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1

[Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].  

PubMed

Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders. PMID:17471820

Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Ma?gorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

2006-01-01

2

DIAGNOSTIC METHODS IN AYURVEDA  

PubMed Central

This is an analytical study of the Diagnostic methods Prescribes in Ayurveda. As in the case of disease and treatments the concept of diagnosis also is unique in Ayurveda. It goes to the Nidana of Doshicimbalance by studying the physical, physiological, psychic and behavoural aspects of the patient. The paper gives an insight into the various diagnostic methods enunciated in Sastras which turns out to be a fore-runner of any of modern diagnostic methods. PMID:22556480

Thakar, V. J.

1982-01-01

3

Modern Methods of Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After a brief survey of the commonly used single-value test methods, the importance of the determination of the incipient knock for the octane number is discussed and improvements suggested for the knock testing in the CFR engine. The DVL supercharge test method with its superiority of direct determination of fuel knock in each single cylinder of an airplane engine without involving structural changes, is described and the advantages of a multiple-value method enumerated. A diagrammatic presentation of the knock characteristics is presented.

Seeber, F

1939-01-01

4

Modern diagnostic approach to hereditary xanthinuria.  

PubMed

Hereditary xanthinuria (HX) is a rare inherited disorder caused by a deficiency of xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (XDH/XO). Missing XDH/XO activity leads to undetectable levels of uric acid excessively replaced by xanthine in serum/urine. The allopurinol loading test has been traditionally used to differentiate between HX types I and II. Final confirmation of HX has been based on the biopsy finding of the absent XDH/XO activity in the small intestine or liver. We present the clinical, biochemical, ultrasound and molecular genetics findings in three new patients with HX and suggest a simple three-step approach to be used for diagnosis, typing and confirmation of HX. In the first step, the diagnosis of HX is determined by extremely low serum/urinary uric acid excessively replaced by xanthine. Second, HX is typed using urinary metabolomics. Finally, the results are confirmed by molecular genetics. We advocate for this safe and non-invasive diagnostic algorithm instead of the traditional allopurinol loading test and intestinal or liver biopsy used in the past. PMID:25370766

Mraz, Martin; Hurba, Olha; Bartl, Josef; Dolezel, Zdenek; Marinaki, Anthony; Fairbanks, Lynette; Stiburkova, Blanka

2015-02-01

5

Standing footprint diagnostic method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Center of pressure is commonly used to evaluate standing balance. Even though it is incomplete, no better evaluation method has been presented. We designed our experiment with three standing postures: standing with feet together, standing with feet shoulder width apart, and standing with feet slightly wider than shoulder width. Our platform-based pressure system collected the instantaneous plantar pressure (standing footprint). A physical quantity of instantaneous standing footprint principal axis was defined, and it was used to construct an index to evaluate standing balance. Comparison between results from our newly established index and those from the center of pressure index to evaluate the stability of different standing postures revealed that the standing footprint principal axis index could better respond to the standing posture change than the existing one. Analysis indicated that the insensitive response to the relative position between feet and to the standing posture change from the center of pressure could be better detected by the standing footprint principal axis index. This predicts a wide application of standing footprint principal axis index when evaluating standing balance.

Fan, Y. F.; Fan, Y. B.; Li, Z. Y.; Newman, T.; Lv, C. S.; Fan, Y. Z.

2013-10-01

6

Computational Chemistry Using Modern Electronic Structure Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various modern electronic structure methods are now days used to teach computational chemistry to undergraduate students. Such quantum calculations can now be easily used even for large size molecules.

Bell, Stephen; Dines, Trevor J.; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Withnall, Robert

2007-01-01

7

Computing Requirements of Modern Medical Diagnostic Ultrasound Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasound is one of the leading medical imaging modalities because it is safe, noninvasive, portable, easy to use, relatively inexpensive and displays images in real-time. Due to its real-time nature, an ultrasound machine must be able to process its incoming data quickly. High computational and throughput requirements in modern ultrasound machines have restricted their internal design to algorithm-specific hardware with

Chris Basoglu; Ravi Managuli; George York; Yongmin Kim

1998-01-01

8

A modern diagnostic approach for automobile systems condition monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important topic in automotive research and development is the area of active and passive safety systems. In general, it is grouped in active safety systems to prevent accidents and passive systems to reduce the impact of a crash. An example for an active system is ABS while a seat belt tensioner represents the group of passive systems. Current developments in the automotive industry try to link active with passive system components to enable a complete event sequence, beginning with the warning of the driver about a critical situation till the automatic emergency call after an accident. The cross-linking has an impact on the current diagnostic approach, which is described in this paper. Therefore, this contribution introduces a new diagnostic approach for automotive mechatronic systems. The concept is based on monitoring the messages which are exchanged via the automotive communication systems, e.g. the CAN bus. According to the authors' assumption, the messages on the bus are changing between faultless and faulty vehicle condition. The transmitted messages of the sensors and control units are different depending on the condition of the car. First experiments are carried and in addition, the hardware design of a suitable diagnostic interface is presented. Finally, first results will be presented and discussed.

Selig, M.; Shi, Z.; Ball, A.; Schmidt, K.

2012-05-01

9

[Challenges of the modern antibody diagnostics in kidney transplantation].  

PubMed

Overcoming antibody mediated rejection is of increasing interest in the field of transplantation immunology. The recipient's antibodies against the graft human leukocyte antigens are responsible for antibody mediated graft injury. Introduction of the solid phase immunoassay technology radically changed the monitoring practice of antibodies against human leukocyte antigens, and this has consequences both for pretransplant and posttransplant phases, though our knowledge about the clinical interpretation of the detected antibodies is limited. This integrating review reports recommendations and algorithms regarding the management of kidney transplant patients. The detection of complement activation combined with the solid phase techniques is a promising new approach in antibody testing. The C4d and especially the more sensitive C1q methods have the potential to answer pivotal questions about the clinical relevance of antibodies. Answering the questions that the applied new methods raised and reviewing the recommendations are needed to remain up to date with this dynamically developing field. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(46), 1820-1830. PMID:25381657

Wettstein, Dániel; Szentiványi, Dorottya

2014-11-01

10

Overview of computational structural methods for modern military aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational structural methods are essential for designing modern military aircraft. This briefing deals with computational structural methods (CSM) currently used. First a brief summary of modern day aircraft structural design procedures is presented. Following this, several ongoing CSM related projects at Northrop are discussed. Finally, shortcomings in this area, future requirements, and summary remarks are given.

Kudva, J. N.

1992-01-01

11

Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*  

PubMed Central

This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice. PMID:17579968

Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2009-01-01

12

[Methods of complex diagnostics of oral leukoplakia].  

PubMed

The problem of diagnostic of various forms of leukoplakia of the oral mucosa is reviewed IT is introduced a set of methods for diagnosis of the disease, including a clinical check up, evaluation of the data of optical coherence tomography, classical histological and immunohistochemical study to determine the neoplastic cell transformation of oral mucosa in the early stages of its development. PMID:25588334

Rabinovich, O F; Babichenko, I I; Rabinovich, I M; Togonidze, A A

2014-01-01

13

[Human dirofilariasis: clinical and diagnostic signs and diagnostic methods].  

PubMed

The clinical and diagnostic signs caused by the tissue location and migration of adult Dirofilaria in the human body determine the use of different methods for the diagnosis of dirofilariasis. During their investigations, the authors modified polymerase chain reaction (PCR): they chose and synthesized primers and selected amplification regimens for them and obtained agarose gel bands that corresponded to PCR fragment length nucleotide sequences that were equal to 245 bp for D. (N.) repens and 656 bp for D. immitis. There was 100% agreement in the results of PCR and microscopic examination of sera from 32 dogs and 1 female patient with low parasitemia and in the blood nucleotide sequence characteristic of D. repens. PMID:25296420

Morozov, E N; Supriaga, V G; Rakova, V M; Morozova, L F; Zhukova, L A

2014-01-01

14

Modern Birth Control Methods Could Avoid 15 Million Unwanted Pregnancies  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Modern Birth Control Methods Could Avoid 15 Million Unwanted Pregnancies: ... Preidt Wednesday, February 4, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Birth Control Women's Health WEDNESDAY, Feb. 4, 2015 (HealthDay ...

15

Leaf Histology--Two Modern Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two methods for examining leaf structure are presented; both methods involve use of "superglue." The first method uses the glue to form a thin, permanent, direct replica of a leaf surface on a microscope slide. The second method uses the glue to examine the three-dimensional structure of spongy mesophyll. (JN)

Freeman, H. E.

1984-01-01

16

Comparison of Modern Methods for Shock Hydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

The accuracy and efficiency of several methods are compared for simulating multifluid compressible flows. The methods include a Godunov scheme (Colella, 1985), a Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory method (Jiang and Shu, 1996), an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian algorithm (Marinak et al., 2001) and a compact scheme (Cook and Cabot, 2005). Test problems include a compressible breaking wave, the Shu-Osher problem, the Taylor-Green vortex and decaying turbulence. The compact method employs an artificial bulk viscosity for treating shocks and an artificial shear viscosity for modeling turbulence. The compact method is demonstrated to capture shocks as well as the other schemes, while providing superior resolution of post-shock features.

Cook, A W

2005-06-13

17

Comparison of Modern Methods for Shock Hydrodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy and efficiency of several methods are compared for simulating multi-fluid compressible flows. The methods include a Godunov scheme, a Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) method, an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) algorithm and a Spectral\\/Compact (S\\/C) scheme. Test problems include a compressible breaking wave, Shu's problem, Noh's problem, the Taylor-Green vortex, decaying turbulence, Rayleigh-Taylor instability and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. The S\\/C

Andrew Cook

2005-01-01

18

Rare manifestations of sarcoidosis in modern era of new diagnostic tools  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Growing body of literature on sarcoidosis in India has led to an increased awareness of the disease. With the advent of better imaging tools hitherto under-recognized manifestations of sarcoidosis are likely to be better recognized. We sought to study the rare clinical and radiological manifestations (<5%) in patients with sarcoidosis. Methods: Retrospective review of records of 164 patients with histopathologically proven sarcoidosis seen over six years in a tertiary care centre in north India, was done. Results: Fifty four rare manifestations were observed in 164 patients. Acute presentation in the form of Lofgren syndrome was seen in eight (4.9%) and Heerfordt's syndrome in two (1.2%) patients. Musculoskeletal manifestations included chronic sarcoid arthritis in three (1.8%), deforming arthritis and bone erosion in one (0.6%) each. Rare initial presentation with dilated cardiomyopathy in one (0.6%), complete heart block in two (1.2%), bilateral sequential facial nerve palsy in two (1.2%), and pyrexia of unknown origin was seen in one (0.6%) patient. Other rare manifestations included chronic respiratory failure in one (0.6%), dysphagia in one (0.6%), sicca syndrome in five (3%), massive splenomegaly in one (0.6%), portal hypertension in two (1.2%), hypersplenism, gastric sarcoidosis, ninth and tenth cranial nerve palsies, moderate pericardial effusion and nephrocalcinosis in one (0.6%) each, and pulmonary artery hypertension in two (1.2%) patients. Rare radiological manifestations included moderate pleural effusion in two (1.2%), pleural thickening in five (3%), calcification of intrathoracic lymph nodes in four (2.4%), alveolar (nodular) sarcoidosis in three (1.8%), and myocardial uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) in two (1.2%) patients. Fourteen patients had airways obstruction and behaved typically like seasonal bronchial asthma with excellent response to corticosteroids. Interpretation & conclusions: Increased awareness of rare manifestations will facilitate better management of these patients. With increasing use of modern diagnostic tools, manifestations hitherto considered rare, are likely to be recognized more frequently in the future. PMID:22771590

Sharma, Surendra K; Soneja, Manish; Sharma, Abhishek; Sharma, Mehar C.; Hari, Smriti

2012-01-01

19

A survey of modern authorship attribution methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Authorship attribution supported by statistical or computational methods has a long history starting from 19th century and marked by the seminal study of Mosteller and Wallace (1964) on the authorship of the disputed Federalist Papers. During the last decade, this scientific field has been developed substantially taking advantage of research advances in areas such as machine learning, information retrieval, and

Efstathios Stamatatos

2009-01-01

20

Modern Statistical Methods for GLAST Event Analysis  

E-print Network

We describe a statistical reconstruction methodology for the GLAST LAT. The methodology incorporates in detail the statistics of the interactions of photons and charged particles with the tungsten layers in the LAT, and uses the scattering distributions to compute the full probability distribution over the energy and direction of the incident photons. It uses model selection methods to estimate the probabilities of the possible geometrical configurations of the particles produced in the detector, and numerical marginalization over the energy loss and scattering angles at each layer. Preliminary results show that it can improve on the tracker-only energy estimates for muons and electrons incident on the LAT.

Robin D. Morris; Johann Cohen-Tanugi

2007-03-28

21

[Watsu: a modern method in physiotherapy, body regeneration, and sports].  

PubMed

Progress in existing methods of physiotherapy and body regeneration and introduction of new methods has made it possible to precisely select the techniques according to patient needs. The modern therapist is capable of improving the physical and mental condition of the patient. Watsu helps the therapist eliminate symptoms from the locomotor system and reach the psychic sphere at the same time. PMID:24734342

Weber-Nowakowska, Katarzyna; Gebska, Magdalena; Zyzniewska-Banaszak, Ewelina

2013-01-01

22

Lattice Field Theory Methods in Modern Biophysics  

E-print Network

An effective field theory exists describing a very large class of biophysically interesting Coulomb gas systems: the lowest order (mean-field) version of this theory takes the form of a generalized Poisson-Boltzmann theory. Interaction terms depend on details (finite-size effects, multipole properties, etc). Convergence of the loop expansion holds only if mutual interactions of mobile charges are small compared to their interaction with the fixed-charge environment, which is frequently not the case. Problems with the strongly- coupled effective theory can be circumvented with an alternative local lattice formulation, with real positive action. In realistic situations, with variable dielectric, a determinant of the Poisson operator must be inserted to generate correct electrostatics. Methods adopted from unquenched lattice QCD do this very efficiently.

Anthony Duncan

2006-09-28

23

The "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" as a Major Form of Dehumanization in the Modern World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) is one of the most successful technologies in modern times. In spite of well-argued critiques, the DSM and the idea of "mental illness" on which it is based flourish, with ever more (mis)behaviors labeled as brain diseases. Problems in living and related distress…

Gambrill, Eileen

2014-01-01

24

SAR imaging via modern 2-D spectral estimation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the use of modern 2D spectral estimation algorithms for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging. The motivation for applying power spectrum estimation methods to SAR imaging is to improve resolution, remove sidelobe artifacts, and reduce speckle compared to what is possible with conventional Fourier transform SAR imaging techniques. This paper makes two principal contributions to the field of adaptive SAR

Stuart R. Degraaf

1998-01-01

25

Oxygen abundance methods in the SDSS: view from modern statistics  

E-print Network

Our purpose is to find which is the most reliable one among various oxygen abundance determination methods. We will test the validity of several different oxygen abundance determination methods using methods of modern statistics. These methods include Bayesian analysis and information scoring. We will analyze a sample of $\\sim$6000 $\\hii$ galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic observations data release four. All methods that we used drew the same conclusion that the $T_e$ method is a more reliable oxygen abundance determination methods than the Bayesian metallcity method under the existing telescope ability. The ratios of the likelihoods between the different kinds of methods tell us that the $T_e$, $P$, and $O3N2$ methods are consistent with each other because the $P$ and $O3N2$ method are calibrated by $T_e$-method. The Bayesian and $R_{23}$ method are consistent with each other because both are calibrated by a galaxy model. In either case, the $N2$ method is an {\\it unreliable} method.

F. Shi; G. Zhao; James Wicker

2007-10-24

26

Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

2013-01-01

27

Potentials and limitations of molecular diagnostic methods in food safety  

PubMed Central

Molecular methods allow the detection of pathogen nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and, therefore, the detection of contamination in food is carried out with high selectivity and rapidity. In the last 2 decades molecular methods have accompanied traditional diagnostic methods in routine pathogen detection, and might replace them in the upcoming future. In this review the implementation in diagnostics of four of the most used molecular techniques (PCR, NASBA, microarray, LDR) are described and compared, highlighting advantages and limitations of each of them. Drawbacks of molecular methods with regard to traditional ones and the difficulties encountered in pathogen detection from food or clinical specimen are also discussed. Moreover, criteria for the choice of the target sequence for a secure detection and classification of pathogens and possible developments in molecular diagnostics are also proposed. PMID:19067016

Mariani, Paola O.

2008-01-01

28

Modernizing the diagnostic and decision-making pathway for prostate cancer.  

PubMed

PSA has led to a drastic increase in the detection of prostate cancer, rendering this biomarker the gateway for the diagnostic pathway of prostatic neoplasms. However, the increase in incidence has not been mirrored by a similar reduction in mortality. Widespread PSA testing has facilitated the overdiagnosis and overtreatment of indolent disease. To reduce this phenomenon and avoid negative repercussions on the quality of life of men undergoing unnecessary therapies, the diagnostic pathway of prostate cancer needs to be improved. Multiparametric MRI (mp-MRI) can enhance the sensitivity and specificity of PSA, as well as the shortcomings of random biopsy sampling. This novel imaging technique has been proven to identify larger and more aggressive cancer foci, which should be targeted for treatment. New technological developments now allow for fusion of mp-MRI images with real-time ultrasound, opening the way to lesion-targeted biopsies. Furthermore, mp-MRI and targeted biopsies can also improve active surveillance protocols and permit more conservative focal therapy strategies. By implementing targeted biopsies, the diagnostic pathway will focus on clinically significant disease, consequently reducing overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Before this novel protocol becomes the new gold standard, mp-MRI acquisition and interpretation need to be standardized and targeted-biopsy strategies need to be further validated prior to abandoning random-sampling ones. Several multidisciplinary consortiums are already working on the standardization of prostate MRI, and there are ongoing prospective trials on targeted biopsies and MRI. Soon, imaging of prostatic lesions and selected biopsies will modify the diagnostic evaluation of prostate cancer, reducing overtreatment and therapy-derived complications that negatively affect quality of life. Clin Cancer Res; 20(24); 6254-7. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25316814

Polascik, Thomas J; Passoni, Niccolo' M; Villers, Arnauld; Choyke, Peter L

2014-12-15

29

Factors affecting the use of modern methods and materials in construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainability of construction attracts much attention in construction industry. One of the factors driving this requirement is application of materials and components through modern methods and technologies. Modern methods of construction can be the way to obtain buildings assisting in minimizing the negative impact of construction industry on the environment. Article defines the factors affecting the use of these modern methods and materials of construction. At the same time it defines modern construction methods and materials that can be considered progressive in the construction process.

Mesároš, P.; Mandi?ák, T.

2015-01-01

30

Value of information methods for assessing a new diagnostic test.  

PubMed

Value-of-information methods are applied to assess the evidence in support of a new diagnostic test and, where the evidence is insufficient for decision making, to determine the optimal sample size for future studies. Net benefit formulations are derived under various diagnostic and treatment scenarios. The expressions for the expected opportunity loss of adopting strategies that include the new test are given. Expressions for the expected value of information from future studies are derived. One-sample and two-sample designs, with or without known prevalence, are considered. An example is given. PMID:24403241

Chen, Maggie Hong; Willan, Andrew R

2014-05-20

31

Are complement deficiencies really rare? Overview on prevalence, clinical importance and modern diagnostic approach.  

PubMed

Complement deficiencies comprise between 1 and 10% of all primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) according to national and supranational registries. They are still considered rare and even of less clinical importance. This not only reflects (as in all PIDs) a great lack of awareness among clinicians and general practitioners but is also due to the fact that only few centers worldwide provide a comprehensive laboratory complement analysis. To enable early identification, our aim is to present warning signs for complement deficiencies and recommendations for diagnostic approach. The genetic deficiency of any early component of the classical pathway (C1q, C1r/s, C2, C4) is often associated with autoimmune diseases whereas individuals, deficient of properdin or of the terminal pathway components (C5 to C9), are highly susceptible to meningococcal disease. Deficiency of C1 Inhibitor (hereditary angioedema, HAE) results in episodic angioedema, which in a considerable number of patients with identical symptoms also occurs in factor XII mutations. New clinical entities are now reported indicating disease association with partial complement defects or even certain polymorphisms (factor H, MBL, MASPs). Mutations affecting the regulators factor H, factor I, or CD46 and of C3 and factor B leading to severe dysregulation of the alternative pathway have been associated with renal disorders, such as atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) and - less frequent - with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). We suggest a multi-stage diagnostic protocol starting based on the recognition of so called warning signs which should aid pediatricians and adult physicians in a timely identification followed by a step-wise complement analysis to characterize the defect at functional, protein and molecular level. PMID:25037634

Grumach, Anete Sevciovic; Kirschfink, Michael

2014-10-01

32

Exhaled breath analysis: physical methods, instruments, and medical diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the analysis of exhaled breath, a rapidly growing field in noninvasive medical diagnostics that lies at the intersection of physics, chemistry, and medicine. Current data are presented on gas markers in human breath and their relation to human diseases. Various physical methods for breath analysis are described. It is shown how measurement precision and data volume requirements have stimulated technological developments and identified the problems that have to be solved to put this method into clinical practice.

Vaks, V. L.; Domracheva, E. G.; Sobakinskaya, E. A.; Chernyaeva, M. B.

2014-07-01

33

Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy  

DOEpatents

The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form.

Thakur, Mathew L. (Cherry Hill, NJ)

1994-01-01

34

Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy  

DOEpatents

The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form.

Thakur, Mathew L. (Cherry Hill, NJ)

1991-01-01

35

Tuberculosis vaccine with high predicted population coverage and compatibility with modern diagnostics  

PubMed Central

A central goal in vaccine research is the identification of relevant antigens. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis chromosome encodes 23 early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6) family members that mostly are localized as gene pairs. In proximity to five of the gene pairs are ESX secretion systems involved in the secretion of the ESAT-6 family proteins. Here, we performed a detailed and systematic investigation of the vaccine potential of five possible Esx dimer substrates, one for each of the five ESX systems. On the basis of gene transcription during infection, immunogenicity, and protective capacity in a mouse aerosol challenge model, we identified the ESX dimer substrates EsxD-EsxC, ExsG-EsxH, and ExsW-EsxV as the most promising vaccine candidates and combined them in a fusion protein, H65. Vaccination with H65 gave protection at the level of bacillus Calmette–Guérin, and the fusion protein exhibited high predicted population coverage in high endemic regions. H65 thus constitutes a promising vaccine candidate devoid of antigen 85 and fully compatible with current ESAT-6 and culture filtrate protein 10-based diagnostics. PMID:24395772

Knudsen, Niels Peter H.; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Sara; Dolganov, Gregory M.; Schoolnik, Gary K.; Lindenstrøm, Thomas; Andersen, Peter; Agger, Else Marie; Aagaard, Claus

2014-01-01

36

AIAA 2003-0649 OVERVIEW OF MODERN DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS METHODS FOR  

E-print Network

AIAA 2003-0649 OVERVIEW OF MODERN DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS METHODS FOR COMPUTATIONAL SIMULATIONS of experiments (DOE) techniques that can be applied in computational engineering design studies. The term modern-Monte Carlo, Latin hypercube, orthogonal ar- ray, Hammersley sequence, design of experiments. * Senior Member

37

Family planning in rural Uganda: knowledge and use of modern and traditional methods in Ankole.  

PubMed

Ankole has recorded the highest fertility in Uganda over the past several decades. One of the main proximate determinants of fertility in the area is the low level of contraception. A study of knowledge and use of modern and traditional contraceptive methods is reported in this paper. It is shown that higher proportions of women known and practice traditional methods compared with modern ones. Several factors contributing to past low use of modern contraceptives in the area are examined and current contraceptive use is also examined. PMID:1858104

Ntozi, J P; Kabera, J B

1991-01-01

38

Modern Robust Data Analysis Methods: Measures of Central Tendency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various statistical methods, developed after 1970, offer the opportunity to substantially improve upon the power and accuracy of the conventional t test and analysis of variance methods for a wide range of commonly occurring situations. The authors briefly review some of the more fundamental problems with conventional methods based on means; provide some indication of why recent advances, based on

Rand R. Wilcox; H. J. Keselman

2003-01-01

39

Methods in virus diagnostics: from ELISA to next generation sequencing.  

PubMed

Despite the seemingly continuous development of newer and ever more elaborate methods for detecting and identifying viruses, very few of these new methods get adopted for routine use in testing laboratories, often despite the many and varied claimed advantages they possess. To understand why the rate of uptake of new technologies is so low, requires a strong understanding of what makes a good routine diagnostic tool to begin. This can be done by looking at the two most successfully established plant virus detection methods: enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and more recently introduced real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By examining the characteristics of this pair of technologies, it becomes clear that they share many benefits, such as an industry standard format and high levels of repeatability and reproducibility. These combine to make methods that are accessible to testing labs, which are easy to establish and robust in their use, even with new and inexperienced users. Hence, to ensure the establishment of new techniques it is necessary to not only provide benefits not found with ELISA or real-time PCR, but also to provide a platform that is easy to establish and use. In plant virus diagnostics, recent developments can be clustered into three core areas: (1) techniques that can be performed in the field or resource poor locations (e.g., loop-mediated isothermal amplification LAMP); (2) multiplex methods that are able to detect many viruses in a single test (e.g., Luminex bead arrays); and (3) methods suited to virus discovery (e.g., next generation sequencing, NGS). Field based methods are not new, with Lateral Flow Devices (LFDs) for the detection being available for a number of years now. However, the widespread uptake of this technology remains poor. LAMP does offer significant advantages over LFDs, in terms of sensitivity and generic application, but still faces challenges in terms of establishment. It is likely that the main barrier to the uptake of field-based technologies is behavioural influences, rather than specific concerns about the performance of the technologies themselves. To overcome this, a new relationship will need to develop between centralised testing laboratories offering services and those requiring tests; a relationship which is currently in its infancy. Looking further into the future, virus discovery and multiplex methods seem to converge as NGS becomes ever cheaper, easier to perform and can provide high levels of multiplexing without the use of virus specific reagents. So ultimately the key challenge from a routine testing lab perspective will not be one of investment in platforms-which could even be outsourced to commercial sequencing services-but one of having the skills and expertise to analyse the large datasets generated and their subsequent interpretation. In conclusion, only time will tell which of the next-generation of methods currently in development will become the routine diagnostics of the future. This will be determined through a combination of factors. And while the technology itself will have to offer performance advantages over existing methods in order to supplant them, it is likely to be human factors e.g., the behaviours of end users, laboratories and policy makers, the availability of appropriate expertise, that ultimately determine which ones become established. Hence factors cannot be ignored and early engagement with diagnostic stakeholders is essential. PMID:24361981

Boonham, Neil; Kreuze, Jan; Winter, Stephan; van der Vlugt, René; Bergervoet, Jan; Tomlinson, Jenny; Mumford, Rick

2014-06-24

40

Diagnostic methods and treatment modalities of dry eye conditions.  

PubMed

One may view dry eye conditions as a group of diseases in which the ocular surface is adversely affected. Tear film instability invariably leads to some degree of cellular surface damage over the cornea and conjunctiva. In turn, ocular epitheliopathy may adversely affect tear film stability. The clinical presentation of the disease may not yield a clue as to its etiology. In recent years considerable progress was made both in the diagnosis and the treatment of the disease and promising studies are planned or are underway. The diagnostic techniques can be divided into four groups. The first is concerned with the clinical presentation. The second is concerned with the bulk properties of the aqueous tears including dynamic characteristics, composition, and colligative properties. The third is tear-film related and includes the film break-up time, evaporation rate, and lipid abnormality. The fourth is concerned with the ocular surface and includes vital staining, impression cytology, and surface microscopy. The most promising attempts are being made in the second group by attempting to elucidate the role of enzyme and enzyme activator activity and inhibitor contents as well as the tear protein profiles and correlating them with the specific disease states. The treatment modalities belong to three major groups aside from surgical intervention; the supplementation, preservation, and the stimulation of tears. The modern version of tear supplementation is expected to include the topical use of efficacious aqueous formulations that typically contain film stabilizing polymers, nutrients, and/or--in the future--biochemically active ingredients such as enzyme activators and inhibitors. PMID:8262709

Holly, F J

1993-06-01

41

Modern Methods of NDT for Inspection of Aerospace Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerospace structures need to be light and safe, an aspect which makes new materials attractive. Therefore maintenance inspection of these light-weight structures is a new and difficult task for non-destructive testing (NDT) which needs methods that are applicable to such high-specific-strength materials. The methods must be robust to be used in an industrial environment and sensitive enough to respond to

G. RIEGERT; K. PFLEIDERER; H. GERHARD; I. SOLODOV; G. BUSSE

2006-01-01

42

[Evaluation of vascular function by modern non-invasive methods].  

PubMed

Vascular functional alterations frequently precede morphological changes and, therefore, their recognition may theoretically improve early detection of vascular injury. The aim of this review is to demonstrate recently available non-invasive clinical methods including vascular stiffness examinations, flow-mediated vasodilatation, coronary flow reserve and myocardial flow reserve measurements. PMID:23183004

Nemes, Attila; Forster, Tamás

2012-12-01

43

[Diagnostic role of different immunologic methods for laboratory diagnostics of legionellosis].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was a comparative analysis of diagnostic value of different laboratoty methods conducted on the basis of results of examination of patients during Legionnaires' disease outbreak in town Verkhnyaya Pyshma. Retrospective analysis of laboratory data from 74 patients with diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease was performed. Complex of laboratory methods was used (polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzyme immunoassay (EIA), immunochromatography). In group of patients with Legionnaires' disease, the highest proportion of positive results (73%) was obtained by the EIA determining total specific antibodies in urine. Determination of antigen in urine by immunochromatographic express-test yielded 52% of positive results. PCR testing of blood specimens yielded positive results in 65% of samples but was low specific, due to that in 19% of patients from control group false-positive results were obtained. Testing of 3 autopsy samples showed that all specimens contained DNA of the causative agent. Performed analysis allowed to recommend complex use of immunochromatographic express-test of antigen detection and identification of total specific antibodies by EIA during mass people examination. PMID:18464540

Mikha?lova, D O; Bobyleva, Z D; Bazarnyi, V V; Amon, E P; Be?kin, Ia B; Besedina, L G; Mel'nikova, O V; Shilova, V P; Rozanova, S M; Perevalova, E Iu

2008-01-01

44

Designing arrays for modern high-resolution methods  

SciTech Connect

A bearing estimation study of seismic wavefields propagating from a strongly heterogeneous media shows that with the high-resolution MUSIC algorithm the bias of the direction estimate can be reduced by adopting a smaller aperture sub-array. Further, on this sub-array, the bias of the MUSIC algorithm is less than those of the MLM and Bartlett methods. On the full array, the performance for the three different methods are comparable. Improvement in bearing estimation in MUSIC with a reduced aperture might be attributed to increased signal coherency in the array. For methods with less resolution, the improved signal coherency in the smaller array is possible being offset by severe loss of resolution and the presence of weak secondary sources. Building upon the characteristics of real seismic wavefields, a design language has been developed to generate, modify, and test other arrays. Eigenstructures of wavefields and arrays have been studied empirically by simulation of a variety of realistic signals. 6 refs., 5 figs.

Dowla, F.U.

1987-10-01

45

[Reasearch on evolution and transition of processing method of fuzi in ancient and modern times].  

PubMed

Fuzi is a medicine used for rescuing from collapse by restoring yang as well as a famous toxic traditional Chinese medicine. In order to ensure the efficacy and safe medication, Fuzi has mostly been applied after being processed. There have been different Fuzi processing methods recorded by doctors of previous generations. Besides, there have also been differences in Fuzi processing methods recorded in modern pharmacopeia and ancient medical books. In this study, the authors traced back to medical books between the Han Dynasty and the period of Republic of China, and summarized Fuzi processing methods collected in ancient and modern literatures. According to the results, Fuzi processing methods and using methods have changed along with the evolution of dynasties, with differences in ancient and modern processing methods. Before the Tang Dynasty, Fuzi had been mostly processed and soaked. From Tang to Ming Dynasties, Fuzi had been mostly processed, soaked and stir-fried. During the Qing Dynasty, Fuzi had been mostly soaked and boiled. In the modem times, Fuzi is mostly processed by being boiled and soaked. Before the Tang Dynasty, a whole piece of Fuzi herbs or their fragments had been applied in medicines; Whereas their fragments are primarily used in the modern times. Because different processing methods have great impacts on the toxicity of Fuzi, it is suggested to study Fuzi processing methods. PMID:25011281

Liu, Chan-Chan; Cheng, Ming-En; Duan, Hai-Yan; Peng, Hua-Sheng

2014-04-01

46

Diagnostic Methods for Platelet Bacteria Screening: Current Status and Developments  

PubMed Central

Summary Bacterial contamination of blood components and the prevention of transfusion-associated bacterial infection still remains a major challenge in transfusion medicine. Over the past few decades, a significant reduction in the transmission of viral infections has been achieved due to the introduction of mandatory virus screening. Platelet concentrates (PCs) represent one of the highest risks for bacterial infection. This is due to the required storage conditions for PCs in gas-permeable containers at room temperature with constant agitation, which support bacterial proliferation from low contamination levels to high titers. In contrast to virus screening, since 1997 in Germany bacterial testing of PCs is only performed as a routine quality control or, since 2008, to prolong the shelf life to 5 days. In general, bacterial screening of PCs by cultivation methods is implemented by the various blood services. Although these culturing systems will remain the gold standard, the significance of rapid methods for screening for bacterial contamination has increased over the last few years. These new methods provide powerful tools for increasing the bacterial safety of blood components. This article summarizes the course of policies and provisions introduced to increase bacterial safety of blood components in Germany. Furthermore, we give an overview of the different diagnostic methods for bacterial screening of PCs and their current applicability in routine screening processes. PMID:24659944

Störmer, Melanie; Vollmer, Tanja

2014-01-01

47

Detection of Underground Quarry From Modern Surface Geoelectrical Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present contribution aims to map and detect the underground cavities (quarry) from surface geoelectrical methods. For that, we have chosen a pilot site -underground quarry- located in Saint- Germain-la-Rivière, in Gironde, France. The geology and the geometry of the galleries and pillars are well known from direct surface and underground investigation and mapping: - decimeters of agricultural soil, followed by argilleous soil, then the unsaturated zone composed of alterated calcareous material; - extraction of limestone occurred at depths ranging between 3 and 8 m; the void percentage is of the order of 65 to 75 %; the width of the gallery is generally less than 5 m; the size of the pillars vary from 6 to 70 m2. Three geoelectrical methods were chosen to be carried out quasi-simultaneously : DC resistivity, Induced Polarisation (IP), i.e chargeability measurements and Spontaneous Polarization (SP). Each of them is sensitive to the presence of water, clay and voids, which are key parameters for our investigation. SP is the only one especially sensitive to water vertical circulation, which is necessarily different above pillars and voids. Our aim was to demonstrate that only the combination of those three methods should enable to locate the pillars, and chambers. Direct modelling using two different codes -finite differences and finite elements, enabled to select the optimal array. A regular grid with an inter electrode spacing equal to 2.5 m is used for all three techniques : 96 electrodes organised along 12 lines and 8 traverses. The so-called Syscal Pro system developed and manufactured by Iris Instrument enabled very quick measurements using the pole-dipole 3D array. Classical Cu/CuSO4 non polarizable electrodes were used for IP whereas specific Pb/PbCl were used for SP. 3 D inversion of DC resistivity has already been carried out using Loke Res3Dinv, and finite element codes. Confined anomalies are definitely mapped with their top at depths ranging between 2 and 3 meters, which are in good agreement with the known pillars level. Chargeability inversion is yet to be carried out. The SP map on the other hand, shows week anomalies ranging from -7 mV to + 7 mV, which do coincide with a number of resistivity anomalies. At present, it can be concluded that combination of electrical resistivity and self potential measurements allow to map numbers of pillars, which size is greater than 10 m2.

Schmutz, M.; Palma Lopes, S.; Cerepi, A.; Burlot, R.

2006-12-01

48

Different diagnostic methods for detection of influenza epidemics.  

PubMed Central

Linking continuous community-based morbidity recording of influenza-like illness (ILI) with virological sampling has consistently proved its value as one of the earliest indicators of circulating influenza activity. The clinical morbidity recording in the Portuguese national surveillance network, during a 7-year period, and the contribution of different diagnostic techniques, including virus isolation, multiplex RT-PCR, immunocapture enzyme linked immunoassay (EIA) and complement fixation tests (CFTs) for the detection of influenza in such a community-based setting is described and evaluated in this study. There was good correlation between the increase of morbidity, total samples taken and the detection of influenza virus by all the methods although this was less evident for virus isolation and EIA than for RT-PCR or serology. From a total of 1685 throat swabs collected from cases of ILI, 43.6% were RT-PCR positive, 17.5% were positive by capture EIA and in 5% virus isolates were made. The detection of influenza by RT-PCR occurred earlier than by any other method and showed the best correlation with epidemic patterns of morbidity registration. We conclude that in surveillance systems where virus culture is sub-optimal, RT-PCR provides a rapid, sensitive, specific method for detecting influenza viruses from community-based sampling. PMID:10982076

Rebelo-de-Andrade, H.; Zambon, M. C.

2000-01-01

49

[Methods of adequate evaluation of the fetal status in modern delivery room].  

PubMed

In this review are followed the basic methods for evaluation of the fetal status during delivery in modern delivery room. Here are shown methods for following of fetal heart rate, fetal pulsoxymetry, acid base balance and amnioscopy. It has been revealed the up-to-date abilities of technique, the performance of these methods, the clinical interpretation of the evaluated parameters from the point of view of the delivery room medical staff. PMID:18240718

Marinova, N; Marinska, M; Nikolov, A; Pavlova, E

2006-01-01

50

Increased productivity of a flock of sheep using modern methods of reproduction  

E-print Network

Increased productivity of a flock of sheep using modern methods of reproduction G. LOUAULT, J Reproduction, Centre de Recherches de Touvs, LN.R.A., Nozizilly 3738o Jj10nnaie (France) Since 1970, the sheep flock at the Lyc6e Agricole of Tours-Fondettes has used an intensive reproduction system comprising two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

51

Biology 534: Modern methods in Population Genomics 3 credits Spring 2015  

E-print Network

#12;#12;#12;Biology 534: Modern methods in Population Genomics 3 credits Spring 2015 Instructor will be done by the instructor Catalog Description: Problems and prospects of designing a study with genomic revolutionized by the possibility of generating genomic sequence data. Interestingly, much of theoretical

Collins, Gary S.

52

Mining an Ocean of Data: Application of modern statistical methods for addressing biological oceanography questions  

E-print Network

Mining an Ocean of Data: Application of modern statistical methods for addressing biological of measuring ocean properties beyond those possible by traditional research ships, demands that we find better derived geospatial ocean color and environmental data to identify phytoplankton functional types from

Columbia University

53

161 comparison of different diagnostic methods in equine endometritis.  

PubMed

Prolonged endometritis is the most common cause of infertility in mares causing great economic impact. Many mares fail to be diagnosed with endometritis despite the availability of different diagnostic tests. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare endometrial swab, low-volume lavage (LVL) and endometrial biopsy as diagnostic methods for endometritis and to report the prevalence of this disease in a referral practice population. Fifty-one mares presenting for routine breeding or infertility work-up were examined by transrectal ultrasonography, before collecting samples for endometrial culture and cytology. Seven of the 51 mares had all the tests except endometrial biopsy. A mare was classified positive for endometritis if she demonstrated two or more of the following 5 criteria on a checklist (new gold standard; NGS): (1) abnormal clinical findings (any of uterine fluid on ultrasound, or excessive oedema for follicular size, or history of subfertility); (2) abnormal gross character of the LVL fluid: (cloudy, discolored, debris) before centrifugation; (3) positive endometrial cytology (?1 neutrophil per high power field, or ?1% (1:100) neutrophil to epithelial cell ratio on cytology); (4) bacterial growth on culture of the LVL pellet; and (5) histological evidence of inflammation (acute, chronic, and mixed) detected on endometrial biopsy. Data were analysed via kappa coefficient (k) and frequencies were calculated for sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) with biopsy being the gold standard and compared to the NGS. Endometritis was diagnosed in 35/44 (79.5%) mares by biopsy (5/35 had acute endometritis, 12/35 had chronic; 18/35 had a combination of acute and chronic endometritis). Based on the endometritis criteria (2/5 items on the checklist), 33/51 (64.7%) mares were diagnosed to have endometritis. All 11 of the barren mares were diagnosed by the checklist, while two of these 11 mares had no evidence of endometritis by biopsy, but had clinical signs or cloudy efflux. The character of the endometrial flush was 45% sensitive (k=0.046), while culture was 22% sensitive, when compared to endometrial biopsy. When each criterion for endometritis was compared against the NGS, endometrial biopsy was the most sensitive diagnostic method (sensitivity=86%). Abnormal clinical findings showed moderate agreement with the NGS (k=0.4138), with a sensitivity of 62% and P=0.0019. Positive endometrial cytology showed similar agreement (k=0.3761), and sensitivity (sensitivity=64%, and P=0.0069). These studies have also shown the importance of using laboratory data in light of clinical findings, since they have shown that no test by itself is sensitive enough to diagnose a mare with subclinical endometritis, and that this disease might be under diagnosed. Since this study was performed in a referral hospital, there may have been a higher prevalence of endometritis than found in general clinical practice. An endometritis checklist could be used in cases where endometrial biopsies are not readily available. PMID:25472210

Chenier, T; Diel de Amorim, M; Foster, R A; Hill, A; Hayes, T; Scholtz, E; Gartley, C J

2014-12-01

54

Diagnostic Methods for Bile Acid Malabsorption in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Altered bile acid (BA) concentrations in the colon may cause diarrhea or constipation. BA malabsorption (BAM) accounts for >25% of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea and chronic diarrhea in Western countries. As BAM is increasingly recognized, proper diagnostic methods are desired in clinical practice to help direct the most effective treatment course for the chronic bowel dysfunction. This review appraises the methodology, advantages and disadvantages of 4 tools that directly measure BAM: 14C-glycocholate breath and stool test, 75Selenium HomotauroCholic Acid Test (SeHCAT), 7 ?-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) and fecal BAs. 14C-glycocholate is a laborious test no longer widely utilized. 75SeHCAT is validated, but not available in the United States. Serum C4 is a simple, accurate method that is applicable to a majority of patients, but requires further clinical validation. Fecal measurements to quantify total and individual fecal BAs are technically cumbersome and not widely available. Regrettably, none of these tests are routinely available in the U.S., and a therapeutic trial with a BA binder is used as a surrogate for diagnosis of BAM. Recent data suggest there is an advantage to studying fecal excretion of the individual BAs and their role in BAM; this may constitute a significant advantage of the fecal BA method over the other tests. Fecal BA test could become a routine addition to fecal fat measurement in patients with unexplained diarrhea. In summary, availability determines the choice of test among C4, SeHCAT and fecal BA; more widespread availability of such tests would enhance clinical management of these patients. PMID:23644387

Vijayvargiya, Priya; Camilleri, Michael; Shin, Andrea; Saenger, Amy

2013-01-01

55

Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization as a plume diagnostic tool in laser evaporation methods  

E-print Network

Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization as a plume diagnostic tool introduced analytical method, atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (AP- MALDI write; Atmospheric pressure MALDI; Laser evaporation; Plume diagnostics 1. Introduction Diagnostics

Vertes, Akos

56

Image processing methods and architectures in diagnostic pathology.  

PubMed

Grid technology has enabled the clustering and the efficient and secure access to and interaction among a wide variety of geographically distributed resources such as: supercomputers, storage systems, data sources, instruments and special devices and services. Their main applications include large-scale computational and data intensive problems in science and engineering. General grid structures and methodologies for both software and hardware in image analysis for virtual tissue-based diagnosis has been considered in this paper. This methods are focus on the user level middleware. The article describes the distributed programming system developed by the authors for virtual slide analysis in diagnostic pathology. The system supports different image analysis operations commonly done in anatomical pathology and it takes into account secured aspects and specialized infrastructures with high level services designed to meet application requirements. Grids are likely to have a deep impact on health related applications, and therefore they seem to be suitable for tissue-based diagnosis too. The implemented system is a joint application that mixes both Web and Grid Service Architecture around a distributed architecture for image processing. It has shown to be a successful solution to analyze a big and heterogeneous group of histological images under architecture of massively parallel processors using message passing and non-shared memory. PMID:20430740

Bueno, Gloria; Déniz, Oscar; Salido, Jesús; Rojo, Marcial García

2009-01-01

57

Chronic intraoral pain--assessment of diagnostic methods and prognosis.  

PubMed

The overall goal of this thesis was to broaden our knowledge of chronic intraoral pain. The research questions were: What methods can be used to differentiate inflammatory, odontogenic tooth pain from pain that presents as toothache but is non-odontogenic in origin? What is the prognosis of chronic tooth pain of non-odontogenic origin, and which factors affect the prognosis? Atypical odontalgia (AO) is a relatively rare but severe and chronic pain condition affecting the dentoalveolar region. Recent research indicates that the origin is peripheral nerve damage: neuropathic pain. The condition presents as tooth pain and is challenging to dentists because it is difficult to distinguish from ordinary toothache due to inflammation or infection. AO is of interest to the pain community because it shares many characteristics with other chronic pain conditions, and pain perpetuation mechanisms are likely to be similar. An AO diagnosis is made after a comprehensive examination and assessment of patients' self-reported characteristics: the pain history. Traditional dental diagnostic methods do not appear to suffice, since many patients report repeated care-seeking and numerous treatment efforts with little or no pain relief. Developing methods that are useful in the clinical setting is a prerequisite for a correct diagnosis and adequate treatment decisions. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is used to assess sensory function on skin when nerve damage or disease is suspected. A variety of stimuli has been used to examine the perception of, for example, touch, temperature (painful and non-painful), vibration, pinprick pain, and pressure pain. To detect sensory abnormalities and nerve damage in the oral cavity, the same methods may be possible to use. Study I examined properties of thermal thresholds in and around the mouth in 30 pain-free subjects: the influence of measurement location and stimulation area size on threshold levels, and time variability of thresholds. Thresholds for cold, warmth and painful heat were measured in four intraoral and two extraoral sites. Measurements were repeated 3 times over 6 weeks, using four sizes of stimulation area (0.125-0.81 cm2). The threshold levels were highly dependent on location but less dependent on measuring probe size and time variability was small, and this knowledge is important for the interpretation of QST results. Study II applied a recently developed standardized QST examination protocol (intended for use on skin) inside the oral cavity. Two trained examiners evaluated 21 pain-free subjects on three occasions over 1-3 weeks, at four sites-three intraoral and one extraoral. Most tests had acceptable reliability and the original test instruments and techniques could be applied intraorally with only minor adjustments. Study III examined the value of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in pain investigations. Twenty patients with AO and 5 with symptomatic apical periodontitis (inflammatory tooth pain) participated. The results indicate that when AO is suspected, addition of CBCT can improve the diagnostic certainty compared to sole use of periapical and panoramic radiographs, especially because of the superior ability of CBCT to exclude inflammation as the pain cause. Study IV assessed the long-term prognosis of AO, and analyzed potential outcome predictors. A comprehensive questionnaire including validated and reliable instruments was used to gather data on patient and pain characteristics and pain consequences from 37 patients in 2002 and 2009. Thirty-five percent of the patients reported substantial overall improvement at follow-up, but almost all still had pain of some degree after many years. The initial high level of emotional distress was unchanged. Low baseline pain intensity predicted improvement over time. PMID:22338784

Pigg, Maria

2011-01-01

58

Validation of the beam tracing method for heating and diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The beam tracing approximate description of the propagation and absorption of wave beams is studied and compared to the corresponding exact solution of the wave equation for two simplified models relevant to electron cyclotron resonance heating and reflectometry diagnostics.

Maj, O. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany) and Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Pereverzev, G. V.; Poli, E. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany)

2009-11-26

59

Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots: Potential tools for new diagnostic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present and discuss the application of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots for diagnostic purposes, with special emphasis for cancer. We prepared and applied core-shell cadmium sulfide-cadmium hydroxide (CdS/Cd(OH) 2) semiconductor quantum dots in aqueous medium. Tissue and cells labeling was evaluated by laser scanning confocal microscopy as well as by conventional fluorescence microscopy. The procedure presented in this work, shown to be a promising tool for fast, low-cost and precise cancer diagnostic protocols.

Farias, P. M. A.; Santos, B. S.; Fontes, A.; Vieira, A. A. S.; Silva, D. C. N.; Castro-Neto, A. G.; Chaves, C. R.; Da Cunha, A. H. G. B.; Scordo, D.; Amaral, J. C. O. F.; Moura-Neto, V.

2008-11-01

60

Review of Dercum’s disease and proposal of diagnostic criteria, diagnostic methods, classification and management  

PubMed Central

Definition and clinical picture We propose the minimal definition of Dercum’s disease to be generalised overweight or obesity in combination with painful adipose tissue. The associated symptoms in Dercum’s disease include fatty deposits, easy bruisability, sleep disturbances, impaired memory, depression, difficulty concentrating, anxiety, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, diabetes, bloating, constipation, fatigue, weakness and joint aches. Classification We suggest that Dercum’s disease is classified into: I. Generalised diffuse form A form with diffusely widespread painful adipose tissue without clear lipomas, II. Generalised nodular form - a form with general pain in adipose tissue and intense pain in and around multiple lipomas, and III. Localised nodular form - a form with pain in and around multiple lipomas IV. Juxtaarticular form - a form with solitary deposits of excess fat for example at the medial aspect of the knee. Epidemiology Dercum’s disease most commonly appears between the ages of 35 and 50?years and is five to thirty times more common in women than in men. The prevalence of Dercum’s disease has not yet been exactly established. Aetiology Proposed, but unconfirmed aetiologies include: nervous system dysfunction, mechanical pressure on nerves, adipose tissue dysfunction and trauma. Diagnosis and diagnostic methods Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and should be made by systematic physical examination and thorough exclusion of differential diagnoses. Advisably, the diagnosis should be made by a physician with a broad experience of patients with painful conditions and knowledge of family medicine, internal medicine or pain management. The diagnosis should only be made when the differential diagnoses have been excluded. Differential diagnosis Differential diagnoses include: fibromyalgia, lipoedema, panniculitis, endocrine disorders, primary psychiatric disorders, multiple symmetric lipomatosis, familial multiple lipomatosis, and adipose tissue tumours. Genetic counselling The majority of the cases of Dercum’s disease occur sporadically. A to G mutation at position A8344 of mitochondrial DNA cannot be detected in patients with Dercum’s disease. HLA (human leukocyte antigen) typing has not revealed any correlation between typical antigens and the presence of the condition. Management and treatment The following treatments have lead to some pain reduction in patients with Dercum’s disease: Liposuction, analgesics, lidocaine, methotrexate and infliximab, interferon ?-2b, corticosteroids, calcium-channel modulators and rapid cycling hypobaric pressure. As none of the treatments have led to long lasting complete pain reduction and revolutionary results, we propose that Dercum’s disease should be treated in multidisciplinary teams specialised in chronic pain. Prognosis The pain in Dercum’s disease seems to be relatively constant over time. PMID:22546240

2012-01-01

61

ANALOG: a program for estimating paleoclimate parameters using the method of modern analogs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beginning in the 1970s with CLIMAP, paleoclimatologists have been trying to derive quantitative estimates of climatic parameters from the sedimentary record. In general the procedure is to observe the modern distribution of some component of surface sediment that depends on climate, find an empirical relationship between climate and the character of sediments, then extrapolate past climate by studying older sediments in the same way. Initially the empirical relationship between climate and components of the sediment was determined using a multiple regression technique (Imbrie and Kipp, 1971). In these studies sea-floor sediments were examined to determine the percentage of various species of planktonic foraminifera present in them. Supposing that the distribution of foraminiferal assemblages depended strongly on the extremes of annual sea-surface temperature (SST), the foraminiferal assemblages (refined through use of varimax factor analysis) were regressed against the average SST during the coolest and warmest months of the year. The result was a set of transfer functions, equations that could be used to estimate cool and warm SST from the faunal composition of a sediment sample. Assuming that the ecological preference of the species had remained constant throughout the last several hundred thousand years, these transfer functions could be used to estimate SSTs during much of the late Pleistocene. Hutson (1980) and Overpeck, Webb, and Prentice (1985) proposed an alternative approach to estimating paleoclimatic parameters. Their 'method of modern analogs' revolved not around the existence of a few climatically-sensitive faunal assemblages but rather on the expectation that similar climatic regimes should foster similar faunal and floral assemblages. From a large pool of modern samples, those few are selected whose faunal compositions are most similar to a given fossil sample. Paleoclimate estimates are derived using the climatic character of only the most similar modern samples, the modern analogs of the fossil sample. This report describes how to use the program ANALOG to carry out the method of modern analogs. It is assumed that the user has faunal census estimates of one or more fossil samples, and one or more sets of faunal data from modern samples. Furthermore, the user must understand the taxonomic categories represented in the data sets, and be able to recognize taxa that are or may be considered equivalent in the analysis. ANALOG provides the user with flexibility in input data format, output data content, and choice of distance measure, and allows the user to determine which taxa from each modern and fossil data file are compared. Most of the memory required by the program is allocated dynamically, so that, on systems that permit program segments to grow, the program consumes only as many system resources as are needed to accomplish its task.

Schweitzer, Peter N.

1994-01-01

62

Analysis of the Diagnostic Methods of the Performance Failure of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems  

E-print Network

The paper introduces some diagnostic methods for the performance failure of heating and air conditioning, analyzes the principle by an example, gives the application characteristics of different methods and supplies the guide for the application...

Li, L.; Zhang, Z.; Sun, Y.; Li, D.; Xie, H.

2006-01-01

63

Body-selves and health-related narratives in modern yoga and meditation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article explores the stories of engagement with modern yoga and meditation (MYM) methods of a group of long-term practitioners from the combined perspective of body and narrative. It uses Frank’s typology of ‘body use in action’ as an interpretive framework to illustrate key embodied dispositions and health-related narratives that these participants cultivate through their embodied practises, which are perfect

Aspasia Leledaki

2012-01-01

64

[Modern methods of functional tomographic brain imaging for brain function reseaching in norm and pathology].  

PubMed

For many years the modern methods of functional tomographic brain imaging (fMRI and PET) were actively used not only for the research of basic brain functions, but also in clinical practice. In present paper we described the basic characteristics of the signal registered with fMRI and PET, the principles of image reconstruction, as well as the methodological requirements, which are necessary to obtain reliable results. The advantages and limitations of modem tomographic methods of the brain functions investigation are discussed. The need of the complex approach use in brain study is emphasized and methods for the study of functional integration of the brain are suggested. PMID:23659056

Kireev, M V; Zakhs, D V; Korotkov, A D; Medvedev, S V

2013-01-01

65

Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods  

DOEpatents

A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2009-09-29

66

Diagnostics of artificial ionospheric disturbances by method of pulse sounding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results of diagnostics of artificial disturbances in the ionosphere by means of sounding by short probing radio pulses are presented Experiments were carried out at the heating facilities Zimenki and Sura in Nizhny Novgorod region Russia Different parameters of the artificially disturbed ionosphere were derived from characteristic analysis of the observed signals caviton signal G I Terina J Atm

G. I. Terina

2006-01-01

67

An objective method and measuring equipment for noise control and acoustic diagnostics of motorcars. [acoustic diagnostics on automobile engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An objective method and apparatus for noise control and acoustic diagnostics of motorcar engines are reported. The method and apparatus let us know whether the noisiness of the vehicle under test exceeds the admissible threshold levels given by appropriate standards and if so what is the main source of the excessive noise. The method consists in measuring both the overall noise level and the sound pressure levels in definite frequency bands while the engine speed is controlled as well and may be fixed at prescribed values. Whenever the individually adjusted threshold level has been exceeded in any frequency band, a self-sustaining control signal is sent.

Kacprowski, J.; Motylewski, J.; Miazga, J.

1974-01-01

68

On-line transformer diagnostic methods synergy based on discharge and vibration events measurements and location  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract -- This paper discusses power transformer diagnostics including PD (partial discharge) location and measurements, vibration events analysis and location, infrared control, gas-in-oil analysis. Diagnostic results are reviewed in this paper for a group of transformers taking a methods synergy as the basis; the following becomes revealed: - correlation of vibration events and discharges (sparking) in insulation of magnetic

Y. P. Aksenov; I. V. Yaroshenko; A. V. Andreev; G. Noe

2011-01-01

69

Development of new methods in modern selective organic synthesis: preparation of functionalized molecules with atomic precision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenges of the modern society and the growing demand of high-technology sectors of industrial production bring about a new phase in the development of organic synthesis. A cutting edge of modern synthetic methods is introduction of functional groups and more complex structural units into organic molecules with unprecedented control over the course of chemical transformation. Analysis of the state-of-the-art achievements in selective organic synthesis indicates the appearance of a new trend — the synthesis of organic molecules, biologically active compounds, pharmaceutical substances and smart materials with absolute selectivity. Most advanced approaches to organic synthesis anticipated in the near future can be defined as 'atomic precision' in chemical reactions. The present review considers selective methods of organic synthesis suitable for transformation of complex functionalized molecules under mild conditions. Selected key trends in the modern organic synthesis are considered including the preparation of organofluorine compounds, catalytic cross-coupling and oxidative cross-coupling reactions, atom-economic addition reactions, methathesis processes, oxidation and reduction reactions, synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, design of new homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic systems, application of photocatalysis, scaling up synthetic procedures to industrial level and development of new approaches to investigation of mechanisms of catalytic reactions. The bibliography includes 840 references.

Ananikov, V. P.; Khemchyan, L. L.; Ivanova, Yu V.; Bukhtiyarov, V. I.; Sorokin, A. M.; Prosvirin, I. P.; Vatsadze, S. Z.; Medved'ko, A. V.; Nuriev, V. N.; Dilman, A. D.; Levin, V. V.; Koptyug, I. V.; Kovtunov, K. V.; Zhivonitko, V. V.; Likholobov, V. A.; Romanenko, A. V.; Simonov, P. A.; Nenajdenko, V. G.; Shmatova, O. I.; Muzalevskiy, V. M.; Nechaev, M. S.; Asachenko, A. F.; Morozov, O. S.; Dzhevakov, P. B.; Osipov, S. N.; Vorobyeva, D. V.; Topchiy, M. A.; Zotova, M. A.; Ponomarenko, S. A.; Borshchev, O. V.; Luponosov, Yu N.; Rempel, A. A.; Valeeva, A. A.; Stakheev, A. Yu; Turova, O. V.; Mashkovsky, I. S.; Sysolyatin, S. V.; Malykhin, V. V.; Bukhtiyarova, G. A.; Terent'ev, A. O.; Krylov, I. B.

2014-10-01

70

Diagnostic efficacy of in vitro methods vs. skin testing in patients with inhalant allergies  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of our study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of two selected methods of in vitro allergy testing. Specifically, the PRIST/modified RAST I125 isotope systems and the Quantizyme/modified EAST alkaline phosphatase method were compared. The time, expense, convenience, and diagnostic efficacy of the two procedures are discussed. Special attention is given to the practicality of each method for the practicing physician.

Corey, J.P.; Liudahl, J.J.; Young, S.A.; Rodman, S.M. (Univ. of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL (USA))

1991-03-01

71

The Revised Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders: Methods used to Establish and Validate Revised Axis I Diagnostic Algorithms  

PubMed Central

AIMS To derive reliable and valid revised Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis I diagnostic algorithms for clinical TMD diagnoses. METHODS The multi-site RDC/TMD Validation Project’s dataset (614 TMD community and clinic cases, and 91 controls) was used to derive revised algorithms for Axis I TMD diagnoses. Validity of diagnostic algorithms was assessed relative to reference standards, the latter based on consensus diagnoses rendered by 2 TMD experts using criterion examination data, including temporomandibular joint imaging. Cut-offs for target validity were sensitivity ? 0.70 and specificity ? 0.95. Reliability of revised algorithms was assessed in 27 study participants. RESULTS Revised algorithm sensitivity and specificity exceeded the target levels for myofascial pain (0.82, 0.99, respectively) and myofascial pain with limited opening (0.93, 0.97). Combining diagnoses for any myofascial pain showed sensitivity of 0.91 and specificity of 1.00. For joint pain, target sensitivity and specificity were observed (0.92, 0.96) when arthralgia and osteoarthritis were combined as “any joint pain.” Disc displacement without reduction with limited opening demonstrated target sensitivity and specificity (0.80, 0.97). For the other Group II disc displacements and Group III osteoarthritis and osteoarthrosis, sensitivity was below target (0.35 to 0.53), and specificity ranged from 0.80 to meeting target. Kappa for revised algorithm diagnostic reliability was ? 0.63. CONCLUSION Revised RDC/TMD Axis I TMD diagnostic algorithms are recommended for myofascial pain and joint pain as reliable and valid. However, revised clinical criteria alone, without recourse to imaging, are inadequate for valid diagnosis of two of the three disc displacements and osteoarthritis/osteoarthrosis. PMID:20213032

Schiffman, Eric L.; Ohrbach, Richard; Truelove, Edmond L.; Feng, Tai; Anderson, Gary C.; Pan, Wei; Gonzalez, Yoly M.; John, Mike T.; Sommers, Earl; List, Thomas; Velly, Ana M.; Kang, Wenjun; Look, John O.

2011-01-01

72

Big Data Analysis Using Modern Statistical and Machine Learning Methods in Medicine  

PubMed Central

In this article we introduce modern statistical machine learning and bioinformatics approaches that have been used in learning statistical relationships from big data in medicine and behavioral science that typically include clinical, genomic (and proteomic) and environmental variables. Every year, data collected from biomedical and behavioral science is getting larger and more complicated. Thus, in medicine, we also need to be aware of this trend and understand the statistical tools that are available to analyze these datasets. Many statistical analyses that are aimed to analyze such big datasets have been introduced recently. However, given many different types of clinical, genomic, and environmental data, it is rather uncommon to see statistical methods that combine knowledge resulting from those different data types. To this extent, we will introduce big data in terms of clinical data, single nucleotide polymorphism and gene expression studies and their interactions with environment. In this article, we will introduce the concept of well-known regression analyses such as linear and logistic regressions that has been widely used in clinical data analyses and modern statistical models such as Bayesian networks that has been introduced to analyze more complicated data. Also we will discuss how to represent the interaction among clinical, genomic, and environmental data in using modern statistical models. We conclude this article with a promising modern statistical method called Bayesian networks that is suitable in analyzing big data sets that consists with different type of large data from clinical, genomic, and environmental data. Such statistical model form big data will provide us with more comprehensive understanding of human physiology and disease. PMID:24987556

Ramirez, Luis; Liuzzi, Juan

2014-01-01

73

Big data analysis using modern statistical and machine learning methods in medicine.  

PubMed

In this article we introduce modern statistical machine learning and bioinformatics approaches that have been used in learning statistical relationships from big data in medicine and behavioral science that typically include clinical, genomic (and proteomic) and environmental variables. Every year, data collected from biomedical and behavioral science is getting larger and more complicated. Thus, in medicine, we also need to be aware of this trend and understand the statistical tools that are available to analyze these datasets. Many statistical analyses that are aimed to analyze such big datasets have been introduced recently. However, given many different types of clinical, genomic, and environmental data, it is rather uncommon to see statistical methods that combine knowledge resulting from those different data types. To this extent, we will introduce big data in terms of clinical data, single nucleotide polymorphism and gene expression studies and their interactions with environment. In this article, we will introduce the concept of well-known regression analyses such as linear and logistic regressions that has been widely used in clinical data analyses and modern statistical models such as Bayesian networks that has been introduced to analyze more complicated data. Also we will discuss how to represent the interaction among clinical, genomic, and environmental data in using modern statistical models. We conclude this article with a promising modern statistical method called Bayesian networks that is suitable in analyzing big data sets that consists with different type of large data from clinical, genomic, and environmental data. Such statistical model form big data will provide us with more comprehensive understanding of human physiology and disease. PMID:24987556

Yoo, Changwon; Ramirez, Luis; Liuzzi, Juan

2014-06-01

74

Jet Noise Diagnostics Supporting Statistical Noise Prediction Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary focus of my presentation is the development of the jet noise prediction code JeNo with most examples coming from the experimental work that drove the theoretical development and validation. JeNo is a statistical jet noise prediction code, based upon the Lilley acoustic analogy. Our approach uses time-average 2-D or 3-D mean and turbulent statistics of the flow as input. The output is source distributions and spectral directivity. NASA has been investing in development of statistical jet noise prediction tools because these seem to fit the middle ground that allows enough flexibility and fidelity for jet noise source diagnostics while having reasonable computational requirements. These tools rely on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions as input for computing far-field spectral directivity using an acoustic analogy. There are many ways acoustic analogies can be created, each with a series of assumptions and models, many often taken unknowingly. And the resulting prediction can be easily reverse-engineered by altering the models contained within. However, only an approach which is mathematically sound, with assumptions validated and modeled quantities checked against direct measurement will give consistently correct answers. Many quantities are modeled in acoustic analogies precisely because they have been impossible to measure or calculate, making this requirement a difficult task. The NASA team has spent considerable effort identifying all the assumptions and models used to take the Navier-Stokes equations to the point of a statistical calculation via an acoustic analogy very similar to that proposed by Lilley. Assumptions have been identified and experiments have been developed to test these assumptions. In some cases this has resulted in assumptions being changed. Beginning with the CFD used as input to the acoustic analogy, models for turbulence closure used in RANS CFD codes have been explored and compared against measurements of mean and rms velocity statistics over a range of jet speeds and temperatures. Models for flow parameters used in the acoustic analogy, most notably the space-time correlations of velocity, have been compared against direct measurements, and modified to better fit the observed data. These measurements have been extremely challenging for hot, high speed jets, and represent a sizeable investment in instrumentation development. As an intermediate check that the analysis is predicting the physics intended, phased arrays have been employed to measure source distributions for a wide range of jet cases. And finally, careful far-field spectral directivity measurements have been taken for final validation of the prediction code. Examples of each of these experimental efforts will be presented. The main result of these efforts is a noise prediction code, named JeNo, which is in middevelopment. JeNo is able to consistently predict spectral directivity, including aft angle directivity, for subsonic cold jets of most geometries. Current development on JeNo is focused on extending its capability to hot jets, requiring inclusion of a previously neglected second source associated with thermal fluctuations. A secondary result of the intensive experimentation is the archiving of various flow statistics applicable to other acoustic analogies and to development of time-resolved prediction methods. These will be of lasting value as we look ahead at future challenges to the aeroacoustic experimentalist.

Bridges, James E.

2006-01-01

75

Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same  

DOEpatents

A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand.

Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Karra, Srinivasa Rao (Columbia, MO); Berning, Douglas E. (Columbia, MO); Smith, C. Jeffrey (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)

1999-01-01

76

Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same  

DOEpatents

A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand.

Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Karra, Srinivasa Rao (Columbia, MO); Berning, Douglas E. (Columbia, MO); Smith, C. Jeffrey (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)

2000-01-01

77

Use of modern birth control methods among rural communities in Imo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This paper studied the extent of utilization of Modern Birth Control Methods (MBCM) among rural dwellers in Imo State Nigeria. Three hundred and sixty households were randomly selected and data were obtained from them with the use of questionnaires and Focus Group Discussion. The results showed that only 30% of the respondents used MBCM while 57% of them used the traditional birth control methods. The most popular modern method was the condom (24.2%). This was followed by the IUD, used by only 2.5% of the respondents. Some of the identified factors that hindered the use of MBCM included perceived negative health reaction, fear of the unknown effects, cost, spouse's disapproval, religious belief and inadequate information. For a better understanding and utilization of MBCM, it is recommended that adequate educational campaign should be mounted in the rural areas on the advantages of MBCM. This campaign should target the men the more because they make the major decisions on MBCM use. PMID:20695162

Nwachukwu, Ike; Obasi, O O

2008-04-01

78

Raman background photobleaching as a possible method of cancer diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinetics of photobleaching of background in Raman spectra of aqueous solutions of plant toxins ricin and ricin agglutinin, ricin binding subunit, and normal and malignant human blood serum were measured. For the excitation of the spectra cw and pulsed laser radiation were used. The spectra of Raman background change upon laser irradiation. Background intensity is lower for the samples with small molecular weight. The cyclization of amino acid residues in the toxin molecules as well as in human blood serum can be a reason of the Raman background. The model of the background photobleaching is proposed. The differences in photobleaching kinetics in the cases of cw and pulsed laser radiation are discussed. It is shown that Raman background photobleaching can be very informative for cancer diagnostics.

Brandt, Nikolai N.; Brandt, Nikolai B.; Chikishev, Andrey Y.; Gangardt, Mihail G.; Karyakina, Nina F.

2001-06-01

79

A Study of Successive Over-relaxation Method Parallelization over Modern HPC Languages  

SciTech Connect

Successive over-relaxation (SOR) is a computationally intensive, yet extremely important iterative solver for solving linear systems. Due to recent trends of exponential growth in amount of data generated and increasing problem sizes, serial platforms have proved to be insucient in providing the required computational power. In this paper, we present parallel implementations of red-black SOR method using three modern programming languages namely Chapel, D and Go. We employ SOR method for solving 2D steady-state heat conduction problem. We discuss the optimizations incorporated and the features of these languages which are crucial for improving the program performance. Experiments have been performed using 2, 4, and 8 threads and performance results are compared with serial execution. The analysis of results provides important insights into working of SOR method.

Mittal, Sparsh [ORNL

2014-01-01

80

A test of the revised auricular surface aging method on a modern European population.  

PubMed

The accurate age estimation of adults is an important step in the construction of the biological profile of skeletonized remains. The auricular surface of the ilium as it was developed in 1985 by Lovejoy et al., is one of the methods employed for age estimation. This study presents the results of a blind test of the revised auricular surface aging method developed by Buckberry and Chamberlain. A sample of 120 individuals from the Athens Collection was used to test this revised aging technique. Almost all features and composite score were positively correlated with known age-at-death. The calculation of bias demonstrated no obvious trend for either overestimation or underestimation of age when all individuals were pooled together. Inaccuracy showed that absolute errors of estimated ages against known ages are substantial. The data generated from this study suggest that the revised method can be reliable for age estimation on a modern European population. PMID:24148103

Moraitis, Konstantinos; Zorba, Eleni; Eliopoulos, Constantine; Fox, Sherry C

2014-01-01

81

[Comparative assessment of the diagnostic value of the laboratory diagnostic methods for trichomoniasis].  

PubMed

The authors compared the sensitivity and specificity of currently available methods for laboratory diagnosis of trichomoniasis, by examining 971 persons. The highest frequency of T. vaginalis was detected by studies of a stained smear (37.4%), culture tests (19.0%); polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (17.1%), immunofluorescence tests (12.7%), wet smear test (2.7%). Enzyme immunoassay yielded positive results in 36.2% of cases. The use of PCR and culture tests frequently provided similar results (92.0%). The authors have proposed an algorithm of a laboratory study including wet smear microscopy, PCR, and culture tests as basic methods. They have noted the higher detection rates of T. vaginalis when analyzing during draining physiotherapeutic procedures (endocervical vibratory massage with vacuum aspiration in females and pneumovibratory massage of the prostate with endourethral chemotrypsin electrophoresis in males). PMID:16212090

Churakov, A A; Kulichenko, A N; Suvorov, A P; Glybochko, P V; Kutyrev, V V

2005-01-01

82

Comparison of diagnostic methods to detect piroplasms in asymptomatic cattle.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to compare different diagnostic techniques to reveal the presence of piroplasms in asymptomatic cattle kept at pasture. Nineteen blood samples were collected from animals of two different areas of Emilia Romagna Region of Italy and processed for microscopic observation, PCR, serological test (IFAT) for Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina antibodies and in vitro cultivation. The cultures were performed on both bovine and ovine erythrocytes. Seventeen blood smears (89%) were positive for piroplasms, while PCR was positive on 18 samples (95%). DNA sequencing of 18S rRNA identified the piroplasms as Theileria spp. In vitro cultures were successful for 6 samples (32%) cultured on bovine blood and subsequent identified these as Babesia major by PCR. On IFAT analyses of 16 samples, 36.8% resulted positive for B. bovis and 31.6% positive for B. bigemina. These results show, in the same animals, the co-infection with Babesia spp. and Theileria spp.; the detection of B. major was possible only using the in vitro cultures. PMID:21846583

Galuppi, R; Bonoli, C; Aureli, S; Cassini, R; Marcer, F; Foley, J E; Tampieri, M P

2012-02-10

83

The role of the Standard Days Method in modern family planning services in developing countries  

PubMed Central

Background The mere availability of family planning (FP) services is not sufficient to improve reproductive health; services must also be of adequate quality. The introduction of new contraceptive methods is a means of improving quality of care. The Standard Days Method (SDM) is a new fertility-awareness-based contraceptive method that has been successfully added to reproductive health care services around the world. Content Framed by the Bruce-Jain quality-of-care paradigm, this paper describes how the introduction of SDM in developing country settings can improve the six elements of quality while contributing to the intrinsic variety of available methods. SDM meets the needs of women and couples who opt not to use other modern methods. SDM providers are sensitised to the potential of fertility-awareness-based contraception as an appropriate choice for these clients. SDM requires the involvement of both partners and thus offers a natural entry point for providers to further explore partner communication, intimate partner violence, condoms, and HIV/STIs. Conclusion SDM introduction broadens the range of FP methods available to couples in developing countries. SDM counselling presents an opportunity for FP providers to discuss important interpersonal and reproductive health issues with potential users. PMID:22681177

2012-01-01

84

Microwave Reflectometry as a Novel Diagnostic Method for Detection of Skin Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than one million people are diagnosed with skin cancer each year in the United States and more than ten thousand people die from the disease. Currently, there are some methods for early detection of skin cancers, like visual inspection, but improvements are needed. This paper presents a method involving microwave reflectometry as a diagnostic tool for detection of skin

K. Chand; P. Mehta; D. G. Beetner; R. Zoughi; W. V. Stoecker

2005-01-01

85

Isothermal multiple displacement amplification: a methodical approach enhancing molecular routine diagnostics of microcarcinomas and small biopsies  

PubMed Central

Background and methods Isothermal multiple displacement amplification (IMDA) can be a powerful tool in molecular routine diagnostics for homogeneous and sequence-independent whole-genome amplification of notably small tumor samples, eg, microcarcinomas and biopsies containing a small amount of tumor. Currently, this method is not well established in pathology laboratories. We designed a study to confirm the feasibility and convenience of this method for routine diagnostics with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples prepared by laser-capture microdissection. Results A total of 250 ?g DNA (concentration 5 ?g/?L) was generated by amplification over a period of 8 hours with a material input of approximately 25 cells, approximately equivalent to 175 pg of genomic DNA. In the generated DNA, a representation of all chromosomes could be shown and the presence of elected genes relevant for diagnosis in clinical samples could be proven. Mutational analysis of clinical samples could be performed without any difficulty and showed concordance with earlier diagnostic findings. Conclusion We established the feasibility and convenience of IMDA for routine diagnostics. We also showed that small amounts of DNA, which were not analyzable with current molecular methods, could be sufficient for a wide field of applications in molecular routine diagnostics when they are preamplified with IMDA. PMID:25152625

Mairinger, Fabian D; Walter, Robert FH; Vollbrecht, Claudia; Hager, Thomas; Worm, Karl; Ting, Saskia; Wohlschläger, Jeremias; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Schmid, Kurt W

2014-01-01

86

Modern methods for investigating functional surfaces of advanced materials by mechanical contact testing  

SciTech Connect

Modern methods for determining the hardness, Young's modulus, elastic recovery, adhesive/cohesive strength, friction coefficient, and wear resistance of thin films, coatings, multilayer materials, and bulk materials are considered. The experimental data obtained in instrumented indentation, instrumented scratching, and tribological tests of nanostructured and quasicrystalline coatings and composite materials are analyzed. It is noted that the elastic recovery of a number of advanced materials is higher than the elastic recovery of metal alloys by a factor of 2-3. The coefficients of sliding friction of sintered samples and thin films containing Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystals are found to be relatively low. An increase in the fraction of quasicrystalline particles to 30% in composites with an aluminum matrix leads to an increase in the wear resistance.

Petrzhik, M. I., E-mail: petrzhik@shs.misis.ru; Levashov, E. A. [State Technological University 'Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys, (Russian Federation)

2007-11-15

87

Improving resolution and depth of astronomical observations via modern mathematical methods for image analysis  

E-print Network

In the past years modern mathematical methods for image analysis have led to a revolution in many fields, from computer vision to scientific imaging. However, some recently developed image processing techniques successfully exploited by other sectors have been rarely, if ever, experimented on astronomical observations. We present here tests of two classes of variational image enhancement techniques: "structure-texture decomposition" and "super-resolution" showing that they are effective in improving the quality of observations. Structure-texture decomposition allows to recover faint sources previously hidden by the background noise, effectively increasing the depth of available observations. Super-resolution yields an higher-resolution and a better sampled image out of a set of low resolution frames, thus mitigating problematics in data analysis arising from the difference in resolution/sampling between different instruments, as in the case of EUCLID VIS and NIR imagers.

Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Merlin, Emiliano; Pilo, Stefano; Falcone, Maurizio

2015-01-01

88

Microseismic logging: A new hydraulic fracture diagnostic method  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracture treatments and fluid injections into fractured wells induce cloud of microseismic sources in the fractured zone. This induced seismicity can last for hours after pumping and pervades the fracture. The source-size population distribution ranges from a countable (50 to 500) number of large, individually distinguishable event to a din of background events. Each source radiates wave motion, which can be recorded only in and near the fracture. A new method uses these motion data, recorded in the cased treatment well, to determine the fracture height and azimuth. The height is found by delineating the location and vertical extent of a spatial anomaly in the background-motion data. The azimuth is derived from the particle-motion polarization of the largest events of the microseismic event population. This paper describes the method, exemplary data sets, theory, and simulations that substantiate this method.

Mahrer, K.D. (Teledyne Geotech, Alexandria, VA (United States))

1993-03-01

89

Computational methods for large-scale data in medical diagnostics  

E-print Network

organization of the genome affects the variety of proteins in the organism; on the other hand, proteins molecular biology experimental method called Micro- array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (a-Poisson regression, 1 These rearrangements have often prefix micro referring to their sub-microscopic size. 2 #12

Bechler, Pawel

90

Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-08-26

91

[Diagnostic methods compared in neoplastic pathology of the endometrium].  

PubMed

Preoperative staging is fundamentally important in endometrial carcinoma. The presence of lymph node metastasis and the risk of tumour recidivation are correlated to the degree of myometrial invasion by the tumour. The preoperative diagnosis of the absence of myometrial invasion may render pelvic lymphadenectomy superfluous. A group of 24 patients suffering from endometrial carcinoma underwent transvaginal ultrasonography and nuclear magnetic resonance prior to surgery in order to evaluate possible myometrial invasion. The study was integrated by computerised tomography (CT) to obtain a clearer image of the retroperitoneum. The authors aim to ascertain the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of these methods in the preoperative evaluation other degree of myometrial infiltration. PMID:7838407

Mascaretti, G; Carta, G; Renzi, E; Peluzzi, C; Bonitatibus, A; Di Francesco, C L; Patacchiola, F; Moscarini, M

1994-10-01

92

Knowledge, attitude and practice of natural family planning methods in a population with poor utilisation of modern contraceptives.  

PubMed

Sub-Saharan Africa has one of the highest fertility rates in the world, which is further promoted by the low utilisation of modern contraceptive methods. Yet, many communities claim to have traditional methods of family planning that pre-date the introduction of modern contraceptives, implying that contraception is a culturally acceptable norm. It was therefore postulated that the study population would have a high level of awareness and practice of natural methods of family planning. We aimed to obtain an insight into the extent and correctness of knowledge about natural family planning methods, and its practice as a guide to the general acceptance of contraception as a concept. Pre-tested structured questionnaires were administered to women of childbearing age in households properly numbered for primary healthcare activities. The level of awareness of natural family planning methods was significantly less than awareness for modern methods of contraception. The awareness rate for rhythm method, lactational amenorrhoea method and coitus interruptus was 50.7%, 42.1% and 36.1%, respectively. For all three national family planning methods, there is a steady decline between awareness, correct description of method and utilisation, a difference that was statistically significant in all cases. The sociodemographic factors of the responders had varying influence on utilisation of all three natural family planning methods studied. Rural dwellers practised the lactational amenorrhoea method significantly more often than urban dwellers. Significantly more Muslims than Christians with four children or more practised coitus interruptus or the rhythm method, while the use of lactational amenorrhoea method was significantly increased with the number of living children in both religious groups. There is a relatively low level of awareness of natural family planning methods in the study population, poor utilisation and wrong use of methods. Therefore, improving the correct level of information on natural family planning methods is likely to improve the use of both natural family planning and modern contraceptive methods. PMID:17000506

Audu, B M; Yahya, S J; Bassi, A

2006-08-01

93

Obesity and Its Diagnostic Methods in Turkish Children  

PubMed Central

Objective: The application of body mass index (BMI) for obesity classification in all population studies has been questioned by the scientific community. It has been found that the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an accurate method for screening obesity. This study was conducted to evaluate the accuracies of BMI, skinfold thickness (SFT), leptin and BIA measurements in obesity classification and to find correlations between BIA and the other indicators for obesity. Materials and Methods: This case-control study included 178 children of whom 90 were in the obese group and 88 in the control group. The study measured BMI, SFT, leptin level and BIA-mediated body fat percentage (BIA BFP) in each child. Results: The BMIs, leptin levels, SFTs and BIA BFPs of children in the obese group were found to be higher than those in the control group (p<0.001). The measurement of BIA BFP strongly correlated with BMI, SFT and waist circumference, whereas BIA BFP measurement showed weak-moderate correlation with leptin level. Conclusion: Bioelectrical impedance analysis was found to be an accurate measure of BFP in obesity. In addition, BIA may prevent the incorrect diagnosis of obesity as determined by BMI alone, especially in boys during the pubertal period.

Yilmaz, Dilek; Inan, Gulten; Karakas, Sacide; Buyukozturk-Karul, Aslihan; Sonmez, Ferah

2012-01-01

94

Modern applications for a total sulfur reduction distillation method - what’s old is new again  

PubMed Central

Background The use of a boiling mixture of hydriodic acid, hypophosphorous acid, and hydrochloric acid to reduce any variety of sulfur compounds has been in use in various applications since the first appearance of this method in the literature in the 1920’s. In the realm of sulfur geochemistry, this method remains a useful, but under-utilized technique. Presented here is a detailed description of the distillation set-up and procedure, as well as an overview of potential applications of this method for marine sulfur biogeochemistry/isotope studies. The presented applications include the sulfur isotope analysis of extremely low amounts of sulfate from saline water, the conversion of radiolabeled sulfate into sulfide, the extraction of refractory sulfur from marine sediments, and the use of this method to assess sulfur cycling in Aarhus Bay sediments. Results The STrongly Reducing hydrIodic/hypoPhosphorous/hydrochloric acid (STRIP) reagent is capable of rapidly reducing a wide range of sulfur compounds, including the most oxidized form, sulfate, to hydrogen sulfide. Conversion of as little as approximately 5 micromole sulfate is possible, with a sulfur isotope composition reproducibility of 0.3 permil. Conclusions Although developed many decades ago, this distillation method remains relevant for many modern applications. The STRIP distillation quickly and quantitatively converts sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide which can be readily collected in a silver nitrate trap for further use. An application of this method to a study of sulfur cycling in Aarhus Bay demonstrates that we account for all of the sulfur compounds in pore-water, effectively closing the mass balance of sulfur cycling. PMID:24808759

2014-01-01

95

Damage diagnosis for SHM of existing civil structure with statistical diagnostic method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present research proposes a new automatic damage diagnostic method that does not require data of damaged state. Structural health monitoring is a noticeable technology for civil structures. Multiple damage diagnostic method for has been proposed, and most of them employ parametric method based on modeling or non-parametric method such as artificial neural networks. These methods demand much costs, and first of all, it is impossible to obtain data for training of damaged existing structures. That causes importance of development of the method, which diagnoses damage just from data of the intact state structure for existing structures. Therefore we purpose new statistical diagnostic method for structural damage detection. In the present method, system identification using a response surface is performed and damage is diagnosed by testing the change of this identified system by statistical test. The new method requires data of non-damaged state and does not require the complicated modeling and data of damaged state structure. As an example, the present study deals damage diagnosis of a jet-fan which installed to a tunnel on an expressway as a ventilator fan. Damages are detected from load of turnbuckles. As a result, the damage is successfully diagnosed with the method.

Iwasaki, Atsushi; Todoroki, Akira; Sugiya, Tsuneya; Sakai, Shinsuke

2004-07-01

96

Difference of Diagnostic Rates and Analytical Methods in the Test Positions of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the differences of diagnostic rates, of the two widely used test positions, in measuring vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) and selecting the most appropriate analytical method for diagnostic criteria for the patients with vertigo. Methods Thirty-two patients with vertigo were tested in two comparative testing positions: turning the head to the opposite side of the evaluating side and bowing while in seated position, and bowing while in supine positions. Abnormalities were determined by prolonged latency of p13 or n23, shortening of the interpeak latency, and absence of VEMP formation. Results Using the three criteria above for determining abnormalities, both the seated and supine positions showed no significant differences in diagnostic rates, however, the concordance correlation of the two positions was low. When using only the prolonged latency of p13 or n23 in the two positions, diagnostic rates were not significantly different and their concordance correlation was high. On the other hand, using only the shortened interpeak latency in both positions showed no significant difference of diagnostic rates, and the degree of agreement between two positions was low. Conclusion Bowing while in seated position with the head turned in the opposite direction to the area being evaluated is found to be the best VEMP test position due to the consistent level of sternocleidomastoid muscle tension and the high level of compliance. Also, among other diagnostic analysis methods, using prolonged latency of p13 or n23 as the criterion is found to be the most appropriate method of analysis for the VEMP test. PMID:24855617

Park, Jeong Mee; Yong, Sang Yeol; Kim, Jong Heon; Kim, Hee; Park, Sang-Yoo

2014-01-01

97

Novel diagnostic method of peritoneal injury using dual macromolecular markers.  

PubMed

Long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) frequently produces morphological and functional changes of the peritoneum, which makes continuation of PD difficult. Moreover, the progression of peritoneal injury causes complications and poor prognosis. Since therapeutic treatments for peritoneal injury during PD have yet to be established, it is important to diagnose peritoneal injury as early as possible. The aim of this study was to develop a method of monitoring peritoneal function to diagnose peritoneal injury. Model rats of peritoneal injury were prepared by intraperitoneal injection of methylglyoxal (MGO) for five consecutive days. Then, marker substances of various molecular weights (phenolsulfonphthalein, fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FD)-10, FD-40, FD-70, FD-2000 or tetramethylrhodamine-dextran (RD)-10) were injected into the peritoneal cavity. At 120?min after injection, the remaining amounts of all marker substances were significantly decreased in the MGO-treated rats compared with those in the vehicle-treated rats. Molecular weight dependence of the peritoneal permeability was observed. A substance with a molecular weight of approximately 10000 was found to be suitable to diagnose peritoneal injury. Moreover, coadministration of RD-10 with FD-2000 enabled us to monitor enhanced peritoneal permeability and the transfer of water simultaneously, without the recovery of whole PD fluid, even in the case of different ultrafiltration volumes. We demonstrated the usefulness of administering substances to evaluate peritoneal permeability and the transfer of water simultaneously to diagnose peritoneal injury. This study should be valuable for safe and effective PD. PMID:24492723

Hirata, Haruna; Miyamoto, Hirotaka; Shimokawa, Kenta; Nakashima, Mikiro; Nakayama, Morio; Fumoto, Shintaro; Nishida, Koyo

2014-01-01

98

Hydroxyalkyl phosphine gold complexes for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same  

DOEpatents

A complex and method for making same for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical includes a ligand comprising at least one hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group bound to a gold atom to form a gold-ligand complex that is stable in aqueous solutions containing oxygen, serum and other body fluids.

Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Berning, Douglas E. (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)

1998-01-01

99

Hydroxyalkyl phosphine gold complexes for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same  

DOEpatents

A complex and method for making a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical includes a ligand comprising at least one hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group bound to a gold atom to form a gold-ligand complex that is stable in aqueous solutions containing oxygen, serum and other body fluids. 20 figs.

Katti, K.V.; Berning, D.E.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.

1998-12-01

100

Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same  

DOEpatents

A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand. 21 figs.

Katti, K.V.; Karra, S.R.; Berning, D.E.; Smith, C.J.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.

1999-01-05

101

A classification method for diagnostic settings with a repeatedly measured biomarker: Longitudinal quadratic discriminant analysis  

E-print Network

-specific means and covariance matrices by linear mixed models. The linear mixed models under consideration the importance of choosing the appropriate linear mixed model within the estimation of the meansA classification method for diagnostic settings with a repeatedly measured biomarker: Longitudinal

Gerkmann, Ralf

102

Modern Methods of Real-Time Gamma Radiation Monitoring for General Personal Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time radiation detectors become an essential part of emergency personnel who may have to respond to unknown accidents, incidents or terrorist attacks, which could involve radioactive material. More and more ordinary citizens are interested in personal radiation protection as well. Reasons include lost sources, nuclear industrial accidents, nuclear or radiological terrorism and the possibility of nuclear weapons being used in a war. People want to have the ability to measure it for themselves and they want to be notified when the radiation levels are increased. To meet this demand, considerable research into new sensors is underway, including efforts to enhance the sensor performance through both the material properties and manufacturing technologies. Deep understanding of physical properties of the materials under the influence of radiation exposure is vital for the effective design of dosimeter devices. Detection of radiation is based on the fact that both the electrical and the optical properties of the materials undergo changes upon the exposure to ionizing radiation. It is believed that radiation causes structural defects. The influence of radiation depends on both the dose and the parameters of the films including their thickness: the degradation is more severe for the higher dose and the thinner films. This paper presents overview of modern methods of real-time gamma radiation monitoring for personal protection of radiation workers and general public and suggests further developments in this area.

Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

103

Abstract--As the complexity of a modern microprocessor increases rapidly, the methods of testing/debug take up increasing  

E-print Network

Abstract-- As the complexity of a modern microprocessor increases rapidly, the methods of testing Network (PDN) of a microprocessor supplies power to a majority of underlying circuits. In this paper, we propose to explore use of the PDN in a microprocessor as a communication channel for test/debug purposes

Ha, Dong S.

104

Instrumentation for noninvasive express-diagnostics bacteriophages and viruses by optical method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theoretical and the experimental researches of spectra of absent-minded radiation in medium containing viruses were carried out. The information on spectra luminescence 31 viruses was written down.The new method the express - analysis of viruses in organism of the man was developed. It shall be mentioned that the proposed method of express diagnostics allows detection of infection agent in the organism several hours after infection. It makes it suitable for high efficient testing in blood services for detection and rejection of potential donors infected with such viruses as hepatitis, herpes, Epstein-Barre, cytomegalovirus, and immunodeficiency. Methods of serum diagnostics used for that purpose can detect antibodies to virus only 1-3 months after the person has been infected. The device for the express analysis of 31 viruses of the man was created.

Moguilnaia, Tatiana A.; Andreev, Gleb I.; Agibalov, Andrey A.; Botikov, Andrey G.; Kosenkov, Evgeniy; Saguitova, Elena

2004-03-01

105

Development of a Cast Iron Fatigue Properties Database for use with Modern Design Methods  

SciTech Connect

A reliable and comprehensive database of design properties for cast iron is key to full and efficient utilization of this versatile family of high production-volume engineering materials. A database of strain-life fatigue properties and supporting data for a wide range of structural cast irons representing industry standard quality was developed in this program. The database primarily covers ASTM/SAE standard structural grades of ADI, CGI, ductile iron and gray iron as well as an austempered gray iron. Twenty-two carefully chosen materials provided by commercial foundries were tested and fifteen additional datasets were contributed by private industry. The test materials are principally distinguished on the basis of grade designation; most grades were tested in a 25 mm section size and in a single material condition common for the particular grade. Selected grades were tested in multiple sections-sizes and/or material conditions to delineate the properties associated with a range of materials for the given grade. The cyclic properties are presented in terms of the conventional strain-life formalism (e.g., SAE J1099). Additionally, cyclic properties for gray iron and CGI are presented in terms of the Downing Model, which was specifically developed to treat the unique stress-strain response associated with gray iron (and to a lesser extent with CGI). The test materials were fully characterized in terms of alloy composition, microstructure and monotonic properties. The CDROM database presents the data in various levels of detail including property summaries for each material, detailed data analyses for each specimen and raw monotonic and cyclic stress-strain data. The CDROM database has been published by the American Foundry Society (AFS) as an AFS Research Publication entitled ''Development of a Cast Iron Fatigue Properties Database for Use in Modern Design Methods'' (ISDN 0-87433-267-2).

DeLa'O, James, D.; Gundlach, Richard, B.; Tartaglia, John, M.

2003-09-18

106

Adaptation of LASCA method for diagnostics of malignant tumours in laboratory animals  

SciTech Connect

The LASCA method is adapted for diagnostics of malignant neoplasms in laboratory animals. Tumours are studied in mice of Balb/c inbred line after inoculation of cells of syngeneic myeloma cell line Sp.2/0 Ag.8. The appropriateness of using the tLASCA method in tumour investigations is substantiated; its advantages in comparison with the sLASCA method are demonstrated. It is found that the most informative characteristic, indicating the presence of a tumour, is the fractal dimension of LASCA images.

Ul'yanov, S S; Laskavyi, V N; Glova, Alina B; Polyanina, T I; Ul'yanova, O V; Fedorova, V A; Ul'yanov, A S

2012-05-31

107

Modern psychometric methods for detection of differential item functioning: application to cognitive assessment measures.  

PubMed

Cognitive screening tests and items have been found to perform differently across groups that differ in terms of education, ethnicity and race. Despite the profound implications that such bias holds for studies in the epidemiology of dementia, little research has been conducted in this area. Using the methods of modern psychometric theory (in addition to those of classical test theory), we examined the performance of the Attention subscale of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale. Several item response theory models, including the two- and three-parameter dichotomous response logistic model, as well as a polytomous response model were compared. (Log-likelihood ratio tests showed that the three-parameter model was not an improvement over the two-parameter model.) Data were collected as part of the ten-study National Institute on Aging Collaborative investigation of special dementia care in institutional settings. The subscale KR-20 estimate for this sample was 0.92. IRT model-based reliability estimates, provided at several points along the latent attribute, ranged from 0.65 to 0.97; the measure was least precise at the less disabled tail of the distribution. Most items performed in similar fashion across education groups; the item characteristic curves were almost identical, indicating little or no differential item functioning (DIF). However, four items were problematic. One item (digit span backwards) demonstrated a large error term in the confirmatory factor analysis; item-fit chi-square statistics developed using BIMAIN confirm this result for the IRT models. Further, the discrimination parameter for that item was low for all education subgroups. Generally, persons with the highest education had a greater probability of passing the item for most levels of theta. Model-based tests of DIF using MULTILOG identified three other items with significant, albeit small, DIF. One item, for example, showed non-uniform DIF in that at the impaired tail of the latent distribution, persons with higher education had a higher probability of correctly responding to the item than did lower education groups, but at less impaired levels, they had a lower probability of a correct response than did lower education groups. Another method of detection identified this item as having DIF (unsigned area statistic=3.05, p<0.01, and 2.96, p<0.01). On average, across the entire score range, the lower education group's probability of answering the item correctly was 0.11 higher than the higher education group's probability. A cross-validation with larger subgroups confirmed the overall result of little DIF for this measure. The methods used for detecting differential item functioning (which may, in turn, be indicative of bias) were applied to a neuropsychological subtest. These methods have been used previously to examine bias in screening measures across education and ethnic and racial subgroups. In addition to the important epidemiological applications of ensuring that screening measures and neuropsychological tests used in diagnoses are free of bias so that more culture-fair classifications will result, these methods are also useful for the examination of site differences in large multi-site clinical trials. It is recommended that these methods receive wider attention in the medical statistical literature. PMID:10844726

Teresi, J A; Kleinman, M; Ocepek-Welikson, K

108

[Modern methods of early screening for preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension--a review].  

PubMed

Preeclampsia remains to be a serious perinatal complication and early screening for this disease to identify the high risk population before the first symptoms develop constitutes a considerable clinical challenge. Modern methods of screening for preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension include patients history biochemical serum markers and foetal DNA and RNA in maternal serum. They aid the process of developing an optimal protocol to initiate treatment in early pregnancy and to reduce the rate of complications. Our review presents an overview of the novel methods and techniques used for early screening for preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Most of the research focuses on 11-13 weeks of gestation due to the fact that the first prenatal examination is performed at that time. The most important information seems to be: weight, mass, mean blood pressure, history of pregnancy-induced hypertension or preeclampsia at previous pregnancies as well as the ethnic origin. During an ultrasound scan, pulsatility index of the uterine arteries is measured. Blood samples are obtained during the last part of the examination. At the moment only a few markers seem to be strong predictors of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy: pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), placental growth factor (PIGF) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1). Also, fetal DNA and RNA in maternal plasma are helpful in the prediction of preeclampsia as they are markers of the trophoblast apoptosis. Researchers aim at identifying the population at high risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia in order to offer appropriate antenatal care to these women. At the moment many drugs and diet supplements are investigated to reduce the prevalence of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. These medications are usually administrated in early gestation (up to 16 week of gestation) before the first clinical symptoms present. Low doses of aspirin were found to decrease the risk of preeclampsia in high-risk groups. Moreover, according to some recent research, also essential omega-3 fatty acids reduce the incidence of preeclampsia. None of the other investigated diet supplements or antioxidants were proven to successfully reduce incidents of hypertensive disorders. So far, there is available evidence on the lack of any effect for vitamines C, D or E. Further studies are necessary to define clinical useful markers of gestational hypertension. PMID:23342898

Poprawski, Grzegorz; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Brazert, Jacek

2012-09-01

109

Kinetics of intestinal replication of group B rotavirus and relevance to diagnostic methods.  

PubMed Central

Non-group-A rotaviruses have been implicated with increasing frequency as causes of acute gastroenteritis in humans and other animals. However, the incidence and significance of infection with these agents, as well as appropriate diagnostic strategies for making these determinations, are largely unknown. Studies to make these determinations could be more accurately conducted if the relationship between the viral replication kinetics and the particular diagnostic method used is understood. We thus utilized the murine model of group B rotavirus infection to establish the viral replication kinetics by a variety of commonly used diagnostic methods. Enzyme immunoassay, routine negative-stain electron microscopy, solid-phase immunosorbent electron microscopy, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and a dot hybridization assay were used in these studies. By enzyme immunoassay, 100% of experimentally infected suckling rats tested positive for group B rotaviral antigens at 1, 4, and 5 days postinoculation. However, only 70 and 20% of infected animals tested positive at days 2 and 3 postinoculation, respectively. Dot hybridization with a complementary DNA probe also suggested a biphasic pattern of viral antigen excretion. Evidence of the virus causing infectious diarrhea in infant rats was found only on day 1 postinoculation in samples examined by routine negative-stain electron microscopy and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Rotaviruslike particles were observed by solid-phase immunosorbent electron microscopy on days 1, 2, and 4 after viral inoculation suckling rats but were clearly the most numerous on day 1. Additionally, the enzyme immunoassay was used to quantitate the kinetics of group B rotaviral replication in the intestines of the experimentally infected animals. Levels of murine group B rotaviral antigens in intestinal samples peaked on days 1 and 4 postinoculation; however, only peak 1 represented actual intraepithelial replication of the virus. These studies thus indicate that early sample collection and selection of the appropriate diagnostic method are critical if the incidence and significance of group B and possibly other non-group-A rotaviral infections are to be accurately assessed. Images PMID:2830307

Vonderfecht, S L; Eiden, J J; Miskuff, R L; Yolken, R H

1988-01-01

110

Expanded response-surfaces: a new method to reconstruct paleoclimates from fossil pollen assemblages that lack modern analogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollen-based paleoclimatic interpretations of late-glacial to early Holocene climates (17-9 ka) in Midwestern North America are hampered by samples that lack modern analogues. Unresolved questions include the magnitude and direction of temperature seasonality (i.e. were these climates more or less seasonal than present) and the temporal changes in precipitation. Central to the no-analogue problem is the truncation of modern pollen-climate relationships for abundant late-glacial taxa such as Fraxinus. Here we present a new method called the expanded response-surface (ERS) method, developed to reconstruct climates from no-analogue pollen assemblages and applied to a high-resolution late-glacial pollen record from Crystal Lake, Illinois to test hypotheses about late-glacial climates. The key assumptions central to the ERS method are: (1) plant species and pollen abundances follow symmetrical unimodal distributions along climatic gradients, (2) taxa with truncated distributions in modern climate space occupy a subset of their fundamental niche, and (3) expansion of truncated distributions by mirroring around the distributional mode recovers the portion of the fundamental niche not realized in the modern climate space. With the ERS method, we expanded modern pollen-climate relationships by mirroring pollen abundances for each taxon around a mode defined with respect to four climate axes (mean winter temperature, mean summer temperature, mean winter precipitation, and mean summer precipitation). The ERS method reconstructed past temperatures and precipitation during the height of no-analogue conditions (14?160-12?370 cal yr BP) for 37% of the Crystal Lake samples where techniques that employed only modern observational data found matches for only 13% of the fossil samples. The total climate space of the expanded taxa set allowed analogue matches under more seasonal-than-present climates with higher-than-present precipitation. The ERS climate reconstructions for the height of no-analogue conditions indicated cooler-than-present summer and winter temperatures, similar-to-present seasonal range in temperatures, higher-than-present winter precipitation, and similar-to-present summer precipitation. These results thus suggest that high moisture availability helped drive the formation of the Midwestern no-analogue communities with high Fraxinus nigra abundances, but do not show higher-than-present temperature seasonality notwithstanding the higher-than-present insolation seasonality at this time. During the no-analogue late-glacial interval, Picea mariana, F. nigra, and Larix stands probably grew on low-lying, poorly drained soils in the Crystal Lake region; whereas Abies, Picea glauca, Quercus, and Ostrya/ Carpinus grew on upland positions with better soil drainage.

Gonzales, L. M.; Williams, J. W.; Grimm, E. C.

2009-12-01

111

India's Modern Slaves: Bonded Labor in India and Methods of Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Slavery flourishes in the modern world. In nations plagued by debilitating poverty, individuals unable to afford food, clothing, and shelter may be compelled to make a devastating decision: to sell themselves or their children into slavery. Nowhere in the world is this more common than India. Conservative estimates suggest that there are 10…

Boutros, Heidi

2005-01-01

112

Fault detection for modern Diesel engines using signal- and process model-based methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern Diesel engines with direct fuel injection and turbo charging have shown a significant progress in fuel consumption, emissions and driveability. Together with exhaust gas recirculation and variable geometry turbochargers they became complicated and complex processes. Therefore, fault detection and diagnosis is not easily done and need to be improved. This contribution shows a systematic development of fault detection and

Frank Kimmich; Anselm Schwarte; Rolf Isermann

2005-01-01

113

A method to detect intercenter differences in the application of contemporary diagnostic criteria.  

PubMed

The use of specified diagnostic criteria is part of routine psychiatric practice and research. However, there is evidence that the same criteria may be interpreted and applied differently at different research centers. The next question is whether it is possible to detect these systematic intercenter differences in diagnostic practices. An inexpensive, nonlaborious, standardized method is needed that can easily be used at any site. In the present report, we demonstrate how self-report questionnaires can provide a method of detecting systematic differences in the application of contemporary diagnostic criteria. Sixty consecutively admitted inpatients with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder were interviewed with standardized schedules and diagnosed according to two interpretations of the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) and DSM-III endogenous/melancholia criteria. The patients also completed the Inventory to Diagnose Depression, a self-report scale designed to diagnose major depression and subtype patients according to RDC and DSM-III endogenous/melancholia criteria. The interview to self-report ratio for diagnosing endogenous depression and melancholia was associated with diagnosticians' interpretation of the criteria. A broader application of the criteria resulted in a higher ratio. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire could be useful in detecting systematic interinvestigator differences in the broadness or narrowness with which criteria are applied. The advantage of a self-report scale is that it is free from systematic biases and tendencies of clinician raters. Of course, ratings on questionnaires are not free of bias; however, it is less likely that differences between samples will reflect a systematic variation in response set. PMID:8426170

Zimmerman, M; Coryell, W; Black, D W

1993-02-01

114

Noninvasive diagnostic methods for perceptual and motor disabilities in children with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

The field of neuroorthopedics centers on chronic diseases demanding close clinical monitoring. We shall use several examples to show how the various noninvasive diagnostic instruments can be used to obtain insight into the central nervous system as well as into the musculoskeletal system and its morphology. The choice of the most appropriate method depends on the problem; that is, whether the method is to be applied for clinical use or for basic research. In this report we introduce various technical examination methods that are being used successfully in the fields of pediatrics, orthopedics, and neurology. The major examination instrument in pediatric diagnostics is sonography, which is being used in this report as a research instrument for the biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system, but which also gives insight into neurofunctional sequences. In orthopedics, pedography is used for diagnosing deformities of the feet. In neuroorthopedics for children pedography acts as a functional monitor for apraxia and thus allows, for example, a classification of the degree of neurological malfunctions in the lower extremities. The 3D bodyscan is used to minimize x-raying in patients with neurogenic scoliosis. This report introduces examples of the application of MRI and fMRI for basic research. The biometric measuring methods introduced provide precise data in the areas of diagnostics and monitoring and are highly valuable for further neuroorthopedic basic research. In future we expect the ever-evolving technical measuring methods to enable a deeper understanding of the primary neurological causes of and the implications for patients with cerebral palsy and other neuroorthopedic conditions. This may allow the development of new forms of therapy not necessarily predictable today. PMID:21808682

Lampe, Renée; Mitternacht, Jürgen

2009-10-10

115

Assessment of standing balance deficits in people who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using traditional and modern analysis methods.  

PubMed

Modern methods of assessing standing balance such as wavelet and entropy analysis could provide insight into postural control mechanisms in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to examine what effect anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has on traditional and modern measures of balance. Ninety subjects, 45 who had undergone ACLR and 45 matched controls, performed single leg static standing balance tests on their surgical or matched limb on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board. Data were analysed in the anterior-posterior axis of movement, which is known to be affected by ACLR. The traditional measures of path velocity, amplitude and standard deviation were calculated in this plane. Additionally, sample entropy and discrete wavelet transform derived assessment of path velocity in four distinct frequency bands related to (1) spinal reflexive loops and muscle activity, (2) cerebellar, (3) vestibular, and (4) visual mechanisms of postural control were derived. The ACLR group had significantly increased values in all traditional measures and all four frequency bands. No significant difference was observed for sample entropy. This indicated that whilst postural sway was amplified in the ACLR group, the overall mechanism used by the patient group to maintain balance was similar to that of the control group. In conclusion, modern methods of signal analysis may provide additional insight into standing balance mechanisms in clinical populations. Future research is required to determine if these results provide important and unique information which is of benefit to clinicians. PMID:24433669

Clark, Ross A; Howells, Brooke; Pua, Yong-Hao; Feller, Julian; Whitehead, Tim; Webster, Kate E

2014-03-21

116

A Toxocara cati eggs concentration method from cats' faeces, for experimental and diagnostic purposes.  

PubMed

Toxocariosis is a zoonotic parasite infection worldwide distributed, now considered a neglected disease associated to poverty. For experimental infection in animals and to develop the diagnosis in humans it is necessary to obtain large number of Toxocara spp. larval eggs. Toxocara cati eggs recovered percentage from faeces of infected cats was determined employing a novel egg concentration method. The McMaster egg counting technique and the concentration method were applied on 20 positive cats' sample faeces obtained from naturally infected cats. The mean percentage of eggs recovered by the concentration method was 24.37% higher than the count obtained by McMaster egg counting technique. The main advantage of this method is that it can be obtained a small final volume with a high number of recovered eggs and a good quality inoculum for experimental and diagnostic purposes. PMID:24959943

Cardillo, N; Sommerfelt, I; Fariña, F; Pasqualetti, M; Pérez, M; Ercole, M; Rosa, A; Ribicich, M

2014-09-01

117

Fluorescent-spectroscopic and imaging methods of investigations for diagnostics of head and neck tumors and control of PDT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methodics of PDT control and fluorescent-spectroscopic diagnostic of head and neck tumors and mammary gland cancer (nodular) with the use of Kr, He-Ne and semiconductor lasers and photosensitizer (PS) -- Al phtalocyanin (Photosense) are discussed. The results show that applied diagnostic methods permit us not only to identify the topology and malignancy of a tumor but also to correct PDT process directly during irradiation.

Edinak, N. E.; Chental, Victor V.; Komov, D.; Vaculovskaya, E.; Tabolinovskaya, T. D.; Abdullin, N. A.; Pustynsky, I.; Chatikhin, V.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Meerovich, Gennady A.; Stratonnikov, A. A.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Agafonov, Vladimir I.; Zuravleva, V.; Lukjanets, E.

1996-01-01

118

Impact of gene patents on diagnostic testing: a new patent landscaping method applied to spinocerebellar ataxia  

PubMed Central

Recent reports in Europe and the United States raise concern about the potential negative impact of gene patents on the freedom to operate of diagnosticians and on the access of patients to genetic diagnostic services. Patents, historically seen as legal instruments to trigger innovation, could cause undesired side effects in the public health domain. Clear empirical evidence on the alleged hindering effect of gene patents is still scarce. We therefore developed a patent categorization method to determine which gene patents could indeed be problematic. The method is applied to patents relevant for genetic testing of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). The SCA test is probably the most widely used DNA test in (adult) neurology, as well as one of the most challenging due to the heterogeneity of the disease. Typically tested as a gene panel covering the five common SCA subtypes, we show that the patenting of SCA genes and testing methods and the associated licensing conditions could have far-reaching consequences on legitimate access to this gene panel. Moreover, with genetic testing being increasingly standardized, simply ignoring patents is unlikely to hold out indefinitely. This paper aims to differentiate among so-called ‘gene patents' by lifting out the truly problematic ones. In doing so, awareness is raised among all stakeholders in the genetic diagnostics field who are not necessarily familiar with the ins and outs of patenting and licensing. PMID:21811306

Berthels, Nele; Matthijs, Gert; Van Overwalle, Geertrui

2011-01-01

119

Methods, Diagnostic Criteria, Cutoff Points, and Prevalence of Sarcopenia among Older People  

PubMed Central

Aim. To identify methods, index, diagnostic criteria, and corresponding cutoff points used to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia in older people in different countries. Methods. A systematic review was carried out in accordance with PRISMA Statement. The search encompassed the MEDLINE and LILACS databases and was executed during March 2012 using the keyword sarcopenia. Results. A total of 671 studies were identified by the search strategy, and 30 meet all inclusion criteria. Specifically for dual-X-ray absorptiometry, prevalence ranged from 2.2% to 95% in men and from 0.1% to 33.9% in women. For bioelectrical impedance analysis, the range was from 6.2% to 85.4% in men and 2.8% to 23.6% in women. Regarding anthropometric and computed tomography, prevalence rates were, respectively, 14.1% and 55.9%. Conclusions. Heterogeneity in prevalence of sarcopenia was identified, due to diagnostic method choice, cutoff points, and, characteristics of the population as well as reference population. These factors should be considered in research designs to enable comparison and validation of results. Despite the limitations of most studies that indicated high prevalence rates, the results indicate the need for early detection of this syndrome. PMID:25580454

Pagotto, Valéria; Silveira, Erika Aparecida

2014-01-01

120

Dusty plasma diagnostics methods for charge, electron temperature, and ion density  

SciTech Connect

Diagnostic methods are developed to measure the microparticle charge Q and two plasma parameters, electron temperature T{sub e}, and ion density n{sub i}, in the main plasma region of a dusty plasma. Using video microscopy to track microparticles yields a resonance frequency, which along with a charging model allows an estimation of Q and T{sub e}. Only measurements of microparticle position and velocity are required, unlike other methods that use measurements of T{sub e} and plasma parameters as inputs. The resonance frequency measurement can also be used with an ion drag model to estimate n{sub i}. These methods are demonstrated using a single-layer dusty plasma suspension under microgravity conditions.

Liu Bin; Goree, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Fortov, V. E.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 127412 (Russian Federation); Morfill, G. E.; Thomas, H. M.; Ivlev, A. V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, 85748 Garching (Germany)

2010-05-15

121

Evaluation of Three Rapid Diagnostic Methods for Direct Identification of Microorganisms in Positive Blood Cultures  

PubMed Central

The identification of organisms from positive blood cultures generally takes several days. However, recently developed rapid diagnostic methods offer the potential for organism identification within only a few hours of blood culture positivity. In this study, we evaluated the performance of three commercial methods to rapidly identify organisms directly from positive blood cultures: QuickFISH (AdvanDx, Wolburn, MA), Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture (BC-GP; Nanosphere, Northbrook, IL), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with Sepsityper processing (Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, MA). A total of 159 blood cultures (VersaTREK Trek Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, OH) positive for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as yeast were analyzed with QuickFISH and MALDI-TOF MS. In all, 102 blood cultures were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. For monomicrobial cultures, we observed 98.0% concordance with routine methods for both QuickFISH (143/146) and the BC-GP assay (93/95). MALDI-TOF MS demonstrated 80.1% (117/146) and 87.7% (128/146) concordance with routine methods to the genus and species levels, respectively. None of the methods tested were capable of consistently identifying polymicrobial cultures in their entirety or reliably differentiating Streptococcus pneumoniae from viridans streptococci. Nevertheless, the methods evaluated in this study are convenient and accurate for the most commonly encountered pathogens and have the potential to dramatically reduce turnaround time for the provision of results to the treating physician. PMID:24808235

Martinez, Raquel M.; Bauerle, Elizabeth R.; Fang, Ferric C.

2014-01-01

122

Evaluation of three rapid diagnostic methods for direct identification of microorganisms in positive blood cultures.  

PubMed

The identification of organisms from positive blood cultures generally takes several days. However, recently developed rapid diagnostic methods offer the potential for organism identification within only a few hours of blood culture positivity. In this study, we evaluated the performance of three commercial methods to rapidly identify organisms directly from positive blood cultures: QuickFISH (AdvanDx, Wolburn, MA), Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture (BC-GP; Nanosphere, Northbrook, IL), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with Sepsityper processing (Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, MA). A total of 159 blood cultures (VersaTREK Trek Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, OH) positive for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as yeast were analyzed with QuickFISH and MALDI-TOF MS. In all, 102 blood cultures were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. For monomicrobial cultures, we observed 98.0% concordance with routine methods for both QuickFISH (143/146) and the BC-GP assay (93/95). MALDI-TOF MS demonstrated 80.1% (117/146) and 87.7% (128/146) concordance with routine methods to the genus and species levels, respectively. None of the methods tested were capable of consistently identifying polymicrobial cultures in their entirety or reliably differentiating Streptococcus pneumoniae from viridans streptococci. Nevertheless, the methods evaluated in this study are convenient and accurate for the most commonly encountered pathogens and have the potential to dramatically reduce turnaround time for the provision of results to the treating physician. PMID:24808235

Martinez, Raquel M; Bauerle, Elizabeth R; Fang, Ferric C; Butler-Wu, Susan M

2014-07-01

123

Adaptive quality assurance of the product development process of additive manufacturing with modern 3D data evaluation methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the possibilities of modern 3D data evaluation for metrology and quality assurance are presented for the special application of the plastic laser sinter process, especially the Additive Manufacturing process. We use the advantages of computer tomography and of the 3D focus variation at all stages of a production process for an increased quality of the resulting products. With the CT and the 3D focus variation the modern quality assurance and metrology have state of the art instruments that allow non-destructive, complete and accurate measuring of parts. Therefore, these metrological methods can be used in many stages of the product development process for non-destructive quality control. In this work, studies and evaluation of 3D data and the conclusions for relevant quality criteria are presented. Additionally, new developments and implementations for adapting the evaluation results for quality prediction, comparison and for correction are described to show how an adequate process control can be achieved with the help of modern 3D metrology techniques. The focus is on the optimization of laser sintering components with regard to their quality requirements so that the functionality during production can be guaranteed and quantified.

Kroll, Julia; Botta, Sabine; Breuninger, Jannis; Verl, Alexander

2013-03-01

124

Diagnostic procedures in dermatology.  

PubMed

Although most skin diseases can be diagnosed with simple visual inspection, laboratory investigations are necessary in several clinical circumstances. This contribution highlights the usefulness of routine diagnostic procedures that are often overlooked and the innovative methods of molecular biology, which are expensive and require an experienced staff. Among the classic diagnostic investigations are (1) the use of Wood's light in many dermatologic disorders (eg, vitiligo, pityriasis versicolor, erythrasma, porphyrias), (2) cytodiagnosis of Tzanck in dermatologic practice (eg, herpetic infections, molluscum contagiosum, leishmaniasis, pemphigus vulgaris, basal cell carcinoma, erythroplasia of Queyrat, Hailey-Hailey disease), and (3) microscopic examination for fungal and bacterial skin infections as well as for mite infestation using potassium hydroxide, simple saline, and Gram stain. Modern molecular biotechnologies encompassing gene-specific polymerase chain reaction and its variants have a substantial affect in selected cases of viral (especially herpes simplex virus), bacterial, fungal, and protozoan (Leishmania) skin infections. PMID:21855731

Ruocco, Eleonora; Baroni, Adone; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Ruocco, Vincenzo

2011-01-01

125

Developing and applying modern methods of leakage monitoring and state estimation of fuel at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of developing and implementing the modernized fuel leakage monitoring methods at the shut-down and running reactor of the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant (NPP) are presented. An automated computerized expert system integrated with an in-core monitoring system (ICMS) and installed at the Novovoronezh NPP unit no. 5 is described. If leaky fuel elements appear in the core, the system allows one to perform on-line assessment of the parameters of leaky fuel assemblies (FAs). The computer expert system units designed for optimizing the operating regimes and enhancing the fuel usage efficiency at the Novovoronezh NPP unit no. 5 are now being developed.

Povarov, V. P.; Tereshchenko, A. B.; Kravchenko, Yu. N.; Pozychanyuk, I. V.; Gorobtsov, L. I.; Golubev, E. I.; Bykov, V. I.; Likhanskii, V. V.; Evdokimov, I. A.; Zborovskii, V. G.; Sorokin, A. A.; Kanyukova, V. D.; Aliev, T. N.

2014-02-01

126

Reliability studies of diagnostic methods in Indian traditional Ayurveda medicine: An overview  

PubMed Central

Recently, a need to develop supportive new scientific evidence for contemporary Ayurveda has emerged. One of the research objectives is an assessment of the reliability of diagnoses and treatment. Reliability is a quantitative measure of consistency. It is a crucial issue in classification (such as prakriti classification), method development (pulse diagnosis), quality assurance for diagnosis and treatment and in the conduct of clinical studies. Several reliability studies are conducted in western medicine. The investigation of the reliability of traditional Chinese, Japanese and Sasang medicine diagnoses is in the formative stage. However, reliability studies in Ayurveda are in the preliminary stage. In this paper, examples are provided to illustrate relevant concepts of reliability studies of diagnostic methods and their implication in practice, education, and training. An introduction to reliability estimates and different study designs and statistical analysis is given for future studies in Ayurveda. PMID:23930037

Kurande, Vrinda Hitendra; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Toft, Egon; Prasad, Ramjee

2013-01-01

127

A nondestructive method for diagnostic of insulated building walls using infrared thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work deals with the development of an experimental protocol for the diagnostic of multi-layered insulated building walls. First, a test bench is set up in order to measure front and back sides temperatures of standard panels. The panels considered have insulation thicknesses of 2, 6 and 10cm. The front side is heated by two halogen lamps of 500W. A CEDIP Jade Long wave infrared camera and thermocouples are used to carry out temperature measurements. In a second time, a one dimensional model based on thermal quadruples and Laplace transforms was developped under Matlab environment. Also, we developped a three dimensional model based on finite volumes using Fluent computational code. Finally, a method of identification of physical parameters is implemented by performing least square minimization based on Levenberg-Marquardt method. The experimental measurements are compared to theoretical results and by minimization we obtain thermal conductivity and diffusivity as well as thickness of the two layers.

Larbi Youcef, Mohamed H. A.; Mazioud, Atef; Bremond, Pierre; Ibos, Laurent; Candau, Yves; Piro, Michel; Filloux, Alain

2007-04-01

128

A primer of biostatistic and economic methods for diagnostic and prognostic modeling in nuclear cardiology: Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review presents a brief overview of existing diagnostic and prognostic methodologies to be used for the evaluation of\\u000a patients undergoing noninvasive testing. In part I of this review, we will present methods for use of logistic and Cox regression\\u000a analyses in determining the diagnostic and prognostic value of nuclear imaging techniques. In part II of this review, we will

Leslee J. Shaw; Rory Hachamovitch; Eric L. Eisenstein; Karen L. Kesler; Gary V. Heller; D. Douglas Miller

1996-01-01

129

A simple method to combine multiple molecular biomarkers for dichotomous diagnostic classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In spite of the recognized diagnostic potential of biomarkers, the quest for squelching noise and wringing in information from a given set of biomarkers continues. Here, we suggest a statistical algorithm that - assuming each molecular biomarker to be a diagnostic test - enriches the diagnostic performance of an optimized set of independent biomarkers employing established statistical techniques. We

Manju R. Mamtani; Tushar P. Thakre; Mrunal Y. Kalkonde; Manik A. Amin; Yogeshwar V. Kalkonde; Amit P. Amin; Hemant Kulkarni

2006-01-01

130

Interobserver Reliability of Four Diagnostic Methods Using Traditional Korean Medicine for Stroke Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate the consistency of pattern identification (PI), a set of diagnostic indicators used by traditional Korean medicine (TKM) clinicians. Methods. A total of 168 stroke patients who were admitted into oriental medical university hospitals from June 2012 through January 2013 were included in the study. Using the PI indicators, each patient was independently diagnosed by two experts from the same department. Interobserver consistency was assessed by simple percentage agreement as well as by kappa and AC1 statistics. Results. Interobserver agreement on the PI indicators (for all patients) was generally high: pulse diagnosis signs (AC1 = 0.66–0.89); inspection signs (AC1 = 0.66–0.95); listening/smelling signs (AC1 = 0.67–0.88); and inquiry signs (AC1 = 0.62–0.94). Conclusion. In four examinations, there was moderate agreement between the clinicians on the PI indicators. To improve clinician consistency (e.g., in the diagnostic criteria used), it is necessary to analyze the reasons for inconsistency and to improve clinician training. PMID:25574181

Lee, Ju Ah; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Alraek, Terje

2014-01-01

131

Comparison between Amnisure Placental Alpha Microglobulin-1 Rapid Immunoassay and Standard Diagnostic Methods for Detection of Rupture of Membranes  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of placental alpha microglobulin-1 assay and standard diagnostic methods for detecting rupture of membrane. Study Design. Prospective diagnostic study, between June 2011 to November 2011 at a tertiary centre. Initial evaluation included both the standard diagnostic methods for rupture of membranes and placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay. The actual rupture of membranes was diagnosed on review of the medical records after delivery (absence of membrane or a positive pad chart). Main Outcome Measures. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay and standard diagnostic methods for diagnosis of rupture of membrane. Results. A total of 211 patients were recruited. At initial presentation, 187 patients (88.6%) had ruptured membranes, while 24 patients (11.4%) had intact membranes. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay confirmed rupture of membranes at initial presentation with a sensitivity of 95.7% (179 of 187), specificity of 100% (24 of 24), positive predictive value of 100% (179 of 179), and negative predictive value of 75.0% (24 of 32). By comparison, the conventional standard diagnostic methods had a sensitivity of 78.1% (146 of 187), specificity of 100% (24 of 24), positive predictive value of 100% (146 of 146), and negative predictive value of 36.9% (24 of 65) in diagnosing rupture of membrane. Conclusion. Placental alpha-microglobulin-1 immunoassay is a rapid and accurate method for confirming the diagnosis of rupture of membrane. It was superior to conventional standard diagnostic methods (pooling, nitrazine, and ferning), the nitrazine test alone or fern test alone. PMID:24073412

Ng, Beng Kwang; Lim, Pei Shan; Shafiee, Mohamad Nasir; Abdul Ghani, Nur Azurah; Mohamed Ismail, Nor Azlin; Omar, Mohd Hashim; Muhammad Yassin, Muhammad Abdul Jamil

2013-01-01

132

Autoimmune diagnostics: the technology, the strategy and the clinical governance.  

PubMed

In recent years, there has been a profound change in autoimmune diagnostics. From long, tiring and inaccurate manual methods, the art of diagnostics has turned to modern, rapid and automated technology. New antibody tests have been developed, and almost all autoimmune diseases now have some specific diagnostic markers. The current need to make the most of available economic and human resources has led to the production of diagnostic algorithms and guidelines designated for optimal strategic use of the tests and to increase the diagnostic appropriateness. An important role in this scenario was assumed by the laboratory autoimmunologist, whose task is not only to govern the analytical phase, but also to help clinicians in correctly choosing the most suitable test for each clinical situation and provide consultancy support. In this review, we summarize recent advances in technology, describe the diagnostic strategies and highlight the current role of the laboratory autoimmunologist in the clinical governance of autoimmune diagnostics. PMID:25398640

Bizzaro, Nicola; Tozzoli, Renato; Villalta, Danilo

2014-11-15

133

Embedded diagnostic, prognostic, and health management system and method for a humanoid robot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A robotic system includes a humanoid robot with multiple compliant joints, each moveable using one or more of the actuators, and having sensors for measuring control and feedback data. A distributed controller controls the joints and other integrated system components over multiple high-speed communication networks. Diagnostic, prognostic, and health management (DPHM) modules are embedded within the robot at the various control levels. Each DPHM module measures, controls, and records DPHM data for the respective control level/connected device in a location that is accessible over the networks or via an external device. A method of controlling the robot includes embedding a plurality of the DPHM modules within multiple control levels of the distributed controller, using the DPHM modules to measure DPHM data within each of the control levels, and recording the DPHM data in a location that is accessible over at least one of the high-speed communication networks.

Barajas, Leandro G. (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A (Inventor)

2013-01-01

134

Hybrid digital signal processing and neural networks for automated diagnostics using NDE methods  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the current research was to develop an integrated approach by combining information compression methods and artificial neural networks for the monitoring of plant components using nondestructive examination data. Specifically, data from eddy current inspection of heat exchanger tubing were utilized to evaluate this technology. The focus of the research was to develop and test various data compression methods (for eddy current data) and the performance of different neural network paradigms for defect classification and defect parameter estimation. Feedforward, fully-connected neural networks, that use the back-propagation algorithm for network training, were implemented for defect classification and defect parameter estimation using a modular network architecture. A large eddy current tube inspection database was acquired from the Metals and Ceramics Division of ORNL. These data were used to study the performance of artificial neural networks for defect type classification and for estimating defect parameters. A PC-based data preprocessing and display program was also developed as part of an expert system for data management and decision making. The results of the analysis showed that for effective (low-error) defect classification and estimation of parameters, it is necessary to identify proper feature vectors using different data representation methods. The integration of data compression and artificial neural networks for information processing was established as an effective technique for automation of diagnostics using nondestructive examination methods.

Upadhyaya, B.R.; Yan, W. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1993-11-01

135

A new diagnostic method for separating airborne and structureborne noise radiated by plates with applications for propeller driven aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anticipated application of advanced turboprop propulsion systems is expected to increase the interior noise of future aircraft to unacceptably high levels. The absence of technically and economically feasible noise source-path diagnostic tools has been a prime obstacle in the development of efficient noise control treatments for propeller-driven aircraft. A new diagnostic method that permits the separation and prediction of the fully coherent airborne and structureborne components of the sound radiated by plates or thin shells has been developed. Analytical and experimental studies of the proposed method were performed on an aluminum plate. The results of the study indicate that the proposed method could be used in flight, and has fewer encumbrances than the other diagnostic tools currently available.

McGary, Michael C.

1988-09-01

136

A new diagnostic method for separating airborne and structureborne noise radiated by plates with applications for propeller driven aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anticipated application of advanced turboprop propulsion systems is expected to increase the interior noise of future aircraft to unacceptably high levels. The absence of technically and economically feasible noise source-path diagnostic tools has been a prime obstacle in the development of efficient noise control treatments for propeller-driven aircraft. A new diagnostic method that permits the separation and prediction of the fully coherent airborne and structureborne components of the sound radiated by plates or thin shells has been developed. Analytical and experimental studies of the proposed method were performed on an aluminum plate. The results of the study indicate that the proposed method could be used in flight, and has fewer encumbrances than the other diagnostic tools currently available.

Mcgary, Michael C.

1988-01-01

137

Physics-Based Methods of Failure Analysis and Diagnostics in Human Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Integrated Health Management (IHM) for the future aerospace systems requires to interface models of multiple subsystems in an efficient and accurate information environment at the earlier stages of system design. The complexity of modern aeronautic and aircraft systems (including e.g. the power distribution, flight control, solid and liquid motors) dictates employment of hybrid models and high-level reasoners for analysing mixed continuous and discrete information flow involving multiple modes of operation in uncertain environments, unknown state variables, heterogeneous software and hardware components. To provide the information link between key design/performance parameters and high-level reasoners we rely on development of multi-physics performance models, distributed sensors networks, and fault diagnostic and prognostic (FD&P) technologies in close collaboration with system designers. The main challenges of our research are related to the in-flight assessment of the structural stability, engine performance, and trajectory control. The main goal is to develop an intelligent IHM that not only enhances components and system reliability, but also provides a post-flight feedback helping to optimize design of the next generation of aerospace systems. Our efforts are concentrated on several directions of the research. One of the key components of our strategy is an innovative approach to the diagnostics/prognostics based on the real time dynamical inference (DI) technologies extended to encompass hybrid systems with hidden state trajectories. The major investments are into the multiphysics performance modelling that provides an access of the FD&P technologies to the main performance parameters of e.g. solid and liquid rocket motors and composite materials of the nozzle and case. Some of the recent results of our research are discussed in this chapter. We begin by introducing the problem of dynamical inference of stochastic nonlinear models and reviewing earlier results. Next, we present our analytical approach to the solution of this problem based on the path integral formulation. The resulting algorithm does not require an extensive global search for the model parameters, provides optimal compensation for the effects of dynamical noise, and is robust for a broad range of dynamical models. In the following Section the strengths of the algorithm are illustrated illustrated by inferring the parameters of the stochastic Lorenz system and comparing the results with those of earlier research. Next, we discuss a number of recent results in application to the development of the IHM for aerospace system. Firstly, we apply dynamical inference approach to a solution of classical three tank problems with mixed unknown continuous and binary parameters. The problem is considered in the context of ground support system for filling fuel tanks of liquid rocket motors. It is shown that the DI algorithm is well suited for successful solution of a hybrid version of this benchmark problem even in the presence of additional periodic and stochastic perturbation of unknown strength. Secondly, we illustrate our approach by its application to an analysis of the nozzle fault in a solid rocket motor (SRM). The internal ballistics of the SRM is modelled as a set of one-dimensional partial differential equations coupled to the dynamics of the propellant regression. In this example we are specifically focussed on the inference of discrete and continuous parameters of the nozzle blocking fault and on the possibility of an application of the DI algorithm to reducing the probability of "misses" of an on-board FD&P for SRM. In the next section re-contact problem caused by first stage/upper stage separation failure is discussed. The reaction forces imposed on the nozzle of the upper stage during the re-contact and their connection to the nozzle damage and to the thrust vector control (TVC) signal are obtained. It is shown that transient impact induced torquean be modelled as a response of an effective damped oscillator. A possible application

Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Luchinsky, Dmitry Georgievich; Hafiychuk, Vasyl Nmn; Osipov, Viatcheslav V.; Patterson-Hine, F. Ann

2010-01-01

138

Longevity Ancient and Modern  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article examines illustrations from ancient and modern societies to consider the connections between power, social elites\\u000a and knowledge of techniques to promote longevity. In pre-modern societies, knowledge of practices and substances to promote\\u000a longevity were cultivated by elites such as the Chinese imperial court. In modern societies, new technologies—cryonics, cloning,\\u000a stem-cell applications and nanotechnology—will offer exclusive and expensive methods

Bryan S. Turner

2009-01-01

139

Advances in methods and algorithms in a modern quantum chemistry program package.  

PubMed

Advances in theory and algorithms for electronic structure calculations must be incorporated into program packages to enable them to become routinely used by the broader chemical community. This work reviews advances made over the past five years or so that constitute the major improvements contained in a new release of the Q-Chem quantum chemistry package, together with illustrative timings and applications. Specific developments discussed include fast methods for density functional theory calculations, linear scaling evaluation of energies, NMR chemical shifts and electric properties, fast auxiliary basis function methods for correlated energies and gradients, equation-of-motion coupled cluster methods for ground and excited states, geminal wavefunctions, embedding methods and techniques for exploring potential energy surfaces. PMID:16902710

Shao, Yihan; Molnar, Laszlo Fusti; Jung, Yousung; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Brown, Shawn T; Gilbert, Andrew T B; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V; Levchenko, Sergey V; O'Neill, Darragh P; DiStasio, Robert A; Lochan, Rohini C; Wang, Tao; Beran, Gregory J O; Besley, Nicholas A; Herbert, John M; Lin, Ching Yeh; Van Voorhis, Troy; Chien, Siu Hung; Sodt, Alex; Steele, Ryan P; Rassolov, Vitaly A; Maslen, Paul E; Korambath, Prakashan P; Adamson, Ross D; Austin, Brian; Baker, Jon; Byrd, Edward F C; Dachsel, Holger; Doerksen, Robert J; Dreuw, Andreas; Dunietz, Barry D; Dutoi, Anthony D; Furlani, Thomas R; Gwaltney, Steven R; Heyden, Andreas; Hirata, So; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Kedziora, Gary; Khalliulin, Rustam Z; Klunzinger, Phil; Lee, Aaron M; Lee, Michael S; Liang, Wanzhen; Lotan, Itay; Nair, Nikhil; Peters, Baron; Proynov, Emil I; Pieniazek, Piotr A; Rhee, Young Min; Ritchie, Jim; Rosta, Edina; Sherrill, C David; Simmonett, Andrew C; Subotnik, Joseph E; Woodcock, H Lee; Zhang, Weimin; Bell, Alexis T; Chakraborty, Arup K; Chipman, Daniel M; Keil, Frerich J; Warshel, Arieh; Hehre, Warren J; Schaefer, Henry F; Kong, Jing; Krylov, Anna I; Gill, Peter M W; Head-Gordon, Martin

2006-07-21

140

CHE 210D: Principles of Modern Molecular Simulation Methods, S12 UCSB Department of Chemical Engineering  

E-print Network

intuition for developing and interpreting new simulation "experiments", and (5) knowledge of computational 4) Quantum chemical methods (brief) Born-Oppenheimer approximation, hydrogen and multielectron atoms-empirical force fields bonded and nonbonded interactions, multipole expansion & van der Waals interactions

Shell, M. Scott

141

A Novel Method for Determining the Phase of T-Wave Alternans: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications  

PubMed Central

Background T-wave alternans (TWA) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, in order to effectively estimate and suppress TWA, the phase of TWA must be accurately determined. Methods and Results We developed a method that computes the beat-by-beat integral of the T-wave morphology, over time points within the T-wave with positive alternans. Then, we estimated the signed derivative of the T-wave integral sequence which allows the classification of each beat to a binary phase index. In animal studies, we found that this method was able to accurately identify the T-wave phase in artificially induced alternans (p<0.0001). The coherence of the phase increased consistently after acute ischemia induction in all body-surface and intracardiac leads (p<0.0001). Also, we developed a phase resetting detection algorithm that enhances the diagnostic utility of TWA. We further established an algorithm that employs the phase of TWA in order to deliver appropriate polarity pacing pulses (all interventions compared to baseline, p<0.0001 for alternans voltage; p<0.0001 for Kscore), to suppress TWA. Finally, we demonstrated that using the phase of TWA we can suppress spontaneous TWA during acute ischemia; 77.6% for alternans voltage (p<0.0001) and 92.5% for Kscore (p<0.0001). Conclusions We developed a method to quantify the temporal variability of the TWA phase. This method is expected to enhance the utility of TWA in predicting ventricular arrhythmias and SCD and raises the possibility of using upstream therapies to abort a ventricular tachyarrhythmia prior to its onset. PMID:23884196

Sayadi, Omid; Merchant, Faisal M.; Puppala, Dheeraj; Mela, Theofanie; Singh, Jagmeet P.; Heist, E. Kevin; Owen, Chris; Armoundas, Antonis A.

2013-01-01

142

Application possibilities of several modern methods of microscopy and microanalysis in forensic science field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methods of optical and electron microscopy and microanalysis are the linchpin of forensic inorganic analysis. However, their capacity is limited as for the exact identification of pigments and colour layers, and therefore it is essential that they be complemented by other methods of phase microanalysis - powder X-ray microdiffraction (micro pXRD) and FTIR in transmission mode. The classic way of sample division for different methods is not suitable with regard to the inhomogeneity of the sequence of strata. That is why a method was tested that would allow performance of optical microscopy, SEM/EDS(WDS), micro pXRD and FTIR in a nondestructive manner, from an identical spot of a single fragment. The solution can be polished sections - embedded samples and microtome sections. Conductive zerobackground single-crystal silicon plates were developed and tested for sample fixation in SEM, micro pXRD and transmission FTIR. Methods using a focused ion beam - FIB have recently gained importance in the field of electron microscopy. In the forensic sphere they can be employed in examinations of metal materials, technical analyses of documents, post-blast and gunshot residues.

Kotrly, Marek; Turkova, Ivana

2011-06-01

143

Development of DNA diagnostic methods for the detection of new fish iridoviral diseases.  

PubMed

A new disease of epidemic proportions caused by fish viruses within the Iridoviridae family inflicts serious damage on red sea breams (Pagrus major) and striped jack (Caranx delicatissimus) populations grown in aquacultures in Japan. A partial segment of the fish iridoviral DNA was directly amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with synthetic primers designed from well conserved nucleotide sequences between the frog virus 3 (Ranavirus) and the silkworm iridescent virus type 6. The deduced amino acid sequence from the nucleotide sequence of the PCR fragment demonstrates a high correlation with a partial sequence from the frog virus 3. Using the PCR method with specific primers, we could detect three of four different known types of fish iridoviruses in diseased fishes. To construct more reliable detection methods specific for this viral family, DNA fragments which can specifically hybridize with all of the four known iridoviridae viral DNAs were screened from the genomic library of one iridoviridae strain. The hybridization assay, using a specific fragment which contains regions which are highly homologous with a characterized partial sequence from the frog virus 3, proved to be a reliable diagnostic tool for fish iridoviral diseases. PMID:9094219

Tamai, T; Tsujimura, K; Shirahata, S; Oda, H; Noguchi, T; Kusuda, R; Sato, N; Kimura, S; Katakura, Y; Murakami, H

1997-01-01

144

Rapid diagnostic methods for influenza virus in clinical specimens - A comparative study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of five rapid viral diagnostic techniques for identifying influenza virus in nasopharyngeal aspirates has been made on patients with influenza-like illnesses. Initial results with immune electron microscopy were positive in only one of 11 specimens from which virus was isolated and further work abandoned. Four other rapid tests were carried out on 39 specimens from which influenza virus had been isolated in tissue culture in 28. Of these 28 specimens yielding virus, 24 (85.7 percent) were positive by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) on nasopharyngeal cells, 18 (64.3 percent) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 19 (67.8 percent) by enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA), and 26 (92.8 percent) by a rapid tissue culture amplification method (TCA) in a continuous Rhesus monkey kidney line (LLC-MK2) with identification of virus by fluorescent antibody. In terms of sensitivity, simplicity, and rapidity, a combination of the IFAT and TCA methods seems to be very useful.

Evans, A. S.; Olson, B.

1982-01-01

145

[Breath tests as a noninvasive diagnostic method in Helicobacter pylori infection].  

PubMed

There are several diagnostic methods for Helicobacter pylori infection, some of them need an endoscopic procedure and biopsy to be performed (invasive) like the rapid urease test, culture and histology. Recently non invasive, specific, sensible, easy to perform and patient's well accepted methods had been developed known as breath test, based on the hydrolysis of labelled urea by Helicobacter pylori urease enzyme, to release ammonia and bicarbonate. Labelled CO2 reaches the bloodstream and the lungs, from where can be collected into the breath for quantification. Labelled urea has to options: 13C stable, non-radioactive and 14C unstable, radioactive. Breath test with 13C is based on the atomic mass difference between 12C and 13C and it is necessary a mass spectrometer and 40 minutes to perform it. Breath test with 14C has 1 uCi (one micro-curie) of radioactivity (1/300 of total radiation received in one year from the environment); the test takes 10 minutes and the samples are read in a beta counter. Both non-invasive tests had demonstrated sensitivity and specificity comparable to established "gold standards" for Helicobacter pylori infection diagnosis. PMID:10068759

Di Silvio, M; Larisch, J; Dibildox, M; Almaguer, I; Gitler, R; Dehesa, M; Ramírez-Barba, E J

1998-01-01

146

Perspective ground-based method for diagnostics of the lower ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new perspective ground-based method for diagnostics of the ionosphere and atmosphere parameters. The method uses one of the numerous physical phenomena observed in the ionosphere illuminated by high-power radio waves. It is a generation of the artificial periodic irregularities (APIs) in the ionospheric plasma. The APIs were found while studying the effects of ionospheric high-power HF modification. It was established that the APIs are formed by a standing wave that occurs due to interference between the upwardly radiated radio wave and its reflection off the ionosphere. The API studies are based upon observation of the Bragg backscatter of the pulsed probe radio wave from the artificial periodic structure. Bragg backscatter occurs if the spatial period of the irregularities is equal to half a wavelength of the probe signal. The API techniques makes it possible to obtain the following information: the profiles of electron density from the lower D-region up to the maximum of the F-layer; the irregular structure of the ionosphere including split of the regular E-layer, the sporadic layers; the vertical velocities in the D- and E-regions of the ionosphere; the turbulent velocities, turbulent diffusion coefficients and the turbopause altitude; the neutral temperatures and densities at the E-region altitudes; the parameters of the internal gravity waves and their spectral characteristics; the relative concentration of negative oxygen ions in the D-region. Some new results obtained by the API technique are discussed .

Bakhmetieva, N. V.; Grigoriev, G. I.; Tolmacheva, A. V.

147

Psychology and Mathematical Method: A Capsule History and a Modern View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses histories of three current issues in the psychology and pedagogy of mathematical thinking: (1) the notion of a "prescriptive method"; (2) "associationism" as an explanation for learning; and (3) Gestaltism. Reviews theoretical perspectives that emerged starting in the mid-twentieth century, including behaviorism, artificial intelligence…

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

1985-01-01

148

Reactive flow model development for PBXW-126 using modern nonlinear optimization methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initiation and detonation behavior of PBXW-126 has been characterized and is described. PBXW-126 is a composite explosive consisting of approximately equal amounts of RDX, AP, AL, and NTO with a polyurethane binder. The three term ignition and growth of reaction model parameters (ignition+two growth terms) have been found using nonlinear optimization methods to determine the “best” set of model

M. J. Murphy; R. L. Simpson; P. A. Urtiew; P. C. Souers; F. Garcia; R. G. Garza

1996-01-01

149

Reactive flow model development for PBXW-126 using modern nonlinear optimization methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initiation and detonation behavior of PBXW-126 has been characterized and is described. PBXW-126 is a composite explosive consisting of approximately equal amounts of RDX, AP, AL, and NTO with a polyurethane binder. The three term ignition and growth of reaction model parameters (ignition+two growth terms) have been found using nonlinear optimization methods to determine the ``best'' set of model

M. J. Murphy; R. L. Simpson; P. A. Urtiew; P. C. Souers; F. Garcia; R. G. Garza

1996-01-01

150

Diagnostic Performance of a Rapid Magnetic Resonance Imaging Method of Measuring Hepatic Steatosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives Hepatic steatosis is associated with an increased risk of developing serious liver disease and other clinical sequelae of the metabolic syndrome. However, visual estimates of steatosis from histological sections of biopsy samples are subjective and reliant on an invasive procedure with associated risks. The aim of this study was to test the ability of a rapid, routinely available, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to diagnose clinically relevant grades of hepatic steatosis in a cohort of patients with diverse liver diseases. Materials and Methods Fifty-nine patients with a range of liver diseases underwent liver biopsy and MRI. Hepatic steatosis was quantified firstly using an opposed-phase, in-phase gradient echo, single breath-hold MRI methodology and secondly, using liver biopsy with visual estimation by a histopathologist and by computer-assisted morphometric image analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the diagnostic performance of the MRI method against the biopsy observations. Results The MRI approach had high sensitivity and specificity at all hepatic steatosis thresholds. Areas under ROC curves were 0.962, 0.993, and 0.972 at thresholds of 5%, 33%, and 66% liver fat, respectively. MRI measurements were strongly associated with visual (r2?=?0.83) and computer-assisted morphometric (r2?=?0.84) estimates of hepatic steatosis from histological specimens. Conclusions This MRI approach, using a conventional, rapid, gradient echo method, has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing liver fat at all grades of steatosis in a cohort with a range of liver diseases. PMID:23555650

House, Michael J.; Gan, Eng K.; Adams, Leon A.; Ayonrinde, Oyekoya T.; Bangma, Sander J.; Bhathal, Prithi S.; Olynyk, John K.; St. Pierre, Tim G.

2013-01-01

151

Reactive flow model development for PBXW-126 using modern nonlinear optimization methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initiation and detonation behavior of PBXW-126 has been characterized and is described. PBXW-126 is a composite explosive consisting of approximately equal amounts of RDX, AP, AL, and NTO with a polyurethane binder. The three term ignition and growth of reaction model parameters (ignition + two growth terms) have been found using nonlinear optimization methods to determine the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} set

M. J. Murphy; R. L. Simpson; P. A. Urtiew

1995-01-01

152

Development of a benchtop baking method for chemically leavened crackers. I. Identification of a diagnostic formula and procedure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. In order to identify a diagnostic cracker formula, the effects of leavening system (sodium bicarbonate, monocalcium phosphate, and ammonium b...

153

Self-Instructional Methods of Teaching Diagnostic Problem Solving to Automotive Students. Vocational-Industrial Education Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of three methods of teaching diagnostic problem-solving (troubleshooting) to automotive students. The sample consisted of 45 community college students enrolled in automotive courses. Initially, all students received a presentation on ignition principles, and the Otis Mental Ability Test…

Finch, Curtis R.

154

Fog forecasting: ``old fashioned'' semi-empirical methods from radio sounding observations versus ``modern'' numerical models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fog forecasting is a very challenging task due to the local and small-scale nature of the relevant physical processes and land surface heterogeneities. Despite the many research efforts, numerical models remain to have difficulties with fog forecasting, and forecast skill from direct model output is relatively poor. In order to put the progress of fog forecasting in the last decades into a historical perspective, we compare the fog forecasting skill of a semi-empirical method based on radio sounding observations (developed in the 60s and 70s) with the forecasting skill of a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction model (MM5) for The Netherlands. The semi-empirical method under investigation, the Fog Stability Index, depends solely on the temperature difference between the surface and 850 hPa, the surface dew point depression and the wind speed at 850 hPa, and a threshold value to indicate the probability of fog in the coming hours. Using the critical success index (CSI) as a criterion for forecast quality, we find that the Fog Stability Index is a rather successful predictor for fog, with similar performance as MM5. The FSI could even been optimized for different observational stations in the Netherlands. Also, it appears that adding the 10 m wind as a predictor did not increase the CSI score for all stations. The results of the current study clearly indicate that the current state of knowledge requires improvement of the physical insight in different physical processes in order to beat simple semi-empirical methods.

Holtslag, M. C.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Holtslag, A. A. M.

2010-07-01

155

An In Vitro Comparison of Different Diagnostic Methods in Detection of Residual Dentinal Caries  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of different diagnostic methods in detection of residual dentinal caries in excavated cavities. Fifty extracted molar with deep dentinal carious lesions were excavated using a slow-speed handpiece. All cavities were assessed by laser fluorescence(LF) device, electronic caries monitor(ECM), and caries detector dye(CDD) by three independent observers blindly. The measurements were repeated after two weeks. Specimens containing dentin slices 150??m in thickness were prepared for histological analyses. The existence and absence of carious dentin was determined using a lightmicroscope. The average intraobserver accuracy was 1.00 (perfect agreement) for CDD, 0.86 (excellent agreement) for ECM, and 0.50 (good agreement) for LF. The average interobserver accuracy values were 0.92 (excellent agreement), (0.36 marginal agreement) and 0.48 (good agreement), for CDD, ECM, and LF, respectively. The average specificity was 0.60 for CDD, 73% for ECM, and 0.50 for LF. The average sensitivity was 0.55 for CDD, 0.85 for LF, and 0.47 for ECM. The average accuracy values were 0.53, 0.51, and 0.81 for CDD, ECM, and LF, respectively. LF had the greatest sensitivity and accuracy values of any of the methods tested. As a conclusion, LF device is appeared to most reliable method in detection of remain caries in cavity. However, because of its technical sensitivity it may susceptible to variations in measurements. To pay attention to the rule of usage and repeated measurements can minimize such variations in clinical practice. It was concluded that LF is an improvement on the currently available aids for residual caries detection. PMID:20613961

Unlu, Nimet; Ermis, Rabia Banu; Sener, Sevgi; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Cetin, Ali Riza

2010-01-01

156

Flowfield analysis of modern helicopter rotors in hover by Navier-Stokes method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The viscous, three-dimensional, flowfields of UH60 and BERP rotors are calculated for lifting hover configurations using a Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics method with a view to understand the importance of planform effects on the airloads. In this method, the induced effects of the wake, including the interaction of tip vortices with successive blades, are captured as a part of the overall flowfield solution without prescribing any wake models. Numerical results in the form of surface pressures, hover performance parameters, surface skin friction and tip vortex patterns, and vortex wake trajectory are presented at two thrust conditions for UH60 and BERP rotors. Comparison of results for the UH60 model rotor show good agreement with experiments at moderate thrust conditions. Comparison of results with equivalent rectangular UH60 blade and BERP blade indicates that the BERP blade, with an unconventional planform, gives more thrust at the cost of more power and a reduced figure of merit. The high thrust conditions considered produce severe shock-induced flow separation for UH60 blade, while the BERP blade develops more thrust and minimal separation. The BERP blade produces a tighter tip vortex structure compared with the UH60 blade. These results and the discussion presented bring out the similarities and differences between the two rotors.

Srinivasan, G. R.; Raghavan, V.; Duque, E. P. N.

1991-01-01

157

Modern Methods for Analysis of Antiepileptic Drugs in the Biological Fluids for Pharmacokinetics, Bioequivalence and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is a chronic disease occurring in approximately 1.0% of the world's population. About 30% of the epileptic patients treated with availably antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) continue to have seizures and are considered therapy-resistant or refractory patients. The ultimate goal for the use of AEDs is complete cessation of seizures without side effects. Because of a narrow therapeutic index of AEDs, a complete understanding of its clinical pharmacokinetics is essential for understanding of the pharmacodynamics of these drugs. These drug concentrations in biological fluids serve as surrogate markers and can be used to guide or target drug dosing. Because early studies demonstrated clinical and/or electroencephalographic correlations with serum concentrations of several AEDs, It has been almost 50 years since clinicians started using plasma concentrations of AEDs to optimize pharmacotherapy in patients with epilepsy. Therefore, validated analytical method for concentrations of AEDs in biological fluids is a necessity in order to explore pharmacokinetics, bioequivalence and TDM in various clinical situations. There are hundreds of published articles on the analysis of specific AEDs by a wide variety of analytical methods in biological samples have appears over the past decade. This review intends to provide an updated, concise overview on the modern method development for monitoring AEDs for pharmacokinetic studies, bioequivalence and therapeutic drug monitoring. PMID:21660146

Park, Yoo-Sin; Kim, Shin-Hee; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Jun, Min-Young

2011-01-01

158

Absolute calibration method for laser megajoule neutron yield measurement by activation diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laser megajoule (LMJ) and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) plan to demonstrate thermonuclear ignition using inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The neutron yield is one of the most important parameters to characterize ICF experiment performance. For decades, the activation diagnostic was chosen as a reference at ICF facilities and is now planned to be the first nuclear diagnostic on LMJ, measuring both 2.45 MeV and 14.1 MeV neutron yields. Challenges for the activation diagnostic development are absolute calibration, accuracy, range requirement, and harsh environment. At this time, copper and zirconium material are identified for 14.1 MeV neutron yield measurement and indium material for 2.45 MeV neutrons. A series of calibrations were performed at Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) on a Van de Graff facility to determine activation diagnostics efficiencies and to compare them with results from calculations. The CEA copper activation diagnostic was tested on the OMEGA facility during DT implosion. Experiments showed that CEA and Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) diagnostics agree to better than 1% on the neutron yield measurement, with an independent calibration for each system. Also, experimental sensitivities are in good agreement with simulations and allow us to scale activation diagnostics for the LMJ measurement range.

Landoas, Olivier; Yu Glebov, Vladimir; Rossé, Bertrand; Briat, Michelle; Disdier, Laurent; Sangster, Thomas C.; Duffy, Tim; Marmouget, Jean Gabriel; Varignon, Cyril; Ledoux, Xavier; Caillaud, Tony; Thfoin, Isabelle; Bourgade, Jean-Luc

2011-07-01

159

A study of radioactivity in modern stream gravels and its possible application as a prospecting method  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Traverses along some streams of the Colorado Plateau in areas known to contain minable uranium deposits show that anomalous radiation in the stream gravels can be detected with a suitable counter downstream from the deposits. The amount of radiation is influenced by the size of the uranium deposit, the size of the drainage area of the stream, the grain size of the sediments, and the lithology of the rocks over which the stream flows. The spacing of the stations where readings are taken is controlled by the size of the stream, and special readings are also taken directly downstream from important tributaries. An anomaly is empirically defined as a 10 percent rise over background. Radioactive material from large uranium deposits has been detected as much as 1 mile downstream. Radioactive material from smaller deposits is detachable over shorter distances. The method is slow but appears to be a useful prospecting tool under restricted conditions.

Chew, Randall T., III

1955-01-01

160

Comparing historical and modern methods of Sea Surface Temperature measurement - Part 1: Review of methods, field comparisons and dataset adjustments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea Surface Temperature (SST) measurements have been obtained from a variety of different platforms, instruments and depths over the post-industrial period. Today most measurements come from ships, moored and drifting buoys and satellites. Shipboard methods include temperature measurement of seawater sampled by bucket and in engine cooling water intakes. Engine intake temperatures are generally thought to average a few tenths of a °C warmer than simultaneous bucket temperatures. Here I review SST measurement methods, studies comparing shipboard methods by field experiment and adjustments applied to SST datasets to account for variable methods. In opposition to contemporary thinking, I find average bucket-intake temperature differences reported from field studies inconclusive. Non-zero average differences often have associated standard deviations that are several times larger than the averages themselves. Further, average differences have been found to vary widely between ships and between cruises on the same ship. The cause of non-zero average differences is typically unclear given the general absence of additional temperature observations to those from buckets and engine intakes. Shipboard measurements appear of variable quality, highly dependent upon the accuracy and precision of the thermometer used and the care of the observer where manually read. Methods are generally poorly documented, with written instructions not necessarily reflecting actual practices of merchant mariners. Measurements cannot be expected to be of high quality where obtained by untrained sailors using thermometers of low accuracy and precision.

Matthews, J. B. R.

2012-09-01

161

Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design, an effective modern software development method for development of computing systems for a large physics detector  

SciTech Connect

After evaluation of several modern object-oriented methods for development of the computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC, we selected the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented Analysis and Recursive Design method as the most appropriate for the needs and development environment of a large nuclear or high energy physics detector. This paper discusses our specific needs and environment, our method selection criteria, and major features and components of the Shlaer-Mellor method.

Kozlowski, T.; Carey, T.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Maguire, C.F. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others

1995-10-01

162

Reactive flow model development for PBXW-126 using modern nonlinear optimization methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initiation and detonation behavior of PBXW-126 has been characterized and is described. PBXW-126 is a composite explosive consisting of approximately equal amounts of RDX, AP, AL, and NTO with a polyurethane binder. The three term ignition and growth of reaction model parameters (ignition+two growth terms) have been found using nonlinear optimization methods to determine the "best" set of model parameters. The ignition term treats the initiation of up to 0.5% of the RDX. The first growth term in the model treats the RDX growth of reaction up to 20% reacted. The second growth term treats the subsequent growth of reaction of the remaining AP/AL/NTO. The unreacted equation of state (EOS) was determined from the wave profiles of embedded gauge tests while the JWL product EOS was determined from cylinder expansion test results. The nonlinear optimization code, NLQPEB/GLO, was used to determine the "best" set of coefficients for the three term Lee-Tarver ignition and growth of reaction model.

Murphy, M. J.; Simpson, R. L.; Urtiew, P. A.; Souers, P. C.; Garcia, F.; Garza, R. G.

1996-05-01

163

Reactive flow model development for PBXW-126 using modern nonlinear optimization methods  

SciTech Connect

The initiation and detonation behavior of PBXW-126 has been characterized and is described. PBXW-126 is a composite explosive consisting of approximately equal amounts of RDX, AP, AL, and NTO with a polyurethane binder. The three term ignition and growth of reaction model parameters (ignition + two growth terms) have been found using nonlinear optimization methods to determine the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} set of model parameters. The ignition term treats the initiation of up to 0.5% of the RDX The first growth term in the model treats the RDX growth of reaction up to 20% reacted. The second growth term treats the subsequent growth of reaction of the remaining AP/AL/NTO. The unreacted equation of state (EOS) was determined from the wave profiles of embedded gauge tests while the JWL product EOS was determined from cylinder expansion test results. The nonlinear optimization code, NLQPEB/GLO, was used to determine the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} set of coefficients for the three term Lee-Tarver ignition and growth of reaction model.

Murphy, M.J.; Simpson, R.L.; Urtiew, P.A. [and others

1995-08-01

164

On the role of ion-based imaging methods in modern ion beam therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

External beam radiotherapy techniques have the common aim to maximize the radiation dose to the target while sparing the surrounding healthy tissues. The inverted and finite depth-dose profile of ion beams (Bragg peak) allows for precise dose delivery and conformai dose distribution. Furthermore, increased radiobiological effectiveness of ions enhances the capability to battle radioresistant tumors. Ion beam therapy requires a precise determination of the ion range, which is particularly sensitive to range uncertainties. Therefore, novel imaging techniques are currently investigated as a tool to improve the quality of ion beam treatments. Approaches already clinically available or under development are based on the detection of secondary particles emitted as a result of nuclear reactions (e.g., positron-annihilation or prompt gammas, charged particles) or transmitted high energy primary ion beams. Transmission imaging techniques make use of the beams exiting the patient, which have higher initial energy and lower fluence than the therapeutic ones. At the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center, actively scanned energetic proton and carbon ion beams provide an ideal environment for the investigation of ion-based radiography and tomography. This contribution presents the rationale of ion beam therapy, focusing on the role of ion-based transmission imaging methods towards the reduction of range uncertainties and potential improvement of treatment planning.

Magallanes, L.; Brons, S.; Marcelos, T.; Takechi, M.; Voss, B.; Jäkel, O.; Rinaldi, I.; Parodi, K.

2014-11-01

165

Pathology of Newcastle disease in double-crested cormorants from Saskatchewan, with comparison of diagnostic methods.  

PubMed

Newcastle disease (ND) in juvenile double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) occurred several times since 1975, but there are relatively few studies on its pathology and diagnosis. In order to describe the distribution of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and associated lesions in cormorants with ND and to compare diagnostic methods, 25 cormorants with nervous signs from a ND epizootic in Saskatchewan in 1995 (NDE cormorants) were compared with 18 negative control cormorants. Tissues of these birds were examined by necropsy, histology, virus isolation, immunohistochemistry, serology, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods. The NDE cormorants had a characteristic non-suppurative encephalomyelitis, with a significantly higher prevalence of neuronal necrosis, gliosis, perivascular infiltration with mononuclear cells, and endothelial hypertrophy than control cormorants. These lesions were found more frequently in the cerebellum and brain stem than in other parts of the central nervous system. Immunohistochemically, NDV antigen was limited to neurons, glial and endothelial cells in the central nervous system, and to tubular epithelial cells in the kidney. Newcastle disease virus was isolated with the highest prevalence (4/5) and the highest concentration (10(4.8) ELD50/g) from the kidney. The virus isolates often did not agglutinate erythrocytes in the standard hemagglutination test; the presence of NDV was confirmed by use of an indirect immunoperoxidase assay. By RT-PCR, NDV was detected in kidney and jejunum of a NDE cormorant. There was no significant difference between sensitivity of histology, virus isolation, and serology for detecting ND in NDE cormorants. PMID:10073341

Kuiken, T; Wobeser, G; Leighton, F A; Haines, D M; Chelack, B; Bogdan, J; Hassard, L; Heckert, R A; Riva, J

1999-01-01

166

Development of Monitoring and Diagnostic Methods for Robots Used In Remediation of Waste Sites - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This project is the first evaluation of model-based diagnostics to hydraulic robot systems. A greater understanding of fault detection for hydraulic robots has been gained, and a new theoretical fault detection model developed and evaluated.

Martin, M.

2000-04-01

167

Studies to inform the methods for Cochrane systematic reviews of diagnostic accuracy in stroke medicine   

E-print Network

Background A variety of tests are used in clinical practice to help the diagnostic process and so improve patient care. Many aspects of stroke management depend on accurate and rapid diagnosis. Brain imaging, including ...

Brazzelli, Miriam

2011-07-05

168

Point Critique of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Method of Estimating and Reporting Uncertainty in Diagnostic Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) provides instructions for con- structing uncertainty intervals for a measurement. This method is usually reserved for reference materials, but GUM has been recently proposed as a way to express uncertainty for commercial diagnostic assays. Methods: Using the official GUM standard and pub- lished applications of GUM to commercial diagnostic

Jan S. Krouwer

169

Diagnostic accuracy of three scoring methods for the Davidson Trauma Scale among U.S. military veterans.  

PubMed

Self-report questionnaires are frequently used to identify PTSD among U.S. military personnel and Veterans. Two common scoring methods used to classify PTSD include: (1) a cut score threshold and (2) endorsement of PTSD symptoms meeting DSM-IV-TR symptom cluster criteria (SCM). A third method requiring a cut score in addition to SCM has been proposed, but has received little study. The current study examined the diagnostic accuracy of three scoring methods for the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS) among 804 Afghanistan and Iraq war-era military Service Members and Veterans. Data were weighted to approximate the prevalence of PTSD and other Axis I disorders in VA primary care. As expected, adding a cut score criterion to SCM improved specificity and positive predictive power. However, a cut score of 68-72 provided optimal diagnostic accuracy. The utility of the DTS, the role of baseline prevalence, and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:24216181

McDonald, Scott D; Thompson, NiVonne L; Stratton, Kelcey J; Calhoun, Patrick S

2014-03-01

170

Diagnostic Comparisons of Near-Earth Object Identification using Slit Spectroscopy and Slitless Grating Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space object identification and characterization is an important component of Space Situational Awareness (SSA). Through an Air Force collaboration that has provided a visible wavelength, low-resolution spectrometer, researchers at the Magdalena Ridge Observatory 2.4-meter telescope (located in New Mexico) have been investigating the advantages and disadvantages of using slit spectroscopy versus slitless grating methods to characterize artificial Earth-orbiting objects. The objective is to develop a method that returns useful diagnostic information with a minimal investment in observational monitoring time. However, spectral measurements are a desirable component of characterization studies of natural objects in near-Earth orbit as well. Therefore, in 2012, we began to extend this instrumentation beyond its SSA applications to the study of Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). The typical lifetimes of NEAs are up to three orders of magnitude shorter than the typical timescales associated with the main asteroid belt. Therefore, the current NEA population is a relatively recent product that has to be continually re-supplied. Spectroscopic analysis of NEAs helps characterize their taxonomic distribution and identify potential source regions which would then enhance our understanding of the origin of the current population. Although this is of interest scientifically, it can also help estimate the magnitude of the hazard threat from still undiscovered asteroids as well as provide guidance to optimize ground-based telescope search strategies. Slit-based spectroscopy is time consuming and has limitations on how faint an object can be studied. Therefore, the goal of this current project is to determine whether a lower resolution (by a factor of 10 with respect to the slit-based spectrometer), readily available slitless grating is sufficient for rough taxonomic classification in the study of fainter target-of-opportunity NEAs. The grating provides spectral information in 20nm wavelength bands that has proven useful for material identifications of relatively bright geostationary satellites (Dao, et al. 2013). However, this arrangement results in a higher background noise. Therefore, we are testing this method among a range of lunar phases to examine the limitations of slitless spectroscopy for faint asteroid targets.

Ryan, E.; Ryan, W.

2014-09-01

171

Comparing historical and modern methods of Sea Surface Temperature measurement - Part 2: Field comparison in the Central Tropical Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discrepancies between historical Sea Surface Temperature (SST) datasets have been partly ascribed to use of different adjustments for variable measurement methods. Until recently adjustments had only been applied to bucket temperatures from the late 19th and early 20th century, with the aim of correcting their supposed coolness relative to engine cooling water intake temperatures (EIT). In the UK Met Office Hadley Centre SST 3 dataset (HadSST3) adjustments are applied to observations over its full duration, including those obtained by other methods. Here we evaluate such adjustments by direct field comparison of historical and modern methods of SST measurement. We compare wood, canvas and rubber bucket temperatures to 3 m seawater intake temperature along a Central Tropical Pacific transect conducted in May and June 2008. In contrast to the prevailing view we find no average differences between bucket temperatures obtained with different bucket types. Moreover, we observe strong near-surface temperature gradients day and night, indicating intake and bucket temperatures cannot be considered equivalent in this region. We suggest engine intake temperatures are unreliable as a source of SST given that they are often obtained by untrained non-scientist observers with low precision, inaccurate instruments at unknown intake depth. Using a physical model we demonstrate that warming of intake seawater by engine room air is unlikely a cause of negative average bucket-intake temperature differences, as sometimes suggested. We propose removal of intake temperatures and bucket adjustments from historical SST records and posit this will lead to their better capture of real long-term trends.

Matthews, J. B. R.; Matthews, J. B.

2012-09-01

172

Modern Pruning Methods.  

E-print Network

as soon as it is noticed, regardless of the time of year, to prevent its spread. Plants such as buddleia, caryopteris, hydrangea, tamarix and vitex should be pruned back each year to a point just above the base of the previous years growth. Spiraeas...

DeWerth, A. F.

1961-01-01

173

Ischemic Stroke Detection System with a Computer-Aided Diagnostic Ability Using an Unsupervised Feature Perception Enhancement Method  

PubMed Central

We propose an ischemic stroke detection system with a computer-aided diagnostic ability using a four-step unsupervised feature perception enhancement method. In the first step, known as preprocessing, we use a cubic curve contrast enhancement method to enhance image contrast. In the second step, we use a series of methods to extract the brain tissue image area identified during preprocessing. To detect abnormal regions in the brain images, we propose using an unsupervised region growing algorithm to segment the brain tissue area. The brain is centered on a horizontal line and the white matter of the brain's inner ring is split into eight regions. In the third step, we use a coinciding regional location method to find the hybrid area of locations where a stroke may have occurred in each cerebral hemisphere. Finally, we make corrections and mark the stroke area with red color. In the experiment, we tested the system on 90 computed tomography (CT) images from 26 patients, and, with the assistance of two radiologists, we proved that our proposed system has computer-aided diagnostic capabilities. Our results show an increased stroke diagnosis sensitivity of 83% in comparison to 31% when radiologists use conventional diagnostic images. PMID:25610453

Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Wu, Ming-Chi; Chin, Chiun-Li; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Lee, Ming-Sian; Chang, Hao-Yan

2014-01-01

174

Modern Methods of Monosaccharide Synthesis from Non-Carbohydrate Tomas Hudlicky,* David A. Entwistle, Kevin K. Pitzer, and Andrew J. Thorpe  

E-print Network

Modern Methods of Monosaccharide Synthesis from Non-Carbohydrate Sources Tomas Hudlicky,* David A Manipulations Leading to Carbohydrates 1198 4. Future Prospects of the Chemistry of Mono- and Oligosaccharides. Overview Humans have utilized carbohydrates in natural forms such as cellulose in cotton, sucrose in cane

Hudlicky, Tomas

175

Tasks and methods of drawing up "The Program of Modernization of the Power Industry of Russia for the Period through the Year 2020"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of tasks, stages, and methods of drawing up "The Program of Modernization of the Power Industry for the Period through the Year 2020" as part of the state program "Energy Efficiency and Development of the Energy Industry" have been determined.

Volkov, E. P.; Makarov, A. A.; Makarova, A. S.; Saparov, M. I.

2013-12-01

176

Studies of the physical aspects of intumescence using advance diagnostics methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of intumescent paints as an active fire protection method has gained immense interest in recent years. A significant aspect of research has focused on studying the chemical aspects of the system to improve performance. The dynamics and physical aspects of intumescence in real time fire conditions are still unclear. The present research uses an experimental approach where diagnostics techniques such as thermal imaging camera was used to study intumescent characteristics that have been not been reported in great detail. T-panels are a substitute to the most commonly used part in construction, the I-beam. Studies were conducted using a cone calorimeter that provided a uniform heat flux through radiation on steel T-panel samples. The complex nature of char movement was recorded and a novel algorithm was used to track the growing char laye07r. The samples are designed to cater to different fire conditions. Therefore, the degree of intumescence was observed to be very different in the samples. The samples designed for low temperature cellulosic fires focus on high degree of intumesce. Whereas, mechanical strength is the focus for samples used in high temperature turbulent hydrocarbon fire conditions. The variation in the internal structure of the sample is presented. Furthermore, the phenomenon is phase shift is discussed. The phase shift is an essential part of the process of intumescence when the majority of intumescence occurs. It was observed to be different in all the samples. The movement of the samples is a property of great interest. This is because if any part of the substrate is exposed then the formulation does not meet strict commercialisation criterion. The movement was diagonal in nature as compared to flat panels where it is perpendicular. This is due tot the heating pattern of the plate that results in the web part of the panel to influence the growth of char on the flange part of the panel. A special case of char cracking is also highlighted and using image processing algorithm on the thermal imaging data. A quantitative method of analsysis is presented to an otherwise commonly qualitative nature of experimental study in this field.

Saeed, Hussain; Huang, Hua Wei; Zhang, Yang

2014-04-01

177

Studies of the physical aspects of intumescence using advance diagnostics methods  

SciTech Connect

The use of intumescent paints as an active fire protection method has gained immense interest in recent years. A significant aspect of research has focused on studying the chemical aspects of the system to improve performance. The dynamics and physical aspects of intumescence in real time fire conditions are still unclear. The present research uses an experimental approach where diagnostics techniques such as thermal imaging camera was used to study intumescent characteristics that have been not been reported in great detail. T-panels are a substitute to the most commonly used part in construction, the I-beam. Studies were conducted using a cone calorimeter that provided a uniform heat flux through radiation on steel T-panel samples. The complex nature of char movement was recorded and a novel algorithm was used to track the growing char laye07r. The samples are designed to cater to different fire conditions. Therefore, the degree of intumescence was observed to be very different in the samples. The samples designed for low temperature cellulosic fires focus on high degree of intumesce. Whereas, mechanical strength is the focus for samples used in high temperature turbulent hydrocarbon fire conditions. The variation in the internal structure of the sample is presented. Furthermore, the phenomenon is phase shift is discussed. The phase shift is an essential part of the process of intumescence when the majority of intumescence occurs. It was observed to be different in all the samples. The movement of the samples is a property of great interest. This is because if any part of the substrate is exposed then the formulation does not meet strict commercialisation criterion. The movement was diagonal in nature as compared to flat panels where it is perpendicular. This is due tot the heating pattern of the plate that results in the web part of the panel to influence the growth of char on the flange part of the panel. A special case of char cracking is also highlighted and using image processing algorithm on the thermal imaging data. A quantitative method of analsysis is presented to an otherwise commonly qualitative nature of experimental study in this field.

Saeed, Hussain, E-mail: Mep09hss@sheffield.ac.uk; Huang, Hua Wei, E-mail: Mep09hss@sheffield.ac.uk; Zhang, Yang, E-mail: Mep09hss@sheffield.ac.uk [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Combustion and Flame Diagnostics Research Group, Room D132, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sir Frederick Mappin Building, University of Sheffield, SI 3JD (United Kingdom)

2014-04-11

178

Atomic Resonance Radiation Energetics Investigation as a Diagnostic Method for Non-Equilibrium Hypervelocity Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Absorption measurements with a tunable vacuum ultraviolet light source have been proposed as a concentration diagnostic for atomic oxygen, and the viability of this technique is assessed in light of recent measurements. The instrumentation, as well as initial calibration measurements, have been reported previously. We report here additional calibration measurements performed to study the resonance broadening line shape for atomic oxygen. The application of this diagnostic is evaluated by considering the range of suitable test conditions and requirements, and by identifying issues that remain to be addressed.

Meyer, Scott A.; Bershader, Daniel; Sharma, Surendra P.; Deiwert, George S.

1996-01-01

179

Comparing historical and modern methods of sea surface temperature measurement - Part 2: Field comparison in the central tropical Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discrepancies between historical sea surface temperature (SST) datasets have been partly ascribed to use of different adjustments to account for variable measurement methods. Until recently, adjustments had only been applied to bucket temperatures from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with the aim of correcting their supposed coolness relative to engine cooling water intake temperatures. In the UK Met Office Hadley Centre SST 3 dataset (HadSST3), adjustments have been applied over its full duration to observations from buckets, buoys and engine intakes. Here we investigate uncertainties in the accuracy of such adjustments by direct field comparison of historical and modern methods of shipboard SST measurement. We compare wood, canvas and rubber bucket temperatures to 3 m seawater intake temperature along a central tropical Pacific transect conducted in May and June 2008. We find no average difference between the temperatures obtained with the different bucket types in our short measurement period (∼1 min). Previous field, lab and model experiments have found sizeable temperature change of seawater samples in buckets of smaller volume under longer exposure times. We do, however, report the presence of strong near-surface temperature gradients day and night, indicating that intake and bucket measurements cannot be assumed equivalent in this region. We thus suggest bucket and buoy measurements be considered distinct from intake measurements due to differences in sampling depth. As such, we argue for exclusion of intake temperatures from historical SST datasets and suggest this would likely reduce the need for poorly field-tested bucket adjustments. We also call for improvement in the general quality of intake temperatures from Voluntary Observing Ships. Using a physical model we demonstrate that warming of intake seawater by hot engine room air is an unlikely cause of overly warm intake temperatures. We suggest that reliable correction for such warm errors is not possible since they are largely of unknown origin and can be offset by real near-surface temperature gradients.

Matthews, J. B. R.; Matthews, J. B.

2013-07-01

180

Probabilistic models and statistical methods for the analysis of vibrational signals in the problems of diagnostics of machines and structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider probabilistic models of vibrations of machines in the form of periodically correlated random processes and almost\\u000a periodically correlated random processes. The problem of selection of diagnostic symptoms from the entire set of the experimental\\u000a data is formulated on the basis of the developed methods for the analysis of the probabilistic characteristics of periodically\\u000a correlated random processes and almost

V. Yu. Mykhailyshyn; I. M. Yavors'kyi; Yu. T. Vasylyna; O. P. Drabych; I. Yu. Isaev

1997-01-01

181

Two-frequency method of the ionospheric diagnostics by API technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new way of the investigation of the electron density in the ionospheric E-region, turbulent events and sporadic E-layers using the artificial periodic irregularities (API). API are created in the field of the power standing wave formed by the interference of the incident wave and reflected one by the ionosphere. The spatial period of the irregular periodic structure is equal to the standing wavelength ? or the one-half of the power wavelength ?/2. Physical process dominating on the E-region heights and specifying API decay (relaxation) after the pumping turning off is the ambipolar diffusion process. The API method of the ionosphere diagnostics is connected with an observation of Bragg scattered signals (probe waves) from the artificial periodic structure of the ionospheric plasma on the API relaxation stage (V.V. Belikovich, E.A. Benediktov, N.V. Bakhmet'eva, A.V. Tolmacheva, Ionospheric Research by Means of Artificial Periodic Irregularities, Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany, Copernicus GmbH, 2002, pp. 1-160). The new two-frequency method is based upon the scattering of probe waves from API formed by the power radiation at two frequencies and having therefore different spatial periods. In this case the API relaxation time depends on both ambipolar diffusion rate D and spatial scale of the irregular structure ?. Measuring the ratio of the relaxation time of scattered signals on two frequencies one can determine the height profile of the electron density N(h) and its fine structure. Mathematical simulation made for two frequencies 4.7 and 5.6 MHz shown that electron density in the range of values (2 · 104 -1.8 · 105 ) cm-3 can be defined. The two-frequency API technique has been applied to N(h)-profile measurement in 2006, 2007 using the SURA heating facility (56.13 N, 46.15 E). The API formation and their sounding by probe radio waves of X-polarization were carried out by rotation at frequency of 4.7 MHz and 5.6 MHz. The effective radiated power was about 70 MW at the first frequency and 15 MW at the second one. The session of the measurement of the API relaxation time at each frequency was continued 15 s. During one minute two session of the pumping at each frequency were carried out. During the first 3 s of the session ionosphere was pumped by X-polarized powerful radio wave and API were formed. The pumping period was followed by 12-s pause. Probing pulses with 30-µc duration and a 50 Hz repetition rate were radiated at the same frequency. The amplitude and phase of the scattered signals from the virtual height range 50-750 km were recorded. N(h)-profiles in a height range 95-115 km were obtained. It has appeared the method to consider the fine structure of the profile, to determine even the electron density of sporadic E-layers, which are not registered standard ionosonde. The error of the N(z)-profile determination by API two-frequency method should not be exceeded 10%. The work has been supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research Grants No. 05-05-64304 and No 05-05-64111.

Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Belikovich, Vitold V.; Tolmacheva, Ariadna V.

182

Mutual Information Item Selection Method in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing with Short Test Length  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) purports to combine the strengths of both CAT and cognitive diagnosis. Cognitive diagnosis models aim at classifying examinees into the correct mastery profile group so as to pinpoint the strengths and weakness of each examinee whereas CAT algorithms choose items to determine those…

Wang, Chun

2013-01-01

183

Chemical Assay of Iron in Ovarian Cysts: A New Diagnostic Method to Evaluate Endometriotic Cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

CA-125 is abundantly secreted from ovarian endometriotic cysts, but is not specific to endometriosis. In order to develop a new, more specific diagnostic marker for endometriosis, the iron concentrations in various ovarian cysts were assayed. The ovarian cysts were punctured and the contents aspirated laparoscopically, laparotomically, or transvaginally. The iron concentration in the ovarian cystic fluid was assayed using a

Mari Iizuka; Masao Igarashi; Yumiko Abe; Yoshito Ibuki; Yasuki Koyasu; Kenichiro Ikuma

1998-01-01

184

NATURE METHODS | VOL.4 NO.11 | NOVEMBER 2007 | 877 Neglected diagnostics  

E-print Network

of this month's global theme on poverty and human development, we are turning the spotlight to diagnostic methodsmore specifically, tests for diagnosing infectious diseases in poverty-stricken areas. The first step analysis devices that could be manufactured at reasonable cost and used by staff with little medical

Cai, Long

185

Raman spectroscopy of saliva as a perspective method for periodontitis diagnostics Raman spectroscopy of saliva  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of its potential for biological tissues analyses at a molecular level, Raman spectroscopy in optical range has been the object of biomedical research for the last years. The main aim of this work is the development of Raman spectroscopy for organic content identifying and determination of biomarkers of saliva at a molecular level for periodontitis diagnostics. Four spectral regions were determined: 1155 and 1525 cm-1, 1033 and 1611 cm-1, which can be used as biomarkers of this widespread disease.

Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Minaeva, S.

2012-01-01

186

Latent-Class Methods to Evaluate Diagnostics Tests for Echinococcus Infections in Dogs  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnosis of canine echinococcosis can be a challenge in surveillance studies because there is no perfect gold standard that can be used routinely. However, unknown test specificities and sensitivities can be overcome using latent-class analysis with appropriate data. Methodology We utilised a set of faecal and purge samples used previously to explore the epidemiology of canine echinococcosis on the Tibetan plateau. Previously only the purge results were reported and analysed in a largely deterministic way. In the present study, additional diagnostic tests of copro-PCR and copro-antigen ELISA were undertaken on the faecal samples. This enabled a Bayesian analysis in a latent-class model to examine the diagnostic performance of a genus specific copro-antigen ELISA, species-specific copro-PCR and arecoline purgation. Potential covariates including co-infection with Taenia, age and sex of the dog were also explored. The dependence structure of these diagnostic tests could also be analysed. Principle findings The most parsimonious result, indicated by deviance-information criteria, suggested that co-infection with Taenia spp. was a significant covariate with the Echinococcus infection. The copro-PCRs had estimated sensitivities of 89% and 84% respectively for the diagnoses of Echinococcus multilocularis and E. granulosus. The specificities for the copro-PCR were estimated at 93 and 83% respectively. Copro-antigen ELISA had sensitivities of 55 and 57% for the diagnosis of E. multilocularis and E. granulosus and specificities of 71 and 69% respectively. Arecoline purgation with an assumed specificity of 100% had estimated sensitivities of 76% and 85% respectively. Significance This study also shows that incorporating diagnostic uncertainty, in other words assuming no perfect gold standard, and including potential covariates like sex or Taenia co-infection into the epidemiological analysis may give different results than if the diagnosis of infection status is assumed to be deterministic and this approach should therefore be used whenever possible. PMID:23459420

Hartnack, Sonja; Budke, Christine M.; Craig, Philip S.; Jiamin, Qiu; Boufana, Belgees; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Torgerson, Paul R.

2013-01-01

187

A REFINED QSO SELECTION METHOD USING DIAGNOSTICS TESTS: 663 QSO CANDIDATES IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD  

SciTech Connect

We present 663 QSO candidates in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) selected using multiple diagnostics. We started with a set of 2566 QSO candidates selected using the methodology presented in our previous work based on time variability of the MACHO LMC light curves. We then obtained additional information for the candidates by crossmatching them with the Spitzer SAGE, the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Chandra, the XMM, and an LMC UBVI catalog. Using this information, we specified six diagnostic features based on mid-IR colors, photometric redshifts using spectral energy distribution template fitting, and X-ray luminosities in order to further discriminate high-confidence QSO candidates in the absence of spectra information. We then trained a one-class Support Vector Machine model using the diagnostics features of the confirmed 58 MACHO QSOs. We applied the trained model to the original candidates and finally selected 663 high-confidence QSO candidates. Furthermore, we crossmatched these 663 QSO candidates with the newly confirmed 151 QSOs and 275 non-QSOs in the LMC fields. On the basis of the counterpart analysis, we found that the false positive rate is less than 1%.

Kim, Dae-Won; Protopapas, Pavlos; Trichas, Markos; Alcock, Charles [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Rowan-Robinson, Michael [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Khardon, Roni [Department of Computer Science, Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States); Byun, Yong-Ik [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-03-10

188

Use of Expert Panels to Define the Reference Standard in Diagnostic Research: A Systematic Review of Published Methods and Reporting  

PubMed Central

Background In diagnostic studies, a single and error-free test that can be used as the reference (gold) standard often does not exist. One solution is the use of panel diagnosis, i.e., a group of experts who assess the results from multiple tests to reach a final diagnosis in each patient. Although panel diagnosis, also known as consensus or expert diagnosis, is frequently used as the reference standard, guidance on preferred methodology is lacking. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of methods used in panel diagnoses and to provide initial guidance on the use and reporting of panel diagnosis as reference standard. Methods and Findings PubMed was systematically searched for diagnostic studies applying a panel diagnosis as reference standard published up to May 31, 2012. We included diagnostic studies in which the final diagnosis was made by two or more persons based on results from multiple tests. General study characteristics and details of panel methodology were extracted. Eighty-one studies were included, of which most reported on psychiatry (37%) and cardiovascular (21%) diseases. Data extraction was hampered by incomplete reporting; one or more pieces of critical information about panel reference standard methodology was missing in 83% of studies. In most studies (75%), the panel consisted of three or fewer members. Panel members were blinded to the results of the index test results in 31% of studies. Reproducibility of the decision process was assessed in 17 (21%) studies. Reported details on panel constitution, information for diagnosis and methods of decision making varied considerably between studies. Conclusions Methods of panel diagnosis varied substantially across studies and many aspects of the procedure were either unclear or not reported. On the basis of our review, we identified areas for improvement and developed a checklist and flow chart for initial guidance for researchers conducting and reporting of studies involving panel diagnosis. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24143138

Bertens, Loes C. M.; Broekhuizen, Berna D. L.; Naaktgeboren, Christiana A.; Rutten, Frans H.; Hoes, Arno W.; van Mourik, Yvonne; Moons, Karel G. M.; Reitsma, Johannes B.

2013-01-01

189

The new regulation to investigate potentially beneficial diagnostic and therapeutic methods in Germany: up to international standard?  

PubMed

Funding of diagnostic and therapeutic methods in Germany's statutory health insurance (SHI) follows a dichotomy: in outpatient care, only methods with proven benefit are reimbursed while in inpatient care, all methods may be provided unless they are excluded due to proven harm or lack of benefit. In January 2012, a new section 137e was added to the Social Code Book V (SGB V), allowing for the inclusion of innovative and potentially beneficial diagnostic or therapeutic methods in the SHI benefit basket, while additional evidence regarding their effectiveness and safety must be gathered. In 2013, the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) has specified the details of this new approach, which can be considered a variety of "Coverage with Evidence Development" (CED). Our comparison with CED schemes in selected countries reveals a dependence of the CED implementation on the encompassing healthcare system. However, we identify a clear legislative foundation, a definitive decision-making body, the possibility to obtain public funding, and the preference for high quality study designs as constituting factors of an emerging international standard for CED. In addition, it is necessary to ensure the suitability of circumstances and technologies for the successful application of CED in a clear and transparent way. PMID:24880719

Olberg, Britta; Perleth, Matthias; Busse, Reinhard

2014-08-01

190

A hybrid body technique: does the pulse diagnostic cun guan chi method have Chinese-Tibetan origins?  

PubMed

This article investigates the medieval origins of the main pulse diagnostic method in contemporary Chinese medicine, sometimes known as san bu (three sectors) method, which requires physicians to examine the mai (vessels, vessel movements or pulse) on the wrist at the three locations cun guan chi (inch, gate, foot). The article provides evidence to suggest that this body technique grew out of an earlier Chinese one, the cun chi (inch-foot) method, which appears to have aimed at investigating the qualities of yin and yang in order to determine the condition of a patient by means of exploring fairly large areas of the patient's body surface with the palms. The article furthermore posits that the cun chi method was decisively transformed in medieval times, presumably due to the impact of early Tibetan pulse diagnostic practices: it became framed in a numerology of three and started advocating the use of the fingertips for sensing the pulse beats. The article, which draws on detailed textual analyses of medieval manuscripts, on visual evidence and also on psychophysical research, furthermore highlights how misunderstandings can constructively contribute to cultural communication. PMID:18828567

Hsu, Elisabeth

2008-01-01

191

Biogeosystem technique as a method to overcome the Biological and Environmental Hazards of modern Agricultural, Irrigational and Technological Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern challenge for humanity is to replace the paradigm of nature use and overcome environmental hazards of agronomy, irrigation, industry, and other human activities in biosphere. It is utterly reasonable to stop dividing biosphere on shares - the human habitat and the environment. In the 21st century it is an outdated anthropocentrism. Contradicting himself to biosphere Humankind has the problems. The new paradigm of biosphere control by methods of Biogeosystem technique is on agenda of Humankind. Key directions of Biogeosystem technique. Tillage. Single rotary milling 20…30-50…60 sm soil layer optimizes the evolution and environment of soil, creates a favorable conditions for the rhizosphere, increases the biological productivity of biosphere by 30-50% compared to the standard agricultural practices for the period up to 40 years. Recycle material. Recycling of mineral and organic substances in soil layer of 20…30-50…60 sm in rotary milling soil processing provides wastes clean return to biosphere. Direct intrasoil substances synthesis. Environmentally friendly robot wasteless nanotechnology provides direct substances synthesis, including fertilizers, inside the soil. It eliminates the prerequisites of the wastes formation under standard industrial technologies. Selective substance's extraction from soil. Electrochemical robotic nanotechnology provides selective substances extraction from soil. The technology provides recovery, collection and subsequent safe industrial use of extracted substances out of landscape. Saving fresh water. An important task is to save fresh water in biosphere. Irrigation spends water 4-5 times more of biological requirements of plants, leads to degradation of soil and landscape. The intrasoil pulse continuous-discrete paradigm of irrigation is proposed. It provides the soil and landscape conservation, increases the biological productivity, save the fresh water up to 10-20 times. The subsurface soil rotary processing and intrasoil pulsed continuous-discrete irrigation provide environmentally safe disposal of municipal, industrial, biological and agricultural wastes. Hazardous chemical and biological agents are under the soil surface. It provided a medical and veterinary safety of environment. Biogeosystem technic controls the equilibria in the soil and soil solution, prevents excessive mineralization of organic matter in the surface layers of soil. Simultaneously a soil chemical reduction excluded, biological substance do not degrade to gases. Products of organic matter decomposition are directed to the food chain, 100% waste recycling is obtained. Biogeosystems technique allows producing more biological products hence to recycle excessive amount of man-made CO2 and other substances. Biogeosystems technique increases the rate of photosynthesis of the biosphere, the degree of air ionization. This enhances the formation of rains over land, ensures stability of the ionosphere, magnetosphere and atmosphere of Earth. The nowadays technologies allow applying technical solutions based on Biogeosystem technique, there is unique opportunity to accelerate the noosphere new technological platform.

Kalinitchenko, Valery; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Zinchenko, Vladimir; Zarmaev, Ali; Magomadov, Ali; Chernenko, Vladimir; Startsev, Viktor; Bakoev, Serojdin; Dikaev, Zaurbek

2014-05-01

192

[Modern wound dressings for the therapy of chronic wounds].  

PubMed

The incidence of chronic wounds is increasing in developed Western countries. There are many causes for chronic or non-healing wounds. A multidisciplinary diagnostic approach and attention to underlying disorders are essential. A modern, moist, and phase adapted wound therapy is also essential. Modern wound dressings include activated charcoal, alginates, hyaluronic acid, hydrofibers, hydrogels, hydrocolloids, impregnated gauze, collagen, moist methods, proteolytic enzymes, foams, semipermeable membranes and silver dressings. Because of the lack of comparative investigations the phase-adapted use of wound dressings is still empiric. Application of modern wound dressings may help to create an optimized wound milieu and accelerate healing. Treatment of the underlying causes is an absolute requirement for long-term complete healing. PMID:16317552

Dissemond, J

2006-10-01

193

Genetic mutation underlying orthostatic intolerance and diagnostic and therapeutic methods relating thereto  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isolated polynucleotide molecules and peptides encoded by these molecules are used in the analysis of human norepinephrine (NE) transporter variants, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, relating to a human NE transporter polymorphism. By analyzing genomic DNA or amplified genomic DNA, or amplified cDNA derived from mRNA, it is possible to type a human NE transporter with regard to the human NE transporter polymorphism, for example, in the context of diagnosing and treating NE transport impairments, and disorders associated with NE transport impairments, such as orthostatic intolerance.

Robertson, David (Inventor); Blakely, Randy D. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

194

The use of CA-IX as a diagnostic method for oral leukoplakia.  

PubMed

Abstract The presence and degree of dysplasia are important diagnostic and prognostic criteria for oral leukoplakia, but evaluation of dysplasia is difficult and subjective. Carbonic anhydrase-IX (CA-IX) is expressed primarily in tumor cells and is considered a specific hypoxia marker. We investigated the role of CA-IX in oral leukoplakia. We investigated 30 specimens of oral leukoplakia and 35 dysplasia specimens adjacent to the tumor margin. We analyzed clinical variables including age, sex, degree of dysplasia, and smoking, clinical appearance of leukoplakia, number of lesions, location, size, clinical monitoring, malignant transformation and recurrence. For the immunohistochemical study, we used a noncommercial monoclonal antibody against human CA-IX MAb M75. We found greater CA-IX positivity in nonsmokers, erythroplakia and mottled leukoplakia, those located on the tongue, patients with multiple lesions, 2-4 cm leukoplakias and in recurrent cases, although differences were not statistically significant. All lesions in all samples without dysplasia were negative for CA-IX; however, for all other categories of dysplasia, the percentages of positivity and negativity varied. Regarding the diagnostic index values, we found a sensitivity of 32%, specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 13%. Leukoplakias appear mainly in females and potentially are malignant; more than 90% have some degree of dysplasia, and therefore require close clinical and histopathological monitoring. The CA-IX immunohistochemical marker may be useful for screening samples without dysplasia owing to its high specificity. PMID:25297562

Pérez-Sayáns, M; Suárez-Peñaranda, Jm; Torres-López, M; Supuran, Ct; Gándara-Vila, P; Gayoso-Diz, P; Barros-Angueira, F; Gallas-Torreira, M; García-García, A

2015-02-01

195

[The evidence of precipitins in Aspergillus caused disorders of the lung as a diagnostic method (author's transl)].  

PubMed

A report is given about serologic results of 27 aspergilloses, mostly aspergillomas. The evidence of antibodies directed against aspergillus species was carried out by radial diffusion according to OUCHTERLONY and immunoelectrophoretically. Filtrate antigens ("metabolic antigens") were used troughout. The positive yield lies in about 90%. Regarding the criteria for evaluation no positive reactions were seen in a control group of 140 patients with serious tuberculosis and other lung disorders. The method is emphasized as diagnostic mean for clearing up shadows of the lung and for pathogenetic control of aspergillus--grown from lung materials. PMID:828358

Grünewald, R

1976-07-01

196

DIAGNOSTIC CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION USING THE MEDRAD AVANTA FLUID MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AS COMPARED TO THE TRADITIONAL MANUAL INJECTION METHOD  

SciTech Connect

Nearly 4 million patient procedures performed annually in US cardiac catheterization laboratories utilize contrast media to achieve vessel opacification. The amount of contrast media used is variable and depends on the complexity of the procedure, the method of contrast delivery as well as the skill-level of the operator. Since the total amount of contrast used for each procedure can have both patient safety and economic implications, it is essential for cardiologists to have the ability to control contrast delivery such that optimal angiographic image quality is achieved using the least amount of contrast. Although the complication rate associated with cardiac catheterization remains low, the most common serious complication, contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), is associated with poor prognosis and a high mortality rate. Numerous interventional strategies for preventing and reducing the severity of CIN have demonstrated varying degrees of clinical benefit, but none has been shown to reliably prevent this serious complication. To date, the most effective approach for reducing the risk of CIN is to properly hydrate the patient and to minimize the amount of contrast media administered. Automated injection systems are intended for use in virtually all cardiac catheterization procedures and have numerous features which can provide potential advantages over traditional methods. With automated injection technology the operator is able to control and precisely monitor contrast delivery. Additionally, the MEDRAD Avanta Fluid Management Injection System utilizes a sterile contrast reservoir which eliminates the need to discard unused contrast in individual opened containers following each procedure. Considering that an average of 50% of opened contrast media is wasted using manual injection methods, this savings can provide a substantial economic benefit. Automated systems also facilitate the use of smaller (5 French) catheter sizes. Precise flow control and the use of smaller diameter catheters have both been shown to reduce the volume of contrast administered. The use of smaller size catheters also permits more rapid hemostasis, thus allowing shorter ambulation time without the need for costly wound closure devices. These factors can result in enhanced patient satisfaction as well as more efficient management of post-procedure rooms. The intent of this study was to demonstrate that using the MEDRAD Avanta Fluid Management Injection System (MEDRAD, INC., Pittsburgh, PA) for coronary diagnostic procedures can produce a reduction in the volume of contrast administered without loss of operational quality or efficiency. In addition, this study will explore procedure time and efficiency in an effort to minimize the amount of ionizing radiation delivered to the patient as well as the diagnostic team members. Study Design This is a post-market study designed to collect data during diagnostic cardiac catheterization when utilizing 5FR or 6FR catheters in conjunction with the Avanta Fluid Management System or a manual manifold injection method control group. A minimum of 420 patients scheduled for diagnostic cardiac catheterization will be enrolled in the study cohort. Patients will be assigned into the following two groups. Group 1: Catheterization with 5FR or 6FR catheters, using the traditional manual manifold injection method for contrast media delivery which is defined as manual hand injection of contrast media through a 3 or 4 port manifold and left ventriculography performed via standard fixed rate power injection. Group 2: Catheterization with 5FR or 6FR catheters, using the MEDRAD Avanta system for contrast media delivery. Study endpoints include volume of contrast media administered during diagnostic cardiac catheterization, volume of contrast media wasted post-procedure, procedure time (defined as the time from first catheter insertion to last diagnostic catheter removal), fluoroscopy time and angiographic image quality. The study demonstrated that use of the Advanta system reduced overall contrast utilization by decreasing th

Winniford, Michael D

2013-02-08

197

Alternative methods of optical diagnostics in the field of standardization and metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical configuration based on the photothermoplastic recording (PTPR) is suggested for the operational optical diagnostics and standardization of the products in the real time scale. The presence of three or four PTPR cameras along the counter of the tested product makes it possible to investigate in the real-time scale not only the appearance of the internal defects, but also the influence of the condition of different units onto the condition of the whole system. Dry development of the images in the real-time scale and instant fixation of images on the photothermoplastic carriers (PTPC) followed by the computer analysis used to compare the product and the standard allow us to gain in time and areas.

Constantinov, Boris I.; Pasechnic, Teodosie I.; Sircu, Sergiu

2000-10-01

198

Diagnostic methods for African horsesickness virus using monoclonal antibodies to structural and non-structural proteins.  

PubMed

A panel of 32 hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reactive with African horsesickness virus serotype 4 (AHSV-4) has been developed. Four of the MAbs recognized the major core antigen VP7, twenty recognized the outer capsid protein VP2 and eight reacted with the non-structural protein NS1. With the VP7-specific MAbs a rapid and sensitive double antibody sandwich immunoassay has been developed to detect viral antigen in infected Vero cells and in spleen tissue from AHSV-infected horses. The sensitivity of the assay is 10 ng viral antigen per 100 microliters. The NS1-specific MAbs allowed visualization by immunofluorescence of tubule-like structures in the cytoplasm of infected Vero cells. This can be very useful as a confirmatory diagnostic procedure. The antigenic map of the outer capsid VP2 protein with MAbs is also reported. PMID:1481354

Ranz, A I; Miguet, J G; Anaya, C; Venteo, A; Cortés, E; Vela, C; Sanz, A

1992-11-01

199

Tate Modern  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yesterday, Queen Elizabeth II officially opened the Tate Modern, Britain's new national museum of modern art housed in a former power station on London's Bankside. Those who weren't invited to the gala opening party last night and can't make it to the official public opening today can still visit the new museum online. In addition to the ordinary visiting information, special exhibitions, and so forth, the site offers a complete overview of the works displayed in each of its four themed groups. Though modern sounding, the four display themes (Landscape/ Matter/ Environment; Still Life/ Object/ Real Life; Nude/ Action/ Body; and History/ Memory/ Society) are actually based on the major genres of art established by the French Academy in the seventeenth century: landscape, still life, the nude, and history painting. Clicking on a section will bring up a list of rooms, each of which links to a short description and list of works. From this list, users can access more information on a particular work (and an image when available) and other pieces by the same artist held at Tate galleries via the Tate Collections Website (see the June 11, 1999 Scout Report).

2000-01-01

200

Diagnostic performance of different measurement methods for lung nodule enhancement at quantitative contrast-enhanced computed tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lack of angiogenesis virtually excludes malignancy of a pulmonary nodule; assessment with quantitative contrast-enhanced CT (QECT) requires a reliable enhancement measurement technique. Diagnostic performance of different measurement methods in the distinction between malignant and benign nodules was evaluated. QECT (unenhanced scan and 4 post-contrast scans) was performed in 48 pulmonary nodules (12 malignant, 12 benign, 24 indeterminate). Nodule enhancement was the difference between the highest nodule density at any post-contrast scan and the unenhanced scan. Enhancement was determined with: A) the standard 2D method; B) a 3D method consisting of segmentation, removal of peripheral structures and density averaging. Enhancement curves were evaluated for their plausibility using a predefined set of criteria. Sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 33% for the 2D method resp. 92% and 55% for the 3D method using a threshold of 20 HU. One malignant nodule did not show significant enhancement with method B due to adjacent atelectasis which disappeared within the few minutes of the QECT examination. Better discrimination between benign and malignant lesions was achieved with a slightly higher threshold than proposed in the literature. Application of plausibility criteria to the enhancement curves rendered less plausibility faults with the 3D method. A new 3D method for analysis of QECT scans yielded less artefacts and better specificity in the discrimination between benign and malignant pulmonary nodules when using an appropriate enhancement threshold. Nevertheless, QECT results must be interpreted with care.

Wormanns, Dag; Klotz, Ernst; Dregger, Uwe; Beyer, Florian; Heindel, Walter

2004-05-01

201

PNA-FISH as a new diagnostic method for the determination of clarithromycin resistance of Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Background Triple therapy is the gold standard treatment for Helicobacter pylori eradication from the human stomach, but increased resistance to clarithromycin became the main factor of treatment failure. Until now, fastidious culturing methods are generally the method of choice to assess resistance status. In this study, a new genotypic method to detect clarithromycin resistance in clinical samples, based on fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using a set of peptide nucleic acid probes (PNA), is proposed. Results The set of probes targeting the point mutations responsible for clarithromycin resistance was applied to H. pylori suspensions and showed 100% sensitivity and specificity (95% CI, 79.9-100 and 95% CI, 71.6-100 respectively). This method can also be amenable for application to gastric biopsy samples, as resistance to clarithromycin was also detected when histological slides were tested. Conclusions The optimized PNA-FISH based diagnostic method to detect H. pylori clarithromycin resistance shown to be a very sensitive and specific method for the detection of clarithromycin resistance in the H. pylori smears and also proved to be a reliable method for the diagnosis of this pathogen in clinical samples and an alternative to existing plating methods. PMID:21569555

2011-01-01

202

Validation of a Diagnostic PCR Method for Routine Analysis of Salmonella spp. in Animal Feed Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of a validation study, a comparative study of a PCR method and the standard culture-based method NMKL-71, for detection\\u000a of Salmonella, was performed according to the validation protocol from the Nordic validation organ for validation of alternative microbiological\\u000a methods (NordVal) on 250 artificially or naturally contaminated animal feed samples. The PCR method is based on culture enrichment

Charlotta Löfström; Charlotta Engdahl Axelsson; Peter Rådström

2008-01-01

203

Methods Developed by the Tools for Engine Diagnostics Task to Monitor and Predict Rotor Damage in Real Time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tools for Engine Diagnostics is a major task in the Propulsion System Health Management area of the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention project under NASA s Aviation Safety Program. The major goal of the Aviation Safety Program is to reduce fatal aircraft accidents by 80 percent within 10 years and by 90 percent within 25 years. The goal of the Propulsion System Health Management area is to eliminate propulsion system malfunctions as a primary or contributing factor to the cause of aircraft accidents. The purpose of Tools for Engine Diagnostics, a 2-yr-old task, is to establish and improve tools for engine diagnostics and prognostics that measure the deformation and damage of rotating engine components at the ground level and that perform intermittent or continuous monitoring on the engine wing. In this work, nondestructive-evaluation- (NDE-) based technology is combined with model-dependent disk spin experimental simulation systems, like finite element modeling (FEM) and modal norms, to monitor and predict rotor damage in real time. Fracture mechanics time-dependent fatigue crack growth and damage-mechanics-based life estimation are being developed, and their potential use investigated. In addition, wireless eddy current and advanced acoustics are being developed for on-wing and just-in-time NDE engine inspection to provide deeper access and higher sensitivity to extend on-wing capabilities and improve inspection readiness. In the long run, these methods could establish a base for prognostic sensing while an engine is running, without any overt actions, like inspections. This damage-detection strategy includes experimentally acquired vibration-, eddy-current- and capacitance-based displacement measurements and analytically computed FEM-, modal norms-, and conventional rotordynamics-based models of well-defined damages and critical mass imbalances in rotating disks and rotors.

Baaklini, George Y.; Smith, Kevin; Raulerson, David; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Brasche, Lisa

2003-01-01

204

Depression and suicidal behavior in adolescents: a multi-informant and multi-methods approach to diagnostic classification  

PubMed Central

Background: Informant discrepancies have been reported between parent and adolescent measures of depressive disorders and suicidality. We aimed to examine the concordance between adolescent and parent ratings of depressive disorder using both clinical interview and questionnaire measures and assess multi-informant and multi-method approaches to classification. Method: Within the context of assessment of eligibility for a randomized clinical trial, 50 parent–adolescent pairs (mean age of adolescents = 15.0 years) were interviewed separately with a structured diagnostic interview for depression, the KID-SCID. Adolescent self-report and parent-report versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire were also administered. We examined the diagnostic concordance rates of the parent vs. adolescent structured interview methods and the prediction of adolescent diagnosis via questionnaire methods. Results: Parent proxy reporting of adolescent depression and suicidal thoughts and behavior is not strongly concordant with adolescent report. Adolescent self-reported symptoms on depression scales provide a more accurate report of diagnosable adolescent depression than parent proxy reports of adolescent depressive symptoms. Adolescent self-report measures can be combined to improve the accuracy of classification. Parents tend to over report their adolescent’s depressive symptoms while under reporting their suicidal thoughts and behavior. Conclusion: Parent proxy report is clearly less reliable than the adolescent’s own report of their symptoms and subjective experiences, and could be considered inaccurate for research purposes. While parent report would still be sought clinically where an adolescent refuses to provide information, our findings suggest that parent reporting of adolescent suicidality should be interpreted with caution. PMID:25101031

Lewis, Andrew J.; Bertino, Melanie D.; Bailey, Catherine M.; Skewes, Joanna; Lubman, Dan I.; Toumbourou, John W.

2014-01-01

205

Diagnostic accuracy of Kato-Katz, FLOTAC, Baermann, and PCR methods for the detection of light-intensity hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis infections in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Sensitive diagnostic tools are crucial for an accurate assessment of helminth infections in low-endemicity areas. We examined stool samples from Tanzanian individuals and compared the diagnostic accuracy of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the FLOTAC technique and the Kato-Katz method for hookworm and the Baermann method for Strongyloides stercoralis detection. Only FLOTAC had a higher sensitivity than the Kato-Katz method for hookworm diagnosis; the sensitivities of PCR and the Kato-Katz method were equal. PCR had a very low sensitivity for S. stercoralis detection. The cycle threshold values of the PCR were negatively correlated with the logarithm of hookworm egg and S. stercoralis larvae counts. The median larvae count was significantly lower in PCR false negatives than true positives. All methods failed to detect very low-intensity infections. New diagnostic approaches are needed for monitoring of progressing helminth control programs, confirmation of elimination, or surveillance of disease recrudescence. PMID:24445211

Knopp, Stefanie; Salim, Nahya; Schindler, Tobias; Karagiannis Voules, Dimitrios A; Rothen, Julian; Lweno, Omar; Mohammed, Alisa S; Singo, Raymond; Benninghoff, Myrna; Nsojo, Anthony A; Genton, Blaise; Daubenberger, Claudia

2014-03-01

206

Multi-Method Analysis of MRI Images in Early Diagnostics of Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

The role of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming more and more emphasized in the early diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to assess the improvement in classification accuracy that can be achieved by combining features from different structural MRI analysis techniques. Automatically estimated MR features used are hippocampal volume, tensor-based morphometry, cortical thickness and a novel technique based on manifold learning. Baseline MRIs acquired from all 834 subjects (231 healthy controls (HC), 238 stable mild cognitive impairment (S-MCI), 167 MCI to AD progressors (P-MCI), 198 AD) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database were used for evaluation. We compared the classification accuracy achieved with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machines (SVM). The best results achieved with individual features are 90% sensitivity and 84% specificity (HC/AD classification), 64%/66% (S-MCI/P-MCI) and 82%/76% (HC/P-MCI) with the LDA classifier. The combination of all features improved these results to 93% sensitivity and 85% specificity (HC/AD), 67%/69% (S-MCI/P-MCI) and 86%/82% (HC/P-MCI). Compared with previously published results in the ADNI database using individual MR-based features, the presented results show that a comprehensive analysis of MRI images combining multiple features improves classification accuracy and predictive power in detecting early AD. The most stable and reliable classification was achieved when combining all available features. PMID:22022397

Koikkalainen, Juha; Niskanen, Eini; Zhang, Dong Ping; Rueckert, Daniel; Soininen, Hilkka; Lötjönen, Jyrki

2011-01-01

207

Novel readout method for molecular diagnostic assays based on optical measurements of magnetic nanobead dynamics.  

PubMed

We demonstrate detection of DNA coils formed from a Vibrio cholerae DNA target at picomolar concentrations using a novel optomagnetic approach exploiting the dynamic behavior and optical anisotropy of magnetic nanobead (MNB) assemblies. We establish that the complex second harmonic optical transmission spectra of MNB suspensions measured upon application of a weak uniaxial AC magnetic field correlate well with the rotation dynamics of the individual MNBs. Adding a target analyte to the solution leads to the formation of permanent MNB clusters, namely, to the suppression of the dynamic MNB behavior. We prove that the optical transmission spectra are highly sensitive to the formation of permanent MNB clusters and, thereby to the target analyte concentration. As a specific clinically relevant diagnostic case, we detect DNA coils formed via padlock probe recognition and isothermal rolling circle amplification and benchmark against a commercial equipment. The results demonstrate the fast optomagnetic readout of rolling circle products from bacterial DNA utilizing the dynamic properties of MNBs in a miniaturized and low-cost platform requiring only a transparent window in the chip. PMID:25539065

Donolato, Marco; Antunes, Paula; Bejhed, Rebecca S; Zardán Gómez de la Torre, Teresa; Østerberg, Frederik W; Strömberg, Mattias; Nilsson, Mats; Strømme, Maria; Svedlindh, Peter; Hansen, Mikkel F; Vavassori, Paolo

2015-02-01

208

Modern mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We consider the goals of the introductory course in classical mechanics taken by physics majors and argue both that these goals are not well met in actual courses and that the goals themselves should be rethought. We propose alternative goals and describe an introductory "modern mechanics" course that addresses these alternative goals. Included in the description are several genres of homework problems that are nearly absent from traditional mechanics courses at both the introductory and intermediate levels. The intermediate mechanics course could be restructured to exploit a broader foundation laid by the introductory course.

Chabay, Ruth; Sherwood, Bruce

2005-10-11

209

A Multiplex Two-Color Real-Time PCR Method for Quality-Controlled Molecular Diagnostic Testing of FFPE Samples  

PubMed Central

Background Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) tests support personalized cancer treatment through more clinically meaningful diagnosis. However, samples obtained through standard clinical pathology procedures are formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and yield small samples with low integrity RNA containing PCR interfering substances. RT-qPCR tests able to assess FFPE samples with quality control and inter-laboratory reproducibility are needed. Methods We developed an RT-qPCR method by which 1) each gene was measured relative to a known number of its respective competitive internal standard molecules to control for interfering substances, 2) two-color fluorometric hydrolysis probes enabled analysis on a real-time platform, 3) external standards controlled for variation in probe fluorescence intensity, and 4) pre-amplification maximized signal from FFPE RNA samples. Reagents were developed for four genes comprised by a previously reported lung cancer diagnostic test (LCDT) then subjected to analytical validation using synthetic native templates as test articles to assess linearity, signal-to-analyte response, lower detection threshold, imprecision and accuracy. Fitness of this method and these reagents for clinical testing was assessed in FFPE normal (N?=?10) and malignant (N?=?10) lung samples. Results Reagents for each of four genes, MYC, E2F1, CDKN1A and ACTB comprised by the LCDT had acceptable linearity (R2>0.99), signal-to-analyte response (slope 1.0±0.05), lower detection threshold (<10 molecules) and imprecision (CV <20%). Poisson analysis confirmed accuracy of internal standard concentrations. Internal standards controlled for experimentally introduced interference, prevented false-negatives and enabled pre-amplification to increase signal without altering measured values. In the fitness for purpose testing of this two-color fluorometric LCDT using surgical FFPE samples, the diagnostic accuracy was 93% which was similar to that previously reported for analysis of fresh samples. Conclusions This quality-controlled two-color fluorometric RT-qPCR approach will facilitate the development of reliable, robust RT-qPCR-based molecular diagnostic tests in FFPE clinical samples. PMID:24586747

Yeo, Jiyoun; Crawford, Erin L.; Blomquist, Thomas M.; Stanoszek, Lauren M.; Dannemiller, Rachel E.; Zyrek, Jill; De Las Casas, Luis E.; Khuder, Sadik A.; Willey, James C.

2014-01-01

210

Paper Diagnostics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, focuses on diagnostic methods of investigation looking at the issue of HIV/AIDS. In this activity, students will explore "the societal impacts of engineering and science, specifically as it relates to the AIDS epidemic in developing countries. A series of videos and accompanying questions help students explore how engineers and scientists can contribute to various solutions related to diagnosing and preventing the spread of disease. The activity highlights the development of low-cost paper diagnostics for rapid and private diagnosis of AIDS and diseases  related to AIDS (TB, other sexually transmitted diseases, etc.)." This activity will take two 50 minute classroom sessions. A Teacher Preparation Guide, Next Generation Science Standards for this lesson, and a link to George Whitesides video used in lesson video from the NY Times are included.

211

Comparative analysis of cervical cytology and human papillomavirus genotyping by three different methods in a routine diagnostic setting.  

PubMed

Application of Bethesda guidelines on cervical cytology involves human papillomavirus (HPV) determinations on all ASC-US and ASC-H results. We compared HPV DNA results in view of the eventual development of a cervical intraepithelial neoplasia lesion determined either on cytology or histology. A total of 214 liquid-based cytology samples were analysed. Three different HPV DNA methods were applied: the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test, INNO-Lipa HPV Genotyping Extra and Full Spectrum PCR HPV Amplification and Detection/Genotyping System by Lab2Lab Diagnostic Service. A comparison of these three methods showed full concordance only for 49 samples (23%), and 27 (13%) of the samples were discordant in indicating the presence of the high-risk HPV type. Out of 214 patients, 88 were selected who presented with a cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or a VAIN lesion at follow-up cytology or histology. In this group, full concordance with HPV genotyping was present only in 19 (22%) follow-up samples. Nine (10%) follow-up samples showed discordant results for the presence of a high-risk genotype between the three genotyping methods tested either by negativity for high-risk HPV by one of the methods (n=6) or by failure to genotype HPV (n=2), or by a combination of both (n=1). Moreover, discordance for the detection of HPV16 or HPV18 was observed between the three HPV DNA genotyping methods used in 9 (10%) follow-up samples. In addition, the performance of genotyping methods on 20 external quality samples was assessed, showing discordant results for HPV16 and HPV18. Major differences were found in the genotyping results according to the HPV DNA method. Our findings highlight the importance of careful interpretation of data from studies using different HPV genotyping methods and underline the need for standardization by method validation in clinical laboratories, especially in the setting of primary HPV screening. PMID:25370681

Padalko, Elizaveta; Ali-Risasi, Catherine; Mesmaekers, Stéphanie; Ryckaert, Inge; Van Renterghem, Lieve; Lambein, Kathleen; Bamelis, Mieke; De Mey, Anja; Sturtewagen, Yolande; Vastenavond, Hilde; Broeck, Davy Vanden; Weyers, Steven; Praet, Marleen

2014-11-01

212

Evaluation of three different methods of distance learning for postgraduate diagnostic imaging education: A pilot study.  

PubMed

Objective : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceived effectiveness and learning potential of 3 Web-based educational methods in a postgraduate radiology setting. Methods : Three chiropractic radiology faculty from diverse geographic locations led mini-courses using asynchronous discussion boards, synchronous Web conferencing, and asynchronous voice-over case presentations formatted for Web viewing. At the conclusion of each course, participants filled out a 14-question survey (using a 5-point Likert scale) designed to evaluate the effectiveness of each method in achieving specified course objectives and goals and their satisfaction when considering the learning potential of each method. The mean, standard deviation, and percentage agreements were tabulated. Results : Twenty, 15, and 10 participants completed the discussion board, Web conferencing, and case presentation surveys, respectively. All educational methods demonstrated a high level of agreement regarding the course objective (total mean rating >4.1). The case presentations had the highest overall rating for achieving the course goals; however, all but one method still had total mean ratings >4.0 and overall agreement levels of 70%-100%. The strongest potential for interactive learning was found with Web conferencing and discussion boards, while case presentations rated very low in this regard. Conclusions : The perceived effectiveness in achieving the course objective and goals was high for each method. Residency-based distance education may be a beneficial adjunct to current methods of training, allowing for international collaboration. When considering all aspects tested, there does not appear to be a clear advantage to any one method. Utilizing various methods may be most appropriate. PMID:24779546

Poirier, Jean-Nicolas; Cooley, Jeffrey R; Wessely, Michelle; Guebert, Gary M; Petrocco-Napuli, Kristina

2014-10-01

213

Evaluation of three different methods of distance learning for postgraduate diagnostic imaging education: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceived effectiveness and learning potential of 3 Web-based educational methods in a postgraduate radiology setting. Methods Three chiropractic radiology faculty from diverse geographic locations led mini-courses using asynchronous discussion boards, synchronous Web conferencing, and asynchronous voice-over case presentations formatted for Web viewing. At the conclusion of each course, participants filled out a 14-question survey (using a 5-point Likert scale) designed to evaluate the effectiveness of each method in achieving specified course objectives and goals and their satisfaction when considering the learning potential of each method. The mean, standard deviation, and percentage agreements were tabulated. Results Twenty, 15, and 10 participants completed the discussion board, Web conferencing, and case presentation surveys, respectively. All educational methods demonstrated a high level of agreement regarding the course objective (total mean rating >4.1). The case presentations had the highest overall rating for achieving the course goals; however, all but one method still had total mean ratings >4.0 and overall agreement levels of 70%–100%. The strongest potential for interactive learning was found with Web conferencing and discussion boards, while case presentations rated very low in this regard. Conclusions The perceived effectiveness in achieving the course objective and goals was high for each method. Residency-based distance education may be a beneficial adjunct to current methods of training, allowing for international collaboration. When considering all aspects tested, there does not appear to be a clear advantage to any one method. Utilizing various methods may be most appropriate. PMID:24779546

Poirier, Jean-Nicolas; Cooley, Jeffrey R.; Wessely, Michelle; Guebert, Gary M.; Petrocco-Napuli, Kristina

2014-01-01

214

Whole blood viscosity issue VIII: Comparison of extrapolation method with diagnostic digital viscometer  

PubMed Central

Background: The first issue of this series proposed extrapolation chart with conventional reference range and suggested comparison of results with other methods. Aim: This work sets out to compare interpretative results from the extrapolation method with those from a digital viscometer method. Materials and Methods: Five cases in our archived clinical pathology database that were specifically tested for whole blood viscosity by the digital method, and had results for haematocrit and serum proteins were pooled. The values of haematocrit and serum proteins were used to derive extrapolated values. The interpretative results of the extrapolation method were compared with those of digital viscometer-based clinical reports. Non-Newtonian fluids such as whole blood have different viscosities at different shear rates. Comparative statement can only be based on interpreted outcome. Results: Two-fifth absolute concordance and one-fifth discordance is observed between extrapolation and viscometer-based clinical reports. The discordance is a case of hyperviscosity in the presence of neither hyperproteinaemia nor polycythemia. Conclusion: The extrapolation method may underestimate whole blood viscosity in some patients when compared with digital viscometer, which in turn may suggest hyperviscosity that cannot be explained by hyperproteinaemia or polycythemia concepts. The impact of oxidative stress is highlighted. PMID:22540108

Nwose, Ezekiel Uba; Richards, Ross Stuart

2011-01-01

215

Set theory in diagnostic reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Regarding diagnostic reasoning, the currently taught Bayesian theory is a form of hypothetical-deduction reasoning. Using set theory, we offer syllogism reasoning instead of hypothetical-deductive reasoning and establish an online diagnostic expert system model based on this diagnostic methodology. Methods: Concepts of set theory were employed to demonstrate diagnostic reasoning. ASP, Vbscript and Microsoft Access were used to establish the

Rui-Bao Tang; Qin-Fang Deng; Hou-Qi Liu

2003-01-01

216

A Quantitative Diagnostic Method Based on Bayesian Networks in Traditional Chinese Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is one of the most important complementary and alternative medicines. Due to the subjectivity\\u000a and fuzziness of diagnosis in TCM, quantitative model or methods are needed to facilitate the popularization of TCM. In this\\u000a article, a novel quantitative method for syndrome differentiation based on BNs is proposed. First the symptoms are selected\\u000a by a novel mutual

Huiyan Wang; Jie Wang

2006-01-01

217

Modern Baking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Baking is an art, a science, and a field that many people (especially young students) wish to learn more about. Visitors to this site can learn about the hands-on details of baking, along with gaining insights into business trends within the baking world. Modern Baking contains classified ads for those bakers looking to pick up some new equipment (or a new job), and a section of up-to-date industry news as well. The content is divided into eight sections: Formulas & Techniques, Cake Decorating, Supermarket Baking, Retail Baking, Specialty Wholesale Baking, Foodservice Baking, Bread & Pastry, and Bakery Management. Visitors would do well to try the formula in the Formulas & Techniques section for chestnut and cognac brioche, as it brings together two flavors that are truly divine.

2006-11-16

218

FLOTAC for the diagnosis of Hymenolepis spp. infection: proof-of-concept and comparing diagnostic accuracy with other methods.  

PubMed

Hymenolepis nana is the most common cestode parasitizing humans, yet it is under-diagnosed. We determined the optimal flotation solution (FS) for the diagnosis of this intestinal parasite with the FLOTAC method, and compared its diagnostic accuracy with an ether-concentration technique and the Kato-Katz method. Zinc sulphate (specific gravity 1.20) proved to be the best-performing FS. Using this FS, we detected 65 H. nana infections among 234 fixed fecal samples from Tajik and Sahrawi children (prevalence 27.8 %). The ether-concentration technique detected 40 infections (prevalence 17.1 %) in the same samples. Considering the combined results as a reference, the sensitivities of FLOTAC and ether-concentration were 95.6 % and 58.8 %, respectively. The Kato-Katz method resulted in a prevalence of only 8.7 %. In terms of eggs per gram of stool, a significantly (P <0.05) higher value was obtained with the FLOTAC and Kato-Katz techniques compared to ether-concentration. In another study carried out in China, the FLOTAC method detected six Hymenolepis diminuta infections in 302 fecal samples, whereas five samples were found positive with the Kato-Katz technique. We conclude that FLOTAC is an accurate coprodiagnostic technique for H. nana and H. diminuta, two species which join a growing list of intestinal parasites that can be reliably diagnosed by this technique. PMID:22461006

Steinmann, Peter; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Bruschi, Fabrizio; Matthys, Barbara; Lohourignon, Laurent K; Castagna, Barbara; Maurelli, Maria P; Morgoglione, Maria E; Utzinger, Jürg; Rinaldi, Laura

2012-08-01

219

Diagnostic Accuracy and Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Methods for Detection of Soil-Transmitted Helminths in a Post-Treatment Setting in Western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC methods for detection of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in a post-treatment setting in western Kenya. A cost analysis also explores the cost implications of collecting samples during school surveys when compared to household surveys. Methods Stool samples were collected from children (n?=?652) attending 18 schools in Bungoma County and diagnosed by the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC coprological methods. Sensitivity and additional diagnostic performance measures were analyzed using Bayesian latent class modeling. Financial and economic costs were calculated for all survey and diagnostic activities, and cost per child tested, cost per case detected and cost per STH infection correctly classified were estimated. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the impact of various survey parameters on cost estimates. Results Both diagnostic methods exhibited comparable sensitivity for detection of any STH species over single and consecutive day sampling: 52.0% for single day Kato-Katz; 49.1% for single-day Mini-FLOTAC; 76.9% for consecutive day Kato-Katz; and 74.1% for consecutive day Mini-FLOTAC. Diagnostic performance did not differ significantly between methods for the different STH species. Use of Kato-Katz with school-based sampling was the lowest cost scenario for cost per child tested ($10.14) and cost per case correctly classified ($12.84). Cost per case detected was lowest for Kato-Katz used in community-based sampling ($128.24). Sensitivity analysis revealed the cost of case detection for any STH decreased non-linearly as prevalence rates increased and was influenced by the number of samples collected. Conclusions The Kato-Katz method was comparable in diagnostic sensitivity to the Mini-FLOTAC method, but afforded greater cost-effectiveness. Future work is required to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of STH surveillance in different settings. PMID:24810593

Kepha, Stella; Kihara, Jimmy H.; Njenga, Sammy M.; Pullan, Rachel L.; Brooker, Simon J.

2014-01-01

220

[Modern toxicology of magnetic nanomaterials].  

PubMed

Current advances in nanobiotechnology have led to the development of new field of nanomedicine, which includes many applications of nano(bio)materials for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes (theranostics). Major expectations and challenges are on bioengineered magnetic nanoparticles when their come to delivering drug compounds, especially to targeting anticancer drugs to specific molecular endpoints in cancer therapy. The unique physicochemical properties of these nanoparticles offer great promise in modern cancer nanomedicine to provide new technological breakthroughs, such as guided drug and gene delivery, magnetic hyperthermia cancer therapy, tissue engineering, cancer cell tracking and molecular magnetic resonance imaging. Along with the expanding interest in bio-engineered magnetic nanoproducts their potential toxicity has become one of the major concerns. To date, a number of recent scientific evidences suggest that certain properties of magnetic nanoparticles (e.g., enhanced reactive area, ability to cross cell membranes, resistance to biodegradation) may amplify their cytotoxic potential relative to bulk non-nanoscale counterparts. In other words, safety assessment developed for ordinary magnetic materials may be of limited use in determining the health and environmental risks of the novel bio-engineered magnetic nanoproducts. In the present paper we discuss the main directions of research conducted to assess the toxicity of magnetic nanocompounds in experimental in vitro and in vivo models, pointing to the key issues concerning the toxicological analysis of magnetic nanomaterials. In addition new research directions of nanotoxicological studies elucidating the importance of developing alternative methods for testing magnetic nano(bio)products are also presented. PMID:23173329

Cywi?ska, Monika A; Grudzi?ski, Ireneusz P

2012-01-01

221

Radio diagnostics of the solar flaring loop parameters by the forward fitting method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical methods for solving the inverse problem of determining solar flaring loop physical parameters are sought and developed. This problem can be solved by fitting theoretically calculated radio emission characteristics (the flux or the degree of circular polarization) to the observed characteristics. Such a fitting is reduced to the solution of a system of equations with the observed and theoretically calculated radio emission characteristics on the right- and left-hand sides, respectively. The genetic algorithm method, which demonstrated good accuracy and calculation time when five parameters of a model flaring loop were recovered, has been used in fitting. After testing this method on the model sources, an algorithm was used to recover four parameters of the real flaring loop using the Nobeyama Radioheliograph data.

Morgachev, A. S.; Kuznetsov, S. A.; Melnikov, V. F.

2014-12-01

222

An evaluation of poultry avian influenza diagnostic methods with domestic duck specimens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Monitoring of poultry, including domestic ducks, for avian influenza virus (AI) virus has increased considerably in recent years. However, the current methods validated for the diagnosis and detection of AI virus infection in chickens and turkeys have not been evaluated for performance with samples...

223

Diagnostic Methods for and Clinical Pictures of Polyomavirus Primary Infections in Children, Finland  

PubMed Central

We used comprehensive serodiagnostic methods (IgM, IgG, and IgG avidity) and PCR to study Merkel cell polyomavirus and trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus infections in children observed from infancy to adolescence. Comparing seroconversion intervals with previous and subsequent intervals, we found that primary infections with these 2 viruses were asymptomatic in childhood. PMID:24655410

Tanner, Laura; Simell, Ville; Hedman, Lea; Mäkinen, Marjaana; Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Veijola, Riitta; Hyöty, Heikki; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael; Toppari, Jorma; Simell, Olli; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Hedman, Klaus

2014-01-01

224

Comparison of the histological methods in the diagnostic of deer cysticercosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Histochemical methods for the detection and diagnosis of the developmental stages of the canine tapeworm, from the genus Taenia found in the heart and lungs of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) hunted in Eastern Slovakia, is presented here. Detailed morphology of cysticerci (Cysticercus spp.), based on microscopic and histochemical analysis is described. For confirmation and demonstration

M. Goldová; Š. Tóth; V. Letková; J. Mojžišová; I. Kožarová; M. Pomfy

2008-01-01

225

A Statistical, Rule-Based Fault Detection and Diagnostic Method for Vapor Compression Air Conditioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for automated detection and diagnosis of faults in vapor compression air conditioners that only requires temperature measurements, and one humidity measurement. The differences between measured thermodynamic states and predicted states obtained from models for normal performance (residuals) are used as performance indices for both fault detection and diagnosis. For fault detection, statistical properties of the

Todd M. Rossi; James E. Braun

1997-01-01

226

Comparison of Two Methods of Diagnostic Lung Lavage in Ventilated Infants with Lung Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods of nonbronchoscopic lung lavage used for collection of samples of epithelial lining fluid (ELF) in intubated patients are poorly standardized and incompletely validated. In infants with lung disease requiring ventilatory support, we evaluated two techniques of small volume saline lavage for the collection of a specimen suitable for pulmonary surfactant analysis. We aimed to compare appar- ent origin

PETER A. DARGAVILLE; MICHAEL SOUTH; PETER N. McDOUGALL

1999-01-01

227

Diagnostic method for the detection of KIF5B-RET transformation in lung adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

KIF5B-RET fusions have recently been reported to occur in pulmonary adenocarcinomas, thereby being proposed as a novel genetic alteration in adenocarcinoma of the lung. However, clinically useful methods to detect RET-rearrangement in pulmonary adenocarcinoma have not been well established. 53 cases of lung adenocarcinomas harbored "triple (EGFR, KRAS and ALK)-negative" were tested for KIF5B-RET fusions using whole-transcriptome sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and long-range PCR. Dual color break-apart probes and KIF5B-RET fusion probes were used for FISH. Three different commercial antibodies against C-terminal RET protein were tested for IHC. Primers designed for 3 different variants of KIF5B-RET fusions were used for long-range PCR. Three patients (5.6%) showed RET rearrangement in whole-transcriptome sequencing, which were used as a gold standard. All those three patients were also positive in FISH for both KIF5B-RET fusion and RET break-apart probes. None of remaining patients showed positive result, resulting in 100% concordance rate of FISH and transcriptome sequencing methods. However, fused RET proteins were not detected by IHC in none of true positive patients. Moreover, 6 patients without RET fusions showed gain of gene copy number of both KIF5B and RET. All those three true positive cases were detected by long-range PCR methods and none with true negative cases were positive. Both FISH and PCR may be useful methods to detect novel KIF5B-RET rearrangements in pulmonary adenocarcinomas rather than IHC. However, as there may be additional variant of fusion mutation, FISH may be better than PCR method in terms of sensitivity. PMID:23932363

Go, Heounjeong; Jung, Yoo Jin; Kang, Hyun Woong; Park, In-Kyu; Kang, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Jung Wan; Ju, Young Seok; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Chung, Doo Hyun; Kim, Young Tae

2013-10-01

228

Cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and new diagnostic imaging techniques: the role of noninvasive image methods  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a major public health problem affecting adults and children in both developed and developing countries. This condition often leads to metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A large number of studies have been carried out to understand the pathogenesis of cardiovascular dysfunction in obese patients. Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the progression of atherosclerosis and the development of coronary artery disease, hypertension and congestive heart failure. Noninvasive methods in the field of cardiovascular imaging, such as measuring intima-media thickness, flow-mediated dilatation, tissue Doppler, and strain, and strain rate, constitute new tools for the early detection of cardiac and vascular dysfunction. These techniques will certainly enable a better evaluation of initial cardiovascular injury and allow the correct, timely management of obese patients. The present review summarizes the main aspects of cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and discusses the application of recent noninvasive imaging methods for the early detection of cardiovascular alterations. PMID:21633726

Barbosa, José Augusto A; Rodrigues, Alexandre B; Mota, Cleonice Carvalho C; Barbosa, Márcia M; Simões e Silva, Ana C

2011-01-01

229

Methods for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents  

DOEpatents

A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method comprises the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention also provides a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent.

Wachter, Eric A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fisher, Walter G. (Knoxville, TN); Dees, H. Craig (Knoxville, TN)

2008-03-18

230

Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents  

DOEpatents

A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent.

Wachter, Eric A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fisher, Walter G. (Knoxville, TN); Dees, H. Craig (Knoxville, TN)

1998-01-01

231

Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents  

DOEpatents

A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. 13 figs.

Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G.; Dees, H.C.

1998-11-10

232

Diagnostic possibilities with multidimensional images in head and neck area using efficient registration and visualization methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For several diseases in the head and neck area different imaging modalities are applied to the same patient.Each of these image data sets has its specific advantages and disadvantages. The combination of different methods allows to make the best use of the advantageous properties of each method while minimizing the impact of its negative aspects. Soft tissue alterations can be judged better in an MRI image while it may be unrecognizable in the relating CT. Bone tissue, on the other hand, is optimally imaged in CT. Inflammatory nuclei of the bone can be detected best by their increased signal in SPECT. Only the combination of all modalities let the physical come to an exact statement on pathological processes that involve multiple tissue structures. Several surfaces and voxel based matching functions we have tested allowed a precise merging by means of numerical optimization methods like e.g. simulated annealing without the complicated assertion of fiducial markers or the localization landmarks in 2D cross sectional slice images. The quality of the registration depends on the choice of the optimization procedure according to the complexity of the matching function landscape. Precise correlation of the multimodal head and neck area images together with its 2D and 3D presentation techniques provides a valuable tool for physicians.

Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian U.; Krol, Zdzislaw; Sader, Robert; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Gerhardt, Paul; Schweiger, Markus; Horch, Hans-Henning

1997-05-01

233

Noninvasive express diagnostics of pulmonary diseases based on control of patient's gas emission using methods of IR and terahertz laser spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulmonary diseases diagnostics always occupies one of the key positions in medicine practices. A large variety of high technology methods are used today, but none of them cannot be used for early screening of pulmonary diseases. We discuss abilities of methods of IR and terahertz laser spectroscopy for noninvasive express diagnostics of pulmonary diseases on a base of analysis of absorption spectra of patient's gas emission, in particular, exhaled air. Experience in the field of approaches to experimental data analysis and hard-ware realization of gas analyzers for medical applications is also discussed.

Starikova, M. K.; Bulanova, A. A.; Bukreeva, E. B.; Karapuzikov, A. A.; Karapuzikov, A. I.; Kistenev, Y. V.; Klementyev, V. M.; Kolker, D. B.; Kuzmin, D. A.; Nikiforova, O. Y.; Ponomarev, Yu. N.; Sherstov, I. V.; Boyko, A. A.

2013-11-01

234

Evaluation of Diagnostic Methods for Myocoptes musculinus According to Age and Treatment Status of Mice (Mus musculus)  

PubMed Central

Detecting and controlling murine fur mites continues to be challenging. Here we compared the efficacy of fur-pluck, cage PCR, and fur PCR testing of mice naturally infested with Myocoptes musculinus and make recommendations regarding the application of these diagnostic strategies in aged or treated mice. We compared all 3 diagnostic methods in groups of infested and noninfested control mice over time. For fur plucks, we used a scoring system to quantitatively compare mite infestations across ages. Mice that were 4 wk old had higher egg and mite scores than did older mice, with average scores at 4 wk corresponding to 40 to 100 individual fur mites and eggs per sample. Furthermore, 15% and 20% of samples from infested mice at 24 and 28 wk of age, respectively, lacked all fur mites and eggs. Cage PCR results varied as mice grew older. Fur PCR testing was the most sensitive and specific assay in untreated infested mice, particularly when mite densities were low. In addition, we compared fur-pluck and fur PCR tests for evaluating the efficacy of selamectin treatment. Two treatments with selamectin eliminated Myocoptes fur-mite infestations. At 8 wk after treatment, all fur-pluck samples were negative, but one-third of treated infested cages remained positive by fur PCR assay; at 16 wk after treatment, all cages were negative by fur PCR assay. Because offspring of infested mice were invariably heavily infested, breeding of suspected infested mice with subsequent testing of offspring was the definitive testing strategy when fur-pluck and PCR results conflicted. PMID:24351766

Rice, Kelly A; Albacarys, Lauren K; Pate, Kelly A Metcalf; Perkins, Cheryl; Henderson, Kenneth S; Watson, Julie

2013-01-01

235

Special Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This section contains a number of special diagnostics that are designed to examine certain mechanisms. Section 1 reports on the method used to test the photochemical partitioning in the models. Sections 2 and 3 represent efforts to examine the model calculated production and removal rates for ozone and how the values are combined with transport rates in the models to produce the simulated ozone distributions. Sections 4 and 5 concentrate on polar processes including the dynamics aspect of vortex confinement and the chemical aspects of chlorine activation.

Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Jackman, Charles H.; Considine, David B.; Douglass, Anne R.

1999-01-01

236

Applications of the LIF method for the diagnostics of the combustion process of gas-IC-engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the underlying project, the task was to develop methods for optical measurements in a hydrogen-fuelled engine with direct-injection, with the goal of measuring the jet patterns during injection, the stratification of the charge at ignition point and the propagation of the flame during combustion. Therefore, the method of planar laser-induced-fluorescence (PLIF) was chosen. In order to apply this technique for the named tasks, particular methods the visualisation of fuel distribution and the flame front were developed. The measurements were carried out on a single cylinder research engine installed at the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines at Graz University of Technology. This engine features optical access through a quartz-glass liner and a window in the piston while providing a layout equivalent to modern passenger car engines and the possibility to operate in fired mode. As it is hardly feasible to directly excite molecular hydrogen by means of laser light, it is necessary to add a tracer substance to the fuel that provides high fluorescence intensity while not changing the properties of the fuel. Consequently, Triethylamine was chosen as a tracer to be mixed with hydrogen at 200 ppm, which allows it to be used up to a maximum pressure of 200 bar while still providing a strong LIF signal. Due to the excellent linearity of the signal to the local air/fuel-ratio it was possible to develop a method for the calibration of the images in order to compensate for inhomogeneities of the laser beam and staining of the optical access and to ultimately allow a quantification of the fuel distribution. The results are images scaled on air/fuel-ratio which can be used for a direct optimisation of mixture formation processes and the validation of CFD-models. For the analysis of the combustion process the method was adapted with two different approaches. For homogeneous charges a new method was applied by marking the flame front using the tracer within the fuel, so that both are burned together. However, as this method is limited to measurements with a homogeneous distribution of tracer within the measured volume, an alternative technique had to be applied for the measurement of stratified charges. In this case, a direct visualisation of the flame front was achieved by exciting the OH-radicals formed during combustion. As this method has significantly increased demands on measuring equipment and is more time consuming, both methods are used in parallel on specific measuring tasks.

Kirchweger, Wolfram; Haslacher, Rainer; Hallmannsegger, Michael; Gerke, Udo

2007-08-01

237

Diagnostic of supersonic O2(a1?)/I2 mixing flow field with chemical fluorescence method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fluorescence image detection system that can visualize the COIL hot mixing flow field by taking images of the fluorescence of active I2 with a high speed camera was set up. Based on the captured flow field image, O2(a1?)/I2 mixing quality was evaluated quantitively by an exclusive image processing program. With this method, the hot supersonic mixing flow field in COIL which uses parallel stream supersonic mixing nozzles with a set of trip tabs was investigated. Meanwhile the effectiveness of the trip tabs was demonstrated.

Wang, Zengqiang; Sang, Fengting; Zhang, Yuelong; Hui, Xiaokang; Xu, Mingxiu; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Weili; Fang, Benjie; Duo, Liping; Jin, Yuqi

2012-01-01

238

Diagnostics for Statistical Variable Selection Methods for Prediction of Peptic Ulcer Disease in Helicobacter pylori Infection  

PubMed Central

Background The development of accurate classification models depends upon the methods used to identify the most relevant variables. The aim of this article is to evaluate variable selection methods to identify important variables in predicting a binary response using nonlinear statistical models. Our goals in model selection include producing non-overfitting stable models that are interpretable, that generate accurate predictions and have minimum bias. This work was motivated by data on clinical and laboratory features of Helicobacter pylori infections obtained from 60 individuals enrolled in a prospective observational study. Results We carried out a comprehensive performance comparison of several nonlinear classification models over the H. pylori data set. We compared variable selection results by Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Logistic Regression with regularization, Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) and Bayesian Variable Selection in GAMs. We found that the MARS model approach has the highest predictive power because the nonlinearity assumptions of candidate predictors are strongly satisfied, a finding demonstrated via deviance chi-square testing procedures in GAMs. Conclusions Our results suggest that the physiological free amino acids citrulline, histidine, lysine and arginine are the major features for predicting H. pylori peptic ulcer disease on the basis of amino acid profiling. PMID:25132738

Ju, Hyunsu; Brasier, Allan R; Kurosky, Alexander; Xu, Bo; Reyes, Victor E; Graham, David Y

2014-01-01

239

Holocene core logs and site methods for modern reef and head-coral cores - Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Dry Tortugas are a series of islands, banks, and channels on a carbonate platform off the west end of the Florida Keys. Antecedent topography of the Dry Tortugas reflects carbonate accumulations of the last interglacial (marine isotope substage 5e, ~ 125,000 years ago, ka) when sea level was ~ 6 to 7 meters (m) higher than present (Schrag and others, 2002). The substage 5e surface was subsequently lithified and modified during subaerial exposure associated with lower sea level from ~ 120 ka to 8 ka. The lithified late Pleistocene carbonates are known as the Key Largo Limestone, a coral reef (Hoffmeister and Multer, 1964; Multer and others, 2002), and the Miami Limestone, a tidal-bar oolite (Sanford, 1909; Hoffmeister, 1974). The Holocene and modern sediments and reefs of the Dry Tortugas then accreted during the rise of sea level associated with the end of the last glacial and the start of the current interglacial (marine isotope Stage 1). With the exception of a half dozen or so islands, the Dry Tortugas region has been submerged for approximately 8,000 years, allowing conditions suitable for coral reef formation once again. The Holocene reef accumulation varies in thickness due to the antecedent topography. The reefs are composed of massive head corals such as species of Montastraea, Siderastrea, and Diploria (Swart and others, 1996; Cohen and McConnaughey, 2003) and rest atop the Pleistocene Key Largo Limestone high (Shinn and others, 1977). The coral reefs within the Dry Tortugas represent a windward reef margin relative to dominant wind and wave energies (Hine and Mullins, 1983; Mallinson and others, 1997; Mallinson and others, 2003).

Hickey, Todd D.; Reich, Christopher D.; DeLong, Kristine L.; Poore, Richard Z.; Brock, John C.

2013-01-01

240

Study of protoporphyrin IX elimination by body excreta: a new noninvasive cancer diagnostic method?  

PubMed

This paper describes the elimination of porphyrins by feces. It was demonstrated that porphyrin accumulates substantially more in tumors than in normal tissues, and consequently more PPIX reaches the blood of patients and animals with tumors, and then, it needs to be eliminated. The fluorescence of feces revealed that there are large amounts of PPIX in the excreta of animals with cancer comparing with healthy animals. The autofluorescence of feces porphyrin extracted with acetone was analyzed using fluorescence spectroscopy of animals inoculated with DU145 cells into the prostate and healthy animals to monitor the PPIX concentration. Emission spectra were obtained by exciting the samples at 405 nm. Significant differences were observed in autofluorescence intensities measured in the 575-725 nm spectral regions for the studied groups. The results showed a noninvasive, simple, rapid and sensitive method to detect cancer by feces analysis. PMID:22961210

Silva, Flávia R O; Nabeshima, Camila T; Bellini, Maria H; Schor, Nestor; Vieira, Nilson D; Courrol, Lilia C

2013-01-01

241

Diagnostic Applications and Methods to Isolate Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) from Blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each year a million new cancer cases are diagnosed in the United States. Ninety percent of the deaths will be the result of metastasis, not from the primary tumor. Tissue biopsy is a universally accepted tool for cancer diagnosis and determination of treatment. The procedure varies, but is invasive, costly, and can be fatal, and for these reasons is seldom repeated after initial diagnosis. Monitoring of treatment response and for possible relapse is usually done by CT or MRI scan, both of which are expensive and require the tumor to change size perceptibly. Further, cancer can mutate or develop resistance to therapeutics and require modification of the treatment regimen. The initial tissue biopsy often cannot reflect the disease as it progresses, requiring new biopsy samples to determine a change of treatment. All carcinomas, about 80% of all cancer, shed tumor cells into the circulation, most often at the later stages when treatment is more critical. These circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are the cause of metastasis, and can be isolated from patient blood to serve as ``liquid biopsy''. These CTCs contain a valuable trove of information that help both patient and clinician understand disease status. In addition to counting the number of CTCs (known to be a prognostic indicator of survival), CTCs can provide biomarker information such as protein expressions and gene mutations, amplifications, and translocations. This information can be used to determine treatment. During treatment, the number of intact and apoptotic CTCs can be measured on a repeated basis to measure the patient's response to treatment and disease progression. Following treatment, liquid biopsy can be repeated at regular intervals to watch for relapse. Methods to isolate CTCs can be grouped into three categories: i) immunocapture based on surface markers of CTCs, ii) size exclusion based on CTC size, typically larger than blood cells, and iii) negative selection utilizing red blood cell lysis, white blood cell depletion or FICOLL. Various implementations of the CTC isolation methods will be presented.

Tang, Cha-Mei

2013-03-01

242

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 544 (2005) 514519 Laser-Induced Fluorescence diagnostic of barium ion plasmas  

E-print Network

diagnostic of barium ion plasmas in the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment Moses ChungÃ?, Erik P. Gilson, Ronald C. Instead of cesium, which has been used in the initial phase of the PTSX experiment, barium has been of the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic using barium ions is presented with the characterization

Gilson, Erik

243

[Magnetic resonance imaging as the primary diagnostic method for ectopic discharging ureteral insertion of a dysplastic kidney].  

PubMed

Ectopic ureters associated with dysplastic kidneys remain a diagnostic dilemma. Ultrasound, endoscopy as well as intravenous urography do not always show correct urinary tract morphology and function. We report the case of a 6-year-old girl with continuous urine dribbling to demonstrate the diagnostic value of MR urography. PMID:15205740

Rebmann, S; Strauss, A; Vosshenrich, R; Zöller, G

2004-08-01

244

A new active method for the measurement of slow-neutron fluence in modern radiotherapy treatment rooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on neutron monitoring at clinical linac facilities during high-energy modality radiotherapy treatments. Active in-room measurement of neutron fluence is a complex problem due to the pulsed nature of the fluence and the presence of high photon background, and only passive methods have been considered reliable until now. In this paper we present a new active method to

F. Gómez; A. Iglesias; F. Sánchez Doblado

2010-01-01

245

Comparison of Pre-Analytical FFPE Sample Preparation Methods and Their Impact on Massively Parallel Sequencing in Routine Diagnostics  

PubMed Central

Over the last years, massively parallel sequencing has rapidly evolved and has now transitioned into molecular pathology routine laboratories. It is an attractive platform for analysing multiple genes at the same time with very little input material. Therefore, the need for high quality DNA obtained from automated DNA extraction systems has increased, especially to those laboratories which are dealing with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) material and high sample throughput. This study evaluated five automated FFPE DNA extraction systems as well as five DNA quantification systems using the three most common techniques, UV spectrophotometry, fluorescent dye-based quantification and quantitative PCR, on 26 FFPE tissue samples. Additionally, the effects on downstream applications were analysed to find the most suitable pre-analytical methods for massively parallel sequencing in routine diagnostics. The results revealed that the Maxwell 16 from Promega (Mannheim, Germany) seems to be the superior system for DNA extraction from FFPE material. The extracts had a 1.3–24.6-fold higher DNA concentration in comparison to the other extraction systems, a higher quality and were most suitable for downstream applications. The comparison of the five quantification methods showed intermethod variations but all methods could be used to estimate the right amount for PCR amplification and for massively parallel sequencing. Interestingly, the best results in massively parallel sequencing were obtained with a DNA input of 15 ng determined by the NanoDrop 2000c spectrophotometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). No difference could be detected in mutation analysis based on the results of the quantification methods. These findings emphasise, that it is particularly important to choose the most reliable and constant DNA extraction system, especially when using small biopsies and low elution volumes, and that all common DNA quantification techniques can be used for downstream applications like massively parallel sequencing. PMID:25105902

Heydt, Carina; Fassunke, Jana; Künstlinger, Helen; Ihle, Michaela Angelika; König, Katharina; Heukamp, Lukas Carl; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Odenthal, Margarete; Büttner, Reinhard; Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine

2014-01-01

246

Neandertal vs. Modern Human  

E-print Network

of autapomorphic Neandertal traits that are used to separate them from us. By redefining two major elements of the classification method, the validity of the remaining skeletal traits has been compromised. For now at least, the field of Paleoanthropology... Anthropology Vol. 48: pp 331-523; 1978 7. Wolpoff, M.H., Paleoanthropology. 2 ed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.; 1998 8. Smith, F.H., “Behavioral Interpretations of Changes In Craniofacial Morphology Across The Archaic/Modern Homo Sapiens Transition...

Hill, Brittany

2009-10-01

247

Evidence of increased mass fraction of NO 2 within real-world NO x emissions of modern light vehicles — derived from a reliable online measuring method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient roadside concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) have stabilized in recent years while concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NO x) decline. Oxidation catalytic converters of modern vehicles facilitating the formation of NO 2 in the exhaust line, especially in diesel cars equipped with original equipment manufacturer (OEM) particle filters, are assumed to be responsible. NO 2 is toxic and increased proportions of NO 2 in total NO x in the atmosphere cause higher ambient ozone concentrations. These observations lead to a need for reliable emission factors for NO and NO 2 for road vehicles, while only NO x is recorded in standard emission measurements. In this regard, it was recently shown that NO 2 needs to be detected by an adequate online measuring method. The present work provides novel insight into these topics gained from an experimental campaign carried out with modern gasoline and diesel vehicles of certification categories Euro 3 and Euro 4. Reliable emission factors for NO and NO 2 are presented for different driving situations, such as real-world driving, cold start and statutory tests, together with corresponding particle emission data. Highest emissions of NO x are recorded for diesel cars equipped with OEM particle filters with mass ratios of NO 2 within NO x of up to 70%. The NO x emissions exceed the statutory emission limit and real-world emissions are even more pronounced, especially in urban driving conditions. Their particle emissions are greatly reduced, but the contribution of NO 2 to soot oxidation is thought to be minor.

Alvarez, Robert; Weilenmann, Martin; Favez, Jean-Yves

248

Diagnostics of 3D Scaffolds by the Method of X-Ray Phase Contrast Visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymers are one of the most interesting classes of materials for bioengineering due to their high biocompatibility and the possibility of regulating their strength and degradation. In bioengineering, the design of a polymer scaffold determines the functional possibilities of the scaffold and its possible medical applications. Traditionally, the design of polymer scaffolds is analyzed with the help of two-dimensional visualization methods, such as optical and electron microscopy, and computer tomography. However, the x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum is only insignificantly absorbed by polymers and soft tissue, which means that it does not support computer tomography with sufficient contrast. The present work investigates visualization with the help of an interferometer based on the Talbot effect for three-dimensional visualization of a polymer scaffold in absorption, phase, and dark-field contrasts. A comparison of images obtained by x-ray visualization with histological sections of the scaffold is made. Phase contrast has made it possible to visualize the polymer structure and growth of soft tissues in the volume of the scaffold. In the future, it will be possible to use phase contrast for three-dimensional visualization of polymer scaffolds and soft tissues in vivo as well as in vitro.

Al'tapova, V. R.; Khlusov, I. A.; Karpov, D. A.; Chen, F.; Baumbach, T.; Pichugin, V. F.

2014-02-01

249

The Diagnostic Method of Inner Parts of Welded Joints at Nuclear Power Plant  

SciTech Connect

There is no possibility to check any inner part at real welded joint at nuclear power station (NPS) during operation because any destructive test cannot be used. In practice there is checked surface of weld. There are used four methodical instructions for the check of real welds: 1. The visual inspection, 2. The measurement of hardness, 3. The chemical composition checking and 4. The microstructure replica analysis. It is necessary to know how these information of weld surface are in accordance with characteristics of inner parts of weld. If there is not any difference between surface weld microstructure and internal weld microstructure of experimental weld it is supposed to that there is not any difference in other measured properties of welds. If is changed structural characteristics of microstructure, it is changed also hardness, chemical analysis etc. It was observed that the microstructure of real welds is almost the same with simulated weld and also the surface microstructure of experimental weld is in accordance with microstructure of inner parts of this weld. It can be supposed extension of lifetime of NPS if there is not any difference between replicas microstructure taken after six year operation of NPS and microstructure of inner parts of simulated weld is almost the same with surface microstructure.

Bednarova, O.; Janovec, J. [Department of Materials Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Czech Technical University in Prague, Karlovo namesti 13, 121 35 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

2010-06-22

250

The Diagnostic Method of Inner Parts of Welded Joints at Nuclear Power Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no possibility to check any inner part at real welded joint at nuclear power station (NPS) during operation because any destructive test cannot be used. In practice there is checked surface of weld. There are used four methodical instructions for the check of real welds: 1. The visual inspection, 2. The measurement of hardness, 3. The chemical composition checking and 4. The microstructure replica analysis. It is necessary to know how these information of weld surface are in accordance with characteristics of inner parts of weld. If there is not any difference between surface weld microstructure and internal weld microstructure of experimental weld it is supposed to that there is not any difference in other measured properties of welds. If is changed structural characteristics of microstructure, it is changed also hardness, chemical analysis etc. It was observed that the microstructure of real welds is almost the same with simulated weld and also the surface microstructure of experimental weld is in accordance with microstructure of inner parts of this weld. It can be supposed extension of lifetime of NPS if there is not any difference between replicas microstructure taken after six year operation of NPS and microstructure of inner parts of simulated weld is almost the same with surface microstructure.

Bednarova, O.; Janovec, J.

2010-06-01

251

Culture Conversion Rate at 2 Months of Treatment According to Diagnostic Methods among Patients with Culture-Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Introduction The culture-negative conversion rate of sputum after 2 months of treatment in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is used as a reliable surrogate marker for relapse after completion of treatment. We hypothesized that culture conversion of sputum at 2 months of anti-TB treatment and the time to culture conversion are different among pulmonary TB patients who are diagnosed using different methods. Methods Culture-confirmed pulmonary TB patients who were diagnosed between 1 January, 2011 and 31 December, 2012 were classified into three groups based on the diagnostic method that prompted treatment initiation: positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining of sputum (smear-positive group), negative AFB staining, but Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured from sputum (culture-positive group), and positive AFB staining, positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for M. tuberculosis, or culture of M. tuberculosis from a bronchoscopic specimen (bronchoscopy group). Rates of negative mycobacterial culture conversion at 2 months of anti-TB treatment and the time to negative culture conversion of sputum were compared among the three groups. Results A total of 203 patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB were included in the final analysis. TB patients in the culture-positive group (94.1%) and the bronchoscopy group (97.6%) showed a higher culture conversion rate at 2 months of treatment than those in the smear-positive group (78.7%, P?=?0.001). Additionally, the time to culture conversion was longer in the smear-positive group (median, 40 days) than in the culture-positive (median, 19 days; P?=?0.009) and bronchoscopy groups (median, 29 days; P?=?0.004). Conclusions The higher culture conversion rate at 2 months and the shorter time to culture conversion among pulmonary TB patients with a negative AFB smear suggests the feasibility of shortening treatment duration and isolation in these patients. PMID:25105410

Lee, Ha Youn; Chae, Kyoung Ok; Lee, Chang Hoon; Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Sang-Min; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Yim, Jae-Joon

2014-01-01

252

Patient accounts of diagnostic testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia: comparing responses to genetic and non-genetic testing methods  

PubMed Central

Background Continuing developments in genetic testing technology together with research revealing gene-disease associations have brought closer the potential for genetic screening of populations. A major concern, as with any screening programme, is the response of the patient to the findings of screening, whether the outcome is positive or negative. Such concern is heightened for genetic testing, which it is feared may elicit stronger reactions than non-genetic testing. Methods This paper draws on thematic analysis of 113 semi-structured interviews with 39 patients being tested for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), an inherited predisposition to early-onset heart disease. It examines the impact of disease risk assessments based on both genetic and non-genetic information, or solely non-genetic information. Results The impact of diagnostic testing did not seem to vary according to whether or not genetic information was used. More generally, being given a positive or negative diagnosis of FH had minimal discernible impact on people's lives as they maintained the continuity of their beliefs and behaviour. Conclusions The results suggest that concerns about the use of genetic testing in this context are unfounded, a conclusion that echoes findings from studies in this and other health contexts. PMID:22994377

2012-01-01

253

Integrated diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

Hunthausen, Roger J.

1988-01-01

254

Instrumental multi-element analysis in plant materials: A modern method in environmental chemistry and tropical systems research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter describes possibilities of using instrumental multi-element methods to answer various ecological questions. Emphasis is placed on the ecosystem-related approach and thus on comparison of various ecosystems and their compartments. The basis for this is a project by the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) aimed at establishing element concentration catalogues in ecosystems (ECCEs). In principle, the intention is

Bernd Markert

1998-01-01

255

Instrumental multi-element analysis in plant materials: A modern method in environmental chemistry and tropical systems research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter describes possibilities of using instrumental multi-element methods to answer various ecological questions. Emphasis is placed on the ecosystem-related approach and thus on comparison of various ecosystems and their compartments. The basis for this is a project by the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) aimed at establishing element concentration catalogues in ecosystems (ECCEs). In principle, the intention is

Bernd Markert

256

International Journ Modern Phys B, 24, N24, (2010),5261-5268. A method for creating materials with a desired  

E-print Network

propose in this paper a new method for creating materials with a desired refraction coefficient. We use refraction coefficients of each of the embedded particles. No boundary impedances are necessary to use with a desired refraction coefficient A G Ramm Department of Mathematics Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS

257

Development of a quantitative diagnostic method of estrogen receptor expression levels by immunohistochemistry using organic fluorescent material-assembled nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic fluorescent material-assembled nanoparticles for IHC were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New nanoparticle fluorescent intensity was 10.2-fold greater than Qdot655. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticle staining analyzed a wide range of ER expression levels in tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticle staining enhanced the quantitative sensitivity for ER diagnosis. -- Abstract: The detection of estrogen receptors (ERs) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using 3,3 Prime -diaminobenzidine (DAB) is slightly weak as a prognostic marker, but it is essential to the application of endocrine therapy, such as antiestrogen tamoxifen-based therapy. IHC using DAB is a poor quantitative method because horseradish peroxidase (HRP) activity depends on reaction time, temperature and substrate concentration. However, IHC using fluorescent material provides an effective method to quantitatively use IHC because the signal intensity is proportional to the intensity of the photon excitation energy. However, the high level of autofluorescence has impeded the development of quantitative IHC using fluorescence. We developed organic fluorescent material (tetramethylrhodamine)-assembled nanoparticles for IHC. Tissue autofluorescence is comparable to the fluorescence intensity of quantum dots, which are the most representative fluorescent nanoparticles. The fluorescent intensity of our novel nanoparticles was 10.2-fold greater than quantum dots, and they did not bind non-specifically to breast cancer tissues due to the polyethylene glycol chain that coated their surfaces. Therefore, the fluorescent intensity of our nanoparticles significantly exceeded autofluorescence, which produced a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio on IHC-imaged cancer tissues than previous methods. Moreover, immunostaining data from our nanoparticle fluorescent IHC and IHC with DAB were compared in the same region of adjacent tissues sections to quantitatively examine the two methods. The results demonstrated that our nanoparticle staining analyzed a wide range of ER expression levels with higher accuracy and quantitative sensitivity than DAB staining. This enhancement in the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity for ERs using our immunostaining method will improve the prediction of responses to therapies that target ERs and progesterone receptors that are induced by a downstream ER signal.

Gonda, Kohsuke, E-mail: gonda@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)] [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Miyashita, Minoru [Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Watanabe, Mika; Takahashi, Yayoi [Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Hospital, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)] [Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Hospital, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Goda, Hideki; Okada, Hisatake; Nakano, Yasushi [Optical and Biological R and D Center, Konica Minolta Technology Center, Inc., No. 1 Sakuramachi, Hino-shi, Tokyo 191-8511 (Japan)] [Optical and Biological R and D Center, Konica Minolta Technology Center, Inc., No. 1 Sakuramachi, Hino-shi, Tokyo 191-8511 (Japan); Tada, Hiroshi [Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Amari, Masakazu [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)] [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Ohuchi, Noriaki [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan) [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)

2012-09-28

258

Numerical simulations used for a validity check on the laser induced photo-detachment diagnostic method in electronegative plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Laser photo-detachment is used as a method to measure or determine the negative ion density and temperature in electronegative plasmas. In essence, the method consists of producing an electropositive channel (negative ion free region) via pulsed laser photo-detachment within an electronegative plasma bulk. Electrostatic probes placed in this channel measure the change in the electron density. A second pulse might be used to track the negative ion recovery. From this, the negative ion density and temperature can be determined. We study the formation and relaxation of the electropositive channel via a two-dimensional Particle-In-Cell/Mote Carlo collision model. The simulation is mainly carried out in a Hydrogen plasma with an electronegativity of ??=?1, with a parametric study for ? up to 20. The temporal and spatial evolution of the plasma potential and the electron densities shows the formation of a double layer (DL) confining the photo-detached electrons within the electropositive channel. This DL evolves into two fronts that move in the opposite directions inside and outside of the laser spot region. As a consequence, within the laser spot region, the background and photo-detached electron energy distribution function relaxes/thermalizes via collisionless effects such as Fermi acceleration and Landau damping. Moreover, the simulations show that collisional effects and the DL electric field strength might play a non-negligible role in the negative ion recovery within the laser spot region, leading to a two-temperature negative ion distribution. The latter result might have important effects in the determination of the negative ion density and temperature from laser photo detachment diagnostic.

Oudini, N. [Laboratoire des plasmas de décharges, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Cité du 20 Aout BP 17 Baba Hassen, 16081 Algiers (Algeria); Taccogna, F. [Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CNR, via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Bendib, A. [Laboratoire d'Electronique Quantique, Faculté de Physique, USTHB, El Alia BP 32, Bab Ezzouar 16111, Algiers (Algeria); Aanesland, A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas (CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris-Sud), École Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

2014-06-15

259

Numerical simulations used for a validity check on the laser induced photo-detachment diagnostic method in electronegative plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser photo-detachment is used as a method to measure or determine the negative ion density and temperature in electronegative plasmas. In essence, the method consists of producing an electropositive channel (negative ion free region) via pulsed laser photo-detachment within an electronegative plasma bulk. Electrostatic probes placed in this channel measure the change in the electron density. A second pulse might be used to track the negative ion recovery. From this, the negative ion density and temperature can be determined. We study the formation and relaxation of the electropositive channel via a two-dimensional Particle-In-Cell/Mote Carlo collision model. The simulation is mainly carried out in a Hydrogen plasma with an electronegativity of ? = 1, with a parametric study for ? up to 20. The temporal and spatial evolution of the plasma potential and the electron densities shows the formation of a double layer (DL) confining the photo-detached electrons within the electropositive channel. This DL evolves into two fronts that move in the opposite directions inside and outside of the laser spot region. As a consequence, within the laser spot region, the background and photo-detached electron energy distribution function relaxes/thermalizes via collisionless effects such as Fermi acceleration and Landau damping. Moreover, the simulations show that collisional effects and the DL electric field strength might play a non-negligible role in the negative ion recovery within the laser spot region, leading to a two-temperature negative ion distribution. The latter result might have important effects in the determination of the negative ion density and temperature from laser photo detachment diagnostic.

Oudini, N.; Taccogna, F.; Bendib, A.; Aanesland, A.

2014-06-01

260

Anthropometric and Biochemical Characteristics of Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Diagnosed by Non-Invasive Diagnostic Methods  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Introduction: Non-alcoholic (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of disease states, from steatosis (fatty liver) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (also called NASH steatosis with inflammatory changes) followed by progression to fibrosis and cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma Excess liver fat is believed to be a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and not surprisingly NASH is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes in humans. Aim of the study: is to establish anthropometric and biochemical specificities in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis diagnosed with non-invasive diagnostic methods Material and methods: Study enrolled 170 participants, 130 with NASH steatosis. The non-alcoholic group (control), consisted of 40 normal weight patients without metabolic syndrome. Alcohol intake was estimated with established protocol. Routine biochemistry analysis were performed by standard laboratory procedures; serum levels of serum levels of fasting cholesterol and triglycerides, fasting glucose and insulin, insulin resistance estimated by HOMA index (Homeostasis model assessment), biochemistry tests and a liver ultrasound examination. Results: In study participants group, patients were more obese comparing with controls p < 0, 01, waist line extent also was of greater statistical significance in the non-alcoholic group fatty liver (p < 0, 01). Comparing biochemical parameter values, significant statistical deference has been noted in glaucosis and insulin levels, total cholesterol and gama-glutamil transferase levels, between groups (p<0, 01). Fasting glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR were significantly greater in study cohort group patients, as was significantly positive correlation between BMI and waist line extent. Conclusion: Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver are excessively obese, have greater waist line extent, consequently insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, risk factors known to be associated with the development of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24783906

Novakovic, Tatjana; Mekic, Mevludin; Smilic, Ljiljana; Smilic, Tanja; Ini?-Kostic, Biljana; Jovicevic, Ljiljana; Mirkovic, Zlatica; Milinic, Srbislava

2014-01-01

261

A new active method for the measurement of slow-neutron fluence in modern radiotherapy treatment rooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work focuses on neutron monitoring at clinical linac facilities during high-energy modality radiotherapy treatments. Active in-room measurement of neutron fluence is a complex problem due to the pulsed nature of the fluence and the presence of high photon background, and only passive methods have been considered reliable until now. In this paper we present a new active method to perform real-time measurement of neutron production around a medical linac. The device readout is being investigated as an estimate of patient neutron dose exposure on each radiotherapy session. The new instrument was developed based on neutron interaction effects in microelectronic memory devices, in particular using neutron-sensitive SRAM devices. This paper is devoted to the description of the instrument and measurement techniques, presenting the results obtained together with their comparison and discussion. Measurements were performed in several standard clinical linac facilities, showing high reliability, being insensitive to the photon fluence and EM pulse present inside the radiotherapy room, and having detector readout statistical relative uncertainties of about 2% on measurement of neutron fluence produced by 1000 monitor units irradiation runs.

Gómez, F.; Iglesias, A.; Sánchez Doblado, F.

2010-02-01

262

Investigation of the Utilization of Modern Industrial Methods, Processes, Ergonomics, and the Internet in the Scientific Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Oct. 1, 2001 Cleveland State University and NASA Glenn Research Center embarked on the above named cooperative agreement. Because NASA's research facilities often exhibit instances where the failure to use state-of-the-art technologies and methods to improve on outmoded systems of interface and control, and this runs contrary to the NASA philosophy of "faster, better, and cheaper", it was deemed an ideal opportunity for this collaboration. The main objectives of the proposed effort were to research and investigate the use of the latest technologies, methods, techniques, etc. which pertain to control and interface with industrial and research systems and facilities. The work was done in large part at NASA Glenn Research Center, using selected research facilities as real-world laboratories; such as certain Microgravity Science Division and Space Station projects. Microgravity Science Division at Glenn Research Center designs and builds experiments to be flown on the Space Shuttle and eventually on the International Space Station. Economy of space, weight, complexity, data storage, ergonomics, and many other factors present problems that also exist in industry. Many of the solutions can come from the same areas of study mentioned above.

Myer, Spencer S., Jr.

2005-01-01

263

On the understanding and development of modern physical neurorehabilitation methods: robotics and non-invasive brain stimulation  

PubMed Central

The incidence of physical disability in the community resulting from neurological dysfunction is predicted to increase in the coming years. The impetus for immediate and critical evaluation of physical neurorehabilitation strategies stems from the largely incomplete recovery following neurological damage, questionable efficacy of individual rehabilitation techniques, and the progressive acceptance of evidence-based medicine. The emergent technologies of non-invasive brain stimulation (NBS) and rehabilitation robotics enable a better understanding of the recovery process, as well as the mechanisms and effectiveness of intervention. With a more precise grasp of the relationship between dysfunctional and treatment-related plasticity, we can anticipate a move toward highly controlled and individualised prescription of rehabilitation. Both robotics and NBS can also be used to enhance motor control and learning in patients with neurological dysfunction. The merit of these contemporary methods as investigative and rehabilitation tools requires clarification and discussion. In this thematic series, five cohesive and eloquent papers address this issue from leading clinicians and scientists in the fields of robotics, NBS, plasticity and motor learning. PMID:19183466

Edwards, Dylan J

2009-01-01

264

ICALEO '90 - Optical methods in flow and particle diagnostics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Boston, MA, Nov. 4-9, 1990  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attention is given to multiple species CARS in turbulent jet flames, simultaneous measurements of temperature and density in air flows using UV laser spectroscopy, a combination of multispecies Raman scattering with molecular fluorescence, planar laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics for large scale test facilities, evidence of local stagnation in supersonic mixing layers using 1D laser Rayleigh and Raman scattering, vorticity field measurements using laser induced photochemical anemometry, and combustion diagnostics by 2D laser induced fluorescence using tunable excimer lasers. Attention is also given to a single laser apparatus for writing patterns into unseeded air, single exposure double frame particle image velocimeters, holographic recording of 3D flow configurations for particle image velocimetry, and flow field diagnostics by spectrally filtered Rayleigh scattering. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

265

Phospholipid Autoantibodies and the Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: Diagnostic Accuracy of 23 Methods Studied by Variation in ROC Curves with Number of Clinical Manifestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We analyzed the diagnostic accuracies for the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) of 23 antiphospholipid antibody (APL-Ab) assays targeted at different antigen preparations and immunoglobulin isotypes. Methods: In 144 patients with suspected APS, anti- cardiolipin (aCL) and anti-2-glycoprotein I (a2GPI) antibodies were measured with 23 different ELISAs from three manufacturers. Data were analyzed by ROC curves. In the absence

Jan-Christian Wasmuth; Desamparados Oliver; Angela Homrighausen; Ludger Leifeld; Jurgen K. Rockstroh; Tilman Sauerbruch; Ulrich Spengler

266

Predictive research methods of enamel and dentine for initial caries detection  

PubMed Central

Currently, various research methods of enamel and dentine for precautionary diagnostics of initial caries forms are developed; however, the vast majority of these do not provide objective criteria of caries diagnostics or are very difficult to perform. Therefore, the search of diagnostics and enamel research methods, which will allow predicting caries emergence and to carry out personalised prevention of this pathology, is necessary. In this review, modern diagnostic methods that allow understanding the main aspects of caries process, assess the risk of its development, and also suggest the possibility of emergency prevention of caries progression in the nearest future are presented. PMID:23800183

2013-01-01

267

Predictive research methods of enamel and dentine for initial caries detection.  

PubMed

Currently, various research methods of enamel and dentine for precautionary diagnostics of initial caries forms are developed; however, the vast majority of these do not provide objective criteria of caries diagnostics or are very difficult to perform. Therefore, the search of diagnostics and enamel research methods, which will allow predicting caries emergence and to carry out personalised prevention of this pathology, is necessary. In this review, modern diagnostic methods that allow understanding the main aspects of caries process, assess the risk of its development, and also suggest the possibility of emergency prevention of caries progression in the nearest future are presented. PMID:23800183

Kunin, Anatoly A; Belenova, Irina A; Ippolitov, Yury A; Moiseeva, Natalia S; Kunin, Dmitry A

2013-01-01

268

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Study to Investigate the Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and the Sensitivity of its Diagnostic Methods in Iran  

PubMed Central

Context: Helicobacter pylori is the most common infecting organism affecting humans, being almost half the population infected. The aim of this study was to find out the epidemiological features and the sensitivity of diagnostic methods of Helicobacter pylori infection in Iran, which can provide the logic of developing preventive approaches to control Helicobacter pylori infections and the associated diseases. Evidence Acquisition: By reviewing the databases of SID, MAGIRAN, SCOPUS, MEDLIB, Google, ISI and PUBMED, a total of 30 papers, published from 1994 to 2011, were extracted. Summary prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using random-effects model. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA Ver.11. Results: Among the 30 studies evaluated, the prevalence rate of Helicobacter pylori infections in Iran was estimated as 50.7 % (95% CI: 44.4-56.9%). When the sensitivity of diagnostic methods was evaluated, ELISA, with an accuracy rate of 52.3% (95% CI: 43.8 to 60.8%) was found the most accurate diagnostic method available. The highest and the least Helicobacter pylori prevalence were 19.2% in Tehran and 74.27% in Mazandran respectively. Conclusions: About half the population in Iran is infected with Helicobacter pylori, the pollution in different areas and preventive strategies should be carried out to control this infection. The prevalence rate of Helicobacter pylori infections in Iran showed only little changes during the years 1994 to 2011. PMID:25068041

Sayehmiri, Fatemeh; Darvishi, Zahra; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Soroush, Setareh; Emaneini, Mohammad; Zarrilli, Raffaele; Taherikalani, Morovat

2014-01-01

269

[Diagnosis of mammary gland diseases using microwave thermography: a study on adjunctive diagnostic methods in relation to different factors in breast diseases].  

PubMed

Since 1982, a 4.7 GHz microwave radiometer has been used for diagnosis of mammary gland diseases by obtaining temperature information on the region surrounding deeply located tumors. The subjects comprised 95 cases of malignant tumors and 331 cases of benign tumors (total, 426 cases). The analysis of the diagnostic results showed a 91.3% specificity, 72.6% sensitivity, 70.4% predictability, and 87.1% accuracy. The method provides different information on temperatures from conventional infrared telethermography and contact thermography due to the tissue permeability of microwave. Utilizing a combination of conventional methods and microwave thermography (MWT), the diagnostic rate was found to be 94.7%, resulting in an accuracy improvement of approximately 10%. Various factors are investigated for their effects on MWT diagnosis. No significant difference was seen with respect to histologic types. Although significant difference was seen with respect to histologic types. Although significant difference was not observed in relation to the diameter of the tumor, the diagnostic rate in T1 cases, which was 75.0% using two conventional methods, was improved to 100% when combined with MWT. Tumor depth revealed no significant difference. Tumor vascular density showed a high correlation with temperature measured by MWT. PMID:2385225

Maeda, T

1990-05-01

270

Diagnosing Examinees' Attributes-Mastery Using the Bayesian Inference for Binomial Proportion: A New Method for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA) is a new theoretical framework for psychological and educational testing that is designed to provide detailed information about examinees' strengths and weaknesses in specific knowledge structures and processing skills. During the last three decades, more than a dozen psychometric models have been developed…

Kim, Hyun Seok John

2011-01-01

271

[The diagnostic of chronic infection Helicobacter pylori in children].  

PubMed

The epidemiological studies testify an extremely high prevalence of chronic infection of children with Helicobacter pylori in Russia. The affection consists from 50% to 80% depending on region and age of examined children. The currently in force recommendations "Maastricht IV" concerning diagnostic and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection adult patients are applied not in its fullness to children adolescent population. At the same time recently published joint conciliatory document of the European and North American associations of pediatric gastroenterologists is oriented to populations with low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and particular profile of drug resistance. Hence, an urgent need exists to develop modern local algorithm concerning diagnostic, treatment and control of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection among children and adolescents in Russia. The review presents analysis of admissibility of application in Russia's conditions of the international conciliatory documents concerning diagnostic of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. The data from conciliatory document of the European (ESPGHAN) and North American (NASPGHAN) associations of pediatric gastroenterologists, particular orginal research studies and one's own clinical experience were used. The advantages and shortcomings of actual methods of laboratory diagnostic of Helicobacter pylori infection are discussed. The approaches to application of particular diagnostic methods are considered. The enhanced indications to detection of infection and implementation of eradication therapy are proposed. PMID:25069234

Tereschenko, S Yu; Olkhovskiy, I A

2014-02-01

272

Diagnostics method for the rapid quantitative detection and identification of low-level contamination of high-purity water with pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

High-purity water (HPW) can be contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms, which may result in human infection. Current culture-based techniques for the detection of microorganisms from HPW can be slow and laborious. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid method for the quantitative detection and identification of pathogenic bacteria causing low-level contamination of HPW. A novel internally controlled multiplex real-time PCR diagnostics assay was designed and optimized to specifically detect and identify Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Burkholderia genus. Sterile HPW, spiked with a bacterial load ranging from 10 to 10(3) cfu/100 ml, was filtered and the bacterial cells were removed from the filters by sonication. Total genomic DNA was then purified from these bacteria and subjected to testing with the developed novel multiplex real-time PCR diagnostics assay. The specific P. aeruginosa and Burkholderia genus assays have an analytical sensitivity of 3.5 genome equivalents (GE) and 3.7 GE, respectively. This analysis demonstrated that it was possible to detect a spiked bacterial load of 1.06 × 10(2) cfu/100 ml for P. aeruginosa and 2.66 × 10(2) cfu/100 ml for B. cepacia from a 200-ml filtered HPW sample. The rapid diagnostics method described can reliably detect, identify, and quantify low-level contamination of HPW with P. aeruginosa and the Burkholderia genus in <4 h. We propose that this rapid diagnostics method could be applied to the pharmaceutical and clinical sectors to assure the safety and quality of HPW, medical devices, and patient-care equipment. PMID:23783648

Minogue, Elizabeth; Reddington, Kate; Dorai-Raj, Siobhan; Tuite, Nina; Clancy, Eoin; Barry, Thomas

2013-09-01

273

[Methods of mathematical modeling in morphological diagnostics of Chernobyl factor influence on the testes of coal miners of Donbas--the Chernobyl disaster fighters].  

PubMed

The morphometric estimation of parenchyma and stroma condition included the determination of 29 parameters in testicles at 27 persons. The mathematical model of morphogenesis of testicles was created by Bayes' method. The method of differential diagnosis of testicles tissues' changes conditioned by the influence of the Chernobyl factor and/or unfavorable terms of the work in underground coal mines have been worked out. Its practical use provides exactness and reliability of the diagnosis (not less than 95%), independence from the level of the qualification and personal experience of the doctor, allows us to unify, optimize and individualize the diagnostic algorithms, answer the requirements of evidential medicine. PMID:24908955

Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

2014-01-01

274

Modern problems of thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of energy and methods of its saving for the development of human society and life are analyzed. The importance of future use of space energy flows and energy of water and air oceans is emphasized. The authors consider the idea of the unit for production of electric energy and pure substances using sodium chloride which reserves are limitless on the planet. Looking retrospectively at the development of power engineering from the elementary fire to modern electric power station, we see that the used method of heat production, namely by direct interaction of fuel and oxidizer, is the simplest. However, it may be possible to combust coal, i.e., carbon in salt melt, for instance, sodium chloride that would be more rational and efficient. If the stated problems are solved positively, we would master all energy properties of the substance; and this is the main problem of thermodynamics being one of the sciences on energy.

Novikov, I. I.

2012-12-01

275

Sedimentology of rocky shorelines: 1. A review of the problem, with analytical methods, and insights gained from the Hulopoe Gravel and the modern rocky shoreline of Lanai, Hawaii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypotheses advanced concerning the origin of the Pleistocene Hulopoe Gravel on Lanai include mega-tsunami, abandoned beach, 'multiple event,' rocky shoreline, and for parts of the deposit, Native Hawaiian constructions and degraded lava flow fronts. Uplift of Lanai shorelines has been suggested for deposits occurring up to at least 190 m. These conflicting hypotheses highlight problems with the interpretation of coarse gravel deposits containing marine biotic remains. The geological records of the processes implied by these hypotheses should look very different. Discrimination among these or any other hypotheses for the origins of the Hulopoe Gravel will require careful study of vertical and lateral variations in litho- and biofacies, facies architecture, contact relationships and stratal geometries of this deposit. Observations of modern rocky shorelines, particularly on Lanai adjacent to Hulopoe Gravel outcrops, have shown that distinctive coarse gravel facies are present, several of which occur in specific geomorphic settings. Tectonic, isostatic and eustatic changes which cause rapid shoreline translations on steep slopes favour preservation of former rocky shorelines and associated sedimentary deposits both above and below sea level. The sedimentary record of those shorelines is likely to be complex. The modern rocky shoreline sedimentary environment is a hostile one, largely neglected by sedimentologists. A range of high-energy processes characterize these shorelines. Long-period swell, tsunami and storm waves can erode hard bedrock and generate coarse gravel. They also erode older deposits, depositing fresh ones containing mixtures of materials of different ages. Additional gravelly material may be contributed by rivers draining steep hinterlands. To fully evaluate rocky shoreline deposition in the broadest sense, for both the Hulopoe Gravel and other deposits, sedimentary facies models are needed for rocky shorelines occurring in a range of settings. Recognition and description of rocky shoreline deposits are crucial for correctly interpreting the geological history of oceanic and volcanic arc islands, for distinguishing between ancient tsunami and storm deposits, and for interpreting coarse-grained deposits preserved on high energy coasts of continents. Problems include not only the absence of appropriate sedimentary facies models linking rocky shoreline deposits and environments but also, until recently, lack of a systematic descriptive scheme applicable to coarse gravel deposits generally. Two complementary methods serve to integrate the wide range of bed and clast attributes and parameters which characterize complex coarse gravel deposits. The composition and fabric (CAF) method has a materials focus, providing detailed description of attributes of the constituent clasts, petrology, the proportions of gravel, sand and mud, and the ways in which these materials are organized. The sedimentary facies model building (FMB) method emphasizes the organization of a deposit on a bed-by-bed basis to identify facies and infer depositional processes. The systematic use of a comprehensive gravel fabric and petrography log (GFPL), in conjunction with detailed vertical profiles, provides visual representations of a range of deposit characteristics. Criteria useful for distinguishing sedimentary facies in the Hulopoe Gravel are: grain-size modes, amount of matrix, bed geometry, sedimentary structures, bed fabric and clast roundness.

Felton, E. Anne

2002-10-01

276

Research Explains Modern Art!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This tongue-in-cheek article calls for the critical reexamination of the history of modern art. The author believes that modern art is neither an extension of the Renaissance aesthetic nor a collective by-product of artists possessed of creative genius. Creators of modern art were actually representational artists suffering from visual stuttering.…

Eickhorst, William S.

1985-01-01

277

Modern Miracle Medical Machines: Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity teaches the physics of magnetic resonance imaging and NMR. It begins with instruction on the basics of magnetism, electromagnetism, and resonance and applies these topics to the operation of magnetic resonance equipment for medical diagnostics. This activity includes both hands-on exercises and computer visualizations. Information on the construction of the measurement apparatus is available in the instructor resources for the Modern Miracle Medical Machines web site. This one of a growing set of activities developed by the Kansas State University Physics Education Research group on the physics of modern medicine.

Murphy, Sytil K.

2010-06-08

278

Modern imaging modalities in the assessment of acute stroke.  

PubMed

The aim of this review was to present the modern concepts of diagnostic imaging in acute stroke. Neuroimaging in acute stroke aims at diagnosing the condition as early as possible and assessing the extent of parenchymal perfusion and the intracranial vessels patency. A modern approach would involve a combination of various imaging modalities as multidetector computed tomography and high field magnetic resonance imaging. A non-enhanced computed tomography (CT) is used to detect hemorrhage or to identify early signs of ischemic stroke. CT angiography finds evidence of intravascular thrombi or significant stenoses, and CT perfusion displays brain tissue at risk of irreversible alterations that can be salvaged therapeutically. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a more sensitive modality than CT in diagnosing acute brain ischemia. MR diffusion-weighted imaging is more sensitive than conventional MR sequences in hyperacute stage. MR angiography as a non-invasive and non-ionizing imaging method is used as an alternative modality to CT angiography. To find brain tissue at risk diffusion- and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging modalities are used. The authors present briefly the modern neuroimaging modalities used in patients with transient ischemic attack, minor stroke and venous infarction. By combining different imaging techniques in a multimodal approach we can acquire the information necessary for therapeutic planning and differentiate patients who need thrombolysis. PMID:25181844

Zlatareva, Dora K; Traykova, Nikoleta I

2014-01-01

279

[Diagnostic accuracy].  

PubMed

Clinical decision making while making a diagnosis is based on pre-test probability evaluation, a decision whether further tests are needed, and post-test probability evaluation based on test results. The add value of the test is the increase in probability, which depends on its diagnostic accuracy. Some measures of diagnostic accuracy are sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, likelihood ratio, area under the curve, Youden index, and diagnostic odds ratio. ROC curve is the most efficient way of graphic description of the relationship between sensitivity and specificity. Diagnostic accuracy of a test is evaluated in a cross-sectional study on a group of individuals subjected simultaneously to the index test and the gold standard. All parameters of diagnostic accuracy are very sensitive to the study design, therefore it is of utmost importance to perform and write a study to adhere to the proposed STARD standards. This lecture gives an insight into the basics of biostatistical terminology from the field of diagnostic accuracy. PMID:16526310

Simundi?, Ana-Maria

2006-01-01

280

The method of polarization selection of laser images in diagnostics of polycrystalline structure of human bile layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the possibility of polarization correlometry complex distributions of azimuth and ellipticity of laser images polarization of layers of human bile. Were found new approach of comparative analysis of polarization of different points in the far field. The principles of optical model of human bile polycrystalline structure are described. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical, correlation and fractal parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of mutual polarization degree of the points of laser images of bile smears of cholelithiasis patients in combination with other pathologies. The diagnostic criteria of the cholelithiasis nascency and its severity degree differentiation are determined.

Ivashchuk, I. O.; Marchuk, Yu. F.; Fediv, O. I.; Andriychuk, D. R.

2012-01-01

281

The method of polarization selection of laser images in diagnostics of polycrystalline structure of human bile layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the possibility of polarization correlometry complex distributions of azimuth and ellipticity of laser images polarization of layers of human bile. Were found new approach of comparative analysis of polarization of different points in the far field. The principles of optical model of human bile polycrystalline structure are described. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical, correlation and fractal parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of mutual polarization degree of the points of laser images of bile smears of cholelithiasis patients in combination with other pathologies. The diagnostic criteria of the cholelithiasis nascency and its severity degree differentiation are determined.

Ivashchuk, I. O.; Marchuk, Yu. F.; Fediv, O. I.; Andriychuk, D. R.

2011-09-01

282

The modern trends of the evolution laser information technology in oncology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser-optical information technologies and devices develop since the 70- years at the end of 20 century and are broadly used for diagnostics and treatment of oncological diseases to date. Although such methods as photodynamic therapy (PDT), laser-induce thermotherapy (LITT), fluorescent diagnostics and spectrophotometry already more than 30 years are used for treatment and diagnostics of oncological diseases, nevertheless, they are enough new methods and, as a rule, are used in large scientific centers and medical institutions. This is bound, first of all, with lack of information on modern method of cancer treatment, the absence of widely available laser procedures and corresponding devices in the polyclinics and even in district hospitals, as well as insufficient understanding of application areas, where laser methods has an advantage by comparison, for instance, with beam or chemotherapy. At present day laser methods are fast upcoming direction of the treatment oncological diseases. This is explained by progress in development essentially laser, particularly diode, improvement electronic and computing components and broad introduction software-algorithmic methods of control the undertaking therapeutic and diagnostic procedures. In article are considered new laser methods of the undertaking diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and is shown that introduction multiwave laser radiation for probe and influences on tissue, the different methods of the determination of the functional state of tissues, realization of the on-line diagnostics when carrying out the therapeutic procedures, automatic control systems of the power laser radiation, which depends on state patient tissue, as well as software-algorithmic methods of management session therapeutic and diagnostic procedures greatly raises efficiency of the treatment oncological diseases. On an example of the multipurpose laser therapeutic devices("MLTA") developed and introduced in clinical practice and multipurpose laser diagnostic complexes ("MLDC"), the realizing offered methods, are shown the basic tendencies of development laser methods in oncology, concrete technical decisions and the experimental clinical material showing increase of efficiency of treatment of a cancer at their realization are resulted. It is shown, that realization of the offered methods and technical technologies opens new competitive advantages laser technologies in comparison with beam and chemical-therapy at treatment of oncological diseases.

Mikov, A. A.; Svirin, V. N.

2008-04-01

283

Diagnostic Immunopathology  

PubMed Central

The application of immunologic techniques to tissue sections has added a new dimension to the investigation and classification of various processes. Virtually every section of diagnostic pathology has been enhanced by using specific monoclonal antibodies or polyclonal antiserum. Neoplasms formerly diagnosed as poorly differentiated or anaplastic may be precisely identified as to their origin through the use of specific membrane or cytoplasmic markers. Other cellular products, including viruses, hormones, enzymes or highly specific proteins, are also available to study neoplastic and nonneoplastic processes. New and more specific reagents are regularly becoming available for the diagnostic repertoire of pathologists. We present some of the principles of diagnostic immunopathology to show the scope and importance of the techniques. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3. PMID:3529633

Cancilla, Pasquale A.; Cochran, Alistair J.; Naeim, Faramarz; Said, Jonathan W.

1986-01-01

284

Assessment of performance ability of three diagnostic methods for detection of Potato Leafroll virus (PLRV) using different visualizing systems.  

PubMed

To diminish the time required for some diagnostic assays including reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP; due to mainly RNA extraction step) and also DAS-ELISA into a minimum level, an innovative immunocapture RT-LAMP (IC-RT-LAMP) and immunocapture reverse transcription (IC/RT-PCR) protocol on the basis of Potato Leafroll virus (PLRV) genome were used and optimized. In this regard, all six IC-RT-LAMP primers (i.e. F3, B3, FIP, BIP, LF and LB) together with IC/RT-PCR primers were designed on the basis of the highly conserved sequence (ORF3) of coat protein gene (GenBank accession number: U73777) of PLRV genome. Even though DAS-ELISA, IC/RT-PCR and IC-RT-LAMP assays could successfully detect positive infected plant samples, considering the time, safety, sensitivity, cost and simplicity, the last one was overall superior. Meanwhile, among five different visual dyes to accurately detect IC-RT-LAMP products, both hydroxynaphthol blue and GeneFinder™ could produce long stable colour change and brightness in a close tube-based approach to prevent cross-contamination risk, concluded eventually as the best ones. Altogether, as IC-RT-LAMP is sensitive, cost-effective, fairly user friendly and also can generate more accurate results than previous diagnostic procedures, we accordingly propose this colorimetric assay as a highly reliable alternative viral recognition system regarding PLRV recognition and probably other viral-based diseases. PMID:22907514

Almasi, Mohammad Amin; Moradi, Aboubakr; Nasiri, Jaber; Karami, Soraya; Nasiri, Mojtaba

2012-10-01

285

Waldenström's macroglobulinemia as a diagnostic challenge: case report.  

PubMed

Waldenström's macroglobulinemia is a distinct clinicopathologic entity defined as a B-cell neoplasm characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate in the bone marrow, with an associated immunoglobulin (Ig) M paraprotein. Clinical manifestations are due to deposition of IgM in the liver, spleen, and/or lymph nodes, so it presents with anemia, hyperviscosity, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and neurologic symptoms. The main diagnostic criteria are a typical peak on serum protein electrophoresis and malignant cells in bone marrow biopsy samples. There is no standard therapy for the treatment of symptomatic Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia and no agents have been specifically approved for this disease, but initial treatment usually starts with the monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab, either alone or in combination with other agents, rather than chemotherapy alone. This article confirms that, despite the existence of more modern imaging methods, ultrasonography still has a significant diagnostic role. PMID:24974671

Budimir, Ivan; Nikoli?, Marko; Pusi?, Mateja Sabol; Hrabar, Davor; Ljubici?, Neven; Duvnjak, Marko; Supanc, Vladimir; Nikolac, Ivana; Babi?, Nenad; Sokcevi?, Marija

2014-03-01

286

Nuclear weapons modernizations  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

2014-05-09

287

Nuclear weapons modernizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

Kristensen, Hans M.

2014-05-01

288

Assessment of diagnostic methods in adrenal gland hemorrhage in neonates on the basis of own material from the years 2007–2011  

PubMed Central

Summary We analyzed a group of nine neonates diagnosed with adrenal gland hemorrhage in the years 2007–2011, to evaluate diagnostic methods. We assessed risk factors and factors predisposing to hemorrhage. Severe and moderate perinatal hypoxia was found in 5 cases, while sepsis in 4 cases. Three patients had bilateral adrenal hemorrhage. All patients underwent ultrasound examination and color Doppler US. Their levels of vanillyl-mandelic acid in 24-h urine collection were normal. A complete regression of changes without evidence of adrenal hemorrhage or vascular flow on color Doppler US was found in the period from the 20th to the 165th day of life. Conclusions: 1. Color Doppler ultrasound findings, observation of the evolution of changes and a lack of vascular flow in adrenal glands, are suggestive of bleeding. Color Doppler ultrasound seems to be the most important diagnostic method. 2. The level of urinary catecholamine metabolites (vanillyl-mandelic acid) does not fulfill the role of screening test for neuroblastoma. However, increased levels of these metabolites may suggest a diagnosis other than the adrenal hemorrhage. PMID:22802844

Postek, Grzegorz; Streich, Hanna; Nar?bski, Krzysztof

2011-01-01

289

Isolation and identification of Duck tembusu virus strain lH and development of latex-agglutination diagnostic method for rapid detection of antibodies.  

PubMed

SUMMARY. An outbreak of egg-drop syndrome occurred on a Sheldrake duck farm in Longhai in Fujian Province, China, in 2012. The main clinical symptoms were sharply reduced egg production, crooked necks, and death. We isolated the virus from the sick ducks, identified it, and observed the histopathologic changes after viral infection. We detected viral RNA in the blood and feces of the infected ducks and developed a latex-agglutination diagnostic method to detect anti-Tembusu-virus antibodies. Our results show that the pathogenic virus is a Tembusu virus. The histopathologic changes included follicular cell degeneration and necrosis, follicular cavity filled with blood cells, massive necrosis in the brain, and degeneration and necrosis of the nerve and glial cells. When the transmission of the virus in the infected ducks was studied, the duck blood was positive for viral nucleic acid for up to 29 days, and the feces were positive for viral nucleic acid for up to 13 days. We successfully established a simple, rapid, and easy- to-use latex-agglutination diagnostic method for the detection of antibodies against duck Tembusu virus. PMID:25619007

Wang, Quanxi; Wen, Yaping; Yifan Huang; Wu, Yijian; Cai, Yilong; Xu, Lihui; Wang, Changkang; Li, Ang; Wu, Baocheng; Chen, Jilong

2014-12-01

290

Data collection framework for vehicular On-Board-Diagnostic systems  

E-print Network

Most modern vehicles contain an On-Board-Diagnostic (OBD) system that can collect a wide range of system data from the vehicle. In aggregation, such data could be applied towards solving the problems of accident prevention, ...

Liu, Chenxia

2011-01-01

291

Realizing the fault diagnostic system in maglev suspension train system (MSTS) based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since maglev train system is a large system, it is difficult to diagnose the fault to the whole train extent by traditional method of fault diagnosing. The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is usually applied to most large systems, which can consider many factors of a large system. Firstly the principle of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is introduced, then concerned about

Zhiqiang Long; Zhiguo Lv; Huajie Hong

2002-01-01

292

Technical Diagnostics of Equipment and Constructions with Residual Life Assessment Using the Method of Metal Magnetic Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems of metal components' residual life assessment and ways of their solution based on quick NDT methods are considered. The article considers the abilities of the method of metal magnetic memory (MMM method) to detect crack initiation zones directly on equipment and to trace the development of metal fatigue failure process in these zones. Based on 100% power equipment

Anatoly DUBOV; Sergey KOLOKOLNIKOV

293

Laboratory spectroscopic diagnostics of TLE-like air plasmas: methods to derive the rotational (gas) temperature in TLEs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory low pressure (0.1 mbar < p < 2 mbar) glow air discharges have been studies by optical emission spectroscopy to illustrate several spectroscopic techniques that, depending on the available spectral resolution, could be implemented by different field spectrographs to experimentally quantify the gas temperature associated with Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) occurring at different altitudes including blue jets, giant blue jets and sprites. The laboratory air plasmas investigated have been analysed from the near UV (300 nm) to the near IR (1060 nm) with high (up to 0.01 nm) and low (2 nm) spectral resolution commercial grating spectrographs and by an in-house developed intensified CCD grating spectrograph that we have recently developed in our group at IAA - CSIC for TLE spectral diagnostic surveys with 0.45 nm spectral resolution. We discuss the results of laboratory tests and comment on the convenience of using one or another technique for rotational (gas) temperature determination during TLE spectroscopic campaigns. Finally, we will also show a comparison of the vibrational distribution function (VDF) of N2(B) obtained from (a) experiments in low pressure laboratory air plasmas produced in conditions similar to TLEs, (b) spectroscopic emissions from real TLE air plasmas and (c) compute from kinetic modeling.

Gordillo-Vazquez, F.; Parra-Rojas, F.; Passas, M.; Carrasco, E.; Luque, A.; Tanarro, I.; Simek, M.

2013-12-01

294

A comparison of diagnostic methods for the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in experimental clinical specimens.  

PubMed Central

Virus shedding was monitored in nasal secretions of 12 calves experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) using an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detecting the nucleoprotein (NP) antigen of BRSV, by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying the fusion protein of BRSV, and by a microisolation assay combined with immunoperoxidase staining for the F protein of BRSV. Under the conditions of this study, similar limits of detection and quantitative results were obtained from all three assays. BRSV was detected in nasal secretions of all calves for a minimum of 4 d. Virus shedding began on Day 2 after infection, peaked on Days 3-5, and was cleared in most calves by Day 8. The PCR, and to a lesser extent the ELISA, may detect virus shedding for a longer period after infection than virus isolation, possibly due to neutralization of the virus by rising mucosal antibody. Simulated environmental conditions likely to be experienced during transport of clinical field specimens markedly reduced the sensitivity of virus isolation but had a minimal effect on the results of the NP ELISA. Actual field transport conditions (overnight on ice) had minimal apparent effect on the results of the PCR assay. The less stringent specimen handling requirements, combined with low limits of detection, of both the nucleoprotein ELISA and PCR, indicate either of these assays are more suitable for diagnostic applications than virus isolation. PMID:9798088

West, K; Bogdan, J; Hamel, A; Nayar, G; Morley, P S; Haines, D M; Ellis, J A

1998-01-01

295

Spectroscopic Diagnostics for AGNs  

E-print Network

A review of the spectroscopic tools needed to characterize AGNs is presented. This review focusses on ultraviolet, optical and infrared emission-line diagnostics specifically designed to help differentiate AGNs from starburst-dominated galaxies. The strengths and weaknesses of these methods are discussed in the context of on-going and future AGN surveys.

Sylvain Veilleux

2002-01-08

296

Diagnostics and Microelectronics  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses activities of the Diagnostics and Microelectronics thrust area which conducts activities in semiconductor devices and semiconductor fabrication technology for programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our multidisciplinary engineering and scientific staff use modern computational tools and semi-conductor microfabrication equipment to develop high-performance devices. Our work concentrates on three broad technologies of semiconductor microdevices: (1) silicon on III-V semiconductor microeletronics, (2) lithium niobate-based and III-V semiconductor-based photonics, and (3) silicon-based micromaching for application to microstructures and microinstruments. In FY-92, we worked on projects in seven areas, described in this report: novel photonic detectors; a wideband phase modulator; an optoelectronic terahertz beam system; the fabrication of microelectrode electrochemical sensors; diamond heatsinks; advanced micromachining technologies; and electrophoresis using silicon microchannels.

Balch, J.W.

1993-03-01

297

A real-time laser feedback control method for the three-wave laser source used in the polarimeter-interferometer diagnostic on Joint-TEXT tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-wave laser polarimeter-interferometer, equipped with three independent far-infrared laser sources, has been developed on Joint-TEXT (J-TEXT) tokamak. The diagnostic system is capable of high-resolution temporal and phase measurement of the Faraday angle and line-integrated density. However, for long-term operation (>10 min), the free-running lasers can lead to large drifts of the intermediate frequencies (˜100-˜500 kHz/10 min) and decay of laser power (˜10%-˜20%/10 min), which act to degrade diagnostic performance. In addition, these effects lead to increased maintenance cost and limit measurement applicability to long pulse/steady state experiments. To solve this problem, a real-time feedback control method of the laser source is proposed. By accurately controlling the length of each laser cavity, both the intermediate frequencies and laser power can be simultaneously controlled: the intermediate frequencies are controlled according to the pre-set values, while the laser powers are maintained at an optimal level. Based on this approach, a real-time feedback control system has been developed and applied on J-TEXT polarimeter-interferometer. Long-term (theoretically no time limit) feedback of intermediate frequencies (maximum change less than ±12 kHz) and laser powers (maximum relative power change less than ±7%) has been successfully achieved.

Xiong, C. Y.; Chen, J.; Li, Q.; Liu, Y.; Gao, L.

2014-12-01

298

A real-time laser feedback control method for the three-wave laser source used in the polarimeter-interferometer diagnostic on Joint-TEXT tokamak.  

PubMed

A three-wave laser polarimeter-interferometer, equipped with three independent far-infrared laser sources, has been developed on Joint-TEXT (J-TEXT) tokamak. The diagnostic system is capable of high-resolution temporal and phase measurement of the Faraday angle and line-integrated density. However, for long-term operation (>10 min), the free-running lasers can lead to large drifts of the intermediate frequencies (?100-?500 kHz/10 min) and decay of laser power (?10%-?20%/10 min), which act to degrade diagnostic performance. In addition, these effects lead to increased maintenance cost and limit measurement applicability to long pulse/steady state experiments. To solve this problem, a real-time feedback control method of the laser source is proposed. By accurately controlling the length of each laser cavity, both the intermediate frequencies and laser power can be simultaneously controlled: the intermediate frequencies are controlled according to the pre-set values, while the laser powers are maintained at an optimal level. Based on this approach, a real-time feedback control system has been developed and applied on J-TEXT polarimeter-interferometer. Long-term (theoretically no time limit) feedback of intermediate frequencies (maximum change less than ±12 kHz) and laser powers (maximum relative power change less than ±7%) has been successfully achieved. PMID:25554288

Xiong, C Y; Chen, J; Li, Q; Liu, Y; Gao, L

2014-12-01

299

[Quantitative image analysis as a scanning method in histopathological routine diagnostics applied for instance to chronical liver diseases (author's transl)].  

PubMed

A method is given by means of which histological image contents can quantitatively be determined with the help of electronic image analysis. A case of a chronical liver disease is quoted as instance for the application of the method in routine diagnosis. A possibility is shown to open quantitative and reproducible computation to descriptive histopathology. PMID:1107750

Schwalbach, G

1975-11-01

300

Advances in Diagnostic Bronchoscopy  

PubMed Central

Diagnostic bronchoscopy has undergone two major paradigm shifts in the last 40 years. First, the advent of flexible bronchoscopy gave chest physicians improved access to the tracheobronchial tree with a rapid learning curve and greater patient comfort compared with rigid bronchoscopy. The second paradigm shift has evolved over the last 5 years with the proliferation of new technologies that have significantly enhanced the diagnostic capabilities of flexible bronchoscopy compared with traditional methods. At the forefront of these new technologies is endobronchial ultrasound. In its various forms, endobronchial ultrasound has improved diagnostic yield for pulmonary masses, nodules, intrathoracic adenopathy, and disease extent, thereby reducing the need for more invasive surgical interventions. Various navigational bronchoscopy systems have become available to increase flexible bronchoscope access to small peripheral pulmonary lesions. Furthermore, various modalities of airway assessment, including optical microscopic imaging technologies, may play significant roles in the diagnosis of a variety of pulmonary diseases in the future. Finally, the combination of new diagnostic bronchoscopy technologies and novel approaches in molecular analysis and biomarker assessment hold promise for enhanced diagnosis and personalized management of many pulmonary disorders. In this review, we provide a contemporary review of diagnostic bronchoscopy developments over the past decade. PMID:20378726

Haas, Andrew R.; Vachani, Anil; Sterman, Daniel H.

2010-01-01

301

A robust method, based on a novel source, for performance and diagnostic capabilities assessment of the positron emission tomography system.  

PubMed

The aim of our work was to provide a robust method for evaluating imaging performance of positron emission tomography (PET) systems and particularly to estimate the modulation transfer function (MTF) using the line spread function (LSF) method. A novel plane source was prepared using thin layer chromatography (TLC) of a fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) solution. The source was placed within a phantom, and imaged using the whole body (WB) two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) standard imaging protocols in a GE Discovery ST hybrid PET/CT scanner. Modulation transfer function was evaluated by determining the LSF, for various reconstruction methods and filters. The proposed MTF measurement method was validated against the conventional method, based on point spread function (PSF). Higher MTF values were obtained with 3D scanning protocol and 3D iterative reconstruction algorithm. All MTF obtained using 3D reconstruction algorithms showed better preservation of higher frequencies than the 2D algorithms. They also exhibited better contrast and resolution. MTF derived from LSF were more precise compared with those obtained from PSF since their reproducibility was better in all cases, providing a mean standard deviation of 0.0043, in contrary to the PSF method which gave 0.0405. In conclusion, the proposed method is novel and easy to implement for characterization of the signal transfer properties and image quality of PET/computed tomography (CT) systems. It provides an easy way to evaluate the frequency response of each kernel available. The proposed method requires cheap and easily accessible materials, available to the medical physicist in the nuclear medicine department. Furthermore, it is robust to aliasing and since this method is based on the LSF, is more resilient to noise due to greater data averaging than conventional PSF-integration techniques. PMID:25097895

Samartzis, Alexandros P; Fountos, George P; Kandarakis, Ioannis S; Kounadi, Evangelia P; Zoros, Emmanuel N; Skoura, Evangelia; Datseris, Ioannis E; Nikiforides, George H

2014-01-01

302

A simple diagnostic method for the differentiation of Tamm-Horsfall glycoproteins from healthy probands and those from recurrent calcium oxalate renal stone formers.  

PubMed

Tamm-Horsfall glycoproteins (THPs)* from healthy probands, and those from a majority of recurrent calcium oxalate renal stone formers, reveal different properties when analyzed using isoelectric focusing. The pl-values of THPs from healthy probands are approximately 3.5 while THPs from recurrent renal stone formers have pl-values between 4.5 and 6. The two groups of THPs exhibit completely different protein patterns in IEF. This proves the structural difference of these THPs. The differences in IEF analysis allow the differentiation between THPs from healthy probands and those from recurrent calcium oxalate stone formers. These differences could possibly be used as a simple diagnostic method for the recognition of recurrent calcium oxalate renal stone formers. PMID:7498447

Schnierle, P

1995-11-15

303

Reevaluating the modernization hypothesis  

E-print Network

We revisit and critically reevaluate the widely accepted modernization hypothesis which claims that per capita income causes the creation and the consolidation of democracy. Existing studies find support for this hypothesis ...

Johnson, Simon

304

Deconstructing Modern Educational Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses modern educational technology, including postmodernism; deconstruction; the Shannon-Weaver Model for telecommunication apparatus and the epistemology of educational technology; the systems approach; and possible demands of postmodern educational technology, including technoscience, instructional design issues, and cultural aspects.…

Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

1994-01-01

305

Modern inventory analysis techniques.  

PubMed

Modern techniques for managing pharmacy inventories are described. Pharmacists should rely on modern techniques, such as sort-based and activity-based analyses, for managing pharmacy inventories, containing drug costs, performing replacement-and-elimination analysis, and monitoring the health system's operations. Unit price and quantity are the two basic inventory-control approaches; however, modern techniques recognize quantity as the more useful of the two. The primary areas of the pharmacy's activities must be taken into consideration. Pharmacists must learn to divide inventory analysis problems into sets of smaller issues. Modern inventory analyses that take into account annual quantity, unit price, total annual cost, and the health system's unique activities provide the pharmacist with a practical basis for inventory management. PMID:10714973

Salamie, D

2000-02-15

306

Modern Day Pyramids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate the ways in which ancient technologies — six types of simple machines and combinations — are used to construct modern buildings. As they work together to solve a design problem (designing and building a modern structure), they brainstorm ideas, decide on a design, and submit it to a design review before acquiring materials to create it (in this case, a mural depicting it). Emphasis is placed on cooperative, creative teamwork and the steps of the engineering design process.

2014-09-18

307

Modern Evolutionary Synthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Wickipedia describes the modern evolutionary synthesis. This theory brings together Charles Darwin's theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendel's theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance. Essentially, the modern synthesis (or neo-Darwinism) introduces the connection between two important discoveries; the units of evolution (genes) with the mechanism of evolution (selection). The site features links to any of the topics discussed.

Wikipedia

308

Unnecessary laparotomy by using physical examination and different diagnostic modalities for penetrating abdominal stab wounds  

PubMed Central

Background: The modern management of penetrating abdominal trauma has decreased the incidence of unnecessary laparotomy by using selective non-operative management protocols. However, the real benefits of physical examination and different diagnostic methods are still unclear. Methods: From January 2000 to April 2003, we prospectively collected data on 117 patients with penetrating stab wounds to the thoracoabdominal, anterior abdominal, and back regions who had non-operative management. Clinical examination was the primary tool to differentiate those patients requiring operation. Findings of physical examination, ultrasound, computed tomography, endoscopy, echocardiography, diagnostic peritoneal lavage, and diagnostic laparoscopy were reviewed. The number of therapeutic, non-therapeutic, and negative laparotomies were recorded. Results: Non-operative management was successful in 79% of patients. There were 11 early (within 8 hours of admission) and 14 delayed (more than 8 hours after admission) laparotomies performed, depending on the results of various diagnostic procedures. Non-operative management failed in 21% of patients, and the rate of non-therapeutic laparotomy in early and delayed laparatomy groups was 9% and 14% respectively. There was no negative laparatomy. Conclusions: The use of physical examination alone and/or together with different diagnostic methods allows reduction of non-therapeutic laparotomies and elimination of negative laparatomies. PMID:16244337

Ertekin, C; Yanar, H; Taviloglu, K; Guloglu, R; Alimoglu, O

2005-01-01

309

Combined application of optical methods to increase the information content of optical coherent tomography in diagnostics of neoplastic processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined application of optical methods [optical coherent tomography (OCT), cross-polarisation optical coherent tomography, and fluorescence spectroscopy] is proposed for obtaining information on morphological and biochemical changes occurring in tissues in norm and pathology. It is shown that neoplastic and scar changes in esophagus can be distinguished using a combination of polarisation and standard OCT due to the difference between

R V Kuranov; V V Sapozhnikova; N M Shakhova; V M Gelikonov; E V Zagainova; S A Petrova

2002-01-01

310

Modern and Traditional Medical Practices of Vietnam. Vietnamese Concepts of Illness and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses superstitious, folk, traditional, and modern medical practices of Vietnam. Concepts of illness, somatization, behavior labeling, diagnostic attempts, and attitudes toward treatment among Vietnamese are also reviewed. (APM)

Rieu, Le Tai

311

High energy laser diagnostics - A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DF CW laser system is used as an example to illustrate the requirements for HEL diagnostics. The laser device performance parameters are identified, with primary diagnostics being near field power, near field irradiance, wavelength, angular beam jitter, and beam quality. A variety of component\\/subsystem diagnostics are reviewed, for the gain generator, optical resonator, diffuser\\/ejector and fluid supply subsystems. Methods

F. H. White; G. A. Needham

1982-01-01

312

[Development of diagnostic test system based on fluorescent polarization immunoassay method for detection of antibodies to HCV nucleocapsid protein].  

PubMed

The antigen activity of the synthetic fluorescently labeled peptides, overlapping immunoresponsive epitops a.a. 7-19, 20-34 from N-end part and a.a. 73-85 from the central area of the nucleocapsid protein of C hepatitis virus, was tested using the method of fluorescent polarization immunoassay (FPIA) with 40 samples of the blood serum of patients with viral C hepatitis. A comparative study of analytic characteristics of FPIA method was performed, based on the application of synthesized peptides, as well as of the commercial ELISA test system (BEST anti-HCV-test 4, Vector Best Ltd.). The performed research revealed that the developed method has a high specificity and sensitivity level. The comparability of summary FPIA results with the commercial ELISA test system was 85%, which evidences the prospects of further research in this direction. The principal possibility of the application of the polarization fluorescent immunoassay for the determination of antibodies to the nucleocapsid protein of the C hepatitis virus in clinical serum samples was demonstrated. PMID:23785770

Sharyshev, A A; Bazhenov, A I; Shibnev, V A

2013-01-01

313

HVAC (heating, venting, and air conditioning) system fault diagnosis and energy optimization using state-space methods and modern control theory. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report addresses the fault detection, diagnosis, and control of Heating, Venting, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems. The problems associated with the effective operation of HVAC systems are identified, and a hierarchical framework for the operation of the system is formulated. A modern multivariable control approach, Model Algorithmic Control (MAC), was found to be a suitable approach for integrating the different hierarchies in the operation of the system. A methodology for detecting and diagnosing faults in the system using a nonlinear mathematical model of the system plus extended Kalman filtering was developed. This technique was implemented in a computer program and successfully used to detect planted faults in the air-handling unit of the HVAC system.

Usoro, P.B.; Negahdaripour, S.; Schick, I.C.; Nadira, R.; Larimore, W.E.

1984-08-01

314

Modern diagnostic and therapeutic interventional radiology in lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Imaging has an important role in the multidisciplinary management of primary lung cancer. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art imaging modalities used for the evaluation, staging and post-treatment follow-up and surveillance of lung cancers, and image-guided percutaneous techniques for biopsy to confirm the diagnosis and for local therapy in non-surgical candidates. PMID:24163744

Lau, Eddie W. F.; Chin, Kwang; Sedlaczek, Oliver; Steinke, Karin

2013-01-01

315

MODERN MIRACLE MEDICAL MACHINES: PHYSICS INSTRUCTION FOR FUTURE MEDICAL STUDENTS  

E-print Network

1 MODERN MIRACLE MEDICAL MACHINES: PHYSICS INSTRUCTION FOR FUTURE MEDICAL STUDENTS DEAN ZOLLMAN of the diagnostic devices which are used by physicians have their technological foundation in contemporary physics related to medical diagnosis. Units are planned on x-ray production and absorption, MRI, PET, CT scans

Zollman, Dean

316

Determining similarity in histological images using graph-theoretic description and matching methods for content-based image retrieval in medical diagnostics  

PubMed Central

Background Computer-based analysis of digitalized histological images has been gaining increasing attention, due to their extensive use in research and routine practice. The article aims to contribute towards the description and retrieval of histological images by employing a structural method using graphs. Due to their expressive ability, graphs are considered as a powerful and versatile representation formalism and have obtained a growing consideration especially by the image processing and computer vision community. Methods The article describes a novel method for determining similarity between histological images through graph-theoretic description and matching, for the purpose of content-based retrieval. A higher order (region-based) graph-based representation of breast biopsy images has been attained and a tree-search based inexact graph matching technique has been employed that facilitates the automatic retrieval of images structurally similar to a given image from large databases. Results The results obtained and evaluation performed demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of graph-based image retrieval over a common histogram-based technique. The employed graph matching complexity has been reduced compared to the state-of-the-art optimal inexact matching methods by applying a pre-requisite criterion for matching of nodes and a sophisticated design of the estimation function, especially the prognosis function. Conclusion The proposed method is suitable for the retrieval of similar histological images, as suggested by the experimental and evaluation results obtained in the study. It is intended for the use in Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR)-requiring applications in the areas of medical diagnostics and research, and can also be generalized for retrieval of different types of complex images. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1224798882787923. PMID:23035717

2012-01-01

317

Effect of human tumor antigens on the active E-rosette-forming test (ARFT): a new diagnostic method for cancer.  

PubMed

The "active" T-cell test was adapted into an in vitro assay for response to human tumor antigens, especially gastric, lung, liver, esophageal, and colonic tumors. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated from 229 cancer patients, 60 non-cancer patients, and 70 normal adults. Tumor antigen, incubated with lymphocytes from patients with the corresponding cancer, produced a significant increase in the ability of the lymphocytes to function as active rosette-forming cells (ARFC) when compared with lymphocytes cultured without antigen (P less than 0.001). This potentiating effect on ARFC remained unimpaired even after tumor antigen refrigeration. Tumor antigen incubated with lymphocytes from normal donors produced no increase in ARFC ability. This assay appears to be specific for the antigen corresponding to the cancer of the given patient; for example, gastric tumor antigen increased the ARFC of gastric cancer patients, but produced no increase in ARFC of breast cancer patients. No interference by the HLA complex was found in this assay. This technique provides a novel in vitro method for investigating cell-mediated immunity and also a new, specific method for cancer diagnosis. PMID:6332697

Wang, K

1984-10-01

318

Comparability of Diagnostic Methods: Proximal Endoscopy, CT and EUS in Determining Stomach Tumor Localization and their Importance in the Preoperative Analysis of Process Progression  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Gastric cancer is one of the most common tumors in humans and is on the 14th place by frequency in the United States and it is at the 8th place by the mortality rate. In the world it takes seventh place by incidence. Today prevail the opinion and the surveys show, that it is twice as common in men as compared to women. Although there are advancements in diagnostics it must be noted that gastric cancer is still discovered late and when it already has metastasized, so that the therapeutic approach is limited and low survival rate. Patients and Methods: The study was retrospective-prospective, which covered the period from 2011 to 2012 and was performed at the Clinic of Gastroenterohepatology, Clinical Center of Sarajevo University. The study included 50 patients with gastric cancer, 34 men and 16 women. All patients underwent gastroscopy and according to tumor lesions localization divided into 3 regions: cardia, corpus and antropyloric region. Tumor lesions were biopted with histologically confirmation of gastric wall cancer. All patients underwent CT of gastric wall, CT of the abdomen and in some cases EUS was performed also. Goal: To prove by available diagnostic methods (endoscopy, CT and EUS) the presence of gastric cancer, histologically validate it and determine localization according to regions. To determine by CT the thickness of the stomach wall or the penetration of tumor lesions, the presence of enlarged lymph nodes and possible metastases. Record by EUS the progression of malignant processes in depth to layers of the wall, surrounding tissue metastases and enlarged lymph nodes. Determine the correlation between the measured parameters. Results: Our study showed that the localization of tumors at the cardia was represented in 15.31%, corpus in 17.36% and antropyloric region 16.33%. Median age he was 65.5 years with a standard deviation of 11.04. We failed to demonstrate a statistically significant difference in verified findings by EUS and age as well as endoscopic findings and age. Also there is no statistically significant difference between the CT scan and endoscopy XT = 5.99 and ? = 0.05 = 0.63 XE, XE XT) and endoscopic findings and age (XT = 3.84 at ? = 0.01, = 0.01 XE, XE> XT). Conclusion: Our study showed that gastric cancer are more common in men than women, metastases were more common in the elderly population, there were no significant deviations from the endoscopic findings and CT findings. EUS was performed in a small number of patients and showed as a good method because it gave accurate information about the penetration depth. Endoscopy, EUS and CT are ideal methods in diagnostic and staging of gastric cancer before the surgery. PMID:24554798

Vukobrat-Bijedic, Zora; Husic-Selimovic, Azra; Sofic, Amela; Bijedic, Nina; Gogov, Bisera; Mehmedovic, Amila; Saray, Aida; Glavas, Sanjin; Bjelogrlic, Ivana

2013-01-01

319

Snapshot Mueller polarimetry for biomedical diagnostic related to human liver fibrosis: evaluation of the method for biomedical assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human liver biopsy samples, consisting into a 16 ?m thickness biomaterial chemically fixed into a formaldehyde matrix, and stained by red picrosirius dye, are analysed for different states of fibrosis degeneration. Polarimetric methods, and specially Mueller polarimetry based on wavelength coding, have been qualified as an efficient tool to describe many different biological aspects. The polarimetric characteristics of the media, extracted from a Lu and Chipman decomposition1, 2 of their Mueller Matrix (MM), are correlated with the degeneracy level of tissue. Different works and results linked to the clinical analysis will be presented and compared to previous performed works.3 Polarimetric imaging will be presented and compared with SHG measurements. A statistical analysis of the distribution of polarimetric parameters (such as the retardance R and depolarisation Pd) will be presented too, in order to characterise the liver fibrosis level into the biomaterial under study.

Babilotte, P.; Dubreuil, M.; Rivet, S.; Lijour, Y.; Sevrain, D.; Martin, L.; Le Brun, G.; Le Grand, Y.; Le Jeune, B.

2011-10-01

320

Nucleic Acid Amplification Based Diagnostic of Lyme (Neuro-)borreliosis – Lost in the Jungle of Methods, Targets, and Assays?  

PubMed Central

Laboratory based diagnosis of infectious diseases usually relies on culture of the disease causing micro-organism, followed by identification and susceptibility testing. Since Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis, requires very specific culture conditions (e.g. specific liquid media, long term cul-ture) traditional bacteriology is often not done on a routine basis. Instead, confirmation of the clinical diagnosis needs ei-ther indirect techniques (like serology or measurement of cellular activity in the presence of antigens) or direct but culture independent techniques, like microscopy or nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT), with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) being the most frequently applied NAT method in routine laboratories. NAT uses nucleic acids of the disease causing micro-organism as template for amplification, isolated from various sources of clinical specimens. Although the underlying principle, adoption of the enzymatic process running during DNA duplication prior to prokaryotic cell division, is comparatively easy, a couple of ‘pitfalls’ is associated with the technique itself as well as with interpretation of the results. At present, no commercial, CE-marked and sufficiently validated PCR assay is available. A number of homebrew assays have been published, which are different in terms of target (i.e. the gene targeted by the amplification primers), method (nested PCR, PCR followed by hybridization, real-time PCR) and validation criteria. Inhibitory compounds may lead to false negative results, if no appropriate internal control is included. Carry-over of amplicons, insufficient handling and workflow and/or insufficiently validated targets/primers may result in false positive results. Different targets may yield different analytical sensitivity, depending, among other factors, of the redundancy of a target gene in the genome. Per-formance characteristics (e.g. analytical sensitivity and specificity, clinical sensitivity and specificity, reproducibility, etc.) are, if available, only applicable to a specific assay, running in a specific laboratory. Finally, not only the NAT/PCR method itself, but also the process of DNA isolation from the specimen, is highly diverse and may have fundamental im-pact on the (expected) PCR result. Of concern are distribution effects of DNA, in particular, if only low numbers of bacte-ria/genomes are present in a sample, as it is the case for instance in cerebrospinal fluids. For the ordering physician and for the patient requesting PCR analysis, these ‘pitfalls’ are usually invisible. As a conse-quence, the reported result (i.e. PCR negative or positive for B. burgdorferi) is hard to interpret, especially, if the reported PCR result is contradictory to the clinical diagnosis or other laboratory findings. Moreover, due to the high number of dif-ferent assays in use, two laboratories, testing the same specimen, might come to different PCR results. The current paper wants to summarize the available PCR/NAT assays for the detection of B. burgdorferi DNA in clinical specimens, with special attention to neurologic disorders, and to discuss the difficulties in PCR analysis and result inter-pretation, associated thereof. In view of growing numbers of patients who are diagnosed of having Lyme disease, and ac-knowledging a substantial growth in knowledge regarding other tick- or vector-borne pathogens, which might be able to induce symptoms comparable to Lyme (neuro-)borreliosis, efforts are urgently needed to standardize and harmonize methods for B. burgdorferi nucleic acid amplification. PMID:23230454

Nolte, Oliver

2012-01-01

321

Fossil/modern mole phylogeny  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study is introduced at the beginning of class, and runs throughout the quarter. Students are first given a paper describing a morphological phylogeny of modern moles. The first few weeks' labs teach the students basic phylogenetic methods and the aspects of skeletal morphology needed to understand the character descriptions. Students in groups of 2 or 3 are assigned a set of characters from a particular region of the skeleton (i.e. humerus, lower teeth, skull, etc.). Those groups are responsible for learning to distinguish those characters on a representative group of modern specimens (for which the character codings are already available in the paper they have) and then coding those characters for a number of fossil taxa. The fossils are either described in papers posted on the course website or are represented by specimens held in the instructor's research lab. Students are responsible for finding time to come in and work with the specimens. The next to last lab of the quarter is concerned with analyzing data within each group, for the class as a whole, for fossil taxa alone, and for fossil and modern taxa. Students then write up the results of their analyses for their term project due at the end of the quarter.

322

Diagnostic Bayesian Networks auto-construction and diagnostic strategy design based on multi-signal model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on multi-signal model, a novel diagnostic Bayesian networks auto-construction method is proposed in this paper. Combined with information entropy theory, a diagnostic strategy with the ability of sequential fault diagnosis, multi-fault diagnosis and coupling faults diagnosis is designed. In order to deal with uncertain problems and increase diagnostic accuracy, the self adjustment method of diagnostic Bayesian networks (DBN) is

Zhang Shigang; Hu Zheng

2010-01-01

323

Modern Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the development of modern Chinese from the late 19th century up to the 1990s, concentrating on three major aspects: modern spoken Chinese, modern written Chinese, and the modern Chinese writing system. It describes and analyzes in detail, from historical and sociolinguistic perspectives,…

Chen, Ping

324

Modern Cosmology in Retrospect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume recounts the development of modern cosmology, in chapters contributed by many of the leading protagonists. Modern cosmology aims to determine the origin, evolution, and ultimate fate of the universe. It is an area of modern science that has engendered fierce debates that have captured public interest. This is an absorbing account of physical and observational cosmology, the great cosmological debates, important observations and the riddle of the dark matter. The enormous controversy surrounding the Big Bang theory is retold in personal recollections from H. Bondi, W. McCrea, and Fred Hoyle. Next are three chapters on the discovery of cosmic radio waves and the contributions made by radio astronomers to current cosmology. The book concludes with a tribute to some of the pioneers of cosmology. This is fascinating reading for astronomers, professional cosmologists, general physicists, historians, philosophers of science and general readers.

Bertotti, B.; Balbinot, R.; Bergia, S.; Messina, A.

1991-05-01

325

Structural MRI volumetric analysis in patients with organic amnesia, 1: methods and comparative findings across diagnostic groups  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—If they are to be replicable, MRI volume measurements require explicit definitions of structures and of criteria for delineating these structures on MRI. Previously published volumes in healthy subjects show considerable differences in measurements across different studies, including a fourfold variation in estimates of hippocampal volume. Previous neuroimaging reports in patients with Korsakoff syndrome have generally found widespread or non-specific change, whereas in patients with herpes encephalitis the extent of pathological involvement reported beyond the temporal lobes has varied.?METHOD—In the present study, a clear set of anatomical criteria and detailed MRI segmentation procedures were applied to measure whole brain, frontal and temporal lobe, and anterolateral and medial temporal volumes, as well as thalamic areas in patients with organic amnesia (from Korsakoff's syndrome, herpes encephalitis, and focal frontal lesions) as well as healthy controls.?RESULTS—Patients with Korsakoff's syndrome showed decreased thalamic measurements but no significant changes in the medial temporal lobes, whereas patients with herpes encephalitis showed severe medial temporal but not thalamic atrophy. In the patients with known frontal lobe lesions, quantitative analysis on MRI showed reduced frontal lobe volume but no significant temporal lobe or thalamic atrophy.?CONCLUSION—Quantified MRI can be a useful technique with which to examine brain-cognitive relations, provided that detailed techniques are explicitly described. In particular, specific patterns of volume change can be found in vivo in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome and those with herpes encephalitis.?? PMID:11413256

Colchester, A; Kingsley, D; Lasserson, D; Kendall, B; Bello, F; Rush, C; Stevens, T; Goodman, G; Heilpern, G; Stanhope, N; Kopelman, M

2001-01-01

326

Task-Oriented Comparison of Power Spectral Density Estimation Methods for Quantifying Acoustic Attenuation in Diagnostic Ultrasound Using a Reference Phantom Method  

PubMed Central

Reported here is a phantom-based comparison of methods for determining the power spectral density of ultrasound backscattered signals. Those power spectral density values are then used to estimate parameters describing ?(f), the frequency dependence of the acoustic attenuation coefficient. Phantoms were scanned with a clinical system equipped with a research interface to obtain radiofrequency echo data. Attenuation, modeled as a power law ?(f)=?0f?, was estimated using a reference phantom method. The power spectral density as estimated using the short-time Fourier transform (STFT), Welch's periodogram, and Thomson's multitaper technique, and performance was analyzed when limiting the size of the parameter estimation region. Errors were quantified by the bias and standard deviation of the ?0 and ? estimates, and by the overall power-law fit error. For parameter estimation regions larger than ~34 pulse lengths (~1cm for this experiment), an overall power-law fit error of 4% was achieved with all spectral estimation methods. With smaller parameter estimation regions as in parametric image formation, the bias and standard deviation of the ?0 and ? estimates depended on the size of the parameter estimation region. Here the multitaper method reduced the standard deviation of the ?0 and ? estimates compared to those using the other techniques. Results provide guidance for choosing methods for estimating the power spectral density in quantitative ultrasound. PMID:23858055

Rosado-Mendez, Ivan M.; Nam, Kibo; Hall, Timothy J.; Zagzebski, James A.

2013-01-01

327

The application of Splitting Ageostrophic Diagnostic Method to a sudden heavy rainfall intensification caused by tropical storm Bilis(2006) after its landing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the second landfall of tropical storm Bilis (2006), its inner core was dissipated and strength had greatly reduced. However, the remnant of Bilis caused a sudden torrential rain at the southwestern quadrant, with the maximum precipitation amount up to 96mm/6h at the juncture of three provinces of Hunan, Jiangxi and Guangzhou from 18 UTC 14 to 06 UTC 15 July, which caused a widespread catastrophic flooding and subsequent large loss of life property. Splitting Ageostrophic Diagnostic Method proposed by Chen et al. has been used to explore the mechanism of this sudden heavy rainfall here. The results show the diagnosed 6h rainfall amount using this diagnostic method is very close to the observed one at the juncture of three provinces of Hunan, Jiangxi and Guangzhou from 18 UTC 14 to 06 UTC 15 July. In addition, it clearly demonstrates that at 12UTC 14 July, which is 6h before the sudden severe rainfall, a very strong positive value of ageostrophic geopotential caused by advection ?adv,ia suddenly occurs in the entire troposphere over the rainfall intensification region, and its strength is larger in the upper level than in the lower. The horizontal scale of the positive value ?adv,ia is consistent with that of heavy rainfall areas, but its occurrence time is 6 hours before that of severe heavy rainfalls. Further studies indicate the positive ?adv,ia is attributed to the perturbation of easterly at the south of South Asian high pressure on 200hPa. The positive ?adv,ia is so important for this torrential rainfall because it drives a vertical upward motion at the center of torrential rainfall of 6h latter in the previous quiet atmosphere. Despite the positive ?adv,ia moves away subsequently as the disappearing of perturbation in front of the easterly wave, the adjusted upward motion driven by the atmospheric forcing also intrigues the activity of gravity-inertia-wave and latent heat releasing in the circumstances of plenty of moisture supply and atmospheric conditional instability, which in turn contributes to the increasing of upward motion during the period of sudden rainfall intensification from18UTC 14 July to 06UTC 15 July.

Deng, D.; Chen, Q.; Zhou, Y.; Gao, S. S.

2013-12-01

328

A Review of Diagnostic Techniques for ISHM Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System diagnosis is an integral part of any Integrated System Health Management application. Diagnostic applications make use of system information from the design phase, such as safety and mission assurance analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, hazards analysis, functional models, fault propagation models, and testability analysis. In modern process control and equipment monitoring systems, topological and analytic , models of the nominal system, derived from design documents, are also employed for fault isolation and identification. Depending on the complexity of the monitored signals from the physical system, diagnostic applications may involve straightforward trending and feature extraction techniques to retrieve the parameters of importance from the sensor streams. They also may involve very complex analysis routines, such as signal processing, learning or classification methods to derive the parameters of importance to diagnosis. The process that is used to diagnose anomalous conditions from monitored system signals varies widely across the different approaches to system diagnosis. Rule-based expert systems, case-based reasoning systems, model-based reasoning systems, learning systems, and probabilistic reasoning systems are examples of the many diverse approaches ta diagnostic reasoning. Many engineering disciplines have specific approaches to modeling, monitoring and diagnosing anomalous conditions. Therefore, there is no "one-size-fits-all" approach to building diagnostic and health monitoring capabilities for a system. For instance, the conventional approaches to diagnosing failures in rotorcraft applications are very different from those used in communications systems. Further, online and offline automated diagnostic applications are integrated into an operations framework with flight crews, flight controllers and maintenance teams. While the emphasis of this paper is automation of health management functions, striking the correct balance between automated and human-performed tasks is a vital concern.

Patterson-Hine, Ann; Biswas, Gautam; Aaseng, Gordon; Narasimhan, Sriam; Pattipati, Krishna

2005-01-01

329

Gnotobiology in modern medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is given of currently accepted theories and applications of gnotobiology. A brief history of gnotobiology is supplied. Problems involved in creating germ-free gnotobiota and the use of these animals in experimental biology are cited. Examples of how gnotobiology is used in modern medical practice illustrate the future prospects for this area of science.

Podoprigora, G. I.

1980-01-01

330

A Modern Periodic Table.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

1997-01-01

331

Modern Information Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information retrieval (IR) has changed considerably in the last years with the expansion of the Web (World Wide Web) and the advent of modern and inexpensive graphical user interfaces and mass storage devices. As a result, traditional IR textbooks have become quite out-of-date which has led to the introduction of new IR books recently. Nevertheless, we believe that there is

Ricardo A. Baeza-yates; Berthier A. Ribeiro-neto

1999-01-01

332

Comparison and evaluation of three diagnostic methods for detection of beet curly top virus in sugar beet using different visualizing systems.  

PubMed

To diminish the time required for some diagnostic assays including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP; due to mainly DNA extraction step) and also triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA) into a minimum level, an innovative immunocapture LAMP (IC-LAMP) and immunocapture PCR (IC-PCR) protocol on the basis of beet curly top virus (BCTV) genome was used and optimized. TAS-ELISA was employed first to validate the existence of the virus. All six IC-LAMP primers (i.e. forward outer primer (F3), backward outer primer (B3), forward inner primer (FIP), backward inner primer (BIP), loop forward (LF) and loop backward (LB)) together with IC-PCR primers were designed on the basis of the replication-associated protein (rep) gene (GenBank accession AF379637.1) of BCTV genome. Also, a novel colorimetric IC-LAMP assay for rapid and easy detection of BCTV was developed here, its potential compared with TAS-ELISA and IC-PCR assays. The method, on the whole, had the following advantages over the two mentioned procedures: (i) fascinatingly, no need of DNA extraction; (ii) no requirement of expensive and sophisticated tools for amplification and detection; (iii) no post-amplification treatment of the amplicons and (iv) a flexible and easy detection approach, which is visually detected by naked eyes using diverse visual dyes. PMID:24894659

Almasi, Mohammad Amin; Hosseyni-Dehabadi, Seyed Mohammad; Aghapour-ojaghkandi, Mehdi

2014-08-01

333

Production of recombinant capsid protein of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (r-MCP43) of giant freshwater prawn, M. rosenbergii (de Man) for immunological diagnostic methods.  

PubMed

White tail disease (WTD) caused by Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) is a serious problem in prawn hatcheries. The gene for capsid protein of MrNV (MCP43) was cloned into pRSET B expression vector. The MCP43 protein was expressed as a protein with a 6-histidine tag in Escherichia coli GJ1158 with NaCl induction. This recombinant protein, which was used to raise the antiserum in rabbits, recognized capsid protein in different WTD-infected post-larvae and adult prawn. Various immunological methods such as Western blot, dot blot and ELISA techniques were employed to detect MrNV in infected samples using the antiserum raised against recombinant MCP43 of MrNV. The dot blot assay using anti-rMCP43 was found to be capable of detecting MrNV in WTD-infected post-larvae as early as at 24 h post-infection. The antiserum raised against r-MCP43 could detect the MrNV in the infected samples at the level of 100 pg of total protein. The capsid protein of MrNV estimated by ELISA using anti-rMCP43 and pure r-MCP43 as a standard was found to increase gradually during the course of infection from 24 h p.i. to moribund stage. The results of immunological diagnostic methods employed in this study were compared with that of RT-PCR to test the efficiency of antiserum raised against r-MCP43 for the detection of MrNV. The Western blot, dot blot and ELISA detected all MrNV-positive coded samples as detected by RT-PCR. PMID:23952017

Farook, M A; Madan, N; Taju, G; Majeed, S Abdul; Nambi, K S N; Raj, N Sundar; Vimal, S; Hameed, A S Sahul

2014-08-01

334

Graphical presentation of diagnostic information  

PubMed Central

Background Graphical displays of results allow researchers to summarise and communicate the key findings of their study. Diagnostic information should be presented in an easily interpretable way, which conveys both test characteristics (diagnostic accuracy) and the potential for use in clinical practice (predictive value). Methods We discuss the types of graphical display commonly encountered in primary diagnostic accuracy studies and systematic reviews of such studies, and systematically review the use of graphical displays in recent diagnostic primary studies and systematic reviews. Results We identified 57 primary studies and 49 systematic reviews. Fifty-six percent of primary studies and 53% of systematic reviews used graphical displays to present results. Dot-plot or box-and- whisker plots were the most commonly used graph in primary studies and were included in 22 (39%) studies. ROC plots were the most common type of plot included in systematic reviews and were included in 22 (45%) reviews. One primary study and five systematic reviews included a probability-modifying plot. Conclusion Graphical displays are currently underused in primary diagnostic accuracy studies and systematic reviews of such studies. Diagnostic accuracy studies need to include multiple types of graphic in order to provide both a detailed overview of the results (diagnostic accuracy) and to communicate information that can be used to inform clinical practice (predictive value). Work is required to improve graphical displays, to better communicate the utility of a test in clinical practice and the implications of test results for individual patients. PMID:18405357

Whiting, Penny F; Sterne, Jonathan AC; Westwood, Marie E; Bachmann, Lucas M; Harbord, Roger; Egger, Matthias; Deeks, Jonathan J

2008-01-01

335

Upgrading electron temperature and electron density diagnostic diagrams of forbidden line emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Diagnostic diagrams of forbidden lines have been a useful tool for observers for many decades now. They are used to obtain information on the basic physical properties of thin gaseous nebulae. Some diagnostic diagrams are in wavelength domains that were difficult to apply either due to missing wavelength coverage or the low resolution of older spectrographs. Furthermore, most of the diagrams were calculated using just the species involved as a single atom gas, although several are affected by well-known fluorescence mechanisms as well. Additionally, the atomic data have improved up to the present time. Aims: The aim of this work is to recalculate well-known, but also sparsely used, unnoted diagnostics diagrams. The new diagrams provide observers with modern, easy-to-use recipes for determining electron temperature and densities. Methods: The new diagnostic diagrams were calculated using large grids of parameter space in the photoionization code CLOUDY. For a given basic parameter (e.g., electron density or temperature), the solutions with cooling-heating-equilibrium were chosen to derive the diagnostic diagrams. Empirical numerical functions were fitted to provide formulas usable in, e.g., data reduction pipelines. Results: The resulting diagrams differ significantly from those used up to now and will improve thermodynamic calculations. To our knowledge, detailed, directly applicable fit formulas are given for the first time, leading to the calculation of electron temperature or density from the line ratios.

Proxauf, B.; Öttl, S.; Kimeswenger, S.

2014-01-01

336

Design Method for Contra-Rotating Propellers for High-Speed Crafts: Revising the Original Lerbs Theory in a Modern Perspective  

E-print Network

The main theoretical and numerical aspects of a design method for optimum contrar-rotating (CR) propellers for fast marine crafts are presented. We propose a reformulated version of a well-known design theory for contra-rotating ...

Brizzolara, Stefano

2012-01-01

337

Cornell Modern Indonesia Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1956, the Cornell Modern Indonesia Project (CMIP) published its first title. Since then, the modern nation of Indonesia has seen numerous transformations and this digital collection houses works published by the CMIP, which document these changes. Early on, the first documents created were called "Interim Reports", and they dealt with the 1965 coup, foreign policy, and the state of Chinese citizens in Indonesia. The monographs in the collection focus primarily on Indonesian politics, but they also include anthropological and social analyses as well. Currently, there are over four dozens titles here, and visitors can browse them by title or author. One item that should not be missed is the 1965 update of the 1936 study "Mythology and the tolerance of the Javanese". Southeast Asian scholars and those with an interest in the history of this region will not be disappointed.

338

MOMA: Modern Women  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are women represented at the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) in New York? It's a fascinating question and this website takes a look at just that. The site was designed to complement a publication looking at contemporary female artists whose work has been included in various MOMA collections. The materials here are divided into four areas, including Exhibitions, Video, Modern Women: A Partial History, and Online Collection. Within the Video section, visitors can look through over two dozen videos that include interviews with MOMA's archivists and leading artists such as Maya Deren. Moving on, visitors can click on the Artists tab to view biographical profiles and artwork by the women featured in the online collection. There are some great pieces here, such as "Malcolm X Speaks for Us" by Elizabeth Catlett or Eva Hesse's "Repetition Nineteen III." Visitors can also explore the Blog for meditations on Lillian Gish or musings on the use of art in everyday spaces.

339

Foundations of Modern Cosmology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is intended for students who are using the textbook, "Foundations of Modern Cosmology". In this website every chapter in the book has a summary and a brief overview of the important concepts. Topics in the book include: Newton's contribution to cosmology, the evolution of stars, relativity, black holes, the expansion of the universe, the early universe, the CMB, dark matter, and inflation. There is also a list of students' questions, with answers, about ideas and concepts they found challenging.

Hawley, John

2004-07-16

340

Neanderthals and Modern Humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neanderthals were a people native to Europe during the Pleistocene period, who became extinct between forty and thirty thousand years ago. Challenging the commonly held view that extinction was caused by the arrival of our ancestors, Clive Finlayson provides evidence that their extinction actually occurred because the Neanderthals could not adapt fast enough to changing ecological and environmental conditions, not their relationship with modern humans.

Finlayson, Clive

2004-04-01

341

Modern Physics : Theoretical Minimum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Stanford Continuing Studies course is a collection of video lectures that provide a concise introduction to Theoretical Physics. The goal is for students following the curriculum to achieve a solid understanding of Modern Physics in an optimized manner. The lectures in the series cover Classical Mechanics, Quantum Mechanics, Special Relativity, General Relativity, Cosmology, Statistical Mechanics, Quantum Entanglement, Basic Particle Physics, and the Standard Model. While the courses build upon one another, each course also stands on its own.

Susskind, Leonard

2014-05-01

342

The modern atom model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All particles in the atom are in constant motion, according to modern atomic theory. On this page of a tutorial on particle physics, students evaluate the relative size of atomic particles. If protons and neutrons are balls with a 1-centimeter diameter, then electrons have the diameter of a hair. The comparable size of an atom made from these particles would be 30 football fields long. Students read that atoms are mostly empty space. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Group, Lawrence B.

2002-01-01

343

Modern Anaesthesia Vapourisers  

PubMed Central

Inhalational anaesthetic agents are usually liquids at room temperature and barometric pressure and need to be converted to vapour before being used and this conversion is effected using a vapouriser. Vapourisers have evolved from very basic devices to more complicated ones. Anaesthetists should understand the basic principles of anaesthetic vapouriser, including the principles that affect vapouriser output and how they influence vapouriser design. Most of the modern vapourisers in use are designed to be used between the flow meter and the common gas outlet on the anaesthesia machine. Modern vapourisers are flow and temperature compensated, concentration calibrated, direct reading, dial controlled and are unaffected by positive-pressure ventilation. Safety features include an anti-spill and a select-a-tec mechanism and a specific vapouriser filling device. Desflurane has unique physical properties requiring the use of a specific desflurane vapouriser. The most recently designed vapourisers are controlled by a central processing unit in the anaesthetic machine. The concentration of vapour is continuously monitored and adjusted by altering fresh gas flow through the vapouriser. This article looks at the basic design and functioning of the modern vapourisers. PMID:24249879

Chakravarti, Sucharita; Basu, Srabani

2013-01-01

344

PML diagnostic criteria  

PubMed Central

Objective: To establish criteria for the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Methods: We reviewed available literature to identify various diagnostic criteria employed. Several search strategies employing the terms “progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy” with or without “JC virus” were performed with PubMed, SCOPUS, and EMBASE search engines. The articles were reviewed by a committee of individuals with expertise in the disorder in order to determine the most useful applicable criteria. Results: A consensus statement was developed employing clinical, imaging, pathologic, and virologic evidence in support of the diagnosis of PML. Two separate pathways, histopathologic and clinical, for PML diagnosis are proposed. Diagnostic classification includes certain, probable, possible, and not PML. Conclusion: Definitive diagnosis of PML requires neuropathologic demonstration of the typical histopathologic triad (demyelination, bizarre astrocytes, and enlarged oligodendroglial nuclei) coupled with the techniques to show the presence of JC virus. The presence of clinical and imaging manifestations consistent with the diagnosis and not better explained by other disorders coupled with the demonstration of JC virus by PCR in CSF is also considered diagnostic. Algorithms for establishing the diagnosis have been recommended. PMID:23568998

Aksamit, Allen J.; Clifford, David B.; Davis, Larry; Koralnik, Igor J.; Sejvar, James J.; Bartt, Russell; Major, Eugene O.; Nath, Avindra

2013-01-01

345

Advances in cancer tissue microarray technology: Towards improved understanding and diagnostics  

PubMed Central

Over the past few years, tissue microarray (TMA) technology has been established as a standard method for assessing the expression of proteins or genes across large sets of tissue specimens. It is being adopted increasingly among leading research institutions around the world and utilized in cancer research in parallel with the cDNA microarray technology. This article summarizes various aspects of cancer understanding and diagnostics in which TMA has had great impact. Although tremendous advances continue to be made to facilitate imaging and archiving of TMA specimens, automatic evaluation and quantitative analysis of TMA still remains an important challenge for modern investigators. PMID:17723364

Chen, Wenjin; Foran, David J.

2008-01-01

346

An Approach to the Use of Modern Biological Assay Methods as a Fast Criterion for the Surface Cleaning/Assay Decision (LPS and ATP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA has an ongoing research effort to introduce new methodologies to evaluate trace levels of biological contamination on spacecraft outbound from Earth to the surface of Mars. Present NASA regulations call for the evaluation of bioburden on spacecraft surfaces by the determination of aerobic spore-forming bacteria as a proxy for the total bioburden actually present. We are currently investigating molecular based methodologies that assess bioburden in a more rapid manner than the NASA standard technique. These are expected to find initial use, not for regulatory purposes, but for assisting the engineering team during the assembly of spacecraft by providing a rapid indicator of bioburden. We have evaluated two complementary methodologies and found they correlate to a significant degree with the presence of bacterial spores. A bioluminescence based detection method is capable of rapidly monitoring ATP levels from 10-13 M to 10-10 M. Similarly a Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay is capable of rapidly monitoring levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from 0.005 to 50 endotoxin units (approx. 5x10-13 to 5x10-10 g E. coli LPS). Both methods have been tested during the course of the Mars Exploration Rover's assembly with a total of over 500 samples taken. Not only do these methods give one an independent measure of bioburden, they can also reasonably predict the presence of spores. There appears to be a significant correlation between samples containing ATP, LPS and spores.

Kern, R.; Wainwright, N.; Kazarians, G.; Kuhlman, G.; Kempf, M.; Chen, F.; Venkateswaran, K.

347

Practical dosimetry methods for the determination of effective skin and breast dose for a modern CT system, incorporating partial irradiation and prospective cardiac gating  

PubMed Central

Objective For CT coronary angiography (CTCA), a generic chest conversion factor returns a significant underestimate of effective dose. The aim of this manuscript is to communicate new dosimetry methods to calculate weighted CT dose index (CTDIw), effective dose, entrance surface dose (ESD) and organ dose to the breast for prospectively gated CTCA. Methods CTDIw in 32 cm diameter Perspex phantom was measured using an adapted technique, accounting for the segmented scan characteristic. Gafchromic XRCT film (International Speciality Products, New Jersey, NJ) was used to measure the distribution and magnitude of ESD. Breast dose was measured using high sensitivity metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors and compared to the computer based imaging performance assessment of CT scanners (ImPACT) dosimetry calculations. Results For a typical cardiac scan the mean ESD remained broadly constant (7–9 mGy) when averaged over the circumference of the Perspex phantom. Typical absorbed dose to the breast with prospectively gated protocols was within the range 2–15 mGy. The subsequent lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence to the breast was found at 0.01–0.06 for a 20-year-old female. This compares favourably to 100 mGy (LAR ?0.43) for a retrospectively gated CTCA. Conclusions Care must be taken when considering radiation dosimetry associated with prospectively gated scanning for CTCA and a method has been conveyed to account for this. Breast doses for prospectively gated CTCA are an order of magnitude lower than retrospectively gated scans. Optimisation of cardiac protocols is expected to show further dose reduction. PMID:21896660

Loader, R J; Gosling, O; Roobottom, C; Morgan-Hughes, G; Rowles, N

2012-01-01

348

Modern Explosives - An Economical Offshore Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the limitations of present underwater tools and methods of accomplishing work is discussed and the need for a better system is presented. New cost-effective underwater devices and techniques which utilize modern explosive energy are described. The new technology of \\

J. Ridgeway

1976-01-01

349

Modern control design for flexible wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control can improve energy capture and reduce dynamic loads in wind turbines. In the 1970s and 1980s wind turbines used classical control designs to regulate power and speed. The methods used, however, were not always successful. These systems often had bandwidths large enough to destabilize low-damped flexible modes leading to high dynamic load fatigue failures. Modern turbines are larger, mounted

Alan Duane Wright

2003-01-01

350

Use of soft x-ray diagnostic on the COMPASS tokamak for investigations of sawteeth crash neighborhood and of plasma position using fast inversion methods  

SciTech Connect

The soft x-ray diagnostic is suitable for monitoring plasma activity in the tokamak core, e.g., sawtooth instability. Moreover, spatially resolved measurements can provide information about plasma position and shape, which can supplement magnetic measurements. In this contribution, fast algorithms with the potential for a real-time use are tested on the data from the COMPASS tokamak. In addition, the soft x-ray data are compared with data from other diagnostics in order to discuss possible connection between sawtooth instability on one side and the transition to higher confinement mode, edge localized modes and productions of runaway electrons on the other side.

Imrisek, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Weinzettl, V.; Mlynar, J.; Panek, R.; Hron, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Odstrcil, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Odstrcil, M. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Optical Research Center, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Ficker, O. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Pinzon, J. R. [Institue Jean Lamour, Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Ehrlacher, C. [ENS Cachan, Paris (France)

2014-11-15

351

[Isolation of flagellin antigens of salmonellae by the method of ultracentrifugation and their use for preparation of erythrocytic H-diagnostic agents].  

PubMed

Flagellar preparations were obtained from 6 salmonellae strains by differential ultracentrifugation; they were characterized by morphological, immunochemical, and serological tests. The results of investigations showed that the preparations possessed high serological activity; somatic antigen admixture was insignificant. Flagellins extracted from the flagellae were used to prepare erythrocytic H-diagnostic agents. The results of their use in the examination of sera of healthy persons, and of those suffering from typhoid fever and salmonellosis indicated the expediency of using passive H-hemagglutination for diagnostic purposes. PMID:331767

Rukhadze, E Z; Levenson, V I; Subbotina, Iu L; Trushina, V V; Kapuka, L P

1977-05-01

352

Use of soft x-ray diagnostic on the COMPASS tokamak for investigations of sawteeth crash neighborhood and of plasma position using fast inversion methods.  

PubMed

The soft x-ray diagnostic is suitable for monitoring plasma activity in the tokamak core, e.g., sawtooth instability. Moreover, spatially resolved measurements can provide information about plasma position and shape, which can supplement magnetic measurements. In this contribution, fast algorithms with the potential for a real-time use are tested on the data from the COMPASS tokamak. In addition, the soft x-ray data are compared with data from other diagnostics in order to discuss possible connection between sawtooth instability on one side and the transition to higher confinement mode, edge localized modes and productions of runaway electrons on the other side. PMID:25430340

Imrisek, M; Weinzettl, V; Mlynar, J; Odstrcil, T; Odstrcil, M; Ficker, O; Pinzon, J R; Ehrlacher, C; Panek, R; Hron, M

2014-11-01

353

A skim milk stabilized water vaccine for Newcastle disease (B1-type LaSota): its effectiveness under modern commercial cage layer methods of delivery.  

PubMed

For flock vaccination, B1-type LaSota Newcastle disease water vaccine was used in chicken under commercial cage layer conditions using two different methods, Swish Corporation pipes and cups, and stainless stell troughs, in an effort to determine their effectiveness. The concentration of virus in trough and cup samples collected at the beginning and the end of the lines were the same except in one instance where little or no virus was transported to the end of the trough. Satisfactory results were obtained when the test was repeated a year later. Serum HI titers determined before and after vaccination demonstrated adequate flock serum titers and indicated that both methods of application were reasonably effective. In laboratory trials, different water pipes (black, polyvinyl chloride pipe and Hart cups, green, polyvinyl chloride pipe and Swish cups, and old, rusty, galvanized pipe) normally used in cage operations were tested. Our findings indicated that dried skim milk powder (DSMP) was essential in stabilizing vaccine virus in the containers tested and that an adequate vaccine virus concentration was maintained in the three types of pipe tested when DSMP was used. Without DSMP the vaccine titers were adversely affected. PMID:1153382

Woodward, H L; Tudor, D C

1975-05-01

354

Our Modern Stone Age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike most books dealing with industrial minerals and rocks, Our Modern Stone Age is a pleasure to read. Within a matter of several hours, one can get an excellent introduction to nonmetallic mineral resources and industries exclusive o f the mineral fuels. The book is very well written and well illustrated with photographs and drawings; although pitched for the intelligent layman, it is in no way dull reading for even a well-versed economic geologist. Nearly every geologist, mining engineer, mineral economist, planner, and politician will find points of interest in this book.

Lowry, W. D.

355

Phillip Buehler: Modern Ruins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by photographer Phillip Buehler, this site showcases photos he has taken at various "modern ruins," decaying buildings or sites that still perhaps echo human presence. While there are twenty collections of photos on the site, only the first six are presented as thumbnail indexes with brief introductions and captions. The remaining sections are available as small images with no descriptions. Still, Buehler offers some lovely photos. Highlights include Ellis Island, Coney Island, the 1964 New York World's Fair pavilions, and the airplane graveyard. Buehler's homepage contains several other photo collections, including "Street Fossils," items he found embedded in hot summer asphalt, "Above New York," and "New York Cityscapes."

356

[Risk of postirradiation induction of cancer of the modern methods of radiotherapy (3D CRT and IMRT) head and neck cancer].  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation is a known "universal carcinogen" for a wide variety of tumors in man. Human populations are exposed to radiation coming from natural and industrial environment, and from medical sources. However, these are radiotherapy patients who receive the highest doses. Radiation both mutates and sterilizes cells (lethal effect). The risk of cancer induction from cells that have received very high doses of radiation (therapeutic dose about 2 Gy) is lower then from the cells with low doses, since the majority of them will have been sterilized. The epidemiological studies based on the population of atomic bomb survivors have indicated that the most acceptable model of carcinogenesis is the linear non-threshold model. The evaluation of clinical risk related to a wide range of radiation doses, which range from 0.01 Gy to 2 Gy, is connected with many methodological problems such as: differences in treatment factors (dose range, irradiated volume, anatomical site), unknown epidemiological data (smoking abuse, comorbidity), shortening of the follow-up (short lifespan, migration), evaluation of small groups of patients. The most important difficulty is lack of the sufficient knowledge of genetic background which is probably most significant in carcinogenesis process. The introduction into clinical practice of a new sophisticated method of irradiation such as the three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) or intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) leads to the increase of low irradiation dose for very large volume of normal tissue. Thus, the evaluation of these new methods in the context of carcinogenesis is a very important objective in the future. Today, we can only introduce the most important questions concerned with the risk of carcinogenesis induction which await answers: what is the risk of induction of cancer due to the implementation of these new methods of treatment, and how important is this risk for clinical practice, especially in the case of combined radiochemotherapy? Despite a large body of experimental and clinical studies, radiation carcinogenesis is not fully understood yet. Additional problems related to the impact of irradiation of low dose on carcinogenesis are not resolved. For example, the bystander effect, the low dose hypersensitivity and the adaptive response could modulate the total response after irradiation, but the impact on the carciongenesis is unknown. PMID:15732771

Milecki, Piotr; Szyfter, Krzysztof; Skowronek, Janusz

2004-01-01

357

[Endoscopic diagnostics of voice disorders in breastfed and young children].  

PubMed

The objective of the present work was to study the prevalence, etiology, and semiotics of lesions in the acoustic apparatus. The secondary objectives were to estimate the informative and diagnostic value of various methods for the assessment of the state of the vocal apparatus (rigid endoscopy, fibroscopy, stroboscopy, and acoustic analysis of the voice) and to evaluate the prospects for their use in clinical practice. Moreover, the study was aimed at the development of an optimal therapeutic and diagnostic algorithm for the breastfeeding and young children suffering voice disturbances. The study included a total of 188 children aged from 4 days to 3 years presenting with the altered quality of voice who were examined using the clinical and instrumental methods for the estimation of the state of the larynx (rigid endoscopy, fibroscopy, and acoustic analysis of the voice) in combination with the modern computer-assisted technologies for the recording and processing of video images. It was found that disturbances of vocalization formation in the overwhelming majority of breastfeeding and young children (95.7%) can be attributed to dysphonia. Laryngeal pathology is most frequently diagnosed during the first year of life (28.2%). The leading cause of laryngeal lesions is inflammatory diseases (56.4%) followed by congenital malformations (25%). PMID:22433688

2011-01-01

358

Making the Modern World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Making the Modern World offers a dynamic rendition of the permanent gallery at the Science Museum in London. The "learning modules" are "packed with demonstrations, activities and rich media experiences" and "designed for use by everyone interested in learning more about the evolution of the modern world." Topics include how to engineer DNA, how the world's most famous bridges were built, and war technology. The Stories Timeline section provides a timeline of stories about inventions to "show how our lives are shaped by the things we make, invent and use." Articles are embedded within the timeline for further exploration of the topics. Another section highlights some of the Icons of Invention, such as the home computer and the Apollo 10 command module. The Everyday Life section explores how "technology is woven through our daily lives at home, at work or at play." Finally, the Guided Tours chronologically follows a particular topic, such as women in science and technology. All of the sections include photographs and are easy to navigate.

359

The Modern Word  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is devoted to 20th-century, experimental literature. It began in 1995 as The Libyrinth and was rededicated in May 2000 as The Modern Word (MW). Authors are selected for inclusion by MW's Literary Advisory Board and are primarily considered "postmodern" but are not limited to any specific literary school, circle, or movement. The site is organized into two main sections: The Rotunda and The Libyrinth. The Rotunda (the site's front page) holds a set of featured external links; summaries of new additions; a search engine; registration for MW's newsletter Spiral-Bound; and the Daily Muse, a literary quote, trivia question, or word that changes daily. The Libyrinth is the main body of The Modern Word and holds the extensive pages on James Joyce, Jorge Luis Borges, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Umberto Eco, Samuel Beckett, and Thomas Pynchon. Another component of The Libyrinth is the Scriptorium, an index of essays on many additional, related authors such as Kobo Abe, Anthony Burgess, Stanislaw Lem, H.P. Lovecraft, and Mervyn Peake. Although the focus here is narrowly and idiosyncratically defined, the MW's product is high quality.

1995-01-01

360

Development of a Low-Energetic Metastable Helium Beam Injector for Electric Field Diagnostics by Laser-Induced Fluorescence Method in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progresses in development of a metastable helium atomic beam injector as a beam prove for electric field diagnoses are described, which is applicable to a high electric potential region in inertial electrostatic confinement plasmas where a solid probe can hardly be utilized. Configuration refinement of setup of a skimmer to take a collimated diagnostic beam out of the gas jet

Kai Masuda; Takanori Ando; Tetsuya Nishi; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa

2005-01-01

361

Applying the building energy simulation test (BESTEST) diagnostic method to verification of space conditioning equipment models used in whole-building energy simulation programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Validation of building energy simulation programs consists of a combination of empirical validation, analytical verification, and comparative analysis techniques. An analytical verification and comparative diagnostic procedure was developed to test the ability of whole-building simulation programs to model the performance of unitary space-cooling equipment that is typically modeled using manufacturer design data presented as empirically derived performance maps. This procedure

J Neymark; R Judkoff; G Knabe; H.-T Le; M Dürig; A Glass; G Zweifel

2002-01-01

362

Quantitation of mycotoxins in food and feed from Burkina Faso and Mozambique using a modern LC-MS/MS multitoxin method.  

PubMed

In this study an LC-MS/MS multitoxin method covering a total of 247 fungal and bacterial metabolites was applied to the analysis of different foods and feedstuffs from Burkina Faso and Mozambique. Overall, 63 metabolites were determined in 122 samples of mainly maize and groundnuts and a few samples of sorghum, millet, rice, wheat, soy, dried fruits, other processed foods and animal feeds. Aflatoxin B(1) was observed more frequently in maize (Burkina Faso, 50% incidence, median = 23.6 ?g/kg; Mozambique, 46% incidence, median = 69.9 ?g/kg) than in groundnuts (Burkina Faso, 22% incidence, median = 10.5 ?g/kg; Mozambique, 14% incidence, median = 3.4 ?g/kg). Fumonisin B(1) concentrations in maize were higher in Mozambique (92% incidence, median = 869 ?g/kg) than in Burkina Faso (81% incidence, median = 269 ?g/kg). In addition, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and other less reported mycotoxins such as citrinin, alternariol, cyclopiazonic acid, sterigmatocystin, moniliformin, beauvericin, and enniatins were detected. Up to 28 toxic fungal metabolites were quantitated in a single sample, emphasizing the great variety of mycotoxin coexposure. Most mycotoxins have not been reported before in either country. PMID:22835072

Warth, Benedikt; Parich, Alexandra; Atehnkeng, Joseph; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf

2012-09-12

363

Attitudes toward Imitation: Classical Culture and the Modern Temper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the classical tradition of using imitation to teach rhetoric. Argues that the modern inability to appreciate imitation as a serious pedagogical method is attributable more to the modern world view than to any appraisal of its efficiency as a way to teach rhetoric and composition. (MM)

Sullivan, Dale L.

1989-01-01

364

Modern rotor balancing - Emerging technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modern balancing methods for flexible and rigid rotors are explored. Rigid rotor balancing is performed at several hundred rpm, well below the first bending mode of the shaft. High speed balancing is necessary when the nominal rotational speed is higher than the first bending mode. Both methods introduce weights which will produce rotor responses at given speeds that will be exactly out of phase with the responses of an unbalanced rotor. Modal balancing seeks to add weights which will leave other rotor modes unaffected. Also, influence coefficients can be determined by trial and error addition of weights and recording of their effects on vibration at speeds of interest. The latter method is useful for balancing rotors at other than critical speeds and for performing unified balancing beginning with the first critical speed. Finally, low-speed flexible balancing permits low-speed tests and adjustments of rotor assemblies which will not be accessible when operating in their high-speed functional configuration. The method was developed for the high pressure liquid oxygen turbopumps for the Shuttle.

Zorzi, E. S.; Von Pragenau, G. L.

1985-01-01

365

Turf Disease Diagnostic Form Schutter Diagnostic Lab  

E-print Network

Turf Disease Diagnostic Form Schutter Diagnostic Lab 119 Plant BioScience Facility Montana State: _____________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Irrigation used Please check: Yes or No Type of system _______________________________________ Frequency/Rings/Arcs Yellowing Poor growth Terrain associated with problem (check as many as apply): Low area Irregular

Maxwell, Bruce D.

366

Modern carbonate environments  

SciTech Connect

This book offers help in evaluating potential sites for oil and gas accumulations. Pointing the way to discovery of hydrocarbons in carbonate reservoirs, this volume discusses modern carbonate depositional environments in different geomorphic settings. It compiles papers by scientists whose observations have revolutionized current thinking on facies relationships in ancient carbonate rock. Contents include: Selected carbonate regions --The Algal Sediments on Androa Island in the Bahamas, Sedimentary Facies, Interaction of Genetic Processes in Holocene Reefs off North Eleuthera Island in the Bahamas, Recent Anhydrite, Holocene Shallow-Water Carbonate and Evaporite Sediments of Khor al Bazam; Carbonate production--On the Origin of Aragonite in the Dead Sea, Carbonate Production by Coral Reefs; Cold-water carbonates--Contributions on the Geology of the Northwestern Peninsula of Iceland, Evaluation of Cold-Water Carbonates as a Possible Paleoclimatic Indicator.

Bhattacharyya, A.; Friedman, G.M.

1983-01-01

367

Cornell Modern Indonesia Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the 1950s, a group of scholars in Cornell University's Southeast Asia Program initiated the Cornell Modern Indonesia Project (CMIP). The intent of the program was to make contemporary analyses of Indonesia available to scholars and students. The titles were digitized by the Cornell University Library, and this marvelous collection represents the fruits of their endeavors and captures "the drama of Indonesia's political and social evolution through the twentieth century." Some of the topics covered include the development of Indonesian civil government, their civil insurgencies, and the Japanese Occupation. Visitors can search the collection, or they can also browse through the offerings here, which are arranged by author name and title. Visitors who are finding themselves a bit lost should also feel free to click on the "Help" section for hints on searching through the site and viewing and navigating these documents.

368

Destination Modern Art - MOMA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grab your kids and join a couple of space aliens on a mission to explore modern art from MOMA's permanent collection (and at its satellite PS1), a former public school building. (Notably, the five works and associated activities at MOMA amused a seven-year-old for at least 25 minutes!) These activities include Listen (especially good on Van Gogh's _Starry Night_), Tools (make your own collage along with Romare Beardon's _The Dove_), and Look, explanations of the images in a Frida Kahlo self-portrait. The PS1 portion of the site is an interactive tour of selected artworks including Jennifer Cho's Haystacks, William Kentridge's paper cutouts, and a video installation by Pipilotti Rist, _Selbstlos im Lavabad_.

369

Diagnostically lossless compression of medical images-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is proposed which provides high compression ratios for radiographic images with no loss of diagnostic quality. Two approaches are discussed, In medical images, only a small region is diagnostically relevant, while the remaining regions are much less important, the first approach is to compress the important region strictly losslessly, and to compress the remaining regions of the image

Robina Ashraf; Muhammad Akbar

2005-01-01

370

Beam by design: Laser manipulation of electrons in modern accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerator-based light sources such as storage rings and free-electron lasers use relativistic electron beams to produce intense radiation over a wide spectral range for fundamental research in physics, chemistry, materials science, biology, and medicine. More than a dozen such sources operate worldwide, and new sources are being built to deliver radiation that meets with the ever-increasing sophistication and depth of new research. Even so, conventional accelerator techniques often cannot keep pace with new demands and, thus, new approaches continue to emerge. In this article, a variety of recently developed and promising techniques that rely on lasers to manipulate and rearrange the electron distribution in order to tailor the properties of the radiation are reviewed. Basic theories of electron-laser interactions, techniques to create microstructures and nanostructures in electron beams, and techniques to produce radiation with customizable waveforms are reviewed. An overview of laser-based techniques for the generation of fully coherent x rays, mode-locked x-ray pulse trains, light with orbital angular momentum, and attosecond or even zeptosecond long coherent pulses in free-electron lasers is presented. Several methods to generate femtosecond pulses in storage rings are also discussed. Additionally, various schemes designed to enhance the performance of light sources through precision beam preparation including beam conditioning, laser heating, emittance exchange, and various laser-based diagnostics are described. Together these techniques represent a new emerging concept of "beam by design" in modern accelerators, which is the primary focus of this article.

Hemsing, Erik; Stupakov, Gennady; Xiang, Dao; Zholents, Alexander

2014-07-01

371

Diagnostic Algorithm Benchmarking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A poster for the NASA Aviation Safety Program Annual Technical Meeting. It describes empirical benchmarking on diagnostic algorithms using data from the ADAPT Electrical Power System testbed and a diagnostic software framework.

Poll, Scott

2011-01-01

372

Fundamentals of quality assessment of molecular amplification methods in clinical diagnostics. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry Scientific Division Committee on Molecular Biology Techniques.  

PubMed

The increasing interest in molecular biology diagnostics is a result of the tremendous gain of scientific knowledge in genetics, made possible especially since the introduction of amplification techniques. High expectations have been placed on genetic testing, and the number of laboratories now using the relevant technology is rapidly increasing--resulting in an obvious need for standardization and definition of laboratory organization. This communication is an effort towards that end. We address aspects that should be considered when structuring a new molecular diagnostic laboratory, and we discuss individual preanalytical and analytical procedures, from sampling to evaluation of assay results. In addition, different means of controlling contamination are discussed. Because the methodology is in constant change, no general standards can be defined. Accordingly, this publication is intended to serve as a recommendation for good laboratory practice and internal quality control and as a guide to troubleshooting, primarily in amplification techniques. PMID:9550553

Neumaier, M; Braun, A; Wagener, C

1998-01-01

373

Dialogue on Modernity and Modern Education in Dispute  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a dialogue or conversation between Michael Baker (MB) and Michael A. Peters (MP) on the concept of modernity and its significance for educational theory. The dialogue took place originally as a conversation about a symposium on modernity held at the American Educational Studies Association meeting 2010. It was later developed for…

Baker, Michael; Peters, Michael A.

2012-01-01

374

Laboratory Diagnostics of Botulism  

PubMed Central

Botulism is a potentially lethal paralytic disease caused by botulinum neurotoxin. Human pathogenic neurotoxins of types A, B, E, and F are produced by a diverse group of anaerobic spore-forming bacteria, including Clostridium botulinum groups I and II, Clostridium butyricum, and Clostridium baratii. The routine laboratory diagnostics of botulism is based on the detection of botulinum neurotoxin in the patient. Detection of toxin-producing clostridia in the patient and/or the vehicle confirms the diagnosis. The neurotoxin detection is based on the mouse lethality assay. Sensitive and rapid in vitro assays have been developed, but they have not yet been appropriately validated on clinical and food matrices. Culture methods for C. botulinum are poorly developed, and efficient isolation and identification tools are lacking. Molecular techniques targeted to the neurotoxin genes are ideal for the detection and identification of C. botulinum, but they do not detect biologically active neurotoxin and should not be used alone. Apart from rapid diagnosis, the laboratory diagnostics of botulism should aim at increasing our understanding of the epidemiology and prevention of the disease. Therefore, the toxin-producing organisms should be routinely isolated from the patient and the vehicle. The physiological group and genetic traits of the isolates should be determined. PMID:16614251

Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

2006-01-01

375

Diagnostic Technologies in Practice  

PubMed Central

Diagnosing HIV-positive gay men through enhanced testing technologies that detect acute HIV infection (AHI) or recent HIV infection provides opportunities for individual and population health benefits. We recruited 25 men in British Columbia who received an acute (n = 13) or recent (n = 12) HIV diagnosis to engage in a longitudinal multiple-methods study over one year or longer. Our thematic analysis of baseline qualitative interviews revealed insights within men’s accounts of technologically mediated processes of HIV discovery and diagnosis. Our analysis illuminated the dialectic of new HIV technologies in practice by considering the relationship between advances in diagnostics (e.g., nucleic acid amplification tests) and the users of these medical technologies in clinical settings (e.g., clients and practitioners). Technological innovations and testing protocols have shifted experiences of learning of one’s HIV-positive status; these innovations have created new diagnostic categories that require successful interpretation and translation to be rendered meaningful, to alleviate uncertainty, and to support public health objectives. PMID:25201583

Steinberg, Malcolm; Kwag, Michael; Chown, Sarah A.; Doupe, Glenn; Trussler, Terry; Rekart, Michael; Gilbert, Mark

2015-01-01

376

Molecular tools for companion diagnostics.  

PubMed

The heterogeneous nature of cancer results in highly variable therapeutic responses even among patients with identical stages and grades of a malignancy. The move towards personalised medicine in cancer therapy has therefore been motivated by a need to customise therapy according to molecular features of individual tumours. Companion diagnostics serves to support early drug development, it can provide surrogate markers in clinical trials, and also guide selection of individual therapies and monitoring of responses in routine clinical care. The era of companion diagnostics can be said to have begun with the introduction of the HercepTest - a first-of-a-kind diagnostic tool developed by DakoCytomation in 1998 to select patients for therapy with the anticancer drug Herceptin (trastuzumab). Herceptin and the paired test proved that companion diagnostics can help guide patient-tailored therapies. We will discuss herein technologies to analyse companion diagnostics markers at the level of DNA, RNA or protein, focusing on a series of methods developed in our laboratory that can facilitate drug development and help stratify patients for therapy. PMID:22634023

Zieba, Agata; Grannas, Karin; Söderberg, Ola; Gullberg, Mats; Nilsson, Mats; Landegren, Ulf

2012-09-15

377

Modern Molecular Methods for Amphibian Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article was published in BioScience, a peer-reviewed monthly journal with content written and edited for accessibility to researchers, educators, and students alike. It can be used to supplement classroom biology teaching or inform teaching practice.

Andrew Storfer (Washington State University;School of Biological Sciences)

2009-07-01

378

Principles of Modern Molecular Simulation Methods  

E-print Network

data · making movies · working with existing molecular modeling software tools and online data #12;The and online gallery entry For next Thursday (4/12/12): · Python and NumPy / SciPy reading · programming software Molecular simulation programming is easy Many examples / tools / templates available online

Shell, M. Scott

379

Modern methods of drug discovery: An introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The pharmaceutical industry is continuing to attempt double-digit growth rates driven by high market capitalization. Standard\\u000a responses to this challenge have only provided limited impact. Besides scaling-up businesses through mergers or selective\\u000a acquisitions of platform technologies or drug candidates, an increase of Research and Development (R&D) productivity still\\u000a represents a sure approach to address this challenge.

Helmut Giersiefen; Rolf Hilgenfeld; Alexander Hillisch

380

MODERN METHODS TO MEASURE AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the requirements for the collection and analysis of ambient particles to satisfy data requirements for source and receptor models as applied to pollution control applications. The paper describes the following analytical procedures as applied to receptor model...

381

42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...diagnostic tests. All diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory...

2013-10-01

382

42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.  

... 2014-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...diagnostic tests. All diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory...

2014-10-01

383

42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...diagnostic tests. All diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory...

2011-10-01

384

42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...diagnostic tests. All diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory...

2010-10-01

385

42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and...diagnostic tests. All diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory...

2012-10-01

386

AST Combustion Workshop: Diagnostics Working Group Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A workshop was convened under NASA's Advanced Subsonics Technologies (AST) Program. Many of the principal combustion diagnosticians from industry, academia, and government laboratories were assembled in the Diagnostics/Testing Subsection of this workshop to discuss the requirements and obstacles to the successful implementation of advanced diagnostic techniques to the test environment of the proposed AST combustor. The participants, who represented the major relevant areas of advanced diagnostic methods currently applied to combustion and related fields, first established the anticipated AST combustor flowfield conditions. Critical flow parameters were then examined and prioritized as to their importance to combustor/fuel injector design and manufacture, environmental concerns, and computational interests. Diagnostic techniques were then evaluated in terms of current status, merits and obstacles for each flow parameter. All evaluations are presented in tabular form and recommendations are made on the best-suited diagnostic method to implement for each flow parameter in order of applicability and intrinsic value.

Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Hanson, Ronald K.

1996-01-01

387

Mendel in the Modern Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mendel is an icon in the history of genetics and part of our common culture and modern biology instruction. The aim of this paper is to summarize the place of Mendel in the modern biology classroom. In the present article we will identify key issues that make Mendel relevant in the classroom today. First, we recount some of the historical…

Smith, Mike U.; Gericke, Niklas M.

2015-01-01

388

When did Hamlet become modern?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It depends on what you mean by modern. Timeworn on arrival around 1600, it was after the Restoration and well into the eighteenth century deemed antiquated, old, barbarous and gothic. When termed modern, it was because (like any work in the vernacular) it was not written in ancient Greek or Latin. In this sense, Shakespeare in knowing \\

Margreta de Grazia

2003-01-01

389

When and What to Modernize.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a brief discussion of when a school board should consider modernizing mechanical and electrical equipment the speaker explored the specifics of lighting, heating, and ventilation. Technical data on foot candles, types of light fixtures, and the importance of air conditioning in modern school buildings are presented. The presentation…

Price, D. Dana

390

History Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish  

E-print Network

112 History­ Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish and Middle East Studies Degree options MA (Single Honours Degree) History BA (International Honours Degree) History (See page 51) (See also Ancient History page 62 History ­ Mediaeval History page 114 History ­ Middle East Studies page 116 History ­ Modern

Brierley, Andrew

391

History Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish  

E-print Network

104 History­ Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish and Middle East Studies MA (Single Honours Degree) History BA (International Honours Degree) History See page 13 (See also Ancient History page 52, and History ­ Mediaeval History page 106 History ­ Middle East Studies page 108 History ­ Modern History page

Brierley, Andrew

392

Modern design methodology and problems in training aircraft engineers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief report on the problem of modern aircraft specialist education is presented that is devoted to the content and methods of teaching a course in General Aircraft Design in the Moscow Aviation Institute.

Liseitsev, N. K.

1989-01-01

393

Chapter 19. High Voltage Insulation, Diagnostics and Energetic Electron and Photon Beam Interactions  

E-print Network

Chapter 19. High Voltage Insulation, Diagnostics and Energetic Electron and Photon Beam Interactions 19-1 High Voltage Insulation, Diagnostics and Energetic Electron and Photon Beam Interactions 1. DC Properties of Modern Filled Epoxy Insulation Academic and Research Staff Dr. Chathan Cooke Sponsor

394

"Developing next generation cancer diagnostics and therapeutics."  

E-print Network

"Developing next generation cancer diagnostics and therapeutics." Kimberly Kelly Associate a multidisciplinary approach consisting of chemical biology, screening technologies, proteomics, cell biology agent · Developed functional proteomics methods to identify lead target molecules for imaging and drug

Acton, Scott

395

Near-Death Studies and Modern Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fields of near-death studies and modern physics face common dilemmas: namely, how to account for the corroborative nature of many near-death experiences or of the anthropic disposition of the universe without allowing for some otherworldly existence and\\/or some guiding intelligence. Extreme efforts in both fields to explain various phenomena by contemporary scientific methods and theories have been largely unsuccessful.

Craig R. Lundahl; Arvin S. Gibson

2000-01-01

396

[The diagnostics and treatment of Minor's syndrome].  

PubMed

This publication was designed to describe the clinical manifestations of dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal (Minor syndrome), currently employed methods for its diagnostics, and the first case of this pathology reported in this country with the good outcome of the treatment. Also described are the historical background relevant to the problem, pathomorphological changes in the superior semicircular canal, clinical manifestations of the disease, the patients' subjective complaints, and the methods for diagnostics of dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal (Minor syndrome). The successful diagnostics and treatment of a female patient presenting with the aforementioned case of Minor syndrome is considered in much detail. PMID:23250518

Kriukov, A I; Kunel'skaia, N L; Garov, E V; Zelikovich, E I; Fedorova, O V; Krasnikova, D I

2012-01-01

397

Ancient humans and the origin of modern humans.  

PubMed

Recent advances in sequencing technologies and molecular methods have facilitated the sequencing of DNA from ancient human remains which has, in turn, provided unprecedented insight into human history. Within the past 4 years the genomes of Neandertals and Denisovans, as well as the genomes of at least two early modern humans, have been sequenced. These sequences showed that there have been several episodes of admixture between modern and archaic groups; including admixture from Neandertals into modern human populations outside of Africa, and admixture from Denisovans into modern human populations in Oceania. Recent results indicate that some of these introgressed regions may have been advantageous for modern humans as they expanded into new regions outside of Africa. PMID:25286439

Kelso, Janet; Prüfer, Kay

2014-12-01

398

Workload-driven selective hardening of control state elements in modern microprocessors  

E-print Network

Workload-driven selective hardening of control state elements in modern microprocessors Michail elements against soft errors in modern microprocessors. In order to effectively allocate resources, our the high degree of architectural masking inherent in modern microprocessors. The novelty of our method lies

Makris, Yiorgos

399

Hypereosinophilia: A Diagnostic Dilemma  

PubMed Central

A case of hypereosinophilia is presented. The case illustrates the complexity of the diagnostic processes in certain conditions like hypereosinophilia. Keywords Hypereosinophilia; Myocarditis; Stroke PMID:21629546

Rehman, Habib Ur

2010-01-01

400

Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture.  

PubMed

Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture is one of the most commonly performed invasive tests in clinical medicine. Evaluation of an acute headache and investigation of inflammatory or infectious disease of the nervous system are the most common indications. Serious complications are rare, and correct technique will minimise diagnostic error and maximise patient comfort. We review the technique of diagnostic Lumbar Puncture including anatomy, needle selection, needle insertion, measurement of opening pressure, Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) specimen handling and after care. We also make some quality improvement suggestions for those designing services incorporating diagnostic Lumbar Puncture. PMID:25075138

Doherty, Carolynne M; Forbes, Raeburn B

2014-05-01

401

Modern Thin-Layer Chromatography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the important modern developments of thin-layer chromatography are introduced. Discussed are the theory and instrumentation of thin-layer chromatography including multidimensional and multimodal techniques. Lists 53 references. (CW)

Poole, Colin F.; Poole, Salwa K.

1989-01-01

402

Trends in Modern International Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter examines some of the most widely researched trends and developments within the phenomenon of modern international\\u000a terrorism, providing policy recommendations on how to counter its emerging threats – particularly that of the Global Jihad\\u000a movement and “homegrown” terrorism. The magnitude of the modern terrorist threat was demonstrated by the attacks of September\\u000a 11, and ever since, the field

Boaz Ganor

403

Quetiapine Dosage Across Diagnostic Categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective The aim of the current study was to evaluate quetiapine doses used across diagnosis categories in a sample of psychiatric\\u000a inpatients. Methods Discharge letters of all adult inpatients who had received quetiapine between 1999 and 2005 were retrospectively reviewed.\\u000a Logistic regressions were carried-out to assess links between quetiapine discharge dosage (?800 mg\\/day vs. <800 mg\\/day), diagnostic\\u000a categories, substance abuse or dependence,

Yasser Khazaal; Anne Chatton; Riaz Khan; Daniele Zullino

2009-01-01

404

Stellar population synthesis diagnostics  

E-print Network

A quantitative method is presented to compare observed and synthetic colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The method is based on a chi^2 merit function for a point (c_i,m_i) in the observed CMD, which has a corresponding point in the simulated CMD within n*sigma(c_i,m_i) of the error ellipse. The chi^2 merit function is then combined with the Poisson merit function of the points for which no corresponding point was found within the n*sigma(c_i,m_i) error ellipse boundary. Monte-Carlo simulations are presented to demonstrate the diagnostics obtained from the combined (chi^2, Poisson) merit function through variation of different parameters in the stellar population synthesis tool. The simulations indicate that the merit function can potentially be used to reveal information about the initial mass function. Information about the star formation history of single stellar aggregates, such as open or globular clusters and possibly dwarf galaxies with a dominating stellar population, might not be reliable if one is dealing with a relatively small age range.

Y. K. Ng

1998-03-30

405

Verification of Loop Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many different techniques have been used to characterize the plasma in the solar corona: density-sensitive spectral line ratios are used to infer the density, the evolution of coronal structures in different passbands is used to infer the temperature evolution, and the simultaneous intensities measured in multiple passbands are used to determine the emission measure. All these analysis techniques assume that the intensity of the structures can be isolated through background subtraction. In this paper, we use simulated observations from a 3D hydrodynamic simulation of a coronal active region to verify these diagnostics. The density and temperature from the simulation are used to generate images in several passbands and spectral lines. We identify loop structures in the simulated images and calculate the loop background. We then determine the density, temperature and emission measure distribution as a function of time from the observations and compare with the true temperature and density of the loop. We find that the overall characteristics of the temperature, density, and emission measure are recovered by the analysis methods, but the details of the true temperature and density are not. For instance, the emission measure curves calculated from the simulated observations are much broader than the true emission measure distribution, though the average temperature evolution is similar. These differences are due, in part, to inadequate background subtraction, but also indicate a limitation of the analysis methods.

Winebarger, A.; Lionello, R.; Mok, Y.; Linker, J.; Mikic, Z.

2014-01-01

406

Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

1992-01-01

407

Automotive Diagnostic Technologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains materials developed for and about the automotive diagnostic technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with an automotive/diagnostic technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or a 2-year automotive…

Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

408

your dairy goatyour dairy goatyour dairy goatyour dairy goatyour dairy goat The Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy Goat  

E-print Network

your dairy goatyour dairy goatyour dairy goatyour dairy goatyour dairy goat The Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy Goat The modern dairy goat-quality feed, and should be milked properly. With the exception of bucks during breeding season, goats do

New Hampshire, University of

409

Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostics Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostics Workshop was held July 25-26, 1995 at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the workshop was to foster timely exchange of information and expertise acquired by researchers and users of laser based Rayleigh scattering diagnostics for aerospace flow facilities and other applications. This Conference Publication includes the 12 technical presentations and transcriptions of the two panel discussions. The first panel was made up of 'users' of optical diagnostics, mainly in aerospace test facilities, and its purpose was to assess areas of potential applications of Rayleigh scattering diagnostics. The second panel was made up of active researchers in Rayleigh scattering diagnostics, and its purpose was to discuss the direction of future work.

Seasholtz, Richard (Compiler)

1996-01-01

410

Diagnostic tolerance for missing sensor data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For practical automated diagnostic systems to continue functioning after failure, they must not only be able to diagnose sensor failures but also be able to tolerate the absence of data from the faulty sensors. It is shown that conventional (associational) diagnostic methods will have combinatoric problems when trying to isolate faulty sensors, even if they adequately diagnose other components. Moreover, attempts to extend the operation of diagnostic capability past sensor failure will necessarily compound those difficulties. Model-based reasoning offers a structured alternative that has no special problems diagnosing faulty sensors and can operate gracefully when sensor data is missing.

Scarl, Ethan A.

1989-01-01

411

[Modern neurological treatment strategies for patients with spinal cord injury].  

PubMed

Modern treatment methods for neurogenic bladder dysfunction take into consideration the primacy of obtaining good bladder storage capacity by merely lowering the leak point pressure. The medical benefit for the patient is seen in the stability of renal function and the social advantage in achieving continence. The development of modern findings on the management of neuro-urological disorders in spinal cord injury as well as the underlying principles, indications, and benefits of the most frequently applied treatment approaches are described. PMID:22269993

Domurath, B; Kutzenberger, J

2012-02-01

412

Network technology for depot modernization  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to summarize existing and emerging information system technology and standards applicable to Depot System Command (DESCOM) modernization efforts. The intent of this summarization is to provide the Revitalization of Army Depots for the Year 2000 (READY 2000) team a clear understanding of the enabling information system technologies required to support effective modernization activities. Much of the information contained in this report was acquired during the last year in support of the US Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) Facility Integrated Manufacturing Management System (FIMMS) project at PNL, which is targeting the modernization of plant-wide information systems at Army Ammunition Plants. The objective of information system modernization is to improve the effectiveness of an organization in performing its mission. Information system modernization strives to meet this objective by creating an environment where data is electronically captured near the source and readily available to all areas of the organization. Advanced networks, together with related information system technology, are the enabling mechanisms that make modern information system infrastructures possible. The intent of this paper is to present an overview of advanced information system network technology to support depot modernization planners in making technology management decisions. Existing and emerging Open System Interconnection (OSI) and Government Open System Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) standards are explained, as well as a brief assessment of existing products compliant with these standards. Finally, recommendations for achieving plant-wide integration using existing products are presented, and migration strategies for full OSI compliance are introduced. 5 refs., 16 figs. (JF)

Hostick, C.J.

1990-12-01

413

TiV plots and the petrogenesis of modern and ophiolitic lavas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plots of Ti vs. V for many modern volcanic rock associations are diagnostic of tectonic setting and can be used to determine possible tectonic settings of ophiolites as well. The basis of this plot is the variation in the crystal\\/liquid partition coefficients for vanadium, which range with increasing oxygen fugacity from > 1 to << 1. Since the partition coefficients

John W. Shervais

1982-01-01

414

Physical criteria for distinguishing sandy tsunami and storm deposits using modern examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern subaerial sand beds deposited by major tsunamis and hurricanes were compared at trench, transect, and sub-regional spatial scales to evaluate which attributes are most useful for distinguishing the two types of deposits. Physical criteria that may be diagnostic include: sediment composition, textures and grading, types and organization of stratification, thickness, geometry, and landscape conformity.Published reports of Pacific Ocean tsunami

Robert A. Morton; Guy Gelfenbaum; Bruce E. Jaffe

2007-01-01

415

Modern control design for flexible wind turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Control can improve energy capture and reduce dynamic loads in wind turbines. In the 1970s and 1980s wind turbines used classical control designs to regulate power and speed. The methods used, however, were not always successful. These systems often had bandwidths large enough to destabilize low-damped flexible modes leading to high dynamic load fatigue failures. Modern turbines are larger, mounted on taller towers, and are more dynamically active than their predecessors. Control systems to regulate turbine power and maintain stable closed-loop behavior in the presence of turbulent wind inflow will be critical for these designs. New advanced control approaches and paradigms must account for low-damped flexible modes in order to reduce structural dynamic loading and achieve the 20--25 year operational life required of today's machines. This thesis applies modern state-space control design methods to a two-bladed teetering hub upwind machine located at the National Wind Technology Center. The design objective is to regulate turbine speed and enhance damping in several low-damped flexible modes of the turbine. Starting with simple control algorithms based on linear models, complexity is added incrementally until the desired performance is firmly established. The controls approach is based on the Disturbance Accommodating Control (DAC) method and provides accountability for wind-speed fluctuations. First, controls are designed using the single control input rotor collective pitch to stabilize the 1st drive-train torsion as well as the tower 1st fore-aft bending modes. Generator torque is then incorporated as an additional control input. This reduces some of the demand placed on the rotor collective pitch control system and enhances 1st drive train torsion mode damping. Individual blade pitch control is then used to attenuate wind disturbances having spatial variation over the rotor and effectively reduces blade flap deflections due to wind shear. Finally, results from these modern controls are compared to results from simpler classical controls in order to assess modern controller performance. These modern controls are shown to more effectively mitigate tower fore-aft motion, drive-train shaft torsion moments, and blade root flap bending moments when compared to the classical control approaches.

Wright, Alan Duane

416

Mendel in the Modern Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mendel is an icon in the history of genetics and part of our common culture and modern biology instruction. The aim of this paper is to summarize the place of Mendel in the modern biology classroom. In the present article we will identify key issues that make Mendel relevant in the classroom today. First, we recount some of the historical controversies that have relevance to modern curricular design, such as Fisher's (Ann Sci 1:115-137, 1936/2008) claim that Mendel's data were too good to be true. We also address questions about Mendel's status as the father of genetics as well as questions about the sequencing of Mendel's work in genetics instruction in relation to modern molecular genetics and evolution. Next, we present a systematic set of examples of research based approaches to the use of Mendel in the modern classroom along with criticisms of these designs and questions about the historical accuracy of the story of Mendel as presented in the typical classroom. Finally, we identify gaps in our understanding in need of further study and present a selected set of resources that, along with the references cited, should be valuable to science educators interested in further study of the story of Mendel.

Smith, Mike U.; Gericke, Niklas M.

2015-01-01

417

The future of novel diagnostics in medical mycology.  

PubMed

Several fungal diseases have become serious threats to human health and life, especially upon the advent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS epidemics and of other typical immunosuppressive conditions of modern life. Accordingly, the burden posed by these diseases and, concurrently, by intensive therapeutic regimens against these diseases has increased worldwide. When existing and available, rapid tests for point-of-care (POC) diagnosis of important fungal diseases enable surpassing the limitations of current laboratory methods for detection and identification of medically-important fungi, both in low-income countries and for first-line diagnosis (screening) in richer countries. As with conventional diagnostic methods and devices, former immunodiagnostics have been challenged by molecular biology-based platforms, as a way to enhance the sensitivity and shorten the assay time, thus enabling early and more accurate diagnosis. Most of these tests have been developed in-house, without adequate validation and standardization. Another challenge has been the DNA extraction step, which is especially critical when dealing with fungi. In this paper, we have identified three major research trends in this field: the application of newer biorrecognition techniques, often applied in analytical chemistry; the development of new materials with improved physicochemical properties; and novel bioanalytical platforms, allowing fully automated testing. Keeping up-to-date with the fast technological advances registered in this field, primarily at the proof-of-concept level, is essential for wise assessment of those that, more likely, will be more cost-effective and, as already observed for bacterial and viral pathogens, may leverage the current tepid developmental status of novel and improved diagnostics for medical mycology. PMID:25418735

Teles, Fernando; Seixas, Jorge

2014-11-23

418

Information engineering for molecular diagnostics.  

PubMed Central

Clinical laboratories are beginning to apply the recent advances in molecular biology to the testing of patient samples. The emerging field of Molecular Diagnostics will require a new Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory Information System which handles the data types, samples and test methods found in this field. The system must be very flexible in regards to supporting ad-hoc queries. The requirements which are shaping the developments in this field are reviewed and a data model developed. Several queries which demonstrate the data models ability to support the information needs of this area have been developed and run. These results demonstrate the ability of the purposed data model to meet the current and projected needs of this rapidly expanding field. PMID:7949937

Sorace, J. M.; Ritondo, M.; Canfield, K.

1994-01-01

419

Melioidosis Diagnostic Workshop, 20131  

PubMed Central

Melioidosis is a severe disease that can be difficult to diagnose because of its diverse clinical manifestations and a lack of adequate diagnostic capabilities for suspected cases. There is broad interest in improving detection and diagnosis of this disease not only in melioidosis-endemic regions but also outside these regions because melioidosis may be underreported and poses a potential bioterrorism challenge for public health authorities. Therefore, a workshop of academic, government, and private sector personnel from around the world was convened to discuss the current state of melioidosis diagnostics, diagnostic needs, and future directions. PMID:25626057

AuCoin, David; Baccam, Prasith; Baggett, Henry C.; Baird, Rob; Bhengsri, Saithip; Blaney, David D.; Brett, Paul J.; Brooks, Timothy J.G.; Brown, Katherine A.; Chantratita, Narisara; Cheng, Allen C.; Dance, David A.B.; Decuypere, Saskia; Defenbaugh, Dawn; Gee, Jay E.; Houghton, Raymond; Jorakate, Possawat; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Merlin, Toby L.; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Norton, Robert; Peacock, Sharon J.; Rolim, Dionne B.; Simpson, Andrew J.; Steinmetz, Ivo; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Stokes, Martha M.; Sue, David; Tuanyok, Apichai; Whistler, Toni; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Walke, Henry T.

2015-01-01

420

AYURVEDA AND MODERN HEALTH EDUCATION  

PubMed Central

Ayurveda is prevention in itself. It is not necessary for Ayurveda to develop a comprehensive structure of preventive approaches as it is found in modern health education. On the other hand has Ayurveda not modernized its preventive principles according to the present living and working conditions of the people. It is so far not understood as integral part of the socio-economic development of the country. This has saved Ayurveda to become part of the highly structured and bureaucratic form of health care and health education- at the expense of not being consulted by others when working on a social health oriented development strategy. PMID:22556952

Ovelil, Bernd Pflug

1982-01-01

421

Physical Activity and Modernization among Bolivian Amerindians  

PubMed Central

Background Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity. Methods and Findings A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR), the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL) of 2.02–2.15 and 1.73–1.85, respectively. Little time was spent “sedentary”, whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity. Conclusions Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely caused by activity alone; further study of diet, food intake and infectious disease is needed. PMID:23383262

Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V.; Kaplan, Hillard; Cummings, Daniel

2013-01-01

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Diagnostic approach in cases with suspected work-related asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Work-related asthma (WRA) is a major cause of respiratory disease in modern societies. The diagnosis and consequently an opportunity for prevention are often missed in practice. Methods Based on recent studies and systematic reviews of the literature methods for detection of WRA and identification of specific causes of allergic WRA are discussed. Results and Conclusions All workers should be asked whether symptoms improve on days away from work or on holidays. Positive answers should lead to further investigation. Spirometry and non-specific bronchial responsiveness should be measured, but carefully performed and validly analysed serial peak expiratory flow or forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) measurements are more specific and confirm occupational asthma in about 82% of those still exposed to the causative agent. Skin prick testing or specific immunoglobulin E assays are useful to document allergy to high molecular weight allergens. Specific inhalational challenge tests come closest to a gold standard test, but lack standardisation, availability and sensitivity. Supervised workplace challenges can be used when specific challenges are unavailable or the results non-diagnostic, but methodology lacks standardisation. Finally, if the diagnosis remains unclear a follow-up with serial measurements of FEV1 and non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness should detect those likely to develop permanent impairment from their occupational exposures. PMID:23768266

2013-01-01