28

Nonlinear acoustic methods of crack diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a brief overeview of experimental studies of nonlinear acoustic phenomena due to the presence of cracks in solids. The possibilities for using these phenomena in crack diagnostics are discussed. To explain the observed effects, we present the physical models of a single crack and a fractured medium.

A. M. Sutin; V. E. Nazarov

1995-01-01

29

LOCAPHONY - NEW ACOUSTICAL METHOD OF EXPRESS FUNCTIONAL MEDICINE DIAGNOSTICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locaphony is a new developed method of quick functional medicine diagnostics, based on objective acoustical percussion of human internal organs. Locaphony permits to determine the acoustical projections of organs on the skin, estimate the safety of tissue and detect the inflammation processes. The 2D- images are the result of such diagnostics and these images contain new information in comparison with

V. Svet; J. Blinkov; S. Nikolaev; V. Murashev

30

Contemporary Chinese pulse diagnosis: a modern interpretation of an ancient and traditional method.  

PubMed

Contemporary Chinese pulse diagnosis™ (CCPD) is a system of pulse diagnosis utilized by Dr. John He Feng Shen, OMD, and documented by Dr. Leon Hammer, MD, in the book Chinese Pulse Diagnosis, A Contemporary Approach. It is the traditional method of the Ding medical lineage from the Shanghai region and dates to the 15th century in Chinese language texts. The fundamentals of this system are, however, much older and can be directly traced to the Neijing Suwen. Having been passed from the last direct inheritor of Ding knowledge (Dr. Shen) to modern practitioners of Chinese medicine by way of Dr. Hammer and his students, it represents an important system of advanced diagnosis. Although modern diagnostic technology provides very sophisticated diagnoses, for these instruments to be effective, the disease process must already have a physical manifestation. CCPD, on the other hand, provides the earliest warnings of physiological processes, which if left unchecked may result in the subsequent appearance of a disease. This article describes the derivation and the principles of this system of pulse diagnosis and explores its successful integration into the modern practice of Chinese medicine. PMID:24139459

Bilton, Karen; Hammer, Leon; Zaslawski, Chris

2013-10-01

31

SAR imaging via modern 2-D spectral estimation methods.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the use of modern 2D spectral estimation algorithms for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging. The motivation for applying power spectrum estimation methods to SAR imaging is to improve resolution, remove sidelobe artifacts, and reduce speckle compared to what is possible with conventional Fourier transform SAR imaging techniques. This paper makes two principal contributions to the field of adaptive SAR imaging. First, it is a comprehensive comparison of 2D spectral estimation methods for SAR imaging. It provides a synopsis of the algorithms available, discusses their relative merits for SAR imaging, and illustrates their performance on simulated and collected SAR imagery. Some of the algorithms presented or their derivations are new, as are some of the insights into or analyses of the algorithms. Second, this work develops multichannel variants of four related algorithms, minimum variance method (MVM), reduced-rank MVM (RRMVM), adaptive sidelobe reduction (ASR) and space variant apodization (SVA) to estimate both reflectivity intensity and interferometric height from polarimetric displaced-aperture interferometric data. All of these interferometric variants are new. In the interferometric contest, adaptive spectral estimation can improve the height estimates through a combination of adaptive nulling and averaging. Examples illustrate that MVM, ASR, and SVA offer significant advantages over Fourier methods for estimating both scattering intensity and interferometric height, and allow empirical comparison of the accuracies of Fourier, MVM, ASR, and SVA interferometric height estimates. PMID:18276288

DeGraaf, S R

1998-01-01

32

Method and system for diagnostics of apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed is a method, implemented in software, for estimating fault state of an apparatus outfitted with sensors. At each execution period the method processes sensor data from the apparatus to obtain a set of parity parameters, which are further used for estimating fault state. The estimation method formulates a convex optimization problem for each fault hypothesis and employs a convex solver to compute fault parameter estimates and fault likelihoods for each fault hypothesis. The highest likelihoods and corresponding parameter estimates are transmitted to a display device or an automated decision and control system. The obtained accurate estimate of fault state can be used to improve safety, performance, or maintenance processes for the apparatus.

Gorinevsky, Dimitry (Inventor)

2012-01-01

33

Examinations of electron temperature calculation methods in Thomson scattering diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Electron temperature from Thomson scattering diagnostic is derived through indirect calculation based on theoretical model. {chi}-square test is commonly used in the calculation, and the reliability of the calculation method highly depends on the noise level of input signals. In the simulations, noise effects of the {chi}-square test are examined and scale factor test is proposed as an alternative method.

Oh, Seungtae; Lee, Jong Ha; Wi, Hanmin [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15

34

[Objective diagnostic methods in pediatric audiology].  

PubMed

Objective methods based on the measurement of otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and auditory evoked potentials (AEP) are indispensable in pediatric audiology especially for the early detection and therapy of congenital hearing impairment. The correct and efficient use requires knowledge and skills which are beyond the basic equipment of many users and require continuous updating. In the present review many aspects relevant for the safe handling of the methods and interpretation of the results are addressed. The presentation does not focus on the methods themselves but on the core problem of the practical daily routine, namely the qualitative and quantitative description of hearing loss in terms of its extent, the frequency range affected and the identity with respect to the type and site of the lesion. The certainty of the diagnosis can be optimized by observing few and simple rules. Central importance is attached to the thorough discussion of the interrelated parameters residual noise, signal-to-noise ratio and reproducibility in order to promote their correct use. Further subjects of this article are the recognition of pitfalls, the description of new developments, such as chirp and auditory steady-state responses (ASSR) and finally the consideration of the extraordinarily important aspect of maturation. PMID:25270968

Mühler, R; Hoth, S

2014-10-01

35

[Diagnostic methods for the exploration of the female breast].  

PubMed

The diagnostic methods for exploration of the female breast (self-examination, clinical examination, mammography, xero-radiography, thermography, open biopsy, and aspiration biopsy smears) are briefly discussed. Their advantages and disadvantages emerge in their application for the detection of breast disease. PMID:1265465

Schreiner, W E

1976-04-01

36

Factors affecting the use of modern methods and materials in construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainability of construction attracts much attention in construction industry. One of the factors driving this requirement is application of materials and components through modern methods and technologies. Modern methods of construction can be the way to obtain buildings assisting in minimizing the negative impact of construction industry on the environment. Article defines the factors affecting the use of these modern methods and materials of construction. At the same time it defines modern construction methods and materials that can be considered progressive in the construction process.

Mesároš, P.; Mandi?ák, T.

2015-01-01

37

An analysis of the diagnostic methods for acute pulmonary embolism.  

PubMed

In spite of numerous sophisticated investigative procedures, acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is very frequently misdiagnosed. In order to improve the diagnostic approach to PE, the sensitivity and specificity of the commonly used methods were reviewed in a group of 421 patients with angiographically proved PE without associated cardio-pulmonary disease. The specificity of diagnostic procedures was, by decreasing order: positive pulmonary angiography (to affirm) = negative perfusion lung scan (to eliminate) greater than chest X-ray much greater than clinical symptoms, positive perfusion lung scan, ECG, blood gas, serum enzymes. PMID:6425382

Sors, H; Safran, D; Stern, M; Reynaud, P; Bons, J; Even, P

1984-01-01

38

Value of information methods for assessing a new diagnostic test.  

PubMed

Value-of-information methods are applied to assess the evidence in support of a new diagnostic test and, where the evidence is insufficient for decision making, to determine the optimal sample size for future studies. Net benefit formulations are derived under various diagnostic and treatment scenarios. The expressions for the expected opportunity loss of adopting strategies that include the new test are given. Expressions for the expected value of information from future studies are derived. One-sample and two-sample designs, with or without known prevalence, are considered. An example is given. PMID:24403241

Chen, Maggie Hong; Willan, Andrew R

2014-05-20

39

Modern methods of endoscopic diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

The last years brought the substantial development of new diagnostic procedures of gastrointestinal tract. High resolution endoscopy and magnifying endoscopy both give the detailed picture of the mucosal surface of esophagus, stomach, duodenum and large bowel. They are very useful in diagnosis precancer states or early cancer. The use of the biopsy forceps and cytology brush allows histologic confirmation of endoscopic impression. The new methods, which allow complete diagnosis of small bowel are double balloon enteroscopy and capsule endoscopy. They are recommended in case of Crohn's disease, identification of bleeding source, detection of stenoses and neoplastic changes in the small intestine, diagnosis of chronic diarrhea and detection of visceral diseases or malabsorption syndromes. Only double balloon enteroscopy allows to take the biopsy as well as to make endoscopic therapy. Chromoendoscopy involves topical application of stains to the mucosa on endoscopy in order to delineate and better characterize specific findings. This technique is thought to be helpful for both the diagnosis of early cancer for evaluation of non-neoplastic diseases. Endoscopic ultrasonography connecting endoscopic and ultrasonographic techniques is applied to diagnose the intramural abnormalities. PMID:17901580

Cichoz-Lach, H; Celi?nski, K

2007-08-01

40

Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy  

DOEpatents

The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form.

Thakur, Mathew L. (Cherry Hill, NJ)

1994-01-01

41

Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy  

DOEpatents

The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form.

Thakur, Mathew L. (Cherry Hill, NJ)

1991-01-01

42

Exhaled breath analysis: physical methods, instruments, and medical diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the analysis of exhaled breath, a rapidly growing field in noninvasive medical diagnostics that lies at the intersection of physics, chemistry, and medicine. Current data are presented on gas markers in human breath and their relation to human diseases. Various physical methods for breath analysis are described. It is shown how measurement precision and data volume requirements have stimulated technological developments and identified the problems that have to be solved to put this method into clinical practice.

Vaks, V. L.; Domracheva, E. G.; Sobakinskaya, E. A.; Chernyaeva, M. B.

2014-07-01

43

New method for the Langmuir probe diagnostics of polymerizing plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pulsed Langmuir probe method of plasma diagnostics is proposed and validated for low-pressure, high-density, low-temperature\\u000a plasmas capable of producing a nonconducting film on the probe surface. The method essentially involves cyclic probe-surface\\u000a cleaning by ion bombardment. A switching pattern of probe potential is designed, taking into account the mechanism by which\\u000a a space-charge region is formed near the probe.

K. V. Rudenko; A. V. Myakon’kikh; A. A. Orlikovsky; A. N. Pustovit

2007-01-01

44

Serologic diagnosis of syphilis: comparison of different diagnostic methods.  

PubMed

Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in syphilis show wide variation. The use of only one type of serologic test is insufficient for diagnosis. However, current international recommendations cannot be applied due to various reasons (cost, availability, etc.). The aim of the study was to review serologic data of syphilis patients to determine diagnostic performance of three different methods. In 117 patients suspected of having syphilis, syphilis was diagnosed serologically and clinically. Three different methods were used for detection of antibodies: Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR), Treponemal Chemiluminescence Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay (CMIA) and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were calculated for the former two methods against TPHA. The sensitivity of RPR and CMIA against TPHA was 58% and 98%, respectively. The specificity of RPR and CMIA against TPHA was 0% and 100%, respectively. Automated enzyme immunoassay systems could contribute to reducing errors that depend on the person, especially while monitoring titration changes. PMID:22726280

Saral, Yunus; Dilek, Aziz Ramazan; Dilek, Nursel; Bahçeci, Ilkay; Ulusan, Deniz Zehra

2012-01-01

45

Diagnostic methods used for atmospheric pressure thermal arc plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diagnostic methods used for atmospheric pressure thermal arc plasmas are presented in this paper. An experimental direct current arc plasma torch was used as a source for plasma generation at atmospheric pressure. Overheated water vapor was employed as a plasma-forming gas with an admixture of argon as a shielding gas. A couple of plasma diagnostic methods were invoked to perform the analysis of the generated plasma jet at the nozzle exhaust of the torch. Firstly, an optical emission spectroscopy method was used to determine the chemical composition of the water vapor plasma, and from the obtained spectra, the rotational and excitation temperatures were calculated roughly. Secondly, an enthalpy probe measurement was performed in order to measure the mean temperature and the velocity lengthwise and crosswise in the plasma stream.

Tamoši?nas, A.; Valatkevi?ius, P.; Valin?ius, V.; Grigaitien?, V.; Kavaliauskas, Ž.

2014-05-01

46

Are complement deficiencies really rare? Overview on prevalence, clinical importance and modern diagnostic approach.  

PubMed

Complement deficiencies comprise between 1 and 10% of all primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) according to national and supranational registries. They are still considered rare and even of less clinical importance. This not only reflects (as in all PIDs) a great lack of awareness among clinicians and general practitioners but is also due to the fact that only few centers worldwide provide a comprehensive laboratory complement analysis. To enable early identification, our aim is to present warning signs for complement deficiencies and recommendations for diagnostic approach. The genetic deficiency of any early component of the classical pathway (C1q, C1r/s, C2, C4) is often associated with autoimmune diseases whereas individuals, deficient of properdin or of the terminal pathway components (C5 to C9), are highly susceptible to meningococcal disease. Deficiency of C1 Inhibitor (hereditary angioedema, HAE) results in episodic angioedema, which in a considerable number of patients with identical symptoms also occurs in factor XII mutations. New clinical entities are now reported indicating disease association with partial complement defects or even certain polymorphisms (factor H, MBL, MASPs). Mutations affecting the regulators factor H, factor I, or CD46 and of C3 and factor B leading to severe dysregulation of the alternative pathway have been associated with renal disorders, such as atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) and - less frequent - with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). We suggest a multi-stage diagnostic protocol starting based on the recognition of so called warning signs which should aid pediatricians and adult physicians in a timely identification followed by a step-wise complement analysis to characterize the defect at functional, protein and molecular level. PMID:25037634

Grumach, Anete Sevciovic; Kirschfink, Michael

2014-10-01

47

Tuberculosis vaccine with high predicted population coverage and compatibility with modern diagnostics  

PubMed Central

A central goal in vaccine research is the identification of relevant antigens. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis chromosome encodes 23 early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6) family members that mostly are localized as gene pairs. In proximity to five of the gene pairs are ESX secretion systems involved in the secretion of the ESAT-6 family proteins. Here, we performed a detailed and systematic investigation of the vaccine potential of five possible Esx dimer substrates, one for each of the five ESX systems. On the basis of gene transcription during infection, immunogenicity, and protective capacity in a mouse aerosol challenge model, we identified the ESX dimer substrates EsxD-EsxC, ExsG-EsxH, and ExsW-EsxV as the most promising vaccine candidates and combined them in a fusion protein, H65. Vaccination with H65 gave protection at the level of bacillus Calmette–Guérin, and the fusion protein exhibited high predicted population coverage in high endemic regions. H65 thus constitutes a promising vaccine candidate devoid of antigen 85 and fully compatible with current ESAT-6 and culture filtrate protein 10-based diagnostics. PMID:24395772

Knudsen, Niels Peter H.; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Sara; Dolganov, Gregory M.; Schoolnik, Gary K.; Lindenstrøm, Thomas; Andersen, Peter; Agger, Else Marie; Aagaard, Claus

2014-01-01

48

Musculoskeletal symptoms and orthopaedic complications in pregnancy: pathophysiology, diagnostic approaches and modern management.  

PubMed

Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal symptom in pregnancy that can present as lumbar pain or pelvic girdle pain, with significant physical and psychosocial implications. Pelvic girdle pain is more prevalent and results in greater disability than lumbar pain. It is possible to distinguish between these two conditions from a detailed history based on the site of the pain, its intensity, disability and pain provocation tests. Management of low back pain in pregnancy is conservative, with physical exercise for lumbar pain and minimising activities that exacerbate pain, analgesics and bed rest for pelvic girdle pain, as well as avoiding abduction beyond the pain-free zone in labour. There is evidence that stabilising exercises in patients with pelvic girdle pain postpartum have a beneficial effect. Other treatment modalities that have been shown to be safe and effective include pelvic belts, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, spinal manipulative therapy, acupuncture and complementary therapy with yoga. Other orthopaedic complications in pregnancy such as carpal tunnel syndrome, pubic symphysis rupture, transient osteoporosis and osteonecrosis are usually self-limiting with a satisfactory outcome. However, a lack of awareness and failure to recognise these complications can result in long-term morbidity. Knowledge of the preoperative diagnostic investigations, surgical approaches and intraoperative positioning of the mother to avoid gravid uterus compression is vital in orthopaedic emergencies such as lumbar disc herniation, cauda equina syndrome, fractures and acute compartment syndrome of the lower limb to ensure a safe maternal and fetal outcome and to prevent serious disability. Pregnancy is not contraindicated in women with pre-existing orthopaedic complications such as kyphoscoliosis and total hip arthroplasty as there is no evidence to suggest increased maternal or fetal risks. PMID:24904047

Bhardwaj, Amit; Nagandla, Kavitha

2014-08-01

49

Mutational spectrum of DMD mutations in dystrophinopathy patients: application of modern diagnostic techniques to a large cohort.  

PubMed

Mutations in the DMD gene, encoding the dystrophin protein, are responsible for the dystrophinopathies Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD), and X-linked Dilated Cardiomyopathy (XLDC). Mutation analysis has traditionally been challenging, due to the large gene size (79 exons over 2.2 Mb of genomic DNA). We report a very large aggregate data set comprised of DMD mutations detected in samples from patients enrolled in the United Dystrophinopathy Project, a multicenter research consortium, and in referral samples submitted for mutation analysis with a diagnosis of dystrophinopathy. We report 1,111 mutations in the DMD gene, including 891 mutations with associated phenotypes. These results encompass 506 point mutations (including 294 nonsense mutations) and significantly expand the number of mutations associated with the dystrophinopathies, highlighting the utility of modern diagnostic techniques. Our data supports the uniform hypermutability of CGA>TGA mutations, establishes the frequency of polymorphic muscle (Dp427m) protein isoforms and reveals unique genomic haplotypes associated with "private" mutations. We note that 60% of these patients would be predicted to benefit from skipping of a single DMD exon using antisense oligonucleotide therapy, and 62% would be predicted to benefit from an inclusive multiexonskipping approach directed toward exons 45 through 55. PMID:19937601

Flanigan, Kevin M; Dunn, Diane M; von Niederhausern, Andrew; Soltanzadeh, Payam; Gappmaier, Eduard; Howard, Michael T; Sampson, Jacinda B; Mendell, Jerry R; Wall, Cheryl; King, Wendy M; Pestronk, Alan; Florence, Julaine M; Connolly, Anne M; Mathews, Katherine D; Stephan, Carrie M; Laubenthal, Karla S; Wong, Brenda L; Morehart, Paula J; Meyer, Amy; Finkel, Richard S; Bonnemann, Carsten G; Medne, Livija; Day, John W; Dalton, Joline C; Margolis, Marcia K; Hinton, Veronica J; Weiss, Robert B

2009-12-01

50

Boundary Detection Method for Ultrasound Diagnostic Images Using Region-Growing Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have proposed a boundary detection method for ultrasound diagnostic images using the Region-Growing method, which is mainly applicable to the detection of cysts. Region-Growing method, which extracts the region of interest using the image's brightness value, is optimized to be applicable to ultrasound diagnostic images. There are some cases in which the boundary is unclear in ultrasound diagnostic images,

Mitsuhiro Oshiki; Ryuuichi Shinomura; Tsuyoshi Mitake; Tomoo Sakurai; Shigeo Matsuura; Jyunta Harada

2004-01-01

51

Methods in virus diagnostics: from ELISA to next generation sequencing.  

PubMed

Despite the seemingly continuous development of newer and ever more elaborate methods for detecting and identifying viruses, very few of these new methods get adopted for routine use in testing laboratories, often despite the many and varied claimed advantages they possess. To understand why the rate of uptake of new technologies is so low, requires a strong understanding of what makes a good routine diagnostic tool to begin. This can be done by looking at the two most successfully established plant virus detection methods: enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and more recently introduced real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By examining the characteristics of this pair of technologies, it becomes clear that they share many benefits, such as an industry standard format and high levels of repeatability and reproducibility. These combine to make methods that are accessible to testing labs, which are easy to establish and robust in their use, even with new and inexperienced users. Hence, to ensure the establishment of new techniques it is necessary to not only provide benefits not found with ELISA or real-time PCR, but also to provide a platform that is easy to establish and use. In plant virus diagnostics, recent developments can be clustered into three core areas: (1) techniques that can be performed in the field or resource poor locations (e.g., loop-mediated isothermal amplification LAMP); (2) multiplex methods that are able to detect many viruses in a single test (e.g., Luminex bead arrays); and (3) methods suited to virus discovery (e.g., next generation sequencing, NGS). Field based methods are not new, with Lateral Flow Devices (LFDs) for the detection being available for a number of years now. However, the widespread uptake of this technology remains poor. LAMP does offer significant advantages over LFDs, in terms of sensitivity and generic application, but still faces challenges in terms of establishment. It is likely that the main barrier to the uptake of field-based technologies is behavioural influences, rather than specific concerns about the performance of the technologies themselves. To overcome this, a new relationship will need to develop between centralised testing laboratories offering services and those requiring tests; a relationship which is currently in its infancy. Looking further into the future, virus discovery and multiplex methods seem to converge as NGS becomes ever cheaper, easier to perform and can provide high levels of multiplexing without the use of virus specific reagents. So ultimately the key challenge from a routine testing lab perspective will not be one of investment in platforms-which could even be outsourced to commercial sequencing services-but one of having the skills and expertise to analyse the large datasets generated and their subsequent interpretation. In conclusion, only time will tell which of the next-generation of methods currently in development will become the routine diagnostics of the future. This will be determined through a combination of factors. And while the technology itself will have to offer performance advantages over existing methods in order to supplant them, it is likely to be human factors e.g., the behaviours of end users, laboratories and policy makers, the availability of appropriate expertise, that ultimately determine which ones become established. Hence factors cannot be ignored and early engagement with diagnostic stakeholders is essential. PMID:24361981

Boonham, Neil; Kreuze, Jan; Winter, Stephan; van der Vlugt, René; Bergervoet, Jan; Tomlinson, Jenny; Mumford, Rick

2014-06-24

52

A Review of the Diagnostic Methods Reported in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review summarizes subject selection and diagnostic procedures documented in 142 empirical articles published between 1993 and 1997. Although most researchers reported use of standard diagnostic criteria in classifying subjects, numerous studies did not report diagnostic methods and there was often a lack of specification of inclusion and…

Waller, Stacey A.; Armstrong, Kevin J.; McGrath, Ann M.; Sullivan, Cristin L.

1999-01-01

53

Inositol phosphate metabolomics: Merging genetic perturbation with modernized radiolabeling methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent discoveries that provide a link between inositol phosphate (IP) signaling and fundamental cellular processes evoke many exciting new hypotheses about IP function, and underscore the importance of understanding how IP synthesis is regulated. Central to studies of IP metabolism is the essential development of efficient, fast, and reproducible methods for quantitative analysis of IPs in systems ranging from simple

Jill Stevenson-Paulik; Shean-Tai Chiou; Josh P. Frederick; June dela Cruz; Andrew M. Seeds; James C. Otto; John D. York

2006-01-01

54

MODERN DAY PLASTINATION TECHNIQUES - SUCCESSOR OF ANCIENT EMBALMMENT METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to find, analyse and systematise the basic ways of embalmment and their application in contemporary methods of plastination. In most of the ancient mummies the internal organs and the brain were removed. Usually the best-preserved samples were under additional protective circumstances - low temperatures, dry air, draught, or isolating cover of the body. Chinchoros

D. Sivrev; M. Miklosova; A. Georgieva; N. Dimitrov

2005-01-01

55

Modern robust statistical methods: an easy way to maximize the accuracy and power of your research.  

PubMed

Classic parametric statistical significance tests, such as analysis of variance and least squares regression, are widely used by researchers in many disciplines, including psychology. For classic parametric tests to produce accurate results, the assumptions underlying them (e.g., normality and homoscedasticity) must be satisfied. These assumptions are rarely met when analyzing real data. The use of classic parametric methods with violated assumptions can result in the inaccurate computation of p values, effect sizes, and confidence intervals. This may lead to substantive errors in the interpretation of data. Many modern robust statistical methods alleviate the problems inherent in using parametric methods with violated assumptions, yet modern methods are rarely used by researchers. The authors examine why this is the case, arguing that most researchers are unaware of the serious limitations of classic methods and are unfamiliar with modern alternatives. A range of modern robust and rank-based significance tests suitable for analyzing a wide range of designs is introduced. Practical advice on conducting modern analyses using software such as SPSS, SAS, and R is provided. The authors conclude by discussing robust effect size indices. PMID:18855490

Erceg-Hurn, David M; Mirosevich, Vikki M

2008-10-01

56

Interpretive hermeneutics and modifying the modern idea of method.  

PubMed

A challenge currently facing human sciences researchers is recognizing the importance of creating a shared horizon of meaning in their work. To move towards this goal, researchers require an awareness of how their chosen conceptual framework creates a stricture through which they know and understand the individual. The methodological approach of philosophical interpretive hermeneutics emphasizes that what is learned from experience extends beyond the strictures of formalized method, thus offering a middle way of thinking in the research encounter. This article explores how interpretive hermeneutics can broaden the notion of research from one of simply knowing to one of understanding. It does so by engaging with Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics, where researchers strive to embrace a constellation of philosophical outlooks rather than a specific philosophical method. A key insight in research involving philosophical interpretive hermeneutics is its emphasis on human experience. PMID:19186789

Holroyd, Ann

2008-12-01

57

Designing arrays for modern high-resolution methods  

SciTech Connect

A bearing estimation study of seismic wavefields propagating from a strongly heterogeneous media shows that with the high-resolution MUSIC algorithm the bias of the direction estimate can be reduced by adopting a smaller aperture sub-array. Further, on this sub-array, the bias of the MUSIC algorithm is less than those of the MLM and Bartlett methods. On the full array, the performance for the three different methods are comparable. Improvement in bearing estimation in MUSIC with a reduced aperture might be attributed to increased signal coherency in the array. For methods with less resolution, the improved signal coherency in the smaller array is possible being offset by severe loss of resolution and the presence of weak secondary sources. Building upon the characteristics of real seismic wavefields, a design language has been developed to generate, modify, and test other arrays. Eigenstructures of wavefields and arrays have been studied empirically by simulation of a variety of realistic signals. 6 refs., 5 figs.

Dowla, F.U.

1987-10-01

58

Gaining More From a 'Modern' Moore Method M. Padraig M. M. McLoughlin  

E-print Network

. S. Wall, and H. J. Ettlinger. M. Padraig M. M. Mc Loughlin (KUP) Gaining More From a 'Modern' Moore was developed by R. L. Moore, H. S. Wall, and H. J. Ettlinger. So, we are discussing is the 'Moore method method was developed by R. L. Moore, H. S. Wall, and H. J. Ettlinger. So, we are discussing is the 'Moore

McLoughlin, Padraig

59

Detection of Underground Quarry From Modern Surface Geoelectrical Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present contribution aims to map and detect the underground cavities (quarry) from surface geoelectrical methods. For that, we have chosen a pilot site -underground quarry- located in Saint- Germain-la-Rivière, in Gironde, France. The geology and the geometry of the galleries and pillars are well known from direct surface and underground investigation and mapping: - decimeters of agricultural soil, followed by argilleous soil, then the unsaturated zone composed of alterated calcareous material; - extraction of limestone occurred at depths ranging between 3 and 8 m; the void percentage is of the order of 65 to 75 %; the width of the gallery is generally less than 5 m; the size of the pillars vary from 6 to 70 m2. Three geoelectrical methods were chosen to be carried out quasi-simultaneously : DC resistivity, Induced Polarisation (IP), i.e chargeability measurements and Spontaneous Polarization (SP). Each of them is sensitive to the presence of water, clay and voids, which are key parameters for our investigation. SP is the only one especially sensitive to water vertical circulation, which is necessarily different above pillars and voids. Our aim was to demonstrate that only the combination of those three methods should enable to locate the pillars, and chambers. Direct modelling using two different codes -finite differences and finite elements, enabled to select the optimal array. A regular grid with an inter electrode spacing equal to 2.5 m is used for all three techniques : 96 electrodes organised along 12 lines and 8 traverses. The so-called Syscal Pro system developed and manufactured by Iris Instrument enabled very quick measurements using the pole-dipole 3D array. Classical Cu/CuSO4 non polarizable electrodes were used for IP whereas specific Pb/PbCl were used for SP. 3 D inversion of DC resistivity has already been carried out using Loke Res3Dinv, and finite element codes. Confined anomalies are definitely mapped with their top at depths ranging between 2 and 3 meters, which are in good agreement with the known pillars level. Chargeability inversion is yet to be carried out. The SP map on the other hand, shows week anomalies ranging from -7 mV to + 7 mV, which do coincide with a number of resistivity anomalies. At present, it can be concluded that combination of electrical resistivity and self potential measurements allow to map numbers of pillars, which size is greater than 10 m2.

Schmutz, M.; Palma Lopes, S.; Cerepi, A.; Burlot, R.

2006-12-01

60

Computer methods for ITER-like materials LIBS diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent development of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) caused that this method is considered as the most promising for future diagnostic applications for characterization of the deposited materials in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which is currently under construction. In this article the basics of LIBS are shortly discussed and the software for spectra analyzing is presented. The main software function is to analyze measured spectra with respect to the certain element lines presence. Some program operation results are presented. Correct results for graphite and aluminum are obtained although identification of tungsten lines is a problem. The reason for this is low tungsten lines intensity, and thus low signal to noise ratio of the measured signal. In the second part artificial neural networks (ANNs) as the next step for LIBS spectra analyzing are proposed. The idea is focused on multilayer perceptron network (MLP) with backpropagation learning method. The potential of ANNs for data processing was proved through application in several LIBS-related domains, e.g. differentiating ancient Greek ceramics (discussed). The idea is to apply an ANN for determination of W, Al, C presence on ITER-like plasma-facing materials.

?epek, Micha?; GÄ sior, Pawe?

2014-11-01

61

Recommendations on modern contact investigation methods for enhancing tuberculosis control.  

PubMed

Effective contact investigations are paramount to the success of tuberculosis (TB) control in high-risk communities in low TB prevalence countries. National and international guidelines on TB contact investigations are available and vary widely on recommendations. Because of the limitations of traditional contact tracing, new approaches are under investigation, and in some cases in use, to ensure effective TB control in those persons and communities at greatest risk. These non-traditional approaches include the use of social network analysis, geographic information systems and genomics, in addition to the widespread use of genotyping, to better understand TB transmission. Detailed guidelines for the use of these methods during TB outbreaks and in routine follow-up of TB contact investigations do not currently exist despite evidence that they may improve TB control efforts. It remains unclear as to when it is most appropriate and effective to use a network-informed approach alone, or in combination with other methodologies as well as the extent of data collection required to inform practice. TB controllers should consider developing the capacity to facilitate the systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of contact investigation data using such novel methodologies, particularly in high-risk communities. Further investigation should focus on questionnaire development and adaptation, electronic data management and infrastructure, development of local capability and consultant expertise, and the use of coordinated approaches, including deployment strategies and evaluation. PMID:22136695

Cook, V J; Shah, L; Gardy, J; Bourgeois, A-C

2012-01-01

62

Dental and dental hygiene students' diagnostic accuracy in oral radiology: effect of diagnostic strategy and instructional method.  

PubMed

There has been much debate surrounding diagnostic strategies and the most appropriate training models for novices in oral radiology. It has been argued that an analytic approach, using a step-by-step analysis of the radiographic features of an abnormality, is ideal. Alternative research suggests that novices can successfully employ non-analytic reasoning. Many of these studies do not take instructional methodology into account. This study evaluated the effectiveness of non-analytic and analytic strategies in radiographic interpretation and explored the relationship between instructional methodology and diagnostic strategy. Second-year dental and dental hygiene students were taught four radiographic abnormalities using basic science instructions or a step-by-step algorithm. The students were tested on diagnostic accuracy and memory immediately after learning and one week later. A total of seventy-three students completed both immediate and delayed sessions and were included in the analysis. Students were randomly divided into two instructional conditions: one group provided a diagnostic hypothesis for the image and then identified specific features to support it, while the other group first identified features and then provided a diagnosis. Participants in the diagnosis-first condition (non-analytic reasoning) had higher diagnostic accuracy then those in the features-first condition (analytic reasoning), regardless of their learning condition. No main effect of learning condition or interaction with diagnostic strategy was observed. Educators should be mindful of the potential influence of analytic and non-analytic approaches on the effectiveness of the instructional method. PMID:25179924

Baghdady, Mariam T; Carnahan, Heather; Lam, Ernest W N; Woods, Nicole N

2014-09-01

63

SAMSAN- MODERN NUMERICAL METHODS FOR CLASSICAL SAMPLED SYSTEM ANALYSIS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SAMSAN was developed to aid the control system analyst by providing a self consistent set of computer algorithms that support large order control system design and evaluation studies, with an emphasis placed on sampled system analysis. Control system analysts have access to a vast array of published algorithms to solve an equally large spectrum of controls related computational problems. The analyst usually spends considerable time and effort bringing these published algorithms to an integrated operational status and often finds them less general than desired. SAMSAN reduces the burden on the analyst by providing a set of algorithms that have been well tested and documented, and that can be readily integrated for solving control system problems. Algorithm selection for SAMSAN has been biased toward numerical accuracy for large order systems with computational speed and portability being considered important but not paramount. In addition to containing relevant subroutines from EISPAK for eigen-analysis and from LINPAK for the solution of linear systems and related problems, SAMSAN contains the following not so generally available capabilities: 1) Reduction of a real non-symmetric matrix to block diagonal form via a real similarity transformation matrix which is well conditioned with respect to inversion, 2) Solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem with balancing and grading, 3) Computation of all zeros of the determinant of a matrix of polynomials, 4) Matrix exponentiation and the evaluation of integrals involving the matrix exponential, with option to first block diagonalize, 5) Root locus and frequency response for single variable transfer functions in the S, Z, and W domains, 6) Several methods of computing zeros for linear systems, and 7) The ability to generate documentation "on demand". All matrix operations in the SAMSAN algorithms assume non-symmetric matrices with real double precision elements. There is no fixed size limit on any matrix in any SAMSAN algorithm; however, it is generally agreed by experienced users, and in the numerical error analysis literature, that computation with non-symmetric matrices of order greater than about 200 should be avoided or treated with extreme care. SAMSAN attempts to support the needs of application oriented analysis by providing: 1) a methodology with unlimited growth potential, 2) a methodology to insure that associated documentation is current and available "on demand", 3) a foundation of basic computational algorithms that most controls analysis procedures are based upon, 4) a set of check out and evaluation programs which demonstrate usage of the algorithms on a series of problems which are structured to expose the limits of each algorithm's applicability, and 5) capabilities which support both a priori and a posteriori error analysis for the computational algorithms provided. The SAMSAN algorithms are coded in FORTRAN 77 for batch or interactive execution and have been implemented on a DEC VAX computer under VMS 4.7. An effort was made to assure that the FORTRAN source code was portable and thus SAMSAN may be adaptable to other machine environments. The documentation is included on the distribution tape or can be purchased separately at the price below. SAMSAN version 2.0 was developed in 1982 and updated to version 3.0 in 1988.

Frisch, H. P.

1994-01-01

64

Optical caries diagnostics: comparison of laser spectroscopic PNC method with method of laser integral fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research we present the results of approbation of two methods of optical caries diagnostics: PNC-spectral diagnostics and caries detection by laser integral fluorescence. The research was conducted in a dental clinic. PNC-method analyses parameters of probing laser radiation and PNC-spectrums of stimulated secondary radiations: backscattering and endogenous fluorescence of caries-involved bacterias. He-Ne-laser ((lambda) =632,8 nm, 1-2mW) was used as a source of probing (stimulated) radiation. For registration of signals, received from intact and pathological teeth PDA-detector was applied. PNC-spectrums were processed by special algorithms, and were displayed on PC monitor. The method of laser integral fluorescence was used for comparison. In this case integral power of fluorescence of human teeth was measured. As a source of probing (stimulated) radiation diode lasers ((lambda) =655 nm, 0.1 mW and 630nm, 1mW) and He-Ne laser were applied. For registration of signals Si-photodetector was used. Integral power was shown in a digital indicator. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are described in this research. It is disclosed that the method of laser integral power of fluorescence has the following characteristics: simplicity of construction and schema-technical decisions. However the method of PNC-spectral diagnostics are characterized by considerably more sensitivity in diagnostics of initial caries and capability to differentiate pathologies of various stages (for example, calculus/initial caries). Estimation of spectral characteristics of PNC-signals allows eliminating a number of drawbacks, which are character for detection by method of laser integral fluorescence (for instance, detection of fluorescent fillings, plagues, calculus, discolorations generally, amalgam, gold fillings as if it were caries.

Masychev, Victor I.

2000-11-01

65

Diagnostic Methods for Bile Acid Malabsorption in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Altered bile acid (BA) concentrations in the colon may cause diarrhea or constipation. BA malabsorption (BAM) accounts for >25% of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea and chronic diarrhea in Western countries. As BAM is increasingly recognized, proper diagnostic methods are desired in clinical practice to help direct the most effective treatment course for the chronic bowel dysfunction. This review appraises the methodology, advantages and disadvantages of 4 tools that directly measure BAM: 14C-glycocholate breath and stool test, 75Selenium HomotauroCholic Acid Test (SeHCAT), 7 ?-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) and fecal BAs. 14C-glycocholate is a laborious test no longer widely utilized. 75SeHCAT is validated, but not available in the United States. Serum C4 is a simple, accurate method that is applicable to a majority of patients, but requires further clinical validation. Fecal measurements to quantify total and individual fecal BAs are technically cumbersome and not widely available. Regrettably, none of these tests are routinely available in the U.S., and a therapeutic trial with a BA binder is used as a surrogate for diagnosis of BAM. Recent data suggest there is an advantage to studying fecal excretion of the individual BAs and their role in BAM; this may constitute a significant advantage of the fecal BA method over the other tests. Fecal BA test could become a routine addition to fecal fat measurement in patients with unexplained diarrhea. In summary, availability determines the choice of test among C4, SeHCAT and fecal BA; more widespread availability of such tests would enhance clinical management of these patients. PMID:23644387

Vijayvargiya, Priya; Camilleri, Michael; Shin, Andrea; Saenger, Amy

2013-01-01

66

Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization as a plume diagnostic tool in laser evaporation methods  

E-print Network

Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization as a plume diagnostic tool introduced analytical method, atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (AP- MALDI write; Atmospheric pressure MALDI; Laser evaporation; Plume diagnostics 1. Introduction Diagnostics

Vertes, Akos

67

Image processing methods and architectures in diagnostic pathology.  

PubMed

Grid technology has enabled the clustering and the efficient and secure access to and interaction among a wide variety of geographically distributed resources such as: supercomputers, storage systems, data sources, instruments and special devices and services. Their main applications include large-scale computational and data intensive problems in science and engineering. General grid structures and methodologies for both software and hardware in image analysis for virtual tissue-based diagnosis has been considered in this paper. This methods are focus on the user level middleware. The article describes the distributed programming system developed by the authors for virtual slide analysis in diagnostic pathology. The system supports different image analysis operations commonly done in anatomical pathology and it takes into account secured aspects and specialized infrastructures with high level services designed to meet application requirements. Grids are likely to have a deep impact on health related applications, and therefore they seem to be suitable for tissue-based diagnosis too. The implemented system is a joint application that mixes both Web and Grid Service Architecture around a distributed architecture for image processing. It has shown to be a successful solution to analyze a big and heterogeneous group of histological images under architecture of massively parallel processors using message passing and non-shared memory. PMID:20430740

Bueno, Gloria; Déniz, Oscar; Salido, Jesús; Rojo, Marcial García

2009-01-01

68

Chronic intraoral pain--assessment of diagnostic methods and prognosis.  

PubMed

The overall goal of this thesis was to broaden our knowledge of chronic intraoral pain. The research questions were: What methods can be used to differentiate inflammatory, odontogenic tooth pain from pain that presents as toothache but is non-odontogenic in origin? What is the prognosis of chronic tooth pain of non-odontogenic origin, and which factors affect the prognosis? Atypical odontalgia (AO) is a relatively rare but severe and chronic pain condition affecting the dentoalveolar region. Recent research indicates that the origin is peripheral nerve damage: neuropathic pain. The condition presents as tooth pain and is challenging to dentists because it is difficult to distinguish from ordinary toothache due to inflammation or infection. AO is of interest to the pain community because it shares many characteristics with other chronic pain conditions, and pain perpetuation mechanisms are likely to be similar. An AO diagnosis is made after a comprehensive examination and assessment of patients' self-reported characteristics: the pain history. Traditional dental diagnostic methods do not appear to suffice, since many patients report repeated care-seeking and numerous treatment efforts with little or no pain relief. Developing methods that are useful in the clinical setting is a prerequisite for a correct diagnosis and adequate treatment decisions. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is used to assess sensory function on skin when nerve damage or disease is suspected. A variety of stimuli has been used to examine the perception of, for example, touch, temperature (painful and non-painful), vibration, pinprick pain, and pressure pain. To detect sensory abnormalities and nerve damage in the oral cavity, the same methods may be possible to use. Study I examined properties of thermal thresholds in and around the mouth in 30 pain-free subjects: the influence of measurement location and stimulation area size on threshold levels, and time variability of thresholds. Thresholds for cold, warmth and painful heat were measured in four intraoral and two extraoral sites. Measurements were repeated 3 times over 6 weeks, using four sizes of stimulation area (0.125-0.81 cm2). The threshold levels were highly dependent on location but less dependent on measuring probe size and time variability was small, and this knowledge is important for the interpretation of QST results. Study II applied a recently developed standardized QST examination protocol (intended for use on skin) inside the oral cavity. Two trained examiners evaluated 21 pain-free subjects on three occasions over 1-3 weeks, at four sites-three intraoral and one extraoral. Most tests had acceptable reliability and the original test instruments and techniques could be applied intraorally with only minor adjustments. Study III examined the value of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in pain investigations. Twenty patients with AO and 5 with symptomatic apical periodontitis (inflammatory tooth pain) participated. The results indicate that when AO is suspected, addition of CBCT can improve the diagnostic certainty compared to sole use of periapical and panoramic radiographs, especially because of the superior ability of CBCT to exclude inflammation as the pain cause. Study IV assessed the long-term prognosis of AO, and analyzed potential outcome predictors. A comprehensive questionnaire including validated and reliable instruments was used to gather data on patient and pain characteristics and pain consequences from 37 patients in 2002 and 2009. Thirty-five percent of the patients reported substantial overall improvement at follow-up, but almost all still had pain of some degree after many years. The initial high level of emotional distress was unchanged. Low baseline pain intensity predicted improvement over time. PMID:22338784

Pigg, Maria

2011-01-01

69

Mining an Ocean of Data: Application of modern statistical methods for addressing biological oceanography questions  

E-print Network

Mining an Ocean of Data: Application of modern statistical methods for addressing biological of measuring ocean properties beyond those possible by traditional research ships, demands that we find better derived geospatial ocean color and environmental data to identify phytoplankton functional types from

Columbia University

70

Increased productivity of a flock of sheep using modern methods of reproduction  

E-print Network

Increased productivity of a flock of sheep using modern methods of reproduction G. LOUAULT, J Reproduction, Centre de Recherches de Touvs, LN.R.A., Nozizilly 3738o Jj10nnaie (France) Since 1970, the sheep flock at the Lyc6e Agricole of Tours-Fondettes has used an intensive reproduction system comprising two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

71

Biology 534: Modern methods in Population Genomics 3 credits Spring 2015  

E-print Network

#12;#12;#12;Biology 534: Modern methods in Population Genomics 3 credits Spring 2015 Instructor will be done by the instructor Catalog Description: Problems and prospects of designing a study with genomic revolutionized by the possibility of generating genomic sequence data. Interestingly, much of theoretical

Collins, Gary S.

72

Review of Dercum’s disease and proposal of diagnostic criteria, diagnostic methods, classification and management  

PubMed Central

Definition and clinical picture We propose the minimal definition of Dercum’s disease to be generalised overweight or obesity in combination with painful adipose tissue. The associated symptoms in Dercum’s disease include fatty deposits, easy bruisability, sleep disturbances, impaired memory, depression, difficulty concentrating, anxiety, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, diabetes, bloating, constipation, fatigue, weakness and joint aches. Classification We suggest that Dercum’s disease is classified into: I. Generalised diffuse form A form with diffusely widespread painful adipose tissue without clear lipomas, II. Generalised nodular form - a form with general pain in adipose tissue and intense pain in and around multiple lipomas, and III. Localised nodular form - a form with pain in and around multiple lipomas IV. Juxtaarticular form - a form with solitary deposits of excess fat for example at the medial aspect of the knee. Epidemiology Dercum’s disease most commonly appears between the ages of 35 and 50?years and is five to thirty times more common in women than in men. The prevalence of Dercum’s disease has not yet been exactly established. Aetiology Proposed, but unconfirmed aetiologies include: nervous system dysfunction, mechanical pressure on nerves, adipose tissue dysfunction and trauma. Diagnosis and diagnostic methods Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and should be made by systematic physical examination and thorough exclusion of differential diagnoses. Advisably, the diagnosis should be made by a physician with a broad experience of patients with painful conditions and knowledge of family medicine, internal medicine or pain management. The diagnosis should only be made when the differential diagnoses have been excluded. Differential diagnosis Differential diagnoses include: fibromyalgia, lipoedema, panniculitis, endocrine disorders, primary psychiatric disorders, multiple symmetric lipomatosis, familial multiple lipomatosis, and adipose tissue tumours. Genetic counselling The majority of the cases of Dercum’s disease occur sporadically. A to G mutation at position A8344 of mitochondrial DNA cannot be detected in patients with Dercum’s disease. HLA (human leukocyte antigen) typing has not revealed any correlation between typical antigens and the presence of the condition. Management and treatment The following treatments have lead to some pain reduction in patients with Dercum’s disease: Liposuction, analgesics, lidocaine, methotrexate and infliximab, interferon ?-2b, corticosteroids, calcium-channel modulators and rapid cycling hypobaric pressure. As none of the treatments have led to long lasting complete pain reduction and revolutionary results, we propose that Dercum’s disease should be treated in multidisciplinary teams specialised in chronic pain. Prognosis The pain in Dercum’s disease seems to be relatively constant over time. PMID:22546240

2012-01-01

73

Laparoscopic diagnostic peritoneal lavage (L-DPL): A method for evaluation of penetrating abdominal stab wounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The management of penetrating abdominal stab wounds has been the subject of continued reappraisal and controversy. In the present study a novel method which combines the use of diagnostic laparoscopy and DPL, termed laparoscopic diagnostic peritoneal lavage (L-DPL) is described METHOD: Five trauma patients with penetrating injuries to the lower chest or abdomen were included. Standard videoscopic equipment is

Michael M Krausz; Benyamine Abbou; Dan D Hershko; Ahmad Mahajna; Daniel S Duek; Bishara Bishara; Shlomo H Israelit

2006-01-01

74

ANALOG: a program for estimating paleoclimate parameters using the method of modern analogs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beginning in the 1970s with CLIMAP, paleoclimatologists have been trying to derive quantitative estimates of climatic parameters from the sedimentary record. In general the procedure is to observe the modern distribution of some component of surface sediment that depends on climate, find an empirical relationship between climate and the character of sediments, then extrapolate past climate by studying older sediments in the same way. Initially the empirical relationship between climate and components of the sediment was determined using a multiple regression technique (Imbrie and Kipp, 1971). In these studies sea-floor sediments were examined to determine the percentage of various species of planktonic foraminifera present in them. Supposing that the distribution of foraminiferal assemblages depended strongly on the extremes of annual sea-surface temperature (SST), the foraminiferal assemblages (refined through use of varimax factor analysis) were regressed against the average SST during the coolest and warmest months of the year. The result was a set of transfer functions, equations that could be used to estimate cool and warm SST from the faunal composition of a sediment sample. Assuming that the ecological preference of the species had remained constant throughout the last several hundred thousand years, these transfer functions could be used to estimate SSTs during much of the late Pleistocene. Hutson (1980) and Overpeck, Webb, and Prentice (1985) proposed an alternative approach to estimating paleoclimatic parameters. Their 'method of modern analogs' revolved not around the existence of a few climatically-sensitive faunal assemblages but rather on the expectation that similar climatic regimes should foster similar faunal and floral assemblages. From a large pool of modern samples, those few are selected whose faunal compositions are most similar to a given fossil sample. Paleoclimate estimates are derived using the climatic character of only the most similar modern samples, the modern analogs of the fossil sample. This report describes how to use the program ANALOG to carry out the method of modern analogs. It is assumed that the user has faunal census estimates of one or more fossil samples, and one or more sets of faunal data from modern samples. Furthermore, the user must understand the taxonomic categories represented in the data sets, and be able to recognize taxa that are or may be considered equivalent in the analysis. ANALOG provides the user with flexibility in input data format, output data content, and choice of distance measure, and allows the user to determine which taxa from each modern and fossil data file are compared. Most of the memory required by the program is allocated dynamically, so that, on systems that permit program segments to grow, the program consumes only as many system resources as are needed to accomplish its task.

Schweitzer, Peter N.

1994-01-01

75

Travel into a fairy land: a critique of modern qualitative and mixed methods psychologies.  

PubMed

In this article modern qualitative and mixed methods approaches are criticized from the standpoint of structural-systemic epistemology. It is suggested that modern qualitative methodologies suffer from several fallacies: some of them are grounded on inherently contradictory epistemology, the others ask scientific questions after the methods have been chosen, conduct studies inductively so that not only answers but even questions are often supposed to be discovered, do not create artificial situations and constraints on study-situations, are adevelopmental by nature, study not the external things and phenomena but symbols and representations--often the object of studies turns out to be the researcher rather than researched, rely on ambiguous data interpretation methods based to a large degree on feelings and opinions, aim to understand unique which is theoretically impossible, or have theoretical problems with sampling. Any one of these fallacies would be sufficient to exclude any possibility to achieve structural-systemic understanding of the studied things and phenomena. It also turns out that modern qualitative methodologies share several fallacies with the quantitative methodology. Therefore mixed methods approaches are not able to overcome the fundamental difficulties that characterize mixed methods taken separately. It is proposed that structural-systemic methodology that dominated psychological thought in the pre-WWII continental Europe is philosophically and theoretically better grounded than the other methodologies that can be distinguished in psychology today. Future psychology should be based on structural-systemic methodology. PMID:21258882

Toomela, Aaro

2011-03-01

76

Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods  

DOEpatents

A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2009-09-29

77

Dermoscopy in Female Androgenic Alopecia: Method Standardization and Diagnostic Criteria  

PubMed Central

Objective: Establishing the trichoscopy criteria of female androgenic alopecia (FAGA). Design: Trichoscopy images were retrospectively evaluated. Setting: Dermatologic hospital-based clinic and private practice offices. Patients and methods: One hundred and thirty-one females (59 with androgenic alopecia, 33 with chronic telogen effluvium (CTE), 39 healthy controls). The diagnosis was based on clinical examination and confirmed by histopatology. Main Outcome Measure: Trichoscopy results obtained in frontal, occipital and both temporal areas of the scalp under a 20-fold and 70-fold magnification, including average hair thickness, number of 'yellow dots' and vellus hairs, number of hairs in one pilosebaceous unit and percentage of follicular ostia with perifollicullar hyperpigmentation. Results: Average hair thickness in frontal area versus occiput was, respectively, 0.061 ± 0.008 mm versus 0.058 ± 0.007 mm in healthy controls, 0.047 ± 0.007 mm versus 0.052 ± 0.008 mm in androgenic alopecia and 0.056 ± 0.007 mm versus 0.053 ± 0.009 mm in CTE. Mean percentage of thin hairs (< 0.03 mm) in androgenic alopecia was 20.9 ± 12% and was significantly higher than in healthy controls (6.15 ± 4.6%, P < 0.001) or in CTE (10.4 ± 3.9%, P < 0.001). The number of yellow dots, pilosebaceous units with only one hair and with perifollicular hyperpigmentation was significantly increased in androgenic alopecia. Classification and Regression Tree Analysis was performed to establish diagnostic criteria for FAGA. Conclusion: FAGA may be differentiated from CTE based on trichoscopy criteria. Major criteria are ratio of (1) more than four yellow dots in four images (70-fold magnification) in the frontal area, (2) lower average hair thickness in the frontal area compared to the occiput and (3) more than 10% of thin hairs (below 0.03 mm) in the frontal area. Minor criteria encompass increased frontal to occipital ratio of (1) single-hair pilosebaceous units, (2) vellus hairs and (3) perifollicular discoloration. Fulfillment of two major criteria or one major and two minor criteria allows to diagnose FAGA based on trichoscopy with a 98% specificity. PMID:20927234

Rakowska, Adriana; Slowinska, Monika; Kowalska-Oledzka, Elzbieta; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

2009-01-01

78

An objective method and measuring equipment for noise control and acoustic diagnostics of motorcars. [acoustic diagnostics on automobile engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An objective method and apparatus for noise control and acoustic diagnostics of motorcar engines are reported. The method and apparatus let us know whether the noisiness of the vehicle under test exceeds the admissible threshold levels given by appropriate standards and if so what is the main source of the excessive noise. The method consists in measuring both the overall noise level and the sound pressure levels in definite frequency bands while the engine speed is controlled as well and may be fixed at prescribed values. Whenever the individually adjusted threshold level has been exceeded in any frequency band, a self-sustaining control signal is sent.

Kacprowski, J.; Motylewski, J.; Miazga, J.

1974-01-01

79

Evaluation of polymerase chain reaction methods for detection of murine Helicobacter in nine diagnostic laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicobacter infections of laboratory animals may influence the results of in vivo experiments, necessitating diagnostic methods that are specific, sensitive and rapid. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is currently the preferred diagnostic tool for detecting Helicobacter infections in mice; however, detection ability may vary considerably among laboratories. Nine commercial and academic European labs participated in a 3-year ring study that was

Corinna Moerth; Markus Brielmeier; Kyriaki Markoullis; Wolfgang Beisker; Jeffrey Needham; Hans-Jörg Balzer; Louise E. Bater; André Bleich; Adrian Deeny; Jacqueline Dix; Karin Jacobsen; Angelika Lorenz; Michael Mähler; Werner Nicklas; Julian D. Phipps; Karin E. Seidel; Michel Seidelin; Martin F. Toft; Andy Tomlinson; Patricia Wilhelm; Jörg Schmidt; Esther Mahabir

2008-01-01

80

DIAGNOSTICS OF FAILURES OF ASYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC MOTORS BY METHODS OF THE POSITION-BINARY ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions of diagnostics of failures of asynchronous electric motors with a short-circuited rotor are considered. A method of diagnostics of asynchronous electric motors technical condition on the basis of the position-binary analysis of cyclic signals is offered. It is known, that failure of electric motors included to the various complexes in some cases can lead to serious economic losses, especially

Ogtay Nusratov; Punhan Seyidov; Sevinj Seyidova

81

Diagnostic efficacy of in vitro methods vs. skin testing in patients with inhalant allergies  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of our study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of two selected methods of in vitro allergy testing. Specifically, the PRIST/modified RAST I125 isotope systems and the Quantizyme/modified EAST alkaline phosphatase method were compared. The time, expense, convenience, and diagnostic efficacy of the two procedures are discussed. Special attention is given to the practicality of each method for the practicing physician.

Corey, J.P.; Liudahl, J.J.; Young, S.A.; Rodman, S.M. (Univ. of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL (USA))

1991-03-01

82

Evaluation of DNA Extraction Methods for Molecular Analyses of Microbial Communities in Modern Calcareous Microbialites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated and optimized three rapid methods for extraction of high-quality DNA from carbonate-encrusted microbial communities using modern calcifying oncolites built by cyanobacteria and diatoms in a high-calcium freshwater river. Pulverization, acid (HCl) dissolution, and chelator-mediated (EDTA) dissolution of the carbonate matrix were used and optimized to liberate microbial cells from their mineral encasing. This was followed by cell lysis

Brian D. Wade; Ferran Garcia-Pichel

2003-01-01

83

Modern and Traditional Methods for Measuring Money Supply: The Case of Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

Int. J. Financial Stud. 2015, 3, 49–55; doi:10.3390/ijfs3010049 International Journal of Financial Studies ISSN 2227-7072 www.mdpi.com/journal/ijfs Article Modern and Traditional Methods for Measuring Money Supply: The Case of Saudi Arabia... with monetary aggregation theory and statistical index number theory. He created new monetary measures by linking microeconomic theory with index number theory, calling them “Divisia” monetary indexes. 1 The Divisia monetary index is a money supply measure...

Barnett, William A.; Alkhareif, Ryadh M.

2015-02-25

84

Body-selves and health-related narratives in modern yoga and meditation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article explores the stories of engagement with modern yoga and meditation (MYM) methods of a group of long-term practitioners from the combined perspective of body and narrative. It uses Frank’s typology of ‘body use in action’ as an interpretive framework to illustrate key embodied dispositions and health-related narratives that these participants cultivate through their embodied practises, which are perfect

Aspasia Leledaki

2012-01-01

85

Speckle methods for diagnostics of the human oral cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Possibility of application of speckle interferometry for diagnostics in dentistry has been analyzed. Problem of standardization of the measuring procedure has been studied. Deviation of output characteristics of Doppler system for blood microcirculation measurements has been investigated. Dependence of form of Doppler spectrum on the degree of seriousness of diseases has been studied in experiments in vivo. Behavior of spectral moments of measuring signal during the treatment of parodontitis has been analyzed.

Kharish, Natalia A.; Sedykh, Alexey V.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Lepilin, Alexander V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

1999-11-01

86

Jet Noise Diagnostics Supporting Statistical Noise Prediction Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary focus of my presentation is the development of the jet noise prediction code JeNo with most examples coming from the experimental work that drove the theoretical development and validation. JeNo is a statistical jet noise prediction code, based upon the Lilley acoustic analogy. Our approach uses time-average 2-D or 3-D mean and turbulent statistics of the flow as input. The output is source distributions and spectral directivity. NASA has been investing in development of statistical jet noise prediction tools because these seem to fit the middle ground that allows enough flexibility and fidelity for jet noise source diagnostics while having reasonable computational requirements. These tools rely on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions as input for computing far-field spectral directivity using an acoustic analogy. There are many ways acoustic analogies can be created, each with a series of assumptions and models, many often taken unknowingly. And the resulting prediction can be easily reverse-engineered by altering the models contained within. However, only an approach which is mathematically sound, with assumptions validated and modeled quantities checked against direct measurement will give consistently correct answers. Many quantities are modeled in acoustic analogies precisely because they have been impossible to measure or calculate, making this requirement a difficult task. The NASA team has spent considerable effort identifying all the assumptions and models used to take the Navier-Stokes equations to the point of a statistical calculation via an acoustic analogy very similar to that proposed by Lilley. Assumptions have been identified and experiments have been developed to test these assumptions. In some cases this has resulted in assumptions being changed. Beginning with the CFD used as input to the acoustic analogy, models for turbulence closure used in RANS CFD codes have been explored and compared against measurements of mean and rms velocity statistics over a range of jet speeds and temperatures. Models for flow parameters used in the acoustic analogy, most notably the space-time correlations of velocity, have been compared against direct measurements, and modified to better fit the observed data. These measurements have been extremely challenging for hot, high speed jets, and represent a sizeable investment in instrumentation development. As an intermediate check that the analysis is predicting the physics intended, phased arrays have been employed to measure source distributions for a wide range of jet cases. And finally, careful far-field spectral directivity measurements have been taken for final validation of the prediction code. Examples of each of these experimental efforts will be presented. The main result of these efforts is a noise prediction code, named JeNo, which is in middevelopment. JeNo is able to consistently predict spectral directivity, including aft angle directivity, for subsonic cold jets of most geometries. Current development on JeNo is focused on extending its capability to hot jets, requiring inclusion of a previously neglected second source associated with thermal fluctuations. A secondary result of the intensive experimentation is the archiving of various flow statistics applicable to other acoustic analogies and to development of time-resolved prediction methods. These will be of lasting value as we look ahead at future challenges to the aeroacoustic experimentalist.

Bridges, James E.

2006-01-01

87

[Comparison of calculation methods for diagnostic trials under different sample size].  

PubMed

To discuss the calculation methods under different sample size, used for diagnostic trials. The purpose of the diagnostic trial was to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the new method. Equations and results were directly compared. Monte Carlo random simulation was used to validate the results. Sample size obtained from the sampling method was always smaller than from the target value method. Results from simulation showed that the target value method could offer more and larger power. The two sample size determination method showed essential differences of the results, suggesting that the investigator should choose appropriate method in accordance with the study design. If the hypothesis of study was to demonstrate the new diagnostic method which could meet the clinical requirements, only if the target value method provides enough statistical power. PMID:21223674

Wang, Yang; Hu, Bo; Chen, Tao; Li, Wei

2010-12-01

88

Development of new methods in modern selective organic synthesis: preparation of functionalized molecules with atomic precision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenges of the modern society and the growing demand of high-technology sectors of industrial production bring about a new phase in the development of organic synthesis. A cutting edge of modern synthetic methods is introduction of functional groups and more complex structural units into organic molecules with unprecedented control over the course of chemical transformation. Analysis of the state-of-the-art achievements in selective organic synthesis indicates the appearance of a new trend — the synthesis of organic molecules, biologically active compounds, pharmaceutical substances and smart materials with absolute selectivity. Most advanced approaches to organic synthesis anticipated in the near future can be defined as 'atomic precision' in chemical reactions. The present review considers selective methods of organic synthesis suitable for transformation of complex functionalized molecules under mild conditions. Selected key trends in the modern organic synthesis are considered including the preparation of organofluorine compounds, catalytic cross-coupling and oxidative cross-coupling reactions, atom-economic addition reactions, methathesis processes, oxidation and reduction reactions, synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, design of new homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic systems, application of photocatalysis, scaling up synthetic procedures to industrial level and development of new approaches to investigation of mechanisms of catalytic reactions. The bibliography includes 840 references.

Ananikov, V. P.; Khemchyan, L. L.; Ivanova, Yu V.; Bukhtiyarov, V. I.; Sorokin, A. M.; Prosvirin, I. P.; Vatsadze, S. Z.; Medved'ko, A. V.; Nuriev, V. N.; Dilman, A. D.; Levin, V. V.; Koptyug, I. V.; Kovtunov, K. V.; Zhivonitko, V. V.; Likholobov, V. A.; Romanenko, A. V.; Simonov, P. A.; Nenajdenko, V. G.; Shmatova, O. I.; Muzalevskiy, V. M.; Nechaev, M. S.; Asachenko, A. F.; Morozov, O. S.; Dzhevakov, P. B.; Osipov, S. N.; Vorobyeva, D. V.; Topchiy, M. A.; Zotova, M. A.; Ponomarenko, S. A.; Borshchev, O. V.; Luponosov, Yu N.; Rempel, A. A.; Valeeva, A. A.; Stakheev, A. Yu; Turova, O. V.; Mashkovsky, I. S.; Sysolyatin, S. V.; Malykhin, V. V.; Bukhtiyarova, G. A.; Terent'ev, A. O.; Krylov, I. B.

2014-10-01

89

Express diagnostic of anaerobic infection and disbacteriosis by optical PNC method in clinical dentistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research a new way of express (real time) diagnostics of anaerobic infection and disbacteriosis is suggested. The express diagnostics of anaerobic infection allows to perform quick assessment of the injury microbiocenosis, the state of gastroenteric tract, the disbacteriosis presence and the degree of its development, to follow up dynamics of microflora variations in the process of medication treatment. The research were performed with optical PNC-method. The basic of the method is in registration of stimulated (secondary) radiations and registration of their space fields, which occur in the process of probing radiation interaction with biological tissues and their active elements. The process is called Photon- undulatory Nonlinear Conversion or in short PNC-process (PNC- method, PNC-diagnostic). The optimal diagnostic PNC-method developed here allows detecting the presence of anaerobic microflora directly at the bed of a patient. It makes possible to control the dynamic of patient rehabilitation process, providing strictly individual assessments.

Alexandrov, Michail T.; Koz'ma, Sergey U.; Taubinsky, Ilia M.; Masychev, Victor I.

2000-11-01

90

NATURE METHODS | VOL.4 NO.11 | NOVEMBER 2007 | 877 Neglected diagnostics  

E-print Network

EDITORIAL NATURE METHODS | VOL.4 NO.11 | NOVEMBER 2007 | 877 Neglected diagnostics In the context if they are conducted locally,and to permit epidemiology studies that can help predict the progress of disease. So

Cai, Long

91

Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same  

DOEpatents

A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand.

Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Karra, Srinivasa Rao (Columbia, MO); Berning, Douglas E. (Columbia, MO); Smith, C. Jeffrey (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)

1999-01-01

92

Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same  

DOEpatents

A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand.

Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Karra, Srinivasa Rao (Columbia, MO); Berning, Douglas E. (Columbia, MO); Smith, C. Jeffrey (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)

2000-01-01

93

Benchmarking Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: A Public Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of engine health management (EHM) technology. The need is two-fold: technology developers require relevant data and problems to design and validate new algorithms and techniques while engine system integrators and operators need practical tools to direct development and then evaluate the effectiveness of proposed solutions. This paper presents a publicly available gas path diagnostic benchmark problem that has been developed by the Propulsion and Power Systems Panel of The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) to help address these needs. The problem is coded in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc.) and coupled with a non-linear turbofan engine simulation to produce "snap-shot" measurements, with relevant noise levels, as if collected from a fleet of engines over their lifetime of use. Each engine within the fleet will experience unique operating and deterioration profiles, and may encounter randomly occurring relevant gas path faults including sensor, actuator and component faults. The challenge to the EHM community is to develop gas path diagnostic algorithms to reliably perform fault detection and isolation. An example solution to the benchmark problem is provided along with associated evaluation metrics. A plan is presented to disseminate this benchmark problem to the engine health management technical community and invite technology solutions.

Simon, Donald L.; Bird, Jeff; Davison, Craig; Volponi, Al; Iverson, R. Eugene

2008-01-01

94

Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES) User's Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is a User's Guide for the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES). ProDiMES is a standard benchmarking problem and a set of evaluation metrics to enable the comparison of candidate aircraft engine gas path diagnostic methods. This Matlab (The Mathworks, Inc.) based software tool enables users to independently develop and evaluate diagnostic methods. Additionally, a set of blind test case data is also distributed as part of the software. This will enable the side-by-side comparison of diagnostic approaches developed by multiple users. The Users Guide describes the various components of ProDiMES, and provides instructions for the installation and operation of the tool.

Simon, Donald L.

2010-01-01

95

Raman background photobleaching as a possible method of cancer diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinetics of photobleaching of background in Raman spectra of aqueous solutions of plant toxins ricin and ricin agglutinin, ricin binding subunit, and normal and malignant human blood serum were measured. For the excitation of the spectra cw and pulsed laser radiation were used. The spectra of Raman background change upon laser irradiation. Background intensity is lower for the samples with small molecular weight. The cyclization of amino acid residues in the toxin molecules as well as in human blood serum can be a reason of the Raman background. The model of the background photobleaching is proposed. The differences in photobleaching kinetics in the cases of cw and pulsed laser radiation are discussed. It is shown that Raman background photobleaching can be very informative for cancer diagnostics.

Brandt, Nikolai N.; Brandt, Nikolai B.; Chikishev, Andrey Y.; Gangardt, Mihail G.; Karyakina, Nina F.

2001-06-01

96

Restrictive Stochastic Item Selection Methods in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes two new item selection methods for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing: the restrictive progressive method and the restrictive threshold method. They are built upon the posterior weighted Kullback-Leibler (KL) information index but include additional stochastic components either in the item selection index or in…

Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Huebner, Alan

2011-01-01

97

Time Threshold Diagnostics: A Mixed Lagrangian-Eulerian Method for Describing Global Tracer Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method, named time threshold diagnostics (TTD), is developed for use in discussing long-term global tracer transport as the result of atmospheric motions. The method works for analysis of a large number of parcels' trajectories in numerical tracer experiments. This method considers the motion of every air parcel passing through a given surface and focuses on periods between its

Seiji Sugata

2000-01-01

98

Gestational Diabetes Diagnostic Methods (GD2M) Pilot Randomized Trial.  

PubMed

To test the feasibility of conducting a pragmatic randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) versus Carpenter-Coustan diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes (GDM), and to examine patient and provider views on GDM screening. A single-blinded pragmatic pilot RCT. Participants with a singleton pregnancy between 24 and 28 weeks gestation received a 50 g oral glucose challenge test and if the value was <200 mg/dL were randomized to either the 2 h 75 g OGTT using the IADPSG criteria or the 3 h 100 g OGTT using the Carpenter-Coustan criteria. Primary outcome was the feasibility of randomization and screening. Secondary outcomes included patient and provider views (or preferences) on GDM testing. Sixty-eight women were recruited, 48 (71 %) enrolled and 47 (69 %) were randomized. Participants in both study arms identified the main challenges to GDM testing to be: drinking the glucola, fasting prior to testing, waiting to have blood drawn, and multiple venipuntures. Women in both study arms would prefer the 2 h 75 g OGTT or whichever test is recommended by their doctor in a future pregnancy. Physicians and nurse midwives endorsed screening and were comfortable with being blinded to the GDM testing strategy and results values. Both pregnant women and providers value GDM screening, and pregnant women can be recruited to a blinded, randomized GDM screening trial with minimal attrition and missing data. PMID:25424454

Scifres, Christina M; Abebe, Kaleab Z; Jones, Kelley A; Comer, Diane M; Costacou, Tina; Freiberg, Matthew S; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Day, Nancy L; Davis, Esa M

2014-11-26

99

Investigations of thyroid diseases--an update on diagnostic methods.  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are an important public health problem in India. It requires further refinement and improvements in thyroid disease diagnosis, especially in the early diagnosis of thyroid malfunctioning and risk assessment of autonomously functioning thyroid tissue. Scintigraphy with technetium-99m pertechnetate under exogenous or endogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression provides the best results. There has been significant improvement in methodology in various laboratory investigations that have resulted from the application of newer luminescent techniques and gene technology in various thyroid function tests. TSH measurement especially by using second or third generation assays has ensured diagnostic accuracy and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) test now almost always unnecessary. Determination of glycosaminoglycans in urine may become a helpful tool in the follow up of endocrine ophthalmopathy. The differentiation of blocking and stimulating TSH receptor antibodies is relevant when discrepant results are obtained with respect to thyroid function. Some newer imaging agents have been used in thyroid disease scintigraphy such as octreotide or in thyroid diseases diagnosis such as fluorodeoxyglucose. Both improve the detectability of thyroid cancer metastasis especially if radioiodine scan is negative. PMID:11229223

Khanna, C M

1998-11-01

100

Tokamak physics studies using x-ray diagnostic methods  

SciTech Connect

X-ray diagnostic measurements have been used in a number of experiments to improve our understanding of important tokamak physics issues. The impurity content in TFTR plasmas, its sources and control have been clarified through soft x-ray pulse-height analysis (PHA) measurements. The dependence of intrinsic impurity concentrations and Z/sub eff/ on electron density, plasma current, limiter material and conditioning, and neutral-beam power have shown that the limiter is an important source of metal impurities. Neoclassical-like impurity peaking following hydrogen pellet injection into Alcator C and a strong effect of impurities on sawtooth behavior were demonstrated by x-ray imaging (XIS) measurements. Rapid inward motion of impurities and continuation of m = 1 activity following an internal disruption were demonstrated with XIS measurements on PLT using injected aluminum to enhance the signals. Ion temperatures up to 12 keV and a toroidal plasma rotation velocity up to 6 x 10/sup 5/ m/s have been measured by an x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) with up to 13 MW of 85-keV neutral-beam injection in TFTR. Precise wavelengths and relative intensities of x-ray lines in several helium-like ions and neon-like ions of silver have been measured in TFTR and PLT by the XCS. The data help to identify the important excitation processes predicted in atomic physics. Wavelengths of n = 3 to 2 silver lines of interest for x-ray lasers were measured, and precise instrument calibration techniques were developed. Electron thermal conductivity and sawtooth dynamics have been studied through XIS measurements on TFTR of heat-pulse propagation and compound sawteeth. A non-Maxwellian electron distribution function has been measured, and evidence of the Parail-Pogutse instability identified by hard x-ray PHA measurements on PLT during lower-hybrid current-drive experiments.

Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Fredrickson, E.; Hsuan, H.; McGuire, K.; Sauthoff, N.R.; Sesnic, S.; Stevens, J.E.

1987-03-01

101

Design predictions and diagnostic test methods for hydronic heating systems in ASHRAE standard 152P  

SciTech Connect

A new method of test for residential thermal distribution efficiency is currently being developed under the auspices of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). The initial version of this test method is expected to have two main approaches, or ``pathways,`` designated Design and Diagnostic. The Design Pathway will use builder`s information to predict thermal distribution efficiency in new construction. The Diagnostic Pathway will use simple tests to evaluate thermal distribution efficiency in a completed house. Both forced-air and hydronic systems are included in the test method. This report describes an approach to predicting and measuring thermal distribution efficiency for residential hydronic heating systems for use in the Design and Diagnostic Pathways of the test method. As written, it is designed for single-loop systems with any type of passive radiation/convection (baseboard or radiators). Multiloop capability may be added later.

Andrews, J.W.

1996-04-01

102

Method of hepatitis diagnostics of changes in human skin diffuse reflectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results on the study of influence of bilirubinum concentration in a human blood on the spectrum of a diffuse reflectivity of his skin are represented. On this basis, the method for hepatitis diagnostics has been developed, and the laboratory device implementing this method has been designed. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find

M. L. Kirsh; A. M. Sokol; V. S. Lomanets; O. R. Gayka

1999-01-01

103

Method of hepatitis diagnostics of changes in human skin diffuse reflectivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results on the study of influence of bilirubinum concentration in a human blood on the spectrum of a diffuse reflectivity of his skin are represented. On this basis, the method for hepatitis diagnostics has been developed, and the laboratory device implementing this method has been designed.

Kirsh, M. L.; Sokol, A. M.; Lomanets, V. S.; Gayka, O. R.

1999-11-01

104

Rapid diagnostic tests for molecular surveillance of Plasmodium falciparum malaria -assessment of DNA extraction methods and field applicability  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The need for new malaria surveillance tools and strategies is critical, given improved global malaria control and regional elimination efforts. High quality Plasmodium falciparum DNA can reliably be extracted from malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Together with highly sensitive molecular assays, wide scale collection of used RDTs may serve as a modern tool for improved malaria case detection and

U. Morris; B. Aydin-Schmidt; D. Shakely; A. Martensson; L. Jornhagen; A. S. Ali; M. I. Msellem; M. Petzold; J. P. Gil; P. Ferreira; A. Bjorkman

2013-01-01

105

Flow cytometry as a diagnostic method for colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Intraoperative histopathological investigation plays an important role during surgery. Since the pathologist performs a diagnosis with a limited level of specimen, it may sometimes be difficult to reach a correct diagnosis. To improve the accuracy of the diagnosis, quantitative data from the whole specimen are helpful. It said that the detection capability for DNA aneuploidy (aneuploidy) is low for solid cancer compared with hematopoietic organ cancer. A new method that includes fresh tissue is introduced, the histogram from cancer tissue (cancer) and normal tissue (normal) is compared, new classification criteria are introduced, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) pattern (FFT pattern) obtained from FFT on the histogram is analyzed, and the area under the FFT pattern of the histogram (AUC) is compared. This method, named the "FFT-AUC method", which includes comparisons of AUC and the FFT pattern, shows good results. PMID:23366064

Takeda, S; Hinata, N; Kanda, H; Suzuki, A; Shioyama, T; Ishikawa, Y; Ymaguch, T; Kato, Y

2012-01-01

106

Computational methods for large-scale data in medical diagnostics  

E-print Network

organization of the genome affects the variety of proteins in the organism; on the other hand, proteins molecular biology experimental method called Micro- array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (a-Poisson regression, 1 These rearrangements have often prefix micro referring to their sub-microscopic size. 2 #12

Bechler, Pawel

107

Microwave Free Space Method with Lens Antennas for Plasma Diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two series of microwave measurements were carried out at 34 Bc\\/sec to ; see to what extent the method is accurate in measuring the electron density in a ; gaseous plasma. In the first experiment no lenses were used in the test path of ; the interferometer bridge, but in the second, teflon lenses were inserted between ; the plasma

Shinji Shiobara; Syoichi Miyoshi; Yuichi Sakamoto

1963-01-01

108

Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-08-26

109

[Mobile phone based data acquisition and evaluation system for the alternative four diagnostic methods of traditional Chinese medicine].  

PubMed

This study is dedicated to integrate the theories of the four diagnostic methods of TCM and the methods of mobile healthcare so as to achieve the goal of the four diagnostic functions of TCM on mobile phone. An Android smartphone based data acquisition system has been developed and experimentally demonstrated. It was shown that the prototype could successfully achieve the fundamental function of the four diagnostic methods of TCM and thus help preliminarily interpret the symptoms of human diseases. PMID:23668036

Yang, Jun; Liu, Jing; Liu, Ran

2013-01-01

110

Difference of Diagnostic Rates and Analytical Methods in the Test Positions of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the differences of diagnostic rates, of the two widely used test positions, in measuring vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) and selecting the most appropriate analytical method for diagnostic criteria for the patients with vertigo. Methods Thirty-two patients with vertigo were tested in two comparative testing positions: turning the head to the opposite side of the evaluating side and bowing while in seated position, and bowing while in supine positions. Abnormalities were determined by prolonged latency of p13 or n23, shortening of the interpeak latency, and absence of VEMP formation. Results Using the three criteria above for determining abnormalities, both the seated and supine positions showed no significant differences in diagnostic rates, however, the concordance correlation of the two positions was low. When using only the prolonged latency of p13 or n23 in the two positions, diagnostic rates were not significantly different and their concordance correlation was high. On the other hand, using only the shortened interpeak latency in both positions showed no significant difference of diagnostic rates, and the degree of agreement between two positions was low. Conclusion Bowing while in seated position with the head turned in the opposite direction to the area being evaluated is found to be the best VEMP test position due to the consistent level of sternocleidomastoid muscle tension and the high level of compliance. Also, among other diagnostic analysis methods, using prolonged latency of p13 or n23 as the criterion is found to be the most appropriate method of analysis for the VEMP test. PMID:24855617

Park, Jeong Mee; Yong, Sang Yeol; Kim, Jong Heon; Kim, Hee; Park, Sang-Yoo

2014-01-01

111

Dusty plasma diagnostics methods for charge, electron temperature, and ion density  

E-print Network

Dusty plasma diagnostics methods for charge, electron temperature, and ion density Bin Liu,1 J Q and two plasma parameters, electron temperature Te, and ion density ni, in the main plasma region of a dusty plasma. Using video microscopy to track microparticles yields a resonance frequency, which along

Goree, John

112

Hydroxyalkyl phosphine gold complexes for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same  

DOEpatents

A complex and method for making same for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical includes a ligand comprising at least one hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group bound to a gold atom to form a gold-ligand complex that is stable in aqueous solutions containing oxygen, serum and other body fluids.

Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Berning, Douglas E. (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)

1998-01-01

113

Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same  

DOEpatents

A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand. 21 figs.

Katti, K.V.; Karra, S.R.; Berning, D.E.; Smith, C.J.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.

1999-01-05

114

Hydroxyalkyl phosphine gold complexes for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same  

DOEpatents

A complex and method for making a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical includes a ligand comprising at least one hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group bound to a gold atom to form a gold-ligand complex that is stable in aqueous solutions containing oxygen, serum and other body fluids. 20 figs.

Katti, K.V.; Berning, D.E.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.

1998-12-01

115

A method for the production of composite scintillators for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic scintillators are used in the dosimetry of photons in radiotherapy. Their use in diagnostic radiology is affected by the drop in response at lower photon energies due to inadequate composition (effective atomic number) and chemical quenching. To compensate for this deficiency, a method for the production of composite polystyrene-based plastic scintillators was devised allowing the incorporation of inorganic scintillation

R. Nowotny; A. Taubeck

2009-01-01

116

Depression and Spinal Cord Injury: A Review of Diagnostic Methods for Depression, 1985 to 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies of depression in individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI) over a 15-year period were examined to determine if researchers used consistent diagnostic measures. The Beck Depression Inventory was the most frequently used instrument, but there was inconsistency among methods employed and disagreement regarding the inclusion of somatic…

Skinner, Amy L.; Armstrong, Kevin J.; Rich, John

2003-01-01

117

Method for Object-based Diagnostic Evaluation (MODE) Eric Gilleland (et al., see penultimate slide)  

E-print Network

-relevant verification: Good forecast or Bad forecast? F O #12;User-relevant verification: Good forecast or Bad forecast-relevant verification: Good forecast or Bad forecast? If I'm an aviation traffic strategic planner... It mightMethod for Object-based Diagnostic Evaluation (MODE) Eric Gilleland (et al., see penultimate slide

Gilleland, Eric

118

New Multifunctional Diagnostic Method with Tracer-encapsulated Pellet Injection on LHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tracer-Encapsulated Solid PELlet (TESPEL) injection is one of the simplest new ideas to study the impurity confinement and other plasma properties. The special features of this method are: (a) local deposition inside the plasma, (b) precise knowledge of the deposited tracer amount, (c) wide selection of tracer materials. The achievements of the multi-functional diagnostics using TESPEL injection on LHD

S. Sudo; N. Tamura; D. V. Kalinina; K. Sato; A. Matsubara; S. Inagaki; P. R. Goncharov; T. Ozaki; D. Stutman

2005-01-01

119

[A brief history of resuscitation - the influence of previous experience on modern techniques and methods].  

PubMed

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is relatively novel branch of medical science, however first descriptions of mouth-to-mouth ventilation are to be found in the Bible and literature is full of descriptions of different resuscitation methods - from flagellation and ventilation with bellows through hanging the victims upside down and compressing the chest in order to stimulate ventilation to rectal fumigation with tobacco smoke. The modern history of CPR starts with Kouwenhoven et al. who in 1960 published a paper regarding heart massage through chest compressions. Shortly after that in 1961Peter Safar presented a paradigm promoting opening the airway, performing rescue breaths and chest compressions. First CPR guidelines were published in 1966. Since that time guidelines were modified and improved numerously by two leading world expert organizations ERC (European Resuscitation Council) and AHA (American Heart Association) and published in a new version every 5 years. Currently 2010 guidelines should be obliged. In this paper authors made an attempt to present history of development of resuscitation techniques and methods and assess the influence of previous lifesaving methods on nowadays technologies, equipment and guidelines which allow to help those women and men whose life is in danger due to sudden cardiac arrest. PMID:25771524

Kucmin, Tomasz; P?owa?-Goral, Ma?gorzata; Nogalski, Adam

2015-02-01

120

Modern applications for a total sulfur reduction distillation method - what’s old is new again  

PubMed Central

Background The use of a boiling mixture of hydriodic acid, hypophosphorous acid, and hydrochloric acid to reduce any variety of sulfur compounds has been in use in various applications since the first appearance of this method in the literature in the 1920’s. In the realm of sulfur geochemistry, this method remains a useful, but under-utilized technique. Presented here is a detailed description of the distillation set-up and procedure, as well as an overview of potential applications of this method for marine sulfur biogeochemistry/isotope studies. The presented applications include the sulfur isotope analysis of extremely low amounts of sulfate from saline water, the conversion of radiolabeled sulfate into sulfide, the extraction of refractory sulfur from marine sediments, and the use of this method to assess sulfur cycling in Aarhus Bay sediments. Results The STrongly Reducing hydrIodic/hypoPhosphorous/hydrochloric acid (STRIP) reagent is capable of rapidly reducing a wide range of sulfur compounds, including the most oxidized form, sulfate, to hydrogen sulfide. Conversion of as little as approximately 5 micromole sulfate is possible, with a sulfur isotope composition reproducibility of 0.3 permil. Conclusions Although developed many decades ago, this distillation method remains relevant for many modern applications. The STRIP distillation quickly and quantitatively converts sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide which can be readily collected in a silver nitrate trap for further use. An application of this method to a study of sulfur cycling in Aarhus Bay demonstrates that we account for all of the sulfur compounds in pore-water, effectively closing the mass balance of sulfur cycling. PMID:24808759

2014-01-01

121

Molecular diagnostic methods for invasive fungal disease: the horizon draws nearer?  

PubMed

Rapid, accurate diagnostic laboratory tests are needed to improve clinical outcomes of invasive fungal disease (IFD). Traditional direct microscopy, culture and histological techniques constitute the 'gold standard' against which newer tests are judged. Molecular diagnostic methods, whether broad-range or fungal-specific, have great potential to enhance sensitivity and speed of IFD diagnosis, but have varying specificities. The use of PCR-based assays, DNA sequencing, and other molecular methods including those incorporating proteomic approaches such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS) have shown promising results. These are used mainly to complement conventional methods since they require standardisation before widespread implementation can be recommended. None are incorporated into diagnostic criteria for defining IFD. Commercial assays may assist standardisation. This review provides an update of molecular-based diagnostic approaches applicable to biological specimens and fungal cultures in microbiology laboratories. We focus on the most common pathogens, Candida and Aspergillus, and the mucormycetes. The position of molecular-based approaches in the detection of azole and echinocandin antifungal resistance is also discussed. PMID:25719852

Halliday, C L; Kidd, S E; Sorrell, T C; Chen, S C-A

2015-04-01

122

Modern Methods of Real-Time Gamma Radiation Monitoring for General Personal Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time radiation detectors become an essential part of emergency personnel who may have to respond to unknown accidents, incidents or terrorist attacks, which could involve radioactive material. More and more ordinary citizens are interested in personal radiation protection as well. Reasons include lost sources, nuclear industrial accidents, nuclear or radiological terrorism and the possibility of nuclear weapons being used in a war. People want to have the ability to measure it for themselves and they want to be notified when the radiation levels are increased. To meet this demand, considerable research into new sensors is underway, including efforts to enhance the sensor performance through both the material properties and manufacturing technologies. Deep understanding of physical properties of the materials under the influence of radiation exposure is vital for the effective design of dosimeter devices. Detection of radiation is based on the fact that both the electrical and the optical properties of the materials undergo changes upon the exposure to ionizing radiation. It is believed that radiation causes structural defects. The influence of radiation depends on both the dose and the parameters of the films including their thickness: the degradation is more severe for the higher dose and the thinner films. This paper presents overview of modern methods of real-time gamma radiation monitoring for personal protection of radiation workers and general public and suggests further developments in this area.

Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

123

Abstract--As the complexity of a modern microprocessor increases rapidly, the methods of testing/debug take up increasing  

E-print Network

Abstract-- As the complexity of a modern microprocessor increases rapidly, the methods of testing Network (PDN) of a microprocessor supplies power to a majority of underlying circuits. In this paper, we propose to explore use of the PDN in a microprocessor as a communication channel for test/debug purposes

Ha, Dong S.

124

Adaptation of LASCA method for diagnostics of malignant tumours in laboratory animals  

SciTech Connect

The LASCA method is adapted for diagnostics of malignant neoplasms in laboratory animals. Tumours are studied in mice of Balb/c inbred line after inoculation of cells of syngeneic myeloma cell line Sp.2/0 Ag.8. The appropriateness of using the tLASCA method in tumour investigations is substantiated; its advantages in comparison with the sLASCA method are demonstrated. It is found that the most informative characteristic, indicating the presence of a tumour, is the fractal dimension of LASCA images.

Ul'yanov, S S; Laskavyi, V N; Glova, Alina B; Polyanina, T I; Ul'yanova, O V; Fedorova, V A; Ul'yanov, A S

2012-05-31

125

Current potential and limitations of molecular diagnostic methods in head and neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional diagnostic methods such as clinical assessment, histopathological examination and imaging techniques are limited\\u000a in their capacity to provide information on prognosis and treatment choice of head and neck cancer. In recent years, molecular\\u000a techniques have been developed that enabled us to get more insight into the molecular biological cellular pathways underlying\\u000a tumor progression and metastasis. Correlation of these molecular

Magdy E. Mahfouz; Juan P. Rodrigo; Robert P. Takes; Mohamed N. Elsheikh; Alessandra Rinaldo; Ruud H. Brakenhoff; Alfio Ferlito

2010-01-01

126

Rapid Nucleic Acid-Based Diagnostics Methods for the Detection of Bacterial Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate goal in microbial testing is the ability to accurately and sensitively detect pathogens in real-time or as quickly\\u000a as possible. Nucleic acid diagnostics (NAD) offer many advantages over traditional microbiological and immunological methods\\u000a for the detection of infections micro-organisms. These include faster processing time as well as greater potential for intra-species\\u000a identification and identification of antibiotic susceptibility and

Barry Glynn

127

[Significance of modern methods for laboratory detection of rabies agents and identification of the zoonose immunological survey].  

PubMed

Analytical review of modern methods of the laboratory detection of rabies and findings of our research indicate high sensitivity and specificity of methods for rapid identification of rabies agents, such as ELISA, reverse-transcriptase PCR for identification of the rabies virus genome, and rabies virus isolation in rat Gasserian ganglion neurinoma, as well as their potential to be included into the State Quality Standard for early detection of rabies in animals to reduce the infection risk among humans and animals. PMID:25335412

Guliukin, A M

2014-01-01

128

Diagnostic validity of the chemiluminescent method compared to polymerase chain reaction for hepatitis B virus detection in the routine clinical diagnostic laboratory  

PubMed Central

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common significant chronic viral infection world-wide. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) has been the principal target for laboratory testing to identify active infection by HBV. We aimed to find out diagnostic validity of the Liaison chemiluminescent method compared to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for HBV detection in the routine clinical diagnostic laboratory. Materials and Methods: From 350 patients suspicious of having infection with HBV, serum samples were separated and used for testing HBsAg by two methods of Liaison chemiluminescent immunoassay, with HBsAg confirmatory test and PCR method. Results: According to the PCR results as assumed as gold standard method with 100% sensitivity and specificity, detection rate sensitivity of chemiluminescent with confirmatory test was 96% and its specificity was 100%, and for chemiluminescent without confirmatory test sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 70%, respectively. Also for chemiluminescent with confirmatory test, positive predictive value (PPV) was 100% and its negative predictive value (NPV) was 97%, compared to chemiluminescent without confirmatory test with PPV and NPV equal to 71% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: It is possible to conclude that in the majority of the HBV cases, the diagnostic value of chemiluminescent method compared to the PCR method is acceptable, except in low indexes positive cases that need further investigation with the PCR method. PMID:24949287

Khadem-Ansari, Mohammad-Hassan; Omrani, Mir-Davood; Rasmi, Yousef; Ghavam, Arsalan

2014-01-01

129

Expanded response-surfaces: a new method to reconstruct paleoclimates from fossil pollen assemblages that lack modern analogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollen-based paleoclimatic interpretations of late-glacial to early Holocene climates (17-9 ka) in Midwestern North America are hampered by samples that lack modern analogues. Unresolved questions include the magnitude and direction of temperature seasonality (i.e. were these climates more or less seasonal than present) and the temporal changes in precipitation. Central to the no-analogue problem is the truncation of modern pollen-climate relationships for abundant late-glacial taxa such as Fraxinus. Here we present a new method called the expanded response-surface (ERS) method, developed to reconstruct climates from no-analogue pollen assemblages and applied to a high-resolution late-glacial pollen record from Crystal Lake, Illinois to test hypotheses about late-glacial climates. The key assumptions central to the ERS method are: (1) plant species and pollen abundances follow symmetrical unimodal distributions along climatic gradients, (2) taxa with truncated distributions in modern climate space occupy a subset of their fundamental niche, and (3) expansion of truncated distributions by mirroring around the distributional mode recovers the portion of the fundamental niche not realized in the modern climate space. With the ERS method, we expanded modern pollen-climate relationships by mirroring pollen abundances for each taxon around a mode defined with respect to four climate axes (mean winter temperature, mean summer temperature, mean winter precipitation, and mean summer precipitation). The ERS method reconstructed past temperatures and precipitation during the height of no-analogue conditions (14?160-12?370 cal yr BP) for 37% of the Crystal Lake samples where techniques that employed only modern observational data found matches for only 13% of the fossil samples. The total climate space of the expanded taxa set allowed analogue matches under more seasonal-than-present climates with higher-than-present precipitation. The ERS climate reconstructions for the height of no-analogue conditions indicated cooler-than-present summer and winter temperatures, similar-to-present seasonal range in temperatures, higher-than-present winter precipitation, and similar-to-present summer precipitation. These results thus suggest that high moisture availability helped drive the formation of the Midwestern no-analogue communities with high Fraxinus nigra abundances, but do not show higher-than-present temperature seasonality notwithstanding the higher-than-present insolation seasonality at this time. During the no-analogue late-glacial interval, Picea mariana, F. nigra, and Larix stands probably grew on low-lying, poorly drained soils in the Crystal Lake region; whereas Abies, Picea glauca, Quercus, and Ostrya/ Carpinus grew on upland positions with better soil drainage.

Gonzales, L. M.; Williams, J. W.; Grimm, E. C.

2009-12-01

130

Advanced Optical Diagnostic Methods for Describing Fuel Injection and Combustion Flowfield Phenomena  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past decade advanced optical diagnostic techniques have evolved and matured to a point where they are now widely applied in the interrogation of high pressure combusting flows. At NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), imaging techniques have been used successfully in on-going work to develop the next generation of commercial aircraft gas turbine combustors. This work has centered on providing a means by which researchers and designers can obtain direct visual observation and measurements of the fuel injection/mixing/combustion processes and combustor flowfield in two- and three-dimensional views at actual operational conditions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the chemical and physical processes at the extreme operating conditions of the next generation of combustors is critical to reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency. To accomplish this and other tasks, the diagnostic team at GRC has designed and constructed optically accessible, high pressurer high temperature flame tubes and sectar rigs capable of optically probing the 20-60 atm flowfields of these aero-combustors. Among the techniques employed at GRC are planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) for imaging molecular species as well as liquid and gaseous fuel; planar light scattering (PLS) for imaging fuel sprays and droplets; and spontaneous Raman scattering for species and temperature measurement. Using these techniques, optical measurements never before possible have been made in the actual environments of liquid fueled gas turbines. 2-D mapping of such parameters as species (e.g. OH-, NO and kerosene-based jet fuel) distribution, injector spray angle, and fuel/air distribution are just some of the measurements that are now routinely made. Optical imaging has also provided prompt feedback to researchers regarding the effects of changes in the fuel injector configuration on both combustor performance and flowfield character. Several injector design modifications and improvements have resulted from this feedback. Alternate diagnostic methods are constantly being evaluated as to their suitability as a diagnostic tool in these environments. A new method currently under examination is background oriented Schlieren (BOS) for examining the fuel/air mixing processes. While ratioing the Stokes and anti-Stokes nitrogen lines obtained from spontaneous Raman is being refined for temperature measurement. While the primary focus of the GRC diagnostic work remains optical species measurement and flow stream characterization, an increased emphasis has been placed on our involvement in flame code validation efforts. A functional combustor code should shorten and streamline future combustor design. Quantitative measurements of flow parameters such as temperature, species concentration, drop size and velocity using such methods as Raman and phase Doppler anemometry will provide data necessary in this effort.

Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.

2004-01-01

131

Fault detection for modern Diesel engines using signal- and process model-based methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern Diesel engines with direct fuel injection and turbo charging have shown a significant progress in fuel consumption, emissions and driveability. Together with exhaust gas recirculation and variable geometry turbochargers they became complicated and complex processes. Therefore, fault detection and diagnosis is not easily done and need to be improved. This contribution shows a systematic development of fault detection and

Frank Kimmich; Anselm Schwarte; Rolf Isermann

2005-01-01

132

India's Modern Slaves: Bonded Labor in India and Methods of Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Slavery flourishes in the modern world. In nations plagued by debilitating poverty, individuals unable to afford food, clothing, and shelter may be compelled to make a devastating decision: to sell themselves or their children into slavery. Nowhere in the world is this more common than India. Conservative estimates suggest that there are 10…

Boutros, Heidi

2005-01-01

133

A Toxocara cati eggs concentration method from cats' faeces, for experimental and diagnostic purposes.  

PubMed

Toxocariosis is a zoonotic parasite infection worldwide distributed, now considered a neglected disease associated to poverty. For experimental infection in animals and to develop the diagnosis in humans it is necessary to obtain large number of Toxocara spp. larval eggs. Toxocara cati eggs recovered percentage from faeces of infected cats was determined employing a novel egg concentration method. The McMaster egg counting technique and the concentration method were applied on 20 positive cats' sample faeces obtained from naturally infected cats. The mean percentage of eggs recovered by the concentration method was 24.37% higher than the count obtained by McMaster egg counting technique. The main advantage of this method is that it can be obtained a small final volume with a high number of recovered eggs and a good quality inoculum for experimental and diagnostic purposes. PMID:24959943

Cardillo, N; Sommerfelt, I; Fariña, F; Pasqualetti, M; Pérez, M; Ercole, M; Rosa, A; Ribicich, M

2014-09-01

134

DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF AIR QUALITY MODELS USING ADVANCED METHODS WITH SPECIALIZED OBSERVATIONS OF SELECTED AMBIENT SPECIES -PART II  

EPA Science Inventory

This is Part 2 of "Diagnostic Evaluation of Air Quality Models Using Advanced Methods with Specialized Observations of Selected Ambient Species". A limited field campaign to make specialized observations of selected ambient species using advanced and innovative instrumentation f...

135

New Multi-functional Diagnostic Method with Tracer-encapsulated Pellet Injection on LHD  

SciTech Connect

The Tracer-Encapsulated Solid PELlet (TESPEL) injection is one of the simplest new ideas to study the impurity confinement and other plasma properties. The special features of this method are: (a) local deposition inside the plasma, (b) precise knowledge of the deposited tracer amount, (c) wide selection of tracer materials. The achievements of the multi-functional diagnostics using TESPEL injection on LHD are to measure: (a) impurity transport properties, (b) heat diffusivity, (c) particle flow features in and out of the magnetic island, and (d) fast neutral particle fluxes.

Sudo, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Graduate Univ. Advanced Studies, Hayama 240-0193 (Japan); Tamura, N.; Sato, K.; Matsubara, A.; Inagaki, S.; Goncharov, P.R.; Ozaki, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Kalinina, D.V. [Graduate Univ. Advanced Studies, Hayama 240-0193 (Japan); Stutman, D.; Finkenthal, M. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2005-05-27

136

Methods, Diagnostic Criteria, Cutoff Points, and Prevalence of Sarcopenia among Older People  

PubMed Central

Aim. To identify methods, index, diagnostic criteria, and corresponding cutoff points used to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia in older people in different countries. Methods. A systematic review was carried out in accordance with PRISMA Statement. The search encompassed the MEDLINE and LILACS databases and was executed during March 2012 using the keyword sarcopenia. Results. A total of 671 studies were identified by the search strategy, and 30 meet all inclusion criteria. Specifically for dual-X-ray absorptiometry, prevalence ranged from 2.2% to 95% in men and from 0.1% to 33.9% in women. For bioelectrical impedance analysis, the range was from 6.2% to 85.4% in men and 2.8% to 23.6% in women. Regarding anthropometric and computed tomography, prevalence rates were, respectively, 14.1% and 55.9%. Conclusions. Heterogeneity in prevalence of sarcopenia was identified, due to diagnostic method choice, cutoff points, and, characteristics of the population as well as reference population. These factors should be considered in research designs to enable comparison and validation of results. Despite the limitations of most studies that indicated high prevalence rates, the results indicate the need for early detection of this syndrome. PMID:25580454

Pagotto, Valéria; Silveira, Erika Aparecida

2014-01-01

137

Reliability of diagnostic methods based on low-frequency noise analysis  

SciTech Connect

Various methods for separating an integrated circuit (IC) batch were considered using noise parameters for the purpose of determining their reliability. The existing methods for screening semiconductor products using low-frequency (LF) noise were tested on transistors, as well as both digital and analog ICs, and showed good results. Selection criteria for semiconductor products were determined based on the statistics of a representative sample; however, their reliability was not estimated. The calculation of the correlation coefficient of determined LF noise parameters and reference reliability testing results was taken as the basis of the determination of reliability of diagnostic methods. For the experiment, KR142EN5A ICs made by bipolar technology were selected, which represent three-pin stabilizers with a fixed output voltage from 5 V and are used in many radio-electronic devices.

Gorlov, M. I.; Smirnov, D. Yu., E-mail: dmitry.inf@mail.ru; Koz'yakov, N. N. [Voronezh State Technical University (Russian Federation)

2009-12-15

138

Reviews in Modern Astronomy 12, Astronomical Instruments and Methods at the turn of the 21st Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The yearbook series Reviews in Modern Astronomy of the Astronomische Gesellschaft (AG) was established in 1988 in order to bring the scientific events of the meetings of the society to the attention of the worldwide astronomical community. Reviews in Modern Astronomy is devoted exclusively to the invited Reviews, the Karl Schwarzschild Lectures, the Ludwig Biermann Award Lectures, and the highlight contributions from leading scientists reporting on recent progress and scientific achievements at their respective research institutes. Volume 12 continues the yearbook series with 16 contributions which were presented during the International Scientific Conference of the AG on ``Astronomical Instruments and Methods at the Turn of the 21st Century'' at Heidelberg from September 14 to 19, 1998

Schielicke, Reinhard E.

139

Highly variable use of diagnostic methods for sexually transmitted infections-results of a nationwide survey, Germany 2005  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual transmitted infections (STIs) have increased in Germany and other countries in Europe since the mid-nineties. To obtain a better picture of diagnostic methods used in STI testing institutions in Germany, we performed a nationwide survey amongst STI specialists in order to evaluate the quality of STI reports and provide recommendations to harmonize and possibly improve STI diagnostics in Germany. Methods We asked sentinel physicians and randomly chosen gynaecologists, urologists and dermato-venerologists, about the diagnostic methods used in 2005 to diagnose HIV, chlamydia (CT), gonorrhoea (GO) and syphilis (SY) in a national cross-sectional survey in order to recognize potential problems and provide recommendations. Results A total of 739/2287 (32%) physicians participated. Of all participants, 80% offered tests for HIV, 84% for CT, 83% for GO and 83% for SY. Of all participants who performed HIV testing, 90% requested an antibody test, 3% a rapid test and 1% a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). For CT testing, NAAT was used in 33% and rapid tests in 34% of participants. GO resistance testing was performed by 31% of the participants. SY testing was performed in 98% by serology. Conclusions Diagnostic methods for STI vary highly among the participants. Diagnostic guidelines should be reviewed and harmonised to ensure consistent use of the optimal STI diagnostic methods. PMID:20403184

2010-01-01

140

A method for fine positioning of diagnostic packages in inertial confinement fusion experiments.  

PubMed

A method based on binocular vision servoing for positioning of a diagnostic package in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments is presented. The general diagnostic instrument manipulator will provide precision three dimension positioning and alignment-to-target capability in ICF experiments. In this work, we focus on the final precise automatic positioning with a binocular vision system. A three dimension image projection vector (IPV), which has an almost linear relationship with the target position in 3D space under the condition of weak perspective, is introduced to extract target position information from binocular image. The difference of the IPV between the current image and the desired image will be used as the input of servo controller. A differential motion model was found for the hybrid manipulator with three degrees of freedom. With this model and the said IPV, the servo strategy will be dramatically simplified compare with general image based visual servo in which the image Jacobian matrix needs estimated online. The experiment result implies that the locating accuracy of the manipulator is less than two pixels. This method can also be used in micromanipulation visual servo field. PMID:22225255

Wang, Wei; Shi, Tielin; Lee, Kok-Meng

2011-12-01

141

A method for fine positioning of diagnostic packages in inertial confinement fusion experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method based on binocular vision servoing for positioning of a diagnostic package in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments is presented. The general diagnostic instrument manipulator will provide precision three dimension positioning and alignment-to-target capability in ICF experiments. In this work, we focus on the final precise automatic positioning with a binocular vision system. A three dimension image projection vector (IPV), which has an almost linear relationship with the target position in 3D space under the condition of weak perspective, is introduced to extract target position information from binocular image. The difference of the IPV between the current image and the desired image will be used as the input of servo controller. A differential motion model was found for the hybrid manipulator with three degrees of freedom. With this model and the said IPV, the servo strategy will be dramatically simplified compare with general image based visual servo in which the image Jacobian matrix needs estimated online. The experiment result implies that the locating accuracy of the manipulator is less than two pixels. This method can also be used in micromanipulation visual servo field.

Wang, Wei; Shi, Tielin; Lee, Kok-Meng

2011-12-01

142

Molecular IR Spectroscopy: New Trends and Methods of Noninvasive Diagnostics of Tissue IN VIVO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiberoptic evanescent wave Fourier transform infrared (FEW-FTIR) spectroscopy using fiberoptic sensors operated in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) regime in the middle infrared (IR) region of the spectrum (850-1850 cm-1) has recently been applied to the diagnostics of tissues. The method is suitable for noninvasive and rapid (seconds) direct measurements of the spectra of normal and pathological tissues in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. The aim of our studies is the express testing of various tumor tissues at the early stages of their development. The method is expected to be further developed for endoscopic and biopsy applications. We measured the normal skin and malignant tissues in vivo on the surface (directly on patients) in various cases of basaloma, melanoma and nevus. The experiments were performed in the operating room to measure the skin in the depth (under/in the layers of epidermis) of human breast, stomach, lung, and kidney tissues. The breast and skin tissues at different stages of tumor or cancer were distinguished very clearly in spectra of amide, side cyclic and noncyclic hydrogen bonded fragments of aminoacid residuals, phosphate groups and sugars. Computer monitoring is being developed for diagnostics.

Afanasyeva, Natalia; Bruch, Reinhard

1998-05-01

143

New diagnostic methods for emission-line galaxies in deep surveys  

E-print Network

We present new quantitative classification methods for emission-line galaxies, which are specially designed to be used in deep galaxy redshift surveys. A good segregation between starbursts and active galactic nuclei, i.e. Seyferts 2s and LINERs, is obtained from diagnostic diagrams involving the [O II]\\lambda 3727 \\AA, [Ne III]\\lambda3869 \\AA, H\\beta and [O III]\\lambda5007 \\AA relative intensities or the [O II]\\lambda 3727 \\AA and H\\beta equivalent widths. Furthermore, the colour index of the continuum underlying [O II]\\lambda 3727 \\AA and H\\beta provides an additional separation parameter between the two types of emission-line galaxies. We have applied the equivalent widths method to the 0 < z \\leq 0.3 emission-line galaxies of the Canada-France Redshift Survey. Our results are in very good agreement with those obtained using the standard diagnostic diagrams including all the strong optical emission-line intensity ratios.

Claudia S. Rola; Elena Terlevich; Roberto J. Terlevich

1997-06-02

144

The place of molecular genetic methods in the diagnostics of human pathogenic anaerobic bacteria. A minireview.  

PubMed

Anaerobic infections are common and can cause diseases associated with severe morbidity, but are easily overlooked in clinical settings. Both the relatively small number of infections due to exogenous anaerobes and the much larger number of infections involving anaerobic species that are originally members of the normal flora, may lead to a life-threatening situation unless appropriate treatment is instituted. Special laboratory procedures are needed for the isolation, identification and susceptibility testing of this diverse group of bacteria. Since many anaerobes grow more slowly than the facultative or aerobic bacteria, and particularly since clinical specimens yielding anaerobic bacteria commonly contain several organisms and often very complex mixtures of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, considerable time may elapse before the laboratory is able to provide a final report. Species definition based on phenotypic features is often time-consuming and is not always easy to carry out. Molecular genetic methods may help in the everyday clinical microbiological practice in laboratories dealing with the diagnostics of anaerobic infections. Methods have been introduced for species diagnostics, such as 16S rRNA PCR-RFLP profile determination, which can help to distinguish species of Bacteroides, Prevotella, Actinomyces, etc. that are otherwise difficult to differentiate. The use of DNA-DNA hybridization and the sequencing of special regions of the 16S rRNA have revealed fundamental taxonomic changes among anaerobic bacteria. Some anaerobic bacteria are extremely slow growing or not cultivatable at all. To detect them in special infections involving flora changes due to oral malignancy or periodontitis, for instance, a PCR-based hybridization technique is used. Molecular methods have demonstrated the spread of specific resistance genes among the most important anaerobic bacteria, the members of the Bacteroides genus. Their detection and investigation of the IS elements involved in their expression may facilitate following of the spread of antibiotic resistance among anaerobic bacteria involved in infections and in the normal flora members. Molecular methods (a search for toxin genes and ribotyping) may promote a better understanding of the pathogenic features of some anaerobic infections, such as the nosocomial diarrhoea caused by C. difficile and its spread in the hospital environment and the community. The investigation of toxin production at a molecular level helps in the detection of new toxin types. This mini-review surveys some of the results obtained by our group and others using molecular genetic methods in anaerobic diagnostics. PMID:16956128

Nagy, Elisabeth; Urbán, Edit; Sóki, J; Terhes, Gabriella; Nagy, Katalin

2006-06-01

145

Comparison of five diagnostic methods for detecting bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in calves.  

PubMed

Five diagnostic techniques performed on skin biopsies (shoulder region) and/or serum were compared for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in 224 calves 0-3 months of age, 23 calves older than 3 months but younger than 7 months, and 11 cattle older than 7 months. The diagnostic methods used were immunohistochemistry (IHC), 2 commercial antigen ELISAs, 1 commercial antibody ELISA, and real-time RT-PCR. Results of 249 out of 258 skin and serum samples were identical and correlated within the 3 antigen detection methods and the real-time RT-PCR used. Twenty-six of these 249 samples were BVDV-positive with all antigen detection methods and the real-time RT-PCR. Nine out of 258 samples yielding discordant results were additionally examined by RT-PCR, RT-PCR Reamplification (ReA), and antigen ELISA I on serum and by immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed and paraffin-embedded skin biopsies. Virus isolation and genotyping was performed as well on these discordant samples. In 3 cases, transiently infected animals were identified. Two samples positive by real-time RT-PCR were interpreted as false positive and were ascribed to cross-contamination. The antigen ELISA II failed to detect 2 BVDV-positive calves due to the presence of maternal antibodies; the cause of 2 false-positive cases in this ELISA remained undetermined. Only persistently infected animals were identified in skin samples by IHC or antigen ELISA I. The 3 antigen detection methods and the real-time RT-PCR used in parallel had a high correlation rate (96.5%) and similar sensitivity and specificity values. PMID:17459829

Hilbe, Monika; Stalder, Hanspeter; Peterhans, Ernst; Haessig, Michael; Nussbaumer, Marlies; Egli, Christoph; Schelp, Christian; Zlinszky, Kati; Ehrensperger, Felix

2007-01-01

146

Adaptive quality assurance of the product development process of additive manufacturing with modern 3D data evaluation methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the possibilities of modern 3D data evaluation for metrology and quality assurance are presented for the special application of the plastic laser sinter process, especially the Additive Manufacturing process. We use the advantages of computer tomography and of the 3D focus variation at all stages of a production process for an increased quality of the resulting products. With the CT and the 3D focus variation the modern quality assurance and metrology have state of the art instruments that allow non-destructive, complete and accurate measuring of parts. Therefore, these metrological methods can be used in many stages of the product development process for non-destructive quality control. In this work, studies and evaluation of 3D data and the conclusions for relevant quality criteria are presented. Additionally, new developments and implementations for adapting the evaluation results for quality prediction, comparison and for correction are described to show how an adequate process control can be achieved with the help of modern 3D metrology techniques. The focus is on the optimization of laser sintering components with regard to their quality requirements so that the functionality during production can be guaranteed and quantified.

Kroll, Julia; Botta, Sabine; Breuninger, Jannis; Verl, Alexander

2013-03-01

147

Interobserver Reliability of Four Diagnostic Methods Using Traditional Korean Medicine for Stroke Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate the consistency of pattern identification (PI), a set of diagnostic indicators used by traditional Korean medicine (TKM) clinicians. Methods. A total of 168 stroke patients who were admitted into oriental medical university hospitals from June 2012 through January 2013 were included in the study. Using the PI indicators, each patient was independently diagnosed by two experts from the same department. Interobserver consistency was assessed by simple percentage agreement as well as by kappa and AC1 statistics. Results. Interobserver agreement on the PI indicators (for all patients) was generally high: pulse diagnosis signs (AC1 = 0.66–0.89); inspection signs (AC1 = 0.66–0.95); listening/smelling signs (AC1 = 0.67–0.88); and inquiry signs (AC1 = 0.62–0.94). Conclusion. In four examinations, there was moderate agreement between the clinicians on the PI indicators. To improve clinician consistency (e.g., in the diagnostic criteria used), it is necessary to analyze the reasons for inconsistency and to improve clinician training. PMID:25574181

Lee, Ju Ah; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Alraek, Terje

2014-01-01

148

Failure of Routine Diagnostic Methods to Detect Influenza in Hospitalized Older Adults  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To define the utility of using routine diagnostic methods to detect influenza in older, hospitalized adults. DESIGN Descriptive study. SETTING One academic hospital and 1 community hospital during the 2006–2007 and 2007–2008 influenza seasons. PARTICIPANTS Hospitalized adults 50 years of age or older. METHODS Adults who were 50 years of age or older and hospitalized with symptoms of respiratory illness were enrolled and tested for influenza by use of reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Using RT-PCR as the gold standard, we assessed the performances of rapid antigen tests and conventional influenza culture and the diagnostic use of the clinical definition of influenza-like illness. RESULTS Influenza was detected by use of RT-PCR in 26 (11%) of 228 patients enrolled in our study. The sensitivity of the rapid antigen test performed at bedside by research staff members was 19.2% (95% confidence interval, 8.51%–37.9%); the sensitivity of conventional influenza culture was 34.6% (95% confidence interval, 19.4%–53.8%). The ability to detect influenza with both the rapid antigen test and culture was associated with patients with a higher viral load (P=.002 and P=.001, respectively). The ability to diagnose influenza by use of the clinical definition of influenza-like illness had a higher sensitivity (80.8%) but lacked specificity (40.6%). CONCLUSION Because rapid antigen testing and viral culture have poor sensitivity (19.2% and 34.6%, respectively), neither testing method is sufficient to use to determine what type of isolation procedures to implement in a hospital setting. PMID:20470035

Talbot, H. Keipp; Williams, John V.; Zhu, Yuwei; Poehling, Katherine A.; Griffin, Marie R.; Edwards, Kathryn M.

2013-01-01

149

Developing and applying modern methods of leakage monitoring and state estimation of fuel at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of developing and implementing the modernized fuel leakage monitoring methods at the shut-down and running reactor of the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant (NPP) are presented. An automated computerized expert system integrated with an in-core monitoring system (ICMS) and installed at the Novovoronezh NPP unit no. 5 is described. If leaky fuel elements appear in the core, the system allows one to perform on-line assessment of the parameters of leaky fuel assemblies (FAs). The computer expert system units designed for optimizing the operating regimes and enhancing the fuel usage efficiency at the Novovoronezh NPP unit no. 5 are now being developed.

Povarov, V. P.; Tereshchenko, A. B.; Kravchenko, Yu. N.; Pozychanyuk, I. V.; Gorobtsov, L. I.; Golubev, E. I.; Bykov, V. I.; Likhanskii, V. V.; Evdokimov, I. A.; Zborovskii, V. G.; Sorokin, A. A.; Kanyukova, V. D.; Aliev, T. N.

2014-02-01

150

Embedded diagnostic, prognostic, and health management system and method for a humanoid robot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A robotic system includes a humanoid robot with multiple compliant joints, each moveable using one or more of the actuators, and having sensors for measuring control and feedback data. A distributed controller controls the joints and other integrated system components over multiple high-speed communication networks. Diagnostic, prognostic, and health management (DPHM) modules are embedded within the robot at the various control levels. Each DPHM module measures, controls, and records DPHM data for the respective control level/connected device in a location that is accessible over the networks or via an external device. A method of controlling the robot includes embedding a plurality of the DPHM modules within multiple control levels of the distributed controller, using the DPHM modules to measure DPHM data within each of the control levels, and recording the DPHM data in a location that is accessible over at least one of the high-speed communication networks.

Barajas, Leandro G. (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A (Inventor)

2013-01-01

151

Microvascular resistance in essential hypertension and flowmetry as a diagnostic method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New Doppler-Laser flowmetry diagnostic test of functional condition of microcirculation was worked out of find precapillar and postcapillar resistance. Flowmetry was used to measure vasomotion and blood flow after arterial compression, decompression and venous hyperemia were held. Patients of essential hypertension were examined with the help of Doppler-Laser Flowmetry, optical photometry (540 nm). Precapillar resistance included next basis parameters: vasomotion with high frequency (10-16 per/min) and low amplitude, latent time after decompression, large postocclusive reactive hyperemia, absent venous hyperemia. Postcapillar resistance included next basis parameters: vasomotion with low frequency (4-8 per/min) and high amplitude, paradoxical hyperemia in arterial compression, little or absent postocclusive reactive hyperemia, large venous hyperemia. This test-method was applied to select patogenetic treatment of essential hypertension.

Lukjanov, Valdimir F.

2001-08-01

152

[Comparative study of diagnostic methods for visceral leishmaniasis in dogs from Ilha Solteira, SP].  

PubMed

The purpose of the present work was a comparative study of diagnostic methods for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) using serological methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), histochemical (HE) and immunohistochemical (IMHC) tests using spleen, lymph node and liver canine tissues. In addition, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was done in blood and in tissues in order to compare and confirm no conclusive and negative diagnosis by the methods above. For this study, 34 dogs were divided according to clinical signs in asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic and polisymptomatic Leishmania-infected dogs euthanized by Zoonotic Disease Control Center (CCZ) from Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. The positivism indexes of ELISA, IMHC, IFAT and HE were 65.0, 62.0, 56.0 and 56.0%, respectively with the highest numbers of positive dogs in polisymptomatic (92.0%) followed by oligosymptomatic (57.0%) and asymptomatic dogs (12.5%). Furthermore, PCR confirmed the positive results and detected DNA in tissues from 100% of negative dogs and 89.0% suspects raising the animal positivism index up to 97.0%. In conclusion, PCR was the most sensitive and a valuable method for a definitive CVL diagnosis. PMID:20385055

de Assis, Juliana; de Queiroz, Nina Marí Gual Pimenta; da Silveira, Rita de Cássia Vieira; Nunes, Cáris Maroni; Oliveira, Trícia Maria Ferreira de Sousa; Junior, Antonio Carlos Faconti de Noronha; Neves, Maria Francisca; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida Starke

2010-01-01

153

Hybrid digital signal processing and neural networks for automated diagnostics using NDE methods  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the current research was to develop an integrated approach by combining information compression methods and artificial neural networks for the monitoring of plant components using nondestructive examination data. Specifically, data from eddy current inspection of heat exchanger tubing were utilized to evaluate this technology. The focus of the research was to develop and test various data compression methods (for eddy current data) and the performance of different neural network paradigms for defect classification and defect parameter estimation. Feedforward, fully-connected neural networks, that use the back-propagation algorithm for network training, were implemented for defect classification and defect parameter estimation using a modular network architecture. A large eddy current tube inspection database was acquired from the Metals and Ceramics Division of ORNL. These data were used to study the performance of artificial neural networks for defect type classification and for estimating defect parameters. A PC-based data preprocessing and display program was also developed as part of an expert system for data management and decision making. The results of the analysis showed that for effective (low-error) defect classification and estimation of parameters, it is necessary to identify proper feature vectors using different data representation methods. The integration of data compression and artificial neural networks for information processing was established as an effective technique for automation of diagnostics using nondestructive examination methods.

Upadhyaya, B.R.; Yan, W. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1993-11-01

154

Physics-Based Methods of Failure Analysis and Diagnostics in Human Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Integrated Health Management (IHM) for the future aerospace systems requires to interface models of multiple subsystems in an efficient and accurate information environment at the earlier stages of system design. The complexity of modern aeronautic and aircraft systems (including e.g. the power distribution, flight control, solid and liquid motors) dictates employment of hybrid models and high-level reasoners for analysing mixed continuous and discrete information flow involving multiple modes of operation in uncertain environments, unknown state variables, heterogeneous software and hardware components. To provide the information link between key design/performance parameters and high-level reasoners we rely on development of multi-physics performance models, distributed sensors networks, and fault diagnostic and prognostic (FD&P) technologies in close collaboration with system designers. The main challenges of our research are related to the in-flight assessment of the structural stability, engine performance, and trajectory control. The main goal is to develop an intelligent IHM that not only enhances components and system reliability, but also provides a post-flight feedback helping to optimize design of the next generation of aerospace systems. Our efforts are concentrated on several directions of the research. One of the key components of our strategy is an innovative approach to the diagnostics/prognostics based on the real time dynamical inference (DI) technologies extended to encompass hybrid systems with hidden state trajectories. The major investments are into the multiphysics performance modelling that provides an access of the FD&P technologies to the main performance parameters of e.g. solid and liquid rocket motors and composite materials of the nozzle and case. Some of the recent results of our research are discussed in this chapter. We begin by introducing the problem of dynamical inference of stochastic nonlinear models and reviewing earlier results. Next, we present our analytical approach to the solution of this problem based on the path integral formulation. The resulting algorithm does not require an extensive global search for the model parameters, provides optimal compensation for the effects of dynamical noise, and is robust for a broad range of dynamical models. In the following Section the strengths of the algorithm are illustrated illustrated by inferring the parameters of the stochastic Lorenz system and comparing the results with those of earlier research. Next, we discuss a number of recent results in application to the development of the IHM for aerospace system. Firstly, we apply dynamical inference approach to a solution of classical three tank problems with mixed unknown continuous and binary parameters. The problem is considered in the context of ground support system for filling fuel tanks of liquid rocket motors. It is shown that the DI algorithm is well suited for successful solution of a hybrid version of this benchmark problem even in the presence of additional periodic and stochastic perturbation of unknown strength. Secondly, we illustrate our approach by its application to an analysis of the nozzle fault in a solid rocket motor (SRM). The internal ballistics of the SRM is modelled as a set of one-dimensional partial differential equations coupled to the dynamics of the propellant regression. In this example we are specifically focussed on the inference of discrete and continuous parameters of the nozzle blocking fault and on the possibility of an application of the DI algorithm to reducing the probability of "misses" of an on-board FD&P for SRM. In the next section re-contact problem caused by first stage/upper stage separation failure is discussed. The reaction forces imposed on the nozzle of the upper stage during the re-contact and their connection to the nozzle damage and to the thrust vector control (TVC) signal are obtained. It is shown that transient impact induced torquean be modelled as a response of an effective damped oscillator. A possible application

Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Luchinsky, Dmitry Georgievich; Hafiychuk, Vasyl Nmn; Osipov, Viatcheslav V.; Patterson-Hine, F. Ann

2010-01-01

155

Rapid diagnostic methods for influenza virus in clinical specimens: a comparative study.  

PubMed

A comparison of five rapid viral diagnostic techniques for identifying influenza virus in nasopharyngeal aspirates has been made on patients with influenza-like illnesses. Initial results with immune electron microscopy were positive in only one of 11 specimens from which virus was isolated and further work abandoned. Four other rapid tests were carried out on 39 specimens from which influenza virus had been isolated in tissue culture in 28. Of these 28 specimens yielding virus, 24 (85.7 percent) were positive by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) on nasopharyngeal cells; 18 (64.3 percent) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 19 (67.8 percent) by enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA), and 26 (92.8 percent) by a rapid tissue culture amplification method (TCA) in a continuous Rhesus monkey kidney line (LLC-MK2) with identification of virus by fluorescent antibody. In terms of sensitivity, simplicity, and rapidity, a combination of the IFAT and TCA methods seems to be very useful. PMID:6763813

Evans, A S; Olson, B

1982-01-01

156

Rapid diagnostic methods for influenza virus in clinical specimens - A comparative study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of five rapid viral diagnostic techniques for identifying influenza virus in nasopharyngeal aspirates has been made on patients with influenza-like illnesses. Initial results with immune electron microscopy were positive in only one of 11 specimens from which virus was isolated and further work abandoned. Four other rapid tests were carried out on 39 specimens from which influenza virus had been isolated in tissue culture in 28. Of these 28 specimens yielding virus, 24 (85.7 percent) were positive by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) on nasopharyngeal cells, 18 (64.3 percent) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 19 (67.8 percent) by enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA), and 26 (92.8 percent) by a rapid tissue culture amplification method (TCA) in a continuous Rhesus monkey kidney line (LLC-MK2) with identification of virus by fluorescent antibody. In terms of sensitivity, simplicity, and rapidity, a combination of the IFAT and TCA methods seems to be very useful.

Evans, A. S.; Olson, B.

1982-01-01

157

A modified time reversal method for Lamb wave based diagnostics of composite structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This experimental study presents Lamb wave based diagnostics of damage in a composite plate using time reversal of signals for baseline-free damage detection. A modified time reversal method (MTRM) is developed which requires only one transducer to actuate signals and the other transducer acts as a sensor for any signal path. An 8-layer symmetric cross-ply carbon-epoxy composite plate is fabricated and four PZT actuators/sensors are surface bonded at the corners of the plate. A 20 kHz, 9.5 cycle tone burst signal is used to generate fundamental asymmetric Lamb waves with high signal-to-noise ratio and low dispersion. Theoretical analysis and experimental measurements show that conventional time reversal method (TRM) and the MTRM yield identical signals at the end of time reversal. The composite plate is impacted incrementally with a steel ball to cause three levels of damage and MTRM is applied for prediction of damage severity. Results show that magnitudes of the two damage indices used are directly correlated to the severity of damage along any signal path. The development of MTRM paves the way for implementing time reversal of signals using a single actuator and multiple sensors, including non-contact sensor such as a laser vibrometer.

Watkins, Ryan; Jha, Ratneshwar

2012-08-01

158

A Review of the Diagnostic Methods Reported in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes subject selection and diagnostic procedures documented in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. One hundred forty-two empirical articles published between February 1993 and April 1997 were examined. Reviewers independently evaluated articles using a coding instrument developed by the authors. Results indicated that a majority of researchers reported the use of one or more standard diagnostic criteria

Stacey A. Waller; Kevin J. Armstrong; Ann M. McGrath; Cristin L. Sullivan

1999-01-01

159

Towards an effective automated interpretation method for modern hydrocarbon borehole geophysical images   

E-print Network

Borehole imaging is one of the fastest and most precise methods for collecting subsurface data that provides high resolution information on layering, texture and dips, permitting a core-like description of the subsurface. ...

Thomas, Angeleena

2012-06-25

160

3-Fluoro-2,4-dioxa-3-phosphadecalins as Inhibitors of Acetylcholinesterase. A Reappraisal of Kinetic Mechanisms and Diagnostic Methods  

E-print Network

-NMR spectroscopy. Enzyme-kinetic studies on the basis of a simplified approach according to Scheme 22) had revealed problems prompted us to start a thorough reinvesti- gation to find and apply an appropriate enzyme-kinetic of Kinetic Mechanisms and Diagnostic Methods by Antonio Baici*a ), Patricia Schenkera ), Michael Wächterb

Rüedi, Peter

161

Development of monitoring and diagnostic methods for robots used in remediation of waste sites. 1997 annual progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Safe and efficient clean up of hazardous and radioactive waste sites throughout the DOE complex will require extensive use of robots. This research effort focuses on developing Monitoring and Diagnostic (M and D) methods for robots that will provide early detection, isolation, and tracking of impending faults before they result in serious failure. The utility and effectiveness of applying M

Tecza

1998-01-01

162

Application possibilities of several modern methods of microscopy and microanalysis in forensic science field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methods of optical and electron microscopy and microanalysis are the linchpin of forensic inorganic analysis. However, their capacity is limited as for the exact identification of pigments and colour layers, and therefore it is essential that they be complemented by other methods of phase microanalysis - powder X-ray microdiffraction (micro pXRD) and FTIR in transmission mode. The classic way of sample division for different methods is not suitable with regard to the inhomogeneity of the sequence of strata. That is why a method was tested that would allow performance of optical microscopy, SEM/EDS(WDS), micro pXRD and FTIR in a nondestructive manner, from an identical spot of a single fragment. The solution can be polished sections - embedded samples and microtome sections. Conductive zerobackground single-crystal silicon plates were developed and tested for sample fixation in SEM, micro pXRD and transmission FTIR. Methods using a focused ion beam - FIB have recently gained importance in the field of electron microscopy. In the forensic sphere they can be employed in examinations of metal materials, technical analyses of documents, post-blast and gunshot residues.

Kotrly, Marek; Turkova, Ivana

2011-06-01

163

A modern method for analyzing thermal energy system with system state equation and analytical formula of performance index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses overall performance analysis of coal-fired power unit. From the point of view of system engineering, a general steam-water distribution equation of the thermal plant system is presented. This system state equation is an exact expression combining system topological structure and system properties. Through proper mathematic transform, the inner relationship and interaction between the main system and auxiliary system are revealed and its general form is given. An analytical formula for the heat consumption rate of thermal power plant is one direct fruit of the equation, which greatly facilitate the online analyzing and optimizing of complex thermal system. The new approach, with the aid of modern data acquiring technology, is a perfect extension of the traditional analysis method based on the First Law of Thermodynamics.

Zhang, Chunfa; Li, Liping; Wang, Huijie; Zhao, Ning

2007-03-01

164

Transition from the Lactational Amenorrhea Method to other modern family planning methods in rural Bangladesh: Barrier analysis and implications for behavior change communication program intervention design.  

PubMed

The timely transition from Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)(2) to another modern family planning method contributes to healthy spacing of pregnancies by increasing the adoption of family planning during the first year postpartum. Yet, literature suggests challenges in completing a timely LAM transition. To guide program implementation in Bangladesh, this study identified factors influencing women's transition decisions. Eighty postpartum women, comprising 40 who transitioned from LAM(3) and 40 who did not,(4) participated. Half of each group participated in in-depth interviews to explore the decision-making process. All participants responded to a "Barrier Analysis" questionnaire to identify differences in eight behavioral determinants. More than half of transitioners switched to another modern method before or within the same month that LAM ended. Of the 18 transitioners who delayed,(5) 15 waited for menses to return. For non-transitioners, key barriers included waiting for menses to return, misconceptions on return to fertility, and perceived lack of familial support. The LAM transition can help women prevent unintended pregnancy during the first year postpartum. Increased emphasis on counseling women about the risk of pregnancy, and misconceptions about personal fertility patterns are critical for facilitating the transition. Strategies should also include interventions that train health workers and improve social support. PMID:25710895

Kouyaté, Robin Anthony; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Haver, Jaime; McKaig, Catharine; Akter, Nargis; Nash-Mercado, Angela; Baqui, Abdullah

2015-06-01

165

Absolute calibration method for laser megajoule neutron yield measurement by activation diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The laser megajoule (LMJ) and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) plan to demonstrate thermonuclear ignition using inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The neutron yield is one of the most important parameters to characterize ICF experiment performance. For decades, the activation diagnostic was chosen as a reference at ICF facilities and is now planned to be the first nuclear diagnostic on LMJ, measuring both 2.45 MeV and 14.1 MeV neutron yields. Challenges for the activation diagnostic development are absolute calibration, accuracy, range requirement, and harsh environment. At this time, copper and zirconium material are identified for 14.1 MeV neutron yield measurement and indium material for 2.45 MeV neutrons. A series of calibrations were performed at Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) on a Van de Graff facility to determine activation diagnostics efficiencies and to compare them with results from calculations. The CEA copper activation diagnostic was tested on the OMEGA facility during DT implosion. Experiments showed that CEA and Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) diagnostics agree to better than 1% on the neutron yield measurement, with an independent calibration for each system. Also, experimental sensitivities are in good agreement with simulations and allow us to scale activation diagnostics for the LMJ measurement range.

Landoas, Olivier; Rosse, Bertrand; Briat, Michelle; Marmouget, Jean Gabriel; Varignon, Cyril; Ledoux, Xavier; Caillaud, Tony; Thfoin, Isabelle; Bourgade, Jean-Luc [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Glebov, Vladimir Yu; Sangster, Thomas C.; Duffy, Tim [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Disdier, Laurent [CEA, LIST, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2011-07-15

166

Psychology and Mathematical Method: A Capsule History and a Modern View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses histories of three current issues in the psychology and pedagogy of mathematical thinking: (1) the notion of a "prescriptive method"; (2) "associationism" as an explanation for learning; and (3) Gestaltism. Reviews theoretical perspectives that emerged starting in the mid-twentieth century, including behaviorism, artificial intelligence…

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

1985-01-01

167

Modern scientific methods and their potential in wastewater science and technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of novel analytical and investigative methods such as fluorescence in situ hybridization, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), microelectrodes and advanced numerical simulation has led to new insights into micro-and macroscopic processes in bioreactors. However, the question is still open whether or not these new findings and the subsequent gain of knowledge are of significant practical relevance and if so,

Peter A. Wilderer; Hans-Joachim Bungartz; Hilde Lemmer; Michael Wagner; Jurg Keller; Stefan Wuertz

2002-01-01

168

Methods, tools and standards for the analysis, evaluation and design of modern automotive architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive systems are increasingly distributed and complex. Reduced time-to-market, cost and safety concerns require advance validation of the integrated systems and its components, from the functional, timing, and reliability standpoints. In particular, function correctness and performance may depend on communication and computation delays imposed by the selected architecture platform. Hence, the need for methods and tools capable of predicting the

E. Frank; R. Wilhelm; R. Ernst; A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli; M. Di Natale

2008-01-01

169

Methods, Tools and Standards for the Analysis, Evaluation and Design of Modern Automotive Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive systems are increasingly distributed and complex. Reduced time-to-market, cost and safety concerns require advance validation of the integrated systems and its components, from the functional, timing, and reliability standpoints. In particular, function correctness and performance may depend on communication and computation delays imposed by the selected architecture platform. Hence, the need for methods and tools capable of predicting the

E. Frank; Reinhard Wilhelm; Rolf Ernst; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-vincentelli; Marco Di Natale

2008-01-01

170

Modern MAP inference methods for accurate and fast occupancy grid mapping on higher order factor graphs  

E-print Network

mapping with range sensors, specifically, laser scanners. Occupancy grid mapping (OGM) is a popular of the cell being occupied or free. Also, unlike surface-based approaches [14], [15], OGM makes it easier to query obstacles, hence collisions, which is critical for applications like robot navigation. OGM methods

Corso, Jason J.

171

ELISA-based coproantigen in human strongyloidiaisis: a diagnostic method correlating with worm burden.  

PubMed

In order to overcome the false negative diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in the absence of rhabditiform larvae in stools, an ELISA-based Strongyloides stercoralis-specific coproantigen detection assay in stools of infected patients was evaluated. In a sandwich ELISA, a rabbit hyperimmune serum against S. stercoralis ES (excretory/secretory) adult antigen succeeded in capturing S. stercoralis coproantigen from infected patients and did not react with coproantigens prepared from the stool samples of patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola gigantica and Capillaria philippenensis. Coproantigen was able to detect anti-S. stercoralis IgG antibodies in sera of infected patients at the same OD level as produced with S. stercoralis E/S worm antigen using an indirect ELISA did not cross-react with sera from patients with S. mansoni, F. gigantica and C. philippenensis. S. stercoralis coproantigen detection proved a sensitive, simple, reliable and inexpensive ELISA-based, and an alternative to coproscopical methods in copropositive (with larvae in stool) and copronegative (without larvae in stool) stool samples. Fecal ELISA showed a positive relationship between copro-Ag and worm burdens, and considered a starting point for the development of species-specific copro-immunological diagnostic assays using monoclonal antibodies and dipstick technology. PMID:20120743

El-Badry, Ayman A

2009-12-01

172

Diagnostic microbiologic methods in the GEMS-1 case/control study.  

PubMed

To understand the etiology of moderate-to-severe diarrhea among children in high mortality areas of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, we performed a comprehensive case/control study of children aged <5 years at 7 sites. Each site employed an identical case/control study design and each utilized a uniform comprehensive set of microbiological assays to identify the likely bacterial, viral and protozoal etiologies. The selected assays effected a balanced consideration of cost, robustness and performance, and all assays were performed at the study sites. Identification of bacterial pathogens employed streamlined conventional bacteriologic biochemical and serological algorithms. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli were identified by application of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for enterotoxigenic, enteroaggregative, and enteropathogenic E. coli. Rotavirus, adenovirus, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia enterica, and Cryptosporidium species were detected by commercially available enzyme immunoassays on stool samples. Samples positive for adenovirus were further evaluated for adenovirus serotypes 40 and 41. We developed a novel multiplex assay to detect norovirus (types 1 and 2), astrovirus, and sapovirus. The portfolio of diagnostic assays used in the GEMS study can be broadly applied in developing countries seeking robust cost-effective methods for enteric pathogen detection. PMID:23169941

Panchalingam, Sandra; Antonio, Martin; Hossain, Anowar; Mandomando, Inacio; Ochieng, Ben; Oundo, Joseph; Ramamurthy, T; Tamboura, Boubou; Zaidi, Anita K M; Petri, William; Houpt, Eric; Murray, Patrick; Prado, Valeria; Vidal, Roberto; Steele, Duncan; Strockbine, Nancy; Sansonetti, Philippe; Glass, Roger I; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Tauschek, Marija; Svennerholm, Ann-Marie; Berkeley, Lynette Y; Kotloff, Karen; Levine, Myron M; Nataro, James P

2012-12-01

173

A review of current trends and advances in modern bio-analytical methods: chromatography and sample preparation.  

PubMed

Any bio-analytical method includes several steps, all of them being important in order to achieve reliable results. The first step is taking aliquots of samples for the analysis, followed by the extraction procedure and sample clean-up, chromatographic analysis and detection. Chromatographic methods, particularly liquid chromatography, are the methods of choice in bio-analytical laboratories. Current trends in fast liquid chromatographic separations involve monolith technology, fused core columns, high temperature liquid chromatography and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). UHPLC has recently become a wide-spread analytical technique in many laboratories which focus on fast and sensitive bio-analytical assays. The key advantages of UHPLC are the increased speed of analysis, higher separation efficiency and resolution, higher sensitivity and much lower solvent consumption as compared to other analytical approaches. This is all enabled by specially designed instruments and sub-2-microne particle packed analytical columns. There is a great contrast between ultra-fast chromatographic analysis and conventional sample preparation, which remains highly labor-intensive and time-consuming. Conventional sample preparation techniques including SPE, solid phase extraction; LLE, liquid-liquid extraction; PP, protein precipitation and many modern approaches (RAM, restricted access material; MIP, molecularly imprinted polymers; SPME, solid phase microextraction; LLME, liquid-liquid microextraction; MEPS, microextraction by packed sorbent and many others) have also been featured as fundamental and critical step of bio-analytical methods. PMID:19932811

Nováková, Lucie; Vlcková, Hana

2009-12-10

174

Dosimetry in diagnostic radiology.  

PubMed

Dosimetry is an area of increasing importance in diagnostic radiology. There is a realisation amongst health professionals that the radiation dose received by patients from modern X-ray examinations and procedures can be at a level of significance for the induction of cancer across a population, and in some unfortunate instances, in the acute damage to particular body organs such as skin and eyes. The formulation and measurement procedures for diagnostic radiology dosimetry have recently been standardised through an international code of practice which describes the methodologies necessary to address the diverging imaging modalities used in diagnostic radiology. Common to all dosimetry methodologies is the measurement of the air kerma from the X-ray device under defined conditions. To ensure the accuracy of the dosimetric determination, such measurements need to be made with appropriate instrumentation that has a calibration that is traceable to a standards laboratory. Dosimetric methods are used in radiology departments for a variety of purposes including the determination of patient dose levels to allow examinations to be optimized and to assist in decisions on the justification of examination choices. Patient dosimetry is important for special cases such as for X-ray examinations of children and pregnant patients. It is also a key component of the quality control of X-ray equipment and procedures. PMID:20655679

Meghzifene, Ahmed; Dance, David R; McLean, Donald; Kramer, Hans-Michael

2010-10-01

175

Exploration of Analysis Methods for Diagnostic Imaging Tests: Problems with ROC AUC and Confidence Scores in CT Colonography  

PubMed Central

Background Different methods of evaluating diagnostic performance when comparing diagnostic tests may lead to different results. We compared two such approaches, sensitivity and specificity with area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC AUC) for the evaluation of CT colonography for the detection of polyps, either with or without computer assisted detection. Methods In a multireader multicase study of 10 readers and 107 cases we compared sensitivity and specificity, using radiological reporting of the presence or absence of polyps, to ROC AUC calculated from confidence scores concerning the presence of polyps. Both methods were assessed against a reference standard. Here we focus on five readers, selected to illustrate issues in design and analysis. We compared diagnostic measures within readers, showing that differences in results are due to statistical methods. Results Reader performance varied widely depending on whether sensitivity and specificity or ROC AUC was used. There were problems using confidence scores; in assigning scores to all cases; in use of zero scores when no polyps were identified; the bimodal non-normal distribution of scores; fitting ROC curves due to extrapolation beyond the study data; and the undue influence of a few false positive results. Variation due to use of different ROC methods exceeded differences between test results for ROC AUC. Conclusions The confidence scores recorded in our study violated many assumptions of ROC AUC methods, rendering these methods inappropriate. The problems we identified will apply to other detection studies using confidence scores. We found sensitivity and specificity were a more reliable and clinically appropriate method to compare diagnostic tests. PMID:25353643

Mallett, Susan; Halligan, Steve; Collins, Gary S.; Altman, Doug G.

2014-01-01

176

Optical diagnostics methods of plasma current channels in plasma current open switches of the developed EMIR complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. Technology development of electrophysical high-power and high-energy density facilities requires contactless methods of their parameters recording. Optical diagnostics, which were successfully applied for investigations of plasma open switches technologies, belong to these methods. Plasma current open switches (POS) with the level of transmitted current up to 2 MA and storage time 1-2 ms are

K. I. Almazova; V. V. Borovkov; V. G. Komilov; I. M. Markevtsev; O. M. Tatsenko; V. D. Selemir

2001-01-01

177

Studies to inform the methods for Cochrane systematic reviews of diagnostic accuracy in stroke medicine   

E-print Network

Background A variety of tests are used in clinical practice to help the diagnostic process and so improve patient care. Many aspects of stroke management depend on accurate and rapid diagnosis. Brain imaging, including ...

Brazzelli, Miriam

2011-07-05

178

Development of Monitoring and Diagnostic Methods for Robots Used In Remediation of Waste Sites - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This project is the first evaluation of model-based diagnostics to hydraulic robot systems. A greater understanding of fault detection for hydraulic robots has been gained, and a new theoretical fault detection model developed and evaluated.

Martin, M.

2000-04-01

179

Development of Monitoring and Diagnostic Methods for Robots Used In Remediation of Waste Sites - Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is the first evaluation of model-based diagnostics to hydraulic robot systems. A greater understanding of fault detection for hydraulic robots has been gained, and a new theoretical fault detection model developed and evaluated.

2000-01-01

180

Flowfield analysis of modern helicopter rotors in hover by Navier-Stokes method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The viscous, three-dimensional, flowfields of UH60 and BERP rotors are calculated for lifting hover configurations using a Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics method with a view to understand the importance of planform effects on the airloads. In this method, the induced effects of the wake, including the interaction of tip vortices with successive blades, are captured as a part of the overall flowfield solution without prescribing any wake models. Numerical results in the form of surface pressures, hover performance parameters, surface skin friction and tip vortex patterns, and vortex wake trajectory are presented at two thrust conditions for UH60 and BERP rotors. Comparison of results for the UH60 model rotor show good agreement with experiments at moderate thrust conditions. Comparison of results with equivalent rectangular UH60 blade and BERP blade indicates that the BERP blade, with an unconventional planform, gives more thrust at the cost of more power and a reduced figure of merit. The high thrust conditions considered produce severe shock-induced flow separation for UH60 blade, while the BERP blade develops more thrust and minimal separation. The BERP blade produces a tighter tip vortex structure compared with the UH60 blade. These results and the discussion presented bring out the similarities and differences between the two rotors.

Srinivasan, G. R.; Raghavan, V.; Duque, E. P. N.

1991-01-01

181

Modern Methods for Analysis of Antiepileptic Drugs in the Biological Fluids for Pharmacokinetics, Bioequivalence and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is a chronic disease occurring in approximately 1.0% of the world's population. About 30% of the epileptic patients treated with availably antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) continue to have seizures and are considered therapy-resistant or refractory patients. The ultimate goal for the use of AEDs is complete cessation of seizures without side effects. Because of a narrow therapeutic index of AEDs, a complete understanding of its clinical pharmacokinetics is essential for understanding of the pharmacodynamics of these drugs. These drug concentrations in biological fluids serve as surrogate markers and can be used to guide or target drug dosing. Because early studies demonstrated clinical and/or electroencephalographic correlations with serum concentrations of several AEDs, It has been almost 50 years since clinicians started using plasma concentrations of AEDs to optimize pharmacotherapy in patients with epilepsy. Therefore, validated analytical method for concentrations of AEDs in biological fluids is a necessity in order to explore pharmacokinetics, bioequivalence and TDM in various clinical situations. There are hundreds of published articles on the analysis of specific AEDs by a wide variety of analytical methods in biological samples have appears over the past decade. This review intends to provide an updated, concise overview on the modern method development for monitoring AEDs for pharmacokinetic studies, bioequivalence and therapeutic drug monitoring. PMID:21660146

Park, Yoo-Sin; Kim, Shin-Hee; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Jun, Min-Young

2011-01-01

182

A study of radioactivity in modern stream gravels and its possible application as a prospecting method  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Traverses along some streams of the Colorado Plateau in areas known to contain minable uranium deposits show that anomalous radiation in the stream gravels can be detected with a suitable counter downstream from the deposits. The amount of radiation is influenced by the size of the uranium deposit, the size of the drainage area of the stream, the grain size of the sediments, and the lithology of the rocks over which the stream flows. The spacing of the stations where readings are taken is controlled by the size of the stream, and special readings are also taken directly downstream from important tributaries. An anomaly is empirically defined as a 10 percent rise over background. Radioactive material from large uranium deposits has been detected as much as 1 mile downstream. Radioactive material from smaller deposits is detachable over shorter distances. The method is slow but appears to be a useful prospecting tool under restricted conditions.

Chew, Randall T., III

1955-01-01

183

Comparing historical and modern methods of Sea Surface Temperature measurement - Part 1: Review of methods, field comparisons and dataset adjustments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea Surface Temperature (SST) measurements have been obtained from a variety of different platforms, instruments and depths over the post-industrial period. Today most measurements come from ships, moored and drifting buoys and satellites. Shipboard methods include temperature measurement of seawater sampled by bucket and in engine cooling water intakes. Engine intake temperatures are generally thought to average a few tenths of a °C warmer than simultaneous bucket temperatures. Here I review SST measurement methods, studies comparing shipboard methods by field experiment and adjustments applied to SST datasets to account for variable methods. In opposition to contemporary thinking, I find average bucket-intake temperature differences reported from field studies inconclusive. Non-zero average differences often have associated standard deviations that are several times larger than the averages themselves. Further, average differences have been found to vary widely between ships and between cruises on the same ship. The cause of non-zero average differences is typically unclear given the general absence of additional temperature observations to those from buckets and engine intakes. Shipboard measurements appear of variable quality, highly dependent upon the accuracy and precision of the thermometer used and the care of the observer where manually read. Methods are generally poorly documented, with written instructions not necessarily reflecting actual practices of merchant mariners. Measurements cannot be expected to be of high quality where obtained by untrained sailors using thermometers of low accuracy and precision.

Matthews, J. B. R.

2012-09-01

184

Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design, an effective modern software development method for development of computing systems for a large physics detector  

SciTech Connect

After evaluation of several modern object-oriented methods for development of the computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC, we selected the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented Analysis and Recursive Design method as the most appropriate for the needs and development environment of a large nuclear or high energy physics detector. This paper discusses our specific needs and environment, our method selection criteria, and major features and components of the Shlaer-Mellor method.

Kozlowski, T.; Carey, T.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Maguire, C.F. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others

1995-10-01

185

Diagnostic accuracy of three scoring methods for the Davidson Trauma Scale among U.S. military veterans.  

PubMed

Self-report questionnaires are frequently used to identify PTSD among U.S. military personnel and Veterans. Two common scoring methods used to classify PTSD include: (1) a cut score threshold and (2) endorsement of PTSD symptoms meeting DSM-IV-TR symptom cluster criteria (SCM). A third method requiring a cut score in addition to SCM has been proposed, but has received little study. The current study examined the diagnostic accuracy of three scoring methods for the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS) among 804 Afghanistan and Iraq war-era military Service Members and Veterans. Data were weighted to approximate the prevalence of PTSD and other Axis I disorders in VA primary care. As expected, adding a cut score criterion to SCM improved specificity and positive predictive power. However, a cut score of 68-72 provided optimal diagnostic accuracy. The utility of the DTS, the role of baseline prevalence, and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:24216181

McDonald, Scott D; Thompson, NiVonne L; Stratton, Kelcey J; Calhoun, Patrick S

2014-03-01

186

Reactive flow model development for PBXW-126 using modern nonlinear optimization methods  

SciTech Connect

The initiation and detonation behavior of PBXW-126 has been characterized and is described. PBXW-126 is a composite explosive consisting of approximately equal amounts of RDX, AP, AL, and NTO with a polyurethane binder. The three term ignition and growth of reaction model parameters (ignition+two growth terms) have been found using nonlinear optimization methods to determine the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} set of model parameters. The ignition term treats the initiation of up to 0.5{percent} of the RDX. The first growth term in the model treats the RDX growth of reaction up to 20{percent} reacted. The second growth term treats the subsequent growth of reaction of the remaining AP/AL/NTO. The unreacted equation of state (EOS) was determined from the wave profiles of embedded gauge tests while the JWL product EOS was determined from cylinder expansion test results. The nonlinear optimization code, NLQPEB/GLO, was used to determine the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} set of coefficients for the three term Lee-Tarver ignition and growth of reaction model. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Murphy, M.J.; Simpson, R.L.; Urtiew, P.A.; Souers, P.C.; Garcia, F.; Garza, R.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, L-282, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

1996-05-01

187

On the role of ion-based imaging methods in modern ion beam therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

External beam radiotherapy techniques have the common aim to maximize the radiation dose to the target while sparing the surrounding healthy tissues. The inverted and finite depth-dose profile of ion beams (Bragg peak) allows for precise dose delivery and conformai dose distribution. Furthermore, increased radiobiological effectiveness of ions enhances the capability to battle radioresistant tumors. Ion beam therapy requires a precise determination of the ion range, which is particularly sensitive to range uncertainties. Therefore, novel imaging techniques are currently investigated as a tool to improve the quality of ion beam treatments. Approaches already clinically available or under development are based on the detection of secondary particles emitted as a result of nuclear reactions (e.g., positron-annihilation or prompt gammas, charged particles) or transmitted high energy primary ion beams. Transmission imaging techniques make use of the beams exiting the patient, which have higher initial energy and lower fluence than the therapeutic ones. At the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center, actively scanned energetic proton and carbon ion beams provide an ideal environment for the investigation of ion-based radiography and tomography. This contribution presents the rationale of ion beam therapy, focusing on the role of ion-based transmission imaging methods towards the reduction of range uncertainties and potential improvement of treatment planning.

Magallanes, L.; Brons, S.; Marcelos, T.; Takechi, M.; Voss, B.; Jäkel, O.; Rinaldi, I.; Parodi, K.

2014-11-01

188

Extracting seasonal signals from continuous GPS time series with modern statistical methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that continuous GPS position time series show seasonal variations. Previous investigations have revealed the importance and potential contributions of seasonal mass loading signals in continuous GPS time series. For instance, some researchers have made comparisons of annual vertical crustal displacements from GPS and GRACE. Seasonal signals from GPS time series were usually obtained by weighted least squares fitting, assuming the data are temporally uncorrelated. However, several studies demonstrated that not only white noise is included in GPS time series but also colored noise, like random walk and flicker noise. The mismodelled noise would definitely alias into the seasonal signals. In our work, GPS data from stations around the Danube river basin are used. Based on previous studies, we utilize a combination of PCA (Principle Component Analysis) and MLE (Maximum Likelihood Estimation) techniques to extract the annual and semi-annual signals buried in GPS time series. Within the work, the PCA method is firstly applied to remove the so called Common Mode Errors (CME). After an iterative removal of CME, the resulting time series are fit to a commonly used model that contains a linear term and seasonal terms to form residuals. The MLE algorithm is thereafter deployed to test noise models that describe the time series. Finally, the periodic terms are extracted by weighted least squares using the best noise models. These seasonal signals will ultimately be used for inversion and comparison purposes.

Chen, Q.; van Dam, T.; Sneeuw, N.; Collilieux, X.; Rebischung, P.

2012-04-01

189

Diagnostic Comparisons of Near-Earth Object Identification using Slit Spectroscopy and Slitless Grating Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space object identification and characterization is an important component of Space Situational Awareness (SSA). Through an Air Force collaboration that has provided a visible wavelength, low-resolution spectrometer, researchers at the Magdalena Ridge Observatory 2.4-meter telescope (located in New Mexico) have been investigating the advantages and disadvantages of using slit spectroscopy versus slitless grating methods to characterize artificial Earth-orbiting objects. The objective is to develop a method that returns useful diagnostic information with a minimal investment in observational monitoring time. However, spectral measurements are a desirable component of characterization studies of natural objects in near-Earth orbit as well. Therefore, in 2012, we began to extend this instrumentation beyond its SSA applications to the study of Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). The typical lifetimes of NEAs are up to three orders of magnitude shorter than the typical timescales associated with the main asteroid belt. Therefore, the current NEA population is a relatively recent product that has to be continually re-supplied. Spectroscopic analysis of NEAs helps characterize their taxonomic distribution and identify potential source regions which would then enhance our understanding of the origin of the current population. Although this is of interest scientifically, it can also help estimate the magnitude of the hazard threat from still undiscovered asteroids as well as provide guidance to optimize ground-based telescope search strategies. Slit-based spectroscopy is time consuming and has limitations on how faint an object can be studied. Therefore, the goal of this current project is to determine whether a lower resolution (by a factor of 10 with respect to the slit-based spectrometer), readily available slitless grating is sufficient for rough taxonomic classification in the study of fainter target-of-opportunity NEAs. The grating provides spectral information in 20nm wavelength bands that has proven useful for material identifications of relatively bright geostationary satellites (Dao, et al. 2013). However, this arrangement results in a higher background noise. Therefore, we are testing this method among a range of lunar phases to examine the limitations of slitless spectroscopy for faint asteroid targets.

Ryan, E.; Ryan, W.

2014-09-01

190

Perfusion CT is a valuable diagnostic method for prostate cancer: a prospective study of 94 patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study is to assess the usefulness of perfusion computer tomography (pCT) in prostate cancer (PCa) diagnostics. Materials and Methods 94 patients with biopsy-proven PCa were enrolled in the study. Dynamic pCT of the prostate gland was performed for 50 seconds after an intravenous injection of contrast medium. Blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and permeability surface area product (PS) were computed in the suspected PCa area and in normal prostatic tissue. Results PCa was visible in pCT in 90 of the 94 examined patients as a focal peripheral CT enhancement. When PCa was located in the peripheral zone (PZ), it was visible on perfusion maps, mostly showing an early peak followed by wash-out. The average values of all perfusion parameters were higher for tumour than for normal prostate tissue (p < 0.000). BV and BF were dependent on tumour grade expressed by the Gleason score (GS). All PCa cases were divided into groups, according to histological grade, as low (GS ? 6), medium (GS = 7), and high (GS > 7). In high-grade PCa, the mean BF value was significantly higher (p = 0.001) than the mean value of BF low- and medium-grade PCa (p = 0.011). Similar results were obtained regarding the mean values of BV; the more aggressive the cancer grade, the higher the mean BV value (p = 0.04). Conclusion CT quantitative perfusion imaging allows PCa to be distinguished from normal prostate tissue. The highest values for BF and BV were observed in the most aggressive PCa grade. PMID:25435904

Luczynska, Elzbieta; Blecharz, Pawel; Dyczek, Sonia; Stelmach, Andrzej; Petralia, Giuseppe; Bellomi, Massimo; Jereczek–Fossa, Barbara Alicja; Jakubowicz, Jerzy

2014-01-01

191

On the reliability of probe diagnostics in RF plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The errors of probe diagnostics of the resting or slow-moving plasma of Q-machines or dc discharges are shown to lie typically within a range of ±(20-30)%. Problems of probe diagnostics of RF plasma and modern approaches to their solving are considered. The objectivity of probe diagnostics of RF plasma is established by the mutual agreement between the electron energy distribution functions measured in the same experiment using the Langmuir probes and the method of relative intensities of spectral lines.

Ryabyi, V. A.; Obukhov, V. A.

2013-12-01

192

Ischemic Stroke Detection System with a Computer-Aided Diagnostic Ability Using an Unsupervised Feature Perception Enhancement Method  

PubMed Central

We propose an ischemic stroke detection system with a computer-aided diagnostic ability using a four-step unsupervised feature perception enhancement method. In the first step, known as preprocessing, we use a cubic curve contrast enhancement method to enhance image contrast. In the second step, we use a series of methods to extract the brain tissue image area identified during preprocessing. To detect abnormal regions in the brain images, we propose using an unsupervised region growing algorithm to segment the brain tissue area. The brain is centered on a horizontal line and the white matter of the brain's inner ring is split into eight regions. In the third step, we use a coinciding regional location method to find the hybrid area of locations where a stroke may have occurred in each cerebral hemisphere. Finally, we make corrections and mark the stroke area with red color. In the experiment, we tested the system on 90 computed tomography (CT) images from 26 patients, and, with the assistance of two radiologists, we proved that our proposed system has computer-aided diagnostic capabilities. Our results show an increased stroke diagnosis sensitivity of 83% in comparison to 31% when radiologists use conventional diagnostic images. PMID:25610453

Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Wu, Ming-Chi; Chin, Chiun-Li; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Lee, Ming-Sian; Chang, Hao-Yan

2014-01-01

193

Atomic Resonance Radiation Energetics Investigation as a Diagnostic Method for Non-Equilibrium Hypervelocity Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Absorption measurements with a tunable vacuum ultraviolet light source have been proposed as a concentration diagnostic for atomic oxygen, and the viability of this technique is assessed in light of recent measurements. The instrumentation, as well as initial calibration measurements, have been reported previously. We report here additional calibration measurements performed to study the resonance broadening line shape for atomic oxygen. The application of this diagnostic is evaluated by considering the range of suitable test conditions and requirements, and by identifying issues that remain to be addressed.

Meyer, Scott A.; Bershader, Daniel; Sharma, Surendra P.; Deiwert, George S.

1996-01-01

194

Cost-effectiveness of malaria diagnostic methods in sub-Saharan Africa in an era of combination therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the relative cost-effectiveness in different sub-Saharan African settings of presumptive treatment, field-standard microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to diagnose malaria. Methods We used a decision tree model and probabilistic sensitivity analysis applied to outpatients presenting at rural health facilities with suspected malaria. Costs and effects encompassed those for both patients positive on RDT (assuming artemisinin-based combination

Catherine Goodman; Chantal Morel; Paul Coleman; David Bell; A Mills

2008-01-01

195

Modern Pruning Methods.  

E-print Network

Grandiflora Roses -------------- - 16 Floribunda Roses ------------------ 16 ' Polyanthas and Small Floribunda Roses It Hybrid Perpetuals ---- l6 I Species Shrub Roses --------------- 16 Tree Roses - 16 Pruning "Bull Canes" on Roses 1: Pruning Rose... hybrid-tea roses 6 to 12 inches from the ground each spring when the buds begin to swell. (Figure 11) Grandiflora Roses Two of the best-known 1,arieties of grandiflora roses are Princess Elizabeth and Buccaneer. These large-flowered, cluster...

DeWerth, A. F.

1961-01-01

196

Update on diabetes diagnosis: a historical review of the dilemma of the diagnostic utility of glycohemoglobin A1c and a proposal for a combined glucose-A1c diagnostic method.  

PubMed

The role of glycohemoglobin A1c (A1c) for the diagnosis of diabetes has been debated for over three decades. Recently, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) has recommended adding A1c as an additional criterion for diabetes diagnosis. In view of the continued debate about the diagnostic utility of A1c, and in view of the unabated burden of undiagnosed diabetes, the search for alternative diagnostic methods is discussed. A historical literature review is provided, in view of the new ADA diagnostic guidelines, and a proposal is provided for combining A1c and a glucose measurement as a diagnostic alternative/adjunct to the use of a single criterion. This proposal is based on the non-overlapping of the advantages and disadvantages of these individual tests. The cost-effectiveness of this method remains to be tested. PMID:22588455

Aldasouqi, Saleh A; Gossain, Ved V

2012-01-01

197

[Diagnostic possibilities of neurophysiological methods in multiple sclerosis and acute demyelinating polyneuropathy].  

PubMed

Electromyographic diagnostical possibilities are not limited within a sphere of beiromusclers damages. It is widely spread for estimation of neuromotoric apparatus functional conditions with segmentary and oversegnebtary damages of spinal cord. In this connection an analysis of clinical and neurophysiological parameters of patients with demyelinisational damages of the nervoys system has been carried out. PMID:12938637

Nikitina, V V; Skoromets, A A; Barbas, I M; Iantareva, L I; Pospelova, M L

2003-01-01

198

Mutual Information Item Selection Method in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing with Short Test Length  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) purports to combine the strengths of both CAT and cognitive diagnosis. Cognitive diagnosis models aim at classifying examinees into the correct mastery profile group so as to pinpoint the strengths and weakness of each examinee whereas CAT algorithms choose items to determine those…

Wang, Chun

2013-01-01

199

Modern Analytical Methods Applied to Earth and Planetary Sciences for Micro, Nano and Pico Space Devices and Robots in Landing Site Selection and Surface Investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fleet of Nano and Pico Sized Space Devices and Robots (NPSDR) are deployable to realize and accomplish in situ modern analytical methods in wide range of Earth and planetary sciences. Shorter time and bigger field of surfaces and volumes of space.

Vizi, P. G.; Bérczi, Sz.; Horváth, I.; Horváth, A. F.; Vizi, J. Cs.

2014-11-01

200

Modern Methods of Monosaccharide Synthesis from Non-Carbohydrate Tomas Hudlicky,* David A. Entwistle, Kevin K. Pitzer, and Andrew J. Thorpe  

E-print Network

Modern Methods of Monosaccharide Synthesis from Non-Carbohydrate Sources Tomas Hudlicky,* David A Manipulations Leading to Carbohydrates 1198 4. Future Prospects of the Chemistry of Mono- and Oligosaccharides. Overview Humans have utilized carbohydrates in natural forms such as cellulose in cotton, sucrose in cane

Hudlicky, Tomas

201

Total synthesis by modern chemical ligation methods and high resolution (1.1 Å) X-ray structure of ribonuclease A  

SciTech Connect

The total chemical synthesis of RNase A using modern chemical ligation methods is described, illustrating the significant advances that have been made in chemical protein synthesis since Gutte and Merrifield's pioneering preparation of RNase A in 1969. The identity of the synthetic product was confirmed through rigorous characterization, including the determination of the X-ray crystal structure to 1.1 Angstrom resolution.

Boerema, David J.; Tereshko, Valentina A.; Kent, Stephen B.H. (UC)

2010-02-08

202

The use of chosen serological diagnostic methods in Lyme disease in horses. Part II. Western blot.  

PubMed

In this investigation the Western blot test was treated as a method verifying results of the IFA, commercial ELISA and standardized ELISA tests (described in Part I). The verifying investigations were performed on 82 serum samples, which in the commercial ELISA were positive in 36 cases, dubious in 31 cases and negative in 15 cases as well as on 5 serum samples obtained from horses infected with Leptospira spp., which in the ELISA commercial were dubious (total of 87 sera samples). The antigens, against which the immunological response in horses was directed, were also established. The Milenia--Blot--Borrelia IgG test (MIDBO IgG-Kit 30 TESTS: DPC Bierman GmbH) was used in the investigation. In view of species differences, rabbit anti-horse IgG (whole molecule) alkaline phosphatase conjugate, no A6063 SIGMA-ALDRICH was used interchangeably. Also the control sera were substituted with the horse control sera. It was demonstrated that the Western blot test is the most reliable in the serological diagnosis of B. burgdorferi infection in horses. The commercial ELISA and standardized ELISA tests represent a lower diagnostic value than the Western blot test, although similar to each other, while the value of the IFA is minimal. In the Western blot test antigens were established against which the immunological response in horses in mostly directed. In the sera evaluated in this test as positive the presence of antibodies, mainly against antigens with the following molecular weights: 41 kDa, 62/60 kDa, 93 kDa, 72 kDa, 34 kDa (OspB), 66 kDa was noted. At the same time, antibodies contained in the sera accepted as negative, in 55.5% cases also reacted with the antigen of 41 kDa. It points to its minimal specificity. On the basis of the results obtained it is recommended that serological examination of horses should be with the ELISA and that positive or dubious results should be verified with the Western blot test. PMID:12189953

Dzierzecka, M; Kita, J

2002-01-01

203

Raman spectroscopy of saliva as a perspective method for periodontitis diagnostics Raman spectroscopy of saliva  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of its potential for biological tissues analyses at a molecular level, Raman spectroscopy in optical range has been the object of biomedical research for the last years. The main aim of this work is the development of Raman spectroscopy for organic content identifying and determination of biomarkers of saliva at a molecular level for periodontitis diagnostics. Four spectral regions were determined: 1155 and 1525 cm-1, 1033 and 1611 cm-1, which can be used as biomarkers of this widespread disease.

Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Minaeva, S.

2012-01-01

204

Dosimetry in diagnostic radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dosimetry is an area of increasing importance in diagnostic radiology. There is a realisation amongst health professionals that the radiation dose received by patients from modern X-ray examinations and procedures can be at a level of significance for the induction of cancer across a population, and in some unfortunate instances, in the acute damage to particular body organs such as

Ahmed Meghzifene; David R. Dance; Donald McLean; Hans-Michael Kramer

2010-01-01

205

Genetic mutation underlying orthostatic intolerance and diagnostic and therapeutic methods relating thereto  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isolated polynucleotide molecules and peptides encoded by these molecules are used in the analysis of human norepinephrine (NE) transporter variants, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, relating to a human NE transporter polymorphism. By analyzing genomic DNA or amplified genomic DNA, or amplified cDNA derived from mRNA, it is possible to type a human NE transporter with regard to the human NE transporter polymorphism, for example, in the context of diagnosing and treating NE transport impairments, and disorders associated with NE transport impairments, such as orthostatic intolerance.

Robertson, David (Inventor); Blakely, Randy D. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

206

Concurrent Malaria and Dengue Fever: A Need for Rapid Diagnostic Methods  

PubMed Central

Malaria and dengue fever are endemic in the South-East Asian region including India. Both the illnesses share similar symptomatology, but differ in certain respects such as different- causative organisms and mosquito vector with diverse habitat. Hence, concurrent malaria and dengue fever in the same patient is said to be unusual. There have been cases of concurrent malaria and dengue, but they are scarce from highly endemic region like ours. Here, we describe three unusual cases of Plasmodium vivax and dengue co-infection diagnosed by use of rapid diagnostic tests. Early diagnosis and timely intervention is crucial in managing such patients. PMID:25657963

Bhagat, Manish; Kanhere, Sujata; Phadke, Varsha; George, Riya

2014-01-01

207

Method for Assessing the Reliability of Molecular Diagnostics Based on Multiplexed SERS-Coded Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles have been engineered to generate unique fingerprint spectra and are potentially useful as bright contrast agents for molecular diagnostics. One promising strategy for biomedical diagnostics and imaging is to functionalize various particle types (“flavors”), each emitting a unique spectral signature, to target a large multiplexed panel of molecular biomarkers. While SERS particles emit narrow spectral features that allow them to be easily separable under ideal conditions, the presence of competing noise sources and background signals such as detector noise, laser background, and autofluorescence confounds the reliability of demultiplexing algorithms. Results obtained during time-constrained in vivo imaging experiments may not be reproducible or accurate. Therefore, our goal is to provide experimentalists with a metric that may be monitored to enforce a desired bound on accuracy within a user-defined confidence level. We have defined a spectral reliability index (SRI), based on the output of a direct classical least-squares (DCLS) demultiplexing routine, which provides a measure of the reliability of the computed nanoparticle concentrations and ratios. We present simulations and experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of this strategy, which can potentially be utilized for a range of instruments and biomedical applications involving multiplexed SERS nanoparticles. PMID:23620806

Leigh, Steven Y.; Som, Madhura; Liu, Jonathan T. C.

2013-01-01

208

DIAGNOSTIC CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION USING THE MEDRAD AVANTA FLUID MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AS COMPARED TO THE TRADITIONAL MANUAL INJECTION METHOD  

SciTech Connect

Nearly 4 million patient procedures performed annually in US cardiac catheterization laboratories utilize contrast media to achieve vessel opacification. The amount of contrast media used is variable and depends on the complexity of the procedure, the method of contrast delivery as well as the skill-level of the operator. Since the total amount of contrast used for each procedure can have both patient safety and economic implications, it is essential for cardiologists to have the ability to control contrast delivery such that optimal angiographic image quality is achieved using the least amount of contrast. Although the complication rate associated with cardiac catheterization remains low, the most common serious complication, contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), is associated with poor prognosis and a high mortality rate. Numerous interventional strategies for preventing and reducing the severity of CIN have demonstrated varying degrees of clinical benefit, but none has been shown to reliably prevent this serious complication. To date, the most effective approach for reducing the risk of CIN is to properly hydrate the patient and to minimize the amount of contrast media administered. Automated injection systems are intended for use in virtually all cardiac catheterization procedures and have numerous features which can provide potential advantages over traditional methods. With automated injection technology the operator is able to control and precisely monitor contrast delivery. Additionally, the MEDRAD Avanta Fluid Management Injection System utilizes a sterile contrast reservoir which eliminates the need to discard unused contrast in individual opened containers following each procedure. Considering that an average of 50% of opened contrast media is wasted using manual injection methods, this savings can provide a substantial economic benefit. Automated systems also facilitate the use of smaller (5 French) catheter sizes. Precise flow control and the use of smaller diameter catheters have both been shown to reduce the volume of contrast administered. The use of smaller size catheters also permits more rapid hemostasis, thus allowing shorter ambulation time without the need for costly wound closure devices. These factors can result in enhanced patient satisfaction as well as more efficient management of post-procedure rooms. The intent of this study was to demonstrate that using the MEDRAD Avanta Fluid Management Injection System (MEDRAD, INC., Pittsburgh, PA) for coronary diagnostic procedures can produce a reduction in the volume of contrast administered without loss of operational quality or efficiency. In addition, this study will explore procedure time and efficiency in an effort to minimize the amount of ionizing radiation delivered to the patient as well as the diagnostic team members. Study Design This is a post-market study designed to collect data during diagnostic cardiac catheterization when utilizing 5FR or 6FR catheters in conjunction with the Avanta Fluid Management System or a manual manifold injection method control group. A minimum of 420 patients scheduled for diagnostic cardiac catheterization will be enrolled in the study cohort. Patients will be assigned into the following two groups. Group 1: Catheterization with 5FR or 6FR catheters, using the traditional manual manifold injection method for contrast media delivery which is defined as manual hand injection of contrast media through a 3 or 4 port manifold and left ventriculography performed via standard fixed rate power injection. Group 2: Catheterization with 5FR or 6FR catheters, using the MEDRAD Avanta system for contrast media delivery. Study endpoints include volume of contrast media administered during diagnostic cardiac catheterization, volume of contrast media wasted post-procedure, procedure time (defined as the time from first catheter insertion to last diagnostic catheter removal), fluoroscopy time and angiographic image quality. The study demonstrated that use of the Advanta system reduced overall contrast utilization by decreasing th

Winniford, Michael D

2013-02-08

209

Review of pathogenesis and diagnostic methods of immediate relevance for epidemiology and control of Salmonella Dublin in cattle.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin (S. Dublin) receives increasing attention in cattle production. It is host-adapted to cattle, and leads to unacceptable levels of morbidity, mortality and production losses in both newly and persistently infected herds. Cattle health promoting institutions in several countries are currently constructing active surveillance programmes or voluntary certification programmes, and encourage control and eradication of S. Dublin infected cattle herds. There is a need to understand the underlying pathogenesis of the infection at both animal and herd level to design successful programmes. Furthermore, knowledge about and access to diagnostic tests for use in practice including information about test accuracy and interpretation of available diagnostic test methods are requested. The aim is to synthesise the abundant literature on elements of pathogenesis and diagnosis of immediate relevance for epidemiology and control of S. Dublin at animal and herd level. Relatively few in vivo studies on S. Dublin pathogenesis in cattle included more than a few animals and often showed varying result. It makes it difficult to draw conclusions about mechanisms that affect dissemination in cattle and that might be targets for control methods directed towards improving resistance against the bacteria, e.g. new vaccines. It is recommended to perform larger studies to elucidate dose-response relationships and age- and genetic effects of immunity. Furthermore, it is recommended to attempt to develop faster and more sensitive methods for detection of S. Dublin for diagnosis of infectious animals. PMID:22925272

Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

2013-02-22

210

Determination of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtypes by a Rapid Method Useful for the Routine Diagnostic Laboratory  

PubMed Central

The existence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes has many important implications for the global evolution of HIV and for the evaluation of pathogenicity, transmissibility, and candidate HIV vaccines. The aim of this study was to establish a rapid method for determination of HIV-1 subtypes useful for a routine diagnostic laboratory and to investigate the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes in Austrian patients. Samples were tested by a subtyping method based on a 1.3-kb sequence of the polymerase gene generated by a commercially available drug resistance assay. The generated sequence was subtyped by means of an HIV sequence database. Results of 74 routine samples revealed subtype B (71.6%) as the predominant subtype, followed by subtype A (13.5%) and subtype C (6.8%). Subtypes E, F, G, and AE (CM240) were also detected. This subtyping method was found to be very easy to handle, rapid, and inexpensive and has proved suitable for high-throughput routine diagnostic laboratories. The specific polymerase gene sequence, however, must be existent. PMID:11527821

Kessler, Harald H.; Deuretzbacher, Doris; Stelzl, Evelyn; Daghofer, Elisabeth; Santner, Brigitte I.; Marth, Egon

2001-01-01

211

Development of monitoring and diagnostic methods for robots used in remediation of waste sites. 1997 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'Safe and efficient clean up of hazardous and radioactive waste sites throughout the DOE complex will require extensive use of robots. This research effort focuses on developing Monitoring and Diagnostic (M and D) methods for robots that will provide early detection, isolation, and tracking of impending faults before they result in serious failure. The utility and effectiveness of applying M and D methods to hydraulic robots has never been proven. The present research program is utilizing seeded faults in a laboratory test rig that is representative of an existing hydraulically-powered remediation robot. This report summarizes activity conducted in the first 9 months of the project. The research team has analyzed the Rosie Mobile Worksystem as a representative hydraulic robot, developed a test rig for implanted fault testing, developed a test plan and agenda, and established methods for acquiring and analyzing the test data.'

Tecza, J.

1998-06-01

212

Biogeosystem technique as a method to overcome the Biological and Environmental Hazards of modern Agricultural, Irrigational and Technological Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern challenge for humanity is to replace the paradigm of nature use and overcome environmental hazards of agronomy, irrigation, industry, and other human activities in biosphere. It is utterly reasonable to stop dividing biosphere on shares - the human habitat and the environment. In the 21st century it is an outdated anthropocentrism. Contradicting himself to biosphere Humankind has the problems. The new paradigm of biosphere control by methods of Biogeosystem technique is on agenda of Humankind. Key directions of Biogeosystem technique. Tillage. Single rotary milling 20…30-50…60 sm soil layer optimizes the evolution and environment of soil, creates a favorable conditions for the rhizosphere, increases the biological productivity of biosphere by 30-50% compared to the standard agricultural practices for the period up to 40 years. Recycle material. Recycling of mineral and organic substances in soil layer of 20…30-50…60 sm in rotary milling soil processing provides wastes clean return to biosphere. Direct intrasoil substances synthesis. Environmentally friendly robot wasteless nanotechnology provides direct substances synthesis, including fertilizers, inside the soil. It eliminates the prerequisites of the wastes formation under standard industrial technologies. Selective substance's extraction from soil. Electrochemical robotic nanotechnology provides selective substances extraction from soil. The technology provides recovery, collection and subsequent safe industrial use of extracted substances out of landscape. Saving fresh water. An important task is to save fresh water in biosphere. Irrigation spends water 4-5 times more of biological requirements of plants, leads to degradation of soil and landscape. The intrasoil pulse continuous-discrete paradigm of irrigation is proposed. It provides the soil and landscape conservation, increases the biological productivity, save the fresh water up to 10-20 times. The subsurface soil rotary processing and intrasoil pulsed continuous-discrete irrigation provide environmentally safe disposal of municipal, industrial, biological and agricultural wastes. Hazardous chemical and biological agents are under the soil surface. It provided a medical and veterinary safety of environment. Biogeosystem technic controls the equilibria in the soil and soil solution, prevents excessive mineralization of organic matter in the surface layers of soil. Simultaneously a soil chemical reduction excluded, biological substance do not degrade to gases. Products of organic matter decomposition are directed to the food chain, 100% waste recycling is obtained. Biogeosystems technique allows producing more biological products hence to recycle excessive amount of man-made CO2 and other substances. Biogeosystems technique increases the rate of photosynthesis of the biosphere, the degree of air ionization. This enhances the formation of rains over land, ensures stability of the ionosphere, magnetosphere and atmosphere of Earth. The nowadays technologies allow applying technical solutions based on Biogeosystem technique, there is unique opportunity to accelerate the noosphere new technological platform.

Kalinitchenko, Valery; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Zinchenko, Vladimir; Zarmaev, Ali; Magomadov, Ali; Chernenko, Vladimir; Startsev, Viktor; Bakoev, Serojdin; Dikaev, Zaurbek

2014-05-01

213

Modern NMR Spectroscopy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses direct chemical information that can be obtained from modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, concentrating on the types of problems that can be solved. Shows how selected methods provide information about polymers, bipolymers, biochemistry, small organic molecules, inorganic compounds, and compounds oriented in a magnetic…

Jelinski, Lynn W.

1984-01-01

214

Methods Developed by the Tools for Engine Diagnostics Task to Monitor and Predict Rotor Damage in Real Time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tools for Engine Diagnostics is a major task in the Propulsion System Health Management area of the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention project under NASA s Aviation Safety Program. The major goal of the Aviation Safety Program is to reduce fatal aircraft accidents by 80 percent within 10 years and by 90 percent within 25 years. The goal of the Propulsion System Health Management area is to eliminate propulsion system malfunctions as a primary or contributing factor to the cause of aircraft accidents. The purpose of Tools for Engine Diagnostics, a 2-yr-old task, is to establish and improve tools for engine diagnostics and prognostics that measure the deformation and damage of rotating engine components at the ground level and that perform intermittent or continuous monitoring on the engine wing. In this work, nondestructive-evaluation- (NDE-) based technology is combined with model-dependent disk spin experimental simulation systems, like finite element modeling (FEM) and modal norms, to monitor and predict rotor damage in real time. Fracture mechanics time-dependent fatigue crack growth and damage-mechanics-based life estimation are being developed, and their potential use investigated. In addition, wireless eddy current and advanced acoustics are being developed for on-wing and just-in-time NDE engine inspection to provide deeper access and higher sensitivity to extend on-wing capabilities and improve inspection readiness. In the long run, these methods could establish a base for prognostic sensing while an engine is running, without any overt actions, like inspections. This damage-detection strategy includes experimentally acquired vibration-, eddy-current- and capacitance-based displacement measurements and analytically computed FEM-, modal norms-, and conventional rotordynamics-based models of well-defined damages and critical mass imbalances in rotating disks and rotors.

Baaklini, George Y.; Smith, Kevin; Raulerson, David; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Brasche, Lisa

2003-01-01

215

[Evaluation of NMR relaxation method as a diagnostic tool for donor blood analysis and patients with hematologic diseases and burns].  

PubMed

Diagnostic value of the NMR-relaxation method in the blood plasma was estimated in the patients with different pathologies. The time of hydrogen nuclei longitudinal relaxation (T1) in the health donors of the blood, in the patients with oncopathology (hemoblastoses) and in the cases with anemia and burning disease were investigated. The time of the longitudinal relaxation (T1) was measured by automated NMR-relaxometer "Palma" (Russia). The working frequency was equal to 35 MHz, the temperature was 45 +/- 0.1 degrees C. For the single measurement 0.2 ml of blood obtained from heparinized venous blood 1.5 hours after its taking was used. The time of the longitudinal relaxation (T1) was shown to be 1.78 +/- 0.02 in the health donors, 1.70 +/- 0.06 s in cases with anemia, 1.97 +/- 0.48 c in patients with leucosis, 2.40 +/- 0.12 s in patients with burns. The sensitivity and the specificity of diagnostics of leucosis based upon the results of the only single T1 measurement in blood plasma were concluded to be 75%. It proves the significant T1 change both in patients with anemia and burning disease of the II-III degree. However it is evidently insufficient for selective use of NMR-relaxation blood plasma (serum) in the diagnostics of anemia and leucosis. The data obtained prove also the possibility of use of NMR-relaxation blood plasma (serum) for control of the hemostasis state during treatment or remission. PMID:12362635

Gangardt, M G; Popova, O V; Shmarov, D A; Kariakina, N F; Papish, E A; Kozinets, G I

2002-08-01

216

Depression and suicidal behavior in adolescents: a multi-informant and multi-methods approach to diagnostic classification  

PubMed Central

Background: Informant discrepancies have been reported between parent and adolescent measures of depressive disorders and suicidality. We aimed to examine the concordance between adolescent and parent ratings of depressive disorder using both clinical interview and questionnaire measures and assess multi-informant and multi-method approaches to classification. Method: Within the context of assessment of eligibility for a randomized clinical trial, 50 parent–adolescent pairs (mean age of adolescents = 15.0 years) were interviewed separately with a structured diagnostic interview for depression, the KID-SCID. Adolescent self-report and parent-report versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire were also administered. We examined the diagnostic concordance rates of the parent vs. adolescent structured interview methods and the prediction of adolescent diagnosis via questionnaire methods. Results: Parent proxy reporting of adolescent depression and suicidal thoughts and behavior is not strongly concordant with adolescent report. Adolescent self-reported symptoms on depression scales provide a more accurate report of diagnosable adolescent depression than parent proxy reports of adolescent depressive symptoms. Adolescent self-report measures can be combined to improve the accuracy of classification. Parents tend to over report their adolescent’s depressive symptoms while under reporting their suicidal thoughts and behavior. Conclusion: Parent proxy report is clearly less reliable than the adolescent’s own report of their symptoms and subjective experiences, and could be considered inaccurate for research purposes. While parent report would still be sought clinically where an adolescent refuses to provide information, our findings suggest that parent reporting of adolescent suicidality should be interpreted with caution. PMID:25101031

Lewis, Andrew J.; Bertino, Melanie D.; Bailey, Catherine M.; Skewes, Joanna; Lubman, Dan I.; Toumbourou, John W.

2014-01-01

217

Diagnostic accuracy of Kato-Katz, FLOTAC, Baermann, and PCR methods for the detection of light-intensity hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis infections in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Sensitive diagnostic tools are crucial for an accurate assessment of helminth infections in low-endemicity areas. We examined stool samples from Tanzanian individuals and compared the diagnostic accuracy of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the FLOTAC technique and the Kato-Katz method for hookworm and the Baermann method for Strongyloides stercoralis detection. Only FLOTAC had a higher sensitivity than the Kato-Katz method for hookworm diagnosis; the sensitivities of PCR and the Kato-Katz method were equal. PCR had a very low sensitivity for S. stercoralis detection. The cycle threshold values of the PCR were negatively correlated with the logarithm of hookworm egg and S. stercoralis larvae counts. The median larvae count was significantly lower in PCR false negatives than true positives. All methods failed to detect very low-intensity infections. New diagnostic approaches are needed for monitoring of progressing helminth control programs, confirmation of elimination, or surveillance of disease recrudescence. PMID:24445211

Knopp, Stefanie; Salim, Nahya; Schindler, Tobias; Karagiannis Voules, Dimitrios A; Rothen, Julian; Lweno, Omar; Mohammed, Alisa S; Singo, Raymond; Benninghoff, Myrna; Nsojo, Anthony A; Genton, Blaise; Daubenberger, Claudia

2014-03-01

218

Multi-method analysis of MRI images in early diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The role of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming more and more emphasized in the early diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to assess the improvement in classification accuracy that can be achieved by combining features from different structural MRI analysis techniques. Automatically estimated MR features used are hippocampal volume, tensor-based morphometry, cortical thickness and a novel technique based on manifold learning. Baseline MRIs acquired from all 834 subjects (231 healthy controls (HC), 238 stable mild cognitive impairment (S-MCI), 167 MCI to AD progressors (P-MCI), 198 AD) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database were used for evaluation. We compared the classification accuracy achieved with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machines (SVM). The best results achieved with individual features are 90% sensitivity and 84% specificity (HC/AD classification), 64%/66% (S-MCI/P-MCI) and 82%/76% (HC/P-MCI) with the LDA classifier. The combination of all features improved these results to 93% sensitivity and 85% specificity (HC/AD), 67%/69% (S-MCI/P-MCI) and 86%/82% (HC/P-MCI). Compared with previously published results in the ADNI database using individual MR-based features, the presented results show that a comprehensive analysis of MRI images combining multiple features improves classification accuracy and predictive power in detecting early AD. The most stable and reliable classification was achieved when combining all available features. PMID:22022397

Wolz, Robin; Julkunen, Valtteri; Koikkalainen, Juha; Niskanen, Eini; Zhang, Dong Ping; Rueckert, Daniel; Soininen, Hilkka; Lötjönen, Jyrki

2011-01-01

219

Sub-clinical diseases affecting performance in Standardbred trotters: diagnostic methods and predictive parameters.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical diseases in poorly-performing Standardbred horses, compare their physiological response to exercise with control horses, and identify predictive parameters of poor-performance. Fifty horses underwent thorough clinical and ancillary examinations, including haematological and biochemical evaluation, Doppler echocardiography, standardised exercise tests (SETs) on both treadmill and racetrack, treadmill video-endoscopy and collection of respiratory fluids. Most of the poorly-performing horses exhibited many concomitant diseases. The most frequently diagnosed problems involved the lower and upper respiratory tract and the musculoskeletal system. Poor-performers had lower speeds at a blood lactate (LA) concentration of 4mmol/L (V(LA4)) and a heart rate (HR) of 200bpm (V(200)) on treadmill and racetrack, as well as lower values for haematological parameters, plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme and antioxidants, compared to control horses. Problems of the respiratory system were the most frequently diagnosed sub-clinical diseases affecting performance. SETs, together with some blood markers, may be useful as a non-specific diagnostic tool for early detection of diseases that may affect performance. PMID:19477143

Richard, Eric A; Fortier, Guillaume D; Pitel, Pierre-Hugues; Dupuis, Marie-Capucine; Valette, Jean-Paul; Art, Tatiana; Denoix, Jean-Marie; Lekeux, Pierre M; Erck, Emmanuelle Van

2010-06-01

220

Novel readout method for molecular diagnostic assays based on optical measurements of magnetic nanobead dynamics.  

PubMed

We demonstrate detection of DNA coils formed from a Vibrio cholerae DNA target at picomolar concentrations using a novel optomagnetic approach exploiting the dynamic behavior and optical anisotropy of magnetic nanobead (MNB) assemblies. We establish that the complex second harmonic optical transmission spectra of MNB suspensions measured upon application of a weak uniaxial AC magnetic field correlate well with the rotation dynamics of the individual MNBs. Adding a target analyte to the solution leads to the formation of permanent MNB clusters, namely, to the suppression of the dynamic MNB behavior. We prove that the optical transmission spectra are highly sensitive to the formation of permanent MNB clusters and, thereby to the target analyte concentration. As a specific clinically relevant diagnostic case, we detect DNA coils formed via padlock probe recognition and isothermal rolling circle amplification and benchmark against a commercial equipment. The results demonstrate the fast optomagnetic readout of rolling circle products from bacterial DNA utilizing the dynamic properties of MNBs in a miniaturized and low-cost platform requiring only a transparent window in the chip. PMID:25539065

Donolato, Marco; Antunes, Paula; Bejhed, Rebecca S; Zardán Gómez de la Torre, Teresa; Østerberg, Frederik W; Strömberg, Mattias; Nilsson, Mats; Strømme, Maria; Svedlindh, Peter; Hansen, Mikkel F; Vavassori, Paolo

2015-02-01

221

A diagnostic for determining the quality of single-reference electron correlation methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was recently proposed that the Euclidian norm of the t(sub 1) vector of the coupled cluster wave function (normalized by the number of electrons included in the correlation procedure) could be used to determine whether a single-reference-based electron correlation procedure is appopriate. This diagnostic, T(sub 1) is defined for use with self-consistent-field molecular orbitals and is invariant to the same orbital rotations as the coupled cluster energy. T(sub 1) is investigated for several different chemical systems which exhibit a range of multireference behavior, and is shown to be an excellent measure of the importance of non-dynamical electron correlation and is far superior to C(sub 0) from a singles and doubles configuration interaction wave function. It is further suggested that when the aim is to recover a large fraction of the dynamical electron correlation energy, a large T(sub 1) (i.e., greater than 0.02) probably indicates the need for a multireference electron correlation procedure.

Lee, Timothy J.; Taylor, Peter R.

1989-01-01

222

A diagnostic for determining the quality of single-reference electron correlation methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was recently proposed that the Euclidian norm of the t sub 1 vector of the coupled cluster wave function (normalized by the number of electrons included in the correlation procedure) could be used to determine whether a single-reference-based electron correlation procedure is appropriate. This diagnostic, T sub 1, is defined for use with self consistent field molecular orbitals and is invariant to the same orbital rotations as the coupled cluster energy. T sub 1 is investigated for several different chemical systems which exhibit a range of multireference behavior, and is shown to be an excellent measure of the importance of nondynamical electron correlation and is far superior to C sub 0 from a singles and doubles configuration interaction wave function. It is further suggested that when the aim is to recover a large fraction of the dynamical electron correlation energy, a large T sub 1 (i.e., greater than 0.02) probably indicates the need for a multireference electron correlation procedure.

Lee, Timothy J.; Taylor, Peter R.

1989-01-01

223

Nasal Discharge Cytology an Important Diagnostic Method for Allergic Fungal Sinusitis: Report of Three Cases  

PubMed Central

Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a distinct clinicopathological entity. It occurs in immunocompetent individuals with history of atopy, increased IgE levels and peripheral eosinophilia and causes noninvasive pansinusitis. It is histologically characterised by the presence of ‘allergic mucin’ with clusters of eosinophils, charcot – Leyden crystals and scattered fungal hyphae. AFS is an immunological reaction to fungal deposits. As AFS is noninvasive, fungal hyphae can be demonstrated in nasal secretions on cytology. Etiological agent of AFS is Aspergillus or pigmented dematiaceous family. Special stains are helpful for identification. We came across three cases of age group ranging from 26 to 60-year of recurrent rhinitis with nasal discharge. The nasal secretions were collected by nasal swabs onto the glass slide and stained with Giemsa and silver stains. Smears revealed fungal hyphae amidst inflammatory cells with occasional Charcot-Leyden crystals. Nasal secretion cytology plays an important role in diagnosis and can be used for preoperative as well as intraoperative diagnosis of AFS and can be used as an additional diagnostic tool. PMID:24783101

Rane, Sharada Raju; Kadgi, Nalini Vinayak; Agrawal, Sonal Ashok; Kavatkar, Anita Neelkanth

2014-01-01

224

Cyberspace modernization :  

SciTech Connect

A common challenge across the communications and information technology (IT) sectors is Internet + modernization + complexity + risk + cost. Cyberspace modernization and cyber security risks, issues, and concerns impact service providers, their customers, and the industry at large. Public and private sectors are struggling to solve the problem. New service opportunities lie in mobile voice, video, and data, and machine-to-machine (M2M) information and communication technologies that are migrating not only to predominant Internet Protocol (IP) communications, but also concurrently integrating IP, version 4 (IPv4) and IP, version 6 (IPv6). With reference to the Second Internet and the Internet of Things, next generation information services portend business survivability in the changing global market. The planning, architecture, and design information herein is intended to increase infrastructure preparedness, security, interoperability, resilience, and trust in the midst of such unprecedented change and opportunity. This document is a product of Sandia National Laboratories Tribal Cyber and IPv6 project work. It is a Cyberspace Modernization objective advisory in support of bridging the digital divide through strategic partnership and an informed path forward.

Keliiaa, Curtis M.; McLane, Victor N.

2014-07-01

225

Tate Modern  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yesterday, Queen Elizabeth II officially opened the Tate Modern, Britain's new national museum of modern art housed in a former power station on London's Bankside. Those who weren't invited to the gala opening party last night and can't make it to the official public opening today can still visit the new museum online. In addition to the ordinary visiting information, special exhibitions, and so forth, the site offers a complete overview of the works displayed in each of its four themed groups. Though modern sounding, the four display themes (Landscape/ Matter/ Environment; Still Life/ Object/ Real Life; Nude/ Action/ Body; and History/ Memory/ Society) are actually based on the major genres of art established by the French Academy in the seventeenth century: landscape, still life, the nude, and history painting. Clicking on a section will bring up a list of rooms, each of which links to a short description and list of works. From this list, users can access more information on a particular work (and an image when available) and other pieces by the same artist held at Tate galleries via the Tate Collections Website (see the June 11, 1999 Scout Report).

226

Clinical and Demographic Stratification of Test Performance: A Pooled Analysis of Five Laboratory Diagnostic Methods for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

We evaluated performance characteristics of five diagnostic methods for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Patients who came to the Leishmania Clinic of Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru, were enrolled in the study. Lesion smears, culture, microculture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and leishmanin skin test (LST) were performed. A total of 145 patients with 202 lesions were enrolled: 114 patients with 161 lesions fulfilled criteria for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Sensitivity and specificity were 57.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 50.2–65.4%) and 100.0% for culture, 78.3% (95% CI = 71.9–84.7%) and 100.0% for microculture, 71.4% (95% CI = 64.4–78.4%) and 100.0% for smears, 78.2% (95% CI = 70.6–85.8%) and 77.4% (95% CI = 62.7–92.1%) for LST, and 96.9% (95% CI = 94.2–99.6%) and 65.9% (95% CI = 51.4–80.4%) for PCR. PCR was more sensitive than the other assays (P < 0.001). Sensitivities of culture, smears, and LST varied by lesion duration and appearance. PCR offers performance advantages over other assays, irrespective of patient age, sex, lesion duration, or appearance. That clinical factors influence performance of non-molecular assays offers clinicians a patient-focused approach to diagnostic test selection. PMID:20682880

Boggild, Andrea K.; Ramos, Ana P.; Espinosa, Diego; Valencia, Braulio M.; Veland, Nicolas; Miranda-Verastegui, Cesar; Arevalo, Jorge; Low, Donald E.; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

2010-01-01

227

Coronal diagnostics.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an introduction to this part of the proceedings and an overview of coronal diagnostics. The current understanding of coronal loops is summarized. Included are observations from ground-based radio telescopes and from X ray telescopes lofted above the atmosphere, as well as theoretical interpretations of these observations. Also included in these introductory remarks is a discussion of the three dimensional structure of coronal loops. Alternative radiation mechanisms are then described within the context of both the radio and X ray emission. Various methods of determining the strength and structure of the coronal magnetic field are then described, followed by the coronae of nearby stars and future prospects for radio diagnostic of coronal loops.

Lang, Kenneth R.

1986-01-01

228

Comparison of modelling methods and of diagnostic of asynchronous motor in case of defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to provide the reader with a comparison base between several methods of modelling and diagnosis of faulted induction machine. In the case of high precision modelling, the paper presents several methods used to simulate the faulted induction machine such as: the extended Park model, the analytical three-phase model, the coupled magnetic circuit model, the

R. Casimir; E. Bouteleux; H. Yahoui; G. Clerc; H. Henao; C. Delmotte; G.-A. Capolino; G. Rostaing; J.-P. Rognon; E. Foulon; L. Loron; H. Razik; G. Didier; G. Houdouin; G. Barakat; B. Dakyo; S. Bachir; S. Tnani; G. Champenois; J.-C. Trigeassou; V. Devanneaux; B. Dagues; J. Faucher

2004-01-01

229

Mesenteric vascular occlusion: a new diagnostic method using a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody reactive with platelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for diagnosing mesenteric vaso-occlusive bowel disease with the use of radioimmunoscintigraphy was developed and tested in experimental models of arterial and venous disease, as well as in a model simulating bowel strangulation. The method involves the use of a monoclonal antibody fragment mixture that binds to platelets. The antibody was labeled with technetium-99m, and imaging was performed

Z. H. Oster; P. Som; P. O. Zamora

1989-01-01

230

Diagnostic accuracy of existing methods for identifying diabetic foot ulcers from inpatient and outpatient datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: As the number of persons with diabetes is projected to double in the next 25 years in the US, an accurate method of identifying diabetic foot ulcers in population-based data sources are ever more important for disease surveillance and public health purposes. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the accuracy of existing methods and to propose a

Min-Woong Sohn; Elly Budiman-Mak; Rodney M Stuck; Farah Siddiqui; Todd A Lee

2010-01-01

231

[Diagnostic strategy in urolithiasis].  

PubMed

The roentgenological diagnostics of urolithiasis must be carried out with regard to the therapeutic consequences. With the appropriate use of new imaging methods the prevailing techniques are native radiographs and sonography for proof or rejection of suspected renal calculus. Excretion urography is no longer justified as the primary method of investigation. Already practically proven diagnostic schedules are described. Interdisciplinary cooperation of radiologist and urologist is essential for the introduction of diagnostic strategies into practice. PMID:2678233

Kunz, B; Baars, H G; Heuer, H H; Pfannenberg, C

1989-01-01

232

Comparative analysis of cervical cytology and human papillomavirus genotyping by three different methods in a routine diagnostic setting.  

PubMed

Application of Bethesda guidelines on cervical cytology involves human papillomavirus (HPV) determinations on all ASC-US and ASC-H results. We compared HPV DNA results in view of the eventual development of a cervical intraepithelial neoplasia lesion determined either on cytology or histology. A total of 214 liquid-based cytology samples were analysed. Three different HPV DNA methods were applied: the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test, INNO-Lipa HPV Genotyping Extra and Full Spectrum PCR HPV Amplification and Detection/Genotyping System by Lab2Lab Diagnostic Service. A comparison of these three methods showed full concordance only for 49 samples (23%), and 27 (13%) of the samples were discordant in indicating the presence of the high-risk HPV type. Out of 214 patients, 88 were selected who presented with a cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or a VAIN lesion at follow-up cytology or histology. In this group, full concordance with HPV genotyping was present only in 19 (22%) follow-up samples. Nine (10%) follow-up samples showed discordant results for the presence of a high-risk genotype between the three genotyping methods tested either by negativity for high-risk HPV by one of the methods (n=6) or by failure to genotype HPV (n=2), or by a combination of both (n=1). Moreover, discordance for the detection of HPV16 or HPV18 was observed between the three HPV DNA genotyping methods used in 9 (10%) follow-up samples. In addition, the performance of genotyping methods on 20 external quality samples was assessed, showing discordant results for HPV16 and HPV18. Major differences were found in the genotyping results according to the HPV DNA method. Our findings highlight the importance of careful interpretation of data from studies using different HPV genotyping methods and underline the need for standardization by method validation in clinical laboratories, especially in the setting of primary HPV screening. PMID:25370681

Padalko, Elizaveta; Ali-Risasi, Catherine; Mesmaekers, Stéphanie; Ryckaert, Inge; Van Renterghem, Lieve; Lambein, Kathleen; Bamelis, Mieke; De Mey, Anja; Sturtewagen, Yolande; Vastenavond, Hilde; Broeck, Davy Vanden; Weyers, Steven; Praet, Marleen

2014-11-01

233

Evaluation of three different methods of distance learning for postgraduate diagnostic imaging education: A pilot study.  

PubMed

Objective : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceived effectiveness and learning potential of 3 Web-based educational methods in a postgraduate radiology setting. Methods : Three chiropractic radiology faculty from diverse geographic locations led mini-courses using asynchronous discussion boards, synchronous Web conferencing, and asynchronous voice-over case presentations formatted for Web viewing. At the conclusion of each course, participants filled out a 14-question survey (using a 5-point Likert scale) designed to evaluate the effectiveness of each method in achieving specified course objectives and goals and their satisfaction when considering the learning potential of each method. The mean, standard deviation, and percentage agreements were tabulated. Results : Twenty, 15, and 10 participants completed the discussion board, Web conferencing, and case presentation surveys, respectively. All educational methods demonstrated a high level of agreement regarding the course objective (total mean rating >4.1). The case presentations had the highest overall rating for achieving the course goals; however, all but one method still had total mean ratings >4.0 and overall agreement levels of 70%-100%. The strongest potential for interactive learning was found with Web conferencing and discussion boards, while case presentations rated very low in this regard. Conclusions : The perceived effectiveness in achieving the course objective and goals was high for each method. Residency-based distance education may be a beneficial adjunct to current methods of training, allowing for international collaboration. When considering all aspects tested, there does not appear to be a clear advantage to any one method. Utilizing various methods may be most appropriate. PMID:24779546

Poirier, Jean-Nicolas; Cooley, Jeffrey R; Wessely, Michelle; Guebert, Gary M; Petrocco-Napuli, Kristina

2014-10-01

234

Evaluation of three different methods of distance learning for postgraduate diagnostic imaging education: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceived effectiveness and learning potential of 3 Web-based educational methods in a postgraduate radiology setting. Methods Three chiropractic radiology faculty from diverse geographic locations led mini-courses using asynchronous discussion boards, synchronous Web conferencing, and asynchronous voice-over case presentations formatted for Web viewing. At the conclusion of each course, participants filled out a 14-question survey (using a 5-point Likert scale) designed to evaluate the effectiveness of each method in achieving specified course objectives and goals and their satisfaction when considering the learning potential of each method. The mean, standard deviation, and percentage agreements were tabulated. Results Twenty, 15, and 10 participants completed the discussion board, Web conferencing, and case presentation surveys, respectively. All educational methods demonstrated a high level of agreement regarding the course objective (total mean rating >4.1). The case presentations had the highest overall rating for achieving the course goals; however, all but one method still had total mean ratings >4.0 and overall agreement levels of 70%–100%. The strongest potential for interactive learning was found with Web conferencing and discussion boards, while case presentations rated very low in this regard. Conclusions The perceived effectiveness in achieving the course objective and goals was high for each method. Residency-based distance education may be a beneficial adjunct to current methods of training, allowing for international collaboration. When considering all aspects tested, there does not appear to be a clear advantage to any one method. Utilizing various methods may be most appropriate. PMID:24779546

Poirier, Jean-Nicolas; Cooley, Jeffrey R.; Wessely, Michelle; Guebert, Gary M.; Petrocco-Napuli, Kristina

2014-01-01

235

CONCEPTUAL MODELS AND METHODS TO GUIDE DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH INTO CAUSES OF IMPAIRMENT TO AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods and conceptual models to guide the development of tools for diagnosing the causes of biological impairment within aquatic ecosystems of the United States are described in this report. The conceptual models developed here address nutrients, suspended and bedded sediments (...

236

Development of an HPTLC-based diagnostic method for invasive aspergillosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid, sensitive and specifi c high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for determination of gliotoxin in Aspergillus infected immunocompromised patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA). Densitometric analysis of gliotoxin was carried out in the absorbance mode at 254 nm after single-step extraction with chlo- roform. The method uses TLC aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F-254 as

Alka Puri; Ajaz Ahmad; Bibhu Prasad Panda

2010-01-01

237

Dolichoectasia Diagnostic Methods in a Multi-Ethnic, Stroke-Free Cohort: Results from the Northern Manhattan Study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Dolichoectasia (DE) is a vasculopathy that consists of abnormal elongation and dilatation of arteries. The objective of this study is to evaluate the frequency of DE in an unselected population and assess different diagnostic methods. METHODS The Northern Manhattan Study is a multiethnic population based cohort of stroke-free participants. The definition proposed for DE was total cranial volume (TCV)-adjusted arterial diameter ?2 SD. Other methods studied included visual assessment, unadjusted arterial diameters cutoff, Smoker's criteria and basilar artery (BA) volume. RESULTS A total of 718 subjects were included in the analysis (mean age 71.6 ± 8.0 years, 40% men, 61% Hispanic). Using the TCV-adjusted DE definition, 19% of the sample had at least one dolichoectatic artery. In 7% of the subjects, two or more arteries were affected. The BA was the most common dolichoectatic artery. Reproducibility for arterial diameter measurements was good to excellent (.70–.95), while for visual assessment ranged from fair to good (.49–.79). CONCLUSIONS A TCV-adjusted intracranial arterial diameter ?2 SD is proposed as a useful DE definition. The variability in the prevalence of DE depending on the methods used underscores the need to agree on a reliable, universal definition of DE. PMID:23317292

Gutierrez, Jose; Bagci, Ahmet; Gardener, Hannah; Rundek, Tatjana; Ekind, Mitchell S. V.; Alperin, Noam; Sacco, Ralph L.; Wright, Clinton B.

2015-01-01

238

FLOTAC for the diagnosis of Hymenolepis spp. infection: proof-of-concept and comparing diagnostic accuracy with other methods.  

PubMed

Hymenolepis nana is the most common cestode parasitizing humans, yet it is under-diagnosed. We determined the optimal flotation solution (FS) for the diagnosis of this intestinal parasite with the FLOTAC method, and compared its diagnostic accuracy with an ether-concentration technique and the Kato-Katz method. Zinc sulphate (specific gravity 1.20) proved to be the best-performing FS. Using this FS, we detected 65 H. nana infections among 234 fixed fecal samples from Tajik and Sahrawi children (prevalence 27.8 %). The ether-concentration technique detected 40 infections (prevalence 17.1 %) in the same samples. Considering the combined results as a reference, the sensitivities of FLOTAC and ether-concentration were 95.6 % and 58.8 %, respectively. The Kato-Katz method resulted in a prevalence of only 8.7 %. In terms of eggs per gram of stool, a significantly (P <0.05) higher value was obtained with the FLOTAC and Kato-Katz techniques compared to ether-concentration. In another study carried out in China, the FLOTAC method detected six Hymenolepis diminuta infections in 302 fecal samples, whereas five samples were found positive with the Kato-Katz technique. We conclude that FLOTAC is an accurate coprodiagnostic technique for H. nana and H. diminuta, two species which join a growing list of intestinal parasites that can be reliably diagnosed by this technique. PMID:22461006

Steinmann, Peter; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Bruschi, Fabrizio; Matthys, Barbara; Lohourignon, Laurent K; Castagna, Barbara; Maurelli, Maria P; Morgoglione, Maria E; Utzinger, Jürg; Rinaldi, Laura

2012-08-01

239

Diagnostic Accuracy and Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Methods for Detection of Soil-Transmitted Helminths in a Post-Treatment Setting in Western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC methods for detection of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in a post-treatment setting in western Kenya. A cost analysis also explores the cost implications of collecting samples during school surveys when compared to household surveys. Methods Stool samples were collected from children (n?=?652) attending 18 schools in Bungoma County and diagnosed by the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC coprological methods. Sensitivity and additional diagnostic performance measures were analyzed using Bayesian latent class modeling. Financial and economic costs were calculated for all survey and diagnostic activities, and cost per child tested, cost per case detected and cost per STH infection correctly classified were estimated. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the impact of various survey parameters on cost estimates. Results Both diagnostic methods exhibited comparable sensitivity for detection of any STH species over single and consecutive day sampling: 52.0% for single day Kato-Katz; 49.1% for single-day Mini-FLOTAC; 76.9% for consecutive day Kato-Katz; and 74.1% for consecutive day Mini-FLOTAC. Diagnostic performance did not differ significantly between methods for the different STH species. Use of Kato-Katz with school-based sampling was the lowest cost scenario for cost per child tested ($10.14) and cost per case correctly classified ($12.84). Cost per case detected was lowest for Kato-Katz used in community-based sampling ($128.24). Sensitivity analysis revealed the cost of case detection for any STH decreased non-linearly as prevalence rates increased and was influenced by the number of samples collected. Conclusions The Kato-Katz method was comparable in diagnostic sensitivity to the Mini-FLOTAC method, but afforded greater cost-effectiveness. Future work is required to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of STH surveillance in different settings. PMID:24810593

Kepha, Stella; Kihara, Jimmy H.; Njenga, Sammy M.; Pullan, Rachel L.; Brooker, Simon J.

2014-01-01

240

[The diagnostic efficiency of the methods of separate and combined registration of oronasal airflow and pulse oximetry for detection of the obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome].  

PubMed

The diagnostic efficiency of the methods of separate and combined registration of oronasal airflow and pulse oximetry in order to identify the obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is studied in this work. Patients with cardiovascular diseases with complaints on sleep disorders were included in the study. Combined registration of oronasal airflow and pulse oximetry during sleep were performed for all examined patients (diagnostic system ApneaLink with pulse oximetry, ResMed). Registration results of oronasal airflow and pulse oximetry were analyzed separately and together. Apnea/hypopnea index (classic, recommended), desaturation index with a threshold of desaturation of 4% and 3% were evaluated as the diagnostic criteria for the identification of OSAHS. Also, in this paper the "apnea/hypopnea combined index" summarizing hypopnea episodes, which are associated with significant desaturation and without desaturation, was tested. As a method of comparison, polysomnography (Embla N7000, MedCare Flaga), which was carried out simultaneously with the main study, was used. The diagnostic efficiency of test methods and their criteria assessed by ROC-analysis (receiver operator characteristic, the characteristic curve analysis). The results of the study showed that combined registration of respiratory oronasal airflow and pulse oximetry during sleep was most effectively identified OSAHS and can be used as a screening method. The most accurate diagnostic criterion for identification of OSAHS is an "apnea/hypopnea combined index". PMID:24090391

Eroshina, E V; Kalinkin, A L; Sidorenko, B A

2013-01-01

241

Diagnostics of lathe spindles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed rapid diagnostic method for lathe spindles is based on tests with no load (test I), with a steady load (turning smooth surfaces; test II), and with a cyclic load (turning discontinuous surfaces; test III). In the method, the actual spectral characteristics of the diagnostic signal obtained from the spindle in the three tests are measured and, on that

S. F. Zolotykh; S. M. Turanosov

2009-01-01

242

Radio diagnostics of the solar flaring loop parameters by the forward fitting method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical methods for solving the inverse problem of determining solar flaring loop physical parameters are sought and developed. This problem can be solved by fitting theoretically calculated radio emission characteristics (the flux or the degree of circular polarization) to the observed characteristics. Such a fitting is reduced to the solution of a system of equations with the observed and theoretically calculated radio emission characteristics on the right- and left-hand sides, respectively. The genetic algorithm method, which demonstrated good accuracy and calculation time when five parameters of a model flaring loop were recovered, has been used in fitting. After testing this method on the model sources, an algorithm was used to recover four parameters of the real flaring loop using the Nobeyama Radioheliograph data.

Morgachev, A. S.; Kuznetsov, S. A.; Melnikov, V. F.

2014-12-01

243

A high-throughput diagnostic method for measuring human exposure to organophosphorus nerve agents.  

PubMed

An automated high-throughput immunomagnetic separation (IMS) method for diagnosing exposure to the organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNAs) sarin (GB), cyclohexylsarin (GF), VX, and Russian VX (RVX) was developed to increase sample processing capacity for emergency response applications. Diagnosis of exposure to OPNAs was based on the formation of OPNA adducts to butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Data reported with this method represent a ratio of the agent-specific BuChE adduct concentration, relative to the total BuChE peptide concentration that provides a nonactivity measurement expressed as percent adducted. All magnetic bead transfer steps and washes were performed using instrumentation in a 96-well format allowing for simultaneous extraction of 86 clinical samples plus reference materials. Automating extractions increased sample throughput 50-fold, as compared to a previously reported manual method. The limits of detection, determined using synthetic peptides, were 1 ng/mL for unadducted BuChE and GB-, GF-, VX-, and RVX-adducted BuChE. The automated method was characterized using unexposed serum and serum pools exposed to GB, GF, VX, or RVX. Variation for the measurement of percent adducted was <12% for all characterized quality control serum pools. Twenty-six (26) serum samples from individuals asymptomatic for cholinesterase inhibitor exposure were analyzed using this method, and no background levels of OPNA exposure were observed. Unexposed BuChE serum concentrations measured using this method ranged from 2.8 ?g/mL to 10.6 ?g/mL, with an average concentration of 6.4 ?g/mL. PMID:23083472

Knaack, Jennifer S; Zhou, Yingtao; Abney, Carter W; Jacob, Justin T; Prezioso, Samantha M; Hardy, Katelyn; Lemire, Sharon W; Thomas, Jerry; Johnson, Rudolph C

2012-11-01

244

[Methods for the determination of the tube voltage in diagnostic radiology].  

PubMed

The roentgenologist is often confronted with the problem of checking on the proper adjustment of the tube voltage as part of quality control of medical x-ray equipment, either when it is in the process of installation or when servicing is required. The article describes a few non-invasive methods which differ from each other in respect of cost, effort and accuracy. With increased precision of voltage determination, the cost of the measuring instrument also increases, and in some cases the total amount of equipment and effort as well. However, the few relatively simple methods can also be employed with satisfactory results. PMID:6823532

Ewen, K

1983-01-01

245

Dielectric characterization of power transformer oils as a diagnostic life prediction method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monitoring of the complex permittivity of transformer oils as a function of frequency and temperature provides information concerning the state of the insulation. In this work, it has been investigated as a quality control method, providing service life estimations of power transformations. The formation of databases recording polarization effects in a wide frequency and temperature range may be used

C. T. Dervos; C. D. Paraskevas; P. Skafidas; P. Vassiliou

2005-01-01

246

Diagnostic Methods for and Clinical Pictures of Polyomavirus Primary Infections in Children, Finland  

PubMed Central

We used comprehensive serodiagnostic methods (IgM, IgG, and IgG avidity) and PCR to study Merkel cell polyomavirus and trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus infections in children observed from infancy to adolescence. Comparing seroconversion intervals with previous and subsequent intervals, we found that primary infections with these 2 viruses were asymptomatic in childhood. PMID:24655410

Tanner, Laura; Simell, Ville; Hedman, Lea; Mäkinen, Marjaana; Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Veijola, Riitta; Hyöty, Heikki; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael; Toppari, Jorma; Simell, Olli; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Hedman, Klaus

2014-01-01

247

An evaluation of poultry avian influenza diagnostic methods with domestic duck specimens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Monitoring of poultry, including domestic ducks, for avian influenza virus (AI) virus has increased considerably in recent years. However, the current methods validated for the diagnosis and detection of AI virus infection in chickens and turkeys have not been evaluated for performance with samples...

248

A Statistical, Rule-Based Fault Detection and Diagnostic Method for Vapor Compression Air Conditioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for automated detection and diagnosis of faults in vapor compression air conditioners that only requires temperature measurements, and one humidity measurement. The differences between measured thermodynamic states and predicted states obtained from models for normal performance (residuals) are used as performance indices for both fault detection and diagnosis. For fault detection, statistical properties of the

Todd M. Rossi; James E. Braun

1997-01-01

249

Comparison of Resource Requirements for a Wind Tunnel Test Designed with Conventional vs. Modern Design of Experiments Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The factors that determine data volume requirements in a typical wind tunnel test are identified. It is suggested that productivity in wind tunnel testing can be enhanced by managing the inference error risk associated with evaluating residuals in a response surface modeling experiment. The relationship between minimum data volume requirements and the factors upon which they depend is described and certain simplifications to this relationship are realized when specific model adequacy criteria are adopted. The question of response model residual evaluation is treated and certain practical aspects of response surface modeling are considered, including inference subspace truncation. A wind tunnel test plan developed by using the Modern Design of Experiments illustrates the advantages of an early estimate of data volume requirements. Comparisons are made with a representative One Factor At a Time (OFAT) wind tunnel test matrix developed to evaluate a surface to air missile.

DeLoach, Richard; Micol, John R.

2011-01-01

250

Superparamagnetic-bead Based Method: An Effective DNA Extraction from Dried Blood Spots (DBS) for Diagnostic PCR  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Storing blood as dried spots on filter paper is a trustworthy approach used in genetic screening issues which justifies the necessity for a reliable DNA extraction method. The present work aims to investigate the effectiveness of superparamagnetic-bead based method in extracting DNA from dried blood spots (DBS). Materials and Methods: Sixteen venous blood samples collected in K3-EDTA tubes (400?l of whole blood) were used for the spotting (4 circles each 100?l) on Ahlstrom 226 grad filter papers, for extraction and comparison. To ensure effectiveness, the extracted DNA was checked for quantity using the Quant-iT™ dsDNA Broad-Range Assay Kit and for quality by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 344 bp segment of the HBB gene. Hybridization assays based on the dynamic allele specific hybridization (DASH) technique for two hemoglobin beta (HBB) mutations in genomic DNA extracted from DBS of ß-thalassemia patients were also performed to ensure the quality of extraction. Results: The results revealed a compatible effectiveness of the superparamagnetic-bead based method in extracting DNA from DBS particularly when incubating the DBS with lysis buffers BL+BLM overnight. A mean concentration of 21ng/ ?l was obtained with lysis buffers BL+BLM overnight incubation compared to 5.2 ng/?l for 2 h incubation with lysis buffers BL+BLM and 4.7 ng/?l when extraction performed using the lysis buffer BLM alone. Moreover, PCR amplification of 344 bp segment of the HBB showed a good quality of the extracted DNA. Conclusion: It was concluded that the superparamagnetic-bead based method is a reliable and effective method for DNA extraction from DBS and can be adopted for genetic diagnostic purposes. PMID:24959449

2014-01-01

251

[HCMV infections after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation--diagnostic methods and importance of viral DNA level monitoring].  

PubMed

HCMV infection is very common. The virus infects 30-90% of population. In immunocompromised patients effective elimination of the virus by immune system is limited by immunosuppressive therapy. Active hCMV infection after HSCT can lead to severe posttransplant complications, graft failure or even death. In addition to direct effects of hCMV infection the virus can cause indirect effects in transplant recipients such as increased immunosuppression or GvHD development/progression. Laboratory diagnostic of hCMV infections after HSCT is now routinely used. Fast and sensitive molecular methods that detect hCMV genetic material are found particularly useful. Quantitative methods, such as R-T PCR, enable identification of patients at high risk of developing hCMV disease and fast employment of appropriate prophylaxis or treatment. Moreover it allows precise monitoring of treatment efficiency and facilitates therapy - related decisions. In last years pre-emptive therapy, which depends on viral load molecular monitoring, significantly reduced morbidity and mortality of active hCMV infections in HSCT recipients. Selective prophylaxis approach enables reduction of patients treated with toxic antiviral therapy which is associated with delayed restoration of virus - specific immune response. Occurrence of symptomatic hCMV disease is still associated with high mortality among HSCT recipients. HCMV infection diagnosis requires further development. Quantitative methods should be unified and optimized. PMID:25720612

Bocian, Joanna; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta

2015-01-01

252

Measurement and Analysis of Olfactory Responses with the Aim of Establishing an Objective Diagnostic Method for Central Olfactory Disorders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to establish a new diagnostic method for central olfactory disorders and to identify objective indicators, we measured and analyzed brain activities in the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus, region of responsibility for central olfactory disorders. The relationship between olfactory stimulation and brain response at region of responsibility can be examined in terms of fitted responses (FR). FR in these regions may be individual indicators of changes in brain olfactory responses. In the present study, in order to non-invasively and objectively measure olfactory responses, an odor oddball task was conducted on four healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a odorant stimulator with blast-method. The results showed favorable FR and activation in the parahippocampal gyrus or uncus in all subjects. In some subjects, both the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus were activated. Furthermore, activation was also confirmed in the cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and insula. The hippocampus and uncus are known to be involved in the olfactory disorders associated with early-stage Alzheimer's disease and other olfactory disorders. In the future, it will be necessary to further develop the present measurement and analysis method to clarify the relationship between central olfactory disorders and brain activities and establish objective indicators that are useful for diagnosis.

Uno, Tominori; Wang, Li-Qun; Miwakeichi, Fumikazu; Tonoike, Mitsuo; Kaneda, Teruo

253

Optimization of parodontium tissue irradiation method for fluorescent diagnostic (FD) and photodynamic therapy (PDT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last several years research activities have been conducted to study PDT availability in stomatology for pathogenic microflora suppression, which presence causes different kinds of oral cavity inflammatory disease. Studies indicate that PDT can be alternative to traditional antibiotic therapy. We carried out research in order to determine the optimal method of tooth irradiation to provide necessary therapeutic radiation dose for affected parodontium tissue in case of inflammatory disease. These data can be used for fiber-optic catheter positioning for further influence on oral cavity nidus of inflammation during PDT and PD. 20 teeth ex vivo were examined. Teeth were irradiated with diode laser (680 nm). In different teeth regions laser radiation intensity was measured by LESA-01-Biospec spectrometer. Optimal radiation method for PDT and PD was found.

Sinyaeva, Maria L.; Mamedov, Ad. A.; Lervkin, V. V.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Volkova, Anna I.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Berezin, Anatoly N.; Kiselev, Gennady L.

2004-06-01

254

Cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and new diagnostic imaging techniques: the role of noninvasive image methods  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a major public health problem affecting adults and children in both developed and developing countries. This condition often leads to metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A large number of studies have been carried out to understand the pathogenesis of cardiovascular dysfunction in obese patients. Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the progression of atherosclerosis and the development of coronary artery disease, hypertension and congestive heart failure. Noninvasive methods in the field of cardiovascular imaging, such as measuring intima-media thickness, flow-mediated dilatation, tissue Doppler, and strain, and strain rate, constitute new tools for the early detection of cardiac and vascular dysfunction. These techniques will certainly enable a better evaluation of initial cardiovascular injury and allow the correct, timely management of obese patients. The present review summarizes the main aspects of cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and discusses the application of recent noninvasive imaging methods for the early detection of cardiovascular alterations. PMID:21633726

Barbosa, José Augusto A; Rodrigues, Alexandre B; Mota, Cleonice Carvalho C; Barbosa, Márcia M; Simões e Silva, Ana C

2011-01-01

255

Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents  

DOEpatents

A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. 13 figs.

Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G.; Dees, H.C.

1998-11-10

256

Methods for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents  

DOEpatents

A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method comprises the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention also provides a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent.

Wachter, Eric A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fisher, Walter G. (Knoxville, TN); Dees, H. Craig (Knoxville, TN)

2008-03-18

257

Mesenteric vascular occlusion: a new diagnostic method using a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody reactive with platelets  

SciTech Connect

A new method for diagnosing mesenteric vaso-occlusive bowel disease with the use of radioimmunoscintigraphy was developed and tested in experimental models of arterial and venous disease, as well as in a model simulating bowel strangulation. The method involves the use of a monoclonal antibody fragment mixture that binds to platelets. The antibody was labeled with technetium-99m, and imaging was performed with a gamma camera in the planar and single photon emission computed tomography modes. This method allowed visualization of areas of ischemia of 1-6 hours duration in bowel loops in 19 dogs 90-180 minutes after injection of the radiolabeled antibody. No bowel radioactivity accumulation occurred in dogs that underwent the same surgical procedure but were given a nonspecific Tc-99m-labeled antibody or in normal dogs given the specific antibody. It appears that the radiolabeled antibody used, which has higher reactivity with human platelets than with dog platelets, will be a good agent for noninvasive diagnosis of mesenteric vaso-occlusive disease in humans. It may also play a role in the intraoperative determination of the extent and location of ischemic bowel segments.

Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Zamora, P.O. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (USA))

1989-06-01

258

Mesenteric vascular occlusion: a new diagnostic method using a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody reactive with platelets.  

PubMed

A new method for diagnosing mesenteric vaso-occlusive bowel disease with the use of radioimmunoscintigraphy was developed and tested in experimental models of arterial and venous disease, as well as in a model simulating bowel strangulation. The method involves the use of a monoclonal antibody fragment mixture that binds to platelets. The antibody was labeled with technetium-99m, and imaging was performed with a gamma camera in the planar and single photon emission computed tomography modes. This method allowed visualization of areas of ischemia of 1-6 hours duration in bowel loops in 19 dogs 90-180 minutes after injection of the radiolabeled antibody. No bowel radioactivity accumulation occurred in dogs that underwent the same surgical procedure but were given a nonspecific Tc-99m-labeled antibody or in normal dogs given the specific antibody. It appears that the radiolabeled antibody used, which has higher reactivity with human platelets than with dog platelets, will be a good agent for noninvasive diagnosis of mesenteric vaso-occlusive disease in humans. It may also play a role in the intraoperative determination of the extent and location of ischemic bowel segments. PMID:2717735

Oster, Z H; Som, P; Zamora, P O

1989-06-01

259

Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents  

DOEpatents

A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent.

Wachter, Eric A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fisher, Walter G. (Knoxville, TN); Dees, H. Craig (Knoxville, TN)

1998-01-01

260

Evaluation of Diagnostic Methods for Myocoptes musculinus According to Age and Treatment Status of Mice (Mus musculus)  

PubMed Central

Detecting and controlling murine fur mites continues to be challenging. Here we compared the efficacy of fur-pluck, cage PCR, and fur PCR testing of mice naturally infested with Myocoptes musculinus and make recommendations regarding the application of these diagnostic strategies in aged or treated mice. We compared all 3 diagnostic methods in groups of infested and noninfested control mice over time. For fur plucks, we used a scoring system to quantitatively compare mite infestations across ages. Mice that were 4 wk old had higher egg and mite scores than did older mice, with average scores at 4 wk corresponding to 40 to 100 individual fur mites and eggs per sample. Furthermore, 15% and 20% of samples from infested mice at 24 and 28 wk of age, respectively, lacked all fur mites and eggs. Cage PCR results varied as mice grew older. Fur PCR testing was the most sensitive and specific assay in untreated infested mice, particularly when mite densities were low. In addition, we compared fur-pluck and fur PCR tests for evaluating the efficacy of selamectin treatment. Two treatments with selamectin eliminated Myocoptes fur-mite infestations. At 8 wk after treatment, all fur-pluck samples were negative, but one-third of treated infested cages remained positive by fur PCR assay; at 16 wk after treatment, all cages were negative by fur PCR assay. Because offspring of infested mice were invariably heavily infested, breeding of suspected infested mice with subsequent testing of offspring was the definitive testing strategy when fur-pluck and PCR results conflicted. PMID:24351766

Rice, Kelly A; Albacarys, Lauren K; Pate, Kelly A Metcalf; Perkins, Cheryl; Henderson, Kenneth S; Watson, Julie

2013-01-01

261

[Assessment of diagnostic methods for the catheter-related bloodstream infections in intensive care units].  

PubMed

The majority of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) are associated with central venous catheters (CVCs) and most of them develop in patients staying at intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of this study was to assess the performance of different methods for the diagnosis of CR-BSI in neurology and neurosurgery ICUs of our hospital. This prospective study was carried out between January 2007 and January 2008 and all of the patients were followed daily for CR-BSI after the insertion of CVCs. Blood cultures were taken simultaneously from the catheter lumen and from at least one peripheral vein when there was a suspicion of CR-BSI. Additionally, from patients whose CVCs were removed, catheter tip cultures were taken and from patients with exit site infection, cultures of the skin surrounding the catheter entrance were taken. Catheter tip cultures were done by using quantitative and semiquantitative culture methods. Blood cultures taken from the catheter lumen and peripheral vein were incubated in the BACTEC 9050 (Becton Dickinson, USA) automated blood culture system. Gram and acridine orange (AO) staining were used for the smears prepared from the catheter tips and blood cultures. To evaluate the value of culture and staining methods in the diagnosis of CR-BSI; sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) of each method were determined. A total of 148 patients (66 male, 82 female; age range: 1-94 years, mean age: 58.7 ± 21.8 years) were included in the study, of whom 67 (45.3%) were from neurology and 81 (54.7%) were from neurosurgery ICUs. One hundred ninety-nine CVC application performed in 148 patients were evaluated. Mean duration of catheterization was 8.5 ± 5.2 days. Thirty-two episodes of CR-BSI among 199 catheterizations (16%) in 29 patients among a total of 148 patients (19.6%) were determined. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (8/32; 25%), penicillin-resistant Enterococcus spp. (8/32; 25%) and Candida albicans (4/32; 12.5%). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPVs of the quantitative and semiquantitative culture methods of the catheter tip and the differential time to positivity (positive result obtained at least two hours earlier in blood cultures drawn through the catheter than the peripheral blood cultures which were taken simultaneously) between blood cultures drawn through the catheter and those drawn from the peripheral vein were 100% for the diagnosis of CR-BSI. Sensitivity and NPV of the isolation method of the same microorganism from blood culture drawn through the catheter and drawn from the peripheral vein were 100%, specificity was 85% and PPV was 88% for the diagnosis of CR-BSI. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPVs of Gram and drawn simultaneously from the peripheral vein and quantitative and semiquantitative cultures of the catheter tip in patients with removed catheter, were important factors in terms of diagnosis of CR-BSI. It was also concluded that AO staining could provide additional benefit in the diagnosis of CR-BSI since it has higher sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPVs for peripheral blood cultures and catheter tip cultures compared to Gram staining. PMID:21341162

Ataman Hatipo?lu, Ci?dem; Ipekkan, Korhan; Oral, Behiç; Onde, Ufuk; Bulut, Cemal; Demiröz, Ali Pekcan

2011-01-01

262

Applications of the LIF method for the diagnostics of the combustion process of gas-IC-engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the underlying project, the task was to develop methods for optical measurements in a hydrogen-fuelled engine with direct-injection, with the goal of measuring the jet patterns during injection, the stratification of the charge at ignition point and the propagation of the flame during combustion. Therefore, the method of planar laser-induced-fluorescence (PLIF) was chosen. In order to apply this technique for the named tasks, particular methods the visualisation of fuel distribution and the flame front were developed. The measurements were carried out on a single cylinder research engine installed at the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines at Graz University of Technology. This engine features optical access through a quartz-glass liner and a window in the piston while providing a layout equivalent to modern passenger car engines and the possibility to operate in fired mode. As it is hardly feasible to directly excite molecular hydrogen by means of laser light, it is necessary to add a tracer substance to the fuel that provides high fluorescence intensity while not changing the properties of the fuel. Consequently, Triethylamine was chosen as a tracer to be mixed with hydrogen at 200 ppm, which allows it to be used up to a maximum pressure of 200 bar while still providing a strong LIF signal. Due to the excellent linearity of the signal to the local air/fuel-ratio it was possible to develop a method for the calibration of the images in order to compensate for inhomogeneities of the laser beam and staining of the optical access and to ultimately allow a quantification of the fuel distribution. The results are images scaled on air/fuel-ratio which can be used for a direct optimisation of mixture formation processes and the validation of CFD-models. For the analysis of the combustion process the method was adapted with two different approaches. For homogeneous charges a new method was applied by marking the flame front using the tracer within the fuel, so that both are burned together. However, as this method is limited to measurements with a homogeneous distribution of tracer within the measured volume, an alternative technique had to be applied for the measurement of stratified charges. In this case, a direct visualisation of the flame front was achieved by exciting the OH-radicals formed during combustion. As this method has significantly increased demands on measuring equipment and is more time consuming, both methods are used in parallel on specific measuring tasks.

Kirchweger, Wolfram; Haslacher, Rainer; Hallmannsegger, Michael; Gerke, Udo

2007-08-01

263

[Commemorative lecture of receiving Imamura Memorial Prize. I. Studies on bacteriological diagnostic methods for mycobacteria].  

PubMed

Two systems, radiometric BACTEC and biphasic MB-Check, based on liquid media proved to be significantly better than the egg-based solid media for the isolation of mycobacteria from clinical specimens. The difference in the rates of isolation of mycobacteria between two groups of media was more remarkable with smear-negative specimens. The time to the detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex with MB- Check was shorter than that with the 3% Ogawa egg method but longer than that with BACTEC. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using oligonucleotides based on the repetitive sequence (IS986) of M. tuberculosis as a primer and the Gen-Probe Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test (MTD), which combines an M. tuberculosis rRNA amplification method with the hybridization protection assay format, were evaluated for detection of M. tuberculosis in clinical samples. Although the sensitivities of the PCR and MTD appeared to be similar to that of culture with the MB-Check system, the two methods based on nucleic acid amplification should be very useful for rapid detection of M. tuberculosis infections without the long time required for culture of M. tuberculosis. Epidemiological studies with techniques which allow differentiation of strains within M. tuberculosis groups are important for limiting the dissemination of the disease. We analyzed six groups of small outbreaks of M. tuberculosis infections by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Five showed identical fingerprints within each group, but one which as also suspected to have a common source of infection showed different banding patterns, emphasizing that RFLP analysis using IS986 as a probe is useful in epidemiological studies of tuberculosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7933779

Abe, C

1994-08-01

264

Modern Baking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Baking is an art, a science, and a field that many people (especially young students) wish to learn more about. Visitors to this site can learn about the hands-on details of baking, along with gaining insights into business trends within the baking world. Modern Baking contains classified ads for those bakers looking to pick up some new equipment (or a new job), and a section of up-to-date industry news as well. The content is divided into eight sections: Formulas & Techniques, Cake Decorating, Supermarket Baking, Retail Baking, Specialty Wholesale Baking, Foodservice Baking, Bread & Pastry, and Bakery Management. Visitors would do well to try the formula in the Formulas & Techniques section for chestnut and cognac brioche, as it brings together two flavors that are truly divine.

265

Model-based performance monitoring: Review of diagnostic methods and chiller case study  

SciTech Connect

The paper commences by reviewing the variety of technical approaches to the problem of detecting and diagnosing faulty operation in order to improve the actual performance of buildings. The review covers manual and automated methods, active testing and passive monitoring, the different classes of models used in fault detection, and methods of diagnosis. The process of model-based fault detection is then illustrated by describing the use of relatively simple empirical models of chiller energy performance to monitor equipment degradation and control problems. The CoolTools(trademark) chiller model identification package is used to fit the DOE-2 chiller model to on-site measurements from a building instrumented with high quality sensors. The need for simple algorithms to reject transient data, detect power surges and identify control problems is discussed, as is the use of energy balance checks to detect sensor problems. The accuracy with which the chiller model can be expected! to predict performance is assessed from the goodness of fit obtained and the implications for fault detection sensitivity and sensor accuracy requirements are discussed. A case study is described in which the model was applied retroactively to high-quality data collected in a San Francisco office building as part of a related project (Piette et al. 1999).

Haves, Phil; Khalsa, Sat Kartar

2000-05-01

266

Conventional parasitology and DNA-based diagnostic methods for onchocerciasis elimination programmes.  

PubMed

Commonly used methods for diagnosing Onchocerca volvulus infections (microscopic detection of microfilariae in skin snips and nodule palpation) are insensitive. Improved methods are needed for monitoring and evaluation of onchocerciasis elimination programmes and for clinical diagnosis of individual patients. A sensitive probe-based qPCR assay was developed for detecting O. volvulus DNA, and this was tested with samples collected from an endemic area in eastern Côte d'Ivoire. The new test was evaluated with dried skin snip pairs from 369 subjects and compared to routine skin snip microscopy and nodule palpation results from the same individuals. Onchocerciasis prevalence for these samples by qPCR, skin snip microscopy, and nodule palpation were 56.9%, 26.0%, and 37.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the combination of all three tests produced an infection prevalence of 72.9%, which was significantly higher than 53.1% detected by microscopy plus nodule palpation without qPCR. However, the qPCR assay was negative for 54 of 229 individuals with palpable nodules. qPCR could be a useful tool for detecting residual O. volvulus infections in human populations as prevalence decreases in areas following community-directed treatment with ivermectin. PMID:25818324

Lloyd, Melanie M; Gilbert, Rebecca; Taha, Nathalie Tebao; Weil, Gary J; Meite, Aboulaye; Kouakou, Ilunga M M; Fischer, Peter U

2015-06-01

267

Diagnostic Applications and Methods to Isolate Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) from Blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each year a million new cancer cases are diagnosed in the United States. Ninety percent of the deaths will be the result of metastasis, not from the primary tumor. Tissue biopsy is a universally accepted tool for cancer diagnosis and determination of treatment. The procedure varies, but is invasive, costly, and can be fatal, and for these reasons is seldom repeated after initial diagnosis. Monitoring of treatment response and for possible relapse is usually done by CT or MRI scan, both of which are expensive and require the tumor to change size perceptibly. Further, cancer can mutate or develop resistance to therapeutics and require modification of the treatment regimen. The initial tissue biopsy often cannot reflect the disease as it progresses, requiring new biopsy samples to determine a change of treatment. All carcinomas, about 80% of all cancer, shed tumor cells into the circulation, most often at the later stages when treatment is more critical. These circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are the cause of metastasis, and can be isolated from patient blood to serve as ``liquid biopsy''. These CTCs contain a valuable trove of information that help both patient and clinician understand disease status. In addition to counting the number of CTCs (known to be a prognostic indicator of survival), CTCs can provide biomarker information such as protein expressions and gene mutations, amplifications, and translocations. This information can be used to determine treatment. During treatment, the number of intact and apoptotic CTCs can be measured on a repeated basis to measure the patient's response to treatment and disease progression. Following treatment, liquid biopsy can be repeated at regular intervals to watch for relapse. Methods to isolate CTCs can be grouped into three categories: i) immunocapture based on surface markers of CTCs, ii) size exclusion based on CTC size, typically larger than blood cells, and iii) negative selection utilizing red blood cell lysis, white blood cell depletion or FICOLL. Various implementations of the CTC isolation methods will be presented.

Tang, Cha-Mei

2013-03-01

268

Development of rapid, sensitive and non-radioactive tissue-blot diagnostic method for the detection of citrus greening.  

PubMed

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is caused by Gram-negative, phloem-limited ?-proteobacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', vectored by the psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Citrus plants infected by the HLB bacterium may not show visible symptoms sometimes for years following infection and non-uniform distribution within the tree makes the detection of the pathogen very difficult. Efficient management of HLB disease requires rapid and sensitive detection early in the infection followed by eradication of the source of pathogen and the vector. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based method is most commonly employed for screening the infected/suspected HLB plants and psyllids. This is time consuming, cumbersome and not practical for screening large number of samples in the field. To overcome this, we developed a simple, sensitive, non-radioactive, tissue-blot diagnostic method for early detection and screening of HLB disease. Digoxigenin labeled molecular probes specific to 'Ca. L. asiaticus' nucleotide sequences have been developed and used for the detection of the pathogen of the HLB disease. The copy number of the target genes was also assessed using real-time PCR experiments and the optimized real-time PCR protocol allowed positive 'Ca. L. asiaticus' detection in citrus samples infected with 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterium. PMID:23660459

Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Miyata, Shin-Ichi; Ghosh, Dilip; Irey, Mike; Garnsey, Stephen M; Gowda, Siddarame

2013-01-01

269

Comparison and Evaluation of Two Diagnostic Methods for Detection of npt II and GUS Genes in Nicotiana tabacum.  

PubMed

To diminish the time required for some diagnostic assays including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and also a visual detection protocol on the basis of npt II and GUS genes in transgenic tobacco plants were used. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Nicotiana tabacum leaf discs was performed with plant transformation vector of pBI 121. From kanamycin-resistant plants selected by their antibiotic resistance, four plants were selected for DNA isolation. Presence of the transgene was confirmed in the transformants by PCR and LAMP. In this regard, all LAMP and PCR primers were designed on the basis of the gene sequences of npt II and GUS. The LAMP assay was applied for direct detection of gene marker from plant samples without DNA extraction steps (direct LAMP assay). Also, a novel colorimetric LAMP assay for rapid and easy detection of npt II and GUS genes was developed here, its potential compared with PCR assay. The LAMP method, on the whole, had the following advantages over the PCR method: easy detection, high sensitivity, high efficiency, simple manipulation, safety, low cost, and user friendly. PMID:25820356

Almasi, Mohammad Amin; Aghapour-Ojaghkandi, Mehdi; Bagheri, Khadijeh; Ghazvini, Mohammadreza; Hosseyni-Dehabadi, Seyed Mohammad

2015-04-01

270

Clinical diagnostic of pleural effusions using a high-speed viscosity measurement method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel bio-analytical method to discriminate between transudative and exudative pleural effusions based on a high-speed video analysis of a solid glass sphere impacting a liquid. Since the result depends on the solution viscosity, it can ultimately replace the battery of biochemical assays currently used. We present results obtained on a series of 7 pleural effusions obtained from consenting patients by analyzing both the splash observed after the glass impactor hits the liquid surface, and in a configuration reminiscent of the drop ball viscometer with added sensitivity and throughput provided by the high-speed camera. The results demonstrate distinction between the pleural effusions and good correlation with the fluid chemistry analysis to accurately differentiate exudates and transudates for clinical purpose. The exudative effusions display a viscosity around 1.39 ± 0.08 cP whereas the transudative effusion was measured at 0.89 ± 0.09 cP, in good agreement with previous reports.

Hurth, Cedric; Klein, Katherine; van Nimwegen, Lena; Korn, Ronald; Vijayaraghavan, Krishnaswami; Zenhausern, Frederic

2011-08-01

271

Poisoning of wild birds from exposure to anticholinesterase compounds and lead: diagnostic methods and selected cases  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organophosphorus and carbamate compounds have largely replaced chlorinated hydrocarbons for pesticidal use in the United States, and many cases of poisoning resulting from exposure to these anticholinesterase agents have occurred in free-living birds. Although lead shot has been prohibited for waterfowl hunting throughout the United States since 1991, lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead shot is still occasionally seen in wild birds, and lead poisoning from the ingestion of fishing sinkers is an emerging issue of concern. A thorough history, a complete necropsy evaluation, and appropriate laboratory analysis of tissues are required to diagnose toxicoses in wild birds, including those caused by anticholinesterase compounds and lead. The interpretation of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity results depends on the methods of analysis and comparison with expected normal enzyme activities in brain tissue from the same species. Although lead residues in tissues vary among species, many lead poisoned birds have tissue residues that are much higher than the lower threshold commonly accepted for a diagnosis of lead poisoning. We review histories, necropsy findings, and analytical methodologies and results for selected anticholinesterase and lead poisoning cases diagnosed in wild raptors, waterfowl, and loons.

Franson, J.C.; Smith, M.R.

1999-01-01

272

Diagnostics of 3D Scaffolds by the Method of X-Ray Phase Contrast Visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymers are one of the most interesting classes of materials for bioengineering due to their high biocompatibility and the possibility of regulating their strength and degradation. In bioengineering, the design of a polymer scaffold determines the functional possibilities of the scaffold and its possible medical applications. Traditionally, the design of polymer scaffolds is analyzed with the help of two-dimensional visualization methods, such as optical and electron microscopy, and computer tomography. However, the x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum is only insignificantly absorbed by polymers and soft tissue, which means that it does not support computer tomography with sufficient contrast. The present work investigates visualization with the help of an interferometer based on the Talbot effect for three-dimensional visualization of a polymer scaffold in absorption, phase, and dark-field contrasts. A comparison of images obtained by x-ray visualization with histological sections of the scaffold is made. Phase contrast has made it possible to visualize the polymer structure and growth of soft tissues in the volume of the scaffold. In the future, it will be possible to use phase contrast for three-dimensional visualization of polymer scaffolds and soft tissues in vivo as well as in vitro.

Al'tapova, V. R.; Khlusov, I. A.; Karpov, D. A.; Chen, F.; Baumbach, T.; Pichugin, V. F.

2014-02-01

273

Comparison of diagnostic methods for the detection and quantification of the four sympatric Plasmodium species in field samples from Papua New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis of Plasmodium infections is essential for malaria morbidity and mortality reduction in tropical areas. Despite great advantages of light microscopy (LM) for malaria diagnosis, its limited sensitivity is a critical shortfall for epidemiological studies. Robust molecular diagnostics tools are thus needed. METHODS: The present study describes the development of a duplex quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) assay,

Anna Rosanas-Urgell; Dania Mueller; Inoni Betuela; Céline Barnadas; Jonah Iga; Peter A Zimmerman; Hernando A del Portillo; Peter Siba; Ivo Mueller; Ingrid Felger

2010-01-01

274

Holocene core logs and site methods for modern reef and head-coral cores - Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Dry Tortugas are a series of islands, banks, and channels on a carbonate platform off the west end of the Florida Keys. Antecedent topography of the Dry Tortugas reflects carbonate accumulations of the last interglacial (marine isotope substage 5e, ~ 125,000 years ago, ka) when sea level was ~ 6 to 7 meters (m) higher than present (Schrag and others, 2002). The substage 5e surface was subsequently lithified and modified during subaerial exposure associated with lower sea level from ~ 120 ka to 8 ka. The lithified late Pleistocene carbonates are known as the Key Largo Limestone, a coral reef (Hoffmeister and Multer, 1964; Multer and others, 2002), and the Miami Limestone, a tidal-bar oolite (Sanford, 1909; Hoffmeister, 1974). The Holocene and modern sediments and reefs of the Dry Tortugas then accreted during the rise of sea level associated with the end of the last glacial and the start of the current interglacial (marine isotope Stage 1). With the exception of a half dozen or so islands, the Dry Tortugas region has been submerged for approximately 8,000 years, allowing conditions suitable for coral reef formation once again. The Holocene reef accumulation varies in thickness due to the antecedent topography. The reefs are composed of massive head corals such as species of Montastraea, Siderastrea, and Diploria (Swart and others, 1996; Cohen and McConnaughey, 2003) and rest atop the Pleistocene Key Largo Limestone high (Shinn and others, 1977). The coral reefs within the Dry Tortugas represent a windward reef margin relative to dominant wind and wave energies (Hine and Mullins, 1983; Mallinson and others, 1997; Mallinson and others, 2003).

Hickey, Todd D.; Reich, Christopher D.; DeLong, Kristine L.; Poore, Richard Z.; Brock, John C.

2013-01-01

275

Comparison of diagnostic potential of serological, molecular and cell culture methods for detection of Q fever in ruminants.  

PubMed

Q fever is an infectious disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. Diagnosis of Q fever based on clinical symptoms is unattainable; thus, different laboratory techniques are used to detect the infection. The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic potential of ELISA, CFT, conventional PCR, real-time PCR and cell culture. The tests were carried out on 2251 serum samples from ruminants. Moreover, 668 placentas, 1277 vaginal swabs and 306 specimens of the internal organs of aborted foetuses were examined by PCR and cell culture. Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare the results obtained by ELISA, CFT, PCR, real-time PCR and isolation in cell culture. The ?(2) test confirmed that in most cases the results obtained by means of the different methods were correlated with each other (P<0.05). The highest correlation coefficients (r=0.76-0.87) were observed in the case of real-time PCR and conventional PCR. ELISA and CFT were moderately correlated (r=0.43-0.45). When the comparison was made between the results of tests run on samples from swabs and aborted foetuses, the r values between ELISA and CFT were lower than those between ELISA and PCRs. A negligible, or weak to moderate relationship was mostly observed when the method of cell culture isolation was compared with all the other analytical techniques investigated. The use of a combination of different laboratory methods, preferably ELISA for serology and polymerase chain reactions for the agent detection, is suggested to achieve the correct diagnosis of Q fever. PMID:24725446

Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Szyma?ska-Czerwi?ska, Monika; ?mietanka, Krzysztof; Bocian, ?ukasz

2014-06-25

276

Normalized autofluorescence imaging diagnostics in upper GI tract: a new method to improve specificity in neoplasia detection  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims: This study was performed to improve the autofluorescence imaging (AFI) in the upper GI tract by applying a new method of normalized autofluorescence (NAFI) obtained via tri-modal imaging. Objective: NAFI may provide lower false positive rate to achieve ultimately better specificity at acceptable sensitivity. Patients and methods: This is a prospective, controlled single-centre study. 18 patients with suspected esophagus or stomach cancer undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) were enrolled between February and May 2010. After endoscopy each patient was assigned into one of two groups: (1) non- cancer, including inflammation; (2) cancer group. EGDs were performed using video white light endoscopy, followed by AFI/NAFI. The targeted biopsy samples were taken from the abnormal areas as well as from adjacent mucosa. NAFI was compared versus AFI for cancer diagnostics in terms of specificity and sensitivity. Results: NAFI detected all neoplastic lesions. WLE or NBI detected no additional neoplasia. The AFI displayed mucosal inflammation and carcinomas of esophagus and stomach as dark red color, the normal mucosa background was displayed as light green. The NAFI didn’t differentiate inflamed tissue from normal in majority of cases, but in tumorous mucosa, the cancer areas were detected precisely. AFI shows 100% sensitivity but 50% specificity which correlates with previous literature data. On the other hand, NAFI demonstrated lower sensitivity (88%) but higher specificity compared to AFI (69%). Conclusions: Measuring the NAFI instead of the AFI was found improving the specificity of cancer diagnosis. Use of fiber-optic endoscopes to analyze AFI and possible endoscopic and histological sampling error are the main potential limitations of this method. PMID:23119113

Krauss, Ekaterina; Agaimy, Abbas; Douplik, Alexandre; Albrecht, Heinz; Neumann, Helmut; Hartmann, Arndt; Hohenstein, Ralf; Raithel, Martin; Hahn, Eckhart G; Neurath, Markus F; Mudter, Jonas

2012-01-01

277

Gas turbine diagnostic system  

E-print Network

In the given article the methods of parametric diagnostics of gas turbine based on fuzzy logic is proposed. The diagnostic map of interconnection between some parts of turbine and changes of corresponding parameters has been developed. Also we have created model to define the efficiency of the compressor using fuzzy logic algorithms.

Talgat, Shuvatov

2011-01-01

278

Integrated diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

Hunthausen, Roger J.

1988-01-01

279

Evidence of increased mass fraction of NO 2 within real-world NO x emissions of modern light vehicles — derived from a reliable online measuring method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient roadside concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) have stabilized in recent years while concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NO x) decline. Oxidation catalytic converters of modern vehicles facilitating the formation of NO 2 in the exhaust line, especially in diesel cars equipped with original equipment manufacturer (OEM) particle filters, are assumed to be responsible. NO 2 is toxic and increased proportions of NO 2 in total NO x in the atmosphere cause higher ambient ozone concentrations. These observations lead to a need for reliable emission factors for NO and NO 2 for road vehicles, while only NO x is recorded in standard emission measurements. In this regard, it was recently shown that NO 2 needs to be detected by an adequate online measuring method. The present work provides novel insight into these topics gained from an experimental campaign carried out with modern gasoline and diesel vehicles of certification categories Euro 3 and Euro 4. Reliable emission factors for NO and NO 2 are presented for different driving situations, such as real-world driving, cold start and statutory tests, together with corresponding particle emission data. Highest emissions of NO x are recorded for diesel cars equipped with OEM particle filters with mass ratios of NO 2 within NO x of up to 70%. The NO x emissions exceed the statutory emission limit and real-world emissions are even more pronounced, especially in urban driving conditions. Their particle emissions are greatly reduced, but the contribution of NO 2 to soot oxidation is thought to be minor.

Alvarez, Robert; Weilenmann, Martin; Favez, Jean-Yves

280

Patient accounts of diagnostic testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia: comparing responses to genetic and non-genetic testing methods  

PubMed Central

Background Continuing developments in genetic testing technology together with research revealing gene-disease associations have brought closer the potential for genetic screening of populations. A major concern, as with any screening programme, is the response of the patient to the findings of screening, whether the outcome is positive or negative. Such concern is heightened for genetic testing, which it is feared may elicit stronger reactions than non-genetic testing. Methods This paper draws on thematic analysis of 113 semi-structured interviews with 39 patients being tested for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), an inherited predisposition to early-onset heart disease. It examines the impact of disease risk assessments based on both genetic and non-genetic information, or solely non-genetic information. Results The impact of diagnostic testing did not seem to vary according to whether or not genetic information was used. More generally, being given a positive or negative diagnosis of FH had minimal discernible impact on people's lives as they maintained the continuity of their beliefs and behaviour. Conclusions The results suggest that concerns about the use of genetic testing in this context are unfounded, a conclusion that echoes findings from studies in this and other health contexts. PMID:22994377

2012-01-01

281

Comparison of bacterial identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and conventional diagnostic microbiology methods: agreement, speed and cost implications.  

PubMed

Identification of microbial pathogens still relies primarily on culture and phenotypic methods, which is labour-intensive and time-consuming. In this study, identification of bacteria with valid standard identification using BD Phoenix, API panels and other recommended procedures is compared to identification with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry using the MALDI Biotyper (Bruker Daltonics) in the setting of a routine NHS diagnostic microbiology laboratory. In total, 928 bacterial isolates obtained from blood (n=463), wounds and pus (n=208), respiratory tract (n=100), faeces (n=86) and urines (n=71) were analysed. There were 721 (77.7%) isolates with a MALDI Biotyper score > or =2.0, indicating secure genus and probable species identification; and 149 (16.1%) isolates with a score > or =1.7 and <2.0 indicating probable genus identification. The isolates with scores of > or =2.0 and > or =1.7 comprised 31 and 33 genera and 65 and 67 species, respectively. Overall, 99.4% and 99.1% of organism identifications were in agreement between the MALDI Biotyper and conventional identification at the genus level, and 89.3% and 87.8% at species level when analysing organisms with MALDI Biotyper scores > or =2.0 and > or =1.7, respectively. With many but not all organisms, identification at the genus level is sufficient; however, MALDI Biotyper separation of 208 staphylococci into Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci was always correct when scores were > or =1.7. First results were obtained after 5-10 min and analysis of a full 96-well target plate was completed in approximately 90 min. Substantial savings of between pounds 1.79 and pounds 2.56 per isolate, depending on the cost model of acquisition of the MALDI Biotyper system and number of isolates tested, would be realised when all 928 isolates were identified using the MALDI Biotyper and disk-susceptibility testing when compared to the cost for 618 Phoenix ID panels and 158 API panels and disk-susceptibility tests only (i.e., not taking into account costs incurred for identification of the remaining 152 mixed isolates). Microbial identification by MALDI Biotyper offers a rare opportunity for significant cost-neutral or even cost-saving quality improvements in medical diagnostics. PMID:22872927

El-Bouri, K; Johnston, S; Rees, E; Thomas, I; Bome-Mannathoko, N; Jones, C; Reid, M; Ben-Ismaeil, B; Davies, A R; Harris, L G; Mack, D

2012-01-01

282

Modern methods for calculations of photoionization and electron impact ionization of two-electron atoms and molecules  

E-print Network

A review of some recently developed methods of calculating multiple differential cross-sections of photoionization and electron impactionization of atoms and molecules having two active electrons is presented. The methods imply original approaches to calculating three-particle Coulomb wave functions. The external complex scaling method and the formalism of the Schroedinger equation with a source in the right-hand side are considered. Efficiency of the time-dependent approaches to the scattering problem, such as the paraxial approximation and the time-dependent scaling, is demonstrated. An original numerical method elaborated by the authors for solving the 6D Schroedinger equation for an atom with two active electrons, based on the Chang-Fano transformation and the discrete variable representation, is formulated. Basing on numerical simulations, the threshold behavior of angular distributions of two-electron photoionization of the negative hydrogen ion and helium atom, and multiple differential cross-sections ...

Serov, Vladislav V; Sergeeva, Tatiana A; Vinitsky, Sergue I

2012-01-01

283

Development of a quantitative diagnostic method of estrogen receptor expression levels by immunohistochemistry using organic fluorescent material-assembled nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic fluorescent material-assembled nanoparticles for IHC were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New nanoparticle fluorescent intensity was 10.2-fold greater than Qdot655. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticle staining analyzed a wide range of ER expression levels in tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticle staining enhanced the quantitative sensitivity for ER diagnosis. -- Abstract: The detection of estrogen receptors (ERs) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using 3,3 Prime -diaminobenzidine (DAB) is slightly weak as a prognostic marker, but it is essential to the application of endocrine therapy, such as antiestrogen tamoxifen-based therapy. IHC using DAB is a poor quantitative method because horseradish peroxidase (HRP) activity depends on reaction time, temperature and substrate concentration. However, IHC using fluorescent material provides an effective method to quantitatively use IHC because the signal intensity is proportional to the intensity of the photon excitation energy. However, the high level of autofluorescence has impeded the development of quantitative IHC using fluorescence. We developed organic fluorescent material (tetramethylrhodamine)-assembled nanoparticles for IHC. Tissue autofluorescence is comparable to the fluorescence intensity of quantum dots, which are the most representative fluorescent nanoparticles. The fluorescent intensity of our novel nanoparticles was 10.2-fold greater than quantum dots, and they did not bind non-specifically to breast cancer tissues due to the polyethylene glycol chain that coated their surfaces. Therefore, the fluorescent intensity of our nanoparticles significantly exceeded autofluorescence, which produced a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio on IHC-imaged cancer tissues than previous methods. Moreover, immunostaining data from our nanoparticle fluorescent IHC and IHC with DAB were compared in the same region of adjacent tissues sections to quantitatively examine the two methods. The results demonstrated that our nanoparticle staining analyzed a wide range of ER expression levels with higher accuracy and quantitative sensitivity than DAB staining. This enhancement in the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity for ERs using our immunostaining method will improve the prediction of responses to therapies that target ERs and progesterone receptors that are induced by a downstream ER signal.

Gonda, Kohsuke, E-mail: gonda@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)] [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Miyashita, Minoru [Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Watanabe, Mika; Takahashi, Yayoi [Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Hospital, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)] [Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Hospital, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Goda, Hideki; Okada, Hisatake; Nakano, Yasushi [Optical and Biological R and D Center, Konica Minolta Technology Center, Inc., No. 1 Sakuramachi, Hino-shi, Tokyo 191-8511 (Japan)] [Optical and Biological R and D Center, Konica Minolta Technology Center, Inc., No. 1 Sakuramachi, Hino-shi, Tokyo 191-8511 (Japan); Tada, Hiroshi [Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Amari, Masakazu [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)] [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Ohuchi, Noriaki [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan) [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)

2012-09-28

284

An inexpensive and rapid diagnostic method of Koi Herpesvirus (KHV) infection by loop-mediated isothermal amplification  

PubMed Central

Background Koi Herpesvirus (KHV) affects both juvenile and adult common carp and koi, and is especially lethal to fry. The high mortalities caused by the disease have had a negative impact on the international koi trade. Different diagnostic techniques have been used to detect KHV, including: isolation of the virus in cell culture, electron microscopy, several PCR tests, ELISA and in situ hybridisation. All of these methods are time consuming, laborious and require specialised equipment. Results A rapid field diagnosis of KHV in common and koi carp was developed using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The LAMP reaction rapidly amplified nucleic acid with high specificity and efficiency under isothermal conditions using a simple water bath. Two methods of extracting DNA from host tissue were compared: extraction by boiling and by using a commercial extraction kit. A set of six primers – two inner primers, two outer primers and two loop primers – was designed from a KHV amplicon. The reaction conditions were optimised for detection of KHV in 60 min at 65°C using Bst (Bacillus stearothermophilus) DNA polymerase. When visualised by gel electrophoresis, the products of the KHV LAMP assay appeared as a ladder pattern, with many bands of different sizes from 50 base-pairs (bp) up to the loading well. The KHV LAMP product could also be simply detected visually by adding SYBR Green I to the reaction tube and observing a colour change from orange to green. All samples positive for KHV by visual detection were confirmed positive by gel electrophoresis. The KHV LAMP had the same sensitivity as a standard PCR assay for the detection of KHV. Conclusion This paper describes an accelerated LAMP assay for diagnosis of KHV. The entire procedure took only 90 minutes to produce a result: 15 minutes for DNA extraction; 60 min for the LAMP reaction; 2 min for visual detection using SYBR Green I. The test can be used under field conditions because the only equipment it requires is a water bath. PMID:16216123

Soliman, Hatem; El-Matbouli, Mansour

2005-01-01

285

Sex determination from the second cervical vertebra: a test of Wescott's method on a modern American sample.  

PubMed

Numerous methods for establishing a biological profile exist; however, many of these methods rely on the recovery of several specific bones or on fragile skeletal elements that are sometimes irrecoverable. It is for this reason new methods utilizing other previously under-documented bones should be established and tested by the forensic anthropological community. This study tests the accuracy of Wescott's (J Forensic Sci 2000;45(2)) method for determining sex from the second cervical vertebra. Specimens were drawn from the donated skeletal collection curated at the Hamilton County Forensic Center (n = 57) and the William M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection (n = 243). Both intra- and inter-observer error rates were low and accurate classifications ranged from 78% (females-Function 1) to 90.6% (males-Function 5). Of the five functions, Function 4 achieved the highest overall accuracy, with 260 individuals (86.7%) falling into the correct category. Overall, this method is an effective classificatory tool for sex estimation. PMID:22563852

Bethard, Jonathan D; Seet, Billie L

2013-01-01

286

Modern methods for calculations of photoionization and electron impact ionization of two-electron atoms and molecules  

E-print Network

A review of some recently developed methods of calculating multiple differential cross-sections of photoionization and electron impactionization of atoms and molecules having two active electrons is presented. The methods imply original approaches to calculating three-particle Coulomb wave functions. The external complex scaling method and the formalism of the Schroedinger equation with a source in the right-hand side are considered. Efficiency of the time-dependent approaches to the scattering problem, such as the paraxial approximation and the time-dependent scaling, is demonstrated. An original numerical method elaborated by the authors for solving the 6D Schroedinger equation for an atom with two active electrons, based on the Chang-Fano transformation and the discrete variable representation, is formulated. Basing on numerical simulations, the threshold behavior of angular distributions of two-electron photoionization of the negative hydrogen ion and helium atom, and multiple differential cross-sections of electron impact ionization of hydrogen and nitrogen molecules are analyzed. It is demonstrated that the Wannier law for the angular distribution of double ionisation is not correct even at very small energies.

Vladislav V. Serov; Vladimir L. Derbov; Tatiana A. Sergeeva; Sergue I. Vinitsky

2012-10-10

287

A new rapid method for Clostridium difficile DNA extraction and detection in stool: toward point-of-care diagnostic testing.  

PubMed

We describe a new method for the rapid diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection, with stool sample preparation and DNA extraction by heat and physical disruption in a single-use lysis microreactor (LMR), followed by a rapid PCR amplification step. All steps can be accomplished in <20 minutes overall. Gel electrophoresis is currently used to detect the amplification product, pending real-time availability with an ultra-rapid thermocycler. Compared with the dual enzyme immunoassay (EIA) screening test (C. diff Quik Chek Complete; Techlab, Blacksburg, VA), the novel LMR/PCR assay showed complete concordance with all glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) results (GDH(+)/toxin(+), n = 48; GDH(-)/toxin(-), n = 81). All 69 stool samples with discordant EIA results (GDH(+)/toxin(-)) were tested by both the LMR/PCR assay and the loop-mediated isothermal amplification test (LAMP) (Illumigene C. difficile; Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH). In 64/69 EIA-discordant samples, LAMP and LMR/PCR results matched (both positive in 29 sample and both negative in 35 samples); in the remaining 5 samples, results were discrepant between the LAMP assay (all five negative) and the LMR/PCR assay (all 5 positive). Overall, LMR/PCR testing matched the current algorithm of EIA and/or LAMP reflex testing in 193/198 (97.5%) samples. The present proof-of-concept study suggests that the novel LMR/PCR technique described here may be developed as an inexpensive, rapid, and reliable point-of-care diagnostic test for C. difficile infection and other infectious diseases. PMID:22402170

Freifeld, Alison G; Simonsen, Kari A; Booth, Christine S; Zhao, Xing; Whitney, Scott E; Karre, Teresa; Iwen, Peter C; Viljoen, Hendrik J

2012-01-01

288

Investigation of the Utilization of Modern Industrial Methods, Processes, Ergonomics, and the Internet in the Scientific Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Oct. 1, 2001 Cleveland State University and NASA Glenn Research Center embarked on the above named cooperative agreement. Because NASA's research facilities often exhibit instances where the failure to use state-of-the-art technologies and methods to improve on outmoded systems of interface and control, and this runs contrary to the NASA philosophy of "faster, better, and cheaper", it was deemed an ideal opportunity for this collaboration. The main objectives of the proposed effort were to research and investigate the use of the latest technologies, methods, techniques, etc. which pertain to control and interface with industrial and research systems and facilities. The work was done in large part at NASA Glenn Research Center, using selected research facilities as real-world laboratories; such as certain Microgravity Science Division and Space Station projects. Microgravity Science Division at Glenn Research Center designs and builds experiments to be flown on the Space Shuttle and eventually on the International Space Station. Economy of space, weight, complexity, data storage, ergonomics, and many other factors present problems that also exist in industry. Many of the solutions can come from the same areas of study mentioned above.

Myer, Spencer S., Jr.

2005-01-01

289

Process diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The book contains papers in the areas of combustion and fusion designed to overview major diagnostic techniques (laser-induced fluorescence, spontaneous Raman spectroscopy, interferometry, imaging, Langmuir probes, multiphoton exitation/detection techniques, etc.) as applied to combustion and fusion processes. The materials processing diagnostic papers represent the current state-of-the-art diagnostics in such areas as plasma etching, CVD, PACVD, welding, vacuum arc remelting, metal extrusion, and plasma spraying.

Hays, A.K. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Eckbreth, A.C. (United Technologies Corp., East Hartford, CT (USA). Research Center (USA)); Campbell, G.A. (Plasma Materials Technologies, Burbank, CA (USA))

1988-01-01

290

Modern sports eye injuries  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Methods: Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Results: Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Conclusions: Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory. PMID:14609827

Capão Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcão-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

2003-01-01

291

On the understanding and development of modern physical neurorehabilitation methods: robotics and non-invasive brain stimulation  

PubMed Central

The incidence of physical disability in the community resulting from neurological dysfunction is predicted to increase in the coming years. The impetus for immediate and critical evaluation of physical neurorehabilitation strategies stems from the largely incomplete recovery following neurological damage, questionable efficacy of individual rehabilitation techniques, and the progressive acceptance of evidence-based medicine. The emergent technologies of non-invasive brain stimulation (NBS) and rehabilitation robotics enable a better understanding of the recovery process, as well as the mechanisms and effectiveness of intervention. With a more precise grasp of the relationship between dysfunctional and treatment-related plasticity, we can anticipate a move toward highly controlled and individualised prescription of rehabilitation. Both robotics and NBS can also be used to enhance motor control and learning in patients with neurological dysfunction. The merit of these contemporary methods as investigative and rehabilitation tools requires clarification and discussion. In this thematic series, five cohesive and eloquent papers address this issue from leading clinicians and scientists in the fields of robotics, NBS, plasticity and motor learning. PMID:19183466

Edwards, Dylan J

2009-01-01

292

A molecular method to assess bioburden embedded within silicon-based resins used on modern spacecraft materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current assessments of bioburden embedded in spacecraft materials are based on work performed in the Viking era (1970s), and the ability to culture organisms extracted from such materials. To circumvent the limitations of such approaches, DNA-based techniques were evaluated alongside established culturing techniques to determine the recovery and survival of bacterial spores encapsulated in spacecraft-qualified polymer materials. Varying concentrations of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores were completely embedded in silicone epoxy. An organic dimethylacetamide-based solvent was used to digest the epoxy and spore recovery was evaluated via gyrB-targeted qPCR, direct agar plating, most probably number analysis, and microscopy. Although full-strength solvent was shown to inhibit the germination and/or outgrowth of spores, dilution in excess of 100-fold allowed recovery with no significant decrease in cultivability. Similarly, qPCR (quantitative PCR) detection sensitivities as low as ~103 CFU ml-1 were achieved upon removal of inhibitory substances associated with the epoxy and/or solvent. These detection and enumeration methods show promise for use in assessing the embedded bioburden of spacecraft hardware.

Stam, Christina N.; Bruckner, James; Spry, J. Andy; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; La Duc, Myron T.

2012-07-01

293

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Study to Investigate the Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and the Sensitivity of its Diagnostic Methods in Iran  

PubMed Central

Context: Helicobacter pylori is the most common infecting organism affecting humans, being almost half the population infected. The aim of this study was to find out the epidemiological features and the sensitivity of diagnostic methods of Helicobacter pylori infection in Iran, which can provide the logic of developing preventive approaches to control Helicobacter pylori infections and the associated diseases. Evidence Acquisition: By reviewing the databases of SID, MAGIRAN, SCOPUS, MEDLIB, Google, ISI and PUBMED, a total of 30 papers, published from 1994 to 2011, were extracted. Summary prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using random-effects model. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA Ver.11. Results: Among the 30 studies evaluated, the prevalence rate of Helicobacter pylori infections in Iran was estimated as 50.7 % (95% CI: 44.4-56.9%). When the sensitivity of diagnostic methods was evaluated, ELISA, with an accuracy rate of 52.3% (95% CI: 43.8 to 60.8%) was found the most accurate diagnostic method available. The highest and the least Helicobacter pylori prevalence were 19.2% in Tehran and 74.27% in Mazandran respectively. Conclusions: About half the population in Iran is infected with Helicobacter pylori, the pollution in different areas and preventive strategies should be carried out to control this infection. The prevalence rate of Helicobacter pylori infections in Iran showed only little changes during the years 1994 to 2011. PMID:25068041

Sayehmiri, Fatemeh; Darvishi, Zahra; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Soroush, Setareh; Emaneini, Mohammad; Zarrilli, Raffaele; Taherikalani, Morovat

2014-01-01

294

Diagnosing Examinees' Attributes-Mastery Using the Bayesian Inference for Binomial Proportion: A New Method for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA) is a new theoretical framework for psychological and educational testing that is designed to provide detailed information about examinees' strengths and weaknesses in specific knowledge structures and processing skills. During the last three decades, more than a dozen psychometric models have been developed…

Kim, Hyun Seok John

2011-01-01

295

Nanodevices in diagnostics  

PubMed Central

The real-time, personalized and highly sensitive early-stage diagnosis of disease remains an important challenge in modern medicine. With the ability to interact with matter at the nanoscale, the development of nanotechnology architectures and materials could potentially extend subcellular and molecular detection beyond the limits of conventional diagnostic modalities. At the very least, nanotechnology should be able to dramatically accelerate biomarker discovery, as well as facilitate disease monitoring, especially of maladies presenting a high degree of molecular and compositional heterogeneity. This article gives an overview of several of the most promising nanodevices and nanomaterials along with their applications in clinical practice. Significant work to adapt nanoscale materials and devices to clinical applications involving large interdisciplinary collaborations is already underway with the potential for nanotechnology to become an important enabling diagnostic technology. PMID:20229595

Hu, Ye; Fine, Daniel H.; Tasciotti, Ennio; Bouamrani, Ali; Ferrari, Mauro

2010-01-01

296

Detection of Feline Leukemia Virus RNA in Saliva from Naturally Infected Cats and Correlation of PCR Results with Those of Current Diagnostic Methods  

PubMed Central

A novel diagnostic test for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) RNA in saliva from naturally infected cats is described in this study. We evaluated different diagnostic tests and compared them with the widely used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of p27 in the diagnosis of FeLV. Blood samples from 445 cats were tested for the presence of provirus by real-time PCR and plasma and saliva specimens from those cats were tested for the presence of viral RNA by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and for the presence of p27 by ELISA. In comparison to conventional ELISA, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the detection of salivary FeLV RNA by real-time RT-PCR were found to be 98.1 and 99.2%, respectively. Detection of viral RNA in saliva had a positive predictive value of 94.6% and a negative predictive value of 99.7%. The kappa value was 0.96, demonstrating an almost perfect agreement between both tests. Furthermore, we confirmed previous results showing that a number of cats which tested negative for the presence of p27 in plasma were in fact positive for the presence of DNA provirus in blood specimens (5.4%). However, 96.4% of these latently infected cats did not shed viral RNA in saliva; therefore, we assume that these cats are of relatively low clinical importance at the time of testing. This study shows considerable diagnostic value of the detection of saliva FeLV RNA in naturally infected cats. This new diagnostic method has advantages over the conventional ELISA, such as less invasive sample collection and no requirement for trained personnel. PMID:16517876

Gomes-Keller, M. A.; Gönczi, E.; Tandon, R.; Riondato, F.; Hofmann-Lehmann, R.; Meli, M. L.; Lutz, H.

2006-01-01

297

[Methods of mathematical modeling in morphological diagnostics of Chernobyl factor influence on the testes of coal miners of Donbas--the Chernobyl disaster fighters].  

PubMed

The morphometric estimation of parenchyma and stroma condition included the determination of 29 parameters in testicles at 27 persons. The mathematical model of morphogenesis of testicles was created by Bayes' method. The method of differential diagnosis of testicles tissues' changes conditioned by the influence of the Chernobyl factor and/or unfavorable terms of the work in underground coal mines have been worked out. Its practical use provides exactness and reliability of the diagnosis (not less than 95%), independence from the level of the qualification and personal experience of the doctor, allows us to unify, optimize and individualize the diagnostic algorithms, answer the requirements of evidential medicine. PMID:24908955

Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

2014-01-01

298

Computerized method for evaluating diagnostic image quality of calcified plaque images in cardiac CT: Validation on a physical dynamic cardiac phantom  

PubMed Central

Purpose: In cardiac computed tomography (CT), important clinical indices, such as the coronary calcium score and the percentage of coronary artery stenosis, are often adversely affected by motion artifacts. As a result, the expert observer must decide whether or not to use these indices during image interpretation. Computerized methods potentially can be used to assist in these decisions. In a previous study, an artificial neural network (ANN) regression model provided assessability (image quality) indices of calcified plaque images from the software NCAT phantom that were highly agreeable with those provided by expert observers. The method predicted assessability indices based on computer-extracted features of the plaque. In the current study, the ANN-predicted assessability indices were used to identify calcified plaque images with diagnostic calcium scores (based on mass) from a physical dynamic cardiac phantom. The basic assumption was that better quality images were associated with more accurate calcium scores. Methods: A 64-channel CT scanner was used to obtain 500 calcified plaque images from a physical dynamic cardiac phantom at different heart rates, cardiac phases, and plaque locations. Two expert observers independently provided separate sets of assessability indices for each of these images. Separate sets of ANN-predicted assessability indices tailored to each observer were then generated within the framework of a bootstrap resampling scheme. For each resampling iteration, the absolute calcium score error between the calcium scores of the motion-contaminated plaque image and its corresponding stationary image served as the ground truth in terms of indicating images with diagnostic calcium scores. The performances of the ANN-predicted and observer-assigned indices in identifying images with diagnostic calcium scores were then evaluated using ROC analysis. Results: Assessability indices provided by the first observer and the corresponding ANN performed similarly (AUCOBS1=0.80 [0.73,0.86] vs AUCANN1=0.88 [0.82,0.92]) as that of the second observer and the corresponding ANN (AUCOBS2=0.87 [0.83,0.91] vs AUCANN2=0.90 [0.85,0.94]). Moreover, the ANN-predicted indices were generated in a fraction of the time required to obtain the observer-assigned indices. Conclusions: ANN-predicted assessability indices performed similar to observer-assigned assessability indices in identifying images with diagnostic calcium scores from the physical dynamic cardiac phantom. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of using computerized methods for identifying images with diagnostic clinical indices in cardiac CT images. PMID:21158289

King, Martin; Rodgers, Zachary; Giger, Maryellen L.; Bardo, Dianna M. E.; Patel, Amit R.

2010-01-01

299

Computerized method for evaluating diagnostic image quality of calcified plaque images in cardiac CT: Validation on a physical dynamic cardiac phantom  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In cardiac computed tomography (CT), important clinical indices, such as the coronary calcium score and the percentage of coronary artery stenosis, are often adversely affected by motion artifacts. As a result, the expert observer must decide whether or not to use these indices during image interpretation. Computerized methods potentially can be used to assist in these decisions. In a previous study, an artificial neural network (ANN) regression model provided assessability (image quality) indices of calcified plaque images from the software NCAT phantom that were highly agreeable with those provided by expert observers. The method predicted assessability indices based on computer-extracted features of the plaque. In the current study, the ANN-predicted assessability indices were used to identify calcified plaque images with diagnostic calcium scores (based on mass) from a physical dynamic cardiac phantom. The basic assumption was that better quality images were associated with more accurate calcium scores. Methods: A 64-channel CT scanner was used to obtain 500 calcified plaque images from a physical dynamic cardiac phantom at different heart rates, cardiac phases, and plaque locations. Two expert observers independently provided separate sets of assessability indices for each of these images. Separate sets of ANN-predicted assessability indices tailored to each observer were then generated within the framework of a bootstrap resampling scheme. For each resampling iteration, the absolute calcium score error between the calcium scores of the motion-contaminated plaque image and its corresponding stationary image served as the ground truth in terms of indicating images with diagnostic calcium scores. The performances of the ANN-predicted and observer-assigned indices in identifying images with diagnostic calcium scores were then evaluated using ROC analysis. Results: Assessability indices provided by the first observer and the corresponding ANN performed similarly (AUC{sub OBS1}=0.80 [0.73,0.86] vs AUC{sub ANN1}=0.88 [0.82,0.92]) as that of the second observer and the corresponding ANN (AUC{sub OBS2}=0.87 [0.83,0.91] vs AUC{sub ANN2}=0.90 [0.85,0.94]). Moreover, the ANN-predicted indices were generated in a fraction of the time required to obtain the observer-assigned indices. Conclusions: ANN-predicted assessability indices performed similar to observer-assigned assessability indices in identifying images with diagnostic calcium scores from the physical dynamic cardiac phantom. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of using computerized methods for identifying images with diagnostic clinical indices in cardiac CT images.

King, Martin; Rodgers, Zachary; Giger, Maryellen L.; Bardo, Dianna M. E.; Patel, Amit R. [Department of Radiology, Committee on Medical Physics, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC 2026, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 Southwest Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239 (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC 5084, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2010-11-15

300

Diagnostic apparatus and method for use in the alignment of one or more laser means onto a fiber optics interface  

DOEpatents

Diagnostic apparatus for use in determining the proper alignment of a plurality of laser beams onto a fiber optics interface is disclosed. The apparatus includes a lens assembly which serves two functions, first to focus a plurality of laser beams onto the fiber optics interface, and secondly to reflect and image the interface using scattered light to a monitor means. The monitor means permits indirect observation of the alignment or focusing of the laser beams onto the fiber optics interface.

Johnson, Steve A. (Tracy, CA); Shannon, Robert R. (Tucson, AZ)

1987-01-01

301

Diagnostic apparatus and method for use in the alignment of one or more laser means onto a fiber optics interface  

DOEpatents

Diagnostic apparatus for use in determining the proper alignment of a plurality of laser beams onto a fiber optics interface is disclosed. The apparatus includes a lens assembly which serves two functions, first to focus a plurality of laser beams onto the fiber optics interface, and secondly to reflect and image the interface using scattered light to a monitor means. The monitor means permits indirect observation of the alignment or focusing of the laser beams onto the fiber optics interface.

Johnson, S.A.; Shannon, R.R.

1985-01-18

302

Comparison of the Diagnostic Performance of Four Quantitative Myocardial Perfusion Estimation Methods Used in Cardiac MR Imaging: CE-MARC Substudy.  

PubMed

Purpose To compare the diagnostic performance of four tracer kinetic analysis methods to quantify myocardial perfusion from magnetic resonance (MR) imaging cardiac perfusion data sets in terms of their ability to lead to the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the regional ethics committee, and all patients gave written consent. A representative sample of 50 patients with suspected ischemic heart disease was retrospectively selected from the Clinical Evaluation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Coronary Heart Disease trial data set. Quantitative myocardial blood flow (MBF) was estimated from rest and adenosine stress MR imaging perfusion data sets by using four established methods. A matching diagnosis of both an inducible defect as assessed with single photon emission computed tomography and a luminal stenosis of 70% or more as assessed with quantitative x-ray angiography was used as the reference standard for the presence of myocardial ischemia. Diagnostic performance was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for each method, with stress MBF and myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) serving as continuous measures. Results Area under the ROC curve with stress MBF and MPR as the outcome measures, respectively, was 0.86 and 0.92 for the Fermi model, 0.85 and 0.87 for the uptake model, 0.85 and 0.80 for the one-compartment model, and 0.87 and 0.87 for model-independent deconvolution. There was no significant difference between any of the models or between MBF and MPR, except that the Fermi model outperformed the one-compartment model if MPR was used as the outcome measure (P = .02). Conclusion Diagnostic performance of quantitative myocardial perfusion estimates is not affected by the tracer kinetic analysis method used. (©) RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25521666

Biglands, John D; Magee, Derek R; Sourbron, Steven P; Plein, Sven; Greenwood, John P; Radjenovic, Aleksandra

2015-05-01

303

Diagnostic radiology  

SciTech Connect

Developments in the burgeoning field of diagnostic radiology have continued apace. Four areas that represent either subspecialities or technological advances in diagnostic radiology will be considered in this report: ultrasonography, interventional radiology, nuclear radiology, and magnetic resonance. In no sense is the exclusion of other subdisciplines and modalities (eg, pediatric radiology, computed tomography) and indication of their of importance or their failure to include innovative concepts.

Leeds, N.E.; Jacobson, H.G.

1986-10-17

304

Sedimentology of rocky shorelines: 1. A review of the problem, with analytical methods, and insights gained from the Hulopoe Gravel and the modern rocky shoreline of Lanai, Hawaii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypotheses advanced concerning the origin of the Pleistocene Hulopoe Gravel on Lanai include mega-tsunami, abandoned beach, 'multiple event,' rocky shoreline, and for parts of the deposit, Native Hawaiian constructions and degraded lava flow fronts. Uplift of Lanai shorelines has been suggested for deposits occurring up to at least 190 m. These conflicting hypotheses highlight problems with the interpretation of coarse gravel deposits containing marine biotic remains. The geological records of the processes implied by these hypotheses should look very different. Discrimination among these or any other hypotheses for the origins of the Hulopoe Gravel will require careful study of vertical and lateral variations in litho- and biofacies, facies architecture, contact relationships and stratal geometries of this deposit. Observations of modern rocky shorelines, particularly on Lanai adjacent to Hulopoe Gravel outcrops, have shown that distinctive coarse gravel facies are present, several of which occur in specific geomorphic settings. Tectonic, isostatic and eustatic changes which cause rapid shoreline translations on steep slopes favour preservation of former rocky shorelines and associated sedimentary deposits both above and below sea level. The sedimentary record of those shorelines is likely to be complex. The modern rocky shoreline sedimentary environment is a hostile one, largely neglected by sedimentologists. A range of high-energy processes characterize these shorelines. Long-period swell, tsunami and storm waves can erode hard bedrock and generate coarse gravel. They also erode older deposits, depositing fresh ones containing mixtures of materials of different ages. Additional gravelly material may be contributed by rivers draining steep hinterlands. To fully evaluate rocky shoreline deposition in the broadest sense, for both the Hulopoe Gravel and other deposits, sedimentary facies models are needed for rocky shorelines occurring in a range of settings. Recognition and description of rocky shoreline deposits are crucial for correctly interpreting the geological history of oceanic and volcanic arc islands, for distinguishing between ancient tsunami and storm deposits, and for interpreting coarse-grained deposits preserved on high energy coasts of continents. Problems include not only the absence of appropriate sedimentary facies models linking rocky shoreline deposits and environments but also, until recently, lack of a systematic descriptive scheme applicable to coarse gravel deposits generally. Two complementary methods serve to integrate the wide range of bed and clast attributes and parameters which characterize complex coarse gravel deposits. The composition and fabric (CAF) method has a materials focus, providing detailed description of attributes of the constituent clasts, petrology, the proportions of gravel, sand and mud, and the ways in which these materials are organized. The sedimentary facies model building (FMB) method emphasizes the organization of a deposit on a bed-by-bed basis to identify facies and infer depositional processes. The systematic use of a comprehensive gravel fabric and petrography log (GFPL), in conjunction with detailed vertical profiles, provides visual representations of a range of deposit characteristics. Criteria useful for distinguishing sedimentary facies in the Hulopoe Gravel are: grain-size modes, amount of matrix, bed geometry, sedimentary structures, bed fabric and clast roundness.

Felton, E. Anne

2002-10-01

305

Modern problems of thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of energy and methods of its saving for the development of human society and life are analyzed. The importance of future use of space energy flows and energy of water and air oceans is emphasized. The authors consider the idea of the unit for production of electric energy and pure substances using sodium chloride which reserves are limitless on the planet. Looking retrospectively at the development of power engineering from the elementary fire to modern electric power station, we see that the used method of heat production, namely by direct interaction of fuel and oxidizer, is the simplest. However, it may be possible to combust coal, i.e., carbon in salt melt, for instance, sodium chloride that would be more rational and efficient. If the stated problems are solved positively, we would master all energy properties of the substance; and this is the main problem of thermodynamics being one of the sciences on energy.

Novikov, I. I.

2012-12-01

306

The first modern Europeans.  

PubMed

The discovery of new human fossil remains is one of the most obvious ways to improve our understanding of the dynamics of human evolution. The reanalysis of existing fossils using newer methods is also crucial, and may lead to a reconsideration of the biological and taxonomical status of some specimens, and improve our understanding of highly debated periods in human prehistory. This is particularly true for those remains that have previously been studied using traditional approaches, with only morphological descriptions and standard calliper measurements available. My own interest in the Uluzzian, and its associated human remains grew from my interest in applying recently developed analytical techniques to quantify morphological variation. Discovered more than 40 years ago, the two deciduous molars from Grotta del Cavallo (Apulia, Italy) are the only human remains associated with the Uluzzian culture (one of the main three European "transitional" cultures). These teeth were previously attributed to Neanderthals. This attribution contributed to a consensus view that the Uluzzian, with its associated ornament and tool complexes, was produced by Neanderthals. A reassessment of these deciduous teeth by means of digital morphometric analysis revealed that these remains belong to anatomically modern humans (AMHs). This finding contradicts previous assumptions and suggests that modern humans, and not Neanderthals, created the Uluzzian culture. Of equal importance, new chronometric analyses date these dental remains to 43,000-45,000 cal BP. Thus, the teeth from Grotta del Cavallo represent the oldest European AMH currently known. PMID:22781582

Benazzi, Stefano

2012-01-01

307

Quantification of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucosa by real-time polymerase chain reaction: comparison with traditional diagnostic methods.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the main diagnostic validity parameters of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system for detecting Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsies. Prospective study. The real-time PCR has an internal control for eliminating the false negatives. Our system has a good diagnostic capacity compared with the gold standard and was superior in antral mucosa: area under the curve was 0.91 for antrum (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87 to 0.96) and 0.83 for corpus (95% CI 0.77 to 0.9). The optimum cut-off point was 3.56 microorganisms/cell for antrum (sensitivity 83.5% [95% CI 74.2 to 89.9]; specificity 91.3% [95% CI 82.3 to 96.0]; positive predictive value 92.2%; negative predictive value 81.8%). The positive likelihood ratios were 9.61 and 8.52 for antrum and corpus, respectively. With the cut-off point that maximises the Youden index, 8.7% false positives were obtained. Our methodology is useful for diagnosing infection due to H. pylori and the false positives detected probably correspond to patients who were actually infected but the infection was not detected by traditional techniques. The clinical importance of these cases should be studied in greater detail since they may involve colonisations unrelated to the patient's digestive pathology. PMID:22921814

Belda, Sofía; Saez, Jesús; Santibáñez, Miguel; Rodríguez, Juan Carlos; Galiana, Antonio; Sola-Vera, Javier; Ruiz-García, Montserrat; Brotons, Alicia; López-Girona, Elena; Girona, Eva; Sillero, Carlos; Royo, Gloria

2012-11-01

308

Diagnostic accuracy of a volume-rendered computed tomography movie and other computed tomography-based imaging methods in assessment of renal vascular anatomy for laparoscopic donor nephrectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT)-based imaging methods for assessing renal vascular anatomy,\\u000a imaging studies, including standard axial CT, three-dimensional volume-rendered CT (3DVR-CT), and a 3DVR-CT movie, were performed\\u000a on 30 patients who underwent laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (10 right side, 20 left side) for predicting the location of the\\u000a renal arteries and renal, adrenal, gonadal, and lumbar

Shingo Yamamoto; Masao Tanooka; Kumiko Ando; Toshiko Yamano; Reiichi Ishikura; Michio Nojima; Shozo Hirota; Hiroki Shima

2009-01-01

309

Diagnostics of hemangioma by the methods of correlation and fractal analysis of laser microscopic images of blood plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time the complex correlation and fractal analysis was used for the investigation of microscopic images of both tissue images and hemangioma liquids. It was proposed a physical model of description of phase distributions formation of coherent radiation, which was transformed by optical anisotropic biological structures. The phase maps of laser radiation in the boundary diffraction zone were used as the main information parameter. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts in the points of laser images of histological sections of hemangioma, hemangioma blood smears and blood plasma with vascular system pathologies. The diagnostic criteria of hemangioma nascency are determined.

Boychuk, T. M.; Bodnar, B. M.; Vatamanesku, L. I.

2012-01-01

310

Diagnostics of hemangioma by the methods of correlation and fractal analysis of laser microscopic images of blood plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time the complex correlation and fractal analysis was used for the investigation of microscopic images of both tissue images and hemangioma liquids. It was proposed a physical model of description of phase distributions formation of coherent radiation, which was transformed by optical anisotropic biological structures. The phase maps of laser radiation in the boundary diffraction zone were used as the main information parameter. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts in the points of laser images of histological sections of hemangioma, hemangioma blood smears and blood plasma with vascular system pathologies. The diagnostic criteria of hemangioma nascency are determined.

Boychuk, T. M.; Bodnar, B. M.; Vatamanesku, L. I.

2011-09-01

311

Cortisol diurnal patterns, associations with depressive symptoms, and the impact of intervention in older adults: results using modern robust methods aimed at dealing with low power due to violations of standard assumptions.  

PubMed

Advances in salivary bioscience enable the widespread integration of biological measures into the behavioral and social sciences. While theoretical integration has progressed, much less attention has focused on analytical strategies and tactics. The statistical literature warns that common methods for comparing groups and studying associations can have relatively poor power compared to more modern robust techniques. Here we illustrate, in secondary data analyses using the USC Well Elderly II study (n=460, age 60-95, 66% female), that modern robust methods make a substantial difference when analyzing relations between salivary analyte and behavioral data. Analyses that deal with the diurnal pattern of cortisol and the association of the cortisol awakening response with depressive symptoms and physical well-being are reported. Non-significant results become significant when using improved methods for dealing with skewed distributions and outliers. Analytical strategies and tactics that employ modern robust methods have the potential to reduce the probability of both Type I and Type II errors in studies that compare salivary analytes between groups, across time, or examine associations with salivary analyte levels. PMID:24468639

Wilcox, Rand R; Granger, Douglas A; Szanton, Sarah; Clark, Florence

2014-03-01

312

Cortisol Diurnal Patterns, Associations with Depressive Symptoms, and the Impact of Intervention in Older Adults: Results Using Modern Robust Methods Aimed at Dealing with Low Power Due to Violations of Standard Assumptions  

PubMed Central

Advances in salivary bioscience enable the widespread integration of biological measures into the behavioral and social sciences. While theoretical integration has progressed, much less attention has focused on analytical strategies and tactics. The statistical literature warns that common methods for comparing groups and studying associations can have relatively poor power compared to more modern robust techniques. Here we illustrate, in secondary data analyses using the USC Well Elderly II Study (n = 460, age 60-95, 66% female), that modern robust methods make a substantial difference when analyzing relations between salivary analyte and behavioral data. Analyses are reported that deal with the diurnal pattern of cortisol and the association of the cortisol awakening response with depressive symptoms and physical well-being. Non-significant results become significant when using improved methods for dealing with skewed distributions and outliers. Analytical strategies and tactics that employ modern robust methods have the potential to reduce the probability of both Type I and Type II errors in studies that compare salivary analytes between groups, across time, or examine associations with salivary analyte levels. PMID:24468639

Wilcox, Rand R.; Granger, Douglas A.; Szanton, Sarah; Clark, Florence

2014-01-01

313

Diagnostic imaging.  

PubMed

Physical techniques have always had a key role in medicine, and the second half of the 20th century in particular saw a revolution in medical diagnostic techniques with the development of key imaging instruments: x-ray imaging and emission tomography (nuclear imaging and PET), MRI, and ultrasound. These techniques use the full width of the electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma rays to radio waves, and sound. In most cases, the development of a medical imaging device was opportunistic; many scientists in physics laboratories were experimenting with simple x-ray images within the first year of the discovery of such rays, the development of the cyclotron and later nuclear reactors created the opportunity for nuclear medicine, and one of the co-inventors of MRI was initially attempting to develop an alternative to x-ray diffraction for the analysis of crystal structures. What all these techniques have in common is the brilliant insight of a few pioneering physical scientists and engineers who had the tenacity to develop their inventions, followed by a series of technical innovations that enabled the full diagnostic potential of these instruments to be realised. In this report, we focus on the key part played by these scientists and engineers and the new imaging instruments and diagnostic procedures that they developed. By bringing the key developments and applications together we hope to show the true legacy of physics and engineering in diagnostic medicine. PMID:22516558

Morris, Peter; Perkins, Alan

2012-04-21

314

Data collection framework for vehicular On-Board-Diagnostic systems  

E-print Network

Most modern vehicles contain an On-Board-Diagnostic (OBD) system that can collect a wide range of system data from the vehicle. In aggregation, such data could be applied towards solving the problems of accident prevention, ...

Liu, Chenxia

2011-01-01

315

[Radioisotope diagnostic unit].  

PubMed

A diagnostic radionuclide complex is described, developed and introduced into practice in the clinical hospital, servicing 300 thousand patients. Optimal set of methods, nomenclature of instruments, system for information collection and processing as well as the tactics of application of these instruments have been developed. PMID:6969342

Kalantarov, K D; Tabarovski?, I K

1980-01-01

316

A diagnostic study on folium and orchil dyes with non-invasive and micro-destructive methods.  

PubMed

Folium and orchil are dyes of vegetal origin. Folium is obtained from Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) A. Juss., whereas orchil is obtained from Roccella and other genera of lichens. These dyes were used in the past to impart purple hue to paintings and textiles as substitutes for the more prised Tyrian purple dye, obtained from shellfish. Despite several citations in ancient technical treatises dating back at least to the Greek-Roman age, the identification of these dyes in artworks is rare. In the case of folium, an additional drawback is that its composition is presently unknown. In this work different non-invasive (FT-IR, FT-Raman, fibre optic reflectance spectrophotometry, spectrofluorimetry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and micro-invasive (surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) techniques were used in order to increase the diagnostic information available on these dyes. Measurements were carried out on the dyes extracted from raw materials and on painted or dyed parchments. The possibility to distinguish between folium and orchil by chemical analysis is discussed. PMID:25703360

Aceto, Maurizio; Arrais, Aldo; Marsano, Francesco; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Idone, Ambra; Gulmini, Monica

2015-05-01

317

Confocal laser scanning microscopy as a new valuable tool in the diagnosis of onychomycosis - comparison of six diagnostic methods.  

PubMed

Onychomycosis is common and can mimic several different nail disorders. Accurate diagnosis is essential to choose the optimum antifungal therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) as new non-invasive diagnostic tools in onychomycosis and to compare them with the established techniques. In a prospective trial, 50 patients with suspected onychomycosis and 10 controls were examined by CLSM and OCT. Parallel KOH preparation, culture, PAS-staining and PCR were performed. PCR showed the highest sensitivity, followed by CLSM, PAS and KOH preparation. OCT offered the second best sensitivity but displayed the lowest specificity. CLSM and KOH preparation showed a high specificity and CLSM offered the best positive predictive value, similar to KOH preparation and OCT. Fungal culture showed the lowest sensitivity and the worst negative predictive value, yet culture and PCR are the only techniques able to identify genus and species. In summary, CLSM was comparable to PAS staining and superior to KOH preparation. Due to the low specificity we assess OCT not as appropriate. In the differentiation of species PCR outplays the fungal culture in terms of time and sensitivity. PMID:22524550

Rothmund, G; Sattler, E C; Kaestle, R; Fischer, C; Haas, C J; Starz, H; Welzel, J

2013-01-01

318

Nuclear weapons modernizations  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

2014-05-09

319

Nuclear weapons modernizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

Kristensen, Hans M.

2014-05-01

320

Diagnostics and Microelectronics  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses activities of the Diagnostics and Microelectronics thrust area which conducts activities in semiconductor devices and semiconductor fabrication technology for programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our multidisciplinary engineering and scientific staff use modern computational tools and semi-conductor microfabrication equipment to develop high-performance devices. Our work concentrates on three broad technologies of semiconductor microdevices: (1) silicon on III-V semiconductor microeletronics, (2) lithium niobate-based and III-V semiconductor-based photonics, and (3) silicon-based micromaching for application to microstructures and microinstruments. In FY-92, we worked on projects in seven areas, described in this report: novel photonic detectors; a wideband phase modulator; an optoelectronic terahertz beam system; the fabrication of microelectrode electrochemical sensors; diamond heatsinks; advanced micromachining technologies; and electrophoresis using silicon microchannels.

Balch, J.W.

1993-03-01

321

A real-time laser feedback control method for the three-wave laser source used in the polarimeter-interferometer diagnostic on Joint-TEXT tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-wave laser polarimeter-interferometer, equipped with three independent far-infrared laser sources, has been developed on Joint-TEXT (J-TEXT) tokamak. The diagnostic system is capable of high-resolution temporal and phase measurement of the Faraday angle and line-integrated density. However, for long-term operation (>10 min), the free-running lasers can lead to large drifts of the intermediate frequencies (˜100-˜500 kHz/10 min) and decay of laser power (˜10%-˜20%/10 min), which act to degrade diagnostic performance. In addition, these effects lead to increased maintenance cost and limit measurement applicability to long pulse/steady state experiments. To solve this problem, a real-time feedback control method of the laser source is proposed. By accurately controlling the length of each laser cavity, both the intermediate frequencies and laser power can be simultaneously controlled: the intermediate frequencies are controlled according to the pre-set values, while the laser powers are maintained at an optimal level. Based on this approach, a real-time feedback control system has been developed and applied on J-TEXT polarimeter-interferometer. Long-term (theoretically no time limit) feedback of intermediate frequencies (maximum change less than ±12 kHz) and laser powers (maximum relative power change less than ±7%) has been successfully achieved.

Xiong, C. Y.; Chen, J.; Li, Q.; Liu, Y.; Gao, L.

2014-12-01

322

Evaluation of a PfHRP-2 Based Rapid Diagnostic Test Versus Microscopy Method Among HIV-Positive and Unknown Serology Patients in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.  

PubMed

We evaluated the performance of a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT; Malaria Quick Test(®); Cypress Diagnostic) compared with the standard thick-smear microscopy method using blood samples from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and individuals of unknown HIV status collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Our results show that 42.1% of 114 HIV-infected patients were concordantly RDT- and thick smear-positive, and 55.3% were concordantly negative. Sensitivity and specificity of the RDT test were 100.0% and 95.4%, respectively, with 5.9% false-positive results and a total agreement of 97.4%; 127 patients with unknown HIV serology were analyzed; of them, 40.9% were RDT- and thick smear-positive, and 46.4% concordantly negative. Sensitivity and specificity were 100.0% and 78.6%, respectively, with 23.5% false-positive results and a total agreement of 87.4%. Malaria Quick Test(®) is rapid and effective for the diagnosis of malaria and has a high sensitivity, confirming its use in general and HIV patients in particular. PMID:25667051

Andreoli, Arianna; Giorgetti, Pier Francesco; Pietra, Virginio; Melzani, Alessia; Seni, Wetien; Castelli, Francesco; Simpore, Jaques

2015-04-01

323

Method for estimating the propagation direction of a coherent plasma structure using a one-dimensional diagnostic array  

SciTech Connect

This article proposes a new method to evaluate basic characteristics of the dynamics of a coherent plasma structure (blob). With this method, one can evaluate the propagation angle of a blob in a two-dimensional plasma cross section as well as the blob velocity, size, and amplitude from one-dimensional data. The method is applied to blob measurements from the Lithium beam emission spectroscopy system in ASDEX-Upgrade. Statistical features of the observed blob velocities, angles of propagation, blob sizes, and amplitudes are discussed. The validity of the method is examined by comparing two values of the propagation angle that are evaluated in an independent manner.

Kobayashi, T., E-mail: kobayashi.tatsuya@LHD.nifs.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Birkenmeier, G.; Wolfrum, E.; Stroth, U. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Laggner, F. M. [Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Willensdorfer, M. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Inagaki, S.; Itoh, S.-I. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Research Center for Plasma Turbulence, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Itoh, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Research Center for Plasma Turbulence, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan)

2014-08-15

324

Molecular diagnostics for tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The phenotypic methods of smear microscopy, culture and indirect drug susceptibility testing (DST) remain the 'gold standard' diagnostics for tuberculosis (TB) in 2015. However, this review demonstrates that genotypic methods are in the ascendancy. Current-generation nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are important supplementary tests for the rapid direct detection of (multidrug-resistant) TB in specific clinical settings. Genotypic detection is already the preferred method of detecting rifampicin and pyrazinamide resistance. Next-generation NAATs able to detect about 10 colony forming units/mL of sputum could replace culture as the initial test for detecting TB. Whole genome sequencing could also plausibly replace phenotypic DST but much work is required in method standardisation, database development and elucidation of all resistance gene determinants. The challenge then will be to rollout these increasingly complex and expensive diagnostics in the low-income countries where TB is prevalent. PMID:25719854

Noor, K M; Shephard, L; Bastian, I

2015-04-01

325

Myth and Modern Man.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various theories about the purpose of myth are described briefly, and then the place of myth in modern life is explored. Modern man is found to still create his own myths, and his life is still influenced by mythical prototypes and images. Myths, mythical beliefs, and mythical thinking are discovered in socialist, Communist, and totalitarian…

Patai, Raphael

326

MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CHOICES AND ISSUES IN SELECTING MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS ARE DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT. BACKGROUND INFORMATION IS INTRODUCED IN TERMS OF REASONS FOR ABANDONMENT, THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SCHOOL BUILDING OBSOLESCENCE, AND PROBLEMS IN THE MODERNIZATION PROCESS. INTERIOR PARTITIONS ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF BUILDING MATERIALS,…

JACKSON, R. GRAHAM

327

Modern serial killers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of serial killing has been dominated by an individualized focus on the aetiology and biography of particular offenders. As such, it has tended to downplay the broader social, historical and cultural context of such acts. This article addresses this lacuna by arguing that serial killers are distinctively modern. It highlights six modern phenomena related to serial killing: (a)

Kevin D. Haggerty

2009-01-01

328

Applications of the LIF method for the diagnostics of the combustion process of gas-IC-engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the underlying project, the task was to develop methods for optical measurements in a hydrogen-fuelled engine with\\u000a direct-injection, with the goal of measuring the jet patterns during injection, the stratification of the charge at ignition\\u000a point and the propagation of the flame during combustion. Therefore, the method of planar laser-induced-fluorescence (PLIF)\\u000a was chosen. In order to apply this technique

Wolfram Kirchweger; Rainer Haslacher; Michael Hallmannsegger; Udo Gerke

2007-01-01

329

Thermal Diagnostics with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory: A Validated Method for Differential Emission Measure Inversions  

E-print Network

We present a new method for performing differential emission measure (DEM) inversions on narrow-band EUV images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The method yields positive definite DEM solutions by solving a linear program. This method has been validated against a diverse set of thermal models of varying complexity and realism. These include (1) idealized gaussian DEM distributions, (2) 3D models of NOAA Active Region 11158 comprising quasi-steady loop atmospheres in a non-linear force-free field, and (3) thermodynamic models from a fully-compressible, 3D MHD simulation of AR corona formation following magnetic flux emergence. We then present results from the application of the method to AIA observations of Active Region 11158, comparing the region's thermal structure on two successive solar rotations. Additionally, we show how the DEM inversion method can be adapted to simultaneously invert AIA and XRT data, and how supplementing AIA data with the latt...

Cheung, Mark C M; Schrijver, C J; Testa, P; Chen, F; Peter, H; Malanushenko, A

2015-01-01

330

Functional Verification through Operation Diagnostics  

E-print Network

be best compared? Finally, what patterns within a visualization should be sought? This paper descibes a method of building system trend data analysis, known as Operation Diagnostics, that involves the creation of ideal patterns for comparison to actual...

Burgoyne, B.

331

The Downside of Diagnostic Imaging  

Cancer.gov

An article about radiation exposure during computed tomography and nuclear imaging procedures and the risk of cancer. Several studies released in 2009 have helped to quantify the risk and the growing use of these diagnostic imaging methods.

332

Diagnostic Efficiency of Several Methods of Identifying Socially Rejected Children and Effect of Participation Rate on Classification Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social rejection is associated with a wide variety of negative outcomes. Early identification of social rejection and intervention to minimize its negative impact is thus important. However, sociometric methods, which are considered high in validity for identifying socially rejected children, are frequently not used because of (a) procedural…

McKown, Clark; Gumbiner, Laura M.; Johnson, Jason

2011-01-01

333

Application of different atomic force microscopy methods for detailed diagnostics of gold nanocoatings on a single-crystal sapphire surface  

SciTech Connect

Gold nanodots and clusters deposited on sapphire substrates with a regular nanorelief have been investigated by atomic force microscopy. It is shown that the phase-contrast method combined with contact force spectroscopy makes it possible to identify these nanostructures and describe some of their physical properties.

Muslimov, A. E., E-mail: amuslimov@mail.ru; Volkov, Yu. O.; Asadchikov, V. E.; Kanevskii, V. M.; Roshchin, B. S.; Vlasov, V. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

2011-05-15

334

Diagnostic Instability of "DSM-IV" ADHD Subtypes: Effects of Informant Source, Instrumentation, and Methods for Combining Symptom Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from 123 children (aged 6-12 years) referred consecutively to a pediatric neuropsychiatry clinic by community physicians for assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and related problems, we investigated the effects of informant (parent, teacher), tool (interview, rating scale), and method for combining symptom…

Valo, Shana; Tannock, Rosemary

2010-01-01

335

Use of galvanostatic charge method as a membrane electrode assembly diagnostic tool in a fuel cell stack  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better measure and monitor the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) status in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack, a galvanostatic charge method is improved. The electrochemical active surface area (EAS), double-layer capacitance, hydrogen crossover current, and cell ohmic resistance can be measured by this method. In this method, two or more constant currents are applied to the fuel cell stack, and the voltage response between two electrodes of each cell is recorded and analyzed. Tests on a two-cell stack which is supplied with hydrogen in anode and nitrogen in cathode are carried out, and the influences of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the MEA parameters are investigated. Results show that with an increase of RH, both double-layer capacitance and EAS increase, while hydrogen crossover current and cell ohmic resistance decrease. With an increase of temperature, hydrogen crossover current increases, cell ohmic resistance decreases, and EAS and double-layer capacitance show little change. The galvanostatic charge method shows a convenient way to research cell consistency and MEA lifetime in a fuel cell stack.

Pei, Pucheng; Xu, Huachi; Zeng, Xia; Zha, Hongshan; Song, Mancun

2014-01-01

336

Comparative evaluation of diagnostic methods for Lawsonia intracellularis infection in pigs, with emphasis on cases lacking characteristic lesions.  

PubMed

In this study the following methods for the diagnosis of Lawsonia intracellularis infection in pigs were compared in relation to a reference method (examination of ileal mucosal scrapings by the polymerase chain reaction [PCR]): Warthin-Starry (WS) staining of tissue sections, immunohistochemistry (IHC), in-situ hybridization (ISH), and PCR examination of faeces and of paraffin wax-embedded samples of ileum. Of 204 pigs examined, 32 were considered on the basis of the PCR to be infected. Gross and histopathological examination, including the use of WS staining, were of limited value. PCR examination of faeces proved to be the most sensitive (sensitivity 70%) of the methods used but, due to the occurrence of false positives, its specificity (95%) was the lowest. IHC (sensitivity 66%, specificity 99%) and ISH (sensitivity 54%, specificity 100%) were clearly superior to examination of WS-stained sections (sensitivity 34%, specificity 100%) for routine diagnosis; although less sensitive than the PCR, they indicated only cases of clinical relevance and, moreover, were capable of distinguishing different stages and levels of infection. Because examination of paraffin wax-embedded tissue by the PCR was shown to be associated with low sensitivity (41%), IHC was regarded as the method of choice for retrospective studies. PMID:19108850

Ladinig, A; Sommerfeld-Stur, I; Weissenböck, H

2009-01-01

337

[Development of diagnostic test system based on fluorescent polarization immunoassay method for detection of antibodies to HCV nucleocapsid protein].  

PubMed

The antigen activity of the synthetic fluorescently labeled peptides, overlapping immunoresponsive epitops a.a. 7-19, 20-34 from N-end part and a.a. 73-85 from the central area of the nucleocapsid protein of C hepatitis virus, was tested using the method of fluorescent polarization immunoassay (FPIA) with 40 samples of the blood serum of patients with viral C hepatitis. A comparative study of analytic characteristics of FPIA method was performed, based on the application of synthesized peptides, as well as of the commercial ELISA test system (BEST anti-HCV-test 4, Vector Best Ltd.). The performed research revealed that the developed method has a high specificity and sensitivity level. The comparability of summary FPIA results with the commercial ELISA test system was 85%, which evidences the prospects of further research in this direction. The principal possibility of the application of the polarization fluorescent immunoassay for the determination of antibodies to the nucleocapsid protein of the C hepatitis virus in clinical serum samples was demonstrated. PMID:23785770

Sharyshev, A A; Bazhenov, A I; Shibnev, V A

2013-01-01

338

Modern developments in clinical perimetry.  

PubMed

Recent developments in automated perimetry have emphasized the adaptation of specialized psychophysical procedures for visual field testing to measure visual properties other than the detection of light. In addition, many new methods to quantitatively analyze visual field data have been generated. These new developments are promising for enhancing the diagnostic capabilities of automated perimetry in patients with glaucoma and patients suspected of having glaucoma. A review of some of the most recent advances in automated perimetry are presented. PMID:10148456

Johnson, C A

1993-04-01

339

Tendencies in Modern Education  

E-print Network

KU ScholarWorks | The University of Kansas Pre-1923 Dissertations and Theses Collection Tendencies in Modern Education 1887 by Mary Antoinette Rice This work was digitized by the Scholarly Communications program staff in the KU Libraries’ Center...

Rice, Mary Antoinette

1887-01-01

340

Determining similarity in histological images using graph-theoretic description and matching methods for content-based image retrieval in medical diagnostics  

PubMed Central

Background Computer-based analysis of digitalized histological images has been gaining increasing attention, due to their extensive use in research and routine practice. The article aims to contribute towards the description and retrieval of histological images by employing a structural method using graphs. Due to their expressive ability, graphs are considered as a powerful and versatile representation formalism and have obtained a growing consideration especially by the image processing and computer vision community. Methods The article describes a novel method for determining similarity between histological images through graph-theoretic description and matching, for the purpose of content-based retrieval. A higher order (region-based) graph-based representation of breast biopsy images has been attained and a tree-search based inexact graph matching technique has been employed that facilitates the automatic retrieval of images structurally similar to a given image from large databases. Results The results obtained and evaluation performed demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of graph-based image retrieval over a common histogram-based technique. The employed graph matching complexity has been reduced compared to the state-of-the-art optimal inexact matching methods by applying a pre-requisite criterion for matching of nodes and a sophisticated design of the estimation function, especially the prognosis function. Conclusion The proposed method is suitable for the retrieval of similar histological images, as suggested by the experimental and evaluation results obtained in the study. It is intended for the use in Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR)-requiring applications in the areas of medical diagnostics and research, and can also be generalized for retrieval of different types of complex images. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1224798882787923. PMID:23035717

2012-01-01

341

Modern Day Pyramids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate the ways in which ancient technologies — six types of simple machines and combinations — are used to construct modern buildings. As they work together to solve a design problem (designing and building a modern structure), they brainstorm ideas, decide on a design, and submit it to a design review before acquiring materials to create it (in this case, a mural depicting it). Emphasis is placed on cooperative, creative teamwork and the steps of the engineering design process.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

342

Modern Evolutionary Synthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Wickipedia describes the modern evolutionary synthesis. This theory brings together Charles Darwin's theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendel's theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance. Essentially, the modern synthesis (or neo-Darwinism) introduces the connection between two important discoveries; the units of evolution (genes) with the mechanism of evolution (selection). The site features links to any of the topics discussed.

Wikipedia

343

Neandertal vs. Modern Human  

E-print Network

have used metric and morphological differences to validate claims that European Neandertals belong to a different species than modern Homo sapiens. Such assertions were based on a complied list of characteristics considered to be autapomorphus... Anthropology Vol. 48: pp 331-523; 1978 7. Wolpoff, M.H., Paleoanthropology. 2 ed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.; 1998 8. Smith, F.H., “Behavioral Interpretations of Changes In Craniofacial Morphology Across The Archaic/Modern Homo Sapiens Transition...

Hill, Brittany

2009-10-01

344

Systematic evaluation of a secondary method for measuring diagnostic-level medical ultrasound transducer output power based on a large-area pyroelectric sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic study of the application of a novel pyroelectric technique to the measurement of diagnostic-level medical ultrasound output power is described. The method exploits the pyroelectric properties of a 0.028 mm thick membrane of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), backed by an acoustic absorber whose ultrasonic absorption coefficient approaches 1000 dB cm-1 at 3 MHz. When exposed to an ultrasonic field, absorption of ultrasound adjacent to the PVDF-absorber interface results in heating and the generation of a pyroelectric output voltage across gold electrodes deposited on the membrane. For a sensor large enough to intercept the whole of the acoustic beam, the output voltage can be calibrated for the measurement of acoustic output power. A number of key performance properties of the method have been investigated. The technique is very sensitive, with a power to voltage conversion factor of typically 0.23 V W-1. The frequency response of a particular embodiment of the sensor in which acoustic power reflected at the absorber-PVDF interface is subsequently returned to the pyroelectric membrane to be absorbed, has been evaluated over the frequency range 1.5 MHz to 10 MHz. This has shown the frequency response to be flat to within ±4%, above 2.5 MHz. Below this frequency, the sensitivity falls by 20% at 1.5 MHz. Linearity of the technique has been demonstrated to within ±1.6% for applied acoustic power levels from 1 mW up to 120 mW. A number of other studies targeted at assessing the achievable measurement uncertainties are presented. These involve: the effects of soaking, the influence of the angle of incidence of the acoustic beam, measurement repeatability and sensitivity to transducer positioning. Additionally, over the range 20 °C to 30 °C, the rate of change in sensitivity with ambient temperature has been shown to be +0.5% °C-1. Implications of the work for the development of a sensitive, traceable, portable, secondary method of ultrasound output power measurement, appropriate for clinical diagnostic ultrasound systems, are discussed.

Zeqiri, B.; Žauhar, G.; Rajagopal, S.; Pounder, A.

2012-06-01

345

Snapshot Mueller polarimetry for biomedical diagnostic related to human liver fibrosis: evaluation of the method for biomedical assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human liver biopsy samples, consisting into a 16 ?m thickness biomaterial chemically fixed into a formaldehyde matrix, and stained by red picrosirius dye, are analysed for different states of fibrosis degeneration. Polarimetric methods, and specially Mueller polarimetry based on wavelength coding, have been qualified as an efficient tool to describe many different biological aspects. The polarimetric characteristics of the media, extracted from a Lu and Chipman decomposition1, 2 of their Mueller Matrix (MM), are correlated with the degeneracy level of tissue. Different works and results linked to the clinical analysis will be presented and compared to previous performed works.3 Polarimetric imaging will be presented and compared with SHG measurements. A statistical analysis of the distribution of polarimetric parameters (such as the retardance R and depolarisation Pd) will be presented too, in order to characterise the liver fibrosis level into the biomaterial under study.

Babilotte, P.; Dubreuil, M.; Rivet, S.; Lijour, Y.; Sevrain, D.; Martin, L.; Le Brun, G.; Le Grand, Y.; Le Jeune, B.

2011-10-01

346

Development of a new diagnostic method for galactosemia by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.  

PubMed

We developed a new non-derivatization analytical method for the determination of galactose in the diagnosis of galactosemia by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC)-pulsed amperometric detection (PAD). With an anion-exchange column, the analytes were separated efficiently using 3mM NaOH containing 1mM NaOAc, and 200mM NaOH was added for post-column reagent. The limit of detection (S/N=3) and limit of quantification (S/N=10) for galactose were 25ng/mL and 83ng/mL, respectively. Linear dynamic range was from 4.67mg/dL to 53.46mg/dL (r(2)=0.9999). The mean recovery of galactose for intra-, inter-day assays were found to be of satisfactory results (98.14-101.42%). PMID:17161845

Jeong, Ji-Seon; Yoon, Hye-Ran; Hong, Seon-Pyo

2007-01-26

347

Nucleic Acid Amplification Based Diagnostic of Lyme (Neuro-)borreliosis – Lost in the Jungle of Methods, Targets, and Assays?  

PubMed Central

Laboratory based diagnosis of infectious diseases usually relies on culture of the disease causing micro-organism, followed by identification and susceptibility testing. Since Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis, requires very specific culture conditions (e.g. specific liquid media, long term cul-ture) traditional bacteriology is often not done on a routine basis. Instead, confirmation of the clinical diagnosis needs ei-ther indirect techniques (like serology or measurement of cellular activity in the presence of antigens) or direct but culture independent techniques, like microscopy or nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT), with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) being the most frequently applied NAT method in routine laboratories. NAT uses nucleic acids of the disease causing micro-organism as template for amplification, isolated from various sources of clinical specimens. Although the underlying principle, adoption of the enzymatic process running during DNA duplication prior to prokaryotic cell division, is comparatively easy, a couple of ‘pitfalls’ is associated with the technique itself as well as with interpretation of the results. At present, no commercial, CE-marked and sufficiently validated PCR assay is available. A number of homebrew assays have been published, which are different in terms of target (i.e. the gene targeted by the amplification primers), method (nested PCR, PCR followed by hybridization, real-time PCR) and validation criteria. Inhibitory compounds may lead to false negative results, if no appropriate internal control is included. Carry-over of amplicons, insufficient handling and workflow and/or insufficiently validated targets/primers may result in false positive results. Different targets may yield different analytical sensitivity, depending, among other factors, of the redundancy of a target gene in the genome. Per-formance characteristics (e.g. analytical sensitivity and specificity, clinical sensitivity and specificity, reproducibility, etc.) are, if available, only applicable to a specific assay, running in a specific laboratory. Finally, not only the NAT/PCR method itself, but also the process of DNA isolation from the specimen, is highly diverse and may have fundamental im-pact on the (expected) PCR result. Of concern are distribution effects of DNA, in particular, if only low numbers of bacte-ria/genomes are present in a sample, as it is the case for instance in cerebrospinal fluids. For the ordering physician and for the patient requesting PCR analysis, these ‘pitfalls’ are usually invisible. As a conse-quence, the reported result (i.e. PCR negative or positive for B. burgdorferi) is hard to interpret, especially, if the reported PCR result is contradictory to the clinical diagnosis or other laboratory findings. Moreover, due to the high number of dif-ferent assays in use, two laboratories, testing the same specimen, might come to different PCR results. The current paper wants to summarize the available PCR/NAT assays for the detection of B. burgdorferi DNA in clinical specimens, with special attention to neurologic disorders, and to discuss the difficulties in PCR analysis and result inter-pretation, associated thereof. In view of growing numbers of patients who are diagnosed of having Lyme disease, and ac-knowledging a substantial growth in knowledge regarding other tick- or vector-borne pathogens, which might be able to induce symptoms comparable to Lyme (neuro-)borreliosis, efforts are urgently needed to standardize and harmonize methods for B. burgdorferi nucleic acid amplification. PMID:23230454

Nolte, Oliver

2012-01-01

348

Nucleic Acid Amplification Based Diagnostic of Lyme (Neuro-)borreliosis - Lost in the Jungle of Methods, Targets, and Assays?  

PubMed

Laboratory based diagnosis of infectious diseases usually relies on culture of the disease causing micro-organism, followed by identification and susceptibility testing. Since Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis, requires very specific culture conditions (e.g. specific liquid media, long term cul-ture) traditional bacteriology is often not done on a routine basis. Instead, confirmation of the clinical diagnosis needs ei-ther indirect techniques (like serology or measurement of cellular activity in the presence of antigens) or direct but culture independent techniques, like microscopy or nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT), with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) being the most frequently applied NAT method in routine laboratories. NAT uses nucleic acids of the disease causing micro-organism as template for amplification, isolated from various sources of clinical specimens. Although the underlying principle, adoption of the enzymatic process running during DNA duplication prior to prokaryotic cell division, is comparatively easy, a couple of 'pitfalls' is associated with the technique itself as well as with interpretation of the results. At present, no commercial, CE-marked and sufficiently validated PCR assay is available. A number of homebrew assays have been published, which are different in terms of target (i.e. the gene targeted by the amplification primers), method (nested PCR, PCR followed by hybridization, real-time PCR) and validation criteria. Inhibitory compounds may lead to false negative results, if no appropriate internal control is included. Carry-over of amplicons, insufficient handling and workflow and/or insufficiently validated targets/primers may result in false positive results. Different targets may yield different analytical sensitivity, depending, among other factors, of the redundancy of a target gene in the genome. Per-formance characteristics (e.g. analytical sensitivity and specificity, clinical sensitivity and specificity, reproducibility, etc.) are, if available, only applicable to a specific assay, running in a specific laboratory. Finally, not only the NAT/PCR method itself, but also the process of DNA isolation from the specimen, is highly diverse and may have fundamental im-pact on the (expected) PCR result. Of concern are distribution effects of DNA, in particular, if only low numbers of bacte-ria/genomes are present in a sample, as it is the case for instance in cerebrospinal fluids. For the ordering physician and for the patient requesting PCR analysis, these 'pitfalls' are usually invisible. As a conse-quence, the reported result (i.e. PCR negative or positive for B. burgdorferi) is hard to interpret, especially, if the reported PCR result is contradictory to the clinical diagnosis or other laboratory findings. Moreover, due to the high number of dif-ferent assays in use, two laboratories, testing the same specimen, might come to different PCR results. The current paper wants to summarize the available PCR/NAT assays for the detection of B. burgdorferi DNA in clinical specimens, with special attention to neurologic disorders, and to discuss the difficulties in PCR analysis and result inter-pretation, associated thereof. In view of growing numbers of patients who are diagnosed of having Lyme disease, and ac-knowledging a substantial growth in knowledge regarding other tick- or vector-borne pathogens, which might be able to induce symptoms comparable to Lyme (neuro-)borreliosis, efforts are urgently needed to standardize and harmonize methods for B. burgdorferi nucleic acid amplification. PMID:23230454

Nolte, Oliver

2012-01-01

349

Modern diagnostic and therapeutic interventional radiology in lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Imaging has an important role in the multidisciplinary management of primary lung cancer. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art imaging modalities used for the evaluation, staging and post-treatment follow-up and surveillance of lung cancers, and image-guided percutaneous techniques for biopsy to confirm the diagnosis and for local therapy in non-surgical candidates. PMID:24163744

Lau, Eddie W. F.; Chin, Kwang; Sedlaczek, Oliver; Steinke, Karin

2013-01-01

350

SODOBNI PRINCIPI DIAGNOSTIKE CELIAKIJE MODERN DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH TO CELIAC DISEASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Celiac disease, also known as genetic gluten intolerance is a chronic disease that affects genetically predisposed individuals after the gluten ingestion. It affects about 1 % of popu- lation regardless of the age, and can manifest with diverse clinical picture. Diagnosis of celiac disease is based on criteria adopted and later revised by European Society for Paed- iatric Gastroenterology,

Darja Urlep-Žužej

351

Rotorcraft Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer decision support for optimal maintenance.

Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

2012-01-01

352

Advances in the processing of policromat images as diagnostic method to determine white spot syndrome virus in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White spot syndrome (WSSV) is a viral disease which affects many crustacean species including commercial shrimps. Adequate, precise and quick methods to diagnose on time the presence of the disease in order to apply different strategies to avoid the dispersion and to reduce mortalities is necessary. Histopathology is an important diagnostic method. However, histopathology has the problem that requires time to prepare the histological slides and time to arrive to some diagnosis because this depend on the nature of the tissues, the pathogen(s) to find, the number of organisms, number of slides to analyze and the skill of the technician. This paper try to demonstrate the sensibility of one digital system of processing and recognition of images using color correlation with phase filters, to identify inclusion bodies of WSSV. Infected tissues were processed to obtain histological slides and to verify that the inclusion bodies observed were of WSV, in situ hybridization were carried out. The sensibility results of the recognition of the inclusion bodies of WSSV with the color correlation program was 86.1%. The highest percentage of recognition was in nervous system and tegument glands with 100%. The values in the stomach epithelium and heart tissue was 78.45% of recognition. Tissues with the lowest recognition values were lymphoid organ and hematopoietic tissue. It is necessary further studies to increase the sensibility and to obtain the specificity.

Chavez-Sanchez, Cristina M.; Alvarez-Borrego, Josue; Montoya-Rodriguez, L.; Garcia-Gasca, A.; Fajer Avila, Emma J.; Pacheco-Marges, R.

2004-10-01

353

Comparative diagnostic value of a new computerized vectorcardiographic method (cardiogoniometry) and other noninvasive tests in medically treated patients with chest pain  

SciTech Connect

The diagnostic value of cardiogoniometry (CGM), a new computerized vectorcardiographic method, for the identification of coronary artery disease was compared with other noninvasive tests in 48 medically treated patients with chest pain. Coronary angiography revealed one-vessel disease in 18, two- or three-vessel disease in 21, and normal coronary arteries in 9 patients. Cardiogoniometry was less sensitive (63%) than thallium-/sup 201/ (201T1) scanning (82%), but slightly more sensitive than the exercise ECG (50%) or a recently proposed parameter of exercise performance (50%). On the other hand, specificity was comparable among these tests (exercise ECG 78%, thallium-201 scanning 72%, CGM 67%, new parameter of exercise performance 66%). Moreover, the false negative rate of noninvasive testing was reduced from 8 to 3% when CGM was added to thallium-201 scanning and exercise ECG. Our findings indicate that in view of the easier feasibility with computerized technology, the future role of vectorcardiographic methods such as CGM in the noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease should be redefined.

Meier, A.; Hoeflin, F.H.; Herrmann, H.J.; Wolf, C.; Gurtner, H.P.; Roesler, H.

1987-05-01

354

Task-Oriented Comparison of Power Spectral Density Estimation Methods for Quantifying Acoustic Attenuation in Diagnostic Ultrasound Using a Reference Phantom Method  

PubMed Central

Reported here is a phantom-based comparison of methods for determining the power spectral density of ultrasound backscattered signals. Those power spectral density values are then used to estimate parameters describing ?(f), the frequency dependence of the acoustic attenuation coefficient. Phantoms were scanned with a clinical system equipped with a research interface to obtain radiofrequency echo data. Attenuation, modeled as a power law ?(f)=?0f?, was estimated using a reference phantom method. The power spectral density as estimated using the short-time Fourier transform (STFT), Welch's periodogram, and Thomson's multitaper technique, and performance was analyzed when limiting the size of the parameter estimation region. Errors were quantified by the bias and standard deviation of the ?0 and ? estimates, and by the overall power-law fit error. For parameter estimation regions larger than ~34 pulse lengths (~1cm for this experiment), an overall power-law fit error of 4% was achieved with all spectral estimation methods. With smaller parameter estimation regions as in parametric image formation, the bias and standard deviation of the ?0 and ? estimates depended on the size of the parameter estimation region. Here the multitaper method reduced the standard deviation of the ?0 and ? estimates compared to those using the other techniques. Results provide guidance for choosing methods for estimating the power spectral density in quantitative ultrasound. PMID:23858055

Rosado-Mendez, Ivan M.; Nam, Kibo; Hall, Timothy J.; Zagzebski, James A.

2013-01-01

355

A Review of Diagnostic Techniques for ISHM Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System diagnosis is an integral part of any Integrated System Health Management application. Diagnostic applications make use of system information from the design phase, such as safety and mission assurance analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, hazards analysis, functional models, fault propagation models, and testability analysis. In modern process control and equipment monitoring systems, topological and analytic , models of the nominal system, derived from design documents, are also employed for fault isolation and identification. Depending on the complexity of the monitored signals from the physical system, diagnostic applications may involve straightforward trending and feature extraction techniques to retrieve the parameters of importance from the sensor streams. They also may involve very complex analysis routines, such as signal processing, learning or classification methods to derive the parameters of importance to diagnosis. The process that is used to diagnose anomalous conditions from monitored system signals varies widely across the different approaches to system diagnosis. Rule-based expert systems, case-based reasoning systems, model-based reasoning systems, learning systems, and probabilistic reasoning systems are examples of the many diverse approaches ta diagnostic reasoning. Many engineering disciplines have specific approaches to modeling, monitoring and diagnosing anomalous conditions. Therefore, there is no "one-size-fits-all" approach to building diagnostic and health monitoring capabilities for a system. For instance, the conventional approaches to diagnosing failures in rotorcraft applications are very different from those used in communications systems. Further, online and offline automated diagnostic applications are integrated into an operations framework with flight crews, flight controllers and maintenance teams. While the emphasis of this paper is automation of health management functions, striking the correct balance between automated and human-performed tasks is a vital concern.

Patterson-Hine, Ann; Biswas, Gautam; Aaseng, Gordon; Narasimhan, Sriam; Pattipati, Krishna

2005-01-01

356

Requirements for ITER diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The development and design of plasma diagnostics for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) present a formidable challenge for experimental plasma physicists. The large plasma size, the high central density and temperature and the very high thermal wall loadings provide new challenges for present measurement techniques and lead to a search for new methods. But the physics and control requirements for the long burn phase of the discharge, combined with very limited access to the plasma, constrained by the requirement for radiation shielding of the coils and sharing of access ports with heating and current drive power, remote manipulation, fueling and turn blanket modules, make for very difficult design choices. An initial attempt at these choices has been made by an international team of diagnostic physicists, gathering together in a series of three workshops during the ITER Conceptual Design Activity. This paper is based on that report and provides a summary of its most important points. To provide a background against which to place the diagnostic requirements and design concepts, the ITER device, its most important plasma properties and the proposed experimental program will be described. The specifications for the measurement of the plasma parameters and the proposed diagnostics for these measurements will then be addressed, followed by some examples of the design concepts that have been proposed. As a result of these design studies, it was clear that there were many uncertainties associated with these concepts, particularly because of the nuclear radiation environment, so that a Research and Development Program for diagnostic hardware was established. It will also be briefly summarized.

Young, K.M.

1991-01-01

357

Development of new source diagnostic methods and variance reduction techniques for Monte Carlo eigenvalue problems with a focus on high dominance ratio problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obtaining the solution to the linear Boltzmann equation is often is often a daunting task. The time-independent form is an equation of six independent variables which cannot be solved analytically in all but some special problems. Instead, numerical approaches have been devised. This work focuses on improving Monte Carlo methods for its solution in eigenvalue form. First, a statistical method of stationarity detection called the KPSS test adapted as a Monte Carlo eigenvalue source convergence test. The KPSS test analyzes the source center of mass series which was chosen since it should be indicative of overall source behavior, and is physically easy to understand. A source center of mass plot alone serves as a good visual source convergence diagnostic. The KPSS test and three different information theoretic diagnostics were implemented into the well known KENOV.a code inside of the SCALE (version 5) code package from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and compared through analysis of a simple problem and several difficult source convergence benchmarks. Results showed that the KPSS test can add to the overall confidence by identifying more problematic simulations than without its usage. Not only this, the source center of mass information on hand visually aids in the understanding of the problem physics. The second major focus of this dissertation concerned variance reduction methodologies for Monte Carlo eigenvalue problems. The CADIS methodology, based on importance sampling, was adapted to the eigenvalue problems. It was shown that the straight adaption of importance sampling can provide a significant variance reduction in determination of keff (in cases studied up to 30%?). A modified version of this methodology was developed which utilizes independent deterministic importance simulations. In this new methodology, each particle is simulated multiple times, once to every other discretized source region utilizing the importance for that region only. Since each particle is simulated multiple times, this methodology often slows down the final keff convergence, but an increase coupling between source zones with important yet low probability interaction is observed. This is an important finding for loosely coupled systems and may be useful in their analysis. The third major focus of this dissertation concerns the use of the standard cumulative fission matrix methodology for high dominance ratio problems which results in high source correlation. Source eigenvector confidence is calculated utilizing a Monte Carlo iterated confidence approach and shown to be superior to the currently used plus and minus fission matrix methodology. Utilizing the fission matrix based approach with appropriately meshing and particle density, it is shown that the fission matrix elements tend to be independent. As a result, the keff and the source eigenvector can be calculated without bias, which is not the case for the standard methodology due to the source correlation. This approach was tested with a 1-D multigroup eigenvalue code developed for this work. A preliminary automatic mesh and particle population diagnostic were formulated to ensure independent and normal fission matrix elements. The algorithm was extended in parallel to show the favorable speedup possible with the fission matrix based approach. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)

Wenner, Michael T.

358

Fossil/modern mole phylogeny  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study is introduced at the beginning of class, and runs throughout the quarter. Students are first given a paper describing a morphological phylogeny of modern moles. The first few weeks' labs teach the students basic phylogenetic methods and the aspects of skeletal morphology needed to understand the character descriptions. Students in groups of 2 or 3 are assigned a set of characters from a particular region of the skeleton (i.e. humerus, lower teeth, skull, etc.). Those groups are responsible for learning to distinguish those characters on a representative group of modern specimens (for which the character codings are already available in the paper they have) and then coding those characters for a number of fossil taxa. The fossils are either described in papers posted on the course website or are represented by specimens held in the instructor's research lab. Students are responsible for finding time to come in and work with the specimens. The next to last lab of the quarter is concerned with analyzing data within each group, for the class as a whole, for fossil taxa alone, and for fossil and modern taxa. Students then write up the results of their analyses for their term project due at the end of the quarter.

359

Imaging of gastrointestinal stromal tumours with modern ultrasound techniques - a pictorial essay.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are rare tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. Dealing with these tumours requires a profound knowledge of the nature of the lesions and their malignant potentials. Modern ultrasound techniques provide the necessary tools to give the clinician the information he needs to diagnose and treat the patient. This article reviews the actual pathophysiological knowledge of GIST and provides a broad spectrum of ultrasound findings to introduce the reader into modern ultrasound investigation methods of subepithelial tumours. It covers the transcutaneous as well as the endoscopic ultrasound approach. Different conditions of GIST like the low risk or high risk form as well as the metastatic form will be discussed in diagnosis and treatment with plenty of examples. Special attention is paid to contrast-enhanced ultrasound techniques and elastography from the transcutaneous as well as the endoscopic route. Other diagnostic methods like CT, MRI and PET CT are additionally reviewed and their role in clinical practice is compared with that of ultrasound. The aim of the article is to introduce the reader into the new ultrasound techniques and special diagnostic behaviour of GIST and outline clinical pathways to deal correctly with different stages of the disease. PMID:22581701

Dietrich, C F; Jenssen, C; Hocke, M; Cui, X-W; Woenckhaus, M; Ignee, A

2012-05-01

360

Salivary Diagnostics: A Brief Review  

PubMed Central

Early detection of disease plays a crucial role for treatment planning and prognosis. Saliva has great potential as a diagnostic fluid and offers advantage over serum and other biological fluids by an economic and noninvasive collection method for monitoring of systemic health and disease progression. The plethora of components in this fluid can act as biomarkers for diagnosis of various systemic and local diseases. In this review paper, we have emphasized the role of salivary biomarkers as diagnostic tools. PMID:24616813

Malathi, Narasimhan; Mythili, Sabesan; Vasanthi, Hannah R.

2014-01-01

361

Modern Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the development of modern Chinese from the late 19th century up to the 1990s, concentrating on three major aspects: modern spoken Chinese, modern written Chinese, and the modern Chinese writing system. It describes and analyzes in detail, from historical and sociolinguistic perspectives,…

Chen, Ping

362

New aspects of modern endoscopy  

PubMed Central

The prognosis for patients with malignancies of the gastrointestinal-tract is strictly dependent on early detection of premalignant and malignant lesions. However, small, flat or depressed neoplastic lesions remain difficult to detect with these technologies thereby limiting their value for polyp and cancer screening. At the same time computer and chip technologies have undergone major technological changes which have greatly improved endoscopic diagnostic investigation. New imaging modalities and techniques are very notable aspects of modern endoscopy. Chromoendoscopy or filter-aided colonoscopy (virtual chromoendoscopy) with high definition endoscopes is able to enhance the detection and characterization of lesions. Finally, confocal laser endomicroscopy provides histological confirmation of the presence of neoplastic changes. The developing techniques around colonoscopy such as the retro-viewing colonoscope, the balloon-colonoscope or the 330-degrees-viewing colonoscope try to enhance the efficacy by reducing the adenoma miss rate in right-sided, non-polypoid lesions. Colon capsule endoscopy is limited to identifying cancer and not necessarily small adenomas. Preliminary attempts have been made to introduce this technique in clinical routine. PMID:25132916

Rey, Johannes Wilhelm; Kiesslich, Ralf; Hoffman, Arthur

2014-01-01

363

Diagnostic accuracy of a volume-rendered computed tomography movie and other computed tomography-based imaging methods in assessment of renal vascular anatomy for laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.  

PubMed

To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT)-based imaging methods for assessing renal vascular anatomy, imaging studies, including standard axial CT, three-dimensional volume-rendered CT (3DVR-CT), and a 3DVR-CT movie, were performed on 30 patients who underwent laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (10 right side, 20 left side) for predicting the location of the renal arteries and renal, adrenal, gonadal, and lumbar veins. These findings were compared with videos obtained during the operation. Two of 37 renal arteries observed intraoperatively were missed by standard axial CT and 3DVR-CT, whereas all arteries were identified by the 3DVR-CT movie. Two of 36 renal veins were missed by standard axial CT and 3DVR-CT, whereas 1 was missed by the 3DVR-CT movie. In 20 left renal hilar anatomical structures, 20 adrenal, 20 gonadal, and 22 lumbar veins were observed during the operation. Preoperatively, the standard axial CT, 3DVR-CT, and 3DVR-CT movie detected 11, 19, and 20 adrenal veins; 13, 14, and 19 gonadal veins; and 6, 11, and 15 lumbar veins, respectively. Overall, of 135 renal vascular structures, the standard axial CT, 3DVR-CT, and 3DVR-CT movie accurately detected 99 (73.3%), 113 (83.7%), and 126 (93.3%) vessels, respectively, which indicated that the 3DVR-CT movie demonstrated a significantly higher detection rate than other CT-based imaging methods (P < 0.05). The 3DVR-CT movie accurately provides essential information about the renal vascular anatomy before laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. PMID:19266308

Yamamoto, Shingo; Tanooka, Masao; Ando, Kumiko; Yamano, Toshiko; Ishikura, Reiichi; Nojima, Michio; Hirota, Shozo; Shima, Hiroki

2009-12-01

364

In vitro antimicrobial inhibition of Mycoplasma bovis isolates submitted to the Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostic Laboratory using flow cytometry and a broth microdilution method.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen of cattle, causing mastitis, pneumonia, conjunctivitis, otitis, and arthritis. Currently there are only a few reports of sensitivity levels for M. bovis isolates from the United States. Mycoplasma bovis isolates submitted to the Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostic Laboratory between December 2007 and December 2008 (n = 192) were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, spectinomycin, ceftiofur, tetracycline, and oxytetracycline using a broth microdilution method. The most effective antimicrobials against M. bovis determined by using the broth microdilution method were florfenicol, enrofloxacin, and tetracycline with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges of 2-32 µg/ml, 0.1-3.2 µg/ml, and 0.05 to >12.8 µg/ml, respectively. Spectinomycin, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline showed a wide-ranging level of efficacy in isolate inhibition with broth microdilution with MIC ranges of 4 to >256 µg/ml, 0.05 to >12.8 µg/ml, and 0.05 to >12.8 µg/ml, respectively. A significant difference in the susceptibility levels between quarter milk and lung isolates was found for spectinomycin. When MIC values of a subset of the M. bovis isolates (n=12) were tested using a flow cytometric technique, the MIC ranges of enrofloxacin, spectinomycin, ceftiofur, erythromycin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and florfenicol ranges were 0.1-0.4 µg/ml, 4 to >256 µg/ml, >125 µg/ml, >3.2 µg/ml, <0.025 to >6.4 µg/ml, 0.8 to >12.8 µg/ml, and <2-4 µg/ml, respectively. Flow cytometry offers potential in clinical applications due to high-throughput capability, quick turnaround time, and the objective nature of interpreting results. PMID:21908288

Soehnlen, Marty K; Kunze, M Elaine; Karunathilake, K Eranda; Henwood, Brittnee M; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Wolfgang, David R; Jayarao, Bhushan M

2011-05-01

365

Production of recombinant capsid protein of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (r-MCP43) of giant freshwater prawn, M. rosenbergii (de Man) for immunological diagnostic methods.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) caused by Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) is a serious problem in prawn hatcheries. The gene for capsid protein of MrNV (MCP43) was cloned into pRSET B expression vector. The MCP43 protein was expressed as a protein with a 6-histidine tag in Escherichia coli GJ1158 with NaCl induction. This recombinant protein, which was used to raise the antiserum in rabbits, recognized capsid protein in different WTD-infected post-larvae and adult prawn. Various immunological methods such as Western blot, dot blot and ELISA techniques were employed to detect MrNV in infected samples using the antiserum raised against recombinant MCP43 of MrNV. The dot blot assay using anti-rMCP43 was found to be capable of detecting MrNV in WTD-infected post-larvae as early as at 24 h post-infection. The antiserum raised against r-MCP43 could detect the MrNV in the infected samples at the level of 100 pg of total protein. The capsid protein of MrNV estimated by ELISA using anti-rMCP43 and pure r-MCP43 as a standard was found to increase gradually during the course of infection from 24 h p.i. to moribund stage. The results of immunological diagnostic methods employed in this study were compared with that of RT-PCR to test the efficiency of antiserum raised against r-MCP43 for the detection of MrNV. The Western blot, dot blot and ELISA detected all MrNV-positive coded samples as detected by RT-PCR. PMID:23952017

Farook, M A; Madan, N; Taju, G; Majeed, S Abdul; Nambi, K S N; Raj, N Sundar; Vimal, S; Hameed, A S Sahul

2014-08-01

366

Modern programming language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

1980-01-01

367

Experiencing Modern Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses ways of relating students' personal experiences to complex modern literature such as Joyce's "Portrait of the Artist" and Eliot's "The Wasteland" so that they can better understand and relate to these texts. Also discusses the use of paintings to help students see the literature and then analyze it. (SRT)

Loss, Archie

1986-01-01

368

Modern Britain History 329  

E-print Network

1 Modern Britain History 329 Consider Resources Primary Resources: diaries, letters, speeches and victorian and britain and sources (britain or england) and women and diaries Also browse subject headings and looking for these special subject terms. Women--Great Britain--History--19th century--Sources Great

Abolmaesumi, Purang

369

Modernizing Mechanical Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the problems of renovating school buildings and in particular the modernization of mechanical services in existing facilities are discussed. According to school management publications, approximately 42 per cent of our elementary and 59 per cent of our secondary schools are 15 years old or older. School plants, which were built 12 to 15…

Rutgers, Norman L.

370

Modern School Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There was much enthusiasm when the phrase "Modern School Mathematics" was coined shortly after the 1958 National Defense Education Act was passed. Many federally funded study groups came into being. Presently, criticisms in secondary teaching are just as great as it was in 1958. The innovations recommended by federally funded study groups has had…

Ediger, Marlow

2008-01-01

371

Dimensions of Modern Federalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Encapsulates a series of brief essays exploring different aspects of modern federalism. Issues include further protection of individual rights extended through state constitutions and federalism and the world economy. Authors include Robert F. Williams, Earl H. Fry, and Daniel J. Elazar. (MJP)

Williams, Robert F.; And Others

1995-01-01

372

Principles of Modern Soccer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is written to give a better understanding of the principles of modern soccer to coaches and players. In nine chapters the following elements of the game are covered: (1) the development of systems; (2) the principles of attack; (3) the principles of defense; (4) training games; (5) strategies employed in restarts; (6) physical fitness…

Beim, George

373

[Modern wound dressings].  

PubMed

Chronic wounds are, due to the slow healing, a major clinical problem. In addition to classic materials, a great number of supportive wound dressings for chronic wound treatment, developed on the basis of new knowledge about the pathophysiological events in non-healing wounds, are available on the market. Today we know that modern wound dressings provide the best local environment for optimal healing (moisture, warmth, appropriate pH). Wound dressings control the amount of exudate from the wound and bacterial load, thus protecting local skin from the wound exudate and the wound from secondary infections from the environment. Using supportive wound dressings makes sense only when the wound has been properly assessed, the etiologic factors have been clarified and the obstacles making the wound chronic identified. The choice of dressing is correlated with the characteristics of the wound, the knowledge and experience of the medical staff, and the patient's needs. We believe that the main advantage of modern wound dressing versus conventional dressing is more effective wound cleaning, simple dressing application, painless bandaging owing to reduced adhesion to the wound, and increased absorption of the wound exudate. Faster wound granulation shortens the length of patient hospitalization, and eventually facilitates the work of medical staff. The overall cost of treatment is a minor issue due to faster wound healing despite the fact that modern supportive wound dressings are more expensive than conventional bandaging. The article describes different types of modern supportive wound dressings, as well as their characteristics and indications for use. PMID:24371980

Triller, Ciril; Huljev, Dubravko; Planinsek Rucigaj, Tanja

2013-10-01

374

Modern Biotechnology in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

375

Modern Regression Discontinuity Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a detailed discussion of the theory and practice of modern regression discontinuity (RD) analysis for estimating the effects of interventions or treatments. Part 1 briefly chronicles the history of RD analysis and summarizes its past applications. Part 2 explains how in theory an RD analysis can identify an average effect of…

Bloom, Howard S.

2012-01-01

376

Medicalized weapons & modern war.  

PubMed

"Medicalized" weapons--those that rely on advances in neuroscience, physiology, and pharmacology--offer the prospect of reducing casualties and protecting civilians. They could be especially useful in modern asymmetric wars in which conventional states are pitted against guerrilla or insurgent forces. But may physicians and other medical workers participate in their development? PMID:20166514

Gross, Michael L

2010-01-01

377

Der moderne Frege  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gottlob Frege ist einer der größten (der größte?) Wissenschaftler Mecklenburg-Vorpommerns. Als Mathematiker und Philosoph hat er die moderne mathematische Logik begründet, dazu Beiträge zur Mengenlehrer, Axiomatisierung sowie der Sprachphilosophie geleistet. Viele seiner Leistungen haben Spuren hinterlassen, die noch heute wirken, und dass nicht nur in der Mathematik und Philosophie sondern insbesondere auch in der Informatik. Diese Schrift möge dazu beitragen,

Uwe Lämmel

2004-01-01

378

Problems in modern cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two problems in modern cosmology were studied. The first problem involved the study of a spherically symmetric universe, while the second considered the calculation of the annihilation cross section for two photino annihilation into two photons. The spherically symmetric universe problem studied the question of whether the metric for the model could be determined by considering the relationship between perfect

Daniel Jeffrey Suson

1988-01-01

379

Gnotobiology in modern medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is given of currently accepted theories and applications of gnotobiology. A brief history of gnotobiology is supplied. Problems involved in creating germ-free gnotobiota and the use of these animals in experimental biology are cited. Examples of how gnotobiology is used in modern medical practice illustrate the future prospects for this area of science.

Podoprigora, G. I.

1980-01-01

380

A Modern Periodic Table.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

1997-01-01

381

A Graduate Course in Modern Analytical Methods: Investigating the Structure, Magnetic Properties, and Thermal Behavior of CuSO4•5H2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To address this need we developed and implemented a compulsory two-week graduate course with theoretical lectures, practical exercises, and discussions. Students worked on a solid state analytical problem, the thermal behavior of CuSO4•5H2O, which could only be solved using several different analytical methods. By the end of the course the students learned both the logistics of solving such problems and which methods supply the appropriate solutions based on knowledge of the advantages and limitations of each method and a critical view of the results obtained by these methods.

Näther, Christian; Jeß, Inke; Herzog, Sabine; Teske, Christoph; Bluhm, Karsten; Pausch, Herbert; Bensch, W.

2003-03-01

382

“A Cool Drink of Water Before I Die:” Four Modern John Henry Songs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Kenneth Burke's pentadic method of criticism, a study of four modern compositions based on the legend of John Henry reveals modern white anxieties—ambivalent attitudes toward class, race, and agency that leave modern white performers far less certain than their folk precursors about the nature of the world and of heroism. While the composers of modern John Henry songs emulate

Gabriel Sealey-Morris

2009-01-01

383

Diagnostic Accuracy of a Molecular Drug Susceptibility Testing Method for the Antituberculosis Drug Ethambutol: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Ethambutol (EMB) is a first-line antituberculosis drug; however, drug resistance to EMB has been increasing. Molecular drug susceptibility testing (DST), based on the embB gene, has recently been used for rapid identification of EMB resistance. The aim of this meta-analysis was to establish the accuracy of molecular assay for detecting drug resistance to EMB. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched according to a written protocol and explicit study selection criteria. Measures of diagnostic accuracy were pooled using a random effects model. A total of 34 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The respective pooled sensitivities and specificities were 0.57 and 0.93 for PCR-DNA sequencing that targeted the embB 306 codon, 0.76 and 0.89 for PCR-DNA sequencing that targeted the embB 306, 406, and 497 codons, 0.64 and 0.70 for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, 0.55 and 0.78 for detecting M. tuberculosis sputum specimens using the GenoType MTBDRsl test, 0.57 and 0.87 for pyrosequencing, and 0.35 and 0.98 for PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The respective pooled sensitivities and specificities were 0.55 and 0.92 when using a lower EMB concentration as the reference standard, 0.67 and 0.73 when using a higher EMB concentration as the reference standard, and 0.60 and 1.0 when using multiple reference standards. PCR-DNA sequencing using multiple sites of the embB gene as detection targets, including embB 306, 406, and 497, can be a rapid method for preliminarily screening for EMB resistance, but it does not fully replace phenotypic DST. Of the reference DST methods examined, the agreement rates were the best using MGIT 960 for molecular DST and using the proportion method on Middlebrook 7H10 media. PMID:24899018

Cheng, Song; Cui, Zhenling; Li, Yuanyuan

2014-01-01

384

Real-time PCR for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding: comparison with other classical diagnostic methods.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic usefulness of quantification of the H. pylori genome in detection of infection in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB). A total of 158 consecutive patients with digestive disorders, 80 of whom had clinical presentation of UGB, were studied. The number of microorganisms was quantified using a real-time PCR system which amplifies the urease gene with an internal control for eliminating the false negatives. A biopsy sample from the antrum and corpus of each patient was processed. The rapid urease test, culture, histological study, stool antigen test, and breath test were done. The gold standard was a positive culture or positive results in at least two of the other techniques. When a positive result was defined as any number of microorganisms/human cell, the sensitivity of real-time PCR was greater in bleeding patients, especially in the gastric corpus: 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.3 to 84.5%) in non-UGB patients versus 91.5% (95% CI, 79.6 to 97.6%) in UGB patients. When a positive result was defined as a number of microorganisms/human cell above the optimal value that maximizes the Youden index (>3.56 microorganisms/human cell in the antrum and >2.69 in the corpus), the sensitivity and specificity in UGB patients were over 80% in both antrum and corpus. Our findings suggest that some bleeding patients with infection caused by H. pylori may not be correctly diagnosed by classical methods, and such patients could benefit from the improved diagnosis provided by real-time PCR. However, the clinical significance of a small number of microorganisms in patients with negative results in classical tests should be evaluated. PMID:22837325

Saez, Jesús; Belda, Sofía; Santibáñez, Miguel; Rodríguez, Juan Carlos; Sola-Vera, Javier; Galiana, Antonio; Ruiz-García, Montserrat; Brotons, Alicia; López-Girona, Elena; Girona, Eva; Sillero, Carlos; Royo, Gloria

2012-10-01

385

Real-Time PCR for Diagnosing Helicobacter pylori Infection in Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Comparison with Other Classical Diagnostic Methods  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic usefulness of quantification of the H. pylori genome in detection of infection in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB). A total of 158 consecutive patients with digestive disorders, 80 of whom had clinical presentation of UGB, were studied. The number of microorganisms was quantified using a real-time PCR system which amplifies the urease gene with an internal control for eliminating the false negatives. A biopsy sample from the antrum and corpus of each patient was processed. The rapid urease test, culture, histological study, stool antigen test, and breath test were done. The gold standard was a positive culture or positive results in at least two of the other techniques. When a positive result was defined as any number of microorganisms/human cell, the sensitivity of real-time PCR was greater in bleeding patients, especially in the gastric corpus: 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.3 to 84.5%) in non-UGB patients versus 91.5% (95% CI, 79.6 to 97.6%) in UGB patients. When a positive result was defined as a number of microorganisms/human cell above the optimal value that maximizes the Youden index (>3.56 microorganisms/human cell in the antrum and >2.69 in the corpus), the sensitivity and specificity in UGB patients were over 80% in both antrum and corpus. Our findings suggest that some bleeding patients with infection caused by H. pylori may not be correctly diagnosed by classical methods, and such patients could benefit from the improved diagnosis provided by real-time PCR. However, the clinical significance of a small number of microorganisms in patients with negative results in classical tests should be evaluated. PMID:22837325

Saez, Jesús; Belda, Sofía; Santibáñez, Miguel; Sola-Vera, Javier; Galiana, Antonio; Ruiz-García, Montserrat; Brotons, Alicia; López-Girona, Elena; Girona, Eva; Sillero, Carlos; Royo, Gloria

2012-01-01

386

Molecular Diagnostics of ?-Thalassemia  

PubMed Central

A high-quality hemoglobinopathy diagnosis is based on the results of a number of tests including assays for molecular identification of causative mutations. We describe the current diagnostic strategy for the identification of ?-thalassemias and hemoglobin (Hb) variants at the International Reference Laboratory for Haemoglobinopathies, Research Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (RCGEB) “Georgi D. Efremov,” Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. Our overall approach and most of the methods we use for detection of mutations are designed for the specific target population. We discuss new technical improvements that have allowed us to substantially reduce the average time necessary for reaching a conclusive diagnosis. PMID:24052746

Atanasovska, B; Bozhinovski, G; Chakalova, L; Kocheva, S; Karanfilski, O; Plaseska-Karanfiska, D

2012-01-01

387

MOMA: Modern Women  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are women represented at the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) in New York? It's a fascinating question and this website takes a look at just that. The site was designed to complement a publication looking at contemporary female artists whose work has been included in various MOMA collections. The materials here are divided into four areas, including Exhibitions, Video, Modern Women: A Partial History, and Online Collection. Within the Video section, visitors can look through over two dozen videos that include interviews with MOMA's archivists and leading artists such as Maya Deren. Moving on, visitors can click on the Artists tab to view biographical profiles and artwork by the women featured in the online collection. There are some great pieces here, such as "Malcolm X Speaks for Us" by Elizabeth Catlett or Eva Hesse's "Repetition Nineteen III." Visitors can also explore the Blog for meditations on Lillian Gish or musings on the use of art in everyday spaces.

388

Cornell Modern Indonesia Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1956, the Cornell Modern Indonesia Project (CMIP) published its first title. Since then, the modern nation of Indonesia has seen numerous transformations and this digital collection houses works published by the CMIP, which document these changes. Early on, the first documents created were called "Interim Reports", and they dealt with the 1965 coup, foreign policy, and the state of Chinese citizens in Indonesia. The monographs in the collection focus primarily on Indonesian politics, but they also include anthropological and social analyses as well. Currently, there are over four dozens titles here, and visitors can browse them by title or author. One item that should not be missed is the 1965 update of the 1936 study "Mythology and the tolerance of the Javanese". Southeast Asian scholars and those with an interest in the history of this region will not be disappointed.

389

The modern atom model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All particles in the atom are in constant motion, according to modern atomic theory. On this page of a tutorial on particle physics, students evaluate the relative size of atomic particles. If protons and neutrons are balls with a 1-centimeter diameter, then electrons have the diameter of a hair. The comparable size of an atom made from these particles would be 30 football fields long. Students read that atoms are mostly empty space. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Particle Data Group

2002-01-01

390

Neanderthals and Modern Humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neanderthals were a people native to Europe during the Pleistocene period, who became extinct between forty and thirty thousand years ago. Challenging the commonly held view that extinction was caused by the arrival of our ancestors, Clive Finlayson provides evidence that their extinction actually occurred because the Neanderthals could not adapt fast enough to changing ecological and environmental conditions, not their relationship with modern humans.

Finlayson, Clive

2004-04-01

391

Modern Anaesthesia Vapourisers  

PubMed Central

Inhalational anaesthetic agents are usually liquids at room temperature and barometric pressure and need to be converted to vapour before being used and this conversion is effected using a vapouriser. Vapourisers have evolved from very basic devices to more complicated ones. Anaesthetists should understand the basic principles of anaesthetic vapouriser, including the principles that affect vapouriser output and how they influence vapouriser design. Most of the modern vapourisers in use are designed to be used between the flow meter and the common gas outlet on the anaesthesia machine. Modern vapourisers are flow and temperature compensated, concentration calibrated, direct reading, dial controlled and are unaffected by positive-pressure ventilation. Safety features include an anti-spill and a select-a-tec mechanism and a specific vapouriser filling device. Desflurane has unique physical properties requiring the use of a specific desflurane vapouriser. The most recently designed vapourisers are controlled by a central processing unit in the anaesthetic machine. The concentration of vapour is continuously monitored and adjusted by altering fresh gas flow through the vapouriser. This article looks at the basic design and functioning of the modern vapourisers. PMID:24249879

Chakravarti, Sucharita; Basu, Srabani

2013-01-01

392

Diagnostic indices for vertiginous diseases  

PubMed Central

Background Vertigo and dizziness are symptoms which are reported frequently in clinical practice. We aimed to develop diagnostic indices for four prevalent vertiginous diseases: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Menière's disease (MD), vestibular migraine (VM), and phobic postural vertigo (PPV). Methods Based on a detailed questionnaire handed out to consecutive patients presenting for the first time in our dizziness clinic we preselected a set of seven questions with desirable diagnostic properties when compared with the final diagnosis after medical workup. Using exact logistic regression analysis diagnostic scores, each comprising of four to six items that can simply be added up, were built for each of the four diagnoses. Results Of 193 patients 131 questionnaires were left after excluding those with missing consent or data. Applying the suggested cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity were 87.5 and 93.5% for BPPV, 100 and 87.4% for MD, 92.3 and 83.7% for VM, 73.7 and 84.1% for PPV, respectively. By changing the cut-off points sensitivity and specificity can be adjusted to meet diagnostic needs. Conclusions The diagnostic indices showed promising diagnostic properties. Once further validated, they could provide an ease to use and yet flexible tool for screening vertigo in clinical practice and epidemiological research. PMID:20973968

2010-01-01

393

Cotton-based diagnostic devices.  

PubMed

A good diagnostic procedure avoids wasting medical resources, is easy to use, resists contamination, and provides accurate information quickly to allow for rapid follow-up therapies. We developed a novel diagnostic procedure using a "cotton-based diagnostic device" capable of real-time detection, i.e., in vitro diagnostics (IVD), which avoids reagent contamination problems common to existing biomedical devices and achieves the abovementioned goals of economy, efficiency, ease of use, and speed. Our research reinforces the advantages of an easy-to-use, highly accurate diagnostic device created from an inexpensive and readily available U.S. FDA-approved material (i.e., cotton as flow channel and chromatography paper as reaction zone) that adopts a standard calibration curve method in a buffer system (i.e., nitrite, BSA, urobilinogen and uric acid assays) to accurately obtain semi-quantitative information and limit the cross-contamination common to multiple-use tools. Our system, which specifically targets urinalysis diagnostics and employs a multiple biomarker approach, requires no electricity, no professional training, and is exceptionally portable for use in remote or home settings. This could be particularly useful in less industrialized areas. PMID:25393975

Lin, Shang-Chi; Hsu, Min-Yen; Kuan, Chen-Meng; Wang, Hsi-Kai; Chang, Chia-Ling; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Cheng, Chao-Min

2014-01-01

394

Use of soft x-ray diagnostic on the COMPASS tokamak for investigations of sawteeth crash neighborhood and of plasma position using fast inversion methods.  

PubMed

The soft x-ray diagnostic is suitable for monitoring plasma activity in the tokamak core, e.g., sawtooth instability. Moreover, spatially resolved measurements can provide information about plasma position and shape, which can supplement magnetic measurements. In this contribution, fast algorithms with the potential for a real-time use are tested on the data from the COMPASS tokamak. In addition, the soft x-ray data are compared with data from other diagnostics in order to discuss possible connection between sawtooth instability on one side and the transition to higher confinement mode, edge localized modes and productions of runaway electrons on the other side. PMID:25430340

Imrisek, M; Weinzettl, V; Mlynar, J; Odstrcil, T; Odstrcil, M; Ficker, O; Pinzon, J R; Ehrlacher, C; Panek, R; Hron, M

2014-11-01

395

Use of soft x-ray diagnostic on the COMPASS tokamak for investigations of sawteeth crash neighborhood and of plasma position using fast inversion methods  

SciTech Connect

The soft x-ray diagnostic is suitable for monitoring plasma activity in the tokamak core, e.g., sawtooth instability. Moreover, spatially resolved measurements can provide information about plasma position and shape, which can supplement magnetic measurements. In this contribution, fast algorithms with the potential for a real-time use are tested on the data from the COMPASS tokamak. In addition, the soft x-ray data are compared with data from other diagnostics in order to discuss possible connection between sawtooth instability on one side and the transition to higher confinement mode, edge localized modes and productions of runaway electrons on the other side.

Imrisek, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Weinzettl, V.; Mlynar, J.; Panek, R.; Hron, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Odstrcil, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Odstrcil, M. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Optical Research Center, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Ficker, O. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Pinzon, J. R. [Institue Jean Lamour, Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Ehrlacher, C. [ENS Cachan, Paris (France)

2014-11-15

396

First Textbooks on Modern History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews two textbooks for seventh-grade students on modern history discussing the strengths and deficiencies of each: (1) "Modern History. Part I: A Textbook for the Seventh Grade of the Basic School" and (2) "Modern History, 1500-1800: A Textbook for the Seventh Grade of General Education Institutions." (CMK)

Gribov, V. S.

1999-01-01

397

Development of a Low-Energetic Metastable Helium Beam Injector for Electric Field Diagnostics by Laser-Induced Fluorescence Method in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progresses in development of a metastable helium atomic beam injector as a beam prove for electric field diagnoses are described, which is applicable to a high electric potential region in inertial electrostatic confinement plasmas where a solid probe can hardly be utilized. Configuration refinement of setup of a skimmer to take a collimated diagnostic beam out of the gas jet

Kai Masuda; Takanori Ando; Tetsuya Nishi; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa

2005-01-01

398

Practical dosimetry methods for the determination of effective skin and breast dose for a modern CT system, incorporating partial irradiation and prospective cardiac gating  

PubMed Central

Objective For CT coronary angiography (CTCA), a generic chest conversion factor returns a significant underestimate of effective dose. The aim of this manuscript is to communicate new dosimetry methods to calculate weighted CT dose index (CTDIw), effective dose, entrance surface dose (ESD) and organ dose to the breast for prospectively gated CTCA. Methods CTDIw in 32 cm diameter Perspex phantom was measured using an adapted technique, accounting for the segmented scan characteristic. Gafchromic XRCT film (International Speciality Products, New Jersey, NJ) was used to measure the distribution and magnitude of ESD. Breast dose was measured using high sensitivity metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors and compared to the computer based imaging performance assessment of CT scanners (ImPACT) dosimetry calculations. Results For a typical cardiac scan the mean ESD remained broadly constant (7–9 mGy) when averaged over the circumference of the Perspex phantom. Typical absorbed dose to the breast with prospectively gated protocols was within the range 2–15 mGy. The subsequent lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence to the breast was found at 0.01–0.06 for a 20-year-old female. This compares favourably to 100 mGy (LAR ?0.43) for a retrospectively gated CTCA. Conclusions Care must be taken when considering radiation dosimetry associated with prospectively gated scanning for CTCA and a method has been conveyed to account for this. Breast doses for prospectively gated CTCA are an order of magnitude lower than retrospectively gated scans. Optimisation of cardiac protocols is expected to show further dose reduction. PMID:21896660

Loader, R J; Gosling, O; Roobottom, C; Morgan-Hughes, G; Rowles, N

2012-01-01

399

Diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls in benign vocal fold diseases  

PubMed Central

More than half of patients presenting with hoarseness show benign vocal fold changes. The clinician should be familiar with the anatomy, physiology and functional aspects of voice disorders and also the modern diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in order to ensure an optimal and patient specific management. This review article focuses on the diagnostic and therapeutic limitations and difficulties of treatment of benign vocal fold tumors, the management and prevention of scarred vocal folds and the issue of unilateral vocal fold paresis. PMID:24403969

Bohlender, Jörg

2013-01-01

400

Modern Physics Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Consortium for Upper Level Physics Software (CUPS) has developed a comprehensive series of Nine Book/Software packages that Wiley will publish in FY `95 and `96. CUPS is an international group of 27 physicists, all with extensive backgrounds in the research, teaching, and development of instructional software. The project is being supported by the National Science Foundation (PHY-9014548), and it has received other support from the IBM Corp., Apple Computer Corp., and George Mason University. The Simulations being developed are: Astrophysics, Classical Mechanics, Electricity & Magnetism, Modern Physics, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Solid State, Thermal and Statistical, and Wave and Optics.

Brandt, Douglas; Hiller, John R.; Moloney, Michael J.

1995-10-01

401

Phillip Buehler: Modern Ruins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by photographer Phillip Buehler, this site showcases photos he has taken at various "modern ruins," decaying buildings or sites that still perhaps echo human presence. While there are twenty collections of photos on the site, only the first six are presented as thumbnail indexes with brief introductions and captions. The remaining sections are available as small images with no descriptions. Still, Buehler offers some lovely photos. Highlights include Ellis Island, Coney Island, the 1964 New York World's Fair pavilions, and the airplane graveyard. Buehler's homepage contains several other photo collections, including "Street Fossils," items he found embedded in hot summer asphalt, "Above New York," and "New York Cityscapes."

402

Assessing modern ground survey methods and airborne laser scanning for digital terrain modelling: A case study from the Lake District, England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper compares the applicability of three ground survey methods for modelling terrain: one man electronic tachymetry (TPS), real time kinematic GPS (GPS), and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). Vertical accuracy of digital terrain models (DTMs) derived from GPS, TLS and airborne laser scanning (ALS) data is assessed. Point elevations acquired by the four methods represent two sections of a mountainous area in Cumbria, England. They were chosen so that the presence of non-terrain features is constrained to the smallest amount. The vertical accuracy of the DTMs was addressed by subtracting each DTM from TPS point elevations. The error was assessed using exploratory measures including statistics, histograms, and normal probability plots. The results showed that the internal measurement accuracy of TPS, GPS, and TLS was below a centimetre. TPS and GPS can be considered equally applicable alternatives for sampling the terrain in areas accessible on foot. The highest DTM vertical accuracy was achieved with GPS data, both on sloped terrain (RMSE 0.16 m) and flat terrain (RMSE 0.02 m). TLS surveying was the most efficient overall but veracity of terrain representation was subject to dense vegetation cover. Therefore, the DTM accuracy was the lowest for the sloped area with dense bracken (RMSE 0.52 m) although it was the second highest on the flat unobscured terrain (RMSE 0.07 m). ALS data represented the sloped terrain more realistically (RMSE 0.23 m) than the TLS. However, due to a systematic bias identified on the flat terrain the DTM accuracy was the lowest (RMSE 0.29 m) which was above the level stated by the data provider. Error distribution models were more closely approximated by normal distribution defined using median and normalized median absolute deviation which supports the use of the robust measures in DEM error modelling and its propagation.

Gallay, Michal; Lloyd, Christopher D.; McKinley, Jennifer; Barry, Lorraine

2013-02-01

403

Theoretical studies on the intramolecular hydrogen bond and tautomerism of 8-mercaptoquinoline in the gaseous phase and in solution using modern DFT methods.  

PubMed

A theoretical quantum chemical study of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding interactions in 8-mercaptoquinoline has been carried out. Special attention has been paid to the rotation of S-H bond and intramolecular proton-transfer reactions. Therewith, the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31+G(2d,2p), MPW1K/6-311++G(d,p), MPW1K/6-31+G(2d,2p), BH&HLYP/6-311++G(d,p), and G96LYP/6-311++G(d,p) methods have been used. By means of the Onsager and PCM reaction field methods, the effects of solvent on hydrogen-bond energies, conformational equilibria, rotational barriers, and tautomerism in aqueous solution have been studied. These simulations were done at the MPW1K/6-311++G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) levels. Natural-bond orbital analysis has been performed to study the intramolecular hydrogen bond (IHB) in the gaseous phase and in aqueous medium. The stability of forms under consideration in solution does not coincide with that in the gaseous phase, underlining a great importance of the electrostatic influence of solvent. Double-proton transfer in the prototropic tautomerization of 8-mercaptoquinoline, one water molecule complex in the gaseous phase and in solution, has been systematically studied. The double-proton transfer occurs concertedly and synchronously. The water-assisted tautomerization is kinetically less, but thermodynamically more favorable, compared to that of the single-proton transfer. As in the case with single-proton transfer, for water-assisted reaction, the tautomerization energies and barrier heights decrease with the increase in dielectric constant, which implies faster and more complete tautomerization of 8-mercaptoquinoline in a polar solvent. PMID:16833738

Shchavlev, Andrew E; Pankratov, Alexei N; Shalabay, Alexei V

2005-05-12

404

Applications of Nanobiotechnology in Clinical Diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Nanobiotechnologies are being applied to molecular diagnostics and several technologies are in development. Methods: This review describes nanobiotechnologies that are already incorporated in molecular diagnostics or have potential applications in clinical diagnosis. Se- lected promising technologies from published literature as well as some technologies that are in commercial development but have not been reported are included. Results: Nanotechnologies enable

Kewal K. Jain

2007-01-01

405

Quantitation of mycotoxins in food and feed from Burkina Faso and Mozambique using a modern LC-MS/MS multitoxin method.  

PubMed

In this study an LC-MS/MS multitoxin method covering a total of 247 fungal and bacterial metabolites was applied to the analysis of different foods and feedstuffs from Burkina Faso and Mozambique. Overall, 63 metabolites were determined in 122 samples of mainly maize and groundnuts and a few samples of sorghum, millet, rice, wheat, soy, dried fruits, other processed foods and animal feeds. Aflatoxin B(1) was observed more frequently in maize (Burkina Faso, 50% incidence, median = 23.6 ?g/kg; Mozambique, 46% incidence, median = 69.9 ?g/kg) than in groundnuts (Burkina Faso, 22% incidence, median = 10.5 ?g/kg; Mozambique, 14% incidence, median = 3.4 ?g/kg). Fumonisin B(1) concentrations in maize were higher in Mozambique (92% incidence, median = 869 ?g/kg) than in Burkina Faso (81% incidence, median = 269 ?g/kg). In addition, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and other less reported mycotoxins such as citrinin, alternariol, cyclopiazonic acid, sterigmatocystin, moniliformin, beauvericin, and enniatins were detected. Up to 28 toxic fungal metabolites were quantitated in a single sample, emphasizing the great variety of mycotoxin coexposure. Most mycotoxins have not been reported before in either country. PMID:22835072

Warth, Benedikt; Parich, Alexandra; Atehnkeng, Joseph; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf

2012-09-12

406

The Modern Word  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is devoted to 20th-century, experimental literature. It began in 1995 as The Libyrinth and was rededicated in May 2000 as The Modern Word (MW). Authors are selected for inclusion by MW's Literary Advisory Board and are primarily considered "postmodern" but are not limited to any specific literary school, circle, or movement. The site is organized into two main sections: The Rotunda and The Libyrinth. The Rotunda (the site's front page) holds a set of featured external links; summaries of new additions; a search engine; registration for MW's newsletter Spiral-Bound; and the Daily Muse, a literary quote, trivia question, or word that changes daily. The Libyrinth is the main body of The Modern Word and holds the extensive pages on James Joyce, Jorge Luis Borges, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Umberto Eco, Samuel Beckett, and Thomas Pynchon. Another component of The Libyrinth is the Scriptorium, an index of essays on many additional, related authors such as Kobo Abe, Anthony Burgess, Stanislaw Lem, H.P. Lovecraft, and Mervyn Peake. Although the focus here is narrowly and idiosyncratically defined, the MW's product is high quality.

407

SFMOMA: Explore Modern Art  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art website has a wonderful feature that aims to help visitors of the online exhibits (or the physical museum) understand what was going on in the mind of the artist, the curator, or art historian when they created, chose or studied a work of art. The "Explore Modern Art" link provides a multimedia resource which helps visitors better understand this often misunderstood mode of artistic endeavor. Visitors can go to the archive of multimedia presentations released by SFMOMA, which covers more than 50 artists, such as Sol LeWitt and Betye Saar. To hear the musings of curators on exhibits at SFMOMA, visitors should click on the "Audio" link under "Multimedia." If you are not familiar with the artwork featured in the audio, most of the audio features provide a link to a biography of the artist featured, as well as to a few of their works. Visitors shouldn't miss watching the time-lapse video of "SFMOMA installs Ann Hamilton's indigo blue", which can be found in the "Video" link on the left said of the page.

408

Making the Modern World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Making the Modern World offers a dynamic rendition of the permanent gallery at the Science Museum in London. The "learning modules" are "packed with demonstrations, activities and rich media experiences" and "designed for use by everyone interested in learning more about the evolution of the modern world." Topics include how to engineer DNA, how the world's most famous bridges were built, and war technology. The Stories Timeline section provides a timeline of stories about inventions to "show how our lives are shaped by the things we make, invent and use." Articles are embedded within the timeline for further exploration of the topics. Another section highlights some of the Icons of Invention, such as the home computer and the Apollo 10 command module. The Everyday Life section explores how "technology is woven through our daily lives at home, at work or at play." Finally, the Guided Tours chronologically follows a particular topic, such as women in science and technology. All of the sections include photographs and are easy to navigate.

409

A multispectral imaging approach for diagnostics of skin pathologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noninvasive multispectral imaging method was applied for different skin pathology such as nevus, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma diagnostics. Developed melanoma diagnostic parameter, using three spectral bands (540 nm, 650 nm and 950 nm), was calculated for nevus, melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. Simple multispectral diagnostic device was established and applied for skin assessment. Development and application of multispectral diagnostics method described further in this article.

Lihacova, Ilze; Derjabo, Aleksandrs; Spigulis, Janis

2013-06-01

410

New simple early diagnostic methods using Omura's "Bi-Digital O-Ring Dysfunction Localization Method" and acupuncture organ representation points, and their applications to the "drug & food compatibility test" for individual organs and to auricular diagnosis of internal organs--part I.  

PubMed

By critically evaluating exceptions which may lead to false diagnoses, as well as by improving the currently-used applied kinesiology diagnostic method (="Dysfunction Localization Method"), the author was able to develop the "Thumb-Index Finger Bi-Digital O-Ring Diagnostic Method," using the Applied Kinesiology Dysfunction Localization Principle. By combining the author's "Bi-Digital O-Ring Dysfunction Localization Method" with clinically useful organ representation points in acupuncture medicine (where the presence of tenderness at the organ representation point is used for diagnosis as well as for the location of treatment), it has become possible to make early diagnoses of most of the internal organs, with an average diagnostic accuracy of over 85%, without knowing the patient's history or using any instruments. The method can detect dysfunctioning or diseased organs even before tenderness appears at the organ representation point, with an applied force of less than 1 gm/mm2 on the skin surface, while the detection of tenderness at the organ representation point often requires a minimum applied force of 80-100 gm/mm2. The method was applied to the "Drug and Food Compatibility Test" to determine the probable effects of a given food or drug on individual internal organs without going through time-consuming, expensive laboratory tests. It was also applied to auricular organ representation points and their evaluation, and has succeeded in increasing their diagnostic sensitivity. The method was also used for the evaluation of magnetic fields. Usually the North pole increased muscle strength and the South pole weakened it at most parts of the body. This simple, improved, economical diagnostic method may have invaluable implications in clinical diagnosis, treatment and drug research. Key Words: early diagnostic methods, "Thumb-Index Finger Bi-Digital O-Ring Diagnostic Method," applied kinesiology, cardio-vascular diseases, drugs, tenderness, pain, pain medicine, anti-hypertensive drugs, cardio-vascular drugs, aspirin, Bufferin, gastro-intestinal system, muscle strength, nutrition, magnetic field, sensory nerve, spinal cord, brain stem. Inderal. PMID:6124084

Omura, Y

1981-01-01

411

Excellence in Molecular Diagnostics  

Cancer.gov

The Excellence in Molecular Diagnostics Lecture series recognizes outstanding leaders who are making ground-breaking contributions in molecular diagnostics and who have demonstrated broad and integrated approaches in the development and implementation of diagnostics commensurate with emerging technologies. Speakers in this series will have made significant achievement through fundamental observations, discoveries and intellectual contributions in the basic and applied sciences relevant to the practice of clinical molecular diagnostics.

412

A new diagnostic device: KINOX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new diagnostic device KINOX created at P N Lebedev Physics Institute is described. With this device it is possible to trace the variations of oxygen permeability in erythrocyte membranes during the blood oxygenation. The molecular mechanism responsible for these variations was explained and experimentally tested at P N Lebedev Physics Institute. The diagnostic method is substantiated capable of estimating physiological reserves of organism basing on the results of blood oxygenation measurements performed with the KINOX. The possible reduction in physiological reserves of organism under the laser action on malignant tumor can be detected in this way.

Zaritsky, A. R.; Zaritskaya, G. A.; Pronin, V. S.; Raspopov, N. A.; Fock, M. V.

2005-08-01

413

Planners and architects have made our modern physical surroundings literally,  

E-print Network

Planners and architects have made our modern physical surroundings ­ literally, they have laid". This course will attempt to trace the evolution of architectural and planning thinking in the modern, Western compromise often following multiple methods of conceptualization. It is a very human thing, just like

414

Diagnostic Accuracy and Reproducibility of WHO-Endorsed Phenotypic Drug Susceptibility Testing Methods for First-Line and Second-Line Antituberculosis Drugs  

PubMed Central

In an effort to update and clarify policies on tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing (DST), the World Health Organization (WHO) commissioned a systematic review evaluating WHO-endorsed diagnostic tests. We report the results of this systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility of phenotypic DST for first-line and second-line antituberculosis drugs. This review provides support for recommended critical concentrations for isoniazid and rifampin in commercial broth-based systems. Further studies are needed to evaluate critical concentrations for ethambutol and streptomycin that accurately detect susceptibility to these drugs. Evidence is limited on the performance of DST for pyrazinamide and second-line drugs. PMID:23152548

Pinto, Lancelot M.; Arentz, Matthew; Lin, S.-Y. Grace; Desmond, Edward; Flores, Laura L.; Steingart, Karen R.; Minion, Jessica

2013-01-01

415

Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography, FibroScan®, Forns’ index and their combination in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B, and the impact of inflammatory activity and steatosis on these diagnostic methods  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the combination of certain serological markers (Forns’ index; FI), FibroScan® and acoustic radiation force impulse elastography (ARFI) in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis B, and to explore the impact of inflammatory activity and steatosis on the accuracy of these diagnostic methods. Eighty-one patients who had been diagnosed with hepatitis B were recruited and the stage of fibrosis was determined by biopsy. The diagnostic accuracy of FI, FibroScan and ARFI, as well as that of the combination of these methods, was evaluated based on the conformity of the results from these tests with those of biopsies. The effect of concomitant inflammation on diagnostic accuracy was also investigated by dividing the patients into two groups based on the grade of inflammation (G<2 and G?2). The overall univariate correlation between steatosis and the diagnostic value of the three methods was also evaluated. There was a significant association between the stage of fibrosis and the results obtained using ARFI and FibroScan (Kruskal-Wallis; P<0.001 for all patients), and FI (t-test, P<0.001 for all patients). The combination of FI with ARFI/FibroScan increased the predictive accuracy with a fibrosis stage of S?2 or cirrhosis. There was a significant correlation between the grade of inflammation and the results obtained using ARFI and FibroScan (Kruskal-Wallis, P<0.001 for all patients), and FI (t-test; P<0.001 for all patients). No significant correlation was detected between the measurements obtained using ARFI, FibroScan and FI, and steatosis (r=?0.100, P=0.407; r=0.170, P=0.163; and r=0.154, P=0.216, respectively). ARFI was shown to be as effective in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis as FibroScan or FI, and the combination of ARFI or FibroScan with FI may improve the accuracy of diagnosis. The presence of inflammatory activity, but not that of steatosis, may affect the diagnostic accuracy of these methods. PMID:25651500

DONG, DAO-RAN; HAO, MEI-NA; LI, CHENG; PENG, ZE; LIU, XIA; WANG, GUI-PING; MA, AN-LIN

2015-01-01

416

Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography, FibroScan®, Forns' index and their combination in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B, and the impact of inflammatory activity and steatosis on these diagnostic methods.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the combination of certain serological markers (Forns' index; FI), FibroScan® and acoustic radiation force impulse elastography (ARFI) in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis B, and to explore the impact of inflammatory activity and steatosis on the accuracy of these diagnostic methods. Eighty?one patients who had been diagnosed with hepatitis B were recruited and the stage of fibrosis was determined by biopsy. The diagnostic accuracy of FI, FibroScan and ARFI, as well as that of the combination of these methods, was evaluated based on the conformity of the results from these tests with those of biopsies. The effect of concomitant inflammation on diagnostic accuracy was also investigated by dividing the patients into two groups based on the grade of inflammation (G<2 and G?2). The overall univariate correlation between steatosis and the diagnostic value of the three methods was also evaluated. There was a significant association between the stage of fibrosis and the results obtained using ARFI and FibroScan (Kruskal?Wallis; P<0.001 for all patients), and FI (t-test, P<0.001 for all patients). The combination of FI with ARFI/FibroScan increased the predictive accuracy with a fibrosis stage of S?2 or cirrhosis. There was a significant correlation between the grade of inflammation and the results obtained using ARFI and FibroScan (Kruskal?Wallis, P<0.001 for all patients), and FI (t-test; P<0.001 for all patients). No significant correlation was detected between the measurements obtained using ARFI, FibroScan and FI, and steatosis (r=?0.100, P=0.407; r=0.170, P=0.163; and r=0.154, P=0.216, respectively). ARFI was shown to be as effective in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis as FibroScan or FI, and the combination of ARFI or FibroScan with FI may improve the accuracy of diagnosis. The presence of inflammatory activity, but not that of steatosis, may affect the diagnostic accuracy of these methods. PMID:25651500

Dong, Dao-Ran; Hao, Mei-Na; Li, Cheng; Peng, Ze; Liu, Xia; Wang, Gui-Ping; Ma, An-Lin

2015-06-01

417

Diagnostic Technologies in Practice  

PubMed Central

Diagnosing HIV-positive gay men through enhanced testing technologies that detect acute HIV infection (AHI) or recent HIV infection provides opportunities for individual and population health benefits. We recruited 25 men in British Columbia who received an acute (n = 13) or recent (n = 12) HIV diagnosis to engage in a longitudinal multiple-methods study over one year or longer. Our thematic analysis of baseline qualitative interviews revealed insights within men’s accounts of technologically mediated processes of HIV discovery and diagnosis. Our analysis illuminated the dialectic of new HIV technologies in practice by considering the relationship between advances in diagnostics (e.g., nucleic acid amplification tests) and the users of these medical technologies in clinical settings (e.g., clients and practitioners). Technological innovations and testing protocols have shifted experiences of learning of one’s HIV-positive status; these innovations have created new diagnostic categories that require successful interpretation and translation to be rendered meaningful, to alleviate uncertainty, and to support public health objectives. PMID:25201583

Steinberg, Malcolm; Kwag, Michael; Chown, Sarah A.; Doupe, Glenn; Trussler, Terry; Rekart, Michael; Gilbert, Mark

2015-01-01

418

Modern carbonate mound systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonate mounds are prominent features throughout the geological record. In many hydrocarbon provinces, they form prime reservoir structures. But recent investigations have increasingly reported occurrences of large mound clusters at the surface of the seabed, or buried at shallow depth on modern ocean margins, and in particular in basins rich in hydrocarbons. Such exciting new observations along the West-European margin are promising for elucidating the setting and environment of modern carbonate mounds, but at the same time they confront us with puzzling or sometimes contradictory observations in the quest for their genesis. Spectacular cold-water coral communities have colonized such mounds, but convincing arguments for recognizing them as prime builders are still lacking. The geological record provides ample evidence of microbial mediation in mound build-up and stabilisation, but as long as mound drilling is lacking, we have no opportunity to verify the role of such processes and identify the key actors in the earliest stage of onset and development of modern mounds. Some evidence from the past record and from present very-high resolution observations in the shallow seabed suggest an initial control by fluid venting, and fluid migration pathways have been imaged or are tentatively reconstructed by modelling in the concerned basins, but the ultimate link in the shallow subsurface seems still to elude a large part of our efforts. Surface sampling and analyses of both corals and surface sediments have largely failed in giving any conclusive evidence of present-day or recent venting in the considered basins. But on the other hand, applying rigourously the interpretational keys derived from e.g. Porcupine Seabight settings off NW Ireland on brand new prospective settings e.g. on the Moroccan margin have resulted in the discovery of totally new mound settings, in the middle of a field of giant, active mud volcanoes. Keys are apparently working, but we still do not understand how or why. We are no doubt facing complex systems at the interface between the Biosphere and the Geosphere, owing their genesis and spectacular growth to a complex woven of internal and external controls, feedback and process relay processes.

Henriet, J. P.; Dullo, C.

2003-04-01

419

Teaching Modern Literature: Poetry and Fiction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph, part of a series for language arts teachers, discusses the essential components for teaching modern poetry and modern fiction. The section on modern poetry considers traditional versus modern poetry, modernism in poetry, imagism, the function of poetry in modern times, social change in poetry, and offers a brief list of recommended…

Damashek, Richard

420

Beam by design: Laser manipulation of electrons in modern accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerator-based light sources such as storage rings and free-electron lasers use relativistic electron beams to produce intense radiation over a wide spectral range for fundamental research in physics, chemistry, materials science, biology, and medicine. More than a dozen such sources operate worldwide, and new sources are being built to deliver radiation that meets with the ever-increasing sophistication and depth of new research. Even so, conventional accelerator techniques often cannot keep pace with new demands and, thus, new approaches continue to emerge. In this article, a variety of recently developed and promising techniques that rely on lasers to manipulate and rearrange the electron distribution in order to tailor the properties of the radiation are reviewed. Basic theories of electron-laser interactions, techniques to create microstructures and nanostructures in electron beams, and techniques to produce radiation with customizable waveforms are reviewed. An overview of laser-based techniques for the generation of fully coherent x rays, mode-locked x-ray pulse trains, light with orbital angular momentum, and attosecond or even zeptosecond long coherent pulses in free-electron lasers is presented. Several methods to generate femtosecond pulses in storage rings are also discussed. Additionally, various schemes designed to enhance the performance of light sources through precision beam preparation including beam conditioning, laser heating, emittance exchange, and various laser-based diagnostics are described. Together these techniques represent a new emerging concept of "beam by design" in modern accelerators, which is the primary focus of this article.

Hemsing, Erik; Stupakov, Gennady; Xiang, Dao; Zholents, Alexander

2014-07-01