These are representative sample records from related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at

Experimental Physics - Modern Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designed for physics students treating the underlying basis for modern techniques and the devices used, this timely survey describes current experimental methods in a clear and accessible text. This up-to-date volume provides an essential part of undergraduate physics training; until now, students were often expected to learn many of these methods in the laboratory without proper introduction. The broad coverage of available techniques includes discussion of state-of-the-art electronic equipment, as well as such topics as discrete semiconductor devices, signal processing, thermometry, optical components, nuclear instrumentation, and x-ray diffraction methods. Professor Dunlap's text will serve not only as a complete introduction for majors but also as a reference work for technicians throughout a professional career. In addition to tutorial discussions presented, tables of numerical data and constants are included, further enhancing the book as a permanent reference.

Dunlap, R. A.



Modern molecular cytogenetic techniques in genetic diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become an important complementing application in genetic diagnostics. The use of variable FISH techniques enhances the thorough interpretation of numerical and complex chromosome aberrations, bridging the gap between conventional chromosome banding analysis and molecular genetic DNA studies. This review gives a brief overview of the different molecular cytogenetic FISH techniques

Holger Tönnies



Chemical Analysis Modern Instrumentation Methods and Techniques  

E-print Network

#12;Chemical Analysis Modern Instrumentation Methods and Techniques Second Edition Francis Rouessac : modern instrumentation and methods and techniques / Francis Rouessac and Annick Rouessac ; translated #12;Chemical Analysis Second Edition #12;Chemical Analysis Modern Instrumentation Methods

Short, Daniel


Standing footprint diagnostic method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Center of pressure is commonly used to evaluate standing balance. Even though it is incomplete, no better evaluation method has been presented. We designed our experiment with three standing postures: standing with feet together, standing with feet shoulder width apart, and standing with feet slightly wider than shoulder width. Our platform-based pressure system collected the instantaneous plantar pressure (standing footprint). A physical quantity of instantaneous standing footprint principal axis was defined, and it was used to construct an index to evaluate standing balance. Comparison between results from our newly established index and those from the center of pressure index to evaluate the stability of different standing postures revealed that the standing footprint principal axis index could better respond to the standing posture change than the existing one. Analysis indicated that the insensitive response to the relative position between feet and to the standing posture change from the center of pressure could be better detected by the standing footprint principal axis index. This predicts a wide application of standing footprint principal axis index when evaluating standing balance.

Fan, Y. F.; Fan, Y. B.; Li, Z. Y.; Newman, T.; Lv, C. S.; Fan, Y. Z.



[The modern approaches to diagnostics of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome].  


The objective of the present study was to propose an optimal scope of diagnostic studies for the patients complaining of their snoring with a view to determining the expediency and strategy of the surgical treatment. The methods for cardiorespiratory monitoring and endoscopy of the upper air passages during medicamentally induced sleep were introduced in order to evaluate the severity of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) and the level of obstruction of the upper pulmonary tract during apnoea episodes in the patients admitted to the Republican Research and Practical Centre of Otorhinolaryngology (Belarus'). The results of these diagnostic studies provide a basis for the choice of the strategy for the treatment of patients with OSAS. PMID:23528467

Zatoloka, D A; Furmanchuk, D A; Koliadich, Zh V; Tishkevich, E S; Andrianova, T D; Frolov, Iu Iu; Makarin-Kibak, A S



Computational Chemistry Using Modern Electronic Structure Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various modern electronic structure methods are now days used to teach computational chemistry to undergraduate students. Such quantum calculations can now be easily used even for large size molecules.

Bell, Stephen; Dines, Trevor J.; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Withnall, Robert



Modern Asteroid Occultation Observing Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation reviews current working methods for asteroid occultations developed by the International Occultation Timing Association (IOTA). Reduc- tion of multiple tracks or "chords" observed during stellar occultations pro- vides valuable measures of the relative sizes and shapes of asteroids. Tradi- tionally, predictions for asteroid occultations were prepared by regional IOTA computors, distributed annually in "hard copy" format to IOTA subscrib- ers and in publications such as Sky & Telescope magazine and the annual RASC Observers Handbook. IOTA - like many other organizations - is now using worldwide internet services and e-mail to distribute frequently-updated pre- dictions based upon the latest astrometry. The IOTA web pages provide an easily accessible, centralized source of information on lunar and solar sys- tem occultation events. IOTA's web pages feature a variety of articles on current activities, plans for observing campaigns and expeditions, and "how to do it" information on the latest technology and techniques. The latest up- dated predictions for asteroid events are made available as they are pro- duced, providing more accurate observing tracks and efficient coordination of observers. The IOTA e-mail list provides a dynamic forum for the exchange of technical information and com-munication of observing plans in a timely man- ner. Individuals may now generate customized occultation predictions using the WinOccult software package. The author presents some examples of recent occultation events, showing the benefits of coordinated observations. Also described are some of the latest innovations, featuring low-cost video camera equipment, devices for time insertion based on Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, and a new approach using unattended secondary field station equipment to multiply the number of tracks observed.

Lucas, G. A.



Modern nondrug methods of human sleep regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nondrug approaches for the regulation and induction of human sleep available at present have been analyzed; an attempt at\\u000a classifying them has been made. The main attention is paid to the methods using modern computer technologies for the recording\\u000a and analysis of various characteristics of the functioning of the human body, primarily, its electroencephalogram (EEG). Normal\\u000a human sleep EEG correlates

A. I. Fedotchev



Assessing the Risks for Modern Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some 35 years after Paul-Jacques and Pierre Curie discovered piezoelectricity, ultrasonic imaging was developed by Paul Langevin. During this work, ultrasonic energy was observed to have a detrimental biological effect. These observations were confirmed a decade later by R. W. Wood and A. L. Loomis. It was not until the early 1950s that ultrasonic exposure conditions were controlled and specified so that studies could focus on the mechanisms by which ultrasound influenced biological materials. In the late 1940s, pioneering work was initiated to image the human body by ultrasonic techniques. These engineers and physicians were aware of the deleterious ultrasound effects at sufficiently high levels; this endeavored them to keep the exposure levels reasonably low. Over the past three decades, diagnostic ultrasound has become a sophisticated technology. Yet, our understanding of the potential risks has not changed appreciably. It is very encouraging that human injury has never been attributed to clinical practice of diagnostic ultrasound.

William, Jr.



[Modern aspects of diagnostics and treatment of orbital fractures].  


Data on etiology, clinical presentation, and main characteristics of orbital fractures from major Russian and foreign literature sources is reviewed. Features of early and late posttraumatic orbital deformities, such as diplopia, enophthalmos, and hypoglobus, as well as treatment options are described. Capabilities of up-to-date computed tomography in diagnostics of orbital fractures are covered in detail. Data from different authors concerning major problems of orbital reconstruction, treatment tactics, surgical approaches and techniques is provided. Specifics of different materials for orbital walls reconstruction are described, advantages and disadvantages discussed. The absence of a common opinion on these issues among surgeons is accentuated. Possible complications of surgical treatment of orbital fractures are described. Limited use of conservative therapy potential is noted and the necessity of finding new ways of improving diagnostics, planning, and performance of surgical and complex treatment of orbital trauma patients is stressed. PMID:24624810

Lutsevich, E E; Al'khumidi, K



Modern statistical methods in respiratory medicine.  


Statistics sits right at the heart of scientific endeavour in respiratory medicine and many other disciplines. In this introductory article, some key epidemiological concepts such as representativeness, random sampling, association and causation, and confounding are reviewed. A brief introduction to basic statistics covering topics such as frequentist methods, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, P values and Type II error is provided. Subsequent articles in this series will cover some modern statistical methods including regression models, analysis of repeated measures, causal diagrams, propensity scores, multiple imputation, accounting for measurement error, survival analysis, risk prediction, latent class analysis and meta-analysis. PMID:24372633

Wolfe, Rory; Abramson, Michael J



Tomographic methods in flow diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a viewpoint of tomography that should be well adapted to currently available optical measurement technology as well as the needs of computational and experimental fluid dynamists. The goals in mind are to record data with the fastest optical array sensors; process the data with the fastest parallel processing technology available for small computers; and generate results for both experimental and theoretical data. An in-depth example treats interferometric data as it might be recorded in an aeronautics test facility, but the results are applicable whenever fluid properties are to be measured or applied from projections of those properties. The paper discusses both computed and neural net calibration tomography. The report also contains an overview of key definitions and computational methods, key references, computational problems such as ill-posedness, artifacts, missing data, and some possible and current research topics.

Decker, Arthur J.




E-print Network

INDUCTION MOTOR FAULT DIAGNOSTIC AND MONITORING METHODS by Aderiano M. da Silva, B.S. A Thesis;i Abstract Induction motors are used worldwide as the "workhorse" in industrial applications material. However, induction motor faults can be detected in an initial stage in order to prevent

Povinelli, Richard J.


[Human dirofilariasis: clinical and diagnostic signs and diagnostic methods].  


The clinical and diagnostic signs caused by the tissue location and migration of adult Dirofilaria in the human body determine the use of different methods for the diagnosis of dirofilariasis. During their investigations, the authors modified polymerase chain reaction (PCR): they chose and synthesized primers and selected amplification regimens for them and obtained agarose gel bands that corresponded to PCR fragment length nucleotide sequences that were equal to 245 bp for D. (N.) repens and 656 bp for D. immitis. There was 100% agreement in the results of PCR and microscopic examination of sera from 32 dogs and 1 female patient with low parasitemia and in the blood nucleotide sequence characteristic of D. repens. PMID:25296420



Overview of computational structural methods for modern military aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational structural methods are essential for designing modern military aircraft. This briefing deals with computational structural methods (CSM) currently used. First a brief summary of modern day aircraft structural design procedures is presented. Following this, several ongoing CSM related projects at Northrop are discussed. Finally, shortcomings in this area, future requirements, and summary remarks are given.

Kudva, J. N.



Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*  

PubMed Central

This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice. PMID:17579968

Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.



Comparison of Modern Methods for Shock Hydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

The accuracy and efficiency of several methods are compared for simulating multifluid compressible flows. The methods include a Godunov scheme (Colella, 1985), a Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory method (Jiang and Shu, 1996), an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian algorithm (Marinak et al., 2001) and a compact scheme (Cook and Cabot, 2005). Test problems include a compressible breaking wave, the Shu-Osher problem, the Taylor-Green vortex and decaying turbulence. The compact method employs an artificial bulk viscosity for treating shocks and an artificial shear viscosity for modeling turbulence. The compact method is demonstrated to capture shocks as well as the other schemes, while providing superior resolution of post-shock features.

Cook, A W



Rare manifestations of sarcoidosis in modern era of new diagnostic tools  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Growing body of literature on sarcoidosis in India has led to an increased awareness of the disease. With the advent of better imaging tools hitherto under-recognized manifestations of sarcoidosis are likely to be better recognized. We sought to study the rare clinical and radiological manifestations (<5%) in patients with sarcoidosis. Methods: Retrospective review of records of 164 patients with histopathologically proven sarcoidosis seen over six years in a tertiary care centre in north India, was done. Results: Fifty four rare manifestations were observed in 164 patients. Acute presentation in the form of Lofgren syndrome was seen in eight (4.9%) and Heerfordt's syndrome in two (1.2%) patients. Musculoskeletal manifestations included chronic sarcoid arthritis in three (1.8%), deforming arthritis and bone erosion in one (0.6%) each. Rare initial presentation with dilated cardiomyopathy in one (0.6%), complete heart block in two (1.2%), bilateral sequential facial nerve palsy in two (1.2%), and pyrexia of unknown origin was seen in one (0.6%) patient. Other rare manifestations included chronic respiratory failure in one (0.6%), dysphagia in one (0.6%), sicca syndrome in five (3%), massive splenomegaly in one (0.6%), portal hypertension in two (1.2%), hypersplenism, gastric sarcoidosis, ninth and tenth cranial nerve palsies, moderate pericardial effusion and nephrocalcinosis in one (0.6%) each, and pulmonary artery hypertension in two (1.2%) patients. Rare radiological manifestations included moderate pleural effusion in two (1.2%), pleural thickening in five (3%), calcification of intrathoracic lymph nodes in four (2.4%), alveolar (nodular) sarcoidosis in three (1.8%), and myocardial uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) in two (1.2%) patients. Fourteen patients had airways obstruction and behaved typically like seasonal bronchial asthma with excellent response to corticosteroids. Interpretation & conclusions: Increased awareness of rare manifestations will facilitate better management of these patients. With increasing use of modern diagnostic tools, manifestations hitherto considered rare, are likely to be recognized more frequently in the future. PMID:22771590

Sharma, Surendra K; Soneja, Manish; Sharma, Abhishek; Sharma, Mehar C.; Hari, Smriti



Methods of devotional reading in early modern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation addresses the question of how early modern devotional readers defined a text as spiritually efficacious. It considers two methods of reading that recent scholars have identified: the development and influence of the Erasmian, or humanistic method of reading based on the ideas of the Dutch scholar Desiderius Erasmus; and a Lutheran, or evangelical method of reading. Erasmus set

Mardy Philippian



ILLICO; A nodal neutron diffusion method for modern computer architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nodal multigroup neutron diffusion method for modern computer architectures has been developed and implemented in the ILLICO code. Vectorization and parallelization strategies that are successful in speeding up modern nodal computations on commercially available supercomputers have been identified and applied. Realistic three-dimensional benchmark problems can be solved in the vectorized mode in >0.73 s (33.86 Mflops). Vector-concurrent implementations are

H. L. Rajic; A. M. Ougouag



A survey of modern authorship attribution methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Authorship attribution supported by statistical or computational methods has a long history starting from 19th century and marked by the seminal study of Mosteller and Wallace (1964) on the authorship of the disputed Federalist Papers. During the last decade, this scientific field has been developed substantially taking advantage of research advances in areas such as machine learning, information retrieval, and

Efstathios Stamatatos



Method and computer program product for maintenance and modernization backlogging  

SciTech Connect

According to one embodiment, a computer program product for determining future facility conditions includes a computer readable medium having computer readable program code stored therein. The computer readable program code includes computer readable program code for calculating a time period specific maintenance cost, for calculating a time period specific modernization factor, and for calculating a time period specific backlog factor. Future facility conditions equal the time period specific maintenance cost plus the time period specific modernization factor plus the time period specific backlog factor. In another embodiment, a computer-implemented method for calculating future facility conditions includes calculating a time period specific maintenance cost, calculating a time period specific modernization factor, and calculating a time period specific backlog factor. Future facility conditions equal the time period specific maintenance cost plus the time period specific modernization factor plus the time period specific backlog factor. Other embodiments are also presented.

Mattimore, Bernard G; Reynolds, Paul E; Farrell, Jill M



Modern Statistical Methods for GLAST Event Analysis  

E-print Network

We describe a statistical reconstruction methodology for the GLAST LAT. The methodology incorporates in detail the statistics of the interactions of photons and charged particles with the tungsten layers in the LAT, and uses the scattering distributions to compute the full probability distribution over the energy and direction of the incident photons. It uses model selection methods to estimate the probabilities of the possible geometrical configurations of the particles produced in the detector, and numerical marginalization over the energy loss and scattering angles at each layer. Preliminary results show that it can improve on the tracker-only energy estimates for muons and electrons incident on the LAT.

Robin D. Morris; Johann Cohen-Tanugi



[Historical survey of modern reversible contraceptive methods].  


Because of contraception, pregnancy need not be viewed by women as punishment for sexual activity but as a planned and desired event. Most of the contraceptive methods used in developing countries at present were introduced during the 1960s, but use of contraception has a long history and some methods date back to antiquity. Contraceptive pills were already used around 2000 BC in the form of mercury and arsenic tablets. Their effectiveness was questionable. The role of hormones in human reproduction began to be understood only in the early 1900s. The discovery of progesterone in a Mexican iguana in the 1940s permitted production of progesterone on a large scale. Estrogens had been identified around 1930. Human trials of a contraceptive pill beginning in 1956 in Puerto Rico demonstrated that progestins could prevent pregnancy by suppressing ovulation. Later on, estrogen was added to reduce menstrual irregularities. The 1st generation of combined oral contraceptives contained very high levels of hormones associated with high rates of side effects. Numerous formulations with lower hormonal contents became available beginning around 1970 and constitute the principal formulations in use today. A number of long acting hormonal methods based on progestins have been developed, including injectables, some IUDs and vaginal rings, and implants. The 1st commercially available injectable, norethisterone enanthate, did not acquire the wide distribution of medroxyprogesterone acetate, sold as Depo Provera and used to treat various pathological conditions as well as for contraception. The 1st true IUDs were small stones placed within the uteri of camels by nomads to prevent pregnancy during long caravans. An IUD was developed in 1909 by Richter, and the 2 most widely used models before 1960 were the Grafenberg and Ota silver rings. Use of the 2 rings became rare for medical reasons after 1935 despite their efficacy. Safe plastic IUDs which appeared beginning in the early 1960s were flexible and capable of returning to their original shape after insertion. The Lippes loop was the 1st highly successful IUD. Bioactive IUDs containing copper were developed in the 1970s. Research is underway to develop IUDs which will resist expulsion, reduce bleeding, be more appropriate for multiparas, and last longer. IUDs are used to treat intrauterine adhesions as well as for contraception. A gummy substance used to block the cervix was described in Egypt in 1850 BC. Japanese and Chinese prostitutes of antiquity placed oiled bamboo paper at the cervical opening for contraception. Diaphragms and cervical caps were developed in the 19th century in Germany. Large scale production became possible after 1880 with the development of better, more durable, and cheaper rubber. An Egyptian writing in 3500 BC began the study of spermicides. Numerous substances such as lemon juice and honey have been placed in the vagina to avoid pregnancy. Such substances are available to all women and some were reasonably effective. Current research is directed toward development of spermicides which will also prevent sexually transmitted diseases. The 1st condoms were made of animal skins by an English physician to prevent transmission of venereal diseases. Rubber condoms appeared in the early 20th century and are widely utilized in some family planning programs. Pregnancy vaccines and a reversible hormonal method for men are among methods under development. PMID:12268230

Mbabajende, V



Lattice Field Theory Methods in Modern Biophysics  

E-print Network

An effective field theory exists describing a very large class of biophysically interesting Coulomb gas systems: the lowest order (mean-field) version of this theory takes the form of a generalized Poisson-Boltzmann theory. Interaction terms depend on details (finite-size effects, multipole properties, etc). Convergence of the loop expansion holds only if mutual interactions of mobile charges are small compared to their interaction with the fixed-charge environment, which is frequently not the case. Problems with the strongly- coupled effective theory can be circumvented with an alternative local lattice formulation, with real positive action. In realistic situations, with variable dielectric, a determinant of the Poisson operator must be inserted to generate correct electrostatics. Methods adopted from unquenched lattice QCD do this very efficiently.

Anthony Duncan



[New molecular methods in prenatal invasive diagnostics].  


New diagnostic techniques employed in laboratories all over the world enable to create new tests for prenatal genetic diagnosis. They include cytogenetics, molecular-cytogenetics and molecular methods. Chromosomal numerical aberrations (aneuploidies) remain to be the most frequent genetic changes diagnosed prenatally Therefore, our paper presents the latest methods used mainly in prenatal diagnosis of the most common chromosome numerical changes, as well as other methods applicable in detecting chromosome structural changes or gene mutations. One of the main advantages of these new approaches is the short period of time needed to obtain a result. Some of these techniques are used world-wide: QF-PCR (Fluorescence Quantitive Polymerase Chain Reaction)--based on the analysis of the short polymorphic sequences characteristic for each individual; MLPA (Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification)--based on the probes ligation to complementary genomic fragments in patient DNA; microarray CGH (Comparative Genomic Hybridization)--based on genomic hybridization to microarray, which enables analysis of the entire genome. Other new methods are also gradually introduced to invasive prenatal diagnosis: NGS (Next-generation DNA sequencing)--for the analysis of the whole genome at the DNA level; BoBs (BACS-on-Beads)--molecular-cytogenetic technique based on hybridization of probes immobilized on polystyrene microspheres with fetal DNA. Nowadays, rapid diagnosis of the most common chromosomal aneuploidies is not a standard procedure in Poland, as opposed to cytogenetics (karyotyping). However, for specific clinical indications, fast and reliable methods of genetic analysis present are likely to become standard procedures in prenatal diagnosis. PMID:24273910

?aczma?ska, Izabela; Stembalska, Agnieszka



Ultrasensitive microanalytical diagnostic methods for rickettsial pathogens  

SciTech Connect

A strategic CRADA was established between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) at Galveston to address pressing needs for US protection against biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and emerging infectious diseases. The combination of unique expertise and facilities at UTMB and SNL enabled interdisciplinary research efforts in the development of rapid and accurate diagnostic methods for early detection of trace priority pathogen levels. Outstanding postdoctoral students were also trained at both institutions to help enable the next generation of scientists to tackle the challenging interdisciplinary problems in the area of biodefense and emerging infectious diseases. Novel approaches to diagnostics were developed and the both the speed of assays as well as the detection sensitivity were improved by over an order of magnitude compared to traditional methods. This is a significant step toward more timely and specific detection of dangerous infections. We developed in situ polymerized porous polymer monoliths that can be used as (1) size exclusion elements for capture and processing of rickettsial infected cells from a sample, (2) photopatternable framework for grafting high densities of functionalized antibodies/fluorescent particles using novel monolith chemistry. Grafting affinity reagents specific to rickettsial particles enables rapid, ultra-sensitive assays by overcoming transport limitations of traditional planar assay approaches. We have selectively trapped particles and bacteria at the cell trap and have also detected picomolar mouse IL-6 captured with only 20 minutes total incubation times using the densely patterned monolith framework. As predicted, the monolith exhibits >10x improvements in both capture speed and capture density compared to traditional planar approaches. The most significant advancements as part of this CRADA is the optimization of techniques allowing the detection of <10 rickettsial cells in a whole blood sample. This detection limit is over 2 orders of magnitude more sensitive that previously reported methods and overcomes a key hurdle in ability to sense dangerous infections before they are too late to treat and contain. We also showed that in the new format, cross-reactivity with interfering species is reduced thereby increasing the specificity of such tests. Promising options to treat whole blood and avoid clogging and non-specific fouling of sensors were also developed.

Hatch, A. V.



Comparison of Diagnostic Methods for Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several different diagnostic sets of criteria exist for Asperger syndrome (AS), but there is no agreement on a gold standard. The aim of this study was to compare four diagnostic sets of criteria for AS: the ICD-10, the DSM-IV, the Gillberg & Gillberg, and the Szatmari criteria. The series consists of 36 children who had been referred to two…

Kopra, Kristiina; von Wendt, Lennart; Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; Paavonen, E. Julia



Comparison of Computational Learning Methods on a Diagnostic Cytological Application  

E-print Network

Comparison of Computational Learning Methods on a Diagnostic Cytological Application K. Koutroumbas methods on a problem of diagnostic cytology and more specifically on the classification of gastric cells. INTRODUCTION Cytology has been proved a powerful tool for the diagnosis of gastric lesions. In recent years

Paliouras, George


Electron-Beam Diagnostic Methods for Hypersonic Flow Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this work was the evaluation of the use of electron-bean fluorescence for flow measurements during hypersonic flight. Both analytical and numerical models were developed in this investigation to evaluate quantitatively flow field imaging concepts based upon the electron beam fluorescence technique for use in flight research and wind tunnel applications. Specific models were developed for: (1) fluorescence excitation/emission for nitrogen, (2) rotational fluorescence spectrum for nitrogen, (3) single and multiple scattering of electrons in a variable density medium, (4) spatial and spectral distribution of fluorescence, (5) measurement of rotational temperature and density, (6) optical filter design for fluorescence imaging, and (7) temperature accuracy and signal acquisition time requirements. Application of these models to a typical hypersonic wind tunnel flow is presented. In particular, the capability of simulating the fluorescence resulting from electron impact ionization in a variable density nitrogen or air flow provides the capability to evaluate the design of imaging instruments for flow field mapping. The result of this analysis is a recommendation that quantitative measurements of hypersonic flow fields using electron-bean fluorescence is a tractable method with electron beam energies of 100 keV. With lower electron energies, electron scattering increases with significant beam divergence which makes quantitative imaging difficult. The potential application of the analytical and numerical models developed in this work is in the design of a flow field imaging instrument for use in hypersonic wind tunnels or onboard a flight research vehicle.



Comparison of diagnostic methods for asperger syndrome.  


Several different diagnostic sets of criteria exist for Asperger syndrome (AS), but there is no agreement on a gold standard. The aim of this study was to compare four diagnostic sets of criteria for AS: the ICD-10, the DSM-IV, the Gillberg & Gillberg, and the Szatmari criteria. The series consists of 36 children who had been referred to two centers with a tentative diagnosis of AS. The best agreement was between the ICD-10 and the DSM-IV criteria (Kappa coefficient 0.48), and the lowest between the Gillberg & Gillberg and Szatmari criteria (Kappa coefficient -0.21). The poor agreement between these sets of diagnostic criteria compromises the comparability of studies on AS. PMID:18324466

Kopra, Kristiina; von Wendt, Lennart; Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; Paavonen, E Juulia



Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)



Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics  


A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image.

Toeppen, John S. (Livermore, CA)



Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics  


A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image. 3 figs.

Toeppen, J.S.



Oxygen abundance methods in the SDSS: view from modern statistics  

E-print Network

Our purpose is to find which is the most reliable one among various oxygen abundance determination methods. We will test the validity of several different oxygen abundance determination methods using methods of modern statistics. These methods include Bayesian analysis and information scoring. We will analyze a sample of $\\sim$6000 $\\hii$ galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic observations data release four. All methods that we used drew the same conclusion that the $T_e$ method is a more reliable oxygen abundance determination methods than the Bayesian metallcity method under the existing telescope ability. The ratios of the likelihoods between the different kinds of methods tell us that the $T_e$, $P$, and $O3N2$ methods are consistent with each other because the $P$ and $O3N2$ method are calibrated by $T_e$-method. The Bayesian and $R_{23}$ method are consistent with each other because both are calibrated by a galaxy model. In either case, the $N2$ method is an {\\it unreliable} method.

F. Shi; G. Zhao; James Wicker



A Refined QSO Selection Method Using Diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present 663 QSO candidates in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) that were selected using multiple diagnostics. We started with a set of 2,566 QSO candidates selected using the methodology presented in our previous work based on time variability of the MACHO LMC light curves. We then obtained additional information for the candidates by cross-matching them with the Spitzer SAGE, the 2MASS, the Chandra, the XMM, and an LMC UBVI catalogues. Using that information, we specified diagnostic features based on mid-IR colours, photometric redshifts using SED template fitting, and X-ray luminosities, in order to discriminate more high-confidence QSO candidates in the absence of spectral information. We then trained a one-class Support Vector Machine model using those diagnostics features. We applied the trained model to the original candidates, and finally selected 663 high-confidence QSO candidates. We cross-matched those 663 QSO candidates with 152 newly-confirmed QSOs and 275 non-QSOs in the LMC fields, and found that the false positive rate was less than 1%.

Kim, Dae-Won; Protopapas, Pavlos; Trichas, Markos; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Khardon, Roni; Alcock, Charles; Byun, Yong-Ik



Optical imaging of intracranial hemorrhages in newborns: modern strategies in diagnostics and direction for future research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) we study stress-related intracranial hemorrhages (ICHs) in newborn rats. We investigate a masked stage of ICH development that corresponds to the first 4 h after the stress. We show that this period is characterized by significant changes in the diameter of the sagittal vein and the velocity of the cerebral venous blood flow (CVBF). We discuss diagnostic abilities of wavelet-based methods and consider an adaptive technique allowing us to reveal clearest distinctions in the dynamics of CVBF between normal and stressed newborn rats. Finally, we conclude that the venous insufficiency in newborns and a reduced response of the sagittal vein to adrenaline are related to important prognostic markers of the risk of ICH development.

Pavlov, A. N.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Lychagov, V. V.; Bibikova, O. A.; Sindeev, S. S.; Pavlova, O. N.; Shuvalova, E. P.; Tuchin, V. V.



Experimental study on diagnostic methods for pulverized coal combustion  

SciTech Connect

Two diagnostic methods for pulverized coal combustion are described in this paper, one of which is based on quantitative color characterization of the combustion flame, the other one is based on power spectrum estimation of the flame signal and application of Kohonen`s self-organized neural networks. It is shown that these two diagnostic methods can be used into monitoring and management systems for combustion of coal-fired boilers.

Zhou, H.C.; Zhang, M.C.; Lou, X.S.; Cui, H.P.; Han, C.Y. [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). National Coal Combustion Lab.



Contemporary Chinese pulse diagnosis: a modern interpretation of an ancient and traditional method.  


Contemporary Chinese pulse diagnosis™ (CCPD) is a system of pulse diagnosis utilized by Dr. John He Feng Shen, OMD, and documented by Dr. Leon Hammer, MD, in the book Chinese Pulse Diagnosis, A Contemporary Approach. It is the traditional method of the Ding medical lineage from the Shanghai region and dates to the 15th century in Chinese language texts. The fundamentals of this system are, however, much older and can be directly traced to the Neijing Suwen. Having been passed from the last direct inheritor of Ding knowledge (Dr. Shen) to modern practitioners of Chinese medicine by way of Dr. Hammer and his students, it represents an important system of advanced diagnosis. Although modern diagnostic technology provides very sophisticated diagnoses, for these instruments to be effective, the disease process must already have a physical manifestation. CCPD, on the other hand, provides the earliest warnings of physiological processes, which if left unchecked may result in the subsequent appearance of a disease. This article describes the derivation and the principles of this system of pulse diagnosis and explores its successful integration into the modern practice of Chinese medicine. PMID:24139459

Bilton, Karen; Hammer, Leon; Zaslawski, Chris



Method and system for diagnostics of apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed is a method, implemented in software, for estimating fault state of an apparatus outfitted with sensors. At each execution period the method processes sensor data from the apparatus to obtain a set of parity parameters, which are further used for estimating fault state. The estimation method formulates a convex optimization problem for each fault hypothesis and employs a convex solver to compute fault parameter estimates and fault likelihoods for each fault hypothesis. The highest likelihoods and corresponding parameter estimates are transmitted to a display device or an automated decision and control system. The obtained accurate estimate of fault state can be used to improve safety, performance, or maintenance processes for the apparatus.

Gorinevsky, Dimitry (Inventor)



Modern wing flutter analysis by computational fluid dynamics methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application and assessment of the recently developed CAP-TSD transonic small-disturbance code for flutter prediction is described. The CAP-TSD code has been developed for aeroelastic analysis of complete aircraft configurations and was previously applied to the calculation of steady and unsteady pressures with favorable results. Generalized aerodynamic forces and flutter characteristics are calculated and compared with linear theory results and with experimental data for a 45 deg sweptback wing. These results are in good agreement with the experimental flutter data which is the first step toward validating CAP-TSD for general transonic aeroelastic applications. The paper presents these results and comparisons along with general remarks regarding modern wing flutter analysis by computational fluid dynamics methods.

Cunningham, Herbert J.; Batina, John T.; Bennett, Robert M.



Modern wing flutter analysis by computational fluid dynamics methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application and assessment of the recently developed CAP-TSD transonic small-disturbance code for flutter prediction is described. The CAP-TSD code has been developed for aeroelastic analysis of complete aircraft configurations and was previously applied to the calculation of steady and unsteady pressures with favorable results. Generalized aerodynamic forces and flutter characteristics are calculated and compared with linear theory results and with experimental data for a 45 deg sweptback wing. These results are in good agreement with the experimental flutter data which is the first step toward validating CAP-TSD for general transonic aeroelastic applications. The paper presents these results and comparisons along with general remarks regarding modern wing flutter analysis by computational fluid dynamics methods.

Cunningham, Herbert J.; Batina, John T.; Bennett, Robert M.



Examinations of electron temperature calculation methods in Thomson scattering diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Electron temperature from Thomson scattering diagnostic is derived through indirect calculation based on theoretical model. {chi}-square test is commonly used in the calculation, and the reliability of the calculation method highly depends on the noise level of input signals. In the simulations, noise effects of the {chi}-square test are examined and scale factor test is proposed as an alternative method.

Oh, Seungtae; Lee, Jong Ha; Wi, Hanmin [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)



Signal processing methods for MFE plasma diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The application of various signal processing methods to extract energy storage information from plasma diamagnetism sensors occurring during physics experiments on the Tandom Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) is discussed. We show how these processing techniques can be used to decrease the uncertainty in the corresponding sensor measurements. The algorithms suggested are implemented using SIG, an interactive signal processing package developed at LLNL.

Candy, J.V.; Casper, T.; Kane, R.



[Objective diagnostic methods in pediatric audiology].  


Objective methods based on the measurement of otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and auditory evoked potentials (AEP) are indispensable in pediatric audiology especially for the early detection and therapy of congenital hearing impairment. The correct and efficient use requires knowledge and skills which are beyond the basic equipment of many users and require continuous updating. In the present review many aspects relevant for the safe handling of the methods and interpretation of the results are addressed. The presentation does not focus on the methods themselves but on the core problem of the practical daily routine, namely the qualitative and quantitative description of hearing loss in terms of its extent, the frequency range affected and the identity with respect to the type and site of the lesion. The certainty of the diagnosis can be optimized by observing few and simple rules. Central importance is attached to the thorough discussion of the interrelated parameters residual noise, signal-to-noise ratio and reproducibility in order to promote their correct use. Further subjects of this article are the recognition of pitfalls, the description of new developments, such as chirp and auditory steady-state responses (ASSR) and finally the consideration of the extraordinarily important aspect of maturation. PMID:25270968

Mühler, R; Hoth, S



Diagnostic methods used for atmospheric pressure thermal arc plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diagnostic methods used for atmospheric pressure thermal arc plasmas are presented in this paper. An experimental direct current arc plasma torch was used as a source for plasma generation at atmospheric pressure. Overheated water vapor was employed as a plasma-forming gas with an admixture of argon as a shielding gas. A couple of plasma diagnostic methods were invoked to perform the analysis of the generated plasma jet at the nozzle exhaust of the torch. Firstly, an optical emission spectroscopy method was used to determine the chemical composition of the water vapor plasma, and from the obtained spectra, the rotational and excitation temperatures were calculated roughly. Secondly, an enthalpy probe measurement was performed in order to measure the mean temperature and the velocity lengthwise and crosswise in the plasma stream.

Tamoši?nas, A.; Valatkevi?ius, P.; Valin?ius, V.; Grigaitien?, V.; Kavaliauskas, Ž.



Are complement deficiencies really rare? Overview on prevalence, clinical importance and modern diagnostic approach.  


Complement deficiencies comprise between 1 and 10% of all primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) according to national and supranational registries. They are still considered rare and even of less clinical importance. This not only reflects (as in all PIDs) a great lack of awareness among clinicians and general practitioners but is also due to the fact that only few centers worldwide provide a comprehensive laboratory complement analysis. To enable early identification, our aim is to present warning signs for complement deficiencies and recommendations for diagnostic approach. The genetic deficiency of any early component of the classical pathway (C1q, C1r/s, C2, C4) is often associated with autoimmune diseases whereas individuals, deficient of properdin or of the terminal pathway components (C5 to C9), are highly susceptible to meningococcal disease. Deficiency of C1 Inhibitor (hereditary angioedema, HAE) results in episodic angioedema, which in a considerable number of patients with identical symptoms also occurs in factor XII mutations. New clinical entities are now reported indicating disease association with partial complement defects or even certain polymorphisms (factor H, MBL, MASPs). Mutations affecting the regulators factor H, factor I, or CD46 and of C3 and factor B leading to severe dysregulation of the alternative pathway have been associated with renal disorders, such as atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) and - less frequent - with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). We suggest a multi-stage diagnostic protocol starting based on the recognition of so called warning signs which should aid pediatricians and adult physicians in a timely identification followed by a step-wise complement analysis to characterize the defect at functional, protein and molecular level. PMID:25037634

Grumach, Anete Sevciovic; Kirschfink, Michael



Musculoskeletal symptoms and orthopaedic complications in pregnancy: pathophysiology, diagnostic approaches and modern management.  


Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal symptom in pregnancy that can present as lumbar pain or pelvic girdle pain, with significant physical and psychosocial implications. Pelvic girdle pain is more prevalent and results in greater disability than lumbar pain. It is possible to distinguish between these two conditions from a detailed history based on the site of the pain, its intensity, disability and pain provocation tests. Management of low back pain in pregnancy is conservative, with physical exercise for lumbar pain and minimising activities that exacerbate pain, analgesics and bed rest for pelvic girdle pain, as well as avoiding abduction beyond the pain-free zone in labour. There is evidence that stabilising exercises in patients with pelvic girdle pain postpartum have a beneficial effect. Other treatment modalities that have been shown to be safe and effective include pelvic belts, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, spinal manipulative therapy, acupuncture and complementary therapy with yoga. Other orthopaedic complications in pregnancy such as carpal tunnel syndrome, pubic symphysis rupture, transient osteoporosis and osteonecrosis are usually self-limiting with a satisfactory outcome. However, a lack of awareness and failure to recognise these complications can result in long-term morbidity. Knowledge of the preoperative diagnostic investigations, surgical approaches and intraoperative positioning of the mother to avoid gravid uterus compression is vital in orthopaedic emergencies such as lumbar disc herniation, cauda equina syndrome, fractures and acute compartment syndrome of the lower limb to ensure a safe maternal and fetal outcome and to prevent serious disability. Pregnancy is not contraindicated in women with pre-existing orthopaedic complications such as kyphoscoliosis and total hip arthroplasty as there is no evidence to suggest increased maternal or fetal risks. PMID:24904047

Bhardwaj, Amit; Nagandla, Kavitha



Detection of scabies: A systematic review of diagnostic methods  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis of scabies infection is important for patient treatment and for public health control of scabies epidemics. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the accuracy and precision of history, physical examination and tests for diagnosing scabies. METHODS: Using a structured search strategy, Medline and Embase databases were searched for English and French language articles that included a diagnosis of scabies. Studies comparing history, physical examination and/or any diagnostic tests with the reference standard of microscopic visualization of mites, eggs or fecal elements obtained from skin scrapings or biopsies were included for analysis. Data were extracted using standard criteria. RESULTS: History and examination of pruritic dermatoses failed to accurately diagnose scabies infection. Dermatoscopy by a trained practitioner has a positive likelihood ratio of 6.5 (95% CI 4.1 to 10.3) and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.1 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.2) for diagnosing scabies. The accuracy of other diagnostic tests could not be calculated from the data in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: In the face of such diagnostic inaccuracy, clinical judgment is still practical in diagnosing scabies. Two tests are used – the burrow ink test and handheld dermatoscopy. The burrow ink test is a simple, rapid, noninvasive test that can be used to screen a large number of patients. Handheld dermatoscopy is an accurate test, but requires special equipment and trained practitioners. Given the morbidity and costs of scabies infection, and that studies to date lack adequate internal and external validity, research to identify or develop accurate diagnostic tests for scabies infection is needed and justifiable. PMID:23205026

Leung, Victor; Miller, Mark



Real-time caries diagnostics by optical PNC method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of hard tooth tissues research by the optical PNC- method in experimental and clinical conditions are presented. In the experiment under 90 test-sample of tooth slices with thickness about 1mm (enamel, dentine and cement) were researched. The results of the experiment were processed by the method of correlation analyze. Clinical researches were executed on teeth of 210 patients. The regions of tooth tissue diseases with initial, moderate and deep caries were investigated. Spectral characteristics of intact and pathologically changed tooth tissues are presented and their peculiar features are discussed. The results the optical PNC-method application while processing tooth carious cavities are presented in order to estimate efficiency of the mechanical and antiseptic processing of teeth. It is revealed that the PNC-method can be sued as for differential diagnostics of a degree dental carious stage, as for estimating of carefulness of tooth cavity processing before filling.

Masychev, Victor I.; Alexandrov, Michail T.



[Comparative diagnostic value of Helicobacter pylori infection testing methods].  


In 213 patients with gastric and duodenal pathology, including received surgery, comparative estimation of results of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection testing with invasive and noninvasive methods, were performed. Material for invasive endoscopic biopsy test (EBT), including rapid urease test (RUT) for rapid Hp identification by determination of urease activity, smear cytology and histology was extracted on endoscopy or intraoperationally. RUT was carried out with the help of URE-HP test kit. Serological test for Hp antibodies IgG and IgA class was performed by IFA using kit ELISA. 13? urea breath test (UBT) was made by determination of 13/12CO2 in breath samples on infrared spectroscope. Based on 5 different methods of Hp infection testing Hp positivity in 172 (80,8%) and Hp negativity in 41 (19,2%) from 213 examined patients was revealed. 13?-UBT revealed the highest diagnostic value (accuracy-97,5%, sensibility-97,0%, specificity-100%) in Hp infection diagnostics. In treatment efficiency control this parameters of 13?-UBT are also much high (96,7%, 90,0% and 100% respectively). In spite of high sensitivity of serological test (100%), it had comparative low specificity (71,0%) with high probability of false positive results in treated patients (antibodies titer to Hp after eradication retains for a long time). Thought, this test may be successfully used only in primary patients and in epidemiological studies. Among three methods of EBT, Hp infection detection with RUT revealed the best results (accuracy-94,8%, sensibility-95,0%, specificity-100%). Correlation of RUT and UBT results and much higher diagnostic value of UBT, necessitate RUT with histological study of stomach body mucosa to perform in patients over 45 year, with prolonged anamnesis and dangerous symptoms of disease. In Hp positive patients correlation of index DOB‰ of breath test with results of RUT was revealed. This can serve the index DOB‰ of 13?-UBT as a marker of Hp infection rate. The (accuracy, sensibility and specificity of breath test with local made 13?-urea (98,7%, 98,5% and 100% respectively) are the same as those for BT with standard 13?-urea (96,7%, 96,2% and 100% respectively). Above mentioned, 13?-UBT advantages (noninvasiveness, simplicity, rapidity, safety) and high diagnostic value exceeding same of other applied tests, give us opportunity to offer 13?-UBT as screening method of Hp infection diagnosis and a method of choise in control of Hp infection treatment efficiency. PMID:24423677

Girdalidze, A M; Elisabedashvili, G V; Sharvadze, L G; Dzhorbenadze, T A



Mutational spectrum of DMD mutations in dystrophinopathy patients: application of modern diagnostic techniques to a large cohort.  


Mutations in the DMD gene, encoding the dystrophin protein, are responsible for the dystrophinopathies Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD), and X-linked Dilated Cardiomyopathy (XLDC). Mutation analysis has traditionally been challenging, due to the large gene size (79 exons over 2.2 Mb of genomic DNA). We report a very large aggregate data set comprised of DMD mutations detected in samples from patients enrolled in the United Dystrophinopathy Project, a multicenter research consortium, and in referral samples submitted for mutation analysis with a diagnosis of dystrophinopathy. We report 1,111 mutations in the DMD gene, including 891 mutations with associated phenotypes. These results encompass 506 point mutations (including 294 nonsense mutations) and significantly expand the number of mutations associated with the dystrophinopathies, highlighting the utility of modern diagnostic techniques. Our data supports the uniform hypermutability of CGA>TGA mutations, establishes the frequency of polymorphic muscle (Dp427m) protein isoforms and reveals unique genomic haplotypes associated with "private" mutations. We note that 60% of these patients would be predicted to benefit from skipping of a single DMD exon using antisense oligonucleotide therapy, and 62% would be predicted to benefit from an inclusive multiexonskipping approach directed toward exons 45 through 55. PMID:19937601

Flanigan, Kevin M; Dunn, Diane M; von Niederhausern, Andrew; Soltanzadeh, Payam; Gappmaier, Eduard; Howard, Michael T; Sampson, Jacinda B; Mendell, Jerry R; Wall, Cheryl; King, Wendy M; Pestronk, Alan; Florence, Julaine M; Connolly, Anne M; Mathews, Katherine D; Stephan, Carrie M; Laubenthal, Karla S; Wong, Brenda L; Morehart, Paula J; Meyer, Amy; Finkel, Richard S; Bonnemann, Carsten G; Medne, Livija; Day, John W; Dalton, Joline C; Margolis, Marcia K; Hinton, Veronica J; Weiss, Robert B



Mutational Spectrum of DMD Mutations in Dystrophinopathy Patients: Application of Modern Diagnostic Techniques to a Large Cohort  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the DMD gene, encoding the dystrophin protein, are responsible for the dystrophinopathies Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD), and X-linked Dilated Cardiomyopathy (XLDC). Mutation analysis has traditionally been challenging, due to the large gene size (79 exons over 2.2 Mb of genomic DNA). We report a very large aggregate data set comprised of DMD mutations detected in samples from patients enrolled in the United Dystrophinopathy Project, a multicenter research consortium, and in referral samples submitted for mutation analysis with a diagnosis of dystrophinopathy. We report 1111 mutations in the DMD gene, including 891 mutations with associated phenotypes. These results encompass 506 point mutations (including 294 nonsense mutations) and significantly expand the number of mutations associated with the dystrophinopathies, highlighting the utility of modern diagnostic techniques. Our data supports the uniform hypermutability of CGA>TGA mutations, establishes the frequency of polymorphic muscle (Dp427m) protein isoforms and reveals unique genomic haplotypes associated with `private' mutations. We note that 60% of these patients would be predicted to benefit from skipping of a single DMD exon using antisense oligonucleotide therapy, and 62% would be predicted to benefit from an inclusive multi-exon skipping approach directed toward exons 45 through 55. PMID:19937601

Flanigan, Kevin M.; Dunn, Diane; von Niederhausern, Andrew; Soltanzadeh, Payam; Gappmaier, Eduard; Howard, Michael T.; Sampson, Jacinda; Mendell, Jerry; Wall, Cheryl; King, Wendy; Pestronk, Alan; Florence, Julaine; Connolly, Anne; Mathews, Katherine D.; Stephan, Carrie; Laubenthal, Karla; Wong, Brenda; Morehart, Paula; Meyer, Amy; Finkel, Richard; Bonnemann, Carsten G.; Medne, Livija; Day, John W.; Dalton, Joline C.; Margolis, Marcia; Hinton, Veronica; Weiss, Robert B.



Methods in virus diagnostics: from ELISA to next generation sequencing.  


Despite the seemingly continuous development of newer and ever more elaborate methods for detecting and identifying viruses, very few of these new methods get adopted for routine use in testing laboratories, often despite the many and varied claimed advantages they possess. To understand why the rate of uptake of new technologies is so low, requires a strong understanding of what makes a good routine diagnostic tool to begin. This can be done by looking at the two most successfully established plant virus detection methods: enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and more recently introduced real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By examining the characteristics of this pair of technologies, it becomes clear that they share many benefits, such as an industry standard format and high levels of repeatability and reproducibility. These combine to make methods that are accessible to testing labs, which are easy to establish and robust in their use, even with new and inexperienced users. Hence, to ensure the establishment of new techniques it is necessary to not only provide benefits not found with ELISA or real-time PCR, but also to provide a platform that is easy to establish and use. In plant virus diagnostics, recent developments can be clustered into three core areas: (1) techniques that can be performed in the field or resource poor locations (e.g., loop-mediated isothermal amplification LAMP); (2) multiplex methods that are able to detect many viruses in a single test (e.g., Luminex bead arrays); and (3) methods suited to virus discovery (e.g., next generation sequencing, NGS). Field based methods are not new, with Lateral Flow Devices (LFDs) for the detection being available for a number of years now. However, the widespread uptake of this technology remains poor. LAMP does offer significant advantages over LFDs, in terms of sensitivity and generic application, but still faces challenges in terms of establishment. It is likely that the main barrier to the uptake of field-based technologies is behavioural influences, rather than specific concerns about the performance of the technologies themselves. To overcome this, a new relationship will need to develop between centralised testing laboratories offering services and those requiring tests; a relationship which is currently in its infancy. Looking further into the future, virus discovery and multiplex methods seem to converge as NGS becomes ever cheaper, easier to perform and can provide high levels of multiplexing without the use of virus specific reagents. So ultimately the key challenge from a routine testing lab perspective will not be one of investment in platforms-which could even be outsourced to commercial sequencing services-but one of having the skills and expertise to analyse the large datasets generated and their subsequent interpretation. In conclusion, only time will tell which of the next-generation of methods currently in development will become the routine diagnostics of the future. This will be determined through a combination of factors. And while the technology itself will have to offer performance advantages over existing methods in order to supplant them, it is likely to be human factors e.g., the behaviours of end users, laboratories and policy makers, the availability of appropriate expertise, that ultimately determine which ones become established. Hence factors cannot be ignored and early engagement with diagnostic stakeholders is essential. PMID:24361981

Boonham, Neil; Kreuze, Jan; Winter, Stephan; van der Vlugt, René; Bergervoet, Jan; Tomlinson, Jenny; Mumford, Rick



Comparison of Diagnostic Laboratory Methods for Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei  

PubMed Central

Limited experience and a lack of validated diagnostic reagents make Burkholderia pseudomallei, the cause of melioidosis, difficult to recognize in the diagnostic microbiology laboratory. We compared three methods of confirming the identity of presumptive B. pseudomallei strains using a collection of Burkholderia species drawn from diverse geographic, clinical, and environmental sources. The 95 isolates studied included 71 B. pseudomallei and 3 B. thailandensis isolates. The API 20NE method identified only 37% of the B. pseudomallei isolates. The agglutinating antibody test identified 82% at first the attempt and 90% including results of a repeat test with previously negative isolates. Gas-liquid chromatography analysis of bacterial fatty acid methyl esters (GLC-FAME) identified 98% of the B. pseudomallei isolates. The agglutination test produced four false positive results, one B. cepacia, one B. multivorans, and two B. thailandensis. API produced three false positive results, one positive B. cepacia and two positive B. thailandensis. GLC-FAME analysis was positive for one B. cepacia isolate. On the basis of these results, the most robust B. pseudomallei discovery pathway combines the previously recommended isolate screening tests (Gram stain, oxidase test, gentamicin and polymyxin susceptibility) with monoclonal antibody agglutination on primary culture, followed by a repeat after 24 h incubation on agglutination-negative isolates and GLC-FAME analysis. Incorporation of PCR-based identification within this schema may improve percentages of recognition further but requires more detailed evaluation. PMID:15872242

Inglis, Timothy J. J.; Merritt, Adam; Chidlow, Glenys; Aravena-Roman, Max; Harnett, Gerry



Comparison of diagnostic methods in the evaluation of onychomycosis.  


Onychomycosis is a common nail problem, accounting for up to half of all nail diseases. Several nail disorders may mimic the onychomycosis clinically. Therefore, a sensitive, quick, and inexpensive test is essential for screening nail specimens for the administration of the proper drug. The aim of this study was to compare 4 different diagnostic methods in the evaluation of onychomycosis and to determine their sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. In a cross-sectional study, nail specimens were collected from 101 patients suspected to have onychomycosis during a 14-month period. The nail specimens were examined using potassium hydroxide (KOH) 20 %, KOH-treated nail clipping stained with periodic acid-Schiff (KONCPA), and calcofluor white (CFW) stain, and grew a fungal culture. The culture was chosen as the gold standard for statistical analysis using the McNemar and chi-square tests. Out of 101 patients, 100 (99 %) patients had at least 1 of the 4 diagnostic methods positive for the presence of organisms. The positive rates for the fungal culture, KOH preparation, CFW, and KONCPA were 74.2, 85.1, 91.09, and 99.01 %, respectively. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of KONCPA was 100 %. KONCPA was the most sensitive among the tests and was also superior to other methods in its negative predictive value. KONCPA was easy to perform, rapid, and gave significantly higher rates of detection of onychomycosis compared to the standard methods of KOH preparation and fungal culture. Therefore, KONCPA should be the single method of choice for the evaluation of onychomycosis. PMID:23371413

Haghani, Iman; Shokohi, Tahereh; Hajheidari, Zohreh; Khalilian, Alireza; Aghili, Seyed Reza



Traditional East Asian medicine: how to understand and approach diagnostic findings and patterns in a modern scientific framework?  


Research into the diagnostic methods and patterns of traditional East Asian medical (TEAM) systems of practice such as acupuncture and herbal medicine face certain challenges due to the nature of thinking in TEAM and the subjective basis of judgments made in practice. The TEAM-based diagnosis can take into account various findings and signs such as the appearance of the tongue, palpable qualities of the radial pulses, palpable qualities and findings on the abdomen, the complexion of the patient and so on. Both diagnostic findings and the patterns of diagnosis cannot be assumed to have objective bases or to be causally related to the complaints of the patient. However, the diagnoses of TEAM based acupuncture and herbal medicine have tended to look at pictures of the whole patient and rather than focus on a particular symptom, they have looked across a myriad of signs and symptoms to decide or identify the 'pattern' of diagnosis according to the theory in question. Although open for selective and subjective biases each diagnosis pattern always comes with a prescribed treatment tailored to the pattern. Further, the same research requirements needed for the validation of the diagnoses are needed also for these clinical observations and judgments. Hence, it is necessary, albeit challenging for research on TEAM diagnoses to first address these issues before proceeding to more complex investigations such as the development of instruments for making diagnostic observations, instruments for forming diagnostic conclusions or studies investigating the physiological bases of the diagnostic patterns. Preliminary work has started and instruments have been made, but we suggest that any instrumentation must necessarily be first validated by matching of the calibrated or scaled observations or judgments to observations made and agreed upon by relevant experts. Reliability of all observations and judgments are needed before any other tool, technology or more advanced approach can proceed and also whenever the natural system of diagnosis-treatment is applied in clinical trials. In this paper the authors highlight the core problems and describe a step wise process for addressing them. PMID:24788086

Birch, Stephen; Alraek, Terje



Plasma diagnostic method using intermodulation frequencies in a Langmuir probe  

SciTech Connect

A plasma diagnostic method using intermodulation frequencies is developed. When dual-frequency (?{sub 1},?{sub 2}) voltage signals are applied to a probe, the intermodulation frequencies (?{sub 2}±?{sub 1}, ?{sub 2}±2?{sub 1}) between the signals are generated due to the nonlinearity of the sheath. From the analysis of the intermodulation frequencies, the plasma parameters, such as the electron temperature and the plasma density, can be obtained. The measured plasma parameters from this method are compared to the results from the measured electron energy distribution function, and they are in good agreement. Because the intermodulation currents originated from the plasma not from the stray component of the measurement system, an accurate measurement of the plasma parameters is achievable.

Kim, Dong-Hwan [Department of Nanoscale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Nanoscale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kim, Yu-Sin; Chung, Chin-Wook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)



The Direct Boil-LAMP method: a simple and rapid diagnostic method for cutaneous leishmaniasis.  


Needle biopsy is widely used for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) to obtain specimens for histology and culture. However, the use of such invasive procedures causes discomfort, requires technical expertise, and carries risks of bleeding and iatrogenic infection. Therefore, developing substitutive non-invasive diagnostic tools for CL will help reduce the risk of secondary infection and the exposure of both infected individuals and medical professionals. Here we employed loop-mediated isothermal amplification and boiled swab samples (Direct Boil-LAMP method) from CL model mice to develop a simple and rapid diagnostic method for CL. The detection limit of this procedure was 1.0×10(3)parasites/mL. Accordingly, this substitutive diagnostic method should prove useful for mass screening. In addition, we discuss the potential advantages of using it, particularly in endemic regions where medical resources are limited. PMID:25086375

Mikita, Kei; Maeda, Takuya; Yoshikawa, Sachio; Ono, Takeshi; Miyahira, Yasushi; Kawana, Akihiko



Basic Concepts in Modern Methods of Test Equating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes some of the basic concepts in test equating. Various types of equating methods, as well as data collection designs, are outlined, with attempts to provide insight into preferred methods and techniques. Test equating describes a group of methods that enable test constructors and users to compare scores from two different forms…

Woldbeck, Tanya


Modern Electrophysiological Methods for Brain-Computer Interfaces  

PubMed Central

Modern electrophysiological studies in animals show that the spectrum of neural oscillations encoding relevant information is broader than previously thought and that many diverse areas are engaged for very simple tasks. However, EEG-based brain-computer interfaces (BCI) still employ as control modality relatively slow brain rhythms or features derived from preselected frequencies and scalp locations. Here, we describe the strategy and the algorithms we have developed for the analysis of electrophysiological data and demonstrate their capacity to lead to faster accurate decisions based on linear classifiers. To illustrate this strategy, we analyzed two typical BCI tasks. (1) Mu-rhythm control of a cursor movement by a paraplegic patient. For this data, we show that although the patient received extensive training in mu-rhythm control, valuable information about movement imagination is present on the untrained high-frequency rhythms. This is the first demonstration of the importance of high-frequency rhythms in imagined limb movements. (2) Self-paced finger tapping task in three healthy subjects including the data set used in the BCI-2003 competition. We show that by selecting electrodes and frequency ranges based on their discriminative power, the classification rates can be systematically improved with respect to results published thus far. PMID:18288256

Grave de Peralta Menendez, Rolando; Noirhomme, Quentin; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Aloise, Fabio; Gonzalez Andino, Sara



Diagnostic methods for platelet bacteria screening: current status and developments.  


Bacterial contamination of blood components and the prevention of transfusion-associated bacterial infection still remains a major challenge in transfusion medicine. Over the past few decades, a significant reduction in the transmission of viral infections has been achieved due to the introduction of mandatory virus screening. Platelet concentrates (PCs) represent one of the highest risks for bacterial infection. This is due to the required storage conditions for PCs in gas-permeable containers at room temperature with constant agitation, which support bacterial proliferation from low contamination levels to high titers. In contrast to virus screening, since 1997 in Germany bacterial testing of PCs is only performed as a routine quality control or, since 2008, to prolong the shelf life to 5 days. In general, bacterial screening of PCs by cultivation methods is implemented by the various blood services. Although these culturing systems will remain the gold standard, the significance of rapid methods for screening for bacterial contamination has increased over the last few years. These new methods provide powerful tools for increasing the bacterial safety of blood components. This article summarizes the course of policies and provisions introduced to increase bacterial safety of blood components in Germany. Furthermore, we give an overview of the different diagnostic methods for bacterial screening of PCs and their current applicability in routine screening processes. PMID:24659944

Störmer, Melanie; Vollmer, Tanja



Diagnostic Methods for Platelet Bacteria Screening: Current Status and Developments  

PubMed Central

Summary Bacterial contamination of blood components and the prevention of transfusion-associated bacterial infection still remains a major challenge in transfusion medicine. Over the past few decades, a significant reduction in the transmission of viral infections has been achieved due to the introduction of mandatory virus screening. Platelet concentrates (PCs) represent one of the highest risks for bacterial infection. This is due to the required storage conditions for PCs in gas-permeable containers at room temperature with constant agitation, which support bacterial proliferation from low contamination levels to high titers. In contrast to virus screening, since 1997 in Germany bacterial testing of PCs is only performed as a routine quality control or, since 2008, to prolong the shelf life to 5 days. In general, bacterial screening of PCs by cultivation methods is implemented by the various blood services. Although these culturing systems will remain the gold standard, the significance of rapid methods for screening for bacterial contamination has increased over the last few years. These new methods provide powerful tools for increasing the bacterial safety of blood components. This article summarizes the course of policies and provisions introduced to increase bacterial safety of blood components in Germany. Furthermore, we give an overview of the different diagnostic methods for bacterial screening of PCs and their current applicability in routine screening processes. PMID:24659944

Stormer, Melanie; Vollmer, Tanja



Modern methods of assessment of lung aeration during mechanical ventilation.  


Despite the fact that several modes of ventilation are being used, it is not always possible to maintain adequate parameters of gas exchange. In order to provide proper ventilation, it is necessary to assess the lung function. The aim of this article is presentation of different methods of assesment of lung aerations including its advantages, disadvantages and possibilities for implementation in clinical practice. Computed tomography provides information regarding morphology and aeration of lung tissue, but has several limitations: necessity of patients transportation, it cannot be performed in a continuous manner, a quantitative assessment of picture seems to be rather complicated. Ultrasonography is widely used in intensive care and is a noninvasive and bedside method. It gives the opportunity to assess an investigated organ in real time. Its clinical utility in patients with ARDS was proved by Lichtenstein et al. Another technology which has been implemented for the purpose of lungs visualization is electrobioimpedancy (EIT). This new method consists of continuous monitoring of chest electrobioimpedancy changes due to its air content. Unlike to techniques mentioned above, lung images generated with EIT do not provide any information about morphology of affected tissue. The method which indirectly describes the sum of lung interactions is the assessment of quasi-static P/V curve. This method provides information allowing to draw conclusions regarding the usefulness of recruitment maneuvers, but does not provide information regarding the nature of morphologic changes and their location. In the search for the ideal method of lung aeration assessment, it is necessary to define its characteristics, such as noninvasiveness, availability and visualization of tissue morphologic changes in real time. PMID:23348492

Wierzejski, Wojciech; Adamski, Jan; Weigl, Wojciech; Gerega, Anna



Arsenic burden of cooked rice: Traditional and modern methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic contamination of rice by irrigation with contaminated groundwater and secondarily increased soil arsenic compounds the arsenic burden of populations dependent on subsistence rice-diets. The arsenic concentration of cooked rice is known to increase with the arsenic concentration of the cooking water but the effects of cooking methods have not been defined. We tested the three major rice cooking procedures

M. K. Sengupta; M. A. Hossain; A. Mukherjee; S. Ahamed; B. Das; B. Nayak; A. Pal; D. Chakraborti



Arterial Pulse System: Modern Methods For Traditional Indian Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ayurveda is one of the most comprehensive healing systems in the world and has classified the body system according to the theory of Tridosha to overcome ailments. Diagnosis similar to the traditional pulse-based method requires a system of clean input signals, and extensive experiments for obtaining classification features. In this paper we briefly describe our system of generating pulse waveforms

Aniruddha Joshi; Sharat Chandran; V. K. Jayaraman; B. D. Kulkarni





During the last half century hundreds of papers published in statistical journals have documented general conditions where reliance on least squares regression and Pearson's correlation can result in missing even strong associations between variables. Moreover, highly misleading conclusions can be made, even when the sample size is large. There are, in fact, several fundamental concerns related to non-normality, outliers, heteroscedasticity, and curvature that can result in missing a strong association. Simultaneously, a vast array of new methods have been derived for effectively dealing with these concerns. The paper (1) reviews why least squares regression and classic inferential methods can fail, (2) provides an overview of the many modern strategies for dealing with known problems, including some recent advances, and (3) illustrates that modern robust methods can make a practical difference in our understanding of data. Included are some general recommendations regarding how modern methods might be used. PMID:23626402

Wilcox, Rand R; Keselman, H J



Dental and dental hygiene students' diagnostic accuracy in oral radiology: effect of diagnostic strategy and instructional method.  


There has been much debate surrounding diagnostic strategies and the most appropriate training models for novices in oral radiology. It has been argued that an analytic approach, using a step-by-step analysis of the radiographic features of an abnormality, is ideal. Alternative research suggests that novices can successfully employ non-analytic reasoning. Many of these studies do not take instructional methodology into account. This study evaluated the effectiveness of non-analytic and analytic strategies in radiographic interpretation and explored the relationship between instructional methodology and diagnostic strategy. Second-year dental and dental hygiene students were taught four radiographic abnormalities using basic science instructions or a step-by-step algorithm. The students were tested on diagnostic accuracy and memory immediately after learning and one week later. A total of seventy-three students completed both immediate and delayed sessions and were included in the analysis. Students were randomly divided into two instructional conditions: one group provided a diagnostic hypothesis for the image and then identified specific features to support it, while the other group first identified features and then provided a diagnosis. Participants in the diagnosis-first condition (non-analytic reasoning) had higher diagnostic accuracy then those in the features-first condition (analytic reasoning), regardless of their learning condition. No main effect of learning condition or interaction with diagnostic strategy was observed. Educators should be mindful of the potential influence of analytic and non-analytic approaches on the effectiveness of the instructional method. PMID:25179924

Baghdady, Mariam T; Carnahan, Heather; Lam, Ernest W N; Woods, Nicole N



[Reasearch on evolution and transition of processing method of fuzi in ancient and modern times].  


Fuzi is a medicine used for rescuing from collapse by restoring yang as well as a famous toxic traditional Chinese medicine. In order to ensure the efficacy and safe medication, Fuzi has mostly been applied after being processed. There have been different Fuzi processing methods recorded by doctors of previous generations. Besides, there have also been differences in Fuzi processing methods recorded in modern pharmacopeia and ancient medical books. In this study, the authors traced back to medical books between the Han Dynasty and the period of Republic of China, and summarized Fuzi processing methods collected in ancient and modern literatures. According to the results, Fuzi processing methods and using methods have changed along with the evolution of dynasties, with differences in ancient and modern processing methods. Before the Tang Dynasty, Fuzi had been mostly processed and soaked. From Tang to Ming Dynasties, Fuzi had been mostly processed, soaked and stir-fried. During the Qing Dynasty, Fuzi had been mostly soaked and boiled. In the modem times, Fuzi is mostly processed by being boiled and soaked. Before the Tang Dynasty, a whole piece of Fuzi herbs or their fragments had been applied in medicines; Whereas their fragments are primarily used in the modern times. Because different processing methods have great impacts on the toxicity of Fuzi, it is suggested to study Fuzi processing methods. PMID:25011281

Liu, Chan-Chan; Cheng, Ming-En; Duan, Hai-Yan; Peng, Hua-Sheng



Detection of Underground Quarry From Modern Surface Geoelectrical Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present contribution aims to map and detect the underground cavities (quarry) from surface geoelectrical methods. For that, we have chosen a pilot site -underground quarry- located in Saint- Germain-la-Rivière, in Gironde, France. The geology and the geometry of the galleries and pillars are well known from direct surface and underground investigation and mapping: - decimeters of agricultural soil, followed by argilleous soil, then the unsaturated zone composed of alterated calcareous material; - extraction of limestone occurred at depths ranging between 3 and 8 m; the void percentage is of the order of 65 to 75 %; the width of the gallery is generally less than 5 m; the size of the pillars vary from 6 to 70 m2. Three geoelectrical methods were chosen to be carried out quasi-simultaneously : DC resistivity, Induced Polarisation (IP), i.e chargeability measurements and Spontaneous Polarization (SP). Each of them is sensitive to the presence of water, clay and voids, which are key parameters for our investigation. SP is the only one especially sensitive to water vertical circulation, which is necessarily different above pillars and voids. Our aim was to demonstrate that only the combination of those three methods should enable to locate the pillars, and chambers. Direct modelling using two different codes -finite differences and finite elements, enabled to select the optimal array. A regular grid with an inter electrode spacing equal to 2.5 m is used for all three techniques : 96 electrodes organised along 12 lines and 8 traverses. The so-called Syscal Pro system developed and manufactured by Iris Instrument enabled very quick measurements using the pole-dipole 3D array. Classical Cu/CuSO4 non polarizable electrodes were used for IP whereas specific Pb/PbCl were used for SP. 3 D inversion of DC resistivity has already been carried out using Loke Res3Dinv, and finite element codes. Confined anomalies are definitely mapped with their top at depths ranging between 2 and 3 meters, which are in good agreement with the known pillars level. Chargeability inversion is yet to be carried out. The SP map on the other hand, shows week anomalies ranging from -7 mV to + 7 mV, which do coincide with a number of resistivity anomalies. At present, it can be concluded that combination of electrical resistivity and self potential measurements allow to map numbers of pillars, which size is greater than 10 m2.

Schmutz, M.; Palma Lopes, S.; Cerepi, A.; Burlot, R.



Interrater Reliability of Diagnostic Methods in Traditional Indian Ayurvedic Medicine  

PubMed Central

This study assesses the interrater reliability of Ayurvedic pulse (nadi), tongue (jivha), and body constitution (prakriti) assessments. Fifteen registered Ayurvedic doctors with 3–15 years of experience independently examined twenty healthy subjects. Subjects completed self-assessment questionnaires and software analyses for prakriti assessment. Weighted kappa statistics for all 105 pairs of doctors were computed for the pulse, tongue, and prakriti data sets. According to the Landis-Koch scale, the pairwise kappas ranged from poor to slight, slight to fair, and fair to moderate for pulse, tongue, and prakriti assessments, respectively. The average pairwise kappa for pulse, tongue, and prakriti was 0.07, 0.17, and 0.28, respectively. For each data set and pair of doctors, the null hypothesis of random rating was rejected for just twelve pairs of doctors for prakriti, one pair of doctors for pulse examination, and no pairs of doctors for tongue assessment. Thus, the results demonstrate a low level of reliability for all types of assessment made by doctors. There was significant evidence against random rating by software and questionnaire use and by the diagnosis preferred by the majority of doctors. Prakriti assessment appears reliable when questionnaire and software assessment are used, while other diagnostic methods have room for improvement. PMID:24191170

Bilgrau, Anders Ellern; Toft, Egon; Prasad, Ramjee



Modern Physics for Engineers Summary of Topics, Methods, and Common Student Difficulties  

E-print Network

Modern Physics for Engineers Summary of Topics, Methods, and Common Student Difficulties 1. Review that hits the screen at a single location. This lecture led to an unexpected onslaught of deep, fundamental. They're probably mixing it up with the Schrodinger model. 5. Atomic Spectra and Discharge Lamps Sim

Colorado at Boulder, University of


Increased productivity of a flock of sheep using modern methods of reproduction  

E-print Network

Increased productivity of a flock of sheep using modern methods of reproduction G. LOUAULT, J Reproduction, Centre de Recherches de Touvs, LN.R.A., Nozizilly 3738o Jj10nnaie (France) Since 1970, the sheep flock at the Lyc6e Agricole of Tours-Fondettes has used an intensive reproduction system comprising two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


CU research team awarded $2M to use modern methods to understand ancient Greenland ice.  

E-print Network

. "Our work will show how different the changes related to global warming are from those that Greenland. "With global warming the loss of sea ice from the Arctic Ocean would suggest that more of snow at SummitCU research team awarded $2M to use modern methods to understand ancient Greenland ice. The layers

Colorado at Boulder, University of


Biology 534: Modern methods in Population Genomics 3 credits Spring 2015  

E-print Network

#12;#12;#12;Biology 534: Modern methods in Population Genomics 3 credits Spring 2015 Instructor will be done by the instructor Catalog Description: Problems and prospects of designing a study with genomic revolutionized by the possibility of generating genomic sequence data. Interestingly, much of theoretical

Collins, Gary S.


Mining an Ocean of Data: Application of modern statistical methods for addressing biological oceanography questions  

E-print Network

Mining an Ocean of Data: Application of modern statistical methods for addressing biological of measuring ocean properties beyond those possible by traditional research ships, demands that we find better derived geospatial ocean color and environmental data to identify phytoplankton functional types from

Columbia University


Physical Layout of High Current Rectifiers: Modern Methods for an Old Challenge  

E-print Network

Physical Layout of High Current Rectifiers: Modern Methods for an Old Challenge JL.Schanen1 , JM rectifier: paralleling components, magnetic field close to the rectifier and also the validation current rectifiers. I. INTRODUCTION Electrochemical process of aluminium involves high DC currents

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Analysis of the Diagnostic Methods of the Performance Failure of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems  

E-print Network

The paper introduces some diagnostic methods for the performance failure of heating and air conditioning, analyzes the principle by an example, gives the application characteristics of different methods and supplies the guide for the application...

Li, L.; Zhang, Z.; Sun, Y.; Li, D.; Xie, H.



Brain changes in dementia of Alzheimer's type relevant to new imaging diagnostic methods.  


The aim of the article is to correlate grey and white matter changes and their topography to the results of modern methods for brain imaging such as CT, rCBF, PET, SPECT and NMR in Alzheimer's type of dementia. The findings are based on the study of a large material investigated thoroughly patho-anatomically. The findings are correlated with psychiatric and neurophysiologic follow-up studies. The degenerative grey matter process shows a regionally varying accent according to a pattern which is consistent and typical for the disease. This corresponds to metabolic changes on rCBF, PET and SPECT and thereby becomes of diagnostic value. This pattern is largely symmetric. Metabolic asymmetries have however been reported on PET scans. In this context individual variations of the topographic degenerative brain pattern and normal anatomical brain asymmetries are of interest. The white matter however also frequently shows changes, in particular loss of myelin and axons and a mild gliosis, slight in 1/3 of the cases and severe in an additional 1/3. These changes cause a decrease of density in the centrum semiovale correlating to lipid depletion. They may also influence the ventricular shape and size, of interest in CT or NMR studies. Also here variations in ventricular shape, normal and such due to pathological processes unrelated to the Alzheimer disease, may cause confusion, regarding degree of atrophy and even type of brain process. Such factors should be considered in the interpretation of non-invasive brain studies. PMID:3492011

Brun, A; Englund, E



Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods  

SciTech Connect

A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI



ANALOG: a program for estimating paleoclimate parameters using the method of modern analogs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beginning in the 1970s with CLIMAP, paleoclimatologists have been trying to derive quantitative estimates of climatic parameters from the sedimentary record. In general the procedure is to observe the modern distribution of some component of surface sediment that depends on climate, find an empirical relationship between climate and the character of sediments, then extrapolate past climate by studying older sediments in the same way. Initially the empirical relationship between climate and components of the sediment was determined using a multiple regression technique (Imbrie and Kipp, 1971). In these studies sea-floor sediments were examined to determine the percentage of various species of planktonic foraminifera present in them. Supposing that the distribution of foraminiferal assemblages depended strongly on the extremes of annual sea-surface temperature (SST), the foraminiferal assemblages (refined through use of varimax factor analysis) were regressed against the average SST during the coolest and warmest months of the year. The result was a set of transfer functions, equations that could be used to estimate cool and warm SST from the faunal composition of a sediment sample. Assuming that the ecological preference of the species had remained constant throughout the last several hundred thousand years, these transfer functions could be used to estimate SSTs during much of the late Pleistocene. Hutson (1980) and Overpeck, Webb, and Prentice (1985) proposed an alternative approach to estimating paleoclimatic parameters. Their 'method of modern analogs' revolved not around the existence of a few climatically-sensitive faunal assemblages but rather on the expectation that similar climatic regimes should foster similar faunal and floral assemblages. From a large pool of modern samples, those few are selected whose faunal compositions are most similar to a given fossil sample. Paleoclimate estimates are derived using the climatic character of only the most similar modern samples, the modern analogs of the fossil sample. This report describes how to use the program ANALOG to carry out the method of modern analogs. It is assumed that the user has faunal census estimates of one or more fossil samples, and one or more sets of faunal data from modern samples. Furthermore, the user must understand the taxonomic categories represented in the data sets, and be able to recognize taxa that are or may be considered equivalent in the analysis. ANALOG provides the user with flexibility in input data format, output data content, and choice of distance measure, and allows the user to determine which taxa from each modern and fossil data file are compared. Most of the memory required by the program is allocated dynamically, so that, on systems that permit program segments to grow, the program consumes only as many system resources as are needed to accomplish its task.

Schweitzer, Peter N.



An objective method and measuring equipment for noise control and acoustic diagnostics of motorcars. [acoustic diagnostics on automobile engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An objective method and apparatus for noise control and acoustic diagnostics of motorcar engines are reported. The method and apparatus let us know whether the noisiness of the vehicle under test exceeds the admissible threshold levels given by appropriate standards and if so what is the main source of the excessive noise. The method consists in measuring both the overall noise level and the sound pressure levels in definite frequency bands while the engine speed is controlled as well and may be fixed at prescribed values. Whenever the individually adjusted threshold level has been exceeded in any frequency band, a self-sustaining control signal is sent.

Kacprowski, J.; Motylewski, J.; Miazga, J.



Diagnostic efficacy of in vitro methods vs. skin testing in patients with inhalant allergies  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of our study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of two selected methods of in vitro allergy testing. Specifically, the PRIST/modified RAST I125 isotope systems and the Quantizyme/modified EAST alkaline phosphatase method were compared. The time, expense, convenience, and diagnostic efficacy of the two procedures are discussed. Special attention is given to the practicality of each method for the practicing physician.

Corey, J.P.; Liudahl, J.J.; Young, S.A.; Rodman, S.M. (Univ. of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL (USA))



[The abuse of radiological diagnostic tests as a metaphor of the post-modern, new-media and consumerism society].  


Aim of this paper is to offer some cue of reflection about some sociological aspects on the emergent phenomenon of the abuse of Imaging tests, interpreting this issue in the light of general dynamics crossing the actual post-modern society, so well characterized from the consumerism and the dominion of information and communication technologies, as vectors of messages mainly transmitted in a graphic format. PMID:18488522

Dimonte, Mariano



Jet Noise Diagnostics Supporting Statistical Noise Prediction Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary focus of my presentation is the development of the jet noise prediction code JeNo with most examples coming from the experimental work that drove the theoretical development and validation. JeNo is a statistical jet noise prediction code, based upon the Lilley acoustic analogy. Our approach uses time-average 2-D or 3-D mean and turbulent statistics of the flow as input. The output is source distributions and spectral directivity. NASA has been investing in development of statistical jet noise prediction tools because these seem to fit the middle ground that allows enough flexibility and fidelity for jet noise source diagnostics while having reasonable computational requirements. These tools rely on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions as input for computing far-field spectral directivity using an acoustic analogy. There are many ways acoustic analogies can be created, each with a series of assumptions and models, many often taken unknowingly. And the resulting prediction can be easily reverse-engineered by altering the models contained within. However, only an approach which is mathematically sound, with assumptions validated and modeled quantities checked against direct measurement will give consistently correct answers. Many quantities are modeled in acoustic analogies precisely because they have been impossible to measure or calculate, making this requirement a difficult task. The NASA team has spent considerable effort identifying all the assumptions and models used to take the Navier-Stokes equations to the point of a statistical calculation via an acoustic analogy very similar to that proposed by Lilley. Assumptions have been identified and experiments have been developed to test these assumptions. In some cases this has resulted in assumptions being changed. Beginning with the CFD used as input to the acoustic analogy, models for turbulence closure used in RANS CFD codes have been explored and compared against measurements of mean and rms velocity statistics over a range of jet speeds and temperatures. Models for flow parameters used in the acoustic analogy, most notably the space-time correlations of velocity, have been compared against direct measurements, and modified to better fit the observed data. These measurements have been extremely challenging for hot, high speed jets, and represent a sizeable investment in instrumentation development. As an intermediate check that the analysis is predicting the physics intended, phased arrays have been employed to measure source distributions for a wide range of jet cases. And finally, careful far-field spectral directivity measurements have been taken for final validation of the prediction code. Examples of each of these experimental efforts will be presented. The main result of these efforts is a noise prediction code, named JeNo, which is in middevelopment. JeNo is able to consistently predict spectral directivity, including aft angle directivity, for subsonic cold jets of most geometries. Current development on JeNo is focused on extending its capability to hot jets, requiring inclusion of a previously neglected second source associated with thermal fluctuations. A secondary result of the intensive experimentation is the archiving of various flow statistics applicable to other acoustic analogies and to development of time-resolved prediction methods. These will be of lasting value as we look ahead at future challenges to the aeroacoustic experimentalist.

Bridges, James E.



Direct detection of double-stranded DNA: molecular methods and applications for DNA diagnostics{  

E-print Network

-binding proteins as dsDNA diagnostic systems. In particular, the sequence-enabled reassembly (SEER) method, single nucleotide polymorphism; SEER, sequence-enabled reassembly. Indraneel Ghosh was born on 30th

Ghosh, Indraneel


Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same  


A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand.

Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Karra, Srinivasa Rao (Columbia, MO); Berning, Douglas E. (Columbia, MO); Smith, C. Jeffrey (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)



Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same  


A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand.

Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Karra, Srinivasa Rao (Columbia, MO); Berning, Douglas E. (Columbia, MO); Smith, C. Jeffrey (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)



Benchmarking Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: A Public Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of engine health management (EHM) technology. The need is two-fold: technology developers require relevant data and problems to design and validate new algorithms and techniques while engine system integrators and operators need practical tools to direct development and then evaluate the effectiveness of proposed solutions. This paper presents a publicly available gas path diagnostic benchmark problem that has been developed by the Propulsion and Power Systems Panel of The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) to help address these needs. The problem is coded in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc.) and coupled with a non-linear turbofan engine simulation to produce "snap-shot" measurements, with relevant noise levels, as if collected from a fleet of engines over their lifetime of use. Each engine within the fleet will experience unique operating and deterioration profiles, and may encounter randomly occurring relevant gas path faults including sensor, actuator and component faults. The challenge to the EHM community is to develop gas path diagnostic algorithms to reliably perform fault detection and isolation. An example solution to the benchmark problem is provided along with associated evaluation metrics. A plan is presented to disseminate this benchmark problem to the engine health management technical community and invite technology solutions.

Simon, Donald L.; Bird, Jeff; Davison, Craig; Volponi, Al; Iverson, R. Eugene



[The role of modern echocardiography methods in diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension].  


The review contains presentation of diagnostic possibilities of contemporary echocardiographic techniques for investigation of structural functional state of the right ventricle and various methods of estimation of pulmonary artery pressure. Normative values of various parameters are adduced according to last recommendations of European and American Electrocardiography Societies. An algorithm of examination of patients with various severity of pulmonary hypertension comprising the use of novel echocardiographic technologies is suggested. PMID:25177892

Saidova, M A; Loscutova, A S; Kobal', E A



Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES) User's Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is a User's Guide for the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES). ProDiMES is a standard benchmarking problem and a set of evaluation metrics to enable the comparison of candidate aircraft engine gas path diagnostic methods. This Matlab (The Mathworks, Inc.) based software tool enables users to independently develop and evaluate diagnostic methods. Additionally, a set of blind test case data is also distributed as part of the software. This will enable the side-by-side comparison of diagnostic approaches developed by multiple users. The Users Guide describes the various components of ProDiMES, and provides instructions for the installation and operation of the tool.

Simon, Donald L.



Non-Intrusive Optical Diagnostic Methods for Flowfield Characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Non-intrusive optical diagnostic techniques such as Electron Beam Fluorescence (EBF), Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF), and Focusing Schlieren (FS) have been setup for high-speed flow characterization and large flowfield visualization, respectively. Fluorescence emission from the First Negative band of N2(+) with the (0,0) vibration transition (at lambda =391.44 nm) was obtained using the EBF technique and a quenching rate of N2(+)* molecules by argon gas was reported. A very high sensitivity FS system was built and applied in the High-Speed Flow Generator (HFG) at NASA LaRC. A LIF system is available at the Advanced Propulsion Laboratory (APL) on campus and a plume exhaust velocity measurement, measuring the Doppler shift from lambda = 728.7 nm of argon gas, is under way.

Tabibi, Bagher M.; Terrell, Charles A.; Spraggins, Darrell; Lee, Ja. H.; Weinstein, Leonard M.



Restrictive Stochastic Item Selection Methods in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes two new item selection methods for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing: the restrictive progressive method and the restrictive threshold method. They are built upon the posterior weighted Kullback-Leibler (KL) information index but include additional stochastic components either in the item selection index or in…

Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Huebner, Alan



Frequency-Domain Methods for Characterization of Pulsed Power Diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses methods of frequency-domain characterization of pulsed power sensors using vector network analyzer and spectrum analyzer techniques that offer significant simplification over time-domain methods, while mitigating or minimizing the effect of the difficulties present in time domain characterization. These methods are applicable to characterization of a wide variety of sensors.

White, A D; Anderson, R A; Ferriera, T J; Goerz, D A



Sexually transmitted disease testing: evaluation of diagnostic tests and methods.  


Most STIs in adolescents are asymptomatic. Recent studies in adolescents have documented relatively short periods of time until reinfection occurs (median times 4.7-7.6 months), suggesting that sexually active adolescents should be screened for STI every 6 months. Evidence-based practice is exceedingly helpful in deciding when to test, whom to test, and which methodology to use. In a recent critical analysis regarding screening women for chlamydia, screening all women for chlamydia was more cost-effective than testing only symptomatic women. With the proliferation of highly sensitive and specific assays, and the usefulness of different specimen sources (such as urine or self-swabs), health care providers of adolescents should screen all patients at risk for STIs. Although these screening and diagnostic techniques provide greater accuracy than previously attainable, screening should be part of a comprehensive methodology designed to promote good health care decisions, such as encouraging abstinence, promoting safer sexual practices, and using the most appropriate methodology to detect and treat STIs. PMID:15449846

Spigarelli, Michael G; Biro, Frank M



Computational methods in the pricing and risk management of modern financial derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last 20 years modern finance has developed into a complex mathematically challenging field. Very complicated risks exist in financial markets which need very advanced methods to measure and/or model them. The financial instruments invented by the market participants to trade these risk, the so called derivatives are usually even more complicated than the risks themselves and also sometimes generate new riks. Topics like random walks, stochastic differential equations, martingale measures, time series analysis, implied correlations, etc. are of common use in the field. This is why more and more people with a science background, such as physicists, mathematicians, or computer scientists, are entering the field of finance. The measurement and management of all theses risks is the key to the continuing success of banks. This talk gives insight into today's common methods of modern market risk management such as variance-covariance, historical simulation, Monte Carlo, “Greek” ratios, etc., including the statistical concepts on which they are based. Derivatives are at the same time the main reason for and the most effective means of conducting risk management. As such, they stand at the beginning and end of risk management. The valuation of derivatives and structured financial instruments is therefore the prerequisite, the condition sine qua non, for all risk management. This talk introduces some of the important valuation methods used in modern derivatives pricing such as present value, Black-Scholes, binomial trees, Monte Carlo, etc. In summary this talk highlights an area outside physics where there is a lot of interesting work to do, especially for physicists. Or as one of our consultants said: The fascinating thing about this job is that Arthur Andersen hired me not ALTHOUGH I am a physicist but BECAUSE I am a physicist.

Deutsch, Hans-Peter



Tokamak physics studies using x-ray diagnostic methods  

SciTech Connect

X-ray diagnostic measurements have been used in a number of experiments to improve our understanding of important tokamak physics issues. The impurity content in TFTR plasmas, its sources and control have been clarified through soft x-ray pulse-height analysis (PHA) measurements. The dependence of intrinsic impurity concentrations and Z/sub eff/ on electron density, plasma current, limiter material and conditioning, and neutral-beam power have shown that the limiter is an important source of metal impurities. Neoclassical-like impurity peaking following hydrogen pellet injection into Alcator C and a strong effect of impurities on sawtooth behavior were demonstrated by x-ray imaging (XIS) measurements. Rapid inward motion of impurities and continuation of m = 1 activity following an internal disruption were demonstrated with XIS measurements on PLT using injected aluminum to enhance the signals. Ion temperatures up to 12 keV and a toroidal plasma rotation velocity up to 6 x 10/sup 5/ m/s have been measured by an x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) with up to 13 MW of 85-keV neutral-beam injection in TFTR. Precise wavelengths and relative intensities of x-ray lines in several helium-like ions and neon-like ions of silver have been measured in TFTR and PLT by the XCS. The data help to identify the important excitation processes predicted in atomic physics. Wavelengths of n = 3 to 2 silver lines of interest for x-ray lasers were measured, and precise instrument calibration techniques were developed. Electron thermal conductivity and sawtooth dynamics have been studied through XIS measurements on TFTR of heat-pulse propagation and compound sawteeth. A non-Maxwellian electron distribution function has been measured, and evidence of the Parail-Pogutse instability identified by hard x-ray PHA measurements on PLT during lower-hybrid current-drive experiments.

Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Fredrickson, E.; Hsuan, H.; McGuire, K.; Sauthoff, N.R.; Sesnic, S.; Stevens, J.E.



A Simplified Diagnostic Method for Elastomer Bond Durability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simplified method has been developed for determining bond durability under exposure to water or high humidity conditions. It uses a small number of test specimens with relatively short times of water exposure at elevated temperature. The method is also gravimetric; the only equipment being required is an oven, specimen jars, and a conventional laboratory balance.

White, Paul



A Study of Successive Over-relaxation Method Parallelization over Modern HPC Languages  

SciTech Connect

Successive over-relaxation (SOR) is a computationally intensive, yet extremely important iterative solver for solving linear systems. Due to recent trends of exponential growth in amount of data generated and increasing problem sizes, serial platforms have proved to be insucient in providing the required computational power. In this paper, we present parallel implementations of red-black SOR method using three modern programming languages namely Chapel, D and Go. We employ SOR method for solving 2D steady-state heat conduction problem. We discuss the optimizations incorporated and the features of these languages which are crucial for improving the program performance. Experiments have been performed using 2, 4, and 8 threads and performance results are compared with serial execution. The analysis of results provides important insights into working of SOR method.

Mittal, Sparsh [ORNL



Model-based angiogenic inhibition of tumor growth using modern robust control method.  


Cancer is one of the most destructive and lethal illnesses of the modern civilization. In the last decades, clinical cancer research shifted toward molecular targeted therapies which have limited side effects in comparison to conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Antiangiogenic therapy is one of the most promising cancer treatment methods. The dynamical model for tumor growth under angiogenic stimulator/inhibitor control was posed by Hahnfeldt et al. in 1999; it was investigated and partly modified many times. In this paper, a modified version of the originally published model is used to describe a continuous infusion therapy. In order to generalize individualized therapies a robust control method is proposed using H(?) methodology. Uncertainty weighting functions are determined based on the real pathophysiological case and simulations are performed on different tumor volumes to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method. PMID:24472366

Kovács, Levente; Szeles, Annamária; Sápi, Johanna; Drexler, Dániel A; Rudas, Imre; Harmati, István; Sápi, Zoltán



A test of the revised auricular surface aging method on a modern European population.  


The accurate age estimation of adults is an important step in the construction of the biological profile of skeletonized remains. The auricular surface of the ilium as it was developed in 1985 by Lovejoy et al., is one of the methods employed for age estimation. This study presents the results of a blind test of the revised auricular surface aging method developed by Buckberry and Chamberlain. A sample of 120 individuals from the Athens Collection was used to test this revised aging technique. Almost all features and composite score were positively correlated with known age-at-death. The calculation of bias demonstrated no obvious trend for either overestimation or underestimation of age when all individuals were pooled together. Inaccuracy showed that absolute errors of estimated ages against known ages are substantial. The data generated from this study suggest that the revised method can be reliable for age estimation on a modern European population. PMID:24148103

Moraitis, Konstantinos; Zorba, Eleni; Eliopoulos, Constantine; Fox, Sherry C



Inventions leading to the development of the diagnostic test kit industry--from the modern pregnancy test to the sandwich assays.  


The universities are encouraged by the government nowadays to stimulate innovations and also to provide the proper machinery for assisting the protection and commercialisation of innovations. A better understanding of the innovation process may help to create an atmosphere suitable for inventions at the university. Examples can be taken from successful innovations previously made at the university. During the 1960's I made a series of inventions, which ultimately led to the development of the diagnostic test kit industry. The first, which I made as an undergraduate, was a simple and reliable test kit for diagnosis of pregnancy. This was followed by the solid phase radioimmunoassay and a solid phase assay for vitamin B12; next, the dual specific non-competitive sandwich assay and the in-vitro test for diagnosis of allergy, called RAST (Radioallergosorbent test). Organon in Holland with the pregnancy test kit, and Pharmacia in Sweden with test kits for radioimmunoassay, became pioneers among the diagnostic test kit industries. Pharmacia Diagnostics later became one of the leading diagnostic test kit companies in the world and has continued to be so in the field of allergy diagnosis. Each one of these inventions started with a few unique observations leading to a technical development. The pregnancy test as well as the allergy test emerged from the development of assay methods with unique qualities with the subsequent search for appropriate applications. The foreseeing of a commercial value on a future market was a very important step. This was followed by the search for a suitable industry interested to exploit the invention with its new business opportunity i.e. apply for a patent, produce and market the products, which in my case consisted of the necessary reagents and equipments for particular diagnostic tests. Finally, an agreement had to be settled between the entrepreneur and the inventors. This report describes these inventions and particularly discusses some crucial steps of the innovation processes. PMID:16454158

Wide, Leif



Development of methods for optical diagnostics of microstructure parameters of water suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility is shown to use optical methods of measurement of suspension transparency and holographic techniques of diagnostics of spatial particles ensembles simultaneously for nondestructive testing of microstructure parameters of water suspensions in biology, medicine, and environmental control. On the basis of calculated and experimental results, characteristics of the above methods are analyzed in the paper. We propose an optical

Victor V. Dyomin



The modified absorption optic method for diagnostics of the wave liquid film on a rotating surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modification of absorption optic method for diagnostics of the wave liquid film on the surface of a rotating disk was proposed. Inaccuracy of the method was estimated analytically and experimentally. The field measurements of liquid film thickness on a rotating disk were carried out.

Kabardin, I. K.; Rakhmanov, V. V.; Meledin, V. G.; Eliseev, I. A.; Dvoynishnikov, S. V.



Making Diagnostic Inferences about Cognitive Attributes Using the Rule-Space Model and Attribute Hierarchy Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to describe the logic and identify key assumptions associated with making cognitive inferences using two attribute-based psychometric methods. The first method is Kikumi Tatsuoka's rule-space model. This model provides a strong point of reference for studying the nature of diagnostic inferences because it is important…

Gierl, Mark J.



Using the Attribute Hierarchy Method to Make Diagnostic Inferences about Examinees' Cognitive Skills in Critical Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to apply the attribute hierarchy method (AHM) to a subset of SAT critical reading items and illustrate how the method can be used to promote cognitive diagnostic inferences. The AHM is a psychometric procedure for classifying examinees' test item responses into a set of attribute mastery patterns associated with…

Wang, Changjiang; Gierl, Mark J.



Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics  


An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Los Alamos, NM)



The role of the Standard Days Method in modern family planning services in developing countries  

PubMed Central

Background The mere availability of family planning (FP) services is not sufficient to improve reproductive health; services must also be of adequate quality. The introduction of new contraceptive methods is a means of improving quality of care. The Standard Days Method (SDM) is a new fertility-awareness-based contraceptive method that has been successfully added to reproductive health care services around the world. Content Framed by the Bruce-Jain quality-of-care paradigm, this paper describes how the introduction of SDM in developing country settings can improve the six elements of quality while contributing to the intrinsic variety of available methods. SDM meets the needs of women and couples who opt not to use other modern methods. SDM providers are sensitised to the potential of fertility-awareness-based contraception as an appropriate choice for these clients. SDM requires the involvement of both partners and thus offers a natural entry point for providers to further explore partner communication, intimate partner violence, condoms, and HIV/STIs. Conclusion SDM introduction broadens the range of FP methods available to couples in developing countries. SDM counselling presents an opportunity for FP providers to discuss important interpersonal and reproductive health issues with potential users. PMID:22681177



Difference of Diagnostic Rates and Analytical Methods in the Test Positions of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the differences of diagnostic rates, of the two widely used test positions, in measuring vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) and selecting the most appropriate analytical method for diagnostic criteria for the patients with vertigo. Methods Thirty-two patients with vertigo were tested in two comparative testing positions: turning the head to the opposite side of the evaluating side and bowing while in seated position, and bowing while in supine positions. Abnormalities were determined by prolonged latency of p13 or n23, shortening of the interpeak latency, and absence of VEMP formation. Results Using the three criteria above for determining abnormalities, both the seated and supine positions showed no significant differences in diagnostic rates, however, the concordance correlation of the two positions was low. When using only the prolonged latency of p13 or n23 in the two positions, diagnostic rates were not significantly different and their concordance correlation was high. On the other hand, using only the shortened interpeak latency in both positions showed no significant difference of diagnostic rates, and the degree of agreement between two positions was low. Conclusion Bowing while in seated position with the head turned in the opposite direction to the area being evaluated is found to be the best VEMP test position due to the consistent level of sternocleidomastoid muscle tension and the high level of compliance. Also, among other diagnostic analysis methods, using prolonged latency of p13 or n23 as the criterion is found to be the most appropriate method of analysis for the VEMP test. PMID:24855617

Park, Jeong Mee; Yong, Sang Yeol; Kim, Jong Heon; Kim, Hee; Park, Sang-Yoo



Modern methods for investigating functional surfaces of advanced materials by mechanical contact testing  

SciTech Connect

Modern methods for determining the hardness, Young's modulus, elastic recovery, adhesive/cohesive strength, friction coefficient, and wear resistance of thin films, coatings, multilayer materials, and bulk materials are considered. The experimental data obtained in instrumented indentation, instrumented scratching, and tribological tests of nanostructured and quasicrystalline coatings and composite materials are analyzed. It is noted that the elastic recovery of a number of advanced materials is higher than the elastic recovery of metal alloys by a factor of 2-3. The coefficients of sliding friction of sintered samples and thin films containing Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystals are found to be relatively low. An increase in the fraction of quasicrystalline particles to 30% in composites with an aluminum matrix leads to an increase in the wear resistance.

Petrzhik, M. I., E-mail:; Levashov, E. A. [State Technological University 'Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys, (Russian Federation)



Analysis of modern IS security development approaches: towards the next generation of social and adaptable ISS methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various modern approaches to Information Systems Security (ISS) development, influenced, e.g., by information systems (IS) development methods, have been presented. While we see these approaches as serious attempts to improve ISS, they have not received much attention in the literature. One reason for this is that these methods have been developed by scholars from different research traditions and disciplines. This

Mikko T. Siponen



A real-time PCR diagnostic method for detection of Naegleria fowleri.  


Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba that can cause primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). While, traditional methods for diagnosing PAM still rely on culture, more current laboratory diagnoses exist based on conventional PCR methods; however, only a few real-time PCR processes have been described as yet. Here, we describe a real-time PCR-based diagnostic method using hybridization fluorescent labelled probes, with a LightCycler instrument and accompanying software (Roche), targeting the Naegleria fowleriMp2Cl5 gene sequence. Using this method, no cross reactivity with other tested epidemiologically relevant prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms was found. The reaction detection limit was 1 copy of the Mp2Cl5 DNA sequence. This assay could become useful in the rapid laboratory diagnostic assessment of the presence or absence of Naegleria fowleri. PMID:19919836

Madarová, Lucia; Trnková, Katarína; Feiková, Sona; Klement, Cyril; Obernauerová, Margita



Novel plasma torch diagnostic method based on multiple exposition CCD and correlation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Special diagnostic methods are needed for development of plasma sources as DC plasma torch, and for controlling their parameters\\u000a in industry applications. Discussed methods are based on multiple exposition CCD camera equipped with fast rotating mirror\\u000a wobble unit. In this configuration we gain several snapshots (typically eight) in single frame, with mutual time differences\\u000a of the order of tens microseconds.

J. Šonský; V. N?ni?ka



Comparing historical and modern methods of sea surface temperature measurement - Part 1: Review of methods, field comparisons and dataset adjustments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea surface temperature (SST) has been obtained from a variety of different platforms, instruments and depths over the past 150 yr. Modern-day platforms include ships, moored and drifting buoys and satellites. Shipboard methods include temperature measurement of seawater sampled by bucket and flowing through engine cooling water intakes. Here I review SST measurement methods, studies analysing shipboard methods by field or lab experiment and adjustments applied to historical SST datasets to account for variable methods. In general, bucket temperatures have been found to average a few tenths of a °C cooler than simultaneous engine intake temperatures. Field and lab experiments demonstrate that cooling of bucket samples prior to measurement provides a plausible explanation for negative average bucket-intake differences. These can also be credibly attributed to systematic errors in intake temperatures, which have been found to average overly-warm by >0.5 °C on some vessels. However, the precise origin of non-zero average bucket-intake differences reported in field studies is often unclear, given that additional temperatures to those from the buckets and intakes have rarely been obtained. Supplementary accurate in situ temperatures are required to reveal individual errors in bucket and intake temperatures, and the role of near-surface temperature gradients. There is a need for further field experiments of the type reported in Part 2 to address this and other limitations of previous studies.

Matthews, J. B. R.



Using the Attribute Hierarchy Method to Make Diagnostic Inferences about Examinees' Knowledge and Skills in Mathematics: An Operational Implementation of Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to apply the attribute hierarchy method in an operational diagnostic mathematics program at Grades 3 and 6 to promote cognitive inferences about students' problem-solving skills. The attribute hierarchy method is a psychometric procedure for classifying examinees' test item responses into a set of structured attribute…

Gierl, Mark J.; Alves, Cecilia; Majeau, Renate Taylor



Modern scientific methods and their potential in wastewater science and technology.  


Application of novel analytical and investigative methods such as fluorescence in situ hybridization, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), microelectrodes and advanced numerical simulation has led to new insights into micro- and macroscopic processes in bioreactors. However, the question is still open whether or not these new findings and the subsequent gain of knowledge are of significant practical relevance and if so, where and how. To find suitable answers it is necessary for engineers to know what can be expected by applying these modern analytical tools. Similarly, scientists could benefit significantly from an intensive dialogue with engineers in order to find out about practical problems and conditions existing in wastewater treatment systems. In this paper, an attempt is made to help bridge the gap between science and engineering in biological wastewater treatment. We provide an overview of recently developed methods in microbiology and in mathematical modeling and numerical simulation. A questionnaire is presented which may help generate a platform from which further technical and scientific developments can be accomplished. Both the paper and the questionnaire are aimed at encouraging scientists and engineers to enter into an intensive, mutually beneficial dialogue. PMID:11827344

Wilderer, Peter A; Bungartz, Hans-Joachim; Lemmer, Hilde; Wagner, Michael; Keller, Jurg; Wuertz, Stefan



Use of modern contraception increases when more methods become available: analysis of evidence from 1982-2009  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objective: To examine how much contraceptive use increases as additional methods are made available to populations. Methods: We used data estimating contraceptive use from representative national surveys and data estimating method availability from special surveys to make comparisons for 6 modern contraceptive methods, in each of 6 years: 1982, 1989, 1994, 1999, 2004, and 2009. To estimate method availability, we used various method accessibility rules governing different proportions of the total population (ranging from 20% to 80%) that must have access to a method in order for it to qualify as “available.” Results: Contraceptive use is greater when more methods are available to a large portion of the population, both cross-sectionally and over time. The addition of 1 method available to at least half the population correlates with an increase of 4–8 percentage points in total use of the 6 modern methods, for example, from 40% to 44% or 48%. A consistent pattern emerges for the relationship of contraceptive use and choice among multiple methods. Conclusions: Use of contraception may be increased by extending the availability of current methods, by improving features of current methods, or by introducing new methods. A wider choice of methods also improves the ability to meet the individual needs of women and couples. Although the method mix has been improving over time, current availability is far from ideal; in 2009, only about 3.5 methods, on average, were available to at least half of the population in the 113 countries included in our analysis.

Ross, John; Stover, John



Complex optical method of express diagnostics of transparent media containing nanoparticles of noble metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is proposed for diagnostics of parameters of optically transparent ultrafine media containing particles of noble metals (Au, Ag). In accordance with this method, parameters of small-sized gold and silver particles (their effective diameter, concentration, and size-distribution dispersion) in optically transparent condensed media were investigated using, in combination, the methods of laser probing and two-factor analysis of the surface-plasmon resonance band on the basis of simulation of the dimension and spectral dependences of the efficiency of extinction and scattering of radiation by this medium in accordance with the Mie theory.

Goncharov, V. K.; Kozadaev, K. V.



MULTI WAVELENGTH METHODS IN HOLOGRAPHIC INTERFEROMETRY adapted from Journal of Modern Optics, 35(9), 1459-1465 (1988).  

E-print Network

-laser light, the images can be viewed convieniently in white light, and the image quality and resolvable when viewed in white light, although the fringes may be clear. #12;Multi wavelength illuminationMULTI WAVELENGTH METHODS IN HOLOGRAPHIC INTERFEROMETRY adapted from Journal of Modern Optics, 35

Lakes, Roderic


Diagnostic validity of the chemiluminescent method compared to polymerase chain reaction for hepatitis B virus detection in the routine clinical diagnostic laboratory  

PubMed Central

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common significant chronic viral infection world-wide. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) has been the principal target for laboratory testing to identify active infection by HBV. We aimed to find out diagnostic validity of the Liaison chemiluminescent method compared to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for HBV detection in the routine clinical diagnostic laboratory. Materials and Methods: From 350 patients suspicious of having infection with HBV, serum samples were separated and used for testing HBsAg by two methods of Liaison chemiluminescent immunoassay, with HBsAg confirmatory test and PCR method. Results: According to the PCR results as assumed as gold standard method with 100% sensitivity and specificity, detection rate sensitivity of chemiluminescent with confirmatory test was 96% and its specificity was 100%, and for chemiluminescent without confirmatory test sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 70%, respectively. Also for chemiluminescent with confirmatory test, positive predictive value (PPV) was 100% and its negative predictive value (NPV) was 97%, compared to chemiluminescent without confirmatory test with PPV and NPV equal to 71% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: It is possible to conclude that in the majority of the HBV cases, the diagnostic value of chemiluminescent method compared to the PCR method is acceptable, except in low indexes positive cases that need further investigation with the PCR method. PMID:24949287

Khadem-Ansari, Mohammad-Hassan; Omrani, Mir-Davood; Rasmi, Yousef; Ghavam, Arsalan



[Significance of modern methods for laboratory detection of rabies agents and identification of the zoonose immunological survey].  


Analytical review of modern methods of the laboratory detection of rabies and findings of our research indicate high sensitivity and specificity of methods for rapid identification of rabies agents, such as ELISA, reverse-transcriptase PCR for identification of the rabies virus genome, and rabies virus isolation in rat Gasserian ganglion neurinoma, as well as their potential to be included into the State Quality Standard for early detection of rabies in animals to reduce the infection risk among humans and animals. PMID:25335412

Guliukin, A M



Estimation of diagnostic test accuracy without full verification: a review of latent class methods.  


The performance of a diagnostic test is best evaluated against a reference test that is without error. For many diseases, this is not possible, and an imperfect reference test must be used. However, diagnostic accuracy estimates may be biased if inaccurately verified status is used as the truth. Statistical models have been developed to handle this situation by treating disease as a latent variable. In this paper, we conduct a systematized review of statistical methods using latent class models for estimating test accuracy and disease prevalence in the absence of complete verification. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:24910172

Collins, John; Huynh, Minh



Integration of PET/CT in Current Diagnostic and Response Evaluation Methods in Patients with Tuberculosis.  


Tuberculosis is a systemic disease that still affects many people. While pleural involvement is frequently observed in extrapulmonary tuberculosis, multiple skeletal system and articular involvements are quite rare. FDG PET imaging could be a promising diagnostic and treatment monitoring method, especially in complicated cases and if the other methods are inadequate. In this case study, we report a patient who was admitted with suspected malignancy and then diagnosed with tuberculosis pleuritis, lymphadenitis, spondylodiscitis, and sacroiliitis with specific symptoms; the response to anti-tuberculosis therapy was shown using FDG PET/CT. PMID:24900142

Ozmen, Ozlem; Gökçek, Atila; Tatc?, Ebru; Biner, Inci; Akkalyoncu, Behiye



Noninvasive diagnostic methods for perceptual and motor disabilities in children with cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

The field of neuroorthopedics centers on chronic diseases demanding close clinical monitoring. We shall use several examples to show how the various noninvasive diagnostic instruments can be used to obtain insight into the central nervous system as well as into the musculoskeletal system and its morphology. The choice of the most appropriate method depends on the problem; that is, whether the method is to be applied for clinical use or for basic research. In this report we introduce various technical examination methods that are being used successfully in the fields of pediatrics, orthopedics, and neurology. The major examination instrument in pediatric diagnostics is sonography, which is being used in this report as a research instrument for the biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system, but which also gives insight into neurofunctional sequences. In orthopedics, pedography is used for diagnosing deformities of the feet. In neuroorthopedics for children pedography acts as a functional monitor for apraxia and thus allows, for example, a classification of the degree of neurological malfunctions in the lower extremities. The 3D bodyscan is used to minimize x-raying in patients with neurogenic scoliosis. This report introduces examples of the application of MRI and fMRI for basic research. The biometric measuring methods introduced provide precise data in the areas of diagnostics and monitoring and are highly valuable for further neuroorthopedic basic research. In future we expect the ever-evolving technical measuring methods to enable a deeper understanding of the primary neurological causes of and the implications for patients with cerebral palsy and other neuroorthopedic conditions. This may allow the development of new forms of therapy not necessarily predictable today. PMID:21808682

Lampe, Renee; Mitternacht, Jurgen



Development of methods for optical diagnostics of microstructure parameters of water suspensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility is shown to use optical methods of measurement of suspension transparency and holographic techniques of diagnostics of spatial particles ensembles simultaneously for nondestructive testing of microstructure parameters of water suspensions in biology, medicine, and environmental control. On the basis of calculated and experimental results, characteristics of the above methods are analyzed in the paper. We propose an optical scheme allowed us to realize both base method of measurement of suspension transparency and holographic technique with image transfer. An estimations have showed possibility of measurement of attenuation from about 10-5. An allowable size of holographing microparticles is no less than 2 micrometers in a volume of several cm3 and more in dependence on the particle size and number density. These estimations demonstrate the possibility to use the above methods for investigation of natural media. We also propose in this paper some potential applications of these methods.

Dyomin, Victor V.



Modelling geographical variations and determinants of use of modern family planning methods among women of reproductive age in Nigeria.  


Summary Understanding the level, trend, geographical variations and determinants of use of modern family planning (FP) plays a major role in designing effective interventions leading to increased usage. This study assessed these characteristics of FP use in Nigeria using data from the 2003, 2005 and 2007 National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey, a national population-based household survey. A Bayesian geo-additive procedure was used, which provides flexible modelling of non-linear and spatial effects at a highly disaggregated level of states. The findings reveal considerable geographical variation in the use of modern FP in Nigeria, with a distinct north-south divide. Furthermore, a significant trend in the use of modern FP was evident, with an increase between 2003 and 2005 followed by a decline between 2005 and 2007. The effect of respondent's age was non-linear, and use of modern FP was found to differ significantly between never-married and currently/formerly married respondents. Awareness of FP methods and knowledge of where to get/buy FP services/methods were found to be significantly associated with usage. The findings provide policymakers with tools to prioritize the use of scarce resources for implementing FP and reproductive health interventions. PMID:22739073

Adebayo, Samson B; Gayawan, Ezra; Ujuju, Chinazo; Ankomah, Augustine



Advanced Optical Diagnostic Methods for Describing Fuel Injection and Combustion Flowfield Phenomena  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past decade advanced optical diagnostic techniques have evolved and matured to a point where they are now widely applied in the interrogation of high pressure combusting flows. At NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), imaging techniques have been used successfully in on-going work to develop the next generation of commercial aircraft gas turbine combustors. This work has centered on providing a means by which researchers and designers can obtain direct visual observation and measurements of the fuel injection/mixing/combustion processes and combustor flowfield in two- and three-dimensional views at actual operational conditions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the chemical and physical processes at the extreme operating conditions of the next generation of combustors is critical to reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency. To accomplish this and other tasks, the diagnostic team at GRC has designed and constructed optically accessible, high pressurer high temperature flame tubes and sectar rigs capable of optically probing the 20-60 atm flowfields of these aero-combustors. Among the techniques employed at GRC are planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) for imaging molecular species as well as liquid and gaseous fuel; planar light scattering (PLS) for imaging fuel sprays and droplets; and spontaneous Raman scattering for species and temperature measurement. Using these techniques, optical measurements never before possible have been made in the actual environments of liquid fueled gas turbines. 2-D mapping of such parameters as species (e.g. OH-, NO and kerosene-based jet fuel) distribution, injector spray angle, and fuel/air distribution are just some of the measurements that are now routinely made. Optical imaging has also provided prompt feedback to researchers regarding the effects of changes in the fuel injector configuration on both combustor performance and flowfield character. Several injector design modifications and improvements have resulted from this feedback. Alternate diagnostic methods are constantly being evaluated as to their suitability as a diagnostic tool in these environments. A new method currently under examination is background oriented Schlieren (BOS) for examining the fuel/air mixing processes. While ratioing the Stokes and anti-Stokes nitrogen lines obtained from spontaneous Raman is being refined for temperature measurement. While the primary focus of the GRC diagnostic work remains optical species measurement and flow stream characterization, an increased emphasis has been placed on our involvement in flame code validation efforts. A functional combustor code should shorten and streamline future combustor design. Quantitative measurements of flow parameters such as temperature, species concentration, drop size and velocity using such methods as Raman and phase Doppler anemometry will provide data necessary in this effort.

Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.



Regulatory issues unique to clinical trials on periodontal diagnostic methods and devices.  


A wide variety of in vitro diagnostic products have been proposed for use in patients with periodontal disease. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) review focuses on three important issues. First, the product must exhibit acceptable analytical performance (accuracy, precision, analytical sensitivity, and analytical specificity). Second, the effectiveness of the device must be clearly defined. The studies required to establish this will depend largely on the proposed intended use of the product. At a minimum, clinical or diagnostic sensitivity and specificity should be established. Finally, the product must meet the labeling requirements for in vitro devices. These requirements outlined in CFR 809.10(b) are comprehensive and cover 15 key elements including information about the principles of the analytical method; handling of instruments, reagents, and patient samples; test limitations; and test performance. Applicants developing products for any in vitro diagnostic device are encouraged to review the labeling regulations along with other divisional and office guidance material to help in defining the submission requirements. The FDA is willing to meet and work with companies prior to and during preclinical and clinical trials to assist in the development of appropriate study protocols. PMID:9151547

Gutman, S I; Tylenda, C A



An In Vivo Comparison of Two Diagnostic Methods in Secondary Caries Detection  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the level of agreement between four operators with different levels of experience for two methods of detecting secondary enamel and dentin carious lesions in composite restored teeth. Materials and Methods: Sixty teeth of 40 patients with with secondary carious lesions in the composite resin were selected. The teeth were examined by two methods; visual inspection and a laser fluorescence device (DIAGNO dent pen 2190) by four operators including an undergraduate student, a dentist with 5 years of clinical experience, a general dentist with 12 years of clinical experience and an oral and maxillofacial radiologist. Cohen's kappa statistic was applied in order to assess the agreement between the diagnoses performed by the four operators with each diagnostic method. Results: The diagnosis performed by different operators achieved an excellent agreement with high ICC. Conclusion: DIAGNOdent can be a useful device for secondary caries detection in posterior teeth as an adjunct to visual examination. PMID:24910672

Hamishaki, Kazem Saber; Chiniforush, Nasim; Monzavi, Abbas; Khazarazifard, Mohammad Javad



Express diagnostics of intact and pathological dental hard tissues by optical PNC method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of hard tooth tissues research by the optical PNC- method in experimental and clinical conditions are presented. In the experiment under 90 test-sample of tooth slices with thickness about 1 mm (enamel, dentine and cement) were researched. The results of the experiment were processed by the method of correlation analyze. Clinical researches were executed on teeth of 210 patients. The regions of tooth tissue diseases with initial, moderate and deep caries were investigated. Spectral characteristics of intact and pathologically changed tooth tissues are presented and their peculiar features are discussed. The results the optical PNC- method application while processing tooth carious cavities are presented in order to estimate efficiency of the mechanical and antiseptic processing of teeth. It is revealed that the PNC-method can be used as for differential diagnostics of a degree dental carious stage, as for estimating of carefulness of tooth cavity processing before filling.

Masychev, Victor I.; Alexandrov, Michail T.



Expanded response-surfaces: a new method to reconstruct paleoclimates from fossil pollen assemblages that lack modern analogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollen-based paleoclimatic interpretations of late-glacial to early Holocene climates (17-9 ka) in Midwestern North America are hampered by samples that lack modern analogues. Unresolved questions include the magnitude and direction of temperature seasonality (i.e. were these climates more or less seasonal than present) and the temporal changes in precipitation. Central to the no-analogue problem is the truncation of modern pollen-climate relationships for abundant late-glacial taxa such as Fraxinus. Here we present a new method called the expanded response-surface (ERS) method, developed to reconstruct climates from no-analogue pollen assemblages and applied to a high-resolution late-glacial pollen record from Crystal Lake, Illinois to test hypotheses about late-glacial climates. The key assumptions central to the ERS method are: (1) plant species and pollen abundances follow symmetrical unimodal distributions along climatic gradients, (2) taxa with truncated distributions in modern climate space occupy a subset of their fundamental niche, and (3) expansion of truncated distributions by mirroring around the distributional mode recovers the portion of the fundamental niche not realized in the modern climate space. With the ERS method, we expanded modern pollen-climate relationships by mirroring pollen abundances for each taxon around a mode defined with respect to four climate axes (mean winter temperature, mean summer temperature, mean winter precipitation, and mean summer precipitation). The ERS method reconstructed past temperatures and precipitation during the height of no-analogue conditions (14?160-12?370 cal yr BP) for 37% of the Crystal Lake samples where techniques that employed only modern observational data found matches for only 13% of the fossil samples. The total climate space of the expanded taxa set allowed analogue matches under more seasonal-than-present climates with higher-than-present precipitation. The ERS climate reconstructions for the height of no-analogue conditions indicated cooler-than-present summer and winter temperatures, similar-to-present seasonal range in temperatures, higher-than-present winter precipitation, and similar-to-present summer precipitation. These results thus suggest that high moisture availability helped drive the formation of the Midwestern no-analogue communities with high Fraxinus nigra abundances, but do not show higher-than-present temperature seasonality notwithstanding the higher-than-present insolation seasonality at this time. During the no-analogue late-glacial interval, Picea mariana, F. nigra, and Larix stands probably grew on low-lying, poorly drained soils in the Crystal Lake region; whereas Abies, Picea glauca, Quercus, and Ostrya/ Carpinus grew on upland positions with better soil drainage.

Gonzales, L. M.; Williams, J. W.; Grimm, E. C.




EPA Science Inventory

This is Part 2 of "Diagnostic Evaluation of Air Quality Models Using Advanced Methods with Specialized Observations of Selected Ambient Species". A limited field campaign to make specialized observations of selected ambient species using advanced and innovative instrumentation f...


India's Modern Slaves: Bonded Labor in India and Methods of Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Slavery flourishes in the modern world. In nations plagued by debilitating poverty, individuals unable to afford food, clothing, and shelter may be compelled to make a devastating decision: to sell themselves or their children into slavery. Nowhere in the world is this more common than India. Conservative estimates suggest that there are 10…

Boutros, Heidi



Fault detection for modern Diesel engines using signal- and process model-based methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern Diesel engines with direct fuel injection and turbo charging have shown a significant progress in fuel consumption, emissions and driveability. Together with exhaust gas recirculation and variable geometry turbochargers they became complicated and complex processes. Therefore, fault detection and diagnosis is not easily done and need to be improved. This contribution shows a systematic development of fault detection and

Frank Kimmich; Anselm Schwarte; Rolf Isermann



Modern Carbonate Field Studies Designed to Direct Inquiry-Based Learning That Teaches Research Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transitioning students from learner to investigator is best accomplished by incorporating research into the undergraduate classroom as a collaborative enterprise between students and faculty. Our course is a two-part design with a focus on a modern carbonate ecosystem and depositional environment on San Salvador Island, Bahamas in order to integrate geology, biology, and environmental science. Content background is provided in

L. E. Davis; R. L. Eves



New Multi-functional Diagnostic Method with Tracer-encapsulated Pellet Injection on LHD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tracer-Encapsulated Solid PELlet (TESPEL) injection is one of the simplest new ideas to study the impurity confinement and other plasma properties. The special features of this method are: (a) local deposition inside the plasma, (b) precise knowledge of the deposited tracer amount, (c) wide selection of tracer materials. The achievements of the multi-functional diagnostics using TESPEL injection on LHD are to measure: (a) impurity transport properties, (b) heat diffusivity, (c) particle flow features in and out of the magnetic island, and (d) fast neutral particle fluxes.

Sudo, S.; Tamura, N.; Kalinina, D. V.; Sato, K.; Matsubara, A.; Inagaki, S.; Goncharov, P. R.; Ozaki, T.; Stutman, D.; LHD Experimental Group



Impact of gene patents on diagnostic testing: a new patent landscaping method applied to spinocerebellar ataxia.  


Recent reports in Europe and the United States raise concern about the potential negative impact of gene patents on the freedom to operate of diagnosticians and on the access of patients to genetic diagnostic services. Patents, historically seen as legal instruments to trigger innovation, could cause undesired side effects in the public health domain. Clear empirical evidence on the alleged hindering effect of gene patents is still scarce. We therefore developed a patent categorization method to determine which gene patents could indeed be problematic. The method is applied to patents relevant for genetic testing of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). The SCA test is probably the most widely used DNA test in (adult) neurology, as well as one of the most challenging due to the heterogeneity of the disease. Typically tested as a gene panel covering the five common SCA subtypes, we show that the patenting of SCA genes and testing methods and the associated licensing conditions could have far-reaching consequences on legitimate access to this gene panel. Moreover, with genetic testing being increasingly standardized, simply ignoring patents is unlikely to hold out indefinitely. This paper aims to differentiate among so-called 'gene patents' by lifting out the truly problematic ones. In doing so, awareness is raised among all stakeholders in the genetic diagnostics field who are not necessarily familiar with the ins and outs of patenting and licensing. PMID:21811306

Berthels, Nele; Matthijs, Gert; Van Overwalle, Geertrui



Diagnostic method of welding process based on fused infrared and vision images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article deals with a method of diagnosing GMA welding process, based on the analysis of fused infrared and vision images of a welding arc. The proposed method consists of a few fundamental steps such as acquisition, pre-processing, fusion, post-processing, analysis and recognition of acquired images. The recognition phase is based on diagnostic signals being waveforms of relevant features extracted from the fused images. The authors proposed original approaches to the analysis of fused images. The article describes each step of the proposed method in the context of the authors' research, performed on the basis of sequences of infrared and vision images gathered during a series of laboratory experiments where different welding instabilities were simulated.

Fidali, Marek; Jamrozik, Wojciech



Method development for forensic identification of biodiesel based on chemical fingerprints and corresponding diagnostic ratios.  


A forensic identification method based on the chemical fingerprinting of the first generation of biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters as effective components), and several corresponding diagnostic ratios was developed and validated. The distribution of major fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and polar compounds (free fatty acids, glycerol, monoacylglycerides, and free sterols) in several representative above biodiesel products commercially available in Canada were positively quantified and compared, a number of cross-plots of diagnostic ratios of target FAMEs and sterols were developed for biofuel correlation and differentiation. It was found that the cross-plots of FAME ratios, for example, the sum of the di-unsaturated relative to saturated homologues of FAMEs (D/S) versus the sum of the mono-saturated to saturated FAMEs (M/S), and the sum of di-unsaturated to mono-saturated FAMEs (D/M) versus the sum of the mono-saturated to saturated FAMEs (M/S), could cluster samples clearly into their individual feedstock. The cross-plots of diagnostic ratios of individual major sterols (cholesterol, brassicasterol, campesterol, ?-stiosterol and stigmasterol) to the total sterols were also developed and proved to be effective in identifying biodiesel sources due to their self-normalizing effect on sterol data. The case study of a mystery biodiesel spill using this method showed that the two real samples can be tightly clustered into biodiesel from animal fat (Ban) group. However, the significant discrepancy of free fatty acids, glycerol, monoacylglycerides and sterol concentrations between the two real samples indicated their different producing batches. PMID:24378307

Yang, Zeyu; Hollebone, Bruce P; Wang, Zhendi; Yang, Chun; Brown, Carl; Landriault, Mike



Diagnostic Performance of Combined Noninvasive Coronary Angiography and Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Using 320-MDCT: The CT Angiography and Perfusion Methods of the CORE320 Multicenter Multinational Diagnostic Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Coronary MDCT angiography has been shown to be an accurate noninvasive tool for the diagnosis of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Its sensitivity and negative predictive value for diagnosing percentage of stenosis are unsurpassed compared with those of other noninvasive testing methods. However, in its current form, it provides no information regarding the physiologic impact of CAD and is a poor predictor of myocardial ischemia. CORE320 is a multicenter multinational diagnostic study with the primary objective to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 320-MDCT for detecting coronary artery luminal stenosis and corresponding myocardial perfusion deficits in patients with suspected CAD compared with the reference standard of conventional coronary angiography and SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging. CONCLUSION We aim to describe the CT acquisition, reconstruction, and analysis methods of the CORE320 study. PMID:21940569

George, Richard T.; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Cerci, Rodrigo J.; Vavere, Andrea L.; Kitagawa, Kakuya; Dewey, Marc; Rochitte, Carlos E.; Arai, Andrew E.; Paul, Narinder; Rybicki, Frank J.; Lardo, Albert C.; Clouse, Melvin E.; Lima, Joao A. C.



[Clinical usefulness of diagnostic methods for human papilloma virus dependent lesions].  


Persistent infection of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is confirmed necessary factor for development of cervical cancer and anogenital neoplasia. DNA HPV is detected in 96% of cervical cancer, 40% of vulvar and vaginal cancer, 90% of anal cancer and 26% of oral cavity cancer cases in general population. The most common high-risk HPV types observed in anogenital intraepithelial neoplasia or anogenital cancer are HPV 16, 18 and 45. Numerous diagnostic methods of detection of HPV infection and lesions causes by persistent HPV infection are widely used. Epidemiological data reveals correlation of incidence and mortality reduction due to cervical cancer and consequent prosecution and improvement of screening programmes based on morphological assessment of exfoliative smears. In last decade some limitations of conventional smear method were pointed out and a new diagnostic techniques were introduced: liquid-based cytology and HPV DNA testing. Combination of cytological examination and HPV DNA testing seems to be optimal solution to be introduced in large population because of combining high sensitivity of molecular test with high specificity of cytological smear. PMID:24720112

Suwalska, Anna; Owczarek, Witold; Fiedor, Piotr



Assessment of standing balance deficits in people who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using traditional and modern analysis methods.  


Modern methods of assessing standing balance such as wavelet and entropy analysis could provide insight into postural control mechanisms in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to examine what effect anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has on traditional and modern measures of balance. Ninety subjects, 45 who had undergone ACLR and 45 matched controls, performed single leg static standing balance tests on their surgical or matched limb on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board. Data were analysed in the anterior-posterior axis of movement, which is known to be affected by ACLR. The traditional measures of path velocity, amplitude and standard deviation were calculated in this plane. Additionally, sample entropy and discrete wavelet transform derived assessment of path velocity in four distinct frequency bands related to (1) spinal reflexive loops and muscle activity, (2) cerebellar, (3) vestibular, and (4) visual mechanisms of postural control were derived. The ACLR group had significantly increased values in all traditional measures and all four frequency bands. No significant difference was observed for sample entropy. This indicated that whilst postural sway was amplified in the ACLR group, the overall mechanism used by the patient group to maintain balance was similar to that of the control group. In conclusion, modern methods of signal analysis may provide additional insight into standing balance mechanisms in clinical populations. Future research is required to determine if these results provide important and unique information which is of benefit to clinicians. PMID:24433669

Clark, Ross A; Howells, Brooke; Pua, Yong-Hao; Feller, Julian; Whitehead, Tim; Webster, Kate E



Improving Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing by Balancing Attribute Coverage: The Modified Maximum Global Discrimination Index Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a new item selection method, namely, the modified maximum global discrimination index (MMGDI) method, for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT). The new method captures two aspects of the appeal of an item: (a) the amount of contribution it can make toward adequate coverage of every attribute and (b) the…

Cheng, Ying



Building method of diagnostic model of Bayesian networks based on fault tree  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault tree (FT) is usually a reliability and security analysis and diagnoses decision model. It is also in common use that expressing fault diagnosis question with fault tree model. But it will not be changed easily if fault free model was built, and it could not accept and deal with new information easily. It is difficult to put the information which have nothing to do with equipment fault but can be used to fault diagnosis into diagnostic course. Bayesian Networks (BN) can learn and improve its network architecture and parameters at any time by way of practice accumulation, and raises the ability of fault diagnosis. The method of building BN based on FT is researched on this article, this method could break through the limitations of FT itself, make BN be more extensively applied to the domain of fault diagnosis and gains much better ability of fault analysis and diagnosis.

Liu, Xiao; Li, Haijun; Li, Lin



Comparison between Amnisure Placental Alpha Microglobulin-1 Rapid Immunoassay and Standard Diagnostic Methods for Detection of Rupture of Membranes  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of placental alpha microglobulin-1 assay and standard diagnostic methods for detecting rupture of membrane. Study Design. Prospective diagnostic study, between June 2011 to November 2011 at a tertiary centre. Initial evaluation included both the standard diagnostic methods for rupture of membranes and placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay. The actual rupture of membranes was diagnosed on review of the medical records after delivery (absence of membrane or a positive pad chart). Main Outcome Measures. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay and standard diagnostic methods for diagnosis of rupture of membrane. Results. A total of 211 patients were recruited. At initial presentation, 187 patients (88.6%) had ruptured membranes, while 24 patients (11.4%) had intact membranes. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay confirmed rupture of membranes at initial presentation with a sensitivity of 95.7% (179 of 187), specificity of 100% (24 of 24), positive predictive value of 100% (179 of 179), and negative predictive value of 75.0% (24 of 32). By comparison, the conventional standard diagnostic methods had a sensitivity of 78.1% (146 of 187), specificity of 100% (24 of 24), positive predictive value of 100% (146 of 146), and negative predictive value of 36.9% (24 of 65) in diagnosing rupture of membrane. Conclusion. Placental alpha-microglobulin-1 immunoassay is a rapid and accurate method for confirming the diagnosis of rupture of membrane. It was superior to conventional standard diagnostic methods (pooling, nitrazine, and ferning), the nitrazine test alone or fern test alone. PMID:24073412

Ng, Beng Kwang; Lim, Pei Shan; Shafiee, Mohamad Nasir; Abdul Ghani, Nur Azurah; Mohamed Ismail, Nor Azlin; Omar, Mohd Hashim; Muhammad Yassin, Muhammad Abdul Jamil



Microvascular resistance in essential hypertension and flowmetry as a diagnostic method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New Doppler-Laser flowmetry diagnostic test of functional condition of microcirculation was worked out of find precapillar and postcapillar resistance. Flowmetry was used to measure vasomotion and blood flow after arterial compression, decompression and venous hyperemia were held. Patients of essential hypertension were examined with the help of Doppler-Laser Flowmetry, optical photometry (540 nm). Precapillar resistance included next basis parameters: vasomotion with high frequency (10-16 per/min) and low amplitude, latent time after decompression, large postocclusive reactive hyperemia, absent venous hyperemia. Postcapillar resistance included next basis parameters: vasomotion with low frequency (4-8 per/min) and high amplitude, paradoxical hyperemia in arterial compression, little or absent postocclusive reactive hyperemia, large venous hyperemia. This test-method was applied to select patogenetic treatment of essential hypertension.

Lukjanov, Valdimir F.



Cross method for analysis of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and aggregation coefficient in medical diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Method of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) measurement is non-specific one. The ESR are tightly correlated to increase or decrease of aggregation coefficient (N). The variations of N could happen due to two main reasons: either changes in concentration of plasma proteins (first of all of fibrinogen) or changes of erythrocyte membrane characteristics (surface charge, transmembrane potential). The cross-method of ESR analysis has been proposed, using blood samples from patient and healthy donor of the same ABO blood groups and Rh-factors. The hematocrit (Ho)-ESR dependencies were measured in four variants: (1) patient's erythrocytes in patient's plasma; (2) patient's erythrocytes in donor's plasma; (3) donor's erythrocytes in donor's plasma; (4) donor's erythrocytes in patient's plasma. On presenting the ESR data for more than 100 patients with different bone marrow disorders after chemotherapy in the coordinates Ho-ESR three conventional zones could be marked out: high-ESR zone, medium zone and zone of low level of Ho. Proposed cross-method allows to estimate which of the two aforementioned reasons results in ESR variation. Some patients revealed not only changed fibrinogen level but additional changes in membrane affinity to fibrinogen. The modificated ESR cross-method opens us some new capacities in medical diagnostics.

Yamaikina, Irene V.; Furmanchuk, Dmitryi A.



The Applicability of Modern Front-Capturing Methods to the Modeling of Small-Amplitude Instability Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern front-capturing methods, such as flux-corrected transport (FCT) methods, total variation diminishing (TVD) methods, and high order Godunov methods (e.g., MUSCL, PPM, ENO, WENO, and discontinuous Galerkin methods), were developed to address the numerical difficulties that one encounters when attempting to solve problems where discontinuities or near-discontinuities are expected to form in the quantities being modeled, or in one or more of their derivatives. Such methods are usually described as being inherently ``nonlinear.'' While true, this statement does not adequately describe the nature of such methods, for they are often not even differentiable with respect to small perturbations in the solution. This is not usually a problem for stable flows, but when the flows of interest are unstable, and when one is interested in the evolution of small perturbations to those flows, the use of such numerical methods would appear to be quite risky. We describe experiments we have conducted investigating such methods, and some alternatives to such methods, in the context of evolving Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities.

Zalesak, Steven T.



Physics-Based Methods of Failure Analysis and Diagnostics in Human Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Integrated Health Management (IHM) for the future aerospace systems requires to interface models of multiple subsystems in an efficient and accurate information environment at the earlier stages of system design. The complexity of modern aeronautic and aircraft systems (including e.g. the power distribution, flight control, solid and liquid motors) dictates employment of hybrid models and high-level reasoners for analysing mixed continuous and discrete information flow involving multiple modes of operation in uncertain environments, unknown state variables, heterogeneous software and hardware components. To provide the information link between key design/performance parameters and high-level reasoners we rely on development of multi-physics performance models, distributed sensors networks, and fault diagnostic and prognostic (FD&P) technologies in close collaboration with system designers. The main challenges of our research are related to the in-flight assessment of the structural stability, engine performance, and trajectory control. The main goal is to develop an intelligent IHM that not only enhances components and system reliability, but also provides a post-flight feedback helping to optimize design of the next generation of aerospace systems. Our efforts are concentrated on several directions of the research. One of the key components of our strategy is an innovative approach to the diagnostics/prognostics based on the real time dynamical inference (DI) technologies extended to encompass hybrid systems with hidden state trajectories. The major investments are into the multiphysics performance modelling that provides an access of the FD&P technologies to the main performance parameters of e.g. solid and liquid rocket motors and composite materials of the nozzle and case. Some of the recent results of our research are discussed in this chapter. We begin by introducing the problem of dynamical inference of stochastic nonlinear models and reviewing earlier results. Next, we present our analytical approach to the solution of this problem based on the path integral formulation. The resulting algorithm does not require an extensive global search for the model parameters, provides optimal compensation for the effects of dynamical noise, and is robust for a broad range of dynamical models. In the following Section the strengths of the algorithm are illustrated illustrated by inferring the parameters of the stochastic Lorenz system and comparing the results with those of earlier research. Next, we discuss a number of recent results in application to the development of the IHM for aerospace system. Firstly, we apply dynamical inference approach to a solution of classical three tank problems with mixed unknown continuous and binary parameters. The problem is considered in the context of ground support system for filling fuel tanks of liquid rocket motors. It is shown that the DI algorithm is well suited for successful solution of a hybrid version of this benchmark problem even in the presence of additional periodic and stochastic perturbation of unknown strength. Secondly, we illustrate our approach by its application to an analysis of the nozzle fault in a solid rocket motor (SRM). The internal ballistics of the SRM is modelled as a set of one-dimensional partial differential equations coupled to the dynamics of the propellant regression. In this example we are specifically focussed on the inference of discrete and continuous parameters of the nozzle blocking fault and on the possibility of an application of the DI algorithm to reducing the probability of "misses" of an on-board FD&P for SRM. In the next section re-contact problem caused by first stage/upper stage separation failure is discussed. The reaction forces imposed on the nozzle of the upper stage during the re-contact and their connection to the nozzle damage and to the thrust vector control (TVC) signal are obtained. It is shown that transient impact induced torquean be modelled as a response of an effective damped oscillator. A possible application

Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Luchinsky, Dmitry Georgievich; Hafiychuk, Vasyl Nmn; Osipov, Viatcheslav V.; Patterson-Hine, F. Ann



A Novel Method for Determining the Phase of T-Wave Alternans: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications  

PubMed Central

Background T-wave alternans (TWA) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, in order to effectively estimate and suppress TWA, the phase of TWA must be accurately determined. Methods and Results We developed a method that computes the beat-by-beat integral of the T-wave morphology, over time points within the T-wave with positive alternans. Then, we estimated the signed derivative of the T-wave integral sequence which allows the classification of each beat to a binary phase index. In animal studies, we found that this method was able to accurately identify the T-wave phase in artificially induced alternans (p<0.0001). The coherence of the phase increased consistently after acute ischemia induction in all body-surface and intracardiac leads (p<0.0001). Also, we developed a phase resetting detection algorithm that enhances the diagnostic utility of TWA. We further established an algorithm that employs the phase of TWA in order to deliver appropriate polarity pacing pulses (all interventions compared to baseline, p<0.0001 for alternans voltage; p<0.0001 for Kscore), to suppress TWA. Finally, we demonstrated that using the phase of TWA we can suppress spontaneous TWA during acute ischemia; 77.6% for alternans voltage (p<0.0001) and 92.5% for Kscore (p<0.0001). Conclusions We developed a method to quantify the temporal variability of the TWA phase. This method is expected to enhance the utility of TWA in predicting ventricular arrhythmias and SCD and raises the possibility of using upstream therapies to abort a ventricular tachyarrhythmia prior to its onset. PMID:23884196

Sayadi, Omid; Merchant, Faisal M.; Puppala, Dheeraj; Mela, Theofanie; Singh, Jagmeet P.; Heist, E. Kevin; Owen, Chris; Armoundas, Antonis A.



Simplified Symptom Pattern Method for verbal autopsy analysis: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards  

PubMed Central

Background Verbal autopsy can be a useful tool for generating cause of death data in data-sparse regions around the world. The Symptom Pattern (SP) Method is one promising approach to analyzing verbal autopsy data, but it has not been tested rigorously with gold standard diagnostic criteria. We propose a simplified version of SP and evaluate its performance using verbal autopsy data with accompanying true cause of death. Methods We investigated specific parameters in SP's Bayesian framework that allow for its optimal performance in both assigning individual cause of death and in determining cause-specific mortality fractions. We evaluated these outcomes of the method separately for adult, child, and neonatal verbal autopsies in 500 different population constructs of verbal autopsy data to analyze its ability in various settings. Results We determined that a modified, simpler version of Symptom Pattern (termed Simplified Symptom Pattern, or SSP) performs better than the previously-developed approach. Across 500 samples of verbal autopsy testing data, SSP achieves a median cause-specific mortality fraction accuracy of 0.710 for adults, 0.739 for children, and 0.751 for neonates. In individual cause of death assignment in the same testing environment, SSP achieves 45.8% chance-corrected concordance for adults, 51.5% for children, and 32.5% for neonates. Conclusions The Simplified Symptom Pattern Method for verbal autopsy can yield reliable and reasonably accurate results for both individual cause of death assignment and for determining cause-specific mortality fractions. The method demonstrates that verbal autopsies coupled with SSP can be a useful tool for analyzing mortality patterns and determining individual cause of death from verbal autopsy data. PMID:21816099



A modified time reversal method for Lamb wave based diagnostics of composite structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This experimental study presents Lamb wave based diagnostics of damage in a composite plate using time reversal of signals for baseline-free damage detection. A modified time reversal method (MTRM) is developed which requires only one transducer to actuate signals and the other transducer acts as a sensor for any signal path. An 8-layer symmetric cross-ply carbon-epoxy composite plate is fabricated and four PZT actuators/sensors are surface bonded at the corners of the plate. A 20 kHz, 9.5 cycle tone burst signal is used to generate fundamental asymmetric Lamb waves with high signal-to-noise ratio and low dispersion. Theoretical analysis and experimental measurements show that conventional time reversal method (TRM) and the MTRM yield identical signals at the end of time reversal. The composite plate is impacted incrementally with a steel ball to cause three levels of damage and MTRM is applied for prediction of damage severity. Results show that magnitudes of the two damage indices used are directly correlated to the severity of damage along any signal path. The development of MTRM paves the way for implementing time reversal of signals using a single actuator and multiple sensors, including non-contact sensor such as a laser vibrometer.

Watkins, Ryan; Jha, Ratneshwar



Rapid diagnostic methods for influenza virus in clinical specimens - A comparative study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of five rapid viral diagnostic techniques for identifying influenza virus in nasopharyngeal aspirates has been made on patients with influenza-like illnesses. Initial results with immune electron microscopy were positive in only one of 11 specimens from which virus was isolated and further work abandoned. Four other rapid tests were carried out on 39 specimens from which influenza virus had been isolated in tissue culture in 28. Of these 28 specimens yielding virus, 24 (85.7 percent) were positive by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) on nasopharyngeal cells, 18 (64.3 percent) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 19 (67.8 percent) by enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA), and 26 (92.8 percent) by a rapid tissue culture amplification method (TCA) in a continuous Rhesus monkey kidney line (LLC-MK2) with identification of virus by fluorescent antibody. In terms of sensitivity, simplicity, and rapidity, a combination of the IFAT and TCA methods seems to be very useful.

Evans, A. S.; Olson, B.



Nonlinear laser fluorimetry as a new method of diagnostics of organic pollution in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central problem in laser sensing of natural organic complexes (NOC) in water, is their identification and determination of their state. This is an essential condition for quantitative characterization of an object by optical methods (e.g. fluorimetry). It is very difficult to solve the NOC identification problem dealing only with spectra. It is necessary to penetrate to the molecular level, and to supplement spectral data with molecular photophysical parameters (absorption and fluorescence cross sections, rates of intermolecular transitions and of intermolecular excitation-energy transfer, etc.). Furthermore, it is necessary to measure these parameters in vivo and in situ, under conditions of absence of accurate a priori data. This can be done only by non-linear laser fluorimetry. In this paper, the results of computer experiments and real experiments, illustrating capabilities of non-linear laser fluorimetry in diagnostics of NOC, are presented. To solve the inverse problem, the method of artificial neural networks was used. it is shown that it is possible to achieve the determination precision of the photophysical parameters not worse than the measurement precision of the saturation curve, using a few-parametric model of the formation process of the NOC fluorescence response at pulse laser excitation, and taking into account NOC specifics.

Dolenko, Tatiana A.; Chubarov, Vasilii V.; Fadeev, Viktor V.; Sabirov, A. R.



Robust Sequence Selection Method Used To Develop the FluChip Diagnostic Microarray for Influenza Virus  

PubMed Central

DNA microarrays have proven to be powerful tools for gene expression analyses and are becoming increasingly attractive for diagnostic applications, e.g., for virus identification and subtyping. The selection of appropriate sequences for use on a microarray poses a challenge, particularly for highly mutable organisms such as influenza viruses, human immunodeficiency viruses, and hepatitis C viruses. The goal of this work was to develop an efficient method for mining large databases in order to identify regions of conservation in the influenza virus genome. From these regions of conservation, capture and label sequences capable of discriminating between different viral types and subtypes were selected. The salient features of the method were the use of phylogenetic trees for data reduction and the selection of a relatively small number of capture and label sequences capable of identifying a broad spectrum of influenza viruses. A detailed experimental evaluation of the selected sequences is described in a companion paper. The software is freely available under the General Public License at PMID:16891503

Mehlmann, Martin; Dawson, Erica D.; Townsend, Michael B.; Smagala, James A.; Moore, Chad L.; Smith, Catherine B.; Cox, Nancy J.; Kuchta, Robert D.; Rowlen, Kathy L.



Accuracy of Diagnostic Methods and Surveillance Sensitivity for Human Enterovirus, South Korea, 1999-2011  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of enteroviral infection in South Korea during 1999–2011 chronicles nationwide outbreaks and changing detection and subtyping methods used over the 13-year period. Of 14,657 patients whose samples were tested, 4,762 (32.5%) samples were positive for human enterovirus (human EV); as diagnostic methods improved, the rate of positive results increased. A seasonal trend of outbreaks was documented. Genotypes enterovirus 71, echovirus 30, coxsackievirus B5, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B2 were the most common genotypes identified. Accurate test results correlated clinical syndromes to enterovirus genotypes: aseptic meningitis to echovirus 30, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B5; hand, foot and mouth disease to coxsackievirus A16; and hand, foot and mouth disease with neurologic complications to enterovirus 71. There are currently no treatments specific to human EV infections; surveillance of enterovirus infections such as this study provides may assist with evaluating the need to research and develop treatments for infections caused by virulent human EV genotypes. PMID:23876671

Hyeon, Ji-Yeon; Hwang, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyejin; Song, Jaehyoung; Ahn, Jeongbae; Kang, Byunghak; Kim, Kisoon; Choi, Wooyoung; Chung, Jae Keun; Kim, Cheon-Hyun; Cho, Kyungsoon; Jee, Youngmee; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Kisang; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kim, Min-Ji



[Lung cancer: a review of current knowledge, diagnostic methods and therapeutic perspectives].  


All around the world, lung cancer is the most common cancer among men and women, followed by breast, colon and rectum, stomach, and liver cancer. It affects most frequently people in their 50s and 60s, and tobacco consumption is the risk factor most strongly associated to the development of this type of cancer. It is most common among men; however, the prevalence among women has increased over the last ten years. Imaging tests for diagnosis include positron emission tomography (PET) with computed-tomography fusion, and transesophageal and bronchoscopic ultrasound, as the most relevant. Among the early detection techniques, the low-dose helical tomography stands out. However, it has not been able to prove to be useful as a screening tool. Conventional methods for diagnostic confirmation of lung cancer are bronchoscopy and percutaneous needle aspiration biopsy. The most common histologic type is the adenocarcinoma, being clinical stages III and IV being the most frequently found. At early clinical stages, surgical treatment has proven to be effective, and there is a good 5-year survival rate. In late stages, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the most useful treatment methods to control the disease and palliate cancer signs and symptoms. Research in genomic analysis may provide a better understanding of cancer genetics , and therefore, new therapeutic strategies in the future. PMID:23612819

Amorín Kajatt, Edgar



Modern methods for the determination of polar motion and UT1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The applications and Doppler satellite observations, laser ranging to artificial satellites and the Moon, and astronomic radio interferometry to monitoring polar motion and Universal Time System 1 (UT1) are discussed. How and what each method is capable of measuring, fundamental limitations, and the present status of the developments of each method were reviewed. Evaluations of the various methods as candidates for the next generation international polar motion and UT1 monitoring service are summarized.

Carter, W. S.



Application possibilities of several modern methods of microscopy and microanalysis in forensic science field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods of optical and electron microscopy and microanalysis are the linchpin of forensic inorganic analysis. However, their capacity is limited as for the exact identification of pigments and colour layers, and therefore it is essential that they be complemented by other methods of phase microanalysis - powder X-ray microdiffraction (micro pXRD) and FTIR in transmission mode. The classic way

Marek Kotrly; Ivana Turkova



A Comparison of US and Korean Students' Mathematics Skills Using a Cognitive Diagnostic Testing Method: Linkage to Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of the present study were (a) to compare US and Korean 8th graders' mastery of knowledge and skills in the mathematics test of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 using a cognitive diagnostic testing method and (b) to find links between teachers' instruction and students' mastery of mathematics…

Im, Seongah; Park, Hye Jin



Diagnostic performance of multidetector CT for acute cholangitis: evaluation of a CT scoring method  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the diagnostic performance of multidetector CT (MDCT) for the diagnosis of acute cholangitis using a new scoring method. Methods Of 80 patients with suspected biliary disease who underwent biphasic CT and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography, 39 were diagnosed as having acute cholangitis (Group 1) and 41 patients were classified as suspected biliary disease (Group 2). 100 age-matched patients without evidence of biliary disease were selected randomly as a control group (Group 3). Each patient's axial scan was scored by two independent radiologists for the extent of transient hepatic attenuation difference, the presence of biliary dilatation and identification of a biliary obstructive lesion. The difference in the scores among the three groups was evaluated and the optimal cut-off score for the diagnosis of acute cholangitis was determined. Interobserver agreement was also evaluated. Results The total scores (mean±standard deviation) for Groups 1, 2 and 3 were 7.0±2.0, 4.4±2.4 and 0.9±1.2, respectively, for Reviewer 1 and 7.2±1.8, 4.3 ±2.7 and 0.7±1.1, respectively, for Reviewer 2. Significant differences were found for the subscores and the total scores among the three groups (p<0.001). Using a cut-off score of ?5, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing acute cholangitis were 84.6% and 83.7%, respectively, for Reviewer 1 and 89.7% and 83.7%, respectively, for Reviewer 2. Agreement for the subscores between readers was good to excellent (?=0.74–0.86). Conclusion Based on dynamic MDCT and the described CT scoring method, the diagnosis of acute choangitis can be made with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:21791504

Kim, S W; Shin, H C; Kim, H C; Hong, M J; Kim, I Y



[Place of reflexotherapy and some other methods of alternative medicine in modern medical practice].  


Assessment of the role and place of nontraditional methods of treatment and reflexotherapy, widely applied in hospitals is presented in the article. Besides, we become alerted regarding not serious approach of some scientists and health service managers to reflexotherapy as a whole and to one of its methods--acupuncture. An analysis of the situation developed in the legislation concerning training of reflexotherapy specialists for last 15-20 years not only in Ukraine, but also abroad was done. The article presents a historical parallel between the use of medicamentous and nonmedicamentous methods of treatment. PMID:20608024

Bo?chak, M P; Sobetski?, V V



[Distance methods of cardiologic monitoring in diagnostics of high loading effects on organism of sportsman and cosmonaut].  


Increase of cardiovascular tension is a common thing for professional athletic training. Cardiovascular pathologies can be prevented by permanent physiological monitoring using, among others, the methods of cardiologic monitoring so far available in stationary diagnostic centers. On-line remote diagnostics during training is potent to enhance effectiveness and efficiency of sporting people's health management. In addition, RD will also enable extensive investigations of the bodily responses of individually determined training loads. The paper gives an overview of the current RM technologies. PMID:23457962

Kuznetsov, V I; Ryzhakov, N I; Tarakanov, S A; Nikitenko, A N; Rassadina, A A; Kozlenok, A V; Moroshkin, V S



CHE 210D: Principles of Modern Molecular Simulation Methods, S12 UCSB Department of Chemical Engineering  

E-print Network

coding tutorial, numerical tools in Python 3) Review of probability and statistical mechanics continuous atomistically detailed and simplified molecular models, (2) basic and advanced algorithms for computing Carlo methods, free energy algorithms, advanced sampling strategies, coarse-graining and multiscale

Shell, M. Scott


Longevity Ancient and Modern  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article examines illustrations from ancient and modern societies to consider the connections between power, social elites\\u000a and knowledge of techniques to promote longevity. In pre-modern societies, knowledge of practices and substances to promote\\u000a longevity were cultivated by elites such as the Chinese imperial court. In modern societies, new technologies—cryonics, cloning,\\u000a stem-cell applications and nanotechnology—will offer exclusive and expensive methods

Bryan S. Turner



Application possibilities of several modern methods of microscopy and microanalysis in forensic science field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methods of optical and electron microscopy and microanalysis are the linchpin of forensic inorganic analysis. However, their capacity is limited as for the exact identification of pigments and colour layers, and therefore it is essential that they be complemented by other methods of phase microanalysis - powder X-ray microdiffraction (micro pXRD) and FTIR in transmission mode. The classic way of sample division for different methods is not suitable with regard to the inhomogeneity of the sequence of strata. That is why a method was tested that would allow performance of optical microscopy, SEM/EDS(WDS), micro pXRD and FTIR in a nondestructive manner, from an identical spot of a single fragment. The solution can be polished sections - embedded samples and microtome sections. Conductive zerobackground single-crystal silicon plates were developed and tested for sample fixation in SEM, micro pXRD and transmission FTIR. Methods using a focused ion beam - FIB have recently gained importance in the field of electron microscopy. In the forensic sphere they can be employed in examinations of metal materials, technical analyses of documents, post-blast and gunshot residues.

Kotrly, Marek; Turkova, Ivana



Pathology of Newcastle disease in double-crested cormorants from Saskatchewan, with comparison of diagnostic methods.  


Newcastle disease (ND) in juvenile double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) occurred several times since 1975, but there are relatively few studies on its pathology and diagnosis. In order to describe the distribution of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and associated lesions in cormorants with ND and to compare diagnostic methods, 25 cormorants with nervous signs from a ND epizootic in Saskatchewan in 1995 (NDE cormorants) were compared with 18 negative control cormorants. Tissues of these birds were examined by necropsy, histology, virus isolation, immunohistochemistry, serology, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods. The NDE cormorants had a characteristic non-suppurative encephalomyelitis, with a significantly higher prevalence of neuronal necrosis, gliosis, perivascular infiltration with mononuclear cells, and endothelial hypertrophy than control cormorants. These lesions were found more frequently in the cerebellum and brain stem than in other parts of the central nervous system. Immunohistochemically, NDV antigen was limited to neurons, glial and endothelial cells in the central nervous system, and to tubular epithelial cells in the kidney. Newcastle disease virus was isolated with the highest prevalence (4/5) and the highest concentration (10(4.8) ELD50/g) from the kidney. The virus isolates often did not agglutinate erythrocytes in the standard hemagglutination test; the presence of NDV was confirmed by use of an indirect immunoperoxidase assay. By RT-PCR, NDV was detected in kidney and jejunum of a NDE cormorant. There was no significant difference between sensitivity of histology, virus isolation, and serology for detecting ND in NDE cormorants. PMID:10073341

Kuiken, T; Wobeser, G; Leighton, F A; Haines, D M; Chelack, B; Bogdan, J; Hassard, L; Heckert, R A; Riva, J



Development of Monitoring and Diagnostic Methods for Robots Used In Remediation of Waste Sites - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This project is the first evaluation of model-based diagnostics to hydraulic robot systems. A greater understanding of fault detection for hydraulic robots has been gained, and a new theoretical fault detection model developed and evaluated.

Martin, M.



Exploration of Analysis Methods for Diagnostic Imaging Tests: Problems with ROC AUC and Confidence Scores in CT Colonography  

PubMed Central

Background Different methods of evaluating diagnostic performance when comparing diagnostic tests may lead to different results. We compared two such approaches, sensitivity and specificity with area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC AUC) for the evaluation of CT colonography for the detection of polyps, either with or without computer assisted detection. Methods In a multireader multicase study of 10 readers and 107 cases we compared sensitivity and specificity, using radiological reporting of the presence or absence of polyps, to ROC AUC calculated from confidence scores concerning the presence of polyps. Both methods were assessed against a reference standard. Here we focus on five readers, selected to illustrate issues in design and analysis. We compared diagnostic measures within readers, showing that differences in results are due to statistical methods. Results Reader performance varied widely depending on whether sensitivity and specificity or ROC AUC was used. There were problems using confidence scores; in assigning scores to all cases; in use of zero scores when no polyps were identified; the bimodal non-normal distribution of scores; fitting ROC curves due to extrapolation beyond the study data; and the undue influence of a few false positive results. Variation due to use of different ROC methods exceeded differences between test results for ROC AUC. Conclusions The confidence scores recorded in our study violated many assumptions of ROC AUC methods, rendering these methods inappropriate. The problems we identified will apply to other detection studies using confidence scores. We found sensitivity and specificity were a more reliable and clinically appropriate method to compare diagnostic tests. PMID:25353643

Mallett, Susan; Halligan, Steve; Collins, Gary S.; Altman, Doug G.



Modern scientific methods and their potential in wastewater science and technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of novel analytical and investigative methods such as fluorescence in situ hybridization, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), microelectrodes and advanced numerical simulation has led to new insights into micro- and macroscopic processes in bioreactors. However, the question is still open whether or not these new findings and the subsequent gain of knowledge are of significant practical relevance and if

Peter A. Wilderer; Hans-Joachim Bungartz; Hilde Lemmer; Michael Wagner; Jurg Keller; Stefan Wuertz



Psychology and Mathematical Method: A Capsule History and a Modern View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses histories of three current issues in the psychology and pedagogy of mathematical thinking: (1) the notion of a "prescriptive method"; (2) "associationism" as an explanation for learning; and (3) Gestaltism. Reviews theoretical perspectives that emerged starting in the mid-twentieth century, including behaviorism, artificial intelligence…

Schoenfeld, Alan H.



Modern Robust Statistical Methods: An Easy Way to Maximize the Accuracy and Power of Your Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classic parametric statistical significance tests, such as analysis of variance and least squares regression, are widely used by researchers in many disciplines, including psychology. For classic parametric tests to produce accurate results, the assumptions underlying them (e.g., normality and homoscedasticity) must be satisfied. These assumptions are rarely met when analyzing real data. The use of classic parametric methods with violated

David M. Erceg-Hurn; Vikki M. Mirosevich



Design for sustainability: A comparative study of a customized modern method of construction versus conventional methods of construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergent methods of construction are believed to have achieved higher standards, thereby delivering improved building performance. Added to the higher living standards however, this sometimes proves to be very difficult to evaluate. In addition, the state-of-the-art strategies and methods applied elsewhere, if employed in the construction industry, might not prove as environmentally friendly as they might need to be. This

Poorang Piroozfar; Hasim Altan; Olga Popovic-Larsen



Traditional and modern plant breeding methods with examples in rice (Oryza sativa L.).  


Plant breeding can be broadly defined as alterations caused in plants as a result of their use by humans, ranging from unintentional changes resulting from the advent of agriculture to the application of molecular tools for precision breeding. The vast diversity of breeding methods can be simplified into three categories: (i) plant breeding based on observed variation by selection of plants based on natural variants appearing in nature or within traditional varieties; (ii) plant breeding based on controlled mating by selection of plants presenting recombination of desirable genes from different parents; and (iii) plant breeding based on monitored recombination by selection of specific genes or marker profiles, using molecular tools for tracking within-genome variation. The continuous application of traditional breeding methods in a given species could lead to the narrowing of the gene pool from which cultivars are drawn, rendering crops vulnerable to biotic and abiotic stresses and hampering future progress. Several methods have been devised for introducing exotic variation into elite germplasm without undesirable effects. Cases in rice are given to illustrate the potential and limitations of different breeding approaches. PMID:23551250

Breseghello, Flavio; Coelho, Alexandre Siqueira Guedes



An appraisal of the one-flux method for treating carrier transport in modern semiconductor devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

McKelvey's one-flux method, which has recently been used to investigate transport in short-base bipolar transistors and to specify the carrier mobility in a forward-biased barrier, is put into perspective by a comparison with the usual continuity and drift-diffusion equations. For a bulk semiconductor region in which a small electric field is present, and under typical operating conditions, it is shown that the use of the time-dependent flux method is equivalent to solving the usual continuity and drift-diffusion equations under low-level injection. It is the shown that recent one-flux analyses of short-base transport, for both d.c. and a.c. conditions, are equivalent to solving the continuity and drift-diffusion equations with appropriate boundary conditions. It is pointed out that the use of the flux method to resolve the long-standing issue of specifying the carrier mobility within a forward-biased barrier is impeded by a lack of knowledge of the required backscattering coefficients. Recent suggestions for these backscattering coefficients are carefully examined; the physical basis for the choices made, and hence the resulting values of mobility and diffusivity, are questioned.

Vaidyanathan, M.; Pulfrey, D. L.



Fog forecasting: ``old fashioned'' semi-empirical methods from radio sounding observations versus ``modern'' numerical models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fog forecasting is a very challenging task due to the local and small-scale nature of the relevant physical processes and land surface heterogeneities. Despite the many research efforts, numerical models remain to have difficulties with fog forecasting, and forecast skill from direct model output is relatively poor. In order to put the progress of fog forecasting in the last decades into a historical perspective, we compare the fog forecasting skill of a semi-empirical method based on radio sounding observations (developed in the 60s and 70s) with the forecasting skill of a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction model (MM5) for The Netherlands. The semi-empirical method under investigation, the Fog Stability Index, depends solely on the temperature difference between the surface and 850 hPa, the surface dew point depression and the wind speed at 850 hPa, and a threshold value to indicate the probability of fog in the coming hours. Using the critical success index (CSI) as a criterion for forecast quality, we find that the Fog Stability Index is a rather successful predictor for fog, with similar performance as MM5. The FSI could even been optimized for different observational stations in the Netherlands. Also, it appears that adding the 10 m wind as a predictor did not increase the CSI score for all stations. The results of the current study clearly indicate that the current state of knowledge requires improvement of the physical insight in different physical processes in order to beat simple semi-empirical methods.

Holtslag, M. C.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Holtslag, A. A. M.



Modern method features for determining aroclors and toxic PCB isomers in environmental samples  

SciTech Connect

A goal of the analytical chemistry program of the USEPA Characterization Research Division in Las Vegas is to develop a comprehensive method to address PCB screening and confirmatory needs. Supercritical and liquid solvent extractions, carbon chromatographic partitioning, immunoassay, gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques are being applied. The result of this research is a method with options to meet a variety of detection limit, congener specificity, waste reduction, and identification requirements. Significant advances were made in the areas of waste reduction, identification and quantitation of toxic congeners, and Aroclor identification using high- and low-resolution mass spectrometric data. Specific mass monitoring procedures will be discussed. Procedures will be presented for converting individual isomer and congener total area responses to quantitation based on Aroclor content. Notice: The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its Office of Research and Development (ORD), partially funded and collaborated in the research described in this abstract for a proposed poster. It does not necessarily reflect the views of the EPA or ORD.

Donnelly, J.R.; Grange, A.H.; Herron, N.R. [and others



Perfusion CT is a valuable diagnostic method for prostate cancer: a prospective study of 94 patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study is to assess the usefulness of perfusion computer tomography (pCT) in prostate cancer (PCa) diagnostics. Materials and Methods 94 patients with biopsy-proven PCa were enrolled in the study. Dynamic pCT of the prostate gland was performed for 50 seconds after an intravenous injection of contrast medium. Blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and permeability surface area product (PS) were computed in the suspected PCa area and in normal prostatic tissue. Results PCa was visible in pCT in 90 of the 94 examined patients as a focal peripheral CT enhancement. When PCa was located in the peripheral zone (PZ), it was visible on perfusion maps, mostly showing an early peak followed by wash-out. The average values of all perfusion parameters were higher for tumour than for normal prostate tissue (p < 0.000). BV and BF were dependent on tumour grade expressed by the Gleason score (GS). All PCa cases were divided into groups, according to histological grade, as low (GS ? 6), medium (GS = 7), and high (GS > 7). In high-grade PCa, the mean BF value was significantly higher (p = 0.001) than the mean value of BF low- and medium-grade PCa (p = 0.011). Similar results were obtained regarding the mean values of BV; the more aggressive the cancer grade, the higher the mean BV value (p = 0.04). Conclusion CT quantitative perfusion imaging allows PCa to be distinguished from normal prostate tissue. The highest values for BF and BV were observed in the most aggressive PCa grade.

Luczynska, Elzbieta; Blecharz, Pawel; Dyczek, Sonia; Stelmach, Andrzej; Petralia, Giuseppe; Bellomi, Massimo; Jereczek–Fossa, Barbara Alicja; Jakubowicz, Jerzy



Modern Methods for Analysis of Antiepileptic Drugs in the Biological Fluids for Pharmacokinetics, Bioequivalence and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is a chronic disease occurring in approximately 1.0% of the world's population. About 30% of the epileptic patients treated with availably antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) continue to have seizures and are considered therapy-resistant or refractory patients. The ultimate goal for the use of AEDs is complete cessation of seizures without side effects. Because of a narrow therapeutic index of AEDs, a complete understanding of its clinical pharmacokinetics is essential for understanding of the pharmacodynamics of these drugs. These drug concentrations in biological fluids serve as surrogate markers and can be used to guide or target drug dosing. Because early studies demonstrated clinical and/or electroencephalographic correlations with serum concentrations of several AEDs, It has been almost 50 years since clinicians started using plasma concentrations of AEDs to optimize pharmacotherapy in patients with epilepsy. Therefore, validated analytical method for concentrations of AEDs in biological fluids is a necessity in order to explore pharmacokinetics, bioequivalence and TDM in various clinical situations. There are hundreds of published articles on the analysis of specific AEDs by a wide variety of analytical methods in biological samples have appears over the past decade. This review intends to provide an updated, concise overview on the modern method development for monitoring AEDs for pharmacokinetic studies, bioequivalence and therapeutic drug monitoring. PMID:21660146

Park, Yoo-Sin; Kim, Shin-Hee; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Jun, Min-Young



Modern Miracle Medical Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site contains resources involving the physics of contemporary medical procedures. This collection is intended mainly to help students gain insight into the physics behind modern medical diagnostics and treatments, which are scarcely mentioned in most pre-med physics courses. The site contains student tutorials and activities, instructor materials, software, and various related links. Topics covered include vision and optics, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography (PET).

Zollman, Dean A.; Murphy, Sytil K.; Mcbride, Dyan L.



Pure-rotational spectrometry: a vintage analytical method applied to modern breath analysis.  


Pure-rotational spectrometry (PRS) is an established method, typically used to study structures and properties of polar gas-phase molecules, including isotopic and isomeric varieties. PRS has also been used as an analytical tool where it is particularly well suited for detecting or monitoring low-molecular-weight species that are found in exhaled breath. PRS is principally notable for its ultra-high spectral resolution which leads to exceptional specificity to identify molecular compounds in complex mixtures. Recent developments using carbon aerogel for pre-concentrating polar molecules from air samples have extended the sensitivity of PRS into the part-per-billion range. In this paper we describe the principles of PRS and show how it may be configured in several different modes for breath analysis. We discuss the pre-concentration concept and demonstrate its use with the PRS analyzer for alcohols and ammonia sampled directly from the breath. PMID:23774191

Hrubesh, Lawrence W; Droege, Michael W



A study of radioactivity in modern stream gravels and its possible application as a prospecting method  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Traverses along some streams of the Colorado Plateau in areas known to contain minable uranium deposits show that anomalous radiation in the stream gravels can be detected with a suitable counter downstream from the deposits. The amount of radiation is influenced by the size of the uranium deposit, the size of the drainage area of the stream, the grain size of the sediments, and the lithology of the rocks over which the stream flows. The spacing of the stations where readings are taken is controlled by the size of the stream, and special readings are also taken directly downstream from important tributaries. An anomaly is empirically defined as a 10 percent rise over background. Radioactive material from large uranium deposits has been detected as much as 1 mile downstream. Radioactive material from smaller deposits is detachable over shorter distances. The method is slow but appears to be a useful prospecting tool under restricted conditions.

Chew, Randall T., III



Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design, an effective modern software development method for development of computing systems for a large physics detector  

SciTech Connect

After evaluation of several modern object-oriented methods for development of the computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC, we selected the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented Analysis and Recursive Design method as the most appropriate for the needs and development environment of a large nuclear or high energy physics detector. This paper discusses our specific needs and environment, our method selection criteria, and major features and components of the Shlaer-Mellor method.

Kozlowski, T.; Carey, T.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Maguire, C.F. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others



[Internal urethrotomy, a modern method in the treatment of urethral strictures].  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the internal urethrotomy in the treatment of urethral strictures, by the retrospective analysis of 54 cases. The patients' age ranged between 18-92. 35 patients (64.8%) had iatrogenic strictures and 10 (18.5%) had traumatic ones. 35 patients presented with urinary infections before the procedure. Following internal urethrotomy, the medium hospital stay was 3.15 days. There were only 7 patients with postoperative fever and no death was recorded. The follow-up period was between 1-12 months with a medium of 9 months and only 2 patients required recurrent internal urethrotomy. Out of the 54 patients, 8 had recurrent urethral stricture disease and 6 of them had posttraumatic membranous urethral strictures. Optical internal urethrotomy appears to be the ideal therapeutic method of urethral strictures, because it has a low morbidity, it is safe to perform and the postoperative results are good. The hospitalization and the recovery periods are short, allowing a quick socio-professional reintegration. Most of the recurrencies occur with posttraumatic strictures. PMID:14756032

Gheorghiu, V; Radu, V D; Costache, C; Stef?nescu, R



Cost efficiency analysis of modern cytocentrifugation methods versus liquid based (Cytyc Thinprep(R)) processing of urinary samples  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims: Liquid based cytology (LBC) was developed as a replacement for cytocentrifugation in the treatment of cell suspensions. Because accurate data comparing the quality and total cost of modern cytocentrifugation methods versus LBC in non-gynaecological samples are not available, this study was designed to investigate these issues. Methods: The study comprised 224 urine samples treated with the Thermo Shandon Cytospin® 4 using reusable TPX® chambers, disposable Cytofunnels® for samples up to 0.5 ml, and disposable Megafunnels® for samples up to 6 ml. Each method was compared with the Cytyc Thinprep® processing of a paired sample. Quality was assessed by scoring cellularity, fixation, red blood cells, leucocytes, abnormalities of urothelial cells, and suitability for molecular studies. Wage costs, investment, and consumables allowed a “total cost” to be calculated on the basis of 200 specimens/month. Total cost and quality combined were used to calculate an index of total quality (ITQ). Results: Cytocentrifugation with disposable chambers resulted in a global quality superior to that of Cytyc Thinprep LBC. Preparation and screening times were 2.25 and 1.33–2 times greater when using LBC compared with cytocentrifugation. The total cost each month reached 1960.23 $ to 2833.43 $ for cytocentrifugation methods and 5464.95 $ for Cytyc Thinprep LBC (92.8–178.8% increased cost). ITQ of cytocentrifugation with disposable chambers surpassed that of Cytyc Thinprep LBC (37.25/32.08 and 9.98, respectively). Conclusion: Cytyc Thinprep LBC and cytocentrifugation are both appropriate methods for cytology based molecular studies, but cytocentrifugation remains the quality standard for current treatment of urinary samples because of its lower cost. PMID:15509686

Piaton, E; Hutin, K; Faynel, J; Ranchin, M-C; Cottier, M



Studies of the physical aspects of intumescence using advance diagnostics methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of intumescent paints as an active fire protection method has gained immense interest in recent years. A significant aspect of research has focused on studying the chemical aspects of the system to improve performance. The dynamics and physical aspects of intumescence in real time fire conditions are still unclear. The present research uses an experimental approach where diagnostics techniques such as thermal imaging camera was used to study intumescent characteristics that have been not been reported in great detail. T-panels are a substitute to the most commonly used part in construction, the I-beam. Studies were conducted using a cone calorimeter that provided a uniform heat flux through radiation on steel T-panel samples. The complex nature of char movement was recorded and a novel algorithm was used to track the growing char laye07r. The samples are designed to cater to different fire conditions. Therefore, the degree of intumescence was observed to be very different in the samples. The samples designed for low temperature cellulosic fires focus on high degree of intumesce. Whereas, mechanical strength is the focus for samples used in high temperature turbulent hydrocarbon fire conditions. The variation in the internal structure of the sample is presented. Furthermore, the phenomenon is phase shift is discussed. The phase shift is an essential part of the process of intumescence when the majority of intumescence occurs. It was observed to be different in all the samples. The movement of the samples is a property of great interest. This is because if any part of the substrate is exposed then the formulation does not meet strict commercialisation criterion. The movement was diagonal in nature as compared to flat panels where it is perpendicular. This is due tot the heating pattern of the plate that results in the web part of the panel to influence the growth of char on the flange part of the panel. A special case of char cracking is also highlighted and using image processing algorithm on the thermal imaging data. A quantitative method of analsysis is presented to an otherwise commonly qualitative nature of experimental study in this field.

Saeed, Hussain; Huang, Hua Wei; Zhang, Yang



Prediction of properties from simulations: a re-examination with modern statistical methods.  


We discuss models fit to data collected by Duffy and Jorgensen to predict solvation free energies and partition equilibria of drugs, organic molecules, aromatic heterocycles, and other molecules. These data were originally examined using linear regression, but here more recently developed statistical models are applied. The data set is complicated due to the presence of discrepant observations and also curvature in the response. In some cases it is possible to discard a small number of the observations to get good fit to the data, but, in others, discarding an increasing proportion of the observations does not improve the fit. Our general preference is to use robust parameter estimation which downweights to reduce the influence of discrepant observations on the fitted models. Models are selected for four responses using linear or more complicated representations of the explanatory variables, such as cubic polynomials, B-splines, or smoothers via generalized additive models (GAMs). Variables are chosen using the traditional approach of formal tests to assess contribution to the fit of a model, and resampling methods including bootstrap are also considered to assess the prediction error for given models. Results of our analysis indicate that GAMs are an improvement on linear models for describing the data and making predictions. In general robust regression models and GAMs have the smallest conditional expected loss of prediction over the four responses. In addition, robust regression models offer the advantage of identifying molecules that perform poorly in the fit. In general, models were identified that yielded an improvement of approximately 50% in the conditional expected loss of prediction compared with the original parametrization of Duffy and Jorgensen. It was also found that the use of cross-validation to compare models was unreliable, and bootstrapping is preferred. PMID:16309286

Mansson, R A; Frey, J G; Essex, J W; Welsh, A H



Atomic Resonance Radiation Energetics Investigation as a Diagnostic Method for Non-Equilibrium Hypervelocity Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Absorption measurements with a tunable vacuum ultraviolet light source have been proposed as a concentration diagnostic for atomic oxygen, and the viability of this technique is assessed in light of recent measurements. The instrumentation, as well as initial calibration measurements, have been reported previously. We report here additional calibration measurements performed to study the resonance broadening line shape for atomic oxygen. The application of this diagnostic is evaluated by considering the range of suitable test conditions and requirements, and by identifying issues that remain to be addressed.

Meyer, Scott A.; Bershader, Daniel; Sharma, Surendra P.; Deiwert, George S.



Analysis of the method of division of spatial channels with successive interference cancellation in modern MIMO-OFDM cellular systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the problem of parallel data transmission via several spatial channels in modern high-throughput cellular systems employing the OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) and antenna arrays at both ends of the communication system. Parallel data transmission in such MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) systems is achieved by using the beamforming schemes in the transmitter and the special methods of the spatial-channel division in the receiver. Interference immunity of the scheme of the spatial-channel division by the maximum-likelihood criterion using the method of successive interference cancellation is analyzed. Probability of implementation of the stage of successive interference cancellation for the case of two spatial channels and various combinations of the coding schemes and modulations is obtained. We analyze the efficiency of a cellular communication system using horizontal coding and successive interference cancellation. Practical recommendations on choosing modulation and the code speed for each spatial channel, which ensure maximum interference immunity of a receiver with successive interference cancellation, are made.

Davydov, A. V.; Mal'Tsev, A. A.



Comparing modern and Pleistocene ENSO-like influences in NW Argentina using nonlinear time series analysis methods  

E-print Network

Higher variability in rainfall and river discharge could be of major importance in landslide generation in the north-western Argentine Andes. Annual layered (varved) deposits of a landslide dammed lake in the Santa Maria Basin (26 deg S, 66 deg W) with an age of 30,000 14C years provide an archive of precipitation variability during this time. The comparison of these data with present-day rainfall observations tests the hypothesis that increased rainfall variability played a major role in landslide generation. A potential cause of such variability is the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The causal link between ENSO and local rainfall is quantified by using a new method of nonlinear data analysis, the quantitative analysis of cross recurrence plots (CRP). This method seeks similarities in the dynamics of two different processes, such as an ocean-atmosphere oscillation and local rainfall. Our analysis reveals significant similarities in the statistics of both modern and palaeo-precipitation data. The similarities in the data suggest that an ENSO-like influence on local rainfall was present at around 30,000 14C years ago. Increased rainfall, which was inferred from a lake balance modeling in a previous study, together with ENSO-like cyclicities could help to explain the clustering of landslides at around 30,000 14C years ago.

N. Marwan; M. H. Trauth; M. Vuille; J. Kurths



Mutual Information Item Selection Method in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing with Short Test Length  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) purports to combine the strengths of both CAT and cognitive diagnosis. Cognitive diagnosis models aim at classifying examinees into the correct mastery profile group so as to pinpoint the strengths and weakness of each examinee whereas CAT algorithms choose items to determine those…

Wang, Chun



Modern Pruning Methods.  

E-print Network

------------------------ 7 Pruning Ornamental Shrubs and Small Trees- - _ --- . - -. . - -- - 7 Pruning Shrubs and Trees After Transplanting - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 12 . . Climbing Roses -------- - -------- --- 15 Hybrid-tea Roses ---------- - 16.... Climbing hybrid-teas and most large-flowered climbers that tend to be repeat bloomers during the growing season look best when old blooms are cut off just above the first bud in the axil of a leaf. In most cases, this is at the first 5-leaflet leaf...

DeWerth, A. F.



Thermodynamic evaluation and restoration of volcanic gas analyses: an example based on modern collection and analytical methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thermodynamic evaluation and restoration procedures are applied to a set of 10 volcanic gas analyses obtained by modern collection and analytical methods. The samples were collected from a vigorously fuming fissure during episode 1 of the Puu Oo eruption of Kilauea Volcano in 1983. A variety of analytical techniques were used to determine the gas compositions. In most samples, the combined amounts of N2 + Ar + O2 are far less abundant than H2, CO, or H2S, suggesting little or no contamination or reaction with atmospheric gases. Thermodynamic evaluation shows that 6 of the 10 analyses are equilibrium compositions, and 4 analyses are disequilibrium compositions. Three of the disequilibrium analyses involve samples affected by minor spilling of NaOH solution from the sample bottles during collection. The deviation of these analyses from equilibrium is dominated by the effects of disequilibrium water-loss. The fourth disequilibrium analysis is contaminated with meteoric water. In all 4 cases, the restoration procedures retrieve the original equilibrium compositions. -from Author

Gerlach, T.M.



[Rapid methods for the diagnostic of food-borne infections determined by bacteria pertaining to genus Salmonella].  


For a long period of time, microbiological analysis of samples gathered from individuals, food and environment was based on culture techniques which were considered "gold standard". These conventional methods are yet time-consuming (with respect to germ identification and characterization), cumulative costs are huge, which made research focus on obtaining methods with a rapidity / cost ratio higher than that of classical methods. Rapid diagnostic became as well a priority in the case of food-borne diseases determined by Salmonella spp. These methods of rapid diagnostic are based on phenotypic or molecular techniques for identification and typing, as well as on tests using biosensors and DNA chips, which are under development, and which use the capacity of real-time monitoring of the presence of multiple pathogens in food. With the continuous development of new molecular technologies allowing the rapid detection of food pathogens, the future of conventional microbiological methods looks rather insecure, the more so as there is continuous interest in improving the performances of genotypic methods regarding easy handling, reliability and low costs. The work reviews the panoply of Salmonella identification and typing tests available in the present. PMID:23745222

N??cu?iu, Alexandra-Maria



Total synthesis by modern chemical ligation methods and high resolution (1.1 Å) X-ray structure of ribonuclease A  

SciTech Connect

The total chemical synthesis of RNase A using modern chemical ligation methods is described, illustrating the significant advances that have been made in chemical protein synthesis since Gutte and Merrifield's pioneering preparation of RNase A in 1969. The identity of the synthetic product was confirmed through rigorous characterization, including the determination of the X-ray crystal structure to 1.1 Angstrom resolution.

Boerema, David J.; Tereshko, Valentina A.; Kent, Stephen B.H. (UC)



Modern Methods of Monosaccharide Synthesis from Non-Carbohydrate Tomas Hudlicky,* David A. Entwistle, Kevin K. Pitzer, and Andrew J. Thorpe  

E-print Network

Modern Methods of Monosaccharide Synthesis from Non-Carbohydrate Sources Tomas Hudlicky,* David A Manipulations Leading to Carbohydrates 1198 4. Future Prospects of the Chemistry of Mono- and Oligosaccharides. Overview Humans have utilized carbohydrates in natural forms such as cellulose in cotton, sucrose in cane

Hudlicky, Tomas


Modern Analytical Methods Applied to Earth and Planetary Sciences for Micro, Nano and Pico Space Devices and Robots in Landing Site Selection and Surface Investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fleet of Nano and Pico Sized Space Devices and Robots (NPSDR) are deployable to realize and accomplish in situ modern analytical methods in wide range of Earth and planetary sciences. Shorter time and bigger field of surfaces and volumes of space.

Vizi, P. G.; Bérczi, Sz.; Horváth, I.; Horváth, A. F.; Vizi, J. Cs.



Potential of modern sonographic techniques in paediatric uroradiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the potential of modern sonographic techniques in paediatric uroradiology. Method: Ultrasound (US)—now being the primary imaging tool—has revolutionised imaging diagnostic in the urinary tract. Constant developments and technical refinements have secured the role of US in uroradiology. Colour Doppler Sonography (CDS) and innovative applications such as the transperineal approach or application of m-mode US to the urinary

Michael Riccabona



A Refined QSO Selection Method Using Diagnostics Tests: 663 QSO Candidates in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present 663 QSO candidates in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) selected using multiple diagnostics. We started with a set of 2566 QSO candidates selected using the methodology presented in our previous work based on time variability of the MACHO LMC light curves. We then obtained additional information for the candidates by crossmatching them with the Spitzer SAGE, the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Chandra, the XMM, and an LMC UBVI catalog. Using this information, we specified six diagnostic features based on mid-IR colors, photometric redshifts using spectral energy distribution template fitting, and X-ray luminosities in order to further discriminate high-confidence QSO candidates in the absence of spectra information. We then trained a one-class Support Vector Machine model using the diagnostics features of the confirmed 58 MACHO QSOs. We applied the trained model to the original candidates and finally selected 663 high-confidence QSO candidates. Furthermore, we crossmatched these 663 QSO candidates with the newly confirmed 151 QSOs and 275 non-QSOs in the LMC fields. On the basis of the counterpart analysis, we found that the false positive rate is less than 1%.

Kim, Dae-Won; Protopapas, Pavlos; Trichas, Markos; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Khardon, Roni; Alcock, Charles; Byun, Yong-Ik




SciTech Connect

We present 663 QSO candidates in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) selected using multiple diagnostics. We started with a set of 2566 QSO candidates selected using the methodology presented in our previous work based on time variability of the MACHO LMC light curves. We then obtained additional information for the candidates by crossmatching them with the Spitzer SAGE, the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Chandra, the XMM, and an LMC UBVI catalog. Using this information, we specified six diagnostic features based on mid-IR colors, photometric redshifts using spectral energy distribution template fitting, and X-ray luminosities in order to further discriminate high-confidence QSO candidates in the absence of spectra information. We then trained a one-class Support Vector Machine model using the diagnostics features of the confirmed 58 MACHO QSOs. We applied the trained model to the original candidates and finally selected 663 high-confidence QSO candidates. Furthermore, we crossmatched these 663 QSO candidates with the newly confirmed 151 QSOs and 275 non-QSOs in the LMC fields. On the basis of the counterpart analysis, we found that the false positive rate is less than 1%.

Kim, Dae-Won; Protopapas, Pavlos; Trichas, Markos; Alcock, Charles [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Rowan-Robinson, Michael [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Khardon, Roni [Department of Computer Science, Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States); Byun, Yong-Ik [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)



Expanded response-surfaces: a new method to reconstruct paleoclimates from fossil pollen assemblages that lack modern analogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen-based paleoclimatic interpretations of late-glacial to early Holocene climates (17–9ka) in Midwestern North America are hampered by samples that lack modern analogues. Unresolved questions include the magnitude and direction of temperature seasonality (i.e. were these climates more or less seasonal than present) and the temporal changes in precipitation. Central to the no-analogue problem is the truncation of modern pollen-climate relationships

L. M. Gonzales; J. W. Williams; E. C. Grimm



Assessment of Preference and Its Determinant Factors to Ward Modern Contraceptive Methods among Women of Reproductive Age Group in Shire Indaselassie Town, Northern Ethiopia, 2011  

PubMed Central

Background. Women's preferences for various contraceptive methods attribute vary according to the type of relations and other aspects of their life. The discrepancy between fertility preferences and contraceptive practice is regarded as an indicator of unmet demand for family planning. Objective. To assess modern contraceptive methods preference and its determinant factors among women of reproductive age group in Shire Indaselassie town, Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia. Method. A community based cross-sectional study design was employed on 367 sampled women. Stratified sampling technique was used to select the study subjects. Then, data was collected using structured questionnaire. Result. In this study, the most commonly preferred modern contraceptive method was injectable contraceptive 202 (55%), the second 61 (16.6%) was oral contraceptives, and the third 47 (12.8%) was Norplant. Condom 31 (8.4%), IUD 14 (3.8%), female sterilization 7 (1.9%), and others were less commonly preferred methods. Some of the reasons for preference were effectiveness of the method, reversibility, fewer side effects, convenience, long duration of use, and no need to remember daily. Conclusion. This study clearly described that women preferences of modern contraceptive methods increased after they had higher number of children and less desire to limit family size. PMID:24396599

Tsehaye, Weyzer T.; Mengistu, Daniel; Birhanu, Emebet; Berhe, Kalayou K.



Use of Expert Panels to Define the Reference Standard in Diagnostic Research: A Systematic Review of Published Methods and Reporting  

PubMed Central

Background In diagnostic studies, a single and error-free test that can be used as the reference (gold) standard often does not exist. One solution is the use of panel diagnosis, i.e., a group of experts who assess the results from multiple tests to reach a final diagnosis in each patient. Although panel diagnosis, also known as consensus or expert diagnosis, is frequently used as the reference standard, guidance on preferred methodology is lacking. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of methods used in panel diagnoses and to provide initial guidance on the use and reporting of panel diagnosis as reference standard. Methods and Findings PubMed was systematically searched for diagnostic studies applying a panel diagnosis as reference standard published up to May 31, 2012. We included diagnostic studies in which the final diagnosis was made by two or more persons based on results from multiple tests. General study characteristics and details of panel methodology were extracted. Eighty-one studies were included, of which most reported on psychiatry (37%) and cardiovascular (21%) diseases. Data extraction was hampered by incomplete reporting; one or more pieces of critical information about panel reference standard methodology was missing in 83% of studies. In most studies (75%), the panel consisted of three or fewer members. Panel members were blinded to the results of the index test results in 31% of studies. Reproducibility of the decision process was assessed in 17 (21%) studies. Reported details on panel constitution, information for diagnosis and methods of decision making varied considerably between studies. Conclusions Methods of panel diagnosis varied substantially across studies and many aspects of the procedure were either unclear or not reported. On the basis of our review, we identified areas for improvement and developed a checklist and flow chart for initial guidance for researchers conducting and reporting of studies involving panel diagnosis. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24143138

Bertens, Loes C. M.; Broekhuizen, Berna D. L.; Naaktgeboren, Christiana A.; Rutten, Frans H.; Hoes, Arno W.; van Mourik, Yvonne; Moons, Karel G. M.; Reitsma, Johannes B.



Diagnostic methods. Current best practices and guidelines for identification of difficult-to-culture pathogens in infective endocarditis.  


IE is a serious, life-threatening disease. Because treatment must often be adapted to the pathogen involved, rapid identification of the etiologic agent is critical to successful management of each patient. When difficult-to-culture pathogens are involved, routine microbiologic tests, including blood culture, may remain negative. Because such cases may account for up to 31% of all IE cases, alternative diagnostic approaches are necessary. Among the etiologic agents of culture-negative endocarditis, C burnetii and Bartonella spp play a major role; each is responsible for up to 3% of episodes of IE. The authors therefore recommend the systematic use of specific serologies in all cases of clinically suspected endocarditis. The cross-reactivity between C burnetii, Bartonella spp, and Chlamydia spp is of diagnostic importance because all are potential etiologic agents of endocarditis. However, given that the levels of specific antibodies observed in Bartonella endocarditis are extremely high, low-level cross-reactions with other antigens should not lead to misdiagnosis, provided serology for all suspected agents is performed. When serologic test results are negative for both Bartonella spp and C burnetii, special staining by the Gram, Giemsa, Gimenez, PAS, Warthin-Starry, and Grocott methods may guide the use of new diagnostic tools such as PCR and tissue culture for isolation and identification of the causative agent. Such novel approaches may lead to more comprehensive patient evaluations and the discovery of new etiologic agents of IE. PMID:12874894

Houpikian, Pierre; Raoult, Didier



Diagnosing Delirium in Hospitalized Elderly Patients with Dementia: Adapting the Confusion Assessment Method to ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria  

PubMed Central

Background The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) performs well in DSM-IV delirium screening, but the ICD-10 classification utilizes more delirium symptoms. Objectives To compare performance characteristics of the CAM algorithm for screening and delirium diagnosis with ICD-10 and DSM-IV delirium criteria in high-risk patients. Design Prospective cohort study Setting Academic geriatric hospital Participants 102 patients, aged 80–100 years, hospitalized for acute medical illness. Measurements Complete CAM instrument (9 items), scored using the 4-item CAM diagnostic algorithm. Gold standard classification of delirium was rated independently by expert consensus, based on DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria for delirium. Results In 79 hospitalized patients, the CAM performed well for delirium screening (delirium prevalence of 24% by DSM-IV and 14% by ICD-10). Of all CAM features, acute onset and fluctuating course are most important for diagnosis (area under the curve, AUC, 0.92 in DSM-IV and 0.83 in ICD-10). Compared with the DSM-IV reference standard, the CAM diagnostic algorithm had a sensitivity of 0.74, specificity of 1.0, and AUC of 0.88; compared with ICD-10, which had a sensitivity of 0.82, specificity of 0.91, and AUC of 0.85. Adding psychomotor change to the CAM algorithm improves specificity to 97% but sensitivity is reduced to 55% for ICD-10 (AUC 0.96). Alternatively, applying psychomotor change sequentially to only the group identified with no delirium by the CAM algorithm improves sensitivity to 91% with specificity of 85% (AUC 0.95). Conclusion While the CAM diagnostic algorithm performs well against a DSM-IV reference standard, adding psychomotor change to the CAM algorithm improves specificity and diagnostic value against ICD-10 criteria over all in aged individuals with dementia, and improves sensitivity and screening performance when applied sequentially in CAM-negative individuals. PMID:22881707

Thomas, Christine; Kreisel, Stefan H.; Oster, Peter; Driessen, Martin; Arolt, Volker; Inouye, Sharon K.



Genetic mutation underlying orthostatic intolerance and diagnostic and therapeutic methods relating thereto  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isolated polynucleotide molecules and peptides encoded by these molecules are used in the analysis of human norepinephrine (NE) transporter variants, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, relating to a human NE transporter polymorphism. By analyzing genomic DNA or amplified genomic DNA, or amplified cDNA derived from mRNA, it is possible to type a human NE transporter with regard to the human NE transporter polymorphism, for example, in the context of diagnosing and treating NE transport impairments, and disorders associated with NE transport impairments, such as orthostatic intolerance.

Robertson, David (Inventor); Blakely, Randy D. (Inventor)



Does the effect of weight lifting on lymphedema following breast cancer differ by diagnostic method: results from a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lymphedema diagnostic method used in descriptive or intervention studies may influence results found. The purposes of\\u000a this work were to compare baseline lymphedema prevalence in the physical activity and lymphedema (PAL) trial cohort and to\\u000a subsequently compare the effect of the weight-lifting intervention on lymphedema, according to four standard diagnostic methods.\\u000a The PAL trial was a randomized controlled intervention

Sandra C. Hayes; Rebecca M. Speck; Elizabeth Reimet; Azadeh Stark; Kathryn H. Schmitz


Method for Assessing the Reliability of Molecular Diagnostics Based on Multiplexed SERS-Coded Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles have been engineered to generate unique fingerprint spectra and are potentially useful as bright contrast agents for molecular diagnostics. One promising strategy for biomedical diagnostics and imaging is to functionalize various particle types (“flavors”), each emitting a unique spectral signature, to target a large multiplexed panel of molecular biomarkers. While SERS particles emit narrow spectral features that allow them to be easily separable under ideal conditions, the presence of competing noise sources and background signals such as detector noise, laser background, and autofluorescence confounds the reliability of demultiplexing algorithms. Results obtained during time-constrained in vivo imaging experiments may not be reproducible or accurate. Therefore, our goal is to provide experimentalists with a metric that may be monitored to enforce a desired bound on accuracy within a user-defined confidence level. We have defined a spectral reliability index (SRI), based on the output of a direct classical least-squares (DCLS) demultiplexing routine, which provides a measure of the reliability of the computed nanoparticle concentrations and ratios. We present simulations and experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of this strategy, which can potentially be utilized for a range of instruments and biomedical applications involving multiplexed SERS nanoparticles. PMID:23620806

Leigh, Steven Y.; Som, Madhura; Liu, Jonathan T. C.




SciTech Connect

Nearly 4 million patient procedures performed annually in US cardiac catheterization laboratories utilize contrast media to achieve vessel opacification. The amount of contrast media used is variable and depends on the complexity of the procedure, the method of contrast delivery as well as the skill-level of the operator. Since the total amount of contrast used for each procedure can have both patient safety and economic implications, it is essential for cardiologists to have the ability to control contrast delivery such that optimal angiographic image quality is achieved using the least amount of contrast. Although the complication rate associated with cardiac catheterization remains low, the most common serious complication, contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), is associated with poor prognosis and a high mortality rate. Numerous interventional strategies for preventing and reducing the severity of CIN have demonstrated varying degrees of clinical benefit, but none has been shown to reliably prevent this serious complication. To date, the most effective approach for reducing the risk of CIN is to properly hydrate the patient and to minimize the amount of contrast media administered. Automated injection systems are intended for use in virtually all cardiac catheterization procedures and have numerous features which can provide potential advantages over traditional methods. With automated injection technology the operator is able to control and precisely monitor contrast delivery. Additionally, the MEDRAD Avanta Fluid Management Injection System utilizes a sterile contrast reservoir which eliminates the need to discard unused contrast in individual opened containers following each procedure. Considering that an average of 50% of opened contrast media is wasted using manual injection methods, this savings can provide a substantial economic benefit. Automated systems also facilitate the use of smaller (5 French) catheter sizes. Precise flow control and the use of smaller diameter catheters have both been shown to reduce the volume of contrast administered. The use of smaller size catheters also permits more rapid hemostasis, thus allowing shorter ambulation time without the need for costly wound closure devices. These factors can result in enhanced patient satisfaction as well as more efficient management of post-procedure rooms. The intent of this study was to demonstrate that using the MEDRAD Avanta Fluid Management Injection System (MEDRAD, INC., Pittsburgh, PA) for coronary diagnostic procedures can produce a reduction in the volume of contrast administered without loss of operational quality or efficiency. In addition, this study will explore procedure time and efficiency in an effort to minimize the amount of ionizing radiation delivered to the patient as well as the diagnostic team members. Study Design This is a post-market study designed to collect data during diagnostic cardiac catheterization when utilizing 5FR or 6FR catheters in conjunction with the Avanta Fluid Management System or a manual manifold injection method control group. A minimum of 420 patients scheduled for diagnostic cardiac catheterization will be enrolled in the study cohort. Patients will be assigned into the following two groups. Group 1: Catheterization with 5FR or 6FR catheters, using the traditional manual manifold injection method for contrast media delivery which is defined as manual hand injection of contrast media through a 3 or 4 port manifold and left ventriculography performed via standard fixed rate power injection. Group 2: Catheterization with 5FR or 6FR catheters, using the MEDRAD Avanta system for contrast media delivery. Study endpoints include volume of contrast media administered during diagnostic cardiac catheterization, volume of contrast media wasted post-procedure, procedure time (defined as the time from first catheter insertion to last diagnostic catheter removal), fluoroscopy time and angiographic image quality. The study demonstrated that use of the Advanta system reduced overall contrast utilization by decreasing th

Winniford, Michael D



Mastitis diagnostics and performance monitoring: a practical approach  

PubMed Central

In this paper a review is given of frequently used mastitis diagnostic methods in modern dairy practice. Methods used at the quarter, cow, herd and regional or national level are discussed, including their usability for performance monitoring in udder health. Future developments, such as systems in which milk-derived parameters are combined with modern analytical techniques, are discussed. It is concluded that, although much knowledge is available and science is still developing and much knowledge is available, it is not always fully exploited in practice. PMID:22081906



[Professional eosinophilic bronchitis: considerations and new diagnostic methods in a clinical case].  


Nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (NAEB) is a condition characterized by corticosteroid-responsive chronic cough, sputum eosinophilia and absence of symptoms or objective evidence of variable airflow obstruction and airway hyper-responsiveness. Like asthma, NAEB can be associated with exposure to occupational sensitizers and can be considered as being a variant of occupational asthma when it develops as a consequence of work exposure. Few case reports of NAEB caused by workplace exposure have been reported. Bakers are at high risk of developing occupational respiratory disorders and three cases of occupational NAEB have been described. We describe the first case of occupational NAEB due to storage mites in a baker in which the offending agent was identified by means of the basophil activation test (BAT), a new tool which has never been proposed in diagnostic procedures of occupational respiratory allergy. BAT's results allowed the recognition of the offending agent, that is mandatory for diagnosis. PMID:20684434

Pala, G; Pignatti, P; Gentile, E; Caminati, M; Perfetti, L; Moscato, G



Diagnostic methods for African horsesickness virus using monoclonal antibodies to structural and non-structural proteins.  


A panel of 32 hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reactive with African horsesickness virus serotype 4 (AHSV-4) has been developed. Four of the MAbs recognized the major core antigen VP7, twenty recognized the outer capsid protein VP2 and eight reacted with the non-structural protein NS1. With the VP7-specific MAbs a rapid and sensitive double antibody sandwich immunoassay has been developed to detect viral antigen in infected Vero cells and in spleen tissue from AHSV-infected horses. The sensitivity of the assay is 10 ng viral antigen per 100 microliters. The NS1-specific MAbs allowed visualization by immunofluorescence of tubule-like structures in the cytoplasm of infected Vero cells. This can be very useful as a confirmatory diagnostic procedure. The antigenic map of the outer capsid VP2 protein with MAbs is also reported. PMID:1481354

Ranz, A I; Miguet, J G; Anaya, C; Venteo, A; Cortés, E; Vela, C; Sanz, A



Diagnostic performance of different measurement methods for lung nodule enhancement at quantitative contrast-enhanced computed tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lack of angiogenesis virtually excludes malignancy of a pulmonary nodule; assessment with quantitative contrast-enhanced CT (QECT) requires a reliable enhancement measurement technique. Diagnostic performance of different measurement methods in the distinction between malignant and benign nodules was evaluated. QECT (unenhanced scan and 4 post-contrast scans) was performed in 48 pulmonary nodules (12 malignant, 12 benign, 24 indeterminate). Nodule enhancement was the difference between the highest nodule density at any post-contrast scan and the unenhanced scan. Enhancement was determined with: A) the standard 2D method; B) a 3D method consisting of segmentation, removal of peripheral structures and density averaging. Enhancement curves were evaluated for their plausibility using a predefined set of criteria. Sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 33% for the 2D method resp. 92% and 55% for the 3D method using a threshold of 20 HU. One malignant nodule did not show significant enhancement with method B due to adjacent atelectasis which disappeared within the few minutes of the QECT examination. Better discrimination between benign and malignant lesions was achieved with a slightly higher threshold than proposed in the literature. Application of plausibility criteria to the enhancement curves rendered less plausibility faults with the 3D method. A new 3D method for analysis of QECT scans yielded less artefacts and better specificity in the discrimination between benign and malignant pulmonary nodules when using an appropriate enhancement threshold. Nevertheless, QECT results must be interpreted with care.

Wormanns, Dag; Klotz, Ernst; Dregger, Uwe; Beyer, Florian; Heindel, Walter



Cellphone camera imaging of a periodically patterned chip as a potential method for point-of-care diagnostics.  


In this study, we demonstrate that a disposable chip periodically patterned with suitable ligands, an ordinary cellphone camera, and a simple pattern recognition software, can potentially be used for quantitative diagnostics. A key factor in this demonstration is the design of a calibration grid around the chip that, through a contrast transfer process, enables reliable analysis of the images collected under variable ambient lighting conditions. After exposure to a dispersion of amine terminated silica beads used as analyte mimicking pathogens, an epoxy-terminated glass substrate microcontact printed with octadecyltrichlorosilane (250 ?m periodicity) developed a characteristic pattern of beads which could be easily imaged with a cellphone camera of 3.2 MP pixels. A simple pattern recognition algorithm using fast Fourier transform produced a quantitative estimate of the analyte concentration present in the test solution. In this method importantly, neither the chip fabrication process nor the fill-factor of the periodic pattern need be perfect to arrive at a conclusive diagnosis. The method suggests a viable platform that may potentially find use in fault-tolerant and robust point-of-care diagnostic applications. PMID:24564576

Gupta, Ritu; Reifenberger, Ronald G; Kulkarni, Giridhar U



Biogeosystem technique as a method to overcome the Biological and Environmental Hazards of modern Agricultural, Irrigational and Technological Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern challenge for humanity is to replace the paradigm of nature use and overcome environmental hazards of agronomy, irrigation, industry, and other human activities in biosphere. It is utterly reasonable to stop dividing biosphere on shares - the human habitat and the environment. In the 21st century it is an outdated anthropocentrism. Contradicting himself to biosphere Humankind has the problems. The new paradigm of biosphere control by methods of Biogeosystem technique is on agenda of Humankind. Key directions of Biogeosystem technique. Tillage. Single rotary milling 20…30-50…60 sm soil layer optimizes the evolution and environment of soil, creates a favorable conditions for the rhizosphere, increases the biological productivity of biosphere by 30-50% compared to the standard agricultural practices for the period up to 40 years. Recycle material. Recycling of mineral and organic substances in soil layer of 20…30-50…60 sm in rotary milling soil processing provides wastes clean return to biosphere. Direct intrasoil substances synthesis. Environmentally friendly robot wasteless nanotechnology provides direct substances synthesis, including fertilizers, inside the soil. It eliminates the prerequisites of the wastes formation under standard industrial technologies. Selective substance's extraction from soil. Electrochemical robotic nanotechnology provides selective substances extraction from soil. The technology provides recovery, collection and subsequent safe industrial use of extracted substances out of landscape. Saving fresh water. An important task is to save fresh water in biosphere. Irrigation spends water 4-5 times more of biological requirements of plants, leads to degradation of soil and landscape. The intrasoil pulse continuous-discrete paradigm of irrigation is proposed. It provides the soil and landscape conservation, increases the biological productivity, save the fresh water up to 10-20 times. The subsurface soil rotary processing and intrasoil pulsed continuous-discrete irrigation provide environmentally safe disposal of municipal, industrial, biological and agricultural wastes. Hazardous chemical and biological agents are under the soil surface. It provided a medical and veterinary safety of environment. Biogeosystem technic controls the equilibria in the soil and soil solution, prevents excessive mineralization of organic matter in the surface layers of soil. Simultaneously a soil chemical reduction excluded, biological substance do not degrade to gases. Products of organic matter decomposition are directed to the food chain, 100% waste recycling is obtained. Biogeosystems technique allows producing more biological products hence to recycle excessive amount of man-made CO2 and other substances. Biogeosystems technique increases the rate of photosynthesis of the biosphere, the degree of air ionization. This enhances the formation of rains over land, ensures stability of the ionosphere, magnetosphere and atmosphere of Earth. The nowadays technologies allow applying technical solutions based on Biogeosystem technique, there is unique opportunity to accelerate the noosphere new technological platform.

Kalinitchenko, Valery; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Zinchenko, Vladimir; Zarmaev, Ali; Magomadov, Ali; Chernenko, Vladimir; Startsev, Viktor; Bakoev, Serojdin; Dikaev, Zaurbek



Modern vs. Traditional.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses traditional methods, such as the grammar-translation, and modern methods, the communicative approach, for teaching English-as-a-foreign-language in China. The relationship between linguistic accuracy and communicative competence, student-centered orientation, and the role of the teacher are highlighted. (Author/VWL)

Zhenhui, Rao



Modern NMR Spectroscopy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses direct chemical information that can be obtained from modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, concentrating on the types of problems that can be solved. Shows how selected methods provide information about polymers, bipolymers, biochemistry, small organic molecules, inorganic compounds, and compounds oriented in a magnetic…

Jelinski, Lynn W.



Depression and suicidal behavior in adolescents: a multi-informant and multi-methods approach to diagnostic classification  

PubMed Central

Background: Informant discrepancies have been reported between parent and adolescent measures of depressive disorders and suicidality. We aimed to examine the concordance between adolescent and parent ratings of depressive disorder using both clinical interview and questionnaire measures and assess multi-informant and multi-method approaches to classification. Method: Within the context of assessment of eligibility for a randomized clinical trial, 50 parent–adolescent pairs (mean age of adolescents = 15.0 years) were interviewed separately with a structured diagnostic interview for depression, the KID-SCID. Adolescent self-report and parent-report versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire were also administered. We examined the diagnostic concordance rates of the parent vs. adolescent structured interview methods and the prediction of adolescent diagnosis via questionnaire methods. Results: Parent proxy reporting of adolescent depression and suicidal thoughts and behavior is not strongly concordant with adolescent report. Adolescent self-reported symptoms on depression scales provide a more accurate report of diagnosable adolescent depression than parent proxy reports of adolescent depressive symptoms. Adolescent self-report measures can be combined to improve the accuracy of classification. Parents tend to over report their adolescent’s depressive symptoms while under reporting their suicidal thoughts and behavior. Conclusion: Parent proxy report is clearly less reliable than the adolescent’s own report of their symptoms and subjective experiences, and could be considered inaccurate for research purposes. While parent report would still be sought clinically where an adolescent refuses to provide information, our findings suggest that parent reporting of adolescent suicidality should be interpreted with caution. PMID:25101031

Lewis, Andrew J.; Bertino, Melanie D.; Bailey, Catherine M.; Skewes, Joanna; Lubman, Dan I.; Toumbourou, John W.



New method of fluorescence diagnostics, photodynamic preventive maintenance, and treatment of diseases of the periodontium and mucous membrane of mouth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is offered a new approach for diagnostics, photodynamic preventive maintenance and treatment of diseases of parodont and mucous membrane of mouth-based on luminescent diagnostics and photodynamic therapy.

Douplik, Alexandre Y.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Klimov, D. V.; Linkov, Kirill G.



Modern Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey of educational practices in Great Britain is intended to allow a comparative view of the state of modern language instruction as it exists within the country and abroad. Chapters focus on general principles, language selection, grammar and secondary schools, instructional materials, foreign relations, teacher training, and teaching…

Ministry of Education, London (England).


Staging Modernism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis, which supports an exhibition of visual art, develops from Jean Baudrillard's philosophy of seduction. I have focused on the representation of the bachelor and his pad in American men's magazines from the mid-twentieth century. During this period, magazines such as Playboy, Escapade and Rogue created features on modern living to reassure an independent and affluent man that a

Jason Derouin



Multi-Functional Diagnostic Method with Tracer-Encapsulated Pellet Injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to obtain a better understanding of impurity transport in magnetically confined plasmas, a Tracer-Encapsulated Soild PELlet (TESPEL) has been developed. The essential points of the TESPEL are as follows: the TESPEL has a double-layered structure, and a tracer impurity, the amount of which can be known precisely, is embedded as an inner core. This structure enables us to deposit the tracer impurity locally inside the plasma. From experiences of developing the TESPEL production technique and its injection experiments, it became clear that various plasma properties can be studied by the TESPEL injection. There are not only impurity transport in the plasma but also transport both outside and inside of the magnetic island O-point, heat transport and high-energy neutral particle flux. Therefore, the TESPEL injection has a favorable multi-functional diagnostic capability. Furthermore a Tracer-Encapsulated Cryogenic PELlet (TECPEL) has been also developed. The TECPEL has an advantage over the TESPEL in terms of no existence of carbons in the outer layer. The TECPEL injector was installed at LHD in December 2005, and the preliminary injection experiments have been carried out.

Sudo, Shigeru; Tamura, Naoki; Kalinina, Diana; Vinyar, Igor; Sato, Kuninori; Veshchev, Evgeny; Goncharov, Pavel; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Inagaki, Shigeru; Funaba, Hisamichi; Mutoh, Sadatsugu; Igitkhanov, Yuri; Yi, Liu; Peterson, Byron; Stutman, Dan; Finkenthal, Michael; LHD Experimental Group


A diagnostic for determining the quality of single-reference electron correlation methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was recently proposed that the Euclidian norm of the t(sub 1) vector of the coupled cluster wave function (normalized by the number of electrons included in the correlation procedure) could be used to determine whether a single-reference-based electron correlation procedure is appopriate. This diagnostic, T(sub 1) is defined for use with self-consistent-field molecular orbitals and is invariant to the same orbital rotations as the coupled cluster energy. T(sub 1) is investigated for several different chemical systems which exhibit a range of multireference behavior, and is shown to be an excellent measure of the importance of non-dynamical electron correlation and is far superior to C(sub 0) from a singles and doubles configuration interaction wave function. It is further suggested that when the aim is to recover a large fraction of the dynamical electron correlation energy, a large T(sub 1) (i.e., greater than 0.02) probably indicates the need for a multireference electron correlation procedure.

Lee, Timothy J.; Taylor, Peter R.



A diagnostic for determining the quality of single-reference electron correlation methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was recently proposed that the Euclidian norm of the t sub 1 vector of the coupled cluster wave function (normalized by the number of electrons included in the correlation procedure) could be used to determine whether a single-reference-based electron correlation procedure is appropriate. This diagnostic, T sub 1, is defined for use with self consistent field molecular orbitals and is invariant to the same orbital rotations as the coupled cluster energy. T sub 1 is investigated for several different chemical systems which exhibit a range of multireference behavior, and is shown to be an excellent measure of the importance of nondynamical electron correlation and is far superior to C sub 0 from a singles and doubles configuration interaction wave function. It is further suggested that when the aim is to recover a large fraction of the dynamical electron correlation energy, a large T sub 1 (i.e., greater than 0.02) probably indicates the need for a multireference electron correlation procedure.

Lee, Timothy J.; Taylor, Peter R.



Diagnostic Accuracy of Kato-Katz, FLOTAC, Baermann, and PCR Methods for the Detection of Light-Intensity Hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis Infections in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Sensitive diagnostic tools are crucial for an accurate assessment of helminth infections in low-endemicity areas. We examined stool samples from Tanzanian individuals and compared the diagnostic accuracy of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the FLOTAC technique and the Kato–Katz method for hookworm and the Baermann method for Strongyloides stercoralis detection. Only FLOTAC had a higher sensitivity than the Kato–Katz method for hookworm diagnosis; the sensitivities of PCR and the Kato–Katz method were equal. PCR had a very low sensitivity for S. stercoralis detection. The cycle threshold values of the PCR were negatively correlated with the logarithm of hookworm egg and S. stercoralis larvae counts. The median larvae count was significantly lower in PCR false negatives than true positives. All methods failed to detect very low-intensity infections. New diagnostic approaches are needed for monitoring of progressing helminth control programs, confirmation of elimination, or surveillance of disease recrudescence. PMID:24445211

Knopp, Stefanie; Salim, Nahya; Schindler, Tobias; Karagiannis Voules, Dimitrios A.; Rothen, Julian; Lweno, Omar; Mohammed, Alisa S.; Singo, Raymond; Benninghoff, Myrna; Nsojo, Anthony A.; Genton, Blaise; Daubenberger, Claudia



Diagnostic accuracy of Kato-Katz, FLOTAC, Baermann, and PCR methods for the detection of light-intensity hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis infections in Tanzania.  


Sensitive diagnostic tools are crucial for an accurate assessment of helminth infections in low-endemicity areas. We examined stool samples from Tanzanian individuals and compared the diagnostic accuracy of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the FLOTAC technique and the Kato-Katz method for hookworm and the Baermann method for Strongyloides stercoralis detection. Only FLOTAC had a higher sensitivity than the Kato-Katz method for hookworm diagnosis; the sensitivities of PCR and the Kato-Katz method were equal. PCR had a very low sensitivity for S. stercoralis detection. The cycle threshold values of the PCR were negatively correlated with the logarithm of hookworm egg and S. stercoralis larvae counts. The median larvae count was significantly lower in PCR false negatives than true positives. All methods failed to detect very low-intensity infections. New diagnostic approaches are needed for monitoring of progressing helminth control programs, confirmation of elimination, or surveillance of disease recrudescence. PMID:24445211

Knopp, Stefanie; Salim, Nahya; Schindler, Tobias; Karagiannis Voules, Dimitrios A; Rothen, Julian; Lweno, Omar; Mohammed, Alisa S; Singo, Raymond; Benninghoff, Myrna; Nsojo, Anthony A; Genton, Blaise; Daubenberger, Claudia



A Multiplex Two-Color Real-Time PCR Method for Quality-Controlled Molecular Diagnostic Testing of FFPE Samples  

PubMed Central

Background Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) tests support personalized cancer treatment through more clinically meaningful diagnosis. However, samples obtained through standard clinical pathology procedures are formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and yield small samples with low integrity RNA containing PCR interfering substances. RT-qPCR tests able to assess FFPE samples with quality control and inter-laboratory reproducibility are needed. Methods We developed an RT-qPCR method by which 1) each gene was measured relative to a known number of its respective competitive internal standard molecules to control for interfering substances, 2) two-color fluorometric hydrolysis probes enabled analysis on a real-time platform, 3) external standards controlled for variation in probe fluorescence intensity, and 4) pre-amplification maximized signal from FFPE RNA samples. Reagents were developed for four genes comprised by a previously reported lung cancer diagnostic test (LCDT) then subjected to analytical validation using synthetic native templates as test articles to assess linearity, signal-to-analyte response, lower detection threshold, imprecision and accuracy. Fitness of this method and these reagents for clinical testing was assessed in FFPE normal (N?=?10) and malignant (N?=?10) lung samples. Results Reagents for each of four genes, MYC, E2F1, CDKN1A and ACTB comprised by the LCDT had acceptable linearity (R2>0.99), signal-to-analyte response (slope 1.0±0.05), lower detection threshold (<10 molecules) and imprecision (CV <20%). Poisson analysis confirmed accuracy of internal standard concentrations. Internal standards controlled for experimentally introduced interference, prevented false-negatives and enabled pre-amplification to increase signal without altering measured values. In the fitness for purpose testing of this two-color fluorometric LCDT using surgical FFPE samples, the diagnostic accuracy was 93% which was similar to that previously reported for analysis of fresh samples. Conclusions This quality-controlled two-color fluorometric RT-qPCR approach will facilitate the development of reliable, robust RT-qPCR-based molecular diagnostic tests in FFPE clinical samples. PMID:24586747

Yeo, Jiyoun; Crawford, Erin L.; Blomquist, Thomas M.; Stanoszek, Lauren M.; Dannemiller, Rachel E.; Zyrek, Jill; De Las Casas, Luis E.; Khuder, Sadik A.; Willey, James C.



Diagnostic possibilities with multidimensional images in head and neck area using efficient registration and visualization methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several diseases in the head and neck area different imaging modalities are applied to the same patient.Each of these image data sets has its specific advantages and disadvantages. The combination of different methods allows to make the best use of the advantageous properties of each method while minimizing the impact of its negative aspects. Soft tissue alterations can be

Hans-Florian Zeilhofer; Zdzislaw Krol; Robert Sader; Karl-Heinz Hoffmann; Paul Gerhardt; Markus Schweiger; Hans-Henning Horch



Paper Diagnostics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, focuses on diagnostic methods of investigation looking at the issue of HIV/AIDS. In this activity, students will explore "the societal impacts of engineering and science, specifically as it relates to the AIDS epidemic in developing countries. A series of videos and accompanying questions help students explore how engineers and scientists can contribute to various solutions related to diagnosing and preventing the spread of disease. The activity highlights the development of low-cost paper diagnostics for rapid and private diagnosis of AIDS and diseases  related to AIDS (TB, other sexually transmitted diseases, etc.)." This activity will take two 50 minute classroom sessions. A Teacher Preparation Guide, Next Generation Science Standards for this lesson, and a link to George Whitesides video used in lesson video from the NY Times are included.



Evaluation of three different methods of distance learning for postgraduate diagnostic imaging education: A pilot study.  


Objective : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceived effectiveness and learning potential of 3 Web-based educational methods in a postgraduate radiology setting. Methods : Three chiropractic radiology faculty from diverse geographic locations led mini-courses using asynchronous discussion boards, synchronous Web conferencing, and asynchronous voice-over case presentations formatted for Web viewing. At the conclusion of each course, participants filled out a 14-question survey (using a 5-point Likert scale) designed to evaluate the effectiveness of each method in achieving specified course objectives and goals and their satisfaction when considering the learning potential of each method. The mean, standard deviation, and percentage agreements were tabulated. Results : Twenty, 15, and 10 participants completed the discussion board, Web conferencing, and case presentation surveys, respectively. All educational methods demonstrated a high level of agreement regarding the course objective (total mean rating >4.1). The case presentations had the highest overall rating for achieving the course goals; however, all but one method still had total mean ratings >4.0 and overall agreement levels of 70%-100%. The strongest potential for interactive learning was found with Web conferencing and discussion boards, while case presentations rated very low in this regard. Conclusions : The perceived effectiveness in achieving the course objective and goals was high for each method. Residency-based distance education may be a beneficial adjunct to current methods of training, allowing for international collaboration. When considering all aspects tested, there does not appear to be a clear advantage to any one method. Utilizing various methods may be most appropriate. PMID:24779546

Poirier, Jean-Nicolas; Cooley, Jeffrey R; Wessely, Michelle; Guebert, Gary M; Petrocco-Napuli, Kristina



Evaluation of three different methods of distance learning for postgraduate diagnostic imaging education: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceived effectiveness and learning potential of 3 Web-based educational methods in a postgraduate radiology setting. Methods Three chiropractic radiology faculty from diverse geographic locations led mini-courses using asynchronous discussion boards, synchronous Web conferencing, and asynchronous voice-over case presentations formatted for Web viewing. At the conclusion of each course, participants filled out a 14-question survey (using a 5-point Likert scale) designed to evaluate the effectiveness of each method in achieving specified course objectives and goals and their satisfaction when considering the learning potential of each method. The mean, standard deviation, and percentage agreements were tabulated. Results Twenty, 15, and 10 participants completed the discussion board, Web conferencing, and case presentation surveys, respectively. All educational methods demonstrated a high level of agreement regarding the course objective (total mean rating >4.1). The case presentations had the highest overall rating for achieving the course goals; however, all but one method still had total mean ratings >4.0 and overall agreement levels of 70%–100%. The strongest potential for interactive learning was found with Web conferencing and discussion boards, while case presentations rated very low in this regard. Conclusions The perceived effectiveness in achieving the course objective and goals was high for each method. Residency-based distance education may be a beneficial adjunct to current methods of training, allowing for international collaboration. When considering all aspects tested, there does not appear to be a clear advantage to any one method. Utilizing various methods may be most appropriate. PMID:24779546

Poirier, Jean-Nicolas; Cooley, Jeffrey R.; Wessely, Michelle; Guebert, Gary M.; Petrocco-Napuli, Kristina




EPA Science Inventory

Methods and conceptual models to guide the development of tools for diagnosing the causes of biological impairment within aquatic ecosystems of the United States are described in this report. The conceptual models developed here address nutrients, suspended and bedded sediments (...


FLOTAC for the diagnosis of Hymenolepis spp. infection: proof-of-concept and comparing diagnostic accuracy with other methods.  


Hymenolepis nana is the most common cestode parasitizing humans, yet it is under-diagnosed. We determined the optimal flotation solution (FS) for the diagnosis of this intestinal parasite with the FLOTAC method, and compared its diagnostic accuracy with an ether-concentration technique and the Kato-Katz method. Zinc sulphate (specific gravity 1.20) proved to be the best-performing FS. Using this FS, we detected 65 H. nana infections among 234 fixed fecal samples from Tajik and Sahrawi children (prevalence 27.8 %). The ether-concentration technique detected 40 infections (prevalence 17.1 %) in the same samples. Considering the combined results as a reference, the sensitivities of FLOTAC and ether-concentration were 95.6 % and 58.8 %, respectively. The Kato-Katz method resulted in a prevalence of only 8.7 %. In terms of eggs per gram of stool, a significantly (P <0.05) higher value was obtained with the FLOTAC and Kato-Katz techniques compared to ether-concentration. In another study carried out in China, the FLOTAC method detected six Hymenolepis diminuta infections in 302 fecal samples, whereas five samples were found positive with the Kato-Katz technique. We conclude that FLOTAC is an accurate coprodiagnostic technique for H. nana and H. diminuta, two species which join a growing list of intestinal parasites that can be reliably diagnosed by this technique. PMID:22461006

Steinmann, Peter; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Bruschi, Fabrizio; Matthys, Barbara; Lohourignon, Laurent K; Castagna, Barbara; Maurelli, Maria P; Morgoglione, Maria E; Utzinger, Jürg; Rinaldi, Laura



Diagnostic Accuracy and Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Methods for Detection of Soil-Transmitted Helminths in a Post-Treatment Setting in Western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC methods for detection of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in a post-treatment setting in western Kenya. A cost analysis also explores the cost implications of collecting samples during school surveys when compared to household surveys. Methods Stool samples were collected from children (n?=?652) attending 18 schools in Bungoma County and diagnosed by the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC coprological methods. Sensitivity and additional diagnostic performance measures were analyzed using Bayesian latent class modeling. Financial and economic costs were calculated for all survey and diagnostic activities, and cost per child tested, cost per case detected and cost per STH infection correctly classified were estimated. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the impact of various survey parameters on cost estimates. Results Both diagnostic methods exhibited comparable sensitivity for detection of any STH species over single and consecutive day sampling: 52.0% for single day Kato-Katz; 49.1% for single-day Mini-FLOTAC; 76.9% for consecutive day Kato-Katz; and 74.1% for consecutive day Mini-FLOTAC. Diagnostic performance did not differ significantly between methods for the different STH species. Use of Kato-Katz with school-based sampling was the lowest cost scenario for cost per child tested ($10.14) and cost per case correctly classified ($12.84). Cost per case detected was lowest for Kato-Katz used in community-based sampling ($128.24). Sensitivity analysis revealed the cost of case detection for any STH decreased non-linearly as prevalence rates increased and was influenced by the number of samples collected. Conclusions The Kato-Katz method was comparable in diagnostic sensitivity to the Mini-FLOTAC method, but afforded greater cost-effectiveness. Future work is required to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of STH surveillance in different settings. PMID:24810593

Kepha, Stella; Kihara, Jimmy H.; Njenga, Sammy M.; Pullan, Rachel L.; Brooker, Simon J.



A high-throughput diagnostic method for measuring human exposure to organophosphorus nerve agents.  


An automated high-throughput immunomagnetic separation (IMS) method for diagnosing exposure to the organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNAs) sarin (GB), cyclohexylsarin (GF), VX, and Russian VX (RVX) was developed to increase sample processing capacity for emergency response applications. Diagnosis of exposure to OPNAs was based on the formation of OPNA adducts to butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Data reported with this method represent a ratio of the agent-specific BuChE adduct concentration, relative to the total BuChE peptide concentration that provides a nonactivity measurement expressed as percent adducted. All magnetic bead transfer steps and washes were performed using instrumentation in a 96-well format allowing for simultaneous extraction of 86 clinical samples plus reference materials. Automating extractions increased sample throughput 50-fold, as compared to a previously reported manual method. The limits of detection, determined using synthetic peptides, were 1 ng/mL for unadducted BuChE and GB-, GF-, VX-, and RVX-adducted BuChE. The automated method was characterized using unexposed serum and serum pools exposed to GB, GF, VX, or RVX. Variation for the measurement of percent adducted was <12% for all characterized quality control serum pools. Twenty-six (26) serum samples from individuals asymptomatic for cholinesterase inhibitor exposure were analyzed using this method, and no background levels of OPNA exposure were observed. Unexposed BuChE serum concentrations measured using this method ranged from 2.8 ?g/mL to 10.6 ?g/mL, with an average concentration of 6.4 ?g/mL. PMID:23083472

Knaack, Jennifer S; Zhou, Yingtao; Abney, Carter W; Jacob, Justin T; Prezioso, Samantha M; Hardy, Katelyn; Lemire, Sharon W; Thomas, Jerry; Johnson, Rudolph C



New Biomarker Method Could Increase the Number of Diagnostic Tests for Cancer

A team of researchers has demonstrated that a new method for detecting and quantifying protein biomarkers in body fluids may ultimately make it possible to screen multiple biomarkers in hundreds of patient samples, thus ensuring that only the strongest biomarker candidates will advance down the development pipeline. The researchers have developed a method with the potential to increase accuracy in detecting real cancer biomarkers that is highly reproducible across laboratories and a variety of instruments so that cancer can be caught in its earliest stages.


Diagnostic immunofluorescence*  

PubMed Central

The standardization of diagnostic immunofluorescence is a complex problem because diagnostic results are greatly influenced by interacting factors, such as the equipment, materials, and techniques for expressing and recording fluorescence. Furthermore, the characteristics of immunofluorescence reagents depend on how they are manufactured and used. The adoption of stable reference preparations of such reagents appears to be the only practicable way of standardizing laboratory test results. Several professional and regulatory organizations are actively promoting this objective. Consensus evaluation may be the best method of introducing proposed standards. Basic and applied research must provide the information needed to improve reagents and tests. Material fluorescent standards are proving helpful in standardizing fluorescence emission, but the most promising development is the use of insolubilized antigens to provide standards for more relevant immunological-fluorescence comparisons. Several important direct and indirect diagnostic immunofluorescence tests and reagents currently used in microbiological, histological, and pathological examinations require standardization. The medical profession should insist that commercial reagents be adequately characterized and that manufacturers supply the data necessary for their safe and informed use. PMID:4594319

Cherry, William B.; Reimer, Charles B.



Urinary tract infection in general practice: Direct antibiotic sensitivity testing as a potential diagnostic method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing (DST) is a rapid means of diagnosing urinary tract infection (UTI) and obtaining antibiotic sensitivity patterns of the infecting organisms. In this study 227 urine samples from general practice were analysed using this technique and the results obtained were compared with those obtained using the standard laboratory method. DST was shown to be 94.6% sensitive, and

P. G. Scully; B. O’Shea; K. P. Flanagan; F. R. Falkiner



Approach for Wide Use of Diagnostic Method for XLPE Cables Using Harmonics in AC Loss Current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water tree is one of the degradation aspects of XLPE cables used for under-ground distribution or transmission lines. We have developed the loss current method using 3rd harmonic in AC loss current for cable diagnosis. Harmonic components in loss current arise as a result of the non-linear voltage-current characteristics of water trees. We confirmed that the 3rd harmonic in AC loss current had good correlation with water tree growth and break down strength. After that, we have applied this method to the actual 66kV XLPE cable lines. Up to now, the number of the application results is more than 130 lines. In case of cable lines terminated at gas-insulated switchgear (GIS), we have to remove the lightning arrestor (LA) and the potential transformer (PT) out of the test circuit. The reason is that we are afraid that each of LA and PT disturbs the degradation signal from cable lines. It takes extra time (1 or 2 days) and costs more to remove LA and PT in GIS out of a circuit. In order to achieve easy and reasonable diagnosis, we have developed a new method for cable lines terminated at GIS, by utilizing a technique, which enables to reduce signal of LA and PT from disturbed signal of cable lines. We confirmed the effect of the new method by experiments with actual cables.

Tsujimoto, Tomiyuki; Nakade, Masahiko; Yagi, Yukihiro; Ishii, Noboru


A Gibbs random field-based active electromagnetic method for noninvasive diagnostics in biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to the reconstruction of dielectric properties of unknown biological bodies is proposed, which is developed starting from an integral equation formulation of the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem. A Gibbs Random Field model is used to develop a stochastic approach based on the Bayes theorem. An iterative solution is obtained by the simulated annealing technique. The method integrates

S. Caorsi; G. L. Gragnani; S. Medicina; M. Pastorino; G. A. Pinto



Superparamagnetic-bead Based Method: An Effective DNA Extraction from Dried Blood Spots (DBS) for Diagnostic PCR  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Storing blood as dried spots on filter paper is a trustworthy approach used in genetic screening issues which justifies the necessity for a reliable DNA extraction method. The present work aims to investigate the effectiveness of superparamagnetic-bead based method in extracting DNA from dried blood spots (DBS). Materials and Methods: Sixteen venous blood samples collected in K3-EDTA tubes (400?l of whole blood) were used for the spotting (4 circles each 100?l) on Ahlstrom 226 grad filter papers, for extraction and comparison. To ensure effectiveness, the extracted DNA was checked for quantity using the Quant-iT™ dsDNA Broad-Range Assay Kit and for quality by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 344 bp segment of the HBB gene. Hybridization assays based on the dynamic allele specific hybridization (DASH) technique for two hemoglobin beta (HBB) mutations in genomic DNA extracted from DBS of ß-thalassemia patients were also performed to ensure the quality of extraction. Results: The results revealed a compatible effectiveness of the superparamagnetic-bead based method in extracting DNA from DBS particularly when incubating the DBS with lysis buffers BL+BLM overnight. A mean concentration of 21ng/ ?l was obtained with lysis buffers BL+BLM overnight incubation compared to 5.2 ng/?l for 2 h incubation with lysis buffers BL+BLM and 4.7 ng/?l when extraction performed using the lysis buffer BLM alone. Moreover, PCR amplification of 344 bp segment of the HBB showed a good quality of the extracted DNA. Conclusion: It was concluded that the superparamagnetic-bead based method is a reliable and effective method for DNA extraction from DBS and can be adopted for genetic diagnostic purposes. PMID:24959449



Measurement and Analysis of Olfactory Responses with the Aim of Establishing an Objective Diagnostic Method for Central Olfactory Disorders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to establish a new diagnostic method for central olfactory disorders and to identify objective indicators, we measured and analyzed brain activities in the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus, region of responsibility for central olfactory disorders. The relationship between olfactory stimulation and brain response at region of responsibility can be examined in terms of fitted responses (FR). FR in these regions may be individual indicators of changes in brain olfactory responses. In the present study, in order to non-invasively and objectively measure olfactory responses, an odor oddball task was conducted on four healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a odorant stimulator with blast-method. The results showed favorable FR and activation in the parahippocampal gyrus or uncus in all subjects. In some subjects, both the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus were activated. Furthermore, activation was also confirmed in the cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and insula. The hippocampus and uncus are known to be involved in the olfactory disorders associated with early-stage Alzheimer's disease and other olfactory disorders. In the future, it will be necessary to further develop the present measurement and analysis method to clarify the relationship between central olfactory disorders and brain activities and establish objective indicators that are useful for diagnosis.

Uno, Tominori; Wang, Li-Qun; Miwakeichi, Fumikazu; Tonoike, Mitsuo; Kaneda, Teruo


Direct and Inverse Computational Methods for Electromagnetic Scattering in Biological Diagnostics  

E-print Network

Scattering theory has had a major roll in twentieth century mathematical physics. Mathematical modeling and algorithms of direct,- and inverse electromagnetic scattering formulation due to biological tissues are investigated. The algorithms are used for a model based illustration technique within the microwave range. A number of methods is given to solve the inverse electromagnetic scattering problem in which the nonlinear and ill-posed nature of the problem are acknowledged.

Farid Monsefi; Magnus Otterskog; Sergei Silvestrov



Target detection in diagnostic ultrasound: Evaluation of a method based on the CLEAN algorithm.  


A technique is proposed for the detection of abnormalities (targets) in ultrasound images using little or no a priori information and requiring little operator intervention. The scheme is a combination of the CLEAN algorithm, originally proposed for radio astronomy, and constant false alarm rate (CFAR) processing, as developed for use in radar systems. The CLEAN algorithm identifies areas in the ultrasound image that stand out above a threshold in relation to the background; CFAR techniques allow for an adaptive, semi-automated, selection of the threshold. Neither appears to have been previously used for target detection in ultrasound images and never together in any context. As a first step towards assessing the potential of this method we used a widely used method of simulating B-mode images (Field II). We assumed the use of a 256 element linear array operating at 3.0MHz into a water-like medium containing a density of point scatterers sufficient to simulate a background of fully developed speckle. Spherical targets with diameters ranging from 0.25 to 6.0mm and contrasts ranging from 0 to 12dB relative to the background were used as test objects. Using a contrast-detail analysis, the probability of detection curves indicate these targets can be consistently detected within a speckle background. Our results indicate that the method has considerable promise for the semi-automated detection of abnormalities with diameters greater than a few millimeters, depending on the contrast. PMID:22853949

Masoom, Hassan; Adve, Raviraj S; Cobbold, Richard S C



Noninvasive express diagnostics of pulmonary diseases based on control of patient's gas emission using methods of IR and terahertz laser spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulmonary diseases diagnostics always occupies one of the key positions in medicine practices. A large variety of high technology methods are used today, but none of them cannot be used for early screening of pulmonary diseases. We discuss abilities of methods of IR and terahertz laser spectroscopy for noninvasive express diagnostics of pulmonary diseases on a base of analysis of absorption spectra of patient's gas emission, in particular, exhaled air. Experience in the field of approaches to experimental data analysis and hard-ware realization of gas analyzers for medical applications is also discussed.

Starikova, M. K.; Bulanova, A. A.; Bukreeva, E. B.; Karapuzikov, A. A.; Karapuzikov, A. I.; Kistenev, Y. V.; Klementyev, V. M.; Kolker, D. B.; Kuzmin, D. A.; Nikiforova, O. Y.; Ponomarev, Yu. N.; Sherstov, I. V.; Boyko, A. A.



A general method to derive robust organ-specific gene expression-based differentiation indices: application to thyroid cancer diagnostic.  


Differentiation is central to development, while dedifferentiation is central to cancer progression. Hence, a quantitative assessment of differentiation would be most useful. We propose an unbiased method to derive organ-specific differentiation indices from gene expression data and demonstrate its usefulness in thyroid cancer diagnosis. We derived a list of thyroid-specific genes by selecting automatically those genes that are expressed at higher level in the thyroid than in any other organ in a normal tissue's genome-wide gene expression compendium. The thyroid index of a tissue was defined as the median expression of these thyroid-specific genes in that tissue. As expected, the thyroid index was inversely correlated with meta-PCNA, a proliferation metagene, across a wide range of thyroid tumors. By contrast, the two indices were positively correlated in a time course of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) activation of primary thyrocytes. Thus, the thyroid index captures biological information not integrated by proliferation rates. The differential diagnostic of follicular thyroid adenomas and follicular thyroid carcinoma is a notorious challenge for pathologists. The thyroid index discriminated them as accurately as did machine-learning classifiers trained on the genome-wide cancer data. Hence, although it was established exclusively from normal tissue data, the thyroid index integrates the relevant diagnostic information contained in tumoral transcriptomes. Similar results were obtained for the classification of the follicular vs classical variants of papillary thyroid cancers, that is, tumors dedifferentiating along a different route. The automated procedures demonstrated in the thyroid are applicable to other organs. PMID:22266856

Tomás, G; Tarabichi, M; Gacquer, D; Hébrant, A; Dom, G; Dumont, J E; Keutgen, X; Fahey, T J; Maenhaut, C; Detours, V



Special Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This section contains a number of special diagnostics that are designed to examine certain mechanisms. Section 1 reports on the method used to test the photochemical partitioning in the models. Sections 2 and 3 represent efforts to examine the model calculated production and removal rates for ozone and how the values are combined with transport rates in the models to produce the simulated ozone distributions. Sections 4 and 5 concentrate on polar processes including the dynamics aspect of vortex confinement and the chemical aspects of chlorine activation.

Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Jackman, Charles H.; Considine, David B.; Douglass, Anne R.



The Visualization of Biofilms in Chronic Diabetic Foot Wounds Using Routine Diagnostic Microscopy Methods  

PubMed Central

Diabetic foot wounds are commonly colonised by taxonomically diverse microbial communities and may additionally be infected with specific pathogens. Since biofilms are demonstrably less susceptible to antimicrobial agents than are planktonic bacteria, and may be present in chronic wounds, there is increasing interest in their aetiological role. In the current investigation, the presence of structured microbial assemblages in chronic diabetic foot wounds is demonstrated using several visualization methods. Debridement samples, collected from the foot wounds of diabetic patients, were histologically sectioned and examined using bright-field, fluorescence, and environmental scanning electron microscopy and assessed by quantitative differential viable counting. All samples (n = 26) harboured bioburdens in excess of 5 log10 CFU/g. Microcolonies were identified in 4/4 samples by all three microscopy methods, although bright-field and fluorescence microscopy were more effective at highlighting putative biofilm morphology than ESEM. Results in this pilot study indicate that bacterial microcolonies and putative biofilm matrix can be visualized in chronic wounds using florescence microscopy and ESEM, but also using the simple Gram stain. PMID:24839608

Bowling, Frank L.; Boulton, Andrew J. M.; Bowler, Philip G.; Metcalf, Daniel G.; McBain, Andrew J.



Model-based performance monitoring: Review of diagnostic methods and chiller case study  

SciTech Connect

The paper commences by reviewing the variety of technical approaches to the problem of detecting and diagnosing faulty operation in order to improve the actual performance of buildings. The review covers manual and automated methods, active testing and passive monitoring, the different classes of models used in fault detection, and methods of diagnosis. The process of model-based fault detection is then illustrated by describing the use of relatively simple empirical models of chiller energy performance to monitor equipment degradation and control problems. The CoolTools(trademark) chiller model identification package is used to fit the DOE-2 chiller model to on-site measurements from a building instrumented with high quality sensors. The need for simple algorithms to reject transient data, detect power surges and identify control problems is discussed, as is the use of energy balance checks to detect sensor problems. The accuracy with which the chiller model can be expected! to predict performance is assessed from the goodness of fit obtained and the implications for fault detection sensitivity and sensor accuracy requirements are discussed. A case study is described in which the model was applied retroactively to high-quality data collected in a San Francisco office building as part of a related project (Piette et al. 1999).

Haves, Phil; Khalsa, Sat Kartar



[The diagnostic method of localization of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea by digital video subtraction system].  


Demonstration of the exact site of the dural fistula in cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea is difficult. Previous reports present the methods of metrizamide cisternography combined with both hypocycloid tomography and computed tomography. But in these methods, direct, dynamic, actual and real-time visualization of the fistula with minimal dose of metrizamide is rather difficult. By using digital video subtraction system (Philips DVI-2CV), we could visualize the direct, dynamic and actual site of fistula with small amount of metrizamide instilled into the suboccipital subarachnoid space with the patient prone position. We report a successful case of traumatic cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea drained through the bony defect at the planum sphenoid into the posterior ethmoid sinus. This is the first report to deal with the usefulness of digital video subtraction system for exact localization of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. We emphasize the usefulness of metrizamide cisternography by the digital video subtraction system combined with the metrizamide computed tomographic cisternography for the precise localization of dural fistula. PMID:3320800

Takahashi, T; Mutsuga, N; Aoki, T; Handa, T



Comparison of Resource Requirements for a Wind Tunnel Test Designed with Conventional vs. Modern Design of Experiments Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The factors that determine data volume requirements in a typical wind tunnel test are identified. It is suggested that productivity in wind tunnel testing can be enhanced by managing the inference error risk associated with evaluating residuals in a response surface modeling experiment. The relationship between minimum data volume requirements and the factors upon which they depend is described and certain simplifications to this relationship are realized when specific model adequacy criteria are adopted. The question of response model residual evaluation is treated and certain practical aspects of response surface modeling are considered, including inference subspace truncation. A wind tunnel test plan developed by using the Modern Design of Experiments illustrates the advantages of an early estimate of data volume requirements. Comparisons are made with a representative One Factor At a Time (OFAT) wind tunnel test matrix developed to evaluate a surface to air missile.

DeLoach, Richard; Micol, John R.



Development of a quantitative diagnostic method of estrogen receptor expression levels by immunohistochemistry using organic fluorescent material-assembled nanoparticles.  


The detection of estrogen receptors (ERs) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) is slightly weak as a prognostic marker, but it is essential to the application of endocrine therapy, such as antiestrogen tamoxifen-based therapy. IHC using DAB is a poor quantitative method because horseradish peroxidase (HRP) activity depends on reaction time, temperature and substrate concentration. However, IHC using fluorescent material provides an effective method to quantitatively use IHC because the signal intensity is proportional to the intensity of the photon excitation energy. However, the high level of autofluorescence has impeded the development of quantitative IHC using fluorescence. We developed organic fluorescent material (tetramethylrhodamine)-assembled nanoparticles for IHC. Tissue autofluorescence is comparable to the fluorescence intensity of quantum dots, which are the most representative fluorescent nanoparticles. The fluorescent intensity of our novel nanoparticles was 10.2-fold greater than quantum dots, and they did not bind non-specifically to breast cancer tissues due to the polyethylene glycol chain that coated their surfaces. Therefore, the fluorescent intensity of our nanoparticles significantly exceeded autofluorescence, which produced a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio on IHC-imaged cancer tissues than previous methods. Moreover, immunostaining data from our nanoparticle fluorescent IHC and IHC with DAB were compared in the same region of adjacent tissues sections to quantitatively examine the two methods. The results demonstrated that our nanoparticle staining analyzed a wide range of ER expression levels with higher accuracy and quantitative sensitivity than DAB staining. This enhancement in the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity for ERs using our immunostaining method will improve the prediction of responses to therapies that target ERs and progesterone receptors that are induced by a downstream ER signal. PMID:22959769

Gonda, Kohsuke; Miyashita, Minoru; Watanabe, Mika; Takahashi, Yayoi; Goda, Hideki; Okada, Hisatake; Nakano, Yasushi; Tada, Hiroshi; Amari, Masakazu; Ohuchi, Noriaki



Application of the electrodiffusion method for near-wall flow diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrodiffusion method is presented as a measuring technique suitable for the flow measurement done in close proximity of the wall, thus in the region difficultly accessible by standard anemometric techniques (e.g. PIV, LDA). The experimental results obtained in different flow configurations (backward-facing step flow, wavy film flow, turbulent channel flow, rising Taylor bubbles) document application capabilities of this technique, e.g. for mapping of wall shear stresses, delimitation of stable flow-recirculation zones, detection of short-time reversal of the near-wall flow, investigation of the near-wall turbulence, or detection of moving fluid particles. A new technology of sensor fabrication based on photolithography is introduced and possible applications of microsensors in microfluidic devices discussed.

Tihon, J.



Poisoning of wild birds from exposure to anticholinesterase compounds and lead: diagnostic methods and selected cases  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organophosphorus and carbamate compounds have largely replaced chlorinated hydrocarbons for pesticidal use in the United States, and many cases of poisoning resulting from exposure to these anticholinesterase agents have occurred in free-living birds. Although lead shot has been prohibited for waterfowl hunting throughout the United States since 1991, lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead shot is still occasionally seen in wild birds, and lead poisoning from the ingestion of fishing sinkers is an emerging issue of concern. A thorough history, a complete necropsy evaluation, and appropriate laboratory analysis of tissues are required to diagnose toxicoses in wild birds, including those caused by anticholinesterase compounds and lead. The interpretation of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity results depends on the methods of analysis and comparison with expected normal enzyme activities in brain tissue from the same species. Although lead residues in tissues vary among species, many lead poisoned birds have tissue residues that are much higher than the lower threshold commonly accepted for a diagnosis of lead poisoning. We review histories, necropsy findings, and analytical methodologies and results for selected anticholinesterase and lead poisoning cases diagnosed in wild raptors, waterfowl, and loons.

Franson, J.C.; Smith, M.R.



The Diagnostic Method of Inner Parts of Welded Joints at Nuclear Power Plant  

SciTech Connect

There is no possibility to check any inner part at real welded joint at nuclear power station (NPS) during operation because any destructive test cannot be used. In practice there is checked surface of weld. There are used four methodical instructions for the check of real welds: 1. The visual inspection, 2. The measurement of hardness, 3. The chemical composition checking and 4. The microstructure replica analysis. It is necessary to know how these information of weld surface are in accordance with characteristics of inner parts of weld. If there is not any difference between surface weld microstructure and internal weld microstructure of experimental weld it is supposed to that there is not any difference in other measured properties of welds. If is changed structural characteristics of microstructure, it is changed also hardness, chemical analysis etc. It was observed that the microstructure of real welds is almost the same with simulated weld and also the surface microstructure of experimental weld is in accordance with microstructure of inner parts of this weld. It can be supposed extension of lifetime of NPS if there is not any difference between replicas microstructure taken after six year operation of NPS and microstructure of inner parts of simulated weld is almost the same with surface microstructure.

Bednarova, O.; Janovec, J. [Department of Materials Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Czech Technical University in Prague, Karlovo namesti 13, 121 35 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)



Clinical diagnostic of pleural effusions using a high-speed viscosity measurement method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel bio-analytical method to discriminate between transudative and exudative pleural effusions based on a high-speed video analysis of a solid glass sphere impacting a liquid. Since the result depends on the solution viscosity, it can ultimately replace the battery of biochemical assays currently used. We present results obtained on a series of 7 pleural effusions obtained from consenting patients by analyzing both the splash observed after the glass impactor hits the liquid surface, and in a configuration reminiscent of the drop ball viscometer with added sensitivity and throughput provided by the high-speed camera. The results demonstrate distinction between the pleural effusions and good correlation with the fluid chemistry analysis to accurately differentiate exudates and transudates for clinical purpose. The exudative effusions display a viscosity around 1.39 ± 0.08 cP whereas the transudative effusion was measured at 0.89 ± 0.09 cP, in good agreement with previous reports.

Hurth, Cedric; Klein, Katherine; van Nimwegen, Lena; Korn, Ronald; Vijayaraghavan, Krishnaswami; Zenhausern, Frederic



Comparison of Pre-Analytical FFPE Sample Preparation Methods and Their Impact on Massively Parallel Sequencing in Routine Diagnostics  

PubMed Central

Over the last years, massively parallel sequencing has rapidly evolved and has now transitioned into molecular pathology routine laboratories. It is an attractive platform for analysing multiple genes at the same time with very little input material. Therefore, the need for high quality DNA obtained from automated DNA extraction systems has increased, especially to those laboratories which are dealing with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) material and high sample throughput. This study evaluated five automated FFPE DNA extraction systems as well as five DNA quantification systems using the three most common techniques, UV spectrophotometry, fluorescent dye-based quantification and quantitative PCR, on 26 FFPE tissue samples. Additionally, the effects on downstream applications were analysed to find the most suitable pre-analytical methods for massively parallel sequencing in routine diagnostics. The results revealed that the Maxwell 16 from Promega (Mannheim, Germany) seems to be the superior system for DNA extraction from FFPE material. The extracts had a 1.3–24.6-fold higher DNA concentration in comparison to the other extraction systems, a higher quality and were most suitable for downstream applications. The comparison of the five quantification methods showed intermethod variations but all methods could be used to estimate the right amount for PCR amplification and for massively parallel sequencing. Interestingly, the best results in massively parallel sequencing were obtained with a DNA input of 15 ng determined by the NanoDrop 2000c spectrophotometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). No difference could be detected in mutation analysis based on the results of the quantification methods. These findings emphasise, that it is particularly important to choose the most reliable and constant DNA extraction system, especially when using small biopsies and low elution volumes, and that all common DNA quantification techniques can be used for downstream applications like massively parallel sequencing. PMID:25105902

Heydt, Carina; Fassunke, Jana; Künstlinger, Helen; Ihle, Michaela Angelika; König, Katharina; Heukamp, Lukas Carl; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Odenthal, Margarete; Büttner, Reinhard; Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine



Introduction: Modern Energy and Modern Society  

E-print Network

by a sudden technological breakthrough. As to the former, low- entropy energy from the sun was (and isIntroduction: Modern Energy and Modern Society John Byrne, Noah Toly, and Young-Doo Wang Spiking of the global energy system. Rising in importance are headlines that associate modern energy with modern

Delaware, University of


Modern Baking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Baking is an art, a science, and a field that many people (especially young students) wish to learn more about. Visitors to this site can learn about the hands-on details of baking, along with gaining insights into business trends within the baking world. Modern Baking contains classified ads for those bakers looking to pick up some new equipment (or a new job), and a section of up-to-date industry news as well. The content is divided into eight sections: Formulas & Techniques, Cake Decorating, Supermarket Baking, Retail Baking, Specialty Wholesale Baking, Foodservice Baking, Bread & Pastry, and Bakery Management. Visitors would do well to try the formula in the Formulas & Techniques section for chestnut and cognac brioche, as it brings together two flavors that are truly divine.



Culture Conversion Rate at 2 Months of Treatment According to Diagnostic Methods among Patients with Culture-Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Introduction The culture-negative conversion rate of sputum after 2 months of treatment in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is used as a reliable surrogate marker for relapse after completion of treatment. We hypothesized that culture conversion of sputum at 2 months of anti-TB treatment and the time to culture conversion are different among pulmonary TB patients who are diagnosed using different methods. Methods Culture-confirmed pulmonary TB patients who were diagnosed between 1 January, 2011 and 31 December, 2012 were classified into three groups based on the diagnostic method that prompted treatment initiation: positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining of sputum (smear-positive group), negative AFB staining, but Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured from sputum (culture-positive group), and positive AFB staining, positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for M. tuberculosis, or culture of M. tuberculosis from a bronchoscopic specimen (bronchoscopy group). Rates of negative mycobacterial culture conversion at 2 months of anti-TB treatment and the time to negative culture conversion of sputum were compared among the three groups. Results A total of 203 patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB were included in the final analysis. TB patients in the culture-positive group (94.1%) and the bronchoscopy group (97.6%) showed a higher culture conversion rate at 2 months of treatment than those in the smear-positive group (78.7%, P?=?0.001). Additionally, the time to culture conversion was longer in the smear-positive group (median, 40 days) than in the culture-positive (median, 19 days; P?=?0.009) and bronchoscopy groups (median, 29 days; P?=?0.004). Conclusions The higher culture conversion rate at 2 months and the shorter time to culture conversion among pulmonary TB patients with a negative AFB smear suggests the feasibility of shortening treatment duration and isolation in these patients. PMID:25105410

Lee, Ha Youn; Chae, Kyoung Ok; Lee, Chang Hoon; Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Sang-Min; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Yim, Jae-Joon



Basophil Activation Test Using Recombinant Allergens: Highly Specific Diagnostic Method Complementing Routine Tests in Wasp Venom Allergy  

PubMed Central

Background Skin testing can expose allergic subjects to potential systemic reactions, sensitization against unrelated proteins, and increased risk of future sting reactions. Therefore the continuous improvement of in vitro diagnostic methods is desirable. Recombinant allergens have been shown to improve the sensitivity of specific IgE (sIgE) detection in vitro whilst no data is available regarding their application and reliability in basophil activation test (BAT). Here we aimed to compare the specificity and sensitivity of recombinant allergens Ves v 1, Ves v 2, Ves v 3 and Ves v 5 in both specific IgE (sIgE) detection in vitro and basophil activation test. Methods sIgE detection by ELISA or ImmunoCAP and BAT towards the panel of recombinant allergens Ves v 1, Ves v 2, Ves v 3 and Ves v 5 were performed in 43 wasp venom allergic patients with a history of anaphylactic reaction and sIgE seropositivity, as well as 17 controls defined as subjects with a history of repetitive wasp stings but absence of any allergic symptom. Results The BAT performed with the recombinant allergens Ves v 1, Ves v 2, Ves v 3 and Ves v 5 markedly improved the specificity of diagnosis in wasp venom allergic subjects when compared to the respective sIgE detection in serum. Conclusions BAT performed with the recombinant allergens Ves v 5, Ves v 3 and Ves v 1 provides an emerging highly specific in vitro method for the detection of wasp venom allergy, compared to the sIgE detection. Recombinant allergens applied to BAT represent a step forward in developing reliable in vitro tests for specific diagnosis of allergy. PMID:25329342

Blank, Simon; Seismann, Henning; Darsow, Ulf; Schnedler, Mathias; McIntyre, Mareike; Ollert, Markus W.; Durham, Stephen R.; Spillner, Edzard; Ring, Johannes; Cifuentes, Liliana



Comparison of diagnostic potential of serological, molecular and cell culture methods for detection of Q fever in ruminants.  


Q fever is an infectious disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. Diagnosis of Q fever based on clinical symptoms is unattainable; thus, different laboratory techniques are used to detect the infection. The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic potential of ELISA, CFT, conventional PCR, real-time PCR and cell culture. The tests were carried out on 2251 serum samples from ruminants. Moreover, 668 placentas, 1277 vaginal swabs and 306 specimens of the internal organs of aborted foetuses were examined by PCR and cell culture. Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare the results obtained by ELISA, CFT, PCR, real-time PCR and isolation in cell culture. The ?(2) test confirmed that in most cases the results obtained by means of the different methods were correlated with each other (P<0.05). The highest correlation coefficients (r=0.76-0.87) were observed in the case of real-time PCR and conventional PCR. ELISA and CFT were moderately correlated (r=0.43-0.45). When the comparison was made between the results of tests run on samples from swabs and aborted foetuses, the r values between ELISA and CFT were lower than those between ELISA and PCRs. A negligible, or weak to moderate relationship was mostly observed when the method of cell culture isolation was compared with all the other analytical techniques investigated. The use of a combination of different laboratory methods, preferably ELISA for serology and polymerase chain reactions for the agent detection, is suggested to achieve the correct diagnosis of Q fever. PMID:24725446

Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Szyma?ska-Czerwi?ska, Monika; ?mietanka, Krzysztof; Bocian, ?ukasz



Holocene core logs and site methods for modern reef and head-coral cores - Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Dry Tortugas are a series of islands, banks, and channels on a carbonate platform off the west end of the Florida Keys. Antecedent topography of the Dry Tortugas reflects carbonate accumulations of the last interglacial (marine isotope substage 5e, ~ 125,000 years ago, ka) when sea level was ~ 6 to 7 meters (m) higher than present (Schrag and others, 2002). The substage 5e surface was subsequently lithified and modified during subaerial exposure associated with lower sea level from ~ 120 ka to 8 ka. The lithified late Pleistocene carbonates are known as the Key Largo Limestone, a coral reef (Hoffmeister and Multer, 1964; Multer and others, 2002), and the Miami Limestone, a tidal-bar oolite (Sanford, 1909; Hoffmeister, 1974). The Holocene and modern sediments and reefs of the Dry Tortugas then accreted during the rise of sea level associated with the end of the last glacial and the start of the current interglacial (marine isotope Stage 1). With the exception of a half dozen or so islands, the Dry Tortugas region has been submerged for approximately 8,000 years, allowing conditions suitable for coral reef formation once again. The Holocene reef accumulation varies in thickness due to the antecedent topography. The reefs are composed of massive head corals such as species of Montastraea, Siderastrea, and Diploria (Swart and others, 1996; Cohen and McConnaughey, 2003) and rest atop the Pleistocene Key Largo Limestone high (Shinn and others, 1977). The coral reefs within the Dry Tortugas represent a windward reef margin relative to dominant wind and wave energies (Hine and Mullins, 1983; Mallinson and others, 1997; Mallinson and others, 2003).

Hickey, Todd D.; Reich, Christopher D.; Delong, Kristine L.; Poore, Richard Z.; Brock, John C.



Plasma edge diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

A survey on the needs for plasma edge diagnostics is given followed by a comprehensive overview on optical methods covering emission spectroscopy, laser fluorescence and atomic beams. 11 refs., 13 figs.

Samm, U. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)



Seminar of heat treatment specialists and metal scientists from the urals region on modern methods of strengthening steels and alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen reviews and 22 reports were presented on strengthening of steels and metal structures. Opening the seminar, I. N. Bogachev discussed the means of increasing the strength, giving special attention to strengthening due to atomic rearrangements within the solid solution (segregation, phase separation, ordering, etc.) and the combination of this process with plastic deformation. One of the promising methods of

Yu. M. Kaletin; Yu. G. Éismondt



Use of the Attribute Hierarchy Method for Development of Student Cognitive Models and Diagnostic Assessments in Geoscience Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a recognized need to better understand student learning in the geosciences (Stofflet, 1994; Zalles, Quallmalz, Gobert and Pallant, 2007). Educators, cognitive psychologists and practicing scientists have also called for instructional approaches that support deep conceptual development (Manduca, Mogk and Stillings, 2004, Libarkin and Kurdziel, 2006). In both cases there is an important role for educational measures that can generate descriptions of how student understanding develops over time and inform instruction. The presenters will suggest one way of responding to these needs by describing the Attribute Hierarchy Method (AHM) of assessment (Leighton, Gierl and Hunka, 2004; Gierl, Cui, Wang and Zhou, 2008) as enacted in a large-scale earth science curriculum development project funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The AHM is one approach to criterion referenced, diagnostic assessment that ties measure design to cognitive models of student learning in order to support justified inferences about students’ understanding and the knowledge required for continued development. The Attribute Hierarchy Method bears potential for researchers and practitioners interested in learning progressions and solves many problems associated with making meaningful, justified inferences about students’ understanding based on their assessment performances. The process followed to design and develop the project’s cognitive models as well as a description of how they are used in subsequent assessment task design will be emphasized in order to demonstrate how the AHM may be applied in the context of geoscience education. Results from over twenty student cognitive interviews, and two hypothesized cognitive models -- one describing a student pathway for understanding rock formation and a second describing a student pathway for increasingly sophisticated use of maps and models in the geosciences - are also described. Sample assessment items will be provided as indications of the final assessment measures. The project’s efforts to create an on-line geoscience curriculum for use in the middle school grades that adapts to student performances by customizing whole lessons, grouping assignments or student feedback will provide a broader context for the discussion.

Corrigan, S.; Brodsky, L. M.; Loper, S.; Brown, N.; Curley, J.; Baker, J.; Goss, M.; Castek, J.; Barber, J.



A new active method for the measurement of slow-neutron fluence in modern radiotherapy treatment rooms.  


This work focuses on neutron monitoring at clinical linac facilities during high-energy modality radiotherapy treatments. Active in-room measurement of neutron fluence is a complex problem due to the pulsed nature of the fluence and the presence of high photon background, and only passive methods have been considered reliable until now. In this paper we present a new active method to perform real-time measurement of neutron production around a medical linac. The device readout is being investigated as an estimate of patient neutron dose exposure on each radiotherapy session. The new instrument was developed based on neutron interaction effects in microelectronic memory devices, in particular using neutron-sensitive SRAM devices. This paper is devoted to the description of the instrument and measurement techniques, presenting the results obtained together with their comparison and discussion. Measurements were performed in several standard clinical linac facilities, showing high reliability, being insensitive to the photon fluence and EM pulse present inside the radiotherapy room, and having detector readout statistical relative uncertainties of about 2% on measurement of neutron fluence produced by 1000 monitor units irradiation runs. PMID:20090189

Gómez, F; Iglesias, A; Doblado, F Sánchez



Investigation of the Utilization of Modern Industrial Methods, Processes, Ergonomics, and the Internet in the Scientific Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Oct. 1, 2001 Cleveland State University and NASA Glenn Research Center embarked on the above named cooperative agreement. Because NASA's research facilities often exhibit instances where the failure to use state-of-the-art technologies and methods to improve on outmoded systems of interface and control, and this runs contrary to the NASA philosophy of "faster, better, and cheaper", it was deemed an ideal opportunity for this collaboration. The main objectives of the proposed effort were to research and investigate the use of the latest technologies, methods, techniques, etc. which pertain to control and interface with industrial and research systems and facilities. The work was done in large part at NASA Glenn Research Center, using selected research facilities as real-world laboratories; such as certain Microgravity Science Division and Space Station projects. Microgravity Science Division at Glenn Research Center designs and builds experiments to be flown on the Space Shuttle and eventually on the International Space Station. Economy of space, weight, complexity, data storage, ergonomics, and many other factors present problems that also exist in industry. Many of the solutions can come from the same areas of study mentioned above.

Myer, Spencer S., Jr.



Modernization of traditional acupuncture using multimodal computer-based high-tech methods-recent results of blue laser and teleacupuncture from the Medical University of Graz.  


Basic and clinical research in traditional Chinese and Korean acupuncture has been performed at the Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine and the Traditional Chinese Medicine Research Center at the Medical University of Graz since 1997. This publication focuses on the latest innovative aspects that underline the further enhancement and development of acupuncture. In this context, novel biomedical and neuroscientific methods are of paramount importance for the fast and efficient modernization of the ancient Asian healing method. Traditional and future oriented acupuncture stimulation methods can be divided into manual needle, laser needle (blue, red and infrared laser light) and electrical punctual stimulation at the body, hand and ear. Special emphasis in this research article is given to totally new technical and methodological investigations, e.g. the first data published worldwide in medicine obtained with new blue laser acupuncture equipment. In this regard, critical summary and recent results from peripheral and central measurements during acupuncture stimulation using high-tech bioengineering assessment are given. In addition, we describe the first teleacupuncture performed between Asia and Europe. PMID:20633493

Litscher, Gerhard



Essential veterinary education in modern molecular tools for the detection of disease: what veterinarians will need to know about genomics and molecular biology and diagnostics (including bioterrorist weapons) in 2025.  


Future veterinary education programmes in microbiology will undoubtedly include an increasing emphasis on new and existing molecular tools. They should also, however, provide veterinarians with a comprehensive and clear understanding of the types of results that can be obtained using a particular approach (for example, specific diagnostic procedures as against open diagnostic procedures, phenotypic versus genotypic characterisation, etc.). Furthermore, students should gain a sound knowledge of which type of test is the most appropriate in a given clinical or epidemiological situation, and what conclusions can or cannot be drawn from the results. Consequently, each veterinary curriculum should focus on the following items: the principles of molecular biology and genomics; the detection of disease and characteristics of molecular tests; the principles of micro-organism taxonomy, sequence comparison and molecular epidemiology and their applications (such as: taxonomic identification, epidemiological survey, genetic evolution and the traceability of strains); and the role of the veterinarian in the field of zoonoses and human public health. PMID:20128476

de Lamballerie, X



[Modern methods of balneotherapy of digestive pathology at the Caucasian Mineral Waters spa-and-resort complex].  


Scientists of Pyatigorsky State Research Institute of Balneotherapeutics are actively engaged in developing new medical technologies for rehabilitative treatment of patients with a variety of pathological conditions based on the current knowledge about mechanisms of action of natural therapeutic factors. Most of these original methods are included in the State Inventory of novel medical technologies by the Federal Supervisory Health and Social Development Service. The proposed medical technologies based on the application of natural and man-made physical factors improved general effect of balneotherapy by 15-20% and accelerated recovery from the disease. Specifically, the length of post-treatment remission increased to 7-12 months and duration of temporary disability decreased 2.5-3 times. Sick list payouts and economic expenditures of the state and the patients for medicinal preparations were reduced 3-4-fold while the quality of life and clinical prognosis significantly improved. PMID:21086600

Ka?sinova, A S; Efimenko, N V; Babiakin, A F; Grinza?d, Iu M; Osipov, Iu S



Diagnosing Examinees' Attributes-Mastery Using the Bayesian Inference for Binomial Proportion: A New Method for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA) is a new theoretical framework for psychological and educational testing that is designed to provide detailed information about examinees' strengths and weaknesses in specific knowledge structures and processing skills. During the last three decades, more than a dozen psychometric models have been developed…

Kim, Hyun Seok John



Testing of Diagnostic Methods for Detection of Influenza Virus for Optimal Performance in the Context of an Influenza Surveillance Network?  

PubMed Central

Influenza surveillance networks must detect early the viruses that will cause the forthcoming annual epidemics and isolate the strains for further characterization. We obtained the highest sensitivity (95.4%) with a diagnostic tool that combined a shell-vial assay and reverse transcription-PCR on cell culture supernatants at 48 h, and indeed, recovered the strain. PMID:17652478

Perez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Yeste, Ruth; Ruiz-Perez, Maria-Jose; Ruiz-Bravo, Alfonso; de la Rosa-Fraile, Manuel; Navarro-Mari, Jose Maria



Instrumental multi-element analysis in plant materials: A modern method in environmental chemistry and tropical systems research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter describes possibilities of using instrumental multi-element methods to answer various ecological questions. Emphasis is placed on the ecosystem-related approach and thus on comparison of various ecosystems and their compartments. The basis for this is a project by the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) aimed at establishing element concentration catalogues in ecosystems (ECCEs). In principle, the intention is to collect data on the world-wide distribution of individual elements and element species in various ecosystems. Synthetic reference systems (reference plant, reference freshwater, etc.) in the form of chemical fingerprints can provide important aids for the chemical characterization of many different environmental specimens. From the point of view of both toxicology and nutrient physiology such a characterization of ecosystems is expected to provide important information on the concentrations, effects and reactions of individual elements in different systems. Interest has so far been focused mainly on data from the northern hemisphere, but from the biogeochemical viewpoint the scope urgently needs to be extended to cover tropical and subtropical systems.

Markert, Bernd


On the understanding and development of modern physical neurorehabilitation methods: robotics and non-invasive brain stimulation  

PubMed Central

The incidence of physical disability in the community resulting from neurological dysfunction is predicted to increase in the coming years. The impetus for immediate and critical evaluation of physical neurorehabilitation strategies stems from the largely incomplete recovery following neurological damage, questionable efficacy of individual rehabilitation techniques, and the progressive acceptance of evidence-based medicine. The emergent technologies of non-invasive brain stimulation (NBS) and rehabilitation robotics enable a better understanding of the recovery process, as well as the mechanisms and effectiveness of intervention. With a more precise grasp of the relationship between dysfunctional and treatment-related plasticity, we can anticipate a move toward highly controlled and individualised prescription of rehabilitation. Both robotics and NBS can also be used to enhance motor control and learning in patients with neurological dysfunction. The merit of these contemporary methods as investigative and rehabilitation tools requires clarification and discussion. In this thematic series, five cohesive and eloquent papers address this issue from leading clinicians and scientists in the fields of robotics, NBS, plasticity and motor learning. PMID:19183466

Edwards, Dylan J



Nanodevices in diagnostics  

PubMed Central

The real-time, personalized and highly sensitive early-stage diagnosis of disease remains an important challenge in modern medicine. With the ability to interact with matter at the nanoscale, the development of nanotechnology architectures and materials could potentially extend subcellular and molecular detection beyond the limits of conventional diagnostic modalities. At the very least, nanotechnology should be able to dramatically accelerate biomarker discovery, as well as facilitate disease monitoring, especially of maladies presenting a high degree of molecular and compositional heterogeneity. This article gives an overview of several of the most promising nanodevices and nanomaterials along with their applications in clinical practice. Significant work to adapt nanoscale materials and devices to clinical applications involving large interdisciplinary collaborations is already underway with the potential for nanotechnology to become an important enabling diagnostic technology. PMID:20229595

Hu, Ye; Fine, Daniel H.; Tasciotti, Ennio; Bouamrani, Ali; Ferrari, Mauro



Diagnostic Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that teaching would be more effective if it became "diagnostic" teaching, that such teaching is not possible unless backed up with an adequate system of record keeping by the teacher, and that, conversely, the establishment by a school of such a record keeping system is likely to encourage diagnostic teaching. (Author/RK)

Cooper, Keith



Modern sports eye injuries  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Methods: Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Results: Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Conclusions: Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory. PMID:14609827

Capao Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcao-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J



Modern mathematics for modern cancer medicine ACC Coolen, July 2013 Modern Mathematics for Modern Cancer Medicine  

E-print Network

cancer drugs are entered into this trial process. Only about 15% make it to Phase 3, and of these onlyModern mathematics for modern cancer medicine ACC Coolen, July 2013 Modern Mathematics for Modern Cancer Medicine Prof ACC Coolen Institute for Mathematical and Molecular Biomedicine, King's College

Coolen, ACC "Ton"


[Methods of mathematical modeling in morphological diagnostics of Chernobyl factor influence on the testes of coal miners of Donbas--the Chernobyl disaster fighters].  


The morphometric estimation of parenchyma and stroma condition included the determination of 29 parameters in testicles at 27 persons. The mathematical model of morphogenesis of testicles was created by Bayes' method. The method of differential diagnosis of testicles tissues' changes conditioned by the influence of the Chernobyl factor and/or unfavorable terms of the work in underground coal mines have been worked out. Its practical use provides exactness and reliability of the diagnosis (not less than 95%), independence from the level of the qualification and personal experience of the doctor, allows us to unify, optimize and individualize the diagnostic algorithms, answer the requirements of evidential medicine. PMID:24908955

Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I



Modern Method for Preventive Maintenance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a system at Michigan State University that comprises 16 separate programs and schedules 25,000 manhours of preventive maintenance. With information about preventive maintenance for over 100,000 units stored in its computer, the university saves personnel, time, and energy. (Author/MLF)

Wilson, Howard D.



DNA-based nanosensors for next-generation clinical diagnostics via detection of enzyme activity.  


Specific and sensitive detection of DNA-modifying enzymes represents a cornerstone in modern medical diagnostics. Many of the currently prevalent methods are not preferred in the clinics because they rely heavily on pre-amplification or post-separation steps. This editorial highlights the potential of adopting DNA-based nanosensors for the assessment of the activities of DNA-modifying enzymes, with emphasis on the topoisomerase and tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase families. By underlining the existing challenges, we expect that the DNA-nanosensors may soon be promoted to clinical diagnostics via enzyme detection. PMID:24308335

Stougaard, Magnus; Ho, Yi-Ping



[The problems of modern rehabilitology (proceedings of VII International Conference)].  


The article is devoted to rendering of the proceedings of the VII International conference on scientific and practical arrangements of the modern rehabilitology. Over 300 specialists participated in the conference, among them a big number of physicians and prominent scientists. The main report was made by a corresponding member of RAMS A. Romanov, who dwelled upon the problems of development and quality of specialized multi-field rehabilitation centers, specializing in providing modern highly qualified medical aid and extending human professional longevity. The report of full member of RAMS, prof V. Tutelyan, was devoted to problems of nutrition, first of all, to fundamentals of nutriology, modern methods of diagnostics of human nutrition status and ways of dietary correction, performed with the use of computer programs. 2 symposia were held within the framework of the conference. One symposium was devoted to actual problems of rehabilitology in rehabilitation centers affiliated to the Department of Presidential Affairs of the Russian Federation, the other one--to an adverse influence of weather on human health. PMID:22888675

Romanov, A I



Modern Miracle Medical Machines: Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity teaches the physics of magnetic resonance imaging and NMR. It begins with instruction on the basics of magnetism, electromagnetism, and resonance and applies these topics to the operation of magnetic resonance equipment for medical diagnostics. This activity includes both hands-on exercises and computer visualizations. Information on the construction of the measurement apparatus is available in the instructor resources for the Modern Miracle Medical Machines web site. This one of a growing set of activities developed by the Kansas State University Physics Education Research group on the physics of modern medicine.

Murphy, Sytil K.



Diagnostic Immunopathology  

PubMed Central

The application of immunologic techniques to tissue sections has added a new dimension to the investigation and classification of various processes. Virtually every section of diagnostic pathology has been enhanced by using specific monoclonal antibodies or polyclonal antiserum. Neoplasms formerly diagnosed as poorly differentiated or anaplastic may be precisely identified as to their origin through the use of specific membrane or cytoplasmic markers. Other cellular products, including viruses, hormones, enzymes or highly specific proteins, are also available to study neoplastic and nonneoplastic processes. New and more specific reagents are regularly becoming available for the diagnostic repertoire of pathologists. We present some of the principles of diagnostic immunopathology to show the scope and importance of the techniques. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3. PMID:3529633

Cancilla, Pasquale A.; Cochran, Alistair J.; Naeim, Faramarz; Said, Jonathan W.



The first modern Europeans.  


The discovery of new human fossil remains is one of the most obvious ways to improve our understanding of the dynamics of human evolution. The reanalysis of existing fossils using newer methods is also crucial, and may lead to a reconsideration of the biological and taxonomical status of some specimens, and improve our understanding of highly debated periods in human prehistory. This is particularly true for those remains that have previously been studied using traditional approaches, with only morphological descriptions and standard calliper measurements available. My own interest in the Uluzzian, and its associated human remains grew from my interest in applying recently developed analytical techniques to quantify morphological variation. Discovered more than 40 years ago, the two deciduous molars from Grotta del Cavallo (Apulia, Italy) are the only human remains associated with the Uluzzian culture (one of the main three European "transitional" cultures). These teeth were previously attributed to Neanderthals. This attribution contributed to a consensus view that the Uluzzian, with its associated ornament and tool complexes, was produced by Neanderthals. A reassessment of these deciduous teeth by means of digital morphometric analysis revealed that these remains belong to anatomically modern humans (AMHs). This finding contradicts previous assumptions and suggests that modern humans, and not Neanderthals, created the Uluzzian culture. Of equal importance, new chronometric analyses date these dental remains to 43,000-45,000 cal BP. Thus, the teeth from Grotta del Cavallo represent the oldest European AMH currently known. PMID:22781582

Benazzi, Stefano



Modern quantitative schlieren techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Schlieren optical techniques have traditionally been used to qualitatively visualize refractive flowfields in transparent media. Modern schlieren optics, however, are increasingly focused on obtaining quantitative information such as temperature and density fields in a flow -- once the sole purview of interferometry -- without the need for coherent illumination. Quantitative data are obtained from schlieren images by integrating the measured refractive index gradient to obtain the refractive index field in an image. Ultimately this is converted to a density or temperature field using the Gladstone-Dale relationship, an equation of state, and geometry assumptions for the flowfield of interest. Several quantitative schlieren methods are reviewed here, including background-oriented schlieren (BOS), schlieren using a weak lens as a "standard," and "rainbow schlieren." Results are presented for the application of these techniques to measure density and temperature fields across a supersonic turbulent boundary layer and a low-speed free-convection boundary layer in air. Modern equipment, including digital cameras, LED light sources, and computer software that make this possible are also discussed.

Hargather, Michael; Settles, Gary



Diagnostic Virology: From Animals to Automation  

E-print Network

Methods for diagnosis of viral infection have progressed rapidly during the past two to three decades from animal inoculation to computer automation. Virus isolation, however, still remains the "gold standard. " With the availability of antiviral agents, physicians now demand accurate laboratory diagnosis of their patients ' illnesses in order to give proper treatment. Discovery of unknown viral agents still requires continued search and diligent effort. Despite the progress of modern medicine during the past two or three decades, viral diagnostic facilities are still not readily available in most of the hospitaloperated microbiology laboratories but generally exist either as part of university research laboratories or regional health departments. Conventional viral diagnostic methods have been time-consuming, expensive, and inaccessible to the practicing physicians; thus an accurate viral diagnosis has infrequently been attempted. In recent years, however, the importance of viral infection has been increasingly recognized, particularly as a cause of serious disease in the immunocompromised patient and in the neonate, as well as a cause of sexually transmitted disease. In addition, new antiviral agents are becoming available. With the advent of effective antiviral therapy,

G. D. Hsiung Ph. D



Diagnostic imaging.  


Physical techniques have always had a key role in medicine, and the second half of the 20th century in particular saw a revolution in medical diagnostic techniques with the development of key imaging instruments: x-ray imaging and emission tomography (nuclear imaging and PET), MRI, and ultrasound. These techniques use the full width of the electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma rays to radio waves, and sound. In most cases, the development of a medical imaging device was opportunistic; many scientists in physics laboratories were experimenting with simple x-ray images within the first year of the discovery of such rays, the development of the cyclotron and later nuclear reactors created the opportunity for nuclear medicine, and one of the co-inventors of MRI was initially attempting to develop an alternative to x-ray diffraction for the analysis of crystal structures. What all these techniques have in common is the brilliant insight of a few pioneering physical scientists and engineers who had the tenacity to develop their inventions, followed by a series of technical innovations that enabled the full diagnostic potential of these instruments to be realised. In this report, we focus on the key part played by these scientists and engineers and the new imaging instruments and diagnostic procedures that they developed. By bringing the key developments and applications together we hope to show the true legacy of physics and engineering in diagnostic medicine. PMID:22516558

Morris, Peter; Perkins, Alan



Diagnostic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Diagnosis and epidemiology are core topics in psychiatry and developmental medicine. There can be no clinical medical work\\u000a without diagnosis. There can be no medical epidemiological study of psychiatric disorder without a consideration of diagnostic\\u000a boundaries.

Christopher L. Gillberg


Statistical methods for transverse beam position diagnostics with higher order modes in third harmonic 3.9GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beam-excited higher order modes (HOMs) can be used to provide beam diagnostics. Here we focus on 3.9GHz superconducting accelerating cavities. In particular we study dipole mode excitation and its application to beam position determinations. In order to extract beam position information, linear regression can be used. Due to a large number of sampling points in the waveforms, statistical methods are used to effectively reduce the dimension of the system, such as singular value decomposition (SVD) and k-means clustering. These are compared with the direct linear regression (DLR) on the entire waveforms. A cross-validation technique is used to study the sample independent precisions of the position predictions given by these three methods. A RMS prediction error in the beam position of approximately 50?m can be achieved by DLR and SVD, while k-means clustering suggests 70?m.

Zhang, Pei; Baboi, Nicoleta; Jones, Roger M.



Realizing the fault diagnostic system in maglev suspension train system (MSTS) based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since maglev train system is a large system, it is difficult to diagnose the fault to the whole train extent by traditional method of fault diagnosing. The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is usually applied to most large systems, which can consider many factors of a large system. Firstly the principle of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is introduced, then concerned about

Zhiqiang Long; Zhiguo Lv; Huajie Hong



Relating faults in diagnostic reasoning with diagnostic errors and patient harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The relationship between faults in diagnostic reasoning, diagnostic errors, and patient harm has hardly been studied. This study examined suboptimal cognitive acts (SCAs; i.e., faults in diagnostic reasoning), related them to the occurrence of diagnostic errors and patient harm, and studied the causes. Method: Four expert internists reviewed patient records of 247 dyspnea patients, using a specially developed questionnaire

L. Zwaan; A. Thijs; C. Wagner; G. van der Wal; D. R. M. Timmermans



Hidden Markov model-based fault diagnostics method in speed-up and speed-down process for rotating machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is very important to ensure that the large rotating machinery operates safely and reliably. The behaviour characteristics of the speed-up and speed-down process in a rotating machinery possess the distinct diagnostic value. The abundant information, non-stationarity, poor repeatability and reproducibility in the speed-up and speed-down process lead to the necessity to find the corresponding approach of feature extraction and fault recognition. The Hidden Markov model (HMM) is very suitable for modelling the dynamic time series, and has a strong capability of pattern classification, especially for a signal with abundant information, non-stationarity, poor repeatability and reproducibility. At the same time, HMM can process the random long sequences in theory. Based on these features, HMM is very suitable for the signal from the speed-up and speed-down process in rotating machinery. As a result, HMM is introduced to the fault diagnosis of rotating machinery, and a new HMM-based approach of the fault diagnosis for the speed-up and speed-down process is proposed. The main idea of the proposed approach is that the feature vectors, which are obtained by the FFT, wavelet transform, bispectrum, etc., are used as fault features, respectively, and the HMMs as the classifiers to recognise the faults of the speed-up and speed-down process in rotating machinery. The experimental results show that the proposed approach is feasible and effective.

Li, Zhinong; Wu, Zhaotong; He, Yongyong; Fulei, Chu



Data collection framework for vehicular On-Board-Diagnostic systems  

E-print Network

Most modern vehicles contain an On-Board-Diagnostic (OBD) system that can collect a wide range of system data from the vehicle. In aggregation, such data could be applied towards solving the problems of accident prevention, ...

Liu, Chenxia



Navigating the diagnostics career labyrinth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated diagnostics is a career field for which there currently exists no standard set of basic qualifications, few educational opportunities to study at the university level, no clear processes within most organizations for practicing integrated diagnostics as a systems engineering activity and often no uniform method of sharing techniques and lessons learned with new employees. Several authors have stated the

Russell Shannon; J. Quiter



Method for estimating the propagation direction of a coherent plasma structure using a one-dimensional diagnostic array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article proposes a new method to evaluate basic characteristics of the dynamics of a coherent plasma structure (blob). With this method, one can evaluate the propagation angle of a blob in a two-dimensional plasma cross section as well as the blob velocity, size, and amplitude from one-dimensional data. The method is applied to blob measurements from the Lithium beam emission spectroscopy system in ASDEX-Upgrade. Statistical features of the observed blob velocities, angles of propagation, blob sizes, and amplitudes are discussed. The validity of the method is examined by comparing two values of the propagation angle that are evaluated in an independent manner.

Kobayashi, T.; Birkenmeier, G.; Wolfrum, E.; Laggner, F. M.; Willensdorfer, M.; Stroth, U.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.



Method for estimating the propagation direction of a coherent plasma structure using a one-dimensional diagnostic array.  


This article proposes a new method to evaluate basic characteristics of the dynamics of a coherent plasma structure (blob). With this method, one can evaluate the propagation angle of a blob in a two-dimensional plasma cross section as well as the blob velocity, size, and amplitude from one-dimensional data. The method is applied to blob measurements from the Lithium beam emission spectroscopy system in ASDEX-Upgrade. Statistical features of the observed blob velocities, angles of propagation, blob sizes, and amplitudes are discussed. The validity of the method is examined by comparing two values of the propagation angle that are evaluated in an independent manner. PMID:25173269

Kobayashi, T; Birkenmeier, G; Wolfrum, E; Laggner, F M; Willensdorfer, M; Stroth, U; Inagaki, S; Itoh, S-I; Itoh, K



Diagnostics and Microelectronics  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses activities of the Diagnostics and Microelectronics thrust area which conducts activities in semiconductor devices and semiconductor fabrication technology for programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our multidisciplinary engineering and scientific staff use modern computational tools and semi-conductor microfabrication equipment to develop high-performance devices. Our work concentrates on three broad technologies of semiconductor microdevices: (1) silicon on III-V semiconductor microeletronics, (2) lithium niobate-based and III-V semiconductor-based photonics, and (3) silicon-based micromaching for application to microstructures and microinstruments. In FY-92, we worked on projects in seven areas, described in this report: novel photonic detectors; a wideband phase modulator; an optoelectronic terahertz beam system; the fabrication of microelectrode electrochemical sensors; diamond heatsinks; advanced micromachining technologies; and electrophoresis using silicon microchannels.

Balch, J.W.



Using the Attribute Hierarchy Method to Make Diagnostic Inferences about Examinees' Cognitive Skills in Algebra on the SAT  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to apply the attribute hierarchy method (AHM) to a sample of SAT algebra items administered in March 2005. The AHM is a psychometric method for classifying examinees' test item responses into a set of structured attribute patterns associated with different components from a cognitive model of task performance. An…

Gierl, Mark J.; Wang, Changjiang; Zhou, Jiawen



Future of diagnostic microbiology.  


Diagnostic Microbiology is the tool that makes it possible to identify the exact etiology of infectious diseases and the most optimal therapy at the level of individual patients as well as communities. Conventional methods require time to grow the microbes in vitro under specific conditions and not all microbes are easily cultivable. This is followed by biochemical methods for identification which also require hours and sometimes days. Transport of the specimens under less than ideal conditions, prior use of antibiotics and small number of organisms are among the factors that render culture-based methods less reliable. Newer methods depend on amplification of nucleic acids followed by use of probes for identification. This mitigates the need for higher microbial load, presence of metabolically active viable organisms and shortens the time to reporting. These methods can be used to detect antibiotic resistance genes directly from the specimen and help direct targeted therapy. Since these methods will not fulfill all the diagnostic needs, a second approach is being used to shorten the time to identification after the organism has already grown. Mass spectrometry and bioinformatics are the tools making this possible. This review gives a historical perspective on diagnostic microbiology, discusses the pitfalls of current methodology and provides an overview of newer and future methods. PMID:25297019

Khardori, N



Modern key agreement techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We present a survey of modern key agreement techniques, and discuss distinguishing characteristics,including identity (entity) authentication, implicit key authentication, key confirmation, andkey freshness.

Rainer A. Rueppel; Paul C. Van Oorschot



A simple diagnostic method for the differentiation of Tamm-Horsfall glycoproteins from healthy probands and those from recurrent calcium oxalate renal stone formers.  


Tamm-Horsfall glycoproteins (THPs)* from healthy probands, and those from a majority of recurrent calcium oxalate renal stone formers, reveal different properties when analyzed using isoelectric focusing. The pl-values of THPs from healthy probands are approximately 3.5 while THPs from recurrent renal stone formers have pl-values between 4.5 and 6. The two groups of THPs exhibit completely different protein patterns in IEF. This proves the structural difference of these THPs. The differences in IEF analysis allow the differentiation between THPs from healthy probands and those from recurrent calcium oxalate stone formers. These differences could possibly be used as a simple diagnostic method for the recognition of recurrent calcium oxalate renal stone formers. PMID:7498447

Schnierle, P



Diagnostic evaluation of people with hypertension in low income country: cohort study of "essential" method of risk stratification  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore the predictive power of a risk stratification method for people with hypertension based on “essential” procedures (that is, available in economically less developed areas of the world), comparing it in the same population with the results given by the method suggested by the 1999 World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension (WHO-ISH) guidelines. Design Prospective cohort study of outcomes according to cardiovascular risk profile at baseline. Setting Primary care in a poor rural area of the Ecuadorian forest. Participants 504 people with hypertension prospectively monitored for a mean of 6.7 (SD 2.3) years. Interventions Essential data included blood pressure, medical history, smoking, age, sex, and diagnosis of diabetes; the WHO-ISH methods additionally included measurement of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, and creatinine, urinalysis, and electrocardiography. Main outcome measures Cardiovascular events and total deaths. Results With both methods there was a highly significant association between the level of predicted risk and the incidence of cardiovascular events and of total deaths: up to three quarters of all cardiovascular events and two thirds of all deaths were reported among people classified as at high or very high risk with either method. The predictive discrimination of the essential method is comparable with the WHO-ISH with C statistics (95% confidence interval) of 0.788 (0.721 to 0.855) and 0.744 (0.673 to 0.815), respectively, for cardiovascular events and 0.747 (0.678 to 0.816) and 0.705 (0.632 to 0.778) for total mortality. Conclusions The risk stratification of patients with hypertension with an essential package of variables (that is, available and practicable even in the economically less developed areas of the world) serves at least as well as the more comprehensive method proposed by WHO-ISH. PMID:18805835



A direct comparison of next generation sequencing enrichment methods using an aortopathy gene panel- clinical diagnostics perspective  

PubMed Central

Background Aortopathies are a group of disorders characterized by aneurysms, dilation, and tortuosity of the aorta. Because of the phenotypic overlap and genetic heterogeneity of diseases featuring aortopathy, molecular testing is often required for timely and correct diagnosis of affected individuals. In this setting next generation sequencing (NGS) offers several advantages over traditional molecular techniques. Methods The purpose of our study was to compare NGS enrichment methods for a clinical assay targeting the nine genes known to be associated with aortopathy. RainDance emulsion PCR and SureSelect RNA-bait hybridization capture enrichment methods were directly compared by enriching DNA from eight samples. Enriched samples were barcoded, pooled, and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Depth of coverage, consistency of coverage across samples, and the overlap of variants identified were assessed. This data was also compared to whole-exome sequencing data from ten individuals. Results Read depth was greater and less variable among samples that had been enriched using the RNA-bait hybridization capture enrichment method. In addition, samples enriched by hybridization capture had fewer exons with mean coverage less than 10, reducing the need for followup Sanger sequencing. Variants sets produced were 77% concordant, with both techniques yielding similar numbers of discordant variants. Conclusions When comparing the design flexibility, performance, and cost of the targeted enrichment methods to whole-exome sequencing, the RNA-bait hybridization capture enrichment gene panel offers the better solution for interrogating the aortopathy genes in a clinical laboratory setting. PMID:23148498



[Assay of specific anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies by ELISA method. 2. studies on clinical usefulness and serological diagnostic standards].  


We measured anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) specific antibody titers by means of a newly-developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method using an anti-C. pneumoniae specific antibody detection reagent. The clinical usefulness of this method was hereby evaluated. The IgG, IgA and IgM titers in 418 serum specimens obtained from patients with respiratory tract infections were measured by this new ELISA method, and the results were compared with the titers determined for the same specimens with the micro immunofluorescence (Micro-IF) method. The results showed good correlation coefficients for IgG, IgA and IgM. The two assay methods showed high agreement rates for positivity and for negativity. Specimens which did not yield the same results with the ELISA method and the Micro-IF method were subjected to analysis by the Western blot method, and the rates of agreement with the ELISA results were high. In addition, the child (0 approximately 15 yrs old; n = 122) and adult (16 approximately 90 yrs old; n = 133) cases were classified on the basis of being antigen-positive or antigen-negative at the initial examination, and their antibody-positive rates were determined. The adults showed no statistically significant differences in the antibody-positive rates for either IgG or IgA antibodies as a function of the pretreatment antigen status. However, the children showed statistically significant (p < 0.001) differences in the antibody-positive rates for both IgG and IgA antibodies as a function of the antigen status in the antigen-positive group compared with the rates in the antigen-negative group. Furthermore, the IgM-positive rates for the children were high in the antigen-positive group compared with the rates in the antigen-negative group, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The IgM-positive rates in the adults were also significantly (p < 0.05) different between the antigen-positive group and the antigen-negative group. The Micro-IF method was applied to 34 specimens from antigen-positive patients, and 22 specimens were found to show an IgG titer of > or = 512 or an IgM titer of > or = 16. The diagnoses of these patients were acute respiratory disease in sixteen, pneumonia in four. Application of the ELISA-method to those 22 specimens showed all of them to exhibit IgG absorbance of > or = 0.6 and IgA absorbance of 0.2. The results described above indicate the clinical usefulness of our new ELISA method for the detection of antibodies specific for C. pneumoniae. The significance of this ELISA method for serological diagnosis of C. pneumoniae infections and the criteria for diagnosis of acute infections were also discussed. PMID:8890551

Kishimoto, T; Kubota, Y; Matsushima, T; Izutsu, H; Matsumoto, A; Soejima, R; Numazaki, K; Chiba, S; Yamazaki, T; Sasaki, N; Kaku, M; Shimada, J; Iwasaki, E; Baba, M; Koori, Y; Aihara, M; Chikumi, H; Kosaba, S; Nonaka, Y; Ouchi, K; Yamamoto, T; Kashiwagi, S; Kawayama, T; Ohizumi, K; Nagai, H



Diagnostic Test for the Discrimination between Interictal Epileptic and Non Epileptic Pathological EEG Events using Auto-Cross-Correlation Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study the problem of discriminating between interictal epileptic and non- epileptic pathological EEG stages, which present episodic loss of consciousness, is investigated. The proposed method is based on a novel algorithm, which produces auto-correlated coefficients from an appropriate, selected EEG segment. The characteristic features of these coefficients are based on a prototype spectral variation of an extended



Use of galvanostatic charge method as a membrane electrode assembly diagnostic tool in a fuel cell stack  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better measure and monitor the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) status in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack, a galvanostatic charge method is improved. The electrochemical active surface area (EAS), double-layer capacitance, hydrogen crossover current, and cell ohmic resistance can be measured by this method. In this method, two or more constant currents are applied to the fuel cell stack, and the voltage response between two electrodes of each cell is recorded and analyzed. Tests on a two-cell stack which is supplied with hydrogen in anode and nitrogen in cathode are carried out, and the influences of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the MEA parameters are investigated. Results show that with an increase of RH, both double-layer capacitance and EAS increase, while hydrogen crossover current and cell ohmic resistance decrease. With an increase of temperature, hydrogen crossover current increases, cell ohmic resistance decreases, and EAS and double-layer capacitance show little change. The galvanostatic charge method shows a convenient way to research cell consistency and MEA lifetime in a fuel cell stack.

Pei, Pucheng; Xu, Huachi; Zeng, Xia; Zha, Hongshan; Song, Mancun



Development of Harmonic-Noise Reduction Technology in Diagnostic Method using AC Loss Current for Water Treed XLPE Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water tree is one of the degradation aspects of XLPE cables used for under-ground distribution or transmission lines. We have developed the loss current method using 3rd harmonic in AC loss current for cable diagnosis. Harmonic components in loss current arise as a result of the non-linear voltage-current characteristics of water trees. We confirmed that the 3rd harmonic in AC loss current had good correlation with water tree growth and break down strength. After that, we have applied this method to the actual 66kV XLPE cable lines. Up to now, the number of the application results is more than 120 lines. In this method, it is sometimes said that the degradation signal (3rd harmonic in loss current) is affected by the 3rd harmonic in the test voltage. To indicate and solve this problem, we investigated the extent of influence by 3rd harmonic in the test voltage, and found the rule of the influence. As a result, we developed a new technique of harmonic-noise reduction in loss current method that enabled a more highly accurate diagnosis and confirmed the effectiveness of this new technique by simulations and experiments with actual cables.

Tsujimoto, Tomiyuki; Nakade, Masahiko; Yagi, Yukihiro; Ishii, Noboru


Diagnostic Instability of "DSM-IV" ADHD Subtypes: Effects of Informant Source, Instrumentation, and Methods for Combining Symptom Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from 123 children (aged 6-12 years) referred consecutively to a pediatric neuropsychiatry clinic by community physicians for assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and related problems, we investigated the effects of informant (parent, teacher), tool (interview, rating scale), and method for combining symptom…

Valo, Shana; Tannock, Rosemary



Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization as a plume diagnostic tool in laser evaporation methods  

E-print Network

in laser evaporation methods John H. Callahana , Marsha C. Galiciab , Akos Vertesb,* a Naval Research of Chemistry, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA Abstract Laser evaporation techniques, including matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), are attracting increasing attention due

Vertes, Akos


The Downside of Diagnostic Imaging

An article about radiation exposure during computed tomography and nuclear imaging procedures and the risk of cancer. Several studies released in 2009 have helped to quantify the risk and the growing use of these diagnostic imaging methods.


Modern serial killers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of serial killing has been dominated by an individualized focus on the aetiology and biography of particular offenders. As such, it has tended to downplay the broader social, historical and cultural context of such acts. This article addresses this lacuna by arguing that serial killers are distinctively modern. It highlights six modern phenomena related to serial killing: (a)

Kevin D. Haggerty



Modern Dance Dance Medley  

E-print Network

Hop, African, Capoeira, Folk and Laban Movement Analysis Dance Medley July 4­6, 2012; Boys and GirlsModern Dance and Jazz Dance Medley E June 18-29, 2012 July 4-6, 2012 #12;Brigham Young University Conferences and Workshops / BYU Dance Camps 169 Harman Continuing Education Building Provo, UT 84602 Modern

Olsen Jr., Dan R.



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Capillary electrophoretic methods in the development of metal-based therapeutics and diagnostics: new methodology and applications.  


In recent years, capillary electrophoresis (CE) has matured to a standard method in medicinal inorganic chemistry. More and more steps of the drug discovery process are followed by CE. However, not only the number of applications has steadily increased but also the variety of used methodology has significantly broadened and, as compared to a few years ago, a wider scope of separation modes and hyphenated systems has been used. Herein, a summary of the newly utilized CE methods and their applications in metallodrug research in the timeframe 2006-2011 is presented, following related reviews from 2003 and 2007 (Electrophoresis, 2003, 24, 2023-2037; Electrophoresis 2007, 28, 3436-3446). Areas covered include impurity profiling, quality control of pharmaceutical formulations, lipophilicity estimation, interactions between metallodrugs and proteins or nucleotides, and characterization and also quantification of metabolites in biological matrices and real-world samples. PMID:22451055

Bytzek, Anna K; Hartinger, Christian G



Combined application of optical methods to increase the information content of optical coherent tomography in diagnostics of neoplastic processes  

SciTech Connect

A combined application of optical methods [optical coherent tomography (OCT), cross-polarisation optical coherent tomography, and fluorescence spectroscopy] is proposed for obtaining information on morphological and biochemical changes occurring in tissues in norm and pathology. It is shown that neoplastic and scar changes in esophagus can be distinguished using a combination of polarisation and standard OCT due to the difference between the depolarising properties of the tissues caused by the structural properties of collagenic fibres in stroma. It is shown that OCT combined with fluorescence spectroscopy with the use of 5-aminolevulinic acid is promising for determining the boundaries of carcinoma of the uterine cervix and vulva. It is found that the tumour boundary detected by optical methods coincides with the morphological boundary and extends beyond colposcopically determined boundary by about 2 mm. (laser biology and medicine)

Kuranov, R V; Sapozhnikova, V V; Shakhova, N M; Gelikonov, V M; Zagainova, E V; Petrova, S A [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)



Systematic evaluation of a secondary method for measuring diagnostic-level medical ultrasound transducer output power based on a large-area pyroelectric sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic study of the application of a novel pyroelectric technique to the measurement of diagnostic-level medical ultrasound output power is described. The method exploits the pyroelectric properties of a 0.028 mm thick membrane of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), backed by an acoustic absorber whose ultrasonic absorption coefficient approaches 1000 dB cm-1 at 3 MHz. When exposed to an ultrasonic field, absorption of ultrasound adjacent to the PVDF-absorber interface results in heating and the generation of a pyroelectric output voltage across gold electrodes deposited on the membrane. For a sensor large enough to intercept the whole of the acoustic beam, the output voltage can be calibrated for the measurement of acoustic output power. A number of key performance properties of the method have been investigated. The technique is very sensitive, with a power to voltage conversion factor of typically 0.23 V W-1. The frequency response of a particular embodiment of the sensor in which acoustic power reflected at the absorber-PVDF interface is subsequently returned to the pyroelectric membrane to be absorbed, has been evaluated over the frequency range 1.5 MHz to 10 MHz. This has shown the frequency response to be flat to within ±4%, above 2.5 MHz. Below this frequency, the sensitivity falls by 20% at 1.5 MHz. Linearity of the technique has been demonstrated to within ±1.6% for applied acoustic power levels from 1 mW up to 120 mW. A number of other studies targeted at assessing the achievable measurement uncertainties are presented. These involve: the effects of soaking, the influence of the angle of incidence of the acoustic beam, measurement repeatability and sensitivity to transducer positioning. Additionally, over the range 20 °C to 30 °C, the rate of change in sensitivity with ambient temperature has been shown to be +0.5% °C-1. Implications of the work for the development of a sensitive, traceable, portable, secondary method of ultrasound output power measurement, appropriate for clinical diagnostic ultrasound systems, are discussed.

Zeqiri, B.; Žauhar, G.; Rajagopal, S.; Pounder, A.



Introduction of a New Diagnostic Method for Breast Cancer Based on Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) Test Data and Combining Intelligent Systems  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate Diagnosis of Breast Cancer is of prime importance. Fine Needle Aspiration test or "FNA”, which has been used for several years in Europe, is a simple, inexpensive, noninvasive and accurate technique for detecting breast cancer. Expending the suitable features of the Fine Needle Aspiration results is the most important diagnostic problem in early stages of breast cancer. In this study, we introduced a new algorithm that can detect breast cancer based on combining artificial intelligent system and Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA). Methods We studied the Features of Wisconsin Data Base Cancer which contained about 569 FNA test samples (212 patient samples (malignant) and 357 healthy samples (benign)). In this research, we combined Artificial Intelligence Approaches, such as Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) with Genetic Algorithm (GA), and also used Exact Classifier Systems (here by Fuzzy C-Means (FCM)) to separate malignant from benign samples. Furthermore, we examined artificial Neural Networks (NN) to identify the model and structure. This research proposed a new algorithm for an accurate diagnosis of breast cancer. Results According to Wisconsin Data Base Cancer (WDBC) data base, 62.75% of samples were benign, and 37.25% were malignant. After applying the proposed algorithm, we achieved high detection accuracy of about "96.579%” on 205 patients who were diagnosed as having breast cancer. It was found that the method had 93% sensitivity, 73% specialty, 65% positive predictive value, and 95% negative predictive value, respectively. If done by experts, Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) can be a reliable replacement for open biopsy in palpable breast masses. Evaluation of FNA samples during aspiration can decrease insufficient samples. FNA can be the first line of diagnosis in women with breast masses, at least in deprived regions, and may increase health standards and clinical supervision of patients. Conclusion Such a smart, economical, non-invasive, rapid and accurate system can be introduced as a useful diagnostic system for comprehensive treatment of breast cancer. Another advantage of this method is the possibility of diagnosing breast abnormalities. If done by experts, FNA can be a reliable replacement for open biopsy in palpable breast masses. Evaluation of FNA samples during aspiration can decrease insufficient samples.

Fiuzy, Mohammad; Haddadnia, Javad; Mollania, Nasrin; Hashemian, Maryam; Hassanpour, Kazem



Snapshot Mueller polarimetry for biomedical diagnostic related to human liver fibrosis: evaluation of the method for biomedical assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human liver biopsy samples, consisting into a 16 ?m thickness biomaterial chemically fixed into a formaldehyde matrix, and stained by red picrosirius dye, are analysed for different states of fibrosis degeneration. Polarimetric methods, and specially Mueller polarimetry based on wavelength coding, have been qualified as an efficient tool to describe many different biological aspects. The polarimetric characteristics of the media, extracted from a Lu and Chipman decomposition1, 2 of their Mueller Matrix (MM), are correlated with the degeneracy level of tissue. Different works and results linked to the clinical analysis will be presented and compared to previous performed works.3 Polarimetric imaging will be presented and compared with SHG measurements. A statistical analysis of the distribution of polarimetric parameters (such as the retardance R and depolarisation Pd) will be presented too, in order to characterise the liver fibrosis level into the biomaterial under study.

Babilotte, P.; Dubreuil, M.; Rivet, S.; Lijour, Y.; Sevrain, D.; Martin, L.; Le Brun, G.; Le Grand, Y.; Le Jeune, B.



On Spectroscopic Diagnostics of Hot Optically Thin Plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) emission spectra of highly charged ions in hot plasmas contain diverse information on both elementary processes and the ambient medium. The theoretical analysis of spectra and spectral images of laboratory and astrophysical sources of short-wave radiation, based on the modern methods of atomic data calculations of spectral and collisional ion characteristics, allows one to determine various physical parameters of the emitting plasma. Here, we consider and discuss some basic principles on which the spectroscopic diagnostics of hot optically thin plasmas emitting XUV spectra is based. In order to obtain information about the internal structure of a physical system under study, one generally needs to solve inverse problems for determining the physical conditions in the plasma. Using concepts from the probability theory, we formulate the spectral inverse problem in the framework of the probabilistic approach to be used for the temperature diagnostics of hot plasma structures. We then demonstrate applications of our diagnostics methods to hot plasmas in laboratory (tokamak plasma) and astrophysical (solar corona) conditions.

Urnov, A. M.; Goryaev, F.; Oparin, S.


Judaism, modernization, and anti-modernization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  The manner in which etements of Judaism as a religion may have been active in mediating the effects of early stages of modernization\\u000a in Eastern and Western Europe, and how that religion itself may have been altered, call for careful examination The concept\\u000a of shifting boundaries has been used to underscore both the dialectical relationship and numberable positions between tradition

Hillel Levine



Comparative diagnostic value of a new computerized vectorcardiographic method (cardiogoniometry) and other noninvasive tests in medically treated patients with chest pain  

SciTech Connect

The diagnostic value of cardiogoniometry (CGM), a new computerized vectorcardiographic method, for the identification of coronary artery disease was compared with other noninvasive tests in 48 medically treated patients with chest pain. Coronary angiography revealed one-vessel disease in 18, two- or three-vessel disease in 21, and normal coronary arteries in 9 patients. Cardiogoniometry was less sensitive (63%) than thallium-/sup 201/ (201T1) scanning (82%), but slightly more sensitive than the exercise ECG (50%) or a recently proposed parameter of exercise performance (50%). On the other hand, specificity was comparable among these tests (exercise ECG 78%, thallium-201 scanning 72%, CGM 67%, new parameter of exercise performance 66%). Moreover, the false negative rate of noninvasive testing was reduced from 8 to 3% when CGM was added to thallium-201 scanning and exercise ECG. Our findings indicate that in view of the easier feasibility with computerized technology, the future role of vectorcardiographic methods such as CGM in the noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease should be redefined.

Meier, A.; Hoeflin, F.H.; Herrmann, H.J.; Wolf, C.; Gurtner, H.P.; Roesler, H.



Detection of bovine coronavirus and type A rotavirus in neonatal calf diarrhea and winter dysentery of cattle in Quebec: evaluation of three diagnostic methods.  

PubMed Central

The use of direct electron microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy for the identification of bovine coronavirus and type A rotavirus were examined. Two hundred and forty-nine samples from diarrheic calves and winter dysenteric cattle from seven geographic areas in Quebec were examined for the presence of viruses by direct electron microscopy of negatively stained preparations. In addition, all the samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a random selection of 47 samples were also analyzed by protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy. Thirty-nine percent of samples examined by direct electron microscopy contained viral particles; bovine coronavirus and type A rotavirus were the most common viruses involved. Overall agreement between any two of the methods used compared favorably with results obtained by others using similar methods. The presence of coronavirus and rotavirus in fecal samples obtained from neonatal calves and the presence of coronavirus in samples from winter dysenteric adult cattle suggested their etiological roles in the respective diseases. Furthermore, results from protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy of coronavirus-like particles implied that a different coronavirus or some other viruses might be involved in these diseases. Finally, the efficiency of direct electron microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy as diagnostic tools is discussed. Images Figure 1. PMID:8055431

Athanassious, R; Marsolais, G; Assaf, R; Dea, S; Descoteaux, J P; Dulude, S; Montpetit, C




Microsoft Academic Search

Background Celiac disease, also known as genetic gluten intolerance is a chronic disease that affects genetically predisposed individuals after the gluten ingestion. It affects about 1 % of popu- lation regardless of the age, and can manifest with diverse clinical picture. Diagnosis of celiac disease is based on criteria adopted and later revised by European Society for Paed- iatric Gastroenterology,

Darja Urlep-Žužej


Reevaluating the modernization hypothesis  

E-print Network

We revisit and critically reevaluate the widely accepted modernization hypothesis which claims that per capita income causes the creation and the consolidation of democracy. Existing studies find support for this hypothesis ...

Johnson, Simon


Foucault and modern medicine.  


Modernity as a concept or ideal, resulting from the age of Enlightenment and the French Revolution gave hope of a better future and new possibilities. To be modern means an 'enlightened' individual and society, welcoming change and development. In this paper, I will discuss Foucault's analysis (1973) of problematics in medicine in eighteenth century France. Three themes prominent in the text are: 'the birth of the clinic', 'the clinical gaze' and the power-knowledge relationship. Three problematics identified in modern medicine by Foucault and which are particularly relevant to twentieth century medicine are: (i) the extension of the clinical gaze from the individual body to the wider population; (ii) the increasing medical intervention and use of technology in fundamental life processes; and (iii) the relationship between society and medicine. I will argue that Foucault's analysis is fraught with ambiguities. It is useful, however, for establishing an explanation for medicine today and for presenting a particular interpretation of modernity. PMID:7664146

Peerson, A



Fully Modern Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

For decades paleoanthropologists have pondered whether modern humans evolved throughout the human geographic range or in only\\u000a a small part. Debate continues, but the accumulating fossil, archaeological, and genetic evidence increasingly points to a\\u000a restricted origin in Africa from which modern humans spread to replace or swamp their nonmodern contemporaries elsewhere.\\u000a The case is particularly clear with regard to the

Richard G. Klein


Modern Day Pyramids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate the ways in which ancient technologies â six types of simple machines and combinations â are used to construct modern buildings. As they work together to solve a design problem (designing and building a modern structure), they brainstorm ideas, decide on a design, and submit it to a design review before acquiring materials to create it (in this case, a mural depicting it). Emphasis is placed on cooperative, creative teamwork and the steps of the engineering design process.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program


Modern Evolutionary Synthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Wickipedia describes the modern evolutionary synthesis. This theory brings together Charles Darwin's theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendel's theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance. Essentially, the modern synthesis (or neo-Darwinism) introduces the connection between two important discoveries; the units of evolution (genes) with the mechanism of evolution (selection). The site features links to any of the topics discussed.



Neandertal vs. Modern Human  

E-print Network

human skeletal remains. The opposing side to this argument is the Multiregional Evolution model. This model differs from the first by denying a recent African origin for modern humans and instead emphasizes the role of both genetic continuity over...73 INTRODUCTION Since the initial discovery of Neandertals there has been an ongoing debate about their phylogenetic position in evolution. Are they or are they not a separate species from the modern human? In the past, Paleoanthropologists...

Hill, Brittany



Comparison of student's t-test and the Dorfman-Berbaum-Metz (DBM) method for the statistical comparison of competing diagnostic modalities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both student's t-test for paired data and the Dorfman- Berbaum-Metz (DBM) method report a P value in comparing ROC curves of competing diagnostic modalities. We empirically compared the P values from the t-test and the DBM method using data of two observer studies involving the lung-nodule detection (15 readers 240 cases) and breast-lesion classification (10 readers 104 cases). We made 596,637 comparisons based on data drawn from different combinations and subsets of the readers and cases. The average difference in the P values was 0.11 and 0.058 in the lung nodule study (of two separate analyses) and 0.0061 in the breast lesion study. The lung nodule study showed, in the analysis that demonstrated statistical significance with the original full dataset, both P<0.05 or both p>0.05 in 83% of the comparisons. The t-test alone reported P<0.05 in 17%, and the DBM method alone reported P<0.05 in 1% of the comparisons. A second analysis of the part of the lung nodule study that did not show statistical significance with the original full dataset found both P<0.05 or both P>0.05 in 99% of the comparisons. The t-test alone reported P<0.05 in 1%, and the DBM method alone reported P<0.05 in less than 1% of the comparisons. The breast lesion study showed both P<0.05 or both P>0.05 in 91% of the comparisons. The t-test alone reported P<0.05 in 5%, and the DBM method alone reported P<0.05 in 4% of the comparisons. These results indicate that the t-test and the DBM method generally report similar P values, but their conclusions regarding statistical significance often differ and the DBM method should be used because it accounts for both reader and case variances.

Jiang, Yulei



Development of new source diagnostic methods and variance reduction techniques for Monte Carlo eigenvalue problems with a focus on high dominance ratio problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obtaining the solution to the linear Boltzmann equation is often is often a daunting task. The time-independent form is an equation of six independent variables which cannot be solved analytically in all but some special problems. Instead, numerical approaches have been devised. This work focuses on improving Monte Carlo methods for its solution in eigenvalue form. First, a statistical method of stationarity detection called the KPSS test adapted as a Monte Carlo eigenvalue source convergence test. The KPSS test analyzes the source center of mass series which was chosen since it should be indicative of overall source behavior, and is physically easy to understand. A source center of mass plot alone serves as a good visual source convergence diagnostic. The KPSS test and three different information theoretic diagnostics were implemented into the well known KENOV.a code inside of the SCALE (version 5) code package from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and compared through analysis of a simple problem and several difficult source convergence benchmarks. Results showed that the KPSS test can add to the overall confidence by identifying more problematic simulations than without its usage. Not only this, the source center of mass information on hand visually aids in the understanding of the problem physics. The second major focus of this dissertation concerned variance reduction methodologies for Monte Carlo eigenvalue problems. The CADIS methodology, based on importance sampling, was adapted to the eigenvalue problems. It was shown that the straight adaption of importance sampling can provide a significant variance reduction in determination of keff (in cases studied up to 30%?). A modified version of this methodology was developed which utilizes independent deterministic importance simulations. In this new methodology, each particle is simulated multiple times, once to every other discretized source region utilizing the importance for that region only. Since each particle is simulated multiple times, this methodology often slows down the final keff convergence, but an increase coupling between source zones with important yet low probability interaction is observed. This is an important finding for loosely coupled systems and may be useful in their analysis. The third major focus of this dissertation concerns the use of the standard cumulative fission matrix methodology for high dominance ratio problems which results in high source correlation. Source eigenvector confidence is calculated utilizing a Monte Carlo iterated confidence approach and shown to be superior to the currently used plus and minus fission matrix methodology. Utilizing the fission matrix based approach with appropriately meshing and particle density, it is shown that the fission matrix elements tend to be independent. As a result, the keff and the source eigenvector can be calculated without bias, which is not the case for the standard methodology due to the source correlation. This approach was tested with a 1-D multigroup eigenvalue code developed for this work. A preliminary automatic mesh and particle population diagnostic were formulated to ensure independent and normal fission matrix elements. The algorithm was extended in parallel to show the favorable speedup possible with the fission matrix based approach. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check

Wenner, Michael T.


CT-guided fine-needle biopsy of focal lung lesions as the method for reducing the number of invasive diagnostic procedures  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: CT-guided fine-needle biopsy (FNB) of focal lung lesions is one of the possibilities of obtaining histopathological diagnosis in pulmonary diseases. Its place in the algorithm is determined by the invasiveness. In case of no diagnosis after bronchoscopy or endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) guided biopsy, CT-guided FNB can become an alternative for more invasive procedures, such as open lung biopsy – thoracotomy. Material/Methods: Since January 2009 until February 2010, we performed 37 CT-guided FNB in 34 patients aged 31 to 76 (mean age 60.9). Among them, there were 16 women and 18 men. All patients underwent a standard chest CT with contrast medium injection. They were diagnosed with focal lesions and they were rejected from surgery as the primary method of treatment. During biopsy, the patient was positioned prone or supine, depending on the location of lesions. After performing a scout image and initial slices, we marked the level of biopsy, using a metal marker. Next, the biopsy needle was introduced under local anesthesia. When the obtained position of the needle in the lesion was correct, the specimen was taken. After needle removal, the patient was controlled for the presence of complications (i.e. pneumothorax). Biopsy time ranged from 10 to 50 minutes. Results: In 94.6% of biopsies, the specimens for histopathological and cytological examinations were obtained. In 22 (64.7%) patients, histopathological diagnoses (in 14 cases this was the non-small cell cancer and in 8, inflammatory lesions) were established which allowed us to resign from invasive thoracotomy and to introduce an appropriate treatment. In the remaining 12 patients, no diagnosis was established. Complications in the form of a minor pneumothorax occurred in 2 patients. Conclusions: Fine-needle biopsy of the focal lung lesions is an affective and a relatively safe method, which can replace the more invasive diagnostic thoracotomy in the majority of patients. PMID:22802777

Chodorowska, Anna; Rzechonek, Adam; Dyla, Tomasz; Muszczynska-Bernhard, Beata; Adamek, Jaroslaw



Hepatitis E in patients with hepatic disorders and HIV-infected patients in Croatia: is one diagnostic method enough for hepatitis E diagnosis?  


We assessed hepatitis E virus (HEV) seroprevalence in patients with hepatic disorders as well as in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and emphasised the issue of possible non-specific anti-HEV seroresponse and need for combining diagnostic methods for hepatitis E diagnosis. Over a two-year period, from March 2011 to February 2013, we determined anti-HEV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG by enzyme immunoassays (EIA; Mikrogen, Germany) in 504 hepatitis patients negative for acute viral hepatitis A-C. Furthermore, 88 samples from randomly selected consecutive HIV-infected patients were also analysed. All EIA reactive samples were additionally tested by line immunoblot assays (LIA; Mikrogen, Germany). HEV nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out in 14 anti-HEV IgM LIA-positive patients. Anti-HEV IgM or IgG were detected in 16.9 % of patients by EIA and confirmed by LIA in 10.7 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 8.3-13.7 %] of hepatitis patients. HEV RNA was detected in five patients. The agreement between EIA and LIA assessed by Cohen's kappa was 0.47 (95 % CI 0.55-0.75) for IgM and 0.83 (95 % CI 0.78-0.93) for IgG. Anti-HEV IgM and IgG seroprevalence in HIV-infected patients was 1.1 %, respectively. Our findings show a rather high HEV seroprevalence in patients with elevated liver enzymes in comparison to HIV-infected patients. Discordant findings by different methods stress the need to combine complementary methods and use a two-tier approach with prudent interpretation of reactive serological results for hepatitis E diagnosis. PMID:25005459

Dakovi? Rode, O; Jemerši?, L; Brni?, D; Pandak, N; Mikuli?, R; Begovac, J; Vince, A




E-print Network

1 MODERN MIRACLE MEDICAL MACHINES: PHYSICS INSTRUCTION FOR FUTURE MEDICAL STUDENTS DEAN ZOLLMAN Physics Department, Kansas State University, 116 Cardwell Hall Manhattan, Kansas 66506-2601, USA Many of the diagnostic devices which are used by physicians have their technological foundation in contemporary physics

Zollman, Dean


Salivary Diagnostics: A Brief Review  

PubMed Central

Early detection of disease plays a crucial role for treatment planning and prognosis. Saliva has great potential as a diagnostic fluid and offers advantage over serum and other biological fluids by an economic and noninvasive collection method for monitoring of systemic health and disease progression. The plethora of components in this fluid can act as biomarkers for diagnosis of various systemic and local diseases. In this review paper, we have emphasized the role of salivary biomarkers as diagnostic tools. PMID:24616813

Malathi, Narasimhan; Mythili, Sabesan; Vasanthi, Hannah R.



Salivary diagnostics: a brief review.  


Early detection of disease plays a crucial role for treatment planning and prognosis. Saliva has great potential as a diagnostic fluid and offers advantage over serum and other biological fluids by an economic and noninvasive collection method for monitoring of systemic health and disease progression. The plethora of components in this fluid can act as biomarkers for diagnosis of various systemic and local diseases. In this review paper, we have emphasized the role of salivary biomarkers as diagnostic tools. PMID:24616813

Malathi, Narasimhan; Mythili, Sabesan; Vasanthi, Hannah R



Has DRG payment influenced the technical efficiency and productivity of diagnostic technologies in Portuguese public hospitals? An empirical analysis using parametric and non-parametric methods.  


The use of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) as a mechanism for hospital financing is a currently debated topic in Portugal. The DRG system was scheduled to be initiated by the Health Ministry of Portugal on January 1, 1990 as an instrument for the allocation of public hospital budgets funded by the National Health Service (NHS), and as a method of payment for other third party payers (e.g., Public Employees (ADSE), private insurers, etc.). Based on experience from other countries such as the United States, it was expected that implementation of this system would result in more efficient hospital resource utilisation and a more equitable distribution of hospital budgets. However, in order to minimise the potentially adverse financial impact on hospitals, the Portuguese Health Ministry decided to gradually phase in the use of the DRG system for budget allocation by using blended hospital-specific and national DRG case-mix rates. Since implementation in 1990, the percentage of each hospital's budget based on hospital specific costs was to decrease, while the percentage based on DRG case-mix was to increase. This was scheduled to continue until 1995 when the plan called for allocating yearly budgets on a 50% national and 50% hospital-specific cost basis. While all other non-NHS third party payers are currently paying based on DRGs, the adoption of DRG case-mix as a National Health Service budget setting tool has been slower than anticipated. There is now some argument in both the political and academic communities as to the appropriateness of DRGs as a budget setting criterion as well as to their impact on hospital efficiency in Portugal. This paper uses a two-stage procedure to assess the impact of actual DRG payment on the productivity (through its components, i.e., technological change and technical efficiency change) of diagnostic technology in Portuguese hospitals during the years 1992-1994, using both parametric and non-parametric frontier models. We find evidence that the DRG payment system does appear to have had a positive impact on productivity and technical efficiency of some commonly employed diagnostic technologies in Portugal during this time span. PMID:10916607

Dismuke, C E; Sena, V



Diagnostic challenges in primary orbital fibrosarcoma: a case report  

PubMed Central

Fibrosarcoma is a rare and malignant spindle cell tumor of mesenchymal origin that infrequently presents in the orbit. Evolving diagnostic criteria confound the identification of these tumors, as well as the interpretation of previous studies on this unusual entity. We report a case of a 66-year-old man with a mass on his left inferior orbit, with associated paresthesia. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed a lesion on the left anteroinferomedial orbit, with bone erosion. An en bloc surgical excision followed by a thorough immunohistologic evaluation allowed diagnosis of an orbital fibrosarcoma. The patient has had no recurrence after 14 months of follow up. Once a commonly identified soft tissue malignancy, fibrosarcoma has become a diagnosis of exclusion as a result of improved diagnostic and classification techniques, such as immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This type of soft tissue tumor is now an uncommon entity, and we report the first case of a primary orbital fibrosarcoma in an adult, using modern diagnostic and classification methods.

Scruggs, Brittni A; Ho, Son T; Valenzuela, Alejandra A



Roche/BIOTECON Diagnostics LightCycler foodproof L. monocytogenes detection kit in combination with ShortPrep foodproof II Kit. Performance-Tested Method 070401.  


A method was developed for the detection of L. monocytogenes in food based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This advanced PCR method was designed to reduce the time needed to achieve results from PCR reactions and to enable the user to monitor the amplification of the PCR product simultaneously, in real-time. After DNA isolation using the Roche/BIOTECON Diagnostics ShortPrep foodproof II Kit (formerly called Listeria ShortPrep Kit) designed for the rapid preparation of L. monocytogenes DNA for direct use in PCR, the real-time detection of L. monocytogenes DNA is performed by using the Roche/BIOTECON Diagnostics LightCycler foodproof L. monocytogenes Detection Kit. This kit provides primers and hybridization probes for sequence-specific detection, convenient premixed reagents, and different controls for reliable interpretation of results. For repeatability studies, 20 different foods, covering the 15 food groups recommended from the AOAC Research Institute (AOAC RI) for L. monocytogenes detection were analyzed: raw meats, fresh produce/vegetables, processed meats, seafood, egg and egg products, dairy (cultured/noncultured), spices, dry foods, fruit/juices, uncooked pasta, nuts, confectionery, pet food, food dyes and colorings, and miscellaneous. From each food 20, samples were inoculated with a low level (1-10 colony-forming units (CFU)/25 g) and 20 samples with a high level (10-50 CFU/25 g) of L. monocytogenes. Additionally, 5 uninoculated samples were prepared from each food. The food samples were examined with the test kits and in correlation with the cultural methods according to U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) or U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)/Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook. After 48 h of incubation, the PCR method in all cases showed equal or better results than the reference cultural FDA/BAM or USDA/FSIS methods. Fifteen out of 20 tested food types gave exactly the same amount of positive samples for both methods in both inoculation levels. For 5 out of 20 foodstuffs, the PCR method resulted in more positives than the reference method after 48 h of incubation. Following AOAC RI definition, these were false positives because they were not confirmed by the reference method (false-positive rate for low inoculated foodstuffs: 5.4%; for high inoculated foodstuffs: 7.1%). Without calculating these unconfirmed positives, the PCR method showed equal sensitivity results compared to the alternative method. With the unconfirmed PCR-positives included into the calculations, the alternative PCR method showed a higher sensitivity than the microbiological methods (low inoculation level: 100 vs 98.0%; sensitivity rate: 1; high inoculation level: 99.7 vs 97.7%; sensitivity rate, 1). All in-house and independently tested uninoculated food samples were negative for L. monocytogenes. The ruggedness testing of both ShortPrep foodproof II Kit and Roche/BIOTECON LightCycler foodproof L. monocytogenes Detection Kit showed no noteworthy influences to any variation of the parameters component concentration, apparatus comparison, tester comparison, and sample volumes. In total, 102 L. monocytogenes isolates (cultures and pure DNA) were tested and detected for the inclusivity study, including all isolates claimed by the AOAC RI. The exclusivity study included 60 non-L. monocytogenes bacteria. None of the tested isolates gave a false-positive result; specificity was 100%. Three different lots were tested in the lot-to-lot study. All 3 lots gave equal results. The stability study was subdivided into 3 parts: long-term study, stress test, and freeze-defrost test. Three lots were tested in 4 time intervals within a period of 13 months. They all gave comparable results for all test intervals. For the stress test, LightCycler L. monocytogenes detection mixes were stored at different temperatures and tested at different time points during 1 month. Stable results were produced at all storage temperatures. The freeze-defrost analysis showed

Junge, Benjamin; Berghof-Jäger, Kornelia



Production of recombinant capsid protein of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (r-MCP43) of giant freshwater prawn, M. rosenbergii (de Man) for immunological diagnostic methods.  


White tail disease (WTD) caused by Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) is a serious problem in prawn hatcheries. The gene for capsid protein of MrNV (MCP43) was cloned into pRSET B expression vector. The MCP43 protein was expressed as a protein with a 6-histidine tag in Escherichia coli GJ1158 with NaCl induction. This recombinant protein, which was used to raise the antiserum in rabbits, recognized capsid protein in different WTD-infected post-larvae and adult prawn. Various immunological methods such as Western blot, dot blot and ELISA techniques were employed to detect MrNV in infected samples using the antiserum raised against recombinant MCP43 of MrNV. The dot blot assay using anti-rMCP43 was found to be capable of detecting MrNV in WTD-infected post-larvae as early as at 24 h post-infection. The antiserum raised against r-MCP43 could detect the MrNV in the infected samples at the level of 100 pg of total protein. The capsid protein of MrNV estimated by ELISA using anti-rMCP43 and pure r-MCP43 as a standard was found to increase gradually during the course of infection from 24 h p.i. to moribund stage. The results of immunological diagnostic methods employed in this study were compared with that of RT-PCR to test the efficiency of antiserum raised against r-MCP43 for the detection of MrNV. The Western blot, dot blot and ELISA detected all MrNV-positive coded samples as detected by RT-PCR. PMID:23952017

Farook, M A; Madan, N; Taju, G; Majeed, S Abdul; Nambi, K S N; Raj, N Sundar; Vimal, S; Hameed, A S Sahul



Research-based Instructional Software in Modern Physics RICHARD N. STEINBERG  

E-print Network

modern physics is important include photonics, mesoscopic engineering, and medical diagnostics basedResearch-based Instructional Software in Modern Physics RICHARD N. STEINBERG Department of Physics, City College of New York, New York, NY, 10031 GRAHAM E. OBEREM Physics

Steinberg, Richard N.


Morphological affinities of the proximal ulna from Klasies River main site: archaic or modern?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Middle Stone Age (MSA) asociated hominids from Klasies River Mouth (KRM) have taken on a key role in debate about the origins of modern humans, with their craniofacial remains seen as either representing the earliest well-dated modern humans in southern Africa or orthognathic late archaic humans. Diagnostic postcranial remains from Klasies are few, but one specimen—a proximal right ulna

S. E. Churchill; O. M. Pearson; F. E. Grine; E. Trinkaus; T. W. Holliday



Diagnostic testing for Giardia infections.  


The traditional method for diagnosing Giardia infections involves microscopic examination of faecal specimens for Giardia cysts. This method is subjective and relies on observer experience. From the 1980s onwards, objective techniques have been developed for diagnosing Giardia infections, and are superseding diagnostic techniques reliant on microscopy. Detection of Giardia antigen(s) by immunoassay is the basis of commercially available diagnostic kits. Various nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs) can demonstrate DNA of Giardia intestinalis, and have the potential to become standard approaches for diagnosing Giardia infections. Of such techniques, methods involving either fluorescent microspheres (Luminex) or isothermal amplification of DNA (loop-mediated isothermal amplification; LAMP) are especially promising. PMID:24463773

Heyworth, Martin F



PML diagnostic criteria  

PubMed Central

Objective: To establish criteria for the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Methods: We reviewed available literature to identify various diagnostic criteria employed. Several search strategies employing the terms “progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy” with or without “JC virus” were performed with PubMed, SCOPUS, and EMBASE search engines. The articles were reviewed by a committee of individuals with expertise in the disorder in order to determine the most useful applicable criteria. Results: A consensus statement was developed employing clinical, imaging, pathologic, and virologic evidence in support of the diagnosis of PML. Two separate pathways, histopathologic and clinical, for PML diagnosis are proposed. Diagnostic classification includes certain, probable, possible, and not PML. Conclusion: Definitive diagnosis of PML requires neuropathologic demonstration of the typical histopathologic triad (demyelination, bizarre astrocytes, and enlarged oligodendroglial nuclei) coupled with the techniques to show the presence of JC virus. The presence of clinical and imaging manifestations consistent with the diagnosis and not better explained by other disorders coupled with the demonstration of JC virus by PCR in CSF is also considered diagnostic. Algorithms for establishing the diagnosis have been recommended. PMID:23568998

Aksamit, Allen J.; Clifford, David B.; Davis, Larry; Koralnik, Igor J.; Sejvar, James J.; Bartt, Russell; Major, Eugene O.; Nath, Avindra



New aspects of modern endoscopy  

PubMed Central

The prognosis for patients with malignancies of the gastrointestinal-tract is strictly dependent on early detection of premalignant and malignant lesions. However, small, flat or depressed neoplastic lesions remain difficult to detect with these technologies thereby limiting their value for polyp and cancer screening. At the same time computer and chip technologies have undergone major technological changes which have greatly improved endoscopic diagnostic investigation. New imaging modalities and techniques are very notable aspects of modern endoscopy. Chromoendoscopy or filter-aided colonoscopy (virtual chromoendoscopy) with high definition endoscopes is able to enhance the detection and characterization of lesions. Finally, confocal laser endomicroscopy provides histological confirmation of the presence of neoplastic changes. The developing techniques around colonoscopy such as the retro-viewing colonoscope, the balloon-colonoscope or the 330-degrees-viewing colonoscope try to enhance the efficacy by reducing the adenoma miss rate in right-sided, non-polypoid lesions. Colon capsule endoscopy is limited to identifying cancer and not necessarily small adenomas. Preliminary attempts have been made to introduce this technique in clinical routine. PMID:25132916

Rey, Johannes Wilhelm; Kiesslich, Ralf; Hoffman, Arthur



New aspects of modern endoscopy.  


The prognosis for patients with malignancies of the gastrointestinal-tract is strictly dependent on early detection of premalignant and malignant lesions. However, small, flat or depressed neoplastic lesions remain difficult to detect with these technologies thereby limiting their value for polyp and cancer screening. At the same time computer and chip technologies have undergone major technological changes which have greatly improved endoscopic diagnostic investigation. New imaging modalities and techniques are very notable aspects of modern endoscopy. Chromoendoscopy or filter-aided colonoscopy (virtual chromoendoscopy) with high definition endoscopes is able to enhance the detection and characterization of lesions. Finally, confocal laser endomicroscopy provides histological confirmation of the presence of neoplastic changes. The developing techniques around colonoscopy such as the retro-viewing colonoscope, the balloon-colonoscope or the 330-degrees-viewing colonoscope try to enhance the efficacy by reducing the adenoma miss rate in right-sided, non-polypoid lesions. Colon capsule endoscopy is limited to identifying cancer and not necessarily small adenomas. Preliminary attempts have been made to introduce this technique in clinical routine. PMID:25132916

Rey, Johannes Wilhelm; Kiesslich, Ralf; Hoffman, Arthur



Diagnostic Classification Modeling: Opportunity for Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As Rupp and Templin (2008) stated directly, diagnostic classification methods "are confirmatory in nature." Methods, though, are neither inherently confirmatory nor exploratory. Diagnostic classification modeling, with its analytical and computational obstacles eventually yielding as a comprehensive and potent discipline emerges, will find itself…

Hancock, Gregory R.



Diagnostic accuracy of a molecular drug susceptibility testing method for the antituberculosis drug ethambutol: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  


Ethambutol (EMB) is a first-line antituberculosis drug; however, drug resistance to EMB has been increasing. Molecular drug susceptibility testing (DST), based on the embB gene, has recently been used for rapid identification of EMB resistance. The aim of this meta-analysis was to establish the accuracy of molecular assay for detecting drug resistance to EMB. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched according to a written protocol and explicit study selection criteria. Measures of diagnostic accuracy were pooled using a random effects model. A total of 34 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The respective pooled sensitivities and specificities were 0.57 and 0.93 for PCR-DNA sequencing that targeted the embB 306 codon, 0.76 and 0.89 for PCR-DNA sequencing that targeted the embB 306, 406, and 497 codons, 0.64 and 0.70 for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, 0.55 and 0.78 for detecting M. tuberculosis sputum specimens using the GenoType MTBDRsl test, 0.57 and 0.87 for pyrosequencing, and 0.35 and 0.98 for PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The respective pooled sensitivities and specificities were 0.55 and 0.92 when using a lower EMB concentration as the reference standard, 0.67 and 0.73 when using a higher EMB concentration as the reference standard, and 0.60 and 1.0 when using multiple reference standards. PCR-DNA sequencing using multiple sites of the embB gene as detection targets, including embB 306, 406, and 497, can be a rapid method for preliminarily screening for EMB resistance, but it does not fully replace phenotypic DST. Of the reference DST methods examined, the agreement rates were the best using MGIT 960 for molecular DST and using the proportion method on Middlebrook 7H10 media. PMID:24899018

Cheng, Song; Cui, Zhenling; Li, Yuanyuan; Hu, Zhongyi



[Efficient and rational laboratory diagnostics in otolaryngology].  


This article describes the value of laboratory diagnostic procedures in the diagnostic arsenal of otolaryngologists. The rational and therefore the rationale of the application of laboratory medical methods are critically evaluated. In the era of diagnosis-related groups a high value is placed on a rational laboratory diagnostic, in the sense of a cost-oriented medicine, so that the laboratory diagnostic procedure is always carried out in stages, just as in other diagnostic procedures. The possibilities of clinical chemistry, separated into the theme blocks "clinical chemical basic diagnostics", "haematological parameters", "coagulation investigations" and "immunological diagnostics" are demonstrated based on examples. These are aimed at the needs of otolaryngologists, in that the emphasis in each theme block is centred on the indications and evaluation of the individual laboratory investigation. PMID:18704349

Cuenca, S; Schulz, C; Mössmer, G; Baum, H; Luppa, P B



Policing, Modernity and Postmodernity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to assess the relationship between contemporary policing and postmodernity, and to argue that police leaders and policy makers should develop a postmodern sensibility in relation to social change and policing. Official discourse about police reform and policing developments is overwhelmingly couched in terms of modernization; following Gibbins (1998) it is suggested here that a postmodernization agenda should

Ian Waters



Modern quantitative schlieren techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schlieren optical techniques have traditionally been used to qualitatively visualize refractive flowfields in transparent media. Modern schlieren optics, however, are increasingly focused on obtaining quantitative information such as temperature and density fields in a flow -- once the sole purview of interferometry -- without the need for coherent illumination. Quantitative data are obtained from schlieren images by integrating the measured

Michael Hargather; Gary Settles



A Modern Periodic Table.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

Herrenden-Harker, B. D.



Modern Enology: Quo vadis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Enology, the science of wine, enters the atmosphere of technological explosion of the third millennium. In order to achieve higher quality products enology is expected to implant to the utmost the latest scientific knowledge into wine technology. Enology will satisfy these demands, but will the consumer be satisfied too? It will not be possible to produce modern and attractive




Modern Regression Discontinuity Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a detailed discussion of the theory and practice of modern regression discontinuity (RD) analysis for estimating the effects of interventions or treatments. Part 1 briefly chronicles the history of RD analysis and summarizes its past applications. Part 2 explains how in theory an RD analysis can identify an average effect of…

Bloom, Howard S.



Modern Information Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information retrieval (IR) has changed considerably in the last years with the expansion of the Web (World Wide Web) and the advent of modern and inexpensive graphical user interfaces and mass storage devices. As a result, traditional IR textbooks have become quite out-of-date which has led to the introduction of new IR books recently. Nevertheless, we believe that there is

Ricardo A. Baeza-yates; Berthier A. Ribeiro-neto



Modern programming language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.



Modern languages in crisis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keith Saunders examines national exam results to discover worrying trends in the declining level of performance in Modern Languages relative to other subjects and suggests that this may be because the exams are too difficult. He proposes some strategies to help teachers in being more rigorous in analysing exam trends.

Keith Saunders



Gnotobiology in modern medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is given of currently accepted theories and applications of gnotobiology. A brief history of gnotobiology is supplied. Problems involved in creating germ-free gnotobiota and the use of these animals in experimental biology are cited. Examples of how gnotobiology is used in modern medical practice illustrate the future prospects for this area of science.

Podoprigora, G. I.



Modernizing Mechanical Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the problems of renovating school buildings and in particular the modernization of mechanical services in existing facilities are discussed. According to school management publications, approximately 42 per cent of our elementary and 59 per cent of our secondary schools are 15 years old or older. School plants, which were built 12 to 15…

Rutgers, Norman L.


Modern Physics Resource Packet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a collection of computational resources for use in a modern physics class. Maple, Mathematica, and Excel files are provided to introduce students to scientific computation and can be downloaded from this page. This collection includes suggested problems for use with the CUPS software. Topics covered include blackbody radiation, scattering, atomic orbitals, tunneling, uncertainty, and relativity.

Moloney, Mike; Mitra-Kirtley, Sudipa; Joenathan, Charles; Western, Arthur; Mcinerney, Michael



Modern Languages and Antiracism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a school language department's antiracist/multicultural policy for modern languages. The policy stresses the need for a multicultural curriculum, exploration of racism, acceptance of all languages, recognition of specialized knowledge, and positive images of people from ethnic minority groups. (CB)

O'Shaughnessy, Martin



Modern Problems, Grade 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

GRADES OR AGES: Grade 12. SUBJECT MATTER: Modern economic, political, and sociological problems primarily in the United States. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into six units, each of which is laid out in two columns. Column headings are: content and suggested activities. The guide is mimeographed and perfect-bound with…

Wilmington Public Schools, DE.


Dimensions of Modern Federalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Encapsulates a series of brief essays exploring different aspects of modern federalism. Issues include further protection of individual rights extended through state constitutions and federalism and the world economy. Authors include Robert F. Williams, Earl H. Fry, and Daniel J. Elazar. (MJP)

Williams, Robert F.; And Others



Modern Physics for Kids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

But it's the last chapter in the book! What should young people learn about modern physics? The setting could be a school classroom or a university lecture hall, laboratory or computer lab. The experience should build understandings and relationships. The approach should involve engagement and exploration. We discuss several activities for secondary students based on experiences of the particle physics community.

Bardeen, Marjorie



Beam Diagnostics  

E-print Network

As soon as the first particles emerge from an ion source, the source characteristics need to be determined. The total beam intensity, the transverse particle distributions, the beam divergence and emittance as well as the longitudinal parameters of the beam must be measured. This chapter provides an overview of typical measurement methods and the instruments used, and shows the results obtained.

Raich, U



Design Method for Contra-Rotating Propellers for High-Speed Crafts: Revising the Original Lerbs Theory in a Modern Perspective  

E-print Network

The main theoretical and numerical aspects of a design method for optimum contrar-rotating (CR) propellers for fast marine crafts are presented. We propose a reformulated version of a well-known design theory for contra-rotating ...

Brizzolara, Stefano



Cotton-based Diagnostic Devices.  


A good diagnostic procedure avoids wasting medical resources, is easy to use, resists contamination, and provides accurate information quickly to allow for rapid follow-up therapies. We developed a novel diagnostic procedure using a "cotton-based diagnostic device" capable of real-time detection, i.e., in vitro diagnostics (IVD), which avoids reagent contamination problems common to existing biomedical devices and achieves the abovementioned goals of economy, efficiency, ease of use, and speed. Our research reinforces the advantages of an easy-to-use, highly accurate diagnostic device created from an inexpensive and readily available U.S. FDA-approved material (i.e., cotton as flow channel and chromatography paper as reaction zone) that adopts a standard calibration curve method in a buffer system (i.e., nitrite, BSA, urobilinogen and uric acid assays) to accurately obtain semi-quantitative information and limit the cross-contamination common to multiple-use tools. Our system, which specifically targets urinalysis diagnostics and employs a multiple biomarker approach, requires no electricity, no professional training, and is exceptionally portable for use in remote or home settings. This could be particularly useful in less industrialized areas. PMID:25393975

Lin, Shang-Chi; Hsu, Min-Yen; Kuan, Chen-Meng; Wang, Hsi-Kai; Chang, Chia-Ling; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Cheng, Chao-Min



Modernizing biomass energy  

E-print Network

Biomass accounts for an estimated one-third of all energy used in developing countries today. Most of this biomass is used inefficiently and with significant pollutant emissions by the more than 2 billion people who cook using direct combustion of biomass. Contrasting today’s use of biomass energy, several recent major assessments of future global energy supply show much larger roles for biomass energy by the middle of the 21st century as part of a global strategy for reducing CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere. When biomass is grown renewably (i.e., at the same average rate at which it is used for energy), little or no net emissions of CO 2 result. Most energy analysts are surprised by visions of such large biomass contributions to energy supply because biomass ranks near the bottom of the list of preferred energy carriers today. However, if biomass can be modernized, i.e. converted cost-competitively into more convenient forms such as gases,liquids,or electricity,then much more significant use of biomass is conceivable. This paper discusses modernizing biomass energy within the context of climate change mitigation. The paper begins by defining modernization, and reviewing its advantages and disadvantages. It then addresses agricultural, environmental, and socioeconomic implications of biomass energy modernization for developing countries. Examples of modernization in the context of electricity production and cooking are provided. Finally, challenges to modernization are noted, along with some suggestions for addressing the challenges. Note: Globally, photosynthesis stores energy in biomass at a rate that is roughly ten times the present rate of total global energy use. Some 40 to 50 exajoules (EJ) per year (1018 joules/year) of photosynthetic production (less than 2 % of the total) is used for energy today (Hall et al. 1993; Reddy et al. 1997; Nakicenovic et al. 1998). For comparison, total global energy use is around 450 EJ/year. The precise biomass contribution is uncertain because the majority of it is used non-commercially in rural areas of developing countries.

Eric D. Larson


Development of a Low-Energetic Metastable Helium Beam Injector for Electric Field Diagnostics by Laser-Induced Fluorescence Method in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progresses in development of a metastable helium atomic beam injector as a beam prove for electric field diagnoses are described, which is applicable to a high electric potential region in inertial electrostatic confinement plasmas where a solid probe can hardly be utilized. Configuration refinement of setup of a skimmer to take a collimated diagnostic beam out of the gas jet

Kai Masuda; Takanori Ando; Tetsuya Nishi; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa



Cornell Modern Indonesia Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1956, the Cornell Modern Indonesia Project (CMIP) published its first title. Since then, the modern nation of Indonesia has seen numerous transformations and this digital collection houses works published by the CMIP, which document these changes. Early on, the first documents created were called "Interim Reports", and they dealt with the 1965 coup, foreign policy, and the state of Chinese citizens in Indonesia. The monographs in the collection focus primarily on Indonesian politics, but they also include anthropological and social analyses as well. Currently, there are over four dozens titles here, and visitors can browse them by title or author. One item that should not be missed is the 1965 update of the 1936 study "Mythology and the tolerance of the Javanese". Southeast Asian scholars and those with an interest in the history of this region will not be disappointed.


Direct imaging electron microscopy (EM) methods in modern structural biology: Overview and comparison with X-ray crystallography and single-particle cryo-EM reconstruction in the studies of large macromolecules.  


Determining the structure of macromolecules is important for understanding their function. The fine structure of large macromolecules is currently studied primarily by X-ray crystallography and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (EM) reconstruction. Before the development of these techniques, macromolecular structure was often examined by negative-staining, rotary-shadowing and freeze-etching EM, which are categorised here as 'direct imaging EM methods'. In this review, the results are summarised by each of the above techniques and compared with respect to four macromolecules: the ryanodine receptor, cadherin, rhodopsin and the ribosome-translocon complex (RTC). The results of structural analysis of the ryanodine receptor and cadherin are consistent between each technique. The results obtained for rhodopsin vary to some extent within each technique and between the different techniques. Finally, the results for RTC are inconsistent between direct imaging EM and other analytical techniques, especially with respect to the space within RTC, the reasons for which are discussed. Then, the role of direct imaging EM methods in modern structural biology is discussed. Direct imaging methods should support and verify the results obtained by other analytical methods capable of solving three-dimensional molecular architecture, and they should still be used as a primary tool for studying macromolecule structure in vivo. PMID:25040059

Miyaguchi, Katsuyuki



Modern Physics : Theoretical Minimum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Stanford Continuing Studies course is a collection of video lectures that provide a concise introduction to Theoretical Physics. The goal is for students following the curriculum to achieve a solid understanding of Modern Physics in an optimized manner. The lectures in the series cover Classical Mechanics, Quantum Mechanics, Special Relativity, General Relativity, Cosmology, Statistical Mechanics, Quantum Entanglement, Basic Particle Physics, and the Standard Model. While the courses build upon one another, each course also stands on its own.

Susskind, Leonard



The modern atom model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All particles in the atom are in constant motion, according to modern atomic theory. On this page of a tutorial on particle physics, students evaluate the relative size of atomic particles. If protons and neutrons are balls with a 1-centimeter diameter, then electrons have the diameter of a hair. The comparable size of an atom made from these particles would be 30 football fields long. Students read that atoms are mostly empty space. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Group, Lawrence B.



Modern Anaesthesia Vapourisers  

PubMed Central

Inhalational anaesthetic agents are usually liquids at room temperature and barometric pressure and need to be converted to vapour before being used and this conversion is effected using a vapouriser. Vapourisers have evolved from very basic devices to more complicated ones. Anaesthetists should understand the basic principles of anaesthetic vapouriser, including the principles that affect vapouriser output and how they influence vapouriser design. Most of the modern vapourisers in use are designed to be used between the flow meter and the common gas outlet on the anaesthesia machine. Modern vapourisers are flow and temperature compensated, concentration calibrated, direct reading, dial controlled and are unaffected by positive-pressure ventilation. Safety features include an anti-spill and a select-a-tec mechanism and a specific vapouriser filling device. Desflurane has unique physical properties requiring the use of a specific desflurane vapouriser. The most recently designed vapourisers are controlled by a central processing unit in the anaesthetic machine. The concentration of vapour is continuously monitored and adjusted by altering fresh gas flow through the vapouriser. This article looks at the basic design and functioning of the modern vapourisers. PMID:24249879

Chakravarti, Sucharita; Basu, Srabani



[Diagnostic bronchoscopy].  


Endoscopic technology has developed markedly with endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) having become dramatically widespread over the past 10 years. EBUS-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has become an important modality for the mediastinal staging of lung cancer as well as mediastinoscopy. The combination of EBUS with a guide sheath( EBUS-GS) and virtual navigation systems, such as Bf-NAVI, LungPoint, superDimension/Bronchus system, is useful for diagnosis of small peripheral pulmonary lesions. Moreover, the ability to observe lesions has increased using picture enhancement developed by new methods such as autofluorescence imaging( AFI), narrow band imaging (NBI), and FUJI intelligent color enhancement( FICE). However, these modalities have limited value in detection of lung cancer and preneoplastic lesions. In recent years, the indications for AFI have widened and it can be now used for evaluation of tumor extension. Knowledge of these new technologies is certainly useful to allow their routine clinical use by respiratory surgeons. We will review these new technologies in this paper. PMID:25138942

Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Sato, Masami



Diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls in benign vocal fold diseases  

PubMed Central

More than half of patients presenting with hoarseness show benign vocal fold changes. The clinician should be familiar with the anatomy, physiology and functional aspects of voice disorders and also the modern diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in order to ensure an optimal and patient specific management. This review article focuses on the diagnostic and therapeutic limitations and difficulties of treatment of benign vocal fold tumors, the management and prevention of scarred vocal folds and the issue of unilateral vocal fold paresis. PMID:24403969

Bohlender, Jorg



Practical dosimetry methods for the determination of effective skin and breast dose for a modern CT system, incorporating partial irradiation and prospective cardiac gating  

PubMed Central

Objective For CT coronary angiography (CTCA), a generic chest conversion factor returns a significant underestimate of effective dose. The aim of this manuscript is to communicate new dosimetry methods to calculate weighted CT dose index (CTDIw), effective dose, entrance surface dose (ESD) and organ dose to the breast for prospectively gated CTCA. Methods CTDIw in 32 cm diameter Perspex phantom was measured using an adapted technique, accounting for the segmented scan characteristic. Gafchromic XRCT film (International Speciality Products, New Jersey, NJ) was used to measure the distribution and magnitude of ESD. Breast dose was measured using high sensitivity metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors and compared to the computer based imaging performance assessment of CT scanners (ImPACT) dosimetry calculations. Results For a typical cardiac scan the mean ESD remained broadly constant (7–9 mGy) when averaged over the circumference of the Perspex phantom. Typical absorbed dose to the breast with prospectively gated protocols was within the range 2–15 mGy. The subsequent lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence to the breast was found at 0.01–0.06 for a 20-year-old female. This compares favourably to 100 mGy (LAR ?0.43) for a retrospectively gated CTCA. Conclusions Care must be taken when considering radiation dosimetry associated with prospectively gated scanning for CTCA and a method has been conveyed to account for this. Breast doses for prospectively gated CTCA are an order of magnitude lower than retrospectively gated scans. Optimisation of cardiac protocols is expected to show further dose reduction. PMID:21896660

Loader, R J; Gosling, O; Roobottom, C; Morgan-Hughes, G; Rowles, N



Test of a new components method for age-at-death estimation from the medial end of the fourth rib using a modern Spanish sample.  


Recently, Verzeletti et al. (Am J Forensic Med Pathol 31:27-33, 2010) developed a new components method for the estimation of age-at-death from the sternal end of the fourth rib. This approach consists of the assignment of numerical scores for several age-related morphological characteristics, which are then inserted into a regression equation for predicting chronological age. The present study tested the accuracy of the new components method on a sample from Spain, consisting of 58 males and 36 females. The results demonstrated that the regression equation devised by the aforementioned authors for an Italian male sample was less accurate when applied to the Spanish population sample. This was true for separate male and female samples, as well as a combined-sex sample. A pair of population-specific regression formulae was then generated from the Spanish sample data in an attempt to improve the accuracy of the age estimate. The new equation which incorporated sex as an independent variable did not yield more accurate age estimates than a non-sex-specific equation. Furthermore, both of these formulae provided only marginally more accurate results for the Spanish sample compared to the original Italian equation. Thus, the standard errors of the estimate associated with these population-specific models (8.1-8.9 years) were still noticeably larger than the 5.2 years observed by Verzeletti and colleagues in their Italian study. Given the high standard errors associated with the age estimates for the Spanish population sample, the new rib components method should be used in conjunction with other adult aging techniques. PMID:22752810

Macaluso, P James; Lucena, Joaquín



Diagnostic Radiology Guidelines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The health systems agency that reviews certificate of need applications for replacing or adding diagnostic radiology equipment should benefit from these guidelines. To help determine need for diagnostic radiology equipment, the Health Services Council, In...



Applications of Nanobiotechnology in Clinical Diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Nanobiotechnologies are being applied to molecular diagnostics and several technologies are in development. Methods: This review describes nanobiotechnologies that are already incorporated in molecular diagnostics or have potential applications in clinical diagnosis. Se- lected promising technologies from published literature as well as some technologies that are in commercial development but have not been reported are included. Results: Nanotechnologies enable

Kewal K. Jain



Assessing modern ground survey methods and airborne laser scanning for digital terrain modelling: A case study from the Lake District, England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper compares the applicability of three ground survey methods for modelling terrain: one man electronic tachymetry (TPS), real time kinematic GPS (GPS), and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). Vertical accuracy of digital terrain models (DTMs) derived from GPS, TLS and airborne laser scanning (ALS) data is assessed. Point elevations acquired by the four methods represent two sections of a mountainous area in Cumbria, England. They were chosen so that the presence of non-terrain features is constrained to the smallest amount. The vertical accuracy of the DTMs was addressed by subtracting each DTM from TPS point elevations. The error was assessed using exploratory measures including statistics, histograms, and normal probability plots. The results showed that the internal measurement accuracy of TPS, GPS, and TLS was below a centimetre. TPS and GPS can be considered equally applicable alternatives for sampling the terrain in areas accessible on foot. The highest DTM vertical accuracy was achieved with GPS data, both on sloped terrain (RMSE 0.16 m) and flat terrain (RMSE 0.02 m). TLS surveying was the most efficient overall but veracity of terrain representation was subject to dense vegetation cover. Therefore, the DTM accuracy was the lowest for the sloped area with dense bracken (RMSE 0.52 m) although it was the second highest on the flat unobscured terrain (RMSE 0.07 m). ALS data represented the sloped terrain more realistically (RMSE 0.23 m) than the TLS. However, due to a systematic bias identified on the flat terrain the DTM accuracy was the lowest (RMSE 0.29 m) which was above the level stated by the data provider. Error distribution models were more closely approximated by normal distribution defined using median and normalized median absolute deviation which supports the use of the robust measures in DEM error modelling and its propagation.

Gallay, Michal; Lloyd, Christopher D.; McKinley, Jennifer; Barry, Lorraine



Excellence in Molecular Diagnostics

The Excellence in Molecular Diagnostics Lecture series recognizes outstanding leaders who are making ground-breaking contributions in molecular diagnostics and who have demonstrated broad and integrated approaches in the development and implementation of diagnostics commensurate with emerging technologies. Speakers in this series will have made significant achievement through fundamental observations, discoveries and intellectual contributions in the basic and applied sciences relevant to the practice of clinical molecular diagnostics.


A Dynamical Successor to Modernism and Postmodernism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author introduces an emerging worldview that could affect counseling concepts and methods greatly in the relatively near future. The worldview, dynamicalism, incorporates essential features of modernism and postmodernism. It also incorporates cutting-edge concepts from physics and philosophy. The synthesis of these ideas provides a conceptual…

MacDonald, Don



An Introduction to Modern Missing Data Analyses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great deal of recent methodological research has focused on two modern missing data analysis methods: maximum likelihood and multiple imputation. These approaches are advantageous to traditional techniques (e.g. deletion and mean imputation techniques) because they require less stringent assumptions and mitigate the pitfalls of traditional…

Baraldi, Amanda N.; Enders, Craig K.




Microsoft Academic Search

Speed and flexibility are the two critical factors for competitiveness. Presently, product life cycle is shorten and more fashionable. The risky is that the new product must be met with market requirements. Modern fashion trend analysis is indispensable in order to reduce storage of end products. Effective methods together with sufficient database are needed to make the analysis more accurate.

S. Butdee; C. Noomtong


Phillip Buehler: Modern Ruins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by photographer Phillip Buehler, this site showcases photos he has taken at various "modern ruins," decaying buildings or sites that still perhaps echo human presence. While there are twenty collections of photos on the site, only the first six are presented as thumbnail indexes with brief introductions and captions. The remaining sections are available as small images with no descriptions. Still, Buehler offers some lovely photos. Highlights include Ellis Island, Coney Island, the 1964 New York World's Fair pavilions, and the airplane graveyard. Buehler's homepage contains several other photo collections, including "Street Fossils," items he found embedded in hot summer asphalt, "Above New York," and "New York Cityscapes."


Laboratory Diagnostics of Botulism  

PubMed Central

Botulism is a potentially lethal paralytic disease caused by botulinum neurotoxin. Human pathogenic neurotoxins of types A, B, E, and F are produced by a diverse group of anaerobic spore-forming bacteria, including Clostridium botulinum groups I and II, Clostridium butyricum, and Clostridium baratii. The routine laboratory diagnostics of botulism is based on the detection of botulinum neurotoxin in the patient. Detection of toxin-producing clostridia in the patient and/or the vehicle confirms the diagnosis. The neurotoxin detection is based on the mouse lethality assay. Sensitive and rapid in vitro assays have been developed, but they have not yet been appropriately validated on clinical and food matrices. Culture methods for C. botulinum are poorly developed, and efficient isolation and identification tools are lacking. Molecular techniques targeted to the neurotoxin genes are ideal for the detection and identification of C. botulinum, but they do not detect biologically active neurotoxin and should not be used alone. Apart from rapid diagnosis, the laboratory diagnostics of botulism should aim at increasing our understanding of the epidemiology and prevention of the disease. Therefore, the toxin-producing organisms should be routinely isolated from the patient and the vehicle. The physiological group and genetic traits of the isolates should be determined. PMID:16614251

Lindstrom, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu



SFMOMA: Explore Modern Art  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art website has a wonderful feature that aims to help visitors of the online exhibits (or the physical museum) understand what was going on in the mind of the artist, the curator, or art historian when they created, chose or studied a work of art. The "Explore Modern Art" link provides a multimedia resource which helps visitors better understand this often misunderstood mode of artistic endeavor. Visitors can go to the archive of multimedia presentations released by SFMOMA, which covers more than 50 artists, such as Sol LeWitt and Betye Saar. To hear the musings of curators on exhibits at SFMOMA, visitors should click on the "Audio" link under "Multimedia." If you are not familiar with the artwork featured in the audio, most of the audio features provide a link to a biography of the artist featured, as well as to a few of their works. Visitors shouldn't miss watching the time-lapse video of "SFMOMA installs Ann Hamilton's indigo blue", which can be found in the "Video" link on the left said of the page.


Making the Modern World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Making the Modern World offers a dynamic rendition of the permanent gallery at the Science Museum in London. The "learning modules" are "packed with demonstrations, activities and rich media experiences" and "designed for use by everyone interested in learning more about the evolution of the modern world." Topics include how to engineer DNA, how the world's most famous bridges were built, and war technology. The Stories Timeline section provides a timeline of stories about inventions to "show how our lives are shaped by the things we make, invent and use." Articles are embedded within the timeline for further exploration of the topics. Another section highlights some of the Icons of Invention, such as the home computer and the Apollo 10 command module. The Everyday Life section explores how "technology is woven through our daily lives at home, at work or at play." Finally, the Guided Tours chronologically follows a particular topic, such as women in science and technology. All of the sections include photographs and are easy to navigate.


Heliotropism in modern stromatolites  

SciTech Connect

Three different examples of modern microbial mats and stromatolites have been discovered that exhibit a preferred orientation towards specular sunlight. In Hamelin Pool of Shark Bay, Western Australia, subtidal decimeter-sized discrete columns and intertidal centimeter-sized tufts were found pointing north. In thermal spring effluents and pools of Yellowstone National Park, columnar and conical centimeter-sized microbial structures were found to be inclined to the south. None of these inclined structures show growth orientation in response to prevailing fluid directions. Each example occurs in markedly different environments and each has different photosynthetic microbes: (1) the subtidal Shark Bay columns are dominated by surficial diatoms: (2) the intertidal Shark Bay tufts constructed by a filamentous cyanobacterium; and (3) the cones and columns in Yellowstone are built by filamentous flexibacteria and cyanobacteria. Sunlight must be considered a major driving force in stromatolite morphogenesis. Extrapolation of these modern heliotropic columnar stromatolites to fossil examples supports the paleolatitude hypothesis of Vologdin (1961) and of Nordeng (1963) and the days per year hypothesis of Vanyo and Awramik (1982). Taken together, and especially when combined with paleomagnetic analyses, the procedures yield an impressive array of data on Earth and Earth-Sun-Moon histories.

Awramik, S.M.



Information integration in the modern pulp and paper industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like other types of industry, the modern pulp and paper industry (MPPI) is applying more modern information technologies and management technologies, and is integrating the different function sub-systems and production processes to realize intelligent and integrated production. This task is very complex thus useful theories, technologies and methods are needed to provide help. At the same time, fierce competition in

Guang-Yu Xiong; Gang Xiong; T. R. Nyberg



AST Combustion Workshop: Diagnostics Working Group Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A workshop was convened under NASA's Advanced Subsonics Technologies (AST) Program. Many of the principal combustion diagnosticians from industry, academia, and government laboratories were assembled in the Diagnostics/Testing Subsection of this workshop to discuss the requirements and obstacles to the successful implementation of advanced diagnostic techniques to the test environment of the proposed AST combustor. The participants, who represented the major relevant areas of advanced diagnostic methods currently applied to combustion and related fields, first established the anticipated AST combustor flowfield conditions. Critical flow parameters were then examined and prioritized as to their importance to combustor/fuel injector design and manufacture, environmental concerns, and computational interests. Diagnostic techniques were then evaluated in terms of current status, merits and obstacles for each flow parameter. All evaluations are presented in tabular form and recommendations are made on the best-suited diagnostic method to implement for each flow parameter in order of applicability and intrinsic value.

Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Hanson, Ronald K.



Comparative diagnostic and analytical performance of PCR and LAMP-based trypanosome detection methods estimated using pooled whole tsetse flies and midguts.  


Detection of trypanosomes that cause disease in human beings and livestock within their tsetse fly hosts is an essential component of vector and disease control programmes. Several molecular-based diagnostic tests have been developed for this purpose. Many of these tests, while sensitive, require analysis of trypanosome DNA extracted from single flies, or from pooled tsetse fly heads and amplified trypanosome DNA. In this study, we evaluated the relative analytical and diagnostic sensitivities of two PCR-based tests (ITS and TBR) and a Trypanozoon specific LAMP assay using pooled whole tsetse flies and midguts spiked with serially diluted procyclics of a laboratory strain of Trypanosoma brucei brucei (KETRI 3386). Test sensitivity was also evaluated using experimentally infected tsetse flies. The aim was to determine the most appropriate pooling strategy for whole tsetse and midguts. RIME-LAMP had the highest diagnostic sensitivity (100%) followed by TBR-PCR (95%) and ITS-PCR (50%) in detecting trypanosome DNA from pooled tsetse midguts. RIME-LAMP also had the best diagnostic specificity (75%) followed by ITS-PCR (68%) and TBR-PCR (50%). The relative detection limit determined by serial dilution of procyclics was below 10(-6) (equivalent to 1parasite/ml). Using TBR-PCR, ITS-PCR and RIME-LAMP, it was possible to detect trypanosome DNA in single flies or in pools of 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, or 15 flies/midguts. The proportion of positive pools declined by up to 60% when testing pools of 15 whole flies as opposed to testing pools of 5-10 flies. Additionally, it was possible to detect DNA in a single infected tsetse fly in the background of 4, 9, or 14 uninfected tsetse flies. Averaged across pool sizes and tsetse species, RIME-LAMP detected the highest proportion of positive pools in spiked whole tsetse and midguts (86.6% and 87.2%) followed by TBR-PCR (78. 6% and 79.2%) and ITS-PCR (34.3% and 40.2%). There were no significant differences between the proportions of positive pools detected in whole flies and midguts. We conclude that pooling of whole tsetse/midguts is an effective strategy to reduce hands-on-time and hence has potential application in large scale xenomonitoring to generate epidemiological data for decision making. RIME-LAMP offers the best diagnostic sensitivity and specificity on pooled tsetse midguts, thus demonstrating its superior diagnostic performance when compared with TBR-PCR and ITS-PCR. Using pools of whole tsetse or midguts as source of DNA does not have any significant effect on test results and is more representative of the field conditions where the proportion of flies with infected midguts tends to be higher than flies with infected salivary glands. Therefore to save time and minimize costs, pooling of whole tsetse flies is recommended. PMID:23796572

Malele, Imna I; Ouma, Johnson O; Enyaru, John C K; Matovu, Enock; Alibu, Vincent; Auma, Joanna E; Onyoyo, Samuel G; Bateta, Rosemary; Changasi, Robert E; Mukiria, Phoebe W; Ndung'u, Kariuki; Gitonga, Purity K; Mwaniki, Lilian M; Nyingilili, Hamisi S; Lyaruu, Eugene A; Kapange, Lupakisyo A; Kamau, Peter Kuria; Masiga, Daniel K



Modern carbonate mound systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonate mounds are prominent features throughout the geological record. In many hydrocarbon provinces, they form prime reservoir structures. But recent investigations have increasingly reported occurrences of large mound clusters at the surface of the seabed, or buried at shallow depth on modern ocean margins, and in particular in basins rich in hydrocarbons. Such exciting new observations along the West-European margin are promising for elucidating the setting and environment of modern carbonate mounds, but at the same time they confront us with puzzling or sometimes contradictory observations in the quest for their genesis. Spectacular cold-water coral communities have colonized such mounds, but convincing arguments for recognizing them as prime builders are still lacking. The geological record provides ample evidence of microbial mediation in mound build-up and stabilisation, but as long as mound drilling is lacking, we have no opportunity to verify the role of such processes and identify the key actors in the earliest stage of onset and development of modern mounds. Some evidence from the past record and from present very-high resolution observations in the shallow seabed suggest an initial control by fluid venting, and fluid migration pathways have been imaged or are tentatively reconstructed by modelling in the concerned basins, but the ultimate link in the shallow subsurface seems still to elude a large part of our efforts. Surface sampling and analyses of both corals and surface sediments have largely failed in giving any conclusive evidence of present-day or recent venting in the considered basins. But on the other hand, applying rigourously the interpretational keys derived from e.g. Porcupine Seabight settings off NW Ireland on brand new prospective settings e.g. on the Moroccan margin have resulted in the discovery of totally new mound settings, in the middle of a field of giant, active mud volcanoes. Keys are apparently working, but we still do not understand how or why. We are no doubt facing complex systems at the interface between the Biosphere and the Geosphere, owing their genesis and spectacular growth to a complex woven of internal and external controls, feedback and process relay processes.

Henriet, J. P.; Dullo, C.



The Mainstream of Consciousness: James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, William Faulkner and Mass Modernism  

E-print Network

The Mainstream of Consciousness: James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, William Faulkner and Mass Modernism argues that the "stream of consciousness" method which has become synonymous with "high" modernism was, in actuality, a ...

Brister, Joseph Gregory



Beam by design: Laser manipulation of electrons in modern accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerator-based light sources such as storage rings and free-electron lasers use relativistic electron beams to produce intense radiation over a wide spectral range for fundamental research in physics, chemistry, materials science, biology, and medicine. More than a dozen such sources operate worldwide, and new sources are being built to deliver radiation that meets with the ever-increasing sophistication and depth of new research. Even so, conventional accelerator techniques often cannot keep pace with new demands and, thus, new approaches continue to emerge. In this article, a variety of recently developed and promising techniques that rely on lasers to manipulate and rearrange the electron distribution in order to tailor the properties of the radiation are reviewed. Basic theories of electron-laser interactions, techniques to create microstructures and nanostructures in electron beams, and techniques to produce radiation with customizable waveforms are reviewed. An overview of laser-based techniques for the generation of fully coherent x rays, mode-locked x-ray pulse trains, light with orbital angular momentum, and attosecond or even zeptosecond long coherent pulses in free-electron lasers is presented. Several methods to generate femtosecond pulses in storage rings are also discussed. Additionally, various schemes designed to enhance the performance of light sources through precision beam preparation including beam conditioning, laser heating, emittance exchange, and various laser-based diagnostics are described. Together these techniques represent a new emerging concept of "beam by design" in modern accelerators, which is the primary focus of this article.

Hemsing, Erik; Stupakov, Gennady; Xiang, Dao; Zholents, Alexander



The ritual abuse of children: clinical features and diagnostic reasoning.  


A case of alleged ritual sexual abuse is presented. Clinical recognition and diagnostic reasoning are discussed. After a brief account of modern satanism, it is concluded that, although the evidence for the occurrence of ritual abuse is sketchy, a high index of suspicion is appropriate. PMID:1789821

Nurcombe, B; Unützer, J



Advanced diagnostics and instrumentation for chemically reactive systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress is reported for the first year of an interdisciplinary program to investigate and develop modern diagnostic techniques for application to reacting flows. Project areas include: (1) development and application of optical probes for species measurements employing tunable ultraviolet, visible and infrared laser sources; (2) development and application of a coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) system for temperature and velocity

R. K. Hanson; D. Baganoff; C. T. Bowman; R. L. Byer; B. J. Cantwell; S. A. Self



Mary Cassatt: Modern Woman  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mary Cassatt: Modern Woman, an exhibition of about one hundred paintings and prints by this popular American Impressionist artist, was the 1998 Christmas-season blockbuster at the Art Institute of Chicago. The exhibition has travelled on to the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, where advance tickets sold out just as quickly as they did in Chicago. MFA Boston provides this Web version of the show, which includes twenty Cassatts that you can see without leaving home. The Online Exhibition also features background information on each work of art, and a gift shop with online ordering that offers the exhibition catalogue and the same Mary Cassatt note cards, tote bags, and posters that you can purchase at the museums.


Modern carbonate environments  

SciTech Connect

This book offers help in evaluating potential sites for oil and gas accumulations. Pointing the way to discovery of hydrocarbons in carbonate reservoirs, this volume discusses modern carbonate depositional environments in different geomorphic settings. It compiles papers by scientists whose observations have revolutionized current thinking on facies relationships in ancient carbonate rock. Contents include: Selected carbonate regions --The Algal Sediments on Androa Island in the Bahamas, Sedimentary Facies, Interaction of Genetic Processes in Holocene Reefs off North Eleuthera Island in the Bahamas, Recent Anhydrite, Holocene Shallow-Water Carbonate and Evaporite Sediments of Khor al Bazam; Carbonate production--On the Origin of Aragonite in the Dead Sea, Carbonate Production by Coral Reefs; Cold-water carbonates--Contributions on the Geology of the Northwestern Peninsula of Iceland, Evaluation of Cold-Water Carbonates as a Possible Paleoclimatic Indicator.

Bhattacharyya, A.; Friedman, G.M.



Insulation Degradation Diagnostic Technology to XLPE Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

XLPE power cables have been in use for long time now and some of them are approaching 30 years of their designed lifetime. However, under the present severe economic situation, it is necessary to use the existing apparatus as long as possible. So, degradation diagnostic methods with high reliability are needed earnestly. This paper explains the insulation degradation mechanism of XLPE power cables and the newest diagnostic methods on each voltage class. In 3.3-77kV classes, fairly high extents of the cable accidents depend on the water-tree degradation. For 3.3-6.6kV class cables, on-line diagnostic methods with high reliability to detect bridged water-trees have been developed and put in practical use. And, for 22-77kV classes, two promising off-line diagnostic methods to detect un-bridged water-trees have begun to carry out in on-site tests.

Uchida, Katsumi; Okamoto, Tatsuki


Development methods of steam turbines 3D geometry optical control for effective heat power equipment quality improvement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for steam turbines 3D geometry optical control for effective heat power equipment quality improvement is proposed. It is shown that technical characteristics of the developed optical phase triangulation method for precision contactless geometry diagnostics of steam turbines meet modern requirements to 3D geometry measuring instruments and are perspective for further development. It is shown that used phase step method provides measurement error less than 0.024% of measurement range.

Dvoynishnikov, Sergey




EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the requirements for the collection and analysis of ambient particles to satisfy data requirements for source and receptor models as applied to pollution control applications. The paper describes the following analytical procedures as applied to receptor model...


Conducting systematic reviews of diagnostic studies: didactic guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although guidelines for critical appraisal of diagnostic research and meta-analyses have already been published, these may be difficult to understand for clinical researchers or do not provide enough detailed information. METHODS: Development of guidelines based on a systematic review of the evidence in reports of systematic searches of the literature for diagnostic research, of methodological criteria to evaluate diagnostic

Walter L Devillé; Frank Buntinx; Lex M Bouter; Victor M Montori; Henrica CW de Vet; Danielle AWM van der Windt; P Dick Bezemer



Diagnostic Transitions from Childhood to Adolescence to Early Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Quantifying diagnostic transitions across development is needed to estimate the long-term burden of mental illness. This study estimated patterns of diagnostic transitions from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to early adulthood. Methods: Patterns of diagnostic transitions were estimated using data from three prospective,…

Copeland, William E.; Adair, Carol E.; Smetanin, Paul; Stiff, David; Briante, Carla; Colman, Ian; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John; Poulton, Richie; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian



Reducing Diagnostic Error with Computer-Based Clinical Decision Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information technology approaches to delivering diagnostic clinical decision support (CDS) are the subject of the papers to follow in the proceedings. These will address the history of CDS and present day approaches (Miller), evaluation of diagnostic CDS methods (Friedman), and the role of clinical documentation in supporting diagnostic decision…

Greenes, Robert A.



Bibliographie Moderner Fremdsprachenunterricht (Bibliography of Modern Foreign Language Instruction), 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quarterly annotated bibliography lists periodicals, scholarly journals, and institutions that may be of interest to modern language teachers, and provides bibliographic information for modern language reference, research, and teaching materials. In each issue, an introductory section provides background information on sources and details the…

Bibliographie Moderner Fremdsprachenunterricht, 1995



Bibliographie Moderner Fremdsprachenunterricht (Bibliography of Modern Foreign Language Instruction), 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quarterly annotated bibliography lists periodicals, scholarly journals, and institutions that may be of interest to modern language teachers, and provides bibliographic information for modern language reference, research, and teaching materials. In each issue, an introductory section provides background information on sources and details the…

Bibliographie Moderner Fremdsprachenunterricht, 1996



Diagnostic Development on NSTX  

SciTech Connect

Diagnostics are described which are currently installed or under active development for the newly commissioned NSTX device. The low aspect ratio (R/a less than or equal to 1.3) and low toroidal field (0.1-0.3T) used in this device dictate adaptations in many standard diagnostic techniques. Technical summaries of each diagnostic are given, and adaptations, where significant, are highlighted.

A.L. Roquemore; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; et al



Optical Diagnostics in Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light has a unique potential for non-invasive tissue diagnosis. The relatively short wavelength of light allows imaging of tissue at the resolution of histopathology. While strong multiple scattering of light in tissue makes attainment of this resolution difficult for thick tissues, most pathology emanates from epithelial surfaces. Therefore, high-resolution diagnosis of many important diseases may be achieved by transmitting light to the surface of interest. The recent fiber-optic implementation of technologies that reject multiple scattering, such as confocal microscopy and optical low coherence interferometry, have brought us one step closer to realizing non-invasive imaging of architectural and cellular features of tissue. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can produce high-resolution cross-sectional images of biological structures. Clinical OCT studies conducted in the gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system have shown that OCT is capable of providing images of the architectural (> 20 µm) microanatomy of a variety of epithelial tissues, including the layered structure of squamous epithelium and arterial vessels. Fine Needle Aspiration- Low Coherence Interferometry (FNA-LCI) is another optical diagnostics technique, which is a suitable solution to increase the effectiveness of the FNA procedures. LCI is capable of measuring depth resolved (axial, z) tissue structure, birefringence, flow (Doppler shift), and spectra at a resolution of several microns. Since LCI systems are fiber-optic based, LCI probes may easily fit within the bore of a fine gauge needle, allowing diagnostic information to be obtained directly from the FNA biopsy site. Fiber optic spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a new confocal microscopy method, which eliminates the need for rapid beam scanning within the optical probe. This advance enables confocal microscopy to be performed through small diameter probes and will allow assessment of internal human tissues in vivo at the cellular level. A detailed description of several fiber optics based systems for early diseases diagnosis, as well as preliminary clinic results, will be presented.

Iftimia, Nicusor



Pattern classification approach to rocket engine diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a systems level approach to integrate state-of-the-art rocket engine technology with advanced computational techniques to develop an integrated diagnostic system (IDS) for future rocket propulsion systems. The key feature of this IDS is the use of advanced diagnostic algorithms for failure detection as opposed to the current practice of redline-based failure detection methods. The paper presents a top-down analysis of rocket engine diagnostic requirements, rocket engine operation, applicable diagnostic algorithms, and algorithm design techniques, which serve as a basis for the IDS. The concepts of hierarchical, model-based information processing are described, together with the use uf signal processing, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence techniques which are an integral part of this diagnostic system. 27 refs.

Tulpule, S.



Small business development for molecular diagnostics.  


Molecular profiling, which is the application of molecular diagnostics technology to tissue and blood -specimens, is an integral element in the new era of molecular medicine and individualized therapy. Molecular diagnostics is a fertile ground for small business development because it can generate products that meet immediate demands in the health-care sector: (a) Detection of disease risk, or early-stage disease, with a higher specificity and sensitivity compared to previous testing methods, and (b) "Companion diagnostics" for stratifying patients to receive a treatment choice optimized to their individual disease. This chapter reviews the promise and challenges of business development in this field. Guidelines are provided for the creation of a business model and the generation of a marketing plan around a candidate molecular diagnostic product. Steps to commercialization are outlined using existing molecular diagnostics companies as learning examples. PMID:22081362

Anagostou, Anthanasia; Liotta, Lance A



Hypereosinophilia: A Diagnostic Dilemma  

PubMed Central

A case of hypereosinophilia is presented. The case illustrates the complexity of the diagnostic processes in certain conditions like hypereosinophilia. Keywords Hypereosinophilia; Myocarditis; Stroke PMID:21629546

Rehman, Habib Ur



Comparison of diagnostic value of a novel noninvasive coronary computed tomography angiography method versus standard coronary angiography for assessing fractional flow reserve.  


Noninvasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) from coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) correlates well with invasive FFR and substantially improves the detection of obstructive coronary artery disease. However, with current algorithms, computed tomography (CT)-based FFR is derived off-site in an involved time-consuming manner. We sought to investigate the diagnostic performance of a novel CT-based FFR algorithm, developed for time-efficient in-hospital evaluation of hemodynamically indeterminate coronary lesions. In a blinded fashion, CT-based FFR was assessed in 67 coronary lesions of 53 patients. Pressure guidewire-based FFR <0.80 served as the reference standard to define hemodynamically significant stenosis and assess the diagnostic performance of CT-based FFR compared with standard evaluation of cCTA (luminal diameter stenosis of ?50%). We recorded the time needed for derivation of CT-based FFR. On a per-lesion and per-patient basis, CT-based FFR resulted in a sensitivity of 85% and 94%, a specificity of 85% and 84%, a positive predictive value of 71% and 71%, and a negative predictive value of 93% and 97%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve on a per-lesion basis was significantly greater for CT-based FFR compared with standard evaluation of cCTA (0.92 vs 0.72, p = 0.0049). A similar trend, albeit not statistically significant, was observed on per-patient analysis (0.91 vs 0.78, p = 0.078). Mean total time for CT-based FFR was 37.5 ± 13.8 minutes. In conclusion, the CT-based FFR algorithm evaluated here outperforms standard evaluation of cCTA for the detection of hemodynamically significant stenoses while allowing on-site application within clinically viable time frames. PMID:25205628

Renker, Matthias; Schoepf, U Joseph; Wang, Rui; Meinel, Felix G; Rier, Jeremy D; Bayer, Richard R; Möllmann, Helge; Hamm, Christian W; Steinberg, Daniel H; Baumann, Stefan



History Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish  

E-print Network

104 History­ Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish and Middle East Studies MA (Single Honours Degree) History BA (International Honours Degree) History See page 13 (See also Ancient History page 52, and History ­ Mediaeval History page 106 History ­ Middle East Studies page 108 History ­ Modern History page

Brierley, Andrew


History Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish  

E-print Network

112 History­ Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish and Middle East Studies Degree options MA (Single Honours Degree) History BA (International Honours Degree) History (See page 51) (See also Ancient History page 62 History ­ Mediaeval History page 114 History ­ Middle East Studies page 116 History ­ Modern

Brierley, Andrew


When and What to Modernize.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a brief discussion of when a school board should consider modernizing mechanical and electrical equipment the speaker explored the specifics of lighting, heating, and ventilation. Technical data on foot candles, types of light fixtures, and the importance of air conditioning in modern school buildings are presented. The presentation…

Price, D. Dana


Dystopia and the Modern Subject  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation explores the connections between dystopia and modern theorizations of human subjectivity in Aldous Huxley's Brave New World and George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four. These two pioneering dystopias confront their reader's understanding of being human, as well as considering notions of responsibility, freedom, self and subjectivity by challenging modern assumptions of the nature of human reality. My introduction considers dystopia,

Christina Dolores Perez



Fundamentals of Modern Unsteady Aerodynamics  

E-print Network

Fundamentals of Modern Unsteady Aerodynamics U. Gulcat Springer, Tiergartenstrasse 17, D-69121 covers the modern topics on unsteady aerodynamics. The classical chapters mostly refer to the aerodynamic, different sorts of wing rock and flapping wing aerodynamics. The so-called classical topics can be found

Nagurka, Mark L.



Microsoft Academic Search

Modern communication systems encompass noise sup- pression algorithms to compensate for recording and transmission errors as well as multimedia data repre- sentation modules offering both expressive and discrim- inating capabilities. Fusion of decisions derived by mono-modal detectors and features extracted separately for each data type should be supported. In addition, modern terminals should be equipped with human- cen- tered interfaces

C. Kotropoulos; I. Pitas


Functional Verification through Operation Diagnostics  

E-print Network

or less than optimal operation can be assessed. However, several questions arise regarding this process: What data should be visualized? What form should this visualization take? How can data from several different yet interrelated control points... be best compared? Finally, what patterns within a visualization should be sought? This paper descibes a method of building system trend data analysis, known as Operation Diagnostics, that involves the creation of ideal patterns for comparison to actual...

Burgoyne, B.


Stellar population synthesis diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantitative method is presented to compare observed and synthetic colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The method is based on a chi (2) merit function for a point (c_i,m_i) in the observed CMD, which has a corresponding point in the simulated CMD within nsigma (c_i,m_i) of the error ellipse. The chi (2) merit function is then combined with the Poisson merit function of the points for which no corresponding point was found within the nsigma (c_i,m_i) error ellipse boundary. Monte-Carlo simulations are presented to demonstrate the diagnostics obtained from the combined (chi (2) , Poisson) merit function through variation of different parameters in the stellar population synthesis tool. The simulations indicate that the merit function can potentially be used to reveal information about the initial mass function. Information about the star formation history of single stellar aggregates, such as open or globular clusters and possibly dwarf galaxies with a dominating stellar population, might not be reliable if one is dealing with a relatively small age range.

Ng, Y. K.



Principles of plasma diagnostics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book is a reprint of the 1987 edition (44.003.073). Contents: 1. Plasma diagnostics. 2. Magnetic diagnostics. 3. Plasma particle flux. 4. Refractive-index measurements. 5. Electromagnetic emission by free electrons. 6. Electromagnetic radiation from bound electrons. 7. Scattering of electromagnetic radiation. 8. Ion processes.

Hutchinson, I. H.


Automotive Diagnostic Technologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains materials developed for and about the automotive diagnostic technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with an automotive/diagnostic technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or a 2-year automotive…

Columbus State Community Coll., OH.


Assessment of building diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The building diagnostics requirements for in-situ or field measurements on energy consumption in conditioned spaces and on heat gain and loss in residential and nonresidential buildings are evaluated. Energy audit programs, energy performance monitoring, energy flow in buildings, and use of computer technology are considered. A diagnostics program is outlined.

Courville, G. E.



Longitudinal diagnostic efficiency of DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder: a 2-year prospective study.  

E-print Network

??OBJECTIVE: To examine the longitudinal diagnostic efficiency of the DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD). METHODS: At baseline, we used semistructured diagnostic interviews to… (more)

Grilo, Carlos M.



Diagnostic tolerance for missing sensor data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For practical automated diagnostic systems to continue functioning after failure, they must not only be able to diagnose sensor failures but also be able to tolerate the absence of data from the faulty sensors. It is shown that conventional (associational) diagnostic methods will have combinatoric problems when trying to isolate faulty sensors, even if they adequately diagnose other components. Moreover, attempts to extend the operation of diagnostic capability past sensor failure will necessarily compound those difficulties. Model-based reasoning offers a structured alternative that has no special problems diagnosing faulty sensors and can operate gracefully when sensor data is missing.

Scarl, Ethan A.



Diagnostic inflation: causes and a suggested cure.  


There have been a striking diagnostic inflation and a corresponding increase in the use of psychotropic drugs during the past 30 years. DSM-5, scheduled to appear in May 2013, proposes another grand expansion of mental illness. In this article, we will review the causes of diagnostic exuberance and associated medical treatment. We will then suggest a method of stepped care combined with stepped diagnosis, which may reduce overdiagnosis without risking undertreatment of those who really need help. The goal is to control diagnostic inflation, to reduce the harms and costs of unnecessary treatment, and to save psychiatry from overdiagnosis and ridicule. PMID:22652609

Batstra, Laura; Frances, Allen



Selected Diagnostics for Microgravity Combustion Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of our understanding of combustion phenomena occurring under reduced gravity conditions poses a continuing demand for diagnostic tools of increased sophistication. Existing methods have become insufficient to keep pace with emerging refinements in the underlying theories and predictive models. The coupling of physical mechanisms inherent in combustion systems mandates the simultaneous determination of numerous thermophysical quantities, principally temperature, velocity, and species concentrations. Observed differences attributable to variations in experimental configuration, fuels and diluents, and initial conditions enhance the difficulty of developing diagnostic methods suitable for the acquisition of the required data over the desired range of experimental parameters. Efforts to provide for ongoing diagnostic development supporting microgravity combustion science experiments are conducted within the Microgravity Science Division at the NASA-Lewis Research Center. The following describes recent results from several diagnostic development efforts conducted under this project.

Greenberg, Paul S.; Weiland, Karen J.; Griffin, DeVon W.; Yanis, William



Posing Modernism: Delsartism in Modern Dance and Silent Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay establishes a genealogy of modernist performance that foregrounds the popular movement based on the ideas of the French acting theorist and voice teacher François Delsarte (1811-71). Delsartism has been understood as either a short-lived, anti-modern histrionic acting style or an affected regimen of self-improvement and physical culture, and is virtually absent from discussions of modernism. Yet the movement

Carrie J. Preston



Pattern classification approach to rocket engine diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a systems level approach to integrate state-of-the-art rocket engine technology with advanced computational techniques to develop an integrated diagnostic system (IDS) for future rocket propulsion systems. The key feature of this IDS is the use of advanced diagnostic algorithms for failure detection as opposed to the current practice of redline-based failure detection methods. The paper presents a




Human Vision Pathology Diagnostics by Photogrammetrics Means  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the reasons of such vision pathology as human stereoscopic vision capability dysfunction is an asymmetry of a human face. As a rule, such dysfunctions occur as early as in the babyhood, when diagnostic methods applied for adults are ineffective. Early diagnostics and prophylaxis could help in treatment of such pathology and face 3D modeling is one of the promising ways to solve this problem.

Murynin, A.; Knyaz, V.; Mateev, I.



Biochip Platforms for DNA Diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter looks at the use of microlithographically fabricated biochip platforms for DNA diagnostics and prognostics, although protein and RNA biochips are also briefly considered. Biodetection methods such as ion-selective electrodes (ISEs), microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices such as microcantilevers, optical, piezoelectric-based acoustic wave, and mass spectrometry are briefly discussed. Emphasis is given to label-free electrochemical (impedimetric, voltammet-ric, and amperometric) detection. The production of DNA biochips is highlighted as are the operation and design of the experiments to reveal gene expression and SNP data. Applications discussed include the monitoring of microbes, cancer classification studies, and patient stratification in drug development. Finally, challenges and issues facing the development of diagnostic and prognostic biochips are discussed in detail.

Deisingh, Anil K.; Guiseppi-Wilson, Adilah; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony


Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs ha