Sample records for modern diagnostic methods

  1. [Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].

    PubMed

    Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Ma?gorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders. PMID:17471820

  2. Application of modern diagnostic methods to environmental improvement. Annual progress report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, W.S.

    1995-12-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL), an interdisciplinary research department in the College of Engineering at Mississippi State University (MSU), is under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and apply advanced diagnostic instrumentation and analysis techniques to aid in solving DOE`s nuclear waste problem. The program is a comprehensive effort which includes five focus areas: advanced diagnostic systems; development/application; torch operation and test facilities; process development; on-site field measurement and analysis; technology transfer/commercialization. As part of this program, diagnostic methods will be developed and evaluated for characterization, monitoring and process control. Also, the measured parameters, will be employed to improve, optimize and control the operation of the plasma torch and the overall plasma treatment process. Moreover, on-site field measurements at various DOE facilities are carried out to aid in the rapid demonstration and implementation of modern fieldable diagnostic methods. Such efforts also provide a basis for technology transfer.

  3. Application of modern diagnostic methods to environmental improvement. Annual progress report, January--October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, W.S.

    1994-12-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL), a research department in the College of Engineering at Mississippi State University (MSU), is under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and apply advanced diagnostic instrumentation and analysis techniques to real world processes; measurements are made in hot, highly corrosive atmospheres in which conventional measurement devices are ineffective. Task 1 of this agreement is concerned with the development and application of various diagnostic methods to characterize the plasma properties, the melt properties and the downstream emissions from a plasma torch facility designed to vitrify mixed waste. Correlation of the measured properties with the operating parameters of the torch will be sought to improve, optimize and control the overall operation of the plasma treatment process. As part of this program, diagnostic methods will be developed and evaluated for characterization, monitoring and control purposes of treatment processes in general. Task 2 of this agreement is concerned with the development of a system to monitor and control the combustion stoichiometry in real time in order to minimize environmental impact and maximize process efficiency. Staged fuel injection is also being studied to minimize NO{sub x} formation.

  4. Onychomycosis: modern diagnostic and treatment approaches.

    PubMed

    Tchernev, Georgi; Penev, Plamen Kolev; Nenoff, Pietro; Zisova, Liliya Georgieva; Cardoso, José Carlos; Taneva, Teodora; Ginter-Hanselmayer, Gabriele; Ananiev, Julian; Gulubova, Maya; Hristova, Reni; Nocheva, Desislava; Guarneri, Claudio; Martino, G; Kanazawa, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    The medical term onychomycosis should be understood as chronic infection of the nails caused by a fungus. The most common causative agents are the dermatophytes and Candida species. The less common are certain types of moulds (nondermatophyte moulds or NDMs). In approximately 60-80 % of the cases, onychomycosis is due to dermatophytes. Among dermatophytes, the most often isolated causative pathogen is Trichophyton (T.) rubrum. Other common species are T. interdigitale (formerly T. mentagrophytes), Epidermophyton floccosum, and T. tonsurans. The most significant yeasts causing onychomycosis are Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. Predisposing factors for onychomycosis include mainly diseases such as diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular arterial disease, chronic venous insufficiency, polyneuropathies of diverse etiologies, and immunosuppression, e.g., myeloproliferative diseases (such as lymphoma and paraproteinemia), HIV/AIDS, etc. Other factors facilitating the fungal infection are frequent trauma in professional sportsmen, often accompanied by excessive perspiration. The diagnostic methods that are often applied in different dermatologic departments and ambulatory units are also different. This precludes the creation of a unified diagnostic algorithm that could be used everywhere as a possible standard. In most of the cases, the method of choice depends on the specialist's individual experience. The therapeutic approach depends mostly on the fungal organism identified by the dermatologist or mycologist. This review hereby includes the conventional as well as the newest and most reliable and modern methods used for the identification of the pathogens causing onychomycosis. Moreover, detailed information is suggested, about the choice of therapeutic scheme in case whether dermatophytes, moulds, or yeasts have been identified as causative agents. A thorough discussion of the schemes and duration of the antifungal therapy in certain groups of patients have been included. PMID:23053563

  5. Experimental Physics - Modern Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlap, R. A.

    1988-10-01

    Designed for physics students treating the underlying basis for modern techniques and the devices used, this timely survey describes current experimental methods in a clear and accessible text. This up-to-date volume provides an essential part of undergraduate physics training; until now, students were often expected to learn many of these methods in the laboratory without proper introduction. The broad coverage of available techniques includes discussion of state-of-the-art electronic equipment, as well as such topics as discrete semiconductor devices, signal processing, thermometry, optical components, nuclear instrumentation, and x-ray diffraction methods. Professor Dunlap's text will serve not only as a complete introduction for majors but also as a reference work for technicians throughout a professional career. In addition to tutorial discussions presented, tables of numerical data and constants are included, further enhancing the book as a permanent reference.

  6. Modern Pruning Methods

    E-print Network

    DeWerth, A. F.

    1961-01-01

    -topped hedge is more difficult to maintain and clip and is more IMPROPER METHOD OF PRU NlNG CRAPE-MYRTLE PROPER METHOD OF PRUNl NG CRAPE-MYRTLE 1. CUTTING ON LlNE SHOWN BY DASHED LlNE IS TOO OFTEN DONE WHEN PRUNING SHRUBS. 1. SHRUB BEFORE PRUNING... procedure illustrated above for pruning crape-myrtle also applies to many o!her large shrubs or small trees of similar structure. NATURAL HEDGE FAIR SHAPE GOOD SHAPE >OR SHAPE PRUNING AND SHEARING HEDGES / PLANTING FIRST YEAR SECOND YEAR THIRD YEAR...

  7. Standing footprint diagnostic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Y. F.; Fan, Y. B.; Li, Z. Y.; Newman, T.; Lv, C. S.; Fan, Y. Z.

    2013-10-01

    Center of pressure is commonly used to evaluate standing balance. Even though it is incomplete, no better evaluation method has been presented. We designed our experiment with three standing postures: standing with feet together, standing with feet shoulder width apart, and standing with feet slightly wider than shoulder width. Our platform-based pressure system collected the instantaneous plantar pressure (standing footprint). A physical quantity of instantaneous standing footprint principal axis was defined, and it was used to construct an index to evaluate standing balance. Comparison between results from our newly established index and those from the center of pressure index to evaluate the stability of different standing postures revealed that the standing footprint principal axis index could better respond to the standing posture change than the existing one. Analysis indicated that the insensitive response to the relative position between feet and to the standing posture change from the center of pressure could be better detected by the standing footprint principal axis index. This predicts a wide application of standing footprint principal axis index when evaluating standing balance.

  8. [Optimization of diagnostic and therapeutic programs in modern neonatal surgery].

    PubMed

    Krasovskaia, T V; Kucherov, Iu I; Golodenko, N V; Gassan, T A; Levitskaia, M V; Romanova, L A

    2003-01-01

    Tendencies in neonatal surgery research are presented. Based on 187 cases, indications to preventive intestinal stomas creation in the newborns and also time of their closure are regarded. Surgical correction of malformation or treatment of acute process in the abdominal organs with intestinal stoma closing is finished to month 2-3 of childs life. The developed differential-diagnostic criteria of functional and organic lesion of ureteropelvic and ureterovesicular segments based on diuretic sonography permitted one to reveal early age pathology of urinary system and to correct it with surgical methods. The developed algorithm of diagnosis and treatment of newborns with eruct syndrome permits one to determine indications to surgery in 10% infants with gastroesophageal reflux. PMID:12926336

  9. [Real time diagnostics of instantaneous temperature of combustion and explosion process by modern spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-tie; Wang, Jun-de; Li, Yan; Liu, Da-bing

    2003-04-01

    The combustion temperature is one of the important parameters to express flame combustion and explosion characteristics. It will effectively guide the design and manufacture of new model explosives, industrial explosive materials, and weapons. The recent developments and applications of real time diagnostics of instantaneous temperature of combustion and explosion processes by modern spectroscopic methods, such as atomic absorption-emission method, atomic emission two-line spectroscopy, atomic emission multiline spectroscopy, molecular rotation-vibration spectroscopy, coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and plane laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), were reviewed in this paper. The maximum time resolution of atomic absorption-emission method is 25 microseconds. The time resolution of atomic emission two-line spectroscopy can reach 0.1 microsecond. These two methods can completely suit the need of real time and instantaneous temperature diagnostics of violent explosion and flame combustion. Other methods will also provide new effective research methods for the processes and characteristics of combustion, flame and explosion. PMID:12961909

  10. Modern statistical methods in respiratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Rory; Abramson, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Statistics sits right at the heart of scientific endeavour in respiratory medicine and many other disciplines. In this introductory article, some key epidemiological concepts such as representativeness, random sampling, association and causation, and confounding are reviewed. A brief introduction to basic statistics covering topics such as frequentist methods, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, P values and Type II error is provided. Subsequent articles in this series will cover some modern statistical methods including regression models, analysis of repeated measures, causal diagrams, propensity scores, multiple imputation, accounting for measurement error, survival analysis, risk prediction, latent class analysis and meta-analysis. PMID:24372633

  11. Laser diagnostic methods - A summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trolinger, J. D.; Azazzy, M.; Modarress, D.; Craig, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    This is a summary and discussion of the state of the art in the use of laser diagnostics in fluid and plasma dynamics. This will encompass: interferometry, scattering, spectroscopy, and velocimetry. Examples of such applications will be provided in the area of fluid dynamics of particle generation and breakup, analysis of three-dimensional density fields, and applications in combustion.

  12. [Pulmonary arterial hypertension: modern diagnostics and therapy--Part 1].

    PubMed

    Betkier-Lipi?ska, Katarzyna; Ryczek, Robert; Kwasiborski, Przemys?aw; Cwetsch, Andrzej

    2013-06-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) belongs to the group of rare diseases and the morbidity rate is 15 to 50 people per million per year. Before the era of specific treatment of PAH, the prognosis was poor. The average life expectancy of the patients was 2.8 years. However, in the last years there has been a breakthrough in treating the patients with PAH. The introduction of this specific treatment has prolonged the life and improved the quality of it within the group of the patients with PAH. In Poland, since 2008 the therapy has been organized by the Pulmonary Hypertension Therapeutic Program. PAH is a recognition done by excluding more probable causes of pulmonary hypertension (PH) such as: PH due to left heart disease and lung disease, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and PH with multifactorial mechanisms. The clinical symptoms of pulmonary hypertension are non-specific, they develop for a several months and they are mainly caused by progressive right ventricular failure. The base of PAH recognition is echocardiography, which indirectly estimates the pulmonary artery systolic pressure. However, the golden standard of PAH diagnostics is right heart catheterization (RHC) with measurements of pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), right atrial pressure (RAP), right ventricular pressure and pulmonary wedge pressure (PWP). The early PAH recognition and the correct classification of patients to the treatment organized by the Pulmonary Hypertension Therapeutic Program give them a chance for longer and more comfortable life. PMID:23882936

  13. Plasma Diagnostics Using Computed Tomography Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Denisova

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, the range of applications of various low-temperature plasma sources has steadily grown. New applications require development of advanced diagnostic methods to control plasma parameters. Computed tomography is a powerful method which can provide much useful information on the plasma structure and its evolution in time. From a mathematical point of view, tomographic reconstruction is an ill-posed

  14. INDUCTION MOTOR FAULT DIAGNOSTIC AND MONITORING METHODS

    E-print Network

    Povinelli, Richard J.

    INDUCTION MOTOR FAULT DIAGNOSTIC AND MONITORING METHODS by Aderiano M. da Silva, B.S. A Thesis Acknowledgement Special thanks for my advisor Dr. Richard J. Povinelli for his teaching, support and encouragement, support and discussions during this research. Finally, I would like to thanks my wife Marcia Silva for her

  15. MODERN ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR CHEMICAL RESIDUE DETECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements in instrumentation and methodology in the past decade have made the detection of chemical residues in foods not only faster but also less expensive and more sensitive. These modern analytical tools provide an efficient and affordable means to monitor the food supply for chemical residu...

  16. [The role of biomarkers in diagnostics and forecasting of effectiveness of modern therapy of rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova, E N; Novikov, A A; Nasonov, E L

    2013-08-01

    The rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most severe and widespread systemic inflammatory autoimmune diseases. The modern laboratory diagnostic of rheumatoid arthritis includes detection of large spectrum of biomarkers (autoantibodies, indicators of acute phase of inflammation, cytokines, markers of activation of endothelium, subpopulations of lymphocytes, products of metabolism of bone and cartilaginous tissue, genetic markers) in blood, synovial fluid, and synovial tissue. Alongside with common techniques of immunodiagnostics, the multiplex analysis of biomarkers based on genetic, transcript and proteomic technologies is applied. The results of identification of biomarkers are an important instrument of early diagnostics, activity evaluation, severity of disease course and disease prognosis and effectiveness of applied therapy. Among biomarkers associated with rheumatoid arthritis the most clinical value have antibodies (rheumatoid factor class IgM, antibodies to citrullinized proteins) and acute phase indicators (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein) which are diagnostic criteria of rheumatoid arthritis and can be used in evaluation of prognosis of this disease. On basis of multi-parametric analysis of 12 key proteins of blood serum the new index of activity of rheumatoid arthritis (Vectra DA) is developed Nowadays, the potential biomarkers are detected providing to implement immunologic monitoring and prognosis of effectiveness of therapy of rheumatoid arthritis with genetic engineering biologic preparations. The laboratory tests are developed to evaluate immunogenicity of genetic engineering biologic preparations and diagnostic of latent tuberculosis infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis against the background of therapy with using this group of pharmaceuticals. PMID:24340741

  17. A method of traffic signal control for modern roundabout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoguang Yang; Xiugang Li

    2003-01-01

    Modern roundabouts have been used among many countries. But when the circulatory roadway of a roundabout has more than two lanes, the disorder of the traffic cause big problems. The weaving section where the vehicles enter or leave the roundabout appears to be the critical bottleneck. In this paper, a new method of traffic signal control for modern roundabout is

  18. Comparison of Modern Methods for Shock Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, A W

    2005-06-13

    The accuracy and efficiency of several methods are compared for simulating multifluid compressible flows. The methods include a Godunov scheme (Colella, 1985), a Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory method (Jiang and Shu, 1996), an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian algorithm (Marinak et al., 2001) and a compact scheme (Cook and Cabot, 2005). Test problems include a compressible breaking wave, the Shu-Osher problem, the Taylor-Green vortex and decaying turbulence. The compact method employs an artificial bulk viscosity for treating shocks and an artificial shear viscosity for modeling turbulence. The compact method is demonstrated to capture shocks as well as the other schemes, while providing superior resolution of post-shock features.

  19. Methods of devotional reading in early modern England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mardy Philippian

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the question of how early modern devotional readers defined a text as spiritually efficacious. It considers two methods of reading that recent scholars have identified: the development and influence of the Erasmian, or humanistic method of reading based on the ideas of the Dutch scholar Desiderius Erasmus; and a Lutheran, or evangelical method of reading. Erasmus set

  20. Diagnostic Methods for Feline Coronavirus: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Saeed; Arshad, Siti Suri; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Zeenathul, Nazariah Allaudin; Alazawy, Amer

    2010-01-01

    Feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) are found throughout the world. Infection with FCoV can result in a diverse range of signs from clinically inapparent infections to a highly fatal disease called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). FIP is one of the most serious viral diseases of cats. While there is neither an effective vaccine, nor a curative treatment for FIP, a diagnostic protocol for FCoV would greatly assist in the management and control of the virus. Clinical findings in FIP are non-specific and not helpful in making a differential diagnosis. Haematological and biochemical abnormalities in FIP cases are also non-specific. The currently available serological tests have low specificity and sensitivity for detection of active infection and cross-react with FCoV strains of low pathogenicity, the feline enteric coronaviruses (FECV). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been used to detect FCoV and is rapid and sensitive, but results must be interpreted in the context of clinical findings. At present, a definitive diagnosis of FIP can be established only by histopathological examination of biopsies. This paper describes and compares diagnostic methods for FCoVs and includes a brief account of the virus biology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis. PMID:20798771

  1. A survey of modern authorship attribution methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Efstathios Stamatatos

    2009-01-01

    Authorship attribution supported by statistical or computational methods has a long history starting from 19th century and marked by the seminal study of Mosteller and Wallace (1964) on the authorship of the disputed Federalist Papers. During the last decade, this scientific field has been developed substantially taking advantage of research advances in areas such as machine learning, information retrieval, and

  2. Method and computer program product for maintenance and modernization backlogging

    SciTech Connect

    Mattimore, Bernard G; Reynolds, Paul E; Farrell, Jill M

    2013-02-19

    According to one embodiment, a computer program product for determining future facility conditions includes a computer readable medium having computer readable program code stored therein. The computer readable program code includes computer readable program code for calculating a time period specific maintenance cost, for calculating a time period specific modernization factor, and for calculating a time period specific backlog factor. Future facility conditions equal the time period specific maintenance cost plus the time period specific modernization factor plus the time period specific backlog factor. In another embodiment, a computer-implemented method for calculating future facility conditions includes calculating a time period specific maintenance cost, calculating a time period specific modernization factor, and calculating a time period specific backlog factor. Future facility conditions equal the time period specific maintenance cost plus the time period specific modernization factor plus the time period specific backlog factor. Other embodiments are also presented.

  3. Modern Statistical Methods for GLAST Event Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Robin D.; /RIACS, Mtn. View; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-04-10

    We describe a statistical reconstruction methodology for the GLAST LAT. The methodology incorporates in detail the statistics of the interactions of photons and charged particles with the tungsten layers in the LAT, and uses the scattering distributions to compute the full probability distribution over the energy and direction of the incident photons. It uses model selection methods to estimate the probabilities of the possible geometrical configurations of the particles produced in the detector, and numerical marginalization over the energy loss and scattering angles at each layer. Preliminary results show that it can improve on the tracker-only energy estimates for muons and electrons incident on the LAT.

  4. Modern Statistical Methods for GLAST Event Analysis

    E-print Network

    Robin D. Morris; Johann Cohen-Tanugi

    2007-03-28

    We describe a statistical reconstruction methodology for the GLAST LAT. The methodology incorporates in detail the statistics of the interactions of photons and charged particles with the tungsten layers in the LAT, and uses the scattering distributions to compute the full probability distribution over the energy and direction of the incident photons. It uses model selection methods to estimate the probabilities of the possible geometrical configurations of the particles produced in the detector, and numerical marginalization over the energy loss and scattering angles at each layer. Preliminary results show that it can improve on the tracker-only energy estimates for muons and electrons incident on the LAT.

  5. Ultrasensitive microanalytical diagnostic methods for rickettsial pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, A. V.

    2012-03-01

    A strategic CRADA was established between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) at Galveston to address pressing needs for US protection against biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and emerging infectious diseases. The combination of unique expertise and facilities at UTMB and SNL enabled interdisciplinary research efforts in the development of rapid and accurate diagnostic methods for early detection of trace priority pathogen levels. Outstanding postdoctoral students were also trained at both institutions to help enable the next generation of scientists to tackle the challenging interdisciplinary problems in the area of biodefense and emerging infectious diseases. Novel approaches to diagnostics were developed and the both the speed of assays as well as the detection sensitivity were improved by over an order of magnitude compared to traditional methods. This is a significant step toward more timely and specific detection of dangerous infections. We developed in situ polymerized porous polymer monoliths that can be used as (1) size exclusion elements for capture and processing of rickettsial infected cells from a sample, (2) photopatternable framework for grafting high densities of functionalized antibodies/fluorescent particles using novel monolith chemistry. Grafting affinity reagents specific to rickettsial particles enables rapid, ultra-sensitive assays by overcoming transport limitations of traditional planar assay approaches. We have selectively trapped particles and bacteria at the cell trap and have also detected picomolar mouse IL-6 captured with only 20 minutes total incubation times using the densely patterned monolith framework. As predicted, the monolith exhibits >10x improvements in both capture speed and capture density compared to traditional planar approaches. The most significant advancements as part of this CRADA is the optimization of techniques allowing the detection of <10 rickettsial cells in a whole blood sample. This detection limit is over 2 orders of magnitude more sensitive that previously reported methods and overcomes a key hurdle in ability to sense dangerous infections before they are too late to treat and contain. We also showed that in the new format, cross-reactivity with interfering species is reduced thereby increasing the specificity of such tests. Promising options to treat whole blood and avoid clogging and non-specific fouling of sensors were also developed.

  6. SAR imaging via modern 2-D spectral estimation methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart R. Degraaf

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the use of modern 2D spectral estimation algorithms for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging. The motivation for applying power spectrum estimation methods to SAR imaging is to improve resolution, remove sidelobe artifacts, and reduce speckle compared to what is possible with conventional Fourier transform SAR imaging techniques. This paper makes two principal contributions to the field of adaptive SAR

  7. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  8. Electron-Beam Diagnostic Methods for Hypersonic Flow Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work was the evaluation of the use of electron-bean fluorescence for flow measurements during hypersonic flight. Both analytical and numerical models were developed in this investigation to evaluate quantitatively flow field imaging concepts based upon the electron beam fluorescence technique for use in flight research and wind tunnel applications. Specific models were developed for: (1) fluorescence excitation/emission for nitrogen, (2) rotational fluorescence spectrum for nitrogen, (3) single and multiple scattering of electrons in a variable density medium, (4) spatial and spectral distribution of fluorescence, (5) measurement of rotational temperature and density, (6) optical filter design for fluorescence imaging, and (7) temperature accuracy and signal acquisition time requirements. Application of these models to a typical hypersonic wind tunnel flow is presented. In particular, the capability of simulating the fluorescence resulting from electron impact ionization in a variable density nitrogen or air flow provides the capability to evaluate the design of imaging instruments for flow field mapping. The result of this analysis is a recommendation that quantitative measurements of hypersonic flow fields using electron-bean fluorescence is a tractable method with electron beam energies of 100 keV. With lower electron energies, electron scattering increases with significant beam divergence which makes quantitative imaging difficult. The potential application of the analytical and numerical models developed in this work is in the design of a flow field imaging instrument for use in hypersonic wind tunnels or onboard a flight research vehicle.

  9. Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, John S. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image.

  10. LOCAPHONY - NEW ACOUSTICAL METHOD OF EXPRESS FUNCTIONAL MEDICINE DIAGNOSTICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Svet; J. Blinkov; S. Nikolaev; V. Murashev

    Locaphony is a new developed method of quick functional medicine diagnostics, based on objective acoustical percussion of human internal organs. Locaphony permits to determine the acoustical projections of organs on the skin, estimate the safety of tissue and detect the inflammation processes. The 2D- images are the result of such diagnostics and these images contain new information in comparison with

  11. Methods of optoacoustic diagnostics of biological tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. D. Khokhlova; I. M. Pelivanov; A. A. Karabutov

    2009-01-01

    Laser optoacoustic diagnostics is based on thermoelastic excitation of ultrasonic signals in a medium due to absorption of\\u000a pulsed laser radiation. The pressure profile of such an ultrasonic (or optoacoustic) signal contains information on the distribution\\u000a of heat sources in the medium. Hence, detection of optoacoustic signals reveals the distribution of absorbing inhomogeneities\\u000a in the medium under investigation. Application of

  12. Oxygen abundance methods in the SDSS: view from modern statistics

    E-print Network

    F. Shi; G. Zhao; James Wicker

    2007-10-24

    Our purpose is to find which is the most reliable one among various oxygen abundance determination methods. We will test the validity of several different oxygen abundance determination methods using methods of modern statistics. These methods include Bayesian analysis and information scoring. We will analyze a sample of $\\sim$6000 $\\hii$ galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic observations data release four. All methods that we used drew the same conclusion that the $T_e$ method is a more reliable oxygen abundance determination methods than the Bayesian metallcity method under the existing telescope ability. The ratios of the likelihoods between the different kinds of methods tell us that the $T_e$, $P$, and $O3N2$ methods are consistent with each other because the $P$ and $O3N2$ method are calibrated by $T_e$-method. The Bayesian and $R_{23}$ method are consistent with each other because both are calibrated by a galaxy model. In either case, the $N2$ method is an {\\it unreliable} method.

  13. Optical imaging of intracranial hemorrhages in newborns: modern strategies in diagnostics and direction for future research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A. N.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Lychagov, V. V.; Bibikova, O. A.; Sindeev, S. S.; Pavlova, O. N.; Shuvalova, E. P.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2014-05-01

    Using Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) we study stress-related intracranial hemorrhages (ICHs) in newborn rats. We investigate a masked stage of ICH development that corresponds to the first 4 h after the stress. We show that this period is characterized by significant changes in the diameter of the sagittal vein and the velocity of the cerebral venous blood flow (CVBF). We discuss diagnostic abilities of wavelet-based methods and consider an adaptive technique allowing us to reveal clearest distinctions in the dynamics of CVBF between normal and stressed newborn rats. Finally, we conclude that the venous insufficiency in newborns and a reduced response of the sagittal vein to adrenaline are related to important prognostic markers of the risk of ICH development.

  14. [New diagnostic methods for tuberculosis and their clinical utilities].

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    The clinical utilities of new diagnostic methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, such as primary isolation and drug susceptibility testing using MGIT, identification using anti-MPB 64 monoclonal antibodies and nucleic acid amplification assay, were studied. It was shown that these new diagnostic methods were more rapid and more accurate than currently available approaches and useful for the early and aggressive case findings. Questionnaire survey indicated that most of the laboratories had been ready to introduce these new diagnostic methods. Thus, the diagnosis for active tuberculosis along the "CDC recommendation in 1993" has become realizable in Japan. Now, Japanese TB control program is under revision due to the current stagnation of the decline in notification rates. The importance of rapid and accurate diagnosis of active tuberculosis should be declared in the new Japanese TB control program by indicating the guideline of rapid diagnostic methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:12607342

  15. Pertussis: the disease and new diagnostic methods.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, R L

    1988-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, produces an acute and chronic respiratory infection in infants and young children. B. pertussis is still a major health problem of young children throughout the world even though effective immunization against whooping cough is available. While predominantly a childhood disease, it has been reported also to be a cause of persistent cough in adults. This review discusses the numerous bacterial virulence factors that may play roles in the pathogenesis of pertussis and in immunity to infection. The present problems with pertussis diagnosis, recent advances, and future prospects for new and improved rapid diagnostics tests also are explored. PMID:2906814

  16. Applications of modern statistical methods to analysis of data in physical science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Eric Wicker

    2006-01-01

    Modern methods of statistical and computational analysis offer solutions to dilemmas confronting researchers in physical science. Although the ideas behind modern statistical and computational analysis methods were originally introduced in the 1970's, most scientists still rely on methods written during the early era of computing. These researchers, who analyze increasingly voluminous and multivariate data sets, need modern analysis methods to

  17. Contemporary Chinese pulse diagnosis: a modern interpretation of an ancient and traditional method.

    PubMed

    Bilton, Karen; Hammer, Leon; Zaslawski, Chris

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary Chinese pulse diagnosis™ (CCPD) is a system of pulse diagnosis utilized by Dr. John He Feng Shen, OMD, and documented by Dr. Leon Hammer, MD, in the book Chinese Pulse Diagnosis, A Contemporary Approach. It is the traditional method of the Ding medical lineage from the Shanghai region and dates to the 15th century in Chinese language texts. The fundamentals of this system are, however, much older and can be directly traced to the Neijing Suwen. Having been passed from the last direct inheritor of Ding knowledge (Dr. Shen) to modern practitioners of Chinese medicine by way of Dr. Hammer and his students, it represents an important system of advanced diagnosis. Although modern diagnostic technology provides very sophisticated diagnoses, for these instruments to be effective, the disease process must already have a physical manifestation. CCPD, on the other hand, provides the earliest warnings of physiological processes, which if left unchecked may result in the subsequent appearance of a disease. This article describes the derivation and the principles of this system of pulse diagnosis and explores its successful integration into the modern practice of Chinese medicine. PMID:24139459

  18. Examinations of electron temperature calculation methods in Thomson scattering diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Seungtae; Lee, Jong Ha; Wi, Hanmin [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Electron temperature from Thomson scattering diagnostic is derived through indirect calculation based on theoretical model. {chi}-square test is commonly used in the calculation, and the reliability of the calculation method highly depends on the noise level of input signals. In the simulations, noise effects of the {chi}-square test are examined and scale factor test is proposed as an alternative method.

  19. Nuclear Species-Diagnostic SNP Markers Mined from 454 Amplicon Sequencing Reveal Admixture Genomic Structure of Modern Citrus Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha) with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105) were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species-diagnostic SNP marker set will be useful for systematic estimation of admixture structure of citrus germplasm and for diverse genetic studies. PMID:25973611

  20. Nuclear species-diagnostic SNP markers mined from 454 amplicon sequencing reveal admixture genomic structure of modern citrus varieties.

    PubMed

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha) with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105) were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species-diagnostic SNP marker set will be useful for systematic estimation of admixture structure of citrus germplasm and for diverse genetic studies. PMID:25973611

  1. Modern wing flutter analysis by computational fluid dynamics methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Herbert J.; Batina, John T.; Bennett, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    The application and assessment of the recently developed CAP-TSD transonic small-disturbance code for flutter prediction is described. The CAP-TSD code has been developed for aeroelastic analysis of complete aircraft configurations and was previously applied to the calculation of steady and unsteady pressures with favorable results. Generalized aerodynamic forces and flutter characteristics are calculated and compared with linear theory results and with experimental data for a 45 deg sweptback wing. These results are in good agreement with the experimental flutter data which is the first step toward validating CAP-TSD for general transonic aeroelastic applications. The paper presents these results and comparisons along with general remarks regarding modern wing flutter analysis by computational fluid dynamics methods.

  2. Surface immobilization methods for aptamer diagnostic applications.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Subramanian; Obubuafo, Anne; Soper, Steven A; Spivak, David A

    2008-02-01

    In this review we examine various methods for the immobilization of aptamers onto different substrates that can be utilized in a diverse array of analytical formats. In most cases, covalent linking to surfaces is preferred over physisorption, which is reflected in the bulk of the reports covered within this review. Conjugation of aptamers with appropriate linkers directly to gold films or particles is discussed first, followed by methods for conjugating aptamers to functionally modified surfaces. In many aptamer-based applications, silicates and silicon oxide surfaces provide an advantage over metallic substrates, and generally require surface modification prior to covalent attachment of the aptamers. Chemical protocols for covalent attachment of aptamers to functionalized surfaces are summarized in the review, showing common pathways employed for aptamer immobilization on different surfaces. Biocoatings, such as avidin or one of its derivatives, have been shown to be highly successful for immobilizing biotin-tethered aptamers on various surfaces (e.g., gold, silicates, polymers). There are also a few examples reported of aptamer immobilization on other novel substrates, such as quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, and carbohydrates. This review covers the literature on aptamer immobilization up to March 2007, including comparison of different linkers of varying size and chemical structure, 3' versus 5' attachment, and regeneration methods of aptamers on surfaces. PMID:17891385

  3. SAR imaging via modern 2-D spectral estimation methods.

    PubMed

    DeGraaf, S R

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of modern 2D spectral estimation algorithms for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging. The motivation for applying power spectrum estimation methods to SAR imaging is to improve resolution, remove sidelobe artifacts, and reduce speckle compared to what is possible with conventional Fourier transform SAR imaging techniques. This paper makes two principal contributions to the field of adaptive SAR imaging. First, it is a comprehensive comparison of 2D spectral estimation methods for SAR imaging. It provides a synopsis of the algorithms available, discusses their relative merits for SAR imaging, and illustrates their performance on simulated and collected SAR imagery. Some of the algorithms presented or their derivations are new, as are some of the insights into or analyses of the algorithms. Second, this work develops multichannel variants of four related algorithms, minimum variance method (MVM), reduced-rank MVM (RRMVM), adaptive sidelobe reduction (ASR) and space variant apodization (SVA) to estimate both reflectivity intensity and interferometric height from polarimetric displaced-aperture interferometric data. All of these interferometric variants are new. In the interferometric contest, adaptive spectral estimation can improve the height estimates through a combination of adaptive nulling and averaging. Examples illustrate that MVM, ASR, and SVA offer significant advantages over Fourier methods for estimating both scattering intensity and interferometric height, and allow empirical comparison of the accuracies of Fourier, MVM, ASR, and SVA interferometric height estimates. PMID:18276288

  4. Exhaled breath analysis: physical methods, instruments, and medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaks, V. L.; Domracheva, E. G.; Sobakinskaya, E. A.; Chernyaeva, M. B.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the analysis of exhaled breath, a rapidly growing field in noninvasive medical diagnostics that lies at the intersection of physics, chemistry, and medicine. Current data are presented on gas markers in human breath and their relation to human diseases. Various physical methods for breath analysis are described. It is shown how measurement precision and data volume requirements have stimulated technological developments and identified the problems that have to be solved to put this method into clinical practice.

  5. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    DOEpatents

    Thakur, Mathew L. (Cherry Hill, NJ)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form.

  6. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    DOEpatents

    Thakur, Mathew L. (Cherry Hill, NJ)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form.

  7. Diagnostic methods used for atmospheric pressure thermal arc plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamoši?nas, A.; Valatkevi?ius, P.; Valin?ius, V.; Grigaitien?, V.; Kavaliauskas, Ž.

    2014-05-01

    Diagnostic methods used for atmospheric pressure thermal arc plasmas are presented in this paper. An experimental direct current arc plasma torch was used as a source for plasma generation at atmospheric pressure. Overheated water vapor was employed as a plasma-forming gas with an admixture of argon as a shielding gas. A couple of plasma diagnostic methods were invoked to perform the analysis of the generated plasma jet at the nozzle exhaust of the torch. Firstly, an optical emission spectroscopy method was used to determine the chemical composition of the water vapor plasma, and from the obtained spectra, the rotational and excitation temperatures were calculated roughly. Secondly, an enthalpy probe measurement was performed in order to measure the mean temperature and the velocity lengthwise and crosswise in the plasma stream.

  8. Are complement deficiencies really rare? Overview on prevalence, clinical importance and modern diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Grumach, Anete Sevciovic; Kirschfink, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Complement deficiencies comprise between 1 and 10% of all primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) according to national and supranational registries. They are still considered rare and even of less clinical importance. This not only reflects (as in all PIDs) a great lack of awareness among clinicians and general practitioners but is also due to the fact that only few centers worldwide provide a comprehensive laboratory complement analysis. To enable early identification, our aim is to present warning signs for complement deficiencies and recommendations for diagnostic approach. The genetic deficiency of any early component of the classical pathway (C1q, C1r/s, C2, C4) is often associated with autoimmune diseases whereas individuals, deficient of properdin or of the terminal pathway components (C5 to C9), are highly susceptible to meningococcal disease. Deficiency of C1 Inhibitor (hereditary angioedema, HAE) results in episodic angioedema, which in a considerable number of patients with identical symptoms also occurs in factor XII mutations. New clinical entities are now reported indicating disease association with partial complement defects or even certain polymorphisms (factor H, MBL, MASPs). Mutations affecting the regulators factor H, factor I, or CD46 and of C3 and factor B leading to severe dysregulation of the alternative pathway have been associated with renal disorders, such as atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) and - less frequent - with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). We suggest a multi-stage diagnostic protocol starting based on the recognition of so called warning signs which should aid pediatricians and adult physicians in a timely identification followed by a step-wise complement analysis to characterize the defect at functional, protein and molecular level. PMID:25037634

  9. Preparation of modern palynomorphs for scanning electron microscopy by the critical point drying method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald E. Garner; Vaughn M. Bryant

    1973-01-01

    Complete details are given of a method for preparing small numbers of modern or fossil pollens and spores by the critical point drying method of Cohen, Marlow, and Garner (1968) for examination with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Samples from seven modern genera were prepared and scanning micrographs illustrating results from five of these are presented. Results show that genera

  10. Molecular and Nonmolecular Diagnostic Methods for Invasive Fungal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Arvanitis, Marios; Anagnostou, Theodora; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Caliendo, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Invasive fungal infections constitute a serious threat to an ever-growing population of immunocompromised individuals and other individuals at risk. Traditional diagnostic methods, such as histopathology and culture, which are still considered the gold standards, have low sensitivity, which underscores the need for the development of new means of detecting fungal infectious agents. Indeed, novel serologic and molecular techniques have been developed and are currently under clinical evaluation. Tests like the galactomannan antigen test for aspergillosis and the ?-glucan test for invasive Candida spp. and molds, as well as other antigen and antibody tests, for Cryptococcus spp., Pneumocystis spp., and dimorphic fungi, have already been established as important diagnostic approaches and are implemented in routine clinical practice. On the other hand, PCR and other molecular approaches, such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), have proved promising in clinical trials but still need to undergo standardization before their clinical use can become widespread. The purpose of this review is to highlight the different diagnostic approaches that are currently utilized or under development for invasive fungal infections and to identify their performance characteristics and the challenges associated with their use. PMID:24982319

  11. Methods in virus diagnostics: from ELISA to next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Boonham, Neil; Kreuze, Jan; Winter, Stephan; van der Vlugt, René; Bergervoet, Jan; Tomlinson, Jenny; Mumford, Rick

    2014-06-24

    Despite the seemingly continuous development of newer and ever more elaborate methods for detecting and identifying viruses, very few of these new methods get adopted for routine use in testing laboratories, often despite the many and varied claimed advantages they possess. To understand why the rate of uptake of new technologies is so low, requires a strong understanding of what makes a good routine diagnostic tool to begin. This can be done by looking at the two most successfully established plant virus detection methods: enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and more recently introduced real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By examining the characteristics of this pair of technologies, it becomes clear that they share many benefits, such as an industry standard format and high levels of repeatability and reproducibility. These combine to make methods that are accessible to testing labs, which are easy to establish and robust in their use, even with new and inexperienced users. Hence, to ensure the establishment of new techniques it is necessary to not only provide benefits not found with ELISA or real-time PCR, but also to provide a platform that is easy to establish and use. In plant virus diagnostics, recent developments can be clustered into three core areas: (1) techniques that can be performed in the field or resource poor locations (e.g., loop-mediated isothermal amplification LAMP); (2) multiplex methods that are able to detect many viruses in a single test (e.g., Luminex bead arrays); and (3) methods suited to virus discovery (e.g., next generation sequencing, NGS). Field based methods are not new, with Lateral Flow Devices (LFDs) for the detection being available for a number of years now. However, the widespread uptake of this technology remains poor. LAMP does offer significant advantages over LFDs, in terms of sensitivity and generic application, but still faces challenges in terms of establishment. It is likely that the main barrier to the uptake of field-based technologies is behavioural influences, rather than specific concerns about the performance of the technologies themselves. To overcome this, a new relationship will need to develop between centralised testing laboratories offering services and those requiring tests; a relationship which is currently in its infancy. Looking further into the future, virus discovery and multiplex methods seem to converge as NGS becomes ever cheaper, easier to perform and can provide high levels of multiplexing without the use of virus specific reagents. So ultimately the key challenge from a routine testing lab perspective will not be one of investment in platforms-which could even be outsourced to commercial sequencing services-but one of having the skills and expertise to analyse the large datasets generated and their subsequent interpretation. In conclusion, only time will tell which of the next-generation of methods currently in development will become the routine diagnostics of the future. This will be determined through a combination of factors. And while the technology itself will have to offer performance advantages over existing methods in order to supplant them, it is likely to be human factors e.g., the behaviours of end users, laboratories and policy makers, the availability of appropriate expertise, that ultimately determine which ones become established. Hence factors cannot be ignored and early engagement with diagnostic stakeholders is essential. PMID:24361981

  12. Diagnostic Methods for Platelet Bacteria Screening: Current Status and Developments

    PubMed Central

    Störmer, Melanie; Vollmer, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bacterial contamination of blood components and the prevention of transfusion-associated bacterial infection still remains a major challenge in transfusion medicine. Over the past few decades, a significant reduction in the transmission of viral infections has been achieved due to the introduction of mandatory virus screening. Platelet concentrates (PCs) represent one of the highest risks for bacterial infection. This is due to the required storage conditions for PCs in gas-permeable containers at room temperature with constant agitation, which support bacterial proliferation from low contamination levels to high titers. In contrast to virus screening, since 1997 in Germany bacterial testing of PCs is only performed as a routine quality control or, since 2008, to prolong the shelf life to 5 days. In general, bacterial screening of PCs by cultivation methods is implemented by the various blood services. Although these culturing systems will remain the gold standard, the significance of rapid methods for screening for bacterial contamination has increased over the last few years. These new methods provide powerful tools for increasing the bacterial safety of blood components. This article summarizes the course of policies and provisions introduced to increase bacterial safety of blood components in Germany. Furthermore, we give an overview of the different diagnostic methods for bacterial screening of PCs and their current applicability in routine screening processes. PMID:24659944

  13. Development of nuclear power plant noise diagnostics into a processmeasuring method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Hessel; H. E. Koppen; P. Liewers; P. Schumann; F. P. Weib

    1985-01-01

    Until now, the fact that specialists were necessary for performing noise diagnostic measurements as well as for interpreting the results has been the main impediment to a large-scale routine application of noise diagnostics to pressurized water reactors (PWRs). In order to develop noise diagnostics into a process-measuring method that can also be used by the operating crew, a higher degree

  14. Basic Concepts in Modern Methods of Test Equating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woldbeck, Tanya

    This paper summarizes some of the basic concepts in test equating. Various types of equating methods, as well as data collection designs, are outlined, with attempts to provide insight into preferred methods and techniques. Test equating describes a group of methods that enable test constructors and users to compare scores from two different forms…

  15. Strategic health care demands modern NDE processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Teal; William Larsen

    2003-01-01

    If the goal is to improve either aviation or shuttle safety and systems reliability then modern methods of wire systems diagnostics, prognostics, mediation, repair, and validation are a must. This requires using modern non-destructive evaluation (NDE) procedures and equipment which yields information that supports the operator's wire health management program and feeds into his aging aircraft or shuttle containment processes.

  16. Diagnostic methods to assess inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Pedro; de Albuquerque, André Luis Pereira; Santana, Pauliane Vieira; Cardenas, Leticia Zumpano; Ferreira, Jeferson George; Prina, Elena; Trevizan, Patrícia Fernandes; Pereira, Mayra Caleffi; Iamonti, Vinicius; Pletsch, Renata; Macchione, Marcelo Ceneviva; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of (inspiratory and expiratory) respiratory muscles is a common clinical finding, not only in patients with neuromuscular disease but also in patients with primary disease of the lung parenchyma or airways. Although such impairment is common, its recognition is usually delayed because its signs and symptoms are nonspecific and late. This delayed recognition, or even the lack thereof, occurs because the diagnostic tests used in the assessment of respiratory muscle strength are not widely known and available. There are various methods of assessing respiratory muscle strength during the inspiratory and expiratory phases. These methods are divided into two categories: volitional tests (which require patient understanding and cooperation); and non-volitional tests. Volitional tests, such as those that measure maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, are the most commonly used because they are readily available. Non-volitional tests depend on magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerve accompanied by the measurement of inspiratory mouth pressure, inspiratory esophageal pressure, or inspiratory transdiaphragmatic pressure. Another method that has come to be widely used is ultrasound imaging of the diaphragm. We believe that pulmonologists involved in the care of patients with respiratory diseases should be familiar with the tests used in order to assess respiratory muscle function.Therefore, the aim of the present article is to describe the advantages, disadvantages, procedures, and clinical applicability of the main tests used in the assessment of respiratory muscle strength. PMID:25972965

  17. Modern methods of repairing coke oven batteries (a review)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Shteinberg; A. A. Lobov

    1985-01-01

    Worldwide practice in the repair of coke-oven refractory brickwork is surveyed, with the conclusion that both wet and dry hot-repair methods are effective, though simplification of the dry technology is desirable.

  18. An in vitro Comparison of a Combined FOTI\\/Visual Examination of Occlusal Caries with Other Caries Diagnostic Methods and the Effect of Stain on Their Diagnostic Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Côrtes; R. P. Ellwood; K. R. Ekstrand

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this in vitro study were to compare the combination of FOTI and visual inspection to other diagnostic methods for the detection and evaluation of the depth of occlusal caries and assess the effect of stain on diagnostic performance. Five diagnostic methods (combined FOTI\\/Visual (CFV), Visual, FOTI, DIAGNOdent and Electrical Caries Monitor) were considered. Histological validation was performed

  19. Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization as a plume diagnostic tool in laser evaporation methods

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization as a plume diagnostic tool introduced analytical method, atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (AP- MALDI write; Atmospheric pressure MALDI; Laser evaporation; Plume diagnostics 1. Introduction Diagnostics

  20. Detection of Underground Quarry From Modern Surface Geoelectrical Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Schmutz; S. Palma Lopes; A. Cerepi; R. Burlot

    2006-01-01

    The present contribution aims to map and detect the underground cavities (quarry) from surface geoelectrical methods. For that, we have chosen a pilot site -underground quarry- located in Saint- Germain-la-Rivière, in Gironde, France. The geology and the geometry of the galleries and pillars are well known from direct surface and underground investigation and mapping: - decimeters of agricultural soil, followed

  1. [Reasearch on evolution and transition of processing method of fuzi in ancient and modern times].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chan-Chan; Cheng, Ming-En; Duan, Hai-Yan; Peng, Hua-Sheng

    2014-04-01

    Fuzi is a medicine used for rescuing from collapse by restoring yang as well as a famous toxic traditional Chinese medicine. In order to ensure the efficacy and safe medication, Fuzi has mostly been applied after being processed. There have been different Fuzi processing methods recorded by doctors of previous generations. Besides, there have also been differences in Fuzi processing methods recorded in modern pharmacopeia and ancient medical books. In this study, the authors traced back to medical books between the Han Dynasty and the period of Republic of China, and summarized Fuzi processing methods collected in ancient and modern literatures. According to the results, Fuzi processing methods and using methods have changed along with the evolution of dynasties, with differences in ancient and modern processing methods. Before the Tang Dynasty, Fuzi had been mostly processed and soaked. From Tang to Ming Dynasties, Fuzi had been mostly processed, soaked and stir-fried. During the Qing Dynasty, Fuzi had been mostly soaked and boiled. In the modem times, Fuzi is mostly processed by being boiled and soaked. Before the Tang Dynasty, a whole piece of Fuzi herbs or their fragments had been applied in medicines; Whereas their fragments are primarily used in the modern times. Because different processing methods have great impacts on the toxicity of Fuzi, it is suggested to study Fuzi processing methods. PMID:25011281

  2. Detection of Underground Quarry From Modern Surface Geoelectrical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmutz, M.; Palma Lopes, S.; Cerepi, A.; Burlot, R.

    2006-12-01

    The present contribution aims to map and detect the underground cavities (quarry) from surface geoelectrical methods. For that, we have chosen a pilot site -underground quarry- located in Saint- Germain-la-Rivière, in Gironde, France. The geology and the geometry of the galleries and pillars are well known from direct surface and underground investigation and mapping: - decimeters of agricultural soil, followed by argilleous soil, then the unsaturated zone composed of alterated calcareous material; - extraction of limestone occurred at depths ranging between 3 and 8 m; the void percentage is of the order of 65 to 75 %; the width of the gallery is generally less than 5 m; the size of the pillars vary from 6 to 70 m2. Three geoelectrical methods were chosen to be carried out quasi-simultaneously : DC resistivity, Induced Polarisation (IP), i.e chargeability measurements and Spontaneous Polarization (SP). Each of them is sensitive to the presence of water, clay and voids, which are key parameters for our investigation. SP is the only one especially sensitive to water vertical circulation, which is necessarily different above pillars and voids. Our aim was to demonstrate that only the combination of those three methods should enable to locate the pillars, and chambers. Direct modelling using two different codes -finite differences and finite elements, enabled to select the optimal array. A regular grid with an inter electrode spacing equal to 2.5 m is used for all three techniques : 96 electrodes organised along 12 lines and 8 traverses. The so-called Syscal Pro system developed and manufactured by Iris Instrument enabled very quick measurements using the pole-dipole 3D array. Classical Cu/CuSO4 non polarizable electrodes were used for IP whereas specific Pb/PbCl were used for SP. 3 D inversion of DC resistivity has already been carried out using Loke Res3Dinv, and finite element codes. Confined anomalies are definitely mapped with their top at depths ranging between 2 and 3 meters, which are in good agreement with the known pillars level. Chargeability inversion is yet to be carried out. The SP map on the other hand, shows week anomalies ranging from -7 mV to + 7 mV, which do coincide with a number of resistivity anomalies. At present, it can be concluded that combination of electrical resistivity and self potential measurements allow to map numbers of pillars, which size is greater than 10 m2.

  3. Review of Dercum’s disease and proposal of diagnostic criteria, diagnostic methods, classification and management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Definition and clinical picture We propose the minimal definition of Dercum’s disease to be generalised overweight or obesity in combination with painful adipose tissue. The associated symptoms in Dercum’s disease include fatty deposits, easy bruisability, sleep disturbances, impaired memory, depression, difficulty concentrating, anxiety, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, diabetes, bloating, constipation, fatigue, weakness and joint aches. Classification We suggest that Dercum’s disease is classified into: I. Generalised diffuse form A form with diffusely widespread painful adipose tissue without clear lipomas, II. Generalised nodular form - a form with general pain in adipose tissue and intense pain in and around multiple lipomas, and III. Localised nodular form - a form with pain in and around multiple lipomas IV. Juxtaarticular form - a form with solitary deposits of excess fat for example at the medial aspect of the knee. Epidemiology Dercum’s disease most commonly appears between the ages of 35 and 50?years and is five to thirty times more common in women than in men. The prevalence of Dercum’s disease has not yet been exactly established. Aetiology Proposed, but unconfirmed aetiologies include: nervous system dysfunction, mechanical pressure on nerves, adipose tissue dysfunction and trauma. Diagnosis and diagnostic methods Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and should be made by systematic physical examination and thorough exclusion of differential diagnoses. Advisably, the diagnosis should be made by a physician with a broad experience of patients with painful conditions and knowledge of family medicine, internal medicine or pain management. The diagnosis should only be made when the differential diagnoses have been excluded. Differential diagnosis Differential diagnoses include: fibromyalgia, lipoedema, panniculitis, endocrine disorders, primary psychiatric disorders, multiple symmetric lipomatosis, familial multiple lipomatosis, and adipose tissue tumours. Genetic counselling The majority of the cases of Dercum’s disease occur sporadically. A to G mutation at position A8344 of mitochondrial DNA cannot be detected in patients with Dercum’s disease. HLA (human leukocyte antigen) typing has not revealed any correlation between typical antigens and the presence of the condition. Management and treatment The following treatments have lead to some pain reduction in patients with Dercum’s disease: Liposuction, analgesics, lidocaine, methotrexate and infliximab, interferon ?-2b, corticosteroids, calcium-channel modulators and rapid cycling hypobaric pressure. As none of the treatments have led to long lasting complete pain reduction and revolutionary results, we propose that Dercum’s disease should be treated in multidisciplinary teams specialised in chronic pain. Prognosis The pain in Dercum’s disease seems to be relatively constant over time. PMID:22546240

  4. A frequency response-generalized modal energy diagnostic method for damage detection of composite laminated plates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lie Hu; Jiesheng Jiang

    1993-01-01

    The paper proposes a new frequency response function (FRF)-modal energy diagnostic method for damage detection in composite laminated plates. The method uses FRF as the diagnostic parameter, which is sensitive to the damage and can reflect structural dynamic characteristics. A relationship is derived between the variation of the FRF at different-ordered resonant peaks after damage and the modal energy contribution

  5. Robust Antenna Diagnostics Method using Equivalent Elemental Dipoles and The Spherical

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Robust Antenna Diagnostics Method using Equivalent Elemental Dipoles and The Spherical Wave.picard@supelec.fr Abstract-- A robust method for antenna diagnostics that can provide the reconstruction of the aperture in terms of infinitesimal electric and magnetic dipoles distributed over the antenna main surface

  6. The assessment of quality in medical diagnostic tests: a comparison of ROC\\/Youden and Taguchi methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tolga Taner; Jiju Antony

    2000-01-01

    Diagnostic tests are widely used in many areas of modern technological society, but they are of particular importance in medicine, where early and accurate diagnosis can decrease morbidity and mortality rates of disease. How the quality of diagnostic information and decisions should be measured in a meaningful way has become increasingly important in recent years as an abundance of new

  7. Modern Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorrentino, Dominic

    2005-01-01

    Today's access-control and video-surveillance systems can work together to provide a holistic solution for educational environments. Keeping intruders off campus, limiting access to facilities that house expensive equipment, and remotely monitoring secluded areas can cut down significantly on crime and provide peace of mind to administrators,…

  8. Biology 534: Modern methods in Population Genomics 3 credits Spring 2015

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    #12;#12;#12;Biology 534: Modern methods in Population Genomics 3 credits Spring 2015 Instructor will be done by the instructor Catalog Description: Problems and prospects of designing a study with genomic revolutionized by the possibility of generating genomic sequence data. Interestingly, much of theoretical

  9. Learning from data: a tutorial with emphasis on modern pattern recognition methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matteo Pardo; Giorgio Sberveglieri

    2002-01-01

    The purposes of this tutorial are twofold. First, it reviews the classical statistical learning scenario by highlighting its fundamental taxonomies and its key aspects. The second aim of the paper is to introduce some modern (ensembles) methods developed inside the machine learning field. The tutorial starts by putting the topic of supervised learning into the broader context of data analysis

  10. A new traffic-signal control for modern roundabouts: method and application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoguang Yang; Xiugang Li; Kun Xue

    2004-01-01

    When the circulatory roadway of a roundabout has more than two lanes, the vehicles' weaving and merging cause large traffic and safety problems. In this paper, a new method of traffic-signal control for modern roundabouts is proposed to solve problems by eliminating the conflict points and weaving sections at a roundabout with different traffic-flow rates on each approach, which normally

  11. Physical Layout of High Current Rectifiers: Modern Methods for an Old Challenge

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Physical Layout of High Current Rectifiers: Modern Methods for an Old Challenge JL.Schanen1 , JM Grenoble France Abstract-- This paper address some problems linked to the physical layout of high current of the physical layout at reduced current. Even if the impact of cabling stray inductance is well known, some new

  12. Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2009-09-29

    A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

  13. DiagnosticsOcclusal caries detection in primary teeth: a comparison of DIAGNOdent with conventional methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P F Ashley; D C Attrill

    2001-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy and repeatability of three diagnostic systems (DIAGNOdent, visual and radiographic) for occlusal caries diagnosis in primary molars.Design Two examiner, in vitro, blinded study. Histological gold standard.Materials and methods 58 occlusal surfaces of primary molars examined in turn by two examiners using each of three diagnostic systems (DIAGNOdent, visual and radiographic). These results were compared with

  14. Diagnostic efficacy of in vitro methods vs. skin testing in patients with inhalant allergies

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, J.P.; Liudahl, J.J.; Young, S.A.; Rodman, S.M. (Univ. of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of two selected methods of in vitro allergy testing. Specifically, the PRIST/modified RAST I125 isotope systems and the Quantizyme/modified EAST alkaline phosphatase method were compared. The time, expense, convenience, and diagnostic efficacy of the two procedures are discussed. Special attention is given to the practicality of each method for the practicing physician.

  15. Jet Noise Diagnostics Supporting Statistical Noise Prediction Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2006-01-01

    The primary focus of my presentation is the development of the jet noise prediction code JeNo with most examples coming from the experimental work that drove the theoretical development and validation. JeNo is a statistical jet noise prediction code, based upon the Lilley acoustic analogy. Our approach uses time-average 2-D or 3-D mean and turbulent statistics of the flow as input. The output is source distributions and spectral directivity. NASA has been investing in development of statistical jet noise prediction tools because these seem to fit the middle ground that allows enough flexibility and fidelity for jet noise source diagnostics while having reasonable computational requirements. These tools rely on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions as input for computing far-field spectral directivity using an acoustic analogy. There are many ways acoustic analogies can be created, each with a series of assumptions and models, many often taken unknowingly. And the resulting prediction can be easily reverse-engineered by altering the models contained within. However, only an approach which is mathematically sound, with assumptions validated and modeled quantities checked against direct measurement will give consistently correct answers. Many quantities are modeled in acoustic analogies precisely because they have been impossible to measure or calculate, making this requirement a difficult task. The NASA team has spent considerable effort identifying all the assumptions and models used to take the Navier-Stokes equations to the point of a statistical calculation via an acoustic analogy very similar to that proposed by Lilley. Assumptions have been identified and experiments have been developed to test these assumptions. In some cases this has resulted in assumptions being changed. Beginning with the CFD used as input to the acoustic analogy, models for turbulence closure used in RANS CFD codes have been explored and compared against measurements of mean and rms velocity statistics over a range of jet speeds and temperatures. Models for flow parameters used in the acoustic analogy, most notably the space-time correlations of velocity, have been compared against direct measurements, and modified to better fit the observed data. These measurements have been extremely challenging for hot, high speed jets, and represent a sizeable investment in instrumentation development. As an intermediate check that the analysis is predicting the physics intended, phased arrays have been employed to measure source distributions for a wide range of jet cases. And finally, careful far-field spectral directivity measurements have been taken for final validation of the prediction code. Examples of each of these experimental efforts will be presented. The main result of these efforts is a noise prediction code, named JeNo, which is in middevelopment. JeNo is able to consistently predict spectral directivity, including aft angle directivity, for subsonic cold jets of most geometries. Current development on JeNo is focused on extending its capability to hot jets, requiring inclusion of a previously neglected second source associated with thermal fluctuations. A secondary result of the intensive experimentation is the archiving of various flow statistics applicable to other acoustic analogies and to development of time-resolved prediction methods. These will be of lasting value as we look ahead at future challenges to the aeroacoustic experimentalist.

  16. Application of pattern recognition methods in electropuncture diagnostics for assessment of neuropsychic state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. V. Sen’ko; A. V. Kuznetsova; A. N. Strel’nikov; V. B. Mamaev

    2006-01-01

    The logical and statistical methods of pattern recognition and data analysis are applied for studying the capability of electropuncture\\u000a diagnostics for the estimation of the neuropsychic states (stress) of school children during an examination period.

  17. Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Karra, Srinivasa Rao (Columbia, MO); Berning, Douglas E. (Columbia, MO); Smith, C. Jeffrey (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)

    1999-01-01

    A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand.

  18. Comment intégrer l’imagerie moderne dans le diagnostic précoce et le suivi de la spondylarthrite ankylosante ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Kemta Lekpa; G. Lenczner; V. Farrenq; P. Claudepierre

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly desirable to diagnose ankylosing spondyloarthropathy (AS) at its pre-radiographic stage (prior to the presence of sacro-iliitis on radiographs). MRI plays a key role for early diagnosis of AS, as illustrated by recently proposed international diagnostic criteria (ASAS). MRI of the SI joints is most helpful for early diagnosis; sequences using fat suppression and\\/or Gadolinium administration are

  19. [Molecular diagnostics and imaging].

    PubMed

    Fink, Christian; Fisseler-Eckhoff, Annette; Huss, Ralf; Nestle, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Molecular diagnostic methods and biological imaging techniques can make a major contribution to tailoring patients' treatment needs with regard to medical, ethical and pharmaco-economic aspects. Modern diagnostic methods are already being used to help identify different sub-groups of patients with thoracic tumours who are most likely to benefit significantly from a particular type of treatment. This contribution looks at the most recent developments that have been made in the field of thoracic tumour diagnosis and analyses the pros and cons of new molecular and other imaging techniques in day-to-day clinical practice. PMID:19521129

  20. Applications of modern statistical methods to analysis of data in physical science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicker, James Eric

    Modern methods of statistical and computational analysis offer solutions to dilemmas confronting researchers in physical science. Although the ideas behind modern statistical and computational analysis methods were originally introduced in the 1970's, most scientists still rely on methods written during the early era of computing. These researchers, who analyze increasingly voluminous and multivariate data sets, need modern analysis methods to extract the best results from their studies. The first section of this work showcases applications of modern linear regression. Since the 1960's, many researchers in spectroscopy have used classical stepwise regression techniques to derive molecular constants. However, problems with thresholds of entry and exit for model variables plagues this analysis method. Other criticisms of this kind of stepwise procedure include its inefficient searching method, the order in which variables enter or leave the model and problems with overfitting data. We implement an information scoring technique that overcomes the assumptions inherent in the stepwise regression process to calculate molecular model parameters. We believe that this kind of information based model evaluation can be applied to more general analysis situations in physical science. The second section proposes new methods of multivariate cluster analysis. The K-means algorithm and the EM algorithm, introduced in the 1960's and 1970's respectively, formed the basis of multivariate cluster analysis methodology for many years. However, several shortcomings of these methods include strong dependence on initial seed values and inaccurate results when the data seriously depart from hypersphericity. We propose new cluster analysis methods based on genetic algorithms that overcomes the strong dependence on initial seed values. In addition, we propose a generalization of the Genetic K-means algorithm which can accurately identify clusters with complex hyperellipsoidal covariance structures. We then use this new algorithm in a genetic algorithm based Expectation-Maximization process that can accurately calculate parameters describing complex clusters in a mixture model routine. Using the accuracy of this GEM algorithm, we assign information scores to cluster calculations in order to best identify the number of mixture components in a multivariate data set. We will showcase how these algorithms can be used to process multivariate data from astronomical observations.

  1. The Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA): a diagnostic method.

    PubMed

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; Robinson, Janine; Woodbury-Smith, Marc

    2005-12-01

    At the present time there are a large number of adults who have suspected Asperger syndrome (AS). In this paper we describe a new instrument, the Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA), developed in our clinic for adults with AS. The need for a new instrument relevant to the diagnosis of AS in adulthood arises because existing instruments are designed for use with children. Properties of the AAA include (1) being electronic, data-based, and computer-scorable; (2) linking with two screening instruments [the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and the Empathy Quotient (EQ)]; and (3) employing a more stringent set of diagnostic criteria than DSM-IV, in order to avoid false positives. The AAA is described, and its use with a series of n = 42 clinic-patients is reported. Thirty-seven of these (88%) met DSM-IV criteria, but only 34 of these (80%) met AAA criteria. The AAA is therefore more conservative than DSM-IV. PMID:16331530

  2. [Diagnostics of acute leukemias: interaction of phenotypic and genetic methods].

    PubMed

    Bacher, U; Haferlach, C; Schnittger, S; Kern, W; Ott, M M; Haferlach, T

    2012-11-01

    Due to the heterogeneity of these disorders, the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) requires a broad spectrum of laboratory techniques: cytomorphology, immunophenotyping, chromosome banding analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and molecular genetics. The cytomorphological leukemia subtypes can be indicative for distinct genetic alterations and contribute to the guidance of the further diagnostic process. Immunophenotyping allows to define the hematological lineage and to characterize the leukemia-associated immunophenotype as basis for follow up investigation. Cytogenetic alterations and molecular mutations are essential for the correct classification of cases and for prognostication. Molecular markers are helpful to define the minimal residual disease load after the achievement of hematological complete remission. In cases of hypocellular AML or in case of bone marrow necrosis, histopathology in combination with immunohistochemistry is of importance. Hierarchies between the different techniques catalyze the workflow in the laboratory and allow a rapid diagnosis and classification of the leukemia cases. PMID:23085696

  3. Development of new methods in modern selective organic synthesis: preparation of functionalized molecules with atomic precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananikov, V. P.; Khemchyan, L. L.; Ivanova, Yu V.; Bukhtiyarov, V. I.; Sorokin, A. M.; Prosvirin, I. P.; Vatsadze, S. Z.; Medved'ko, A. V.; Nuriev, V. N.; Dilman, A. D.; Levin, V. V.; Koptyug, I. V.; Kovtunov, K. V.; Zhivonitko, V. V.; Likholobov, V. A.; Romanenko, A. V.; Simonov, P. A.; Nenajdenko, V. G.; Shmatova, O. I.; Muzalevskiy, V. M.; Nechaev, M. S.; Asachenko, A. F.; Morozov, O. S.; Dzhevakov, P. B.; Osipov, S. N.; Vorobyeva, D. V.; Topchiy, M. A.; Zotova, M. A.; Ponomarenko, S. A.; Borshchev, O. V.; Luponosov, Yu N.; Rempel, A. A.; Valeeva, A. A.; Stakheev, A. Yu; Turova, O. V.; Mashkovsky, I. S.; Sysolyatin, S. V.; Malykhin, V. V.; Bukhtiyarova, G. A.; Terent'ev, A. O.; Krylov, I. B.

    2014-10-01

    The challenges of the modern society and the growing demand of high-technology sectors of industrial production bring about a new phase in the development of organic synthesis. A cutting edge of modern synthetic methods is introduction of functional groups and more complex structural units into organic molecules with unprecedented control over the course of chemical transformation. Analysis of the state-of-the-art achievements in selective organic synthesis indicates the appearance of a new trend — the synthesis of organic molecules, biologically active compounds, pharmaceutical substances and smart materials with absolute selectivity. Most advanced approaches to organic synthesis anticipated in the near future can be defined as 'atomic precision' in chemical reactions. The present review considers selective methods of organic synthesis suitable for transformation of complex functionalized molecules under mild conditions. Selected key trends in the modern organic synthesis are considered including the preparation of organofluorine compounds, catalytic cross-coupling and oxidative cross-coupling reactions, atom-economic addition reactions, methathesis processes, oxidation and reduction reactions, synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, design of new homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic systems, application of photocatalysis, scaling up synthetic procedures to industrial level and development of new approaches to investigation of mechanisms of catalytic reactions. The bibliography includes 840 references.

  4. Schlieren method and its application for plasma diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Hermoch

    1970-01-01

    In recent years experiments were done with the application of the schlieren method for measuring electronic and atomic density gradients in plasma. The method proved to be useful. The aim of this paper is to point out the advantages of this rarely used optical method. The principle, characteristic and application of the mentioned method in plasma physics are described.

  5. Dementia as a Predictor of Adverse Outcomes Following Stroke An Evaluation of Diagnostic Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Desmond; Joan T. Moroney; Emilia Bagiella; Mary Sano; Yaakov Stern

    Background and Purpose—Although it is understood that dementia is a risk factor for adverse outcomes, little is known about the predictive validity of the numerous methods that have been proposed for its diagnosis. Thus, we performed the present study to assess the utility of a variety of diagnostic methods in the prediction of adverse outcomes following stroke. Methods—We administered neuropsychological,

  6. Restrictive Stochastic Item Selection Methods in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Huebner, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes two new item selection methods for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing: the restrictive progressive method and the restrictive threshold method. They are built upon the posterior weighted Kullback-Leibler (KL) information index but include additional stochastic components either in the item selection index or in…

  7. Thermal plasma diagnostic methods based on the analysis of large spectral regions of plasma radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Rouffet; Y. Cressault; A. Gleizes; J. Hlina

    2008-01-01

    A new diagnostic method to evaluate thermal plasma temperature is investigated. This method in principle consists of using the relative and absolute dependences on temperature of the emitted plasma radiation in various spectral regions. The technique needs a preliminary study to calculate these relations and we present the basis of these calculations. This method is applied to argon plasma at

  8. Frequency-Domain Methods for Characterization of Pulsed Power Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    White, A D; Anderson, R A; Ferriera, T J; Goerz, D A

    2009-07-27

    This paper discusses methods of frequency-domain characterization of pulsed power sensors using vector network analyzer and spectrum analyzer techniques that offer significant simplification over time-domain methods, while mitigating or minimizing the effect of the difficulties present in time domain characterization. These methods are applicable to characterization of a wide variety of sensors.

  9. Comparison of diagnostic methods to detect piroplasms in asymptomatic cattle.

    PubMed

    Galuppi, R; Bonoli, C; Aureli, S; Cassini, R; Marcer, F; Foley, J E; Tampieri, M P

    2012-02-10

    This study was carried out to compare different diagnostic techniques to reveal the presence of piroplasms in asymptomatic cattle kept at pasture. Nineteen blood samples were collected from animals of two different areas of Emilia Romagna Region of Italy and processed for microscopic observation, PCR, serological test (IFAT) for Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina antibodies and in vitro cultivation. The cultures were performed on both bovine and ovine erythrocytes. Seventeen blood smears (89%) were positive for piroplasms, while PCR was positive on 18 samples (95%). DNA sequencing of 18S rRNA identified the piroplasms as Theileria spp. In vitro cultures were successful for 6 samples (32%) cultured on bovine blood and subsequent identified these as Babesia major by PCR. On IFAT analyses of 16 samples, 36.8% resulted positive for B. bovis and 31.6% positive for B. bigemina. These results show, in the same animals, the co-infection with Babesia spp. and Theileria spp.; the detection of B. major was possible only using the in vitro cultures. PMID:21846583

  10. Gestational Diabetes Diagnostic Methods (GD2M) Pilot Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Scifres, Christina M; Abebe, Kaleab Z; Jones, Kelley A; Comer, Diane M; Costacou, Tina; Freiberg, Matthew S; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Day, Nancy L; Davis, Esa M

    2015-07-01

    To test the feasibility of conducting a pragmatic randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) versus Carpenter-Coustan diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes (GDM), and to examine patient and provider views on GDM screening. A single-blinded pragmatic pilot RCT. Participants with a singleton pregnancy between 24 and 28 weeks gestation received a 50 g oral glucose challenge test and if the value was <200 mg/dL were randomized to either the 2 h 75 g OGTT using the IADPSG criteria or the 3 h 100 g OGTT using the Carpenter-Coustan criteria. Primary outcome was the feasibility of randomization and screening. Secondary outcomes included patient and provider views (or preferences) on GDM testing. Sixty-eight women were recruited, 48 (71 %) enrolled and 47 (69 %) were randomized. Participants in both study arms identified the main challenges to GDM testing to be: drinking the glucola, fasting prior to testing, waiting to have blood drawn, and multiple venipuntures. Women in both study arms would prefer the 2 h 75 g OGTT or whichever test is recommended by their doctor in a future pregnancy. Physicians and nurse midwives endorsed screening and were comfortable with being blinded to the GDM testing strategy and results values. Both pregnant women and providers value GDM screening, and pregnant women can be recruited to a blinded, randomized GDM screening trial with minimal attrition and missing data. PMID:25424454

  11. A Simplified Diagnostic Method for Elastomer Bond Durability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A simplified method has been developed for determining bond durability under exposure to water or high humidity conditions. It uses a small number of test specimens with relatively short times of water exposure at elevated temperature. The method is also gravimetric; the only equipment being required is an oven, specimen jars, and a conventional laboratory balance.

  12. Method of radioactively labeling diagnostic and therapeutic agents containing a chelating group

    SciTech Connect

    Stavrianopoulos, J.G.

    1987-11-17

    A method of forming a therapeutic or diagnostic agent labeled with a radioactive metal ion is described, which comprises: (A) contacting; (1) an unlabeled therapeutic or diagnostic agent comprising: (a) a molecularly recognizable portion attached to, (b) a chelating portion capable of substantially chelating with the radioactive metal ion, wherein the chelating portion is not a part of the molecularly recognizable portion, with (2) an ion transfer material having the radioactive metal ion bound thereto and having a binding affinity for the radioactive metal ion less than the binding affinity of the chelating portion for the radioactive metal ion. The chelating portion is unchelated or is chelated with a second metal having a binding affinity with the chelating portion less than the binding affinity of the radioactive metal ion, whereby a radiolabeled therapeutic or diagnostic agent is formed by the contacting; and (B) separating the radiolabeled therapeutic or diagnostic agent from the ion transfer material.

  13. Method of hepatitis diagnostics of changes in human skin diffuse reflectivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Kirsh; A. M. Sokol; V. S. Lomanets; O. R. Gayka

    1999-01-01

    The results on the study of influence of bilirubinum concentration in a human blood on the spectrum of a diffuse reflectivity of his skin are represented. On this basis, the method for hepatitis diagnostics has been developed, and the laboratory device implementing this method has been designed. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find

  14. Method of hepatitis diagnostics of changes in human skin diffuse reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsh, M. L.; Sokol, A. M.; Lomanets, V. S.; Gayka, O. R.

    1999-11-01

    The results on the study of influence of bilirubinum concentration in a human blood on the spectrum of a diffuse reflectivity of his skin are represented. On this basis, the method for hepatitis diagnostics has been developed, and the laboratory device implementing this method has been designed.

  15. Methods of homicide in England and Wales: a comparison by diagnostic group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathryn Rodway; Sandra Flynn; Nicola Swinson; Alison Roscoe; Isabelle M. Hunt; Kirsten Windfuhr; Navneet Kapur; Louis Appleby; Jenny Shaw

    2009-01-01

    Background: International literature has examined the offence characteristics of homicide in the general population, but there has been limited research investigating diagnostic differences between perpetrators who commit homicide by differing methods. Objective: To investigate the methods of homicide by people with different psychiatric diagnoses and to explore the offence characteristics of perpetrators with schizophrenia, in a seven-year (1997–2003) national sample

  16. Portmanteau Model Diagnostics and Tests for Nonlinearity: A Comparative Monte Carlo Study of Two Alternative Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Brooks

    1999-01-01

    This paper employs an extensive Monte Carlo study to test the size and power of the BDS and close return methods of testing for departures from independent and identical distribution. It is found that the finite sample properties of the BDS test are far superior and that the close return method cannot be recommended as a model diagnostic. Neither test

  17. Laser-Produced Plasma Diagnostics by a Combination of Schlieren Method and Mach-Zehnder Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, O.; Süß, W.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Roth, M.; Stöckl, C.; Geissel, M.; Seelig, W.; Bock, R.

    1998-12-01

    An optical method for laser-produced plasma diagnostics, for which a crucial study is a shock-wave phenomena, is newly suggested as a combination of the well-known Schlieren method to study shock-wave phenomena and Mach-Zehnder interferometry for evaluating the electron density.

  18. Isothermal multiple displacement amplification: a methodical approach enhancing molecular routine diagnostics of microcarcinomas and small biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Mairinger, Fabian D; Walter, Robert FH; Vollbrecht, Claudia; Hager, Thomas; Worm, Karl; Ting, Saskia; Wohlschläger, Jeremias; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Schmid, Kurt W

    2014-01-01

    Background and methods Isothermal multiple displacement amplification (IMDA) can be a powerful tool in molecular routine diagnostics for homogeneous and sequence-independent whole-genome amplification of notably small tumor samples, eg, microcarcinomas and biopsies containing a small amount of tumor. Currently, this method is not well established in pathology laboratories. We designed a study to confirm the feasibility and convenience of this method for routine diagnostics with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples prepared by laser-capture microdissection. Results A total of 250 ?g DNA (concentration 5 ?g/?L) was generated by amplification over a period of 8 hours with a material input of approximately 25 cells, approximately equivalent to 175 pg of genomic DNA. In the generated DNA, a representation of all chromosomes could be shown and the presence of elected genes relevant for diagnosis in clinical samples could be proven. Mutational analysis of clinical samples could be performed without any difficulty and showed concordance with earlier diagnostic findings. Conclusion We established the feasibility and convenience of IMDA for routine diagnostics. We also showed that small amounts of DNA, which were not analyzable with current molecular methods, could be sufficient for a wide field of applications in molecular routine diagnostics when they are preamplified with IMDA. PMID:25152625

  19. Diagnostic of the beam by pepper-pot method

    E-print Network

    Dolinskaya, M E; Zajchenko, A K

    2002-01-01

    The new method for the measuring of the particle distribution in the transversal plane with pepper-pot device is described. The algorithm for the beam emittance and Twiss parameters determination, using such measurements is presented. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Medical diagnostic system based on image receivers of various spectral ranges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olga G. Siniakova; Airat I. Ishmukhametov

    1996-01-01

    The medical diagnostics is one of the most important spheres of application of measuring and diagnostic systems based on introscopy methods. The modern medical introscopy diagnostics has in its arsenal many various devices using x-ray radiation with energy from 10 to 100 keV (roentgenological diagnostics, x-ray computer tomography), gamma radiation of radionuclides with energy 10 - 300 keV (radionuclide diagnostics),

  1. Application of optical flow method for imaging diagnostic in JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciunescu, T.; Murari, A.; Alonso, A.; Lang, P. T.; Kocsis, G.; Tiseanu, I.; Zoita, V.; JET EFDA Contributors

    2010-05-01

    An optical flow method is applied to the study of several fusion plasma relevant issues, including plasma wall interactions. A multi-resolution coarse-to-fine procedure is used in order to cope with large displacements of objects between consecutive frames, characteristic of plasma images captured by JET fast visible camera. Occlusion modeling is also implemented. The method is able to provide good results for JET fast visible camera images which can be affected by saturation, discontinuous movement, reshaping of image objects, low gray-level in-depth resolution. Significant experimental cases concerning pellet injection, plasma filaments and MARFEs are analysed. The method is able to provide the real velocity for objects moving close to structures.

  2. Microseismic logging: A new hydraulic fracture diagnostic method

    SciTech Connect

    Mahrer, K.D. (Teledyne Geotech, Alexandria, VA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Hydraulic fracture treatments and fluid injections into fractured wells induce cloud of microseismic sources in the fractured zone. This induced seismicity can last for hours after pumping and pervades the fracture. The source-size population distribution ranges from a countable (50 to 500) number of large, individually distinguishable event to a din of background events. Each source radiates wave motion, which can be recorded only in and near the fracture. A new method uses these motion data, recorded in the cased treatment well, to determine the fracture height and azimuth. The height is found by delineating the location and vertical extent of a spatial anomaly in the background-motion data. The azimuth is derived from the particle-motion polarization of the largest events of the microseismic event population. This paper describes the method, exemplary data sets, theory, and simulations that substantiate this method.

  3. Novel scanner characterization method for color measurement and diagnostics applications

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Gaurav

    of 3-D scanner characterizations is derived, one for each level of K. Each characterization maps that the 4-D characterization technique can significantly outperform standard 3-D approaches especially that a typical printed medium comprises the three basic colorants C, M, Y. The proposed method is particularly

  4. New method of acne disease fluorescent diagnostics in natural and fluorescent light and treatment control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimova, L. N.; Berezin, A. N.; Shevchik, S. A.; Kharnas, S. S.; Kusmin, S. G.; Loschenov, V. B.

    2005-08-01

    In the given research the new method of fluorescent diagnostics (FD) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) control of acne disease is submitted. Method is based on simultaneous diagnostics in natural and fluorescent light. PDT was based on using 5-ALA (5- aminolevulinic acid) preparation and 600-730 nanometers radiation. If the examined site of a skin possessed a high endogenous porphyrin fluorescence level, PDT was carried out without 5-ALA. For FD and treatment control a dot spectroscopy and the fluorescent imaging of the affected skin were used.

  5. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  6. [Methodical features of the molding of diagnostic competences in medical parasitology workers].

    PubMed

    Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Iu; Avdiukhina, T I; Serdiuk, A P; Imamkuliev, K D

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides a rationale for a procedure to mold diagnostic competences in medical workers of the laboratories of therapeutic-and-prophylactic institutions and hygiene and epidemiology centers, Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare. The methodical features of molding diagnostic competences in the above contingents are the design and organization of an educational process by applying systems integration and competence-based approaches; increased active self-directed learning of audience; a procedure to organize its unsupervised extracurricular activities. Professional habits and skills in laboratory specialists should be molded on the basis of didactic principles and in compliance with the found methodical patterns. The eventual result (molded competences) and its compliance with the practical health care requirements is assessed using all control types (incoming, running, intermediate, and ultimate ones). This ensures the stability and predictability of molding diagnostic competences in parasitology specialists. PMID:25850323

  7. Modern thermoelectrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Gründler, Peter; Kirbs, Andreas; Dunsch, Lothar

    2009-08-01

    Thermoelectrochemistry as a branch of electrochemistry like photoelectrochemistry is reviewed in an integral treatment of the subject. Especially modern thermoelectrochemistry is focused on new techniques to vary the temperature as an independent variable. This review based on a definition of modern thermoelectrochemistry includes all the classical work which contributes to the formation of modern thermoelectrochemistry, among them high-temperature electrochemistry, subcritical- and supercritical electrochemistry and in-situ electrochemical calorimetry. The main focus is on modern techniques like fast electrode heating by lasers or by alternating current as well as on heating of solution spots by microwaves and related methods. Here the state of the art in modern thermoelectrochemistry is critically reviewed for the first time. PMID:19634136

  8. Hydroxyalkyl phosphine gold complexes for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Katti, K.V.; Berning, D.E.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.

    1998-12-01

    A complex and method for making a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical includes a ligand comprising at least one hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group bound to a gold atom to form a gold-ligand complex that is stable in aqueous solutions containing oxygen, serum and other body fluids. 20 figs.

  9. Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Katti, K.V.; Karra, S.R.; Berning, D.E.; Smith, C.J.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.

    1999-01-05

    A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand. 21 figs.

  10. Method and apparatus for utilizing microwaves for internal combustion engine diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for determining various diagnostic conditions of an internal combustion engine from an analysis of the resonances of a reflected microwave signal radiated into a combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine. Various parameters of each microwave resonance are calculated including: (1) the location of the resonance with respect to the crank angle of a

  11. PATHOLOGY OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE IN DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANTS FROM SASKATCHEWAN, WITH COMPARISON OF DIAGNOSTIC METHODS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thijs Kuiken; Gary Wobeser; Frederick A. Leighton; Deborah M. Haines; Brian Chelack; Jaret Bogdan; Lori Hassard; Robert A. Heckert

    Newcastle disease (ND) in juvenile double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax au- ritus) occurred several times since 1975, but there are relatively few studies on its pathology and diagnosis. In order to describe the distribution of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and associated lesions in cormorants with ND and to compare diagnostic methods, 25 cormorants with nervous signs from a ND epizootic in Saskatchewan

  12. Depression and Spinal Cord Injury: A Review of Diagnostic Methods for Depression, 1985 to 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Amy L.; Armstrong, Kevin J.; Rich, John

    2003-01-01

    Studies of depression in individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI) over a 15-year period were examined to determine if researchers used consistent diagnostic measures. The Beck Depression Inventory was the most frequently used instrument, but there was inconsistency among methods employed and disagreement regarding the inclusion of somatic…

  13. Patents on diagnostic methods in Europe under the European Patent Convention (EPC).

    PubMed

    Barba, Michelangelo

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the provisions of the European Patent Convention with regard to diagnostic methods practiced on the human or animal body. Moreover, it is also discussed the relevant jurisprudence (Case Law) interpreting the legal provisions. Some examples based on real cases are also presented and discussed. PMID:21095714

  14. Improving resolution and depth of astronomical observations via modern mathematical methods for image analysis

    E-print Network

    Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Merlin, Emiliano; Pilo, Stefano; Falcone, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    In the past years modern mathematical methods for image analysis have led to a revolution in many fields, from computer vision to scientific imaging. However, some recently developed image processing techniques successfully exploited by other sectors have been rarely, if ever, experimented on astronomical observations. We present here tests of two classes of variational image enhancement techniques: "structure-texture decomposition" and "super-resolution" showing that they are effective in improving the quality of observations. Structure-texture decomposition allows to recover faint sources previously hidden by the background noise, effectively increasing the depth of available observations. Super-resolution yields an higher-resolution and a better sampled image out of a set of low resolution frames, thus mitigating problematics in data analysis arising from the difference in resolution/sampling between different instruments, as in the case of EUCLID VIS and NIR imagers.

  15. Analysis of the Diagnostic Methods of the Performance Failure of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-print Network

    Li, L.; Zhang, Z.; Sun, Y.; Li, D.; Xie, H.

    2006-01-01

    the application characteristics of different methods and supplies the guide for the application of fault detection and diagnostic technology. Keywords: heating and air conditioning failure diagnosis methods 1. INTRODUCTION The HVAC systems... the safety and reliability of air conditioning system, avoids advent of the malfunctions and diffusing. Currently AFTDT (automatic fault detection and diagnosis technology) is an important way for advancing the safety and reliability of the equipments...

  16. Theories and methods of strategic environmental assessment of modern logistics development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling Xu; Jin-cheng Shang; Yu-mei Wang

    2005-01-01

    Modern logistics is a new industry during the construction of national economy. Based on analyzing the environmental problem\\u000a that was led by the limitation of the strategy during enacting the program of the modern logistics, SEA for modern logistics\\u000a was implemented. In this paper, procedure and indicator system in the SEA are constructed, and Environmental Check List to\\u000a identify environmental

  17. Modern applications for a total sulfur reduction distillation method - what’s old is new again

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of a boiling mixture of hydriodic acid, hypophosphorous acid, and hydrochloric acid to reduce any variety of sulfur compounds has been in use in various applications since the first appearance of this method in the literature in the 1920’s. In the realm of sulfur geochemistry, this method remains a useful, but under-utilized technique. Presented here is a detailed description of the distillation set-up and procedure, as well as an overview of potential applications of this method for marine sulfur biogeochemistry/isotope studies. The presented applications include the sulfur isotope analysis of extremely low amounts of sulfate from saline water, the conversion of radiolabeled sulfate into sulfide, the extraction of refractory sulfur from marine sediments, and the use of this method to assess sulfur cycling in Aarhus Bay sediments. Results The STrongly Reducing hydrIodic/hypoPhosphorous/hydrochloric acid (STRIP) reagent is capable of rapidly reducing a wide range of sulfur compounds, including the most oxidized form, sulfate, to hydrogen sulfide. Conversion of as little as approximately 5 micromole sulfate is possible, with a sulfur isotope composition reproducibility of 0.3 permil. Conclusions Although developed many decades ago, this distillation method remains relevant for many modern applications. The STRIP distillation quickly and quantitatively converts sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide which can be readily collected in a silver nitrate trap for further use. An application of this method to a study of sulfur cycling in Aarhus Bay demonstrates that we account for all of the sulfur compounds in pore-water, effectively closing the mass balance of sulfur cycling. PMID:24808759

  18. Modern Evaluation of Liquisolid Systems with Varying Amounts of Liquid Phase Prepared Using Two Different Methods

    PubMed Central

    Vetchý, David

    2015-01-01

    Liquisolid systems are an innovative dosage form used for enhancing dissolution rate and improving in vivo bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. These formulations require specific evaluation methods for their quality assurance (e.g., evaluation of angle of slide, contact angle, or water absorption ratio). The presented study is focused on the preparation, modern in vitro testing, and evaluation of differences of liquisolid systems containing varying amounts of a drug in liquid state (polyethylene glycol 400 solution of rosuvastatin) in relation to an aluminometasilicate carrier (Neusilin US2). Liquisolid powders used for the formulation of final tablets were prepared using two different methods: simple blending and spraying of drug solution onto a carrier in fluid bed equipment. The obtained results imply that the amount of liquid phase in relation to carrier material had an effect on the hardness, friability, and disintegration of tablets, as well as their height. The use of spraying technique enhanced flow properties of the prepared mixtures, increased hardness values, decreased friability, and improved homogeneity of the final dosage form.

  19. Modern Evaluation of Liquisolid Systems with Varying Amounts of Liquid Phase Prepared Using Two Different Methods.

    PubMed

    Vraníková, Barbora; Gajdziok, Jan; Vetchý, David

    2015-01-01

    Liquisolid systems are an innovative dosage form used for enhancing dissolution rate and improving in vivo bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. These formulations require specific evaluation methods for their quality assurance (e.g., evaluation of angle of slide, contact angle, or water absorption ratio). The presented study is focused on the preparation, modern in vitro testing, and evaluation of differences of liquisolid systems containing varying amounts of a drug in liquid state (polyethylene glycol 400 solution of rosuvastatin) in relation to an aluminometasilicate carrier (Neusilin US2). Liquisolid powders used for the formulation of final tablets were prepared using two different methods: simple blending and spraying of drug solution onto a carrier in fluid bed equipment. The obtained results imply that the amount of liquid phase in relation to carrier material had an effect on the hardness, friability, and disintegration of tablets, as well as their height. The use of spraying technique enhanced flow properties of the prepared mixtures, increased hardness values, decreased friability, and improved homogeneity of the final dosage form. PMID:26075249

  20. [Modern microbiological methods in diagnosis of adverse reactions after BCG vaccination. Case reports].

    PubMed

    Zwolska, Zofia; Augustynowicz-Kope?, Ewa; Zabost, Anna; Zió?kowski, Jerzy; Buchwald, Joachim; P?o?czak, Marian; Walas, Wojciech; Ziebi?ski, Marek

    2004-01-01

    The attenuated bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is administered worldwide to prevent tuberculosis and is considered to have an excellent safety profile. In Poland, since 1955 BCG mass vaccinations have been compulsory. More than 95% newborns and 80% of older children of the population have been vaccinated. Complications of vaccination are uncommon. Although BCG has been used safely for many years, it can cause disease in humans, especially those with cellular immunodeficiencies. The risks associated with BCG vaccination include local complications, extraregional localized disease, and disseminated BCG disease. Identification of M. bovis BCG in laboratory is a very difficult process. Routine identification of mycobacterial isolates in clinical laboratories involves culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex which includes M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum and M. microti and the vaccine strain M.bovis BCG. Most laboratories cannot quickly differentiate between BCG and other members of M. tuberculosis complex and some cases of BCG complications in children may be considered and treated as tuberculosis. Because of difficulties in proper identification of BCG strains isolated from the patients, the prevalence of BCG infections is not know exactly. Knowledge of BCG infection would be of particular interest to the clinician responsible for the therapy. We describe the several methods using in mycobacterial laboratory for identification and suggest the modern algorithm of BCG strains identification including mycolic acids profile by HPLC and 14C PZA resistance methods. The methods allowed us fast and accurate identify M. bovis BCG infection in 5 children which have been described in our paper. Preliminary diagnosis for four children among five tested was tuberculosis. One immunocompromised HIV negative child died, one still excretes BCG bacilli. To our knowledge, this is the first report of BCG complication (AEFI) in Polish children in which HPLC and 14 C PZA methods have been used for rapid identification of M. bovis BCG infection and/or complication. PMID:16329351

  1. Adaptation of LASCA method for diagnostics of malignant tumours in laboratory animals

    SciTech Connect

    Ul'yanov, S S; Laskavyi, V N; Glova, Alina B; Polyanina, T I; Ul'yanova, O V; Fedorova, V A; Ul'yanov, A S

    2012-05-31

    The LASCA method is adapted for diagnostics of malignant neoplasms in laboratory animals. Tumours are studied in mice of Balb/c inbred line after inoculation of cells of syngeneic myeloma cell line Sp.2/0 Ag.8. The appropriateness of using the tLASCA method in tumour investigations is substantiated; its advantages in comparison with the sLASCA method are demonstrated. It is found that the most informative characteristic, indicating the presence of a tumour, is the fractal dimension of LASCA images.

  2. Analysis of the Diagnostic Methods of the Performance Failure of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems

    E-print Network

    Li, L.; Zhang, Z.; Sun, Y.; Li, D.; Xie, H.

    2006-01-01

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Co ntrol Systems for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol. V-5-2 Analysis of the Diagnostic Methods of the Performance Failure of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems Lianyou LI Zhihong ZHANG Yong... object. Taking the air dealing system for example is indicated Fig. 2. A? B? C? D? E? F? G? H? I ?the temperature of outlet The qualitative physics equations: [dA]=[dB] (2.1) [dB]+[dF]=[dC] (2...

  3. Bayesian and maximum entropy methods for fusion diagnostic measurements with compact neutron spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Reginatto, Marcel; Zimbal, Andreas [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    In applications of neutron spectrometry to fusion diagnostics, it is advantageous to use methods of data analysis which can extract information from the spectrum that is directly related to the parameters of interest that describe the plasma. We present here methods of data analysis which were developed with this goal in mind, and which were applied to spectrometric measurements made with an organic liquid scintillation detector (type NE213). In our approach, we combine Bayesian parameter estimation methods and unfolding methods based on the maximum entropy principle. This two-step method allows us to optimize the analysis of the data depending on the type of information that we want to extract from the measurements. To illustrate these methods, we analyze neutron measurements made at the PTB accelerator under controlled conditions, using accelerator-produced neutron beams. Although the methods have been chosen with a specific application in mind, they are general enough to be useful for many other types of measurements.

  4. Changes in Diagnostic Methods for Pulmonary Tuberculosis between 2005 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Bin; Kim, Joohae; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo

    2015-01-01

    Background Diagnostic methods for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) have recently advanced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in TB diagnostic tests that prompted the initiation of anti-TB treatment over time in South Korea, an industrialized country with an intermediate TB burden. Methods Patients diagnosed with pulmonary TB in the first halves of 2005 and 2013 at a tertiary referral hospital were included. Diagnostic methods that prompted the initiation of anti-TB treatment were compared between the 2 groups of patients. Results A greater proportion of patients were diagnosed with pulmonary TB using bronchoscopy in 2013 than in 2005 (26.7% vs. 6.6%, respectively; p<0.001), while the proportion of patients clinically diagnosed with pulmonary TB was lower in 2013 than in 2005 (24.7% vs. 49.0%, respectively; p<0.001). Additionally, more patients started anti-TB treatment based on positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in 2013 than in 2005 (47.3% vs. 7.9%, respectively; p<0.001). Conclusion The initiation of treatment for pulmonary TB in South Korea has become more frequently based on PCR and the use of bronchoscopic specimens.

  5. Current and future research in diagnostic criteria and evaluation of caries detection methods.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chun Hung; Chau, Alex M; Lo, Edward C

    2013-01-01

    The biochemical definition of dental caries is reasonably understood and generally agreed upon, but there is no consensus on a clinical definition among dentists. There are many proposed diagnostic criteria of dental caries in the dental literature. The recently developed International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II) has been constructed to allow data comparison between studies. It can be used in epidemiological studies, public health research, clinical research, clinical practice and dental education. A good study evaluating a caries detection method should contain information on caries prevalence of the study sample and other measures, including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). It is noteworthy that measuring sensitivity and specificity provides no quantitative information on how likely a tested tooth is to be carious because the true caries status of the tooth is not known in a clinical situation. Moreover, the study design for caries detection should address the interpretation of predictive values because PPV and NPV are affected by the caries prevalence. The study design should also measure patient-oriented outcomes, address allocation concealment and avoid lead-time bias to generate valid and clinically relevant studies. Prudent evaluation of caries detection methods is the standard of care. This paper reviews current diagnostic criteria for caries detection and discusses proper ways to evaluate new diagnostic methods. PMID:23534041

  6. Diagnostic validity of the chemiluminescent method compared to polymerase chain reaction for hepatitis B virus detection in the routine clinical diagnostic laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Khadem-Ansari, Mohammad-Hassan; Omrani, Mir-Davood; Rasmi, Yousef; Ghavam, Arsalan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common significant chronic viral infection world-wide. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) has been the principal target for laboratory testing to identify active infection by HBV. We aimed to find out diagnostic validity of the Liaison chemiluminescent method compared to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for HBV detection in the routine clinical diagnostic laboratory. Materials and Methods: From 350 patients suspicious of having infection with HBV, serum samples were separated and used for testing HBsAg by two methods of Liaison chemiluminescent immunoassay, with HBsAg confirmatory test and PCR method. Results: According to the PCR results as assumed as gold standard method with 100% sensitivity and specificity, detection rate sensitivity of chemiluminescent with confirmatory test was 96% and its specificity was 100%, and for chemiluminescent without confirmatory test sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 70%, respectively. Also for chemiluminescent with confirmatory test, positive predictive value (PPV) was 100% and its negative predictive value (NPV) was 97%, compared to chemiluminescent without confirmatory test with PPV and NPV equal to 71% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: It is possible to conclude that in the majority of the HBV cases, the diagnostic value of chemiluminescent method compared to the PCR method is acceptable, except in low indexes positive cases that need further investigation with the PCR method. PMID:24949287

  7. Highly variable use of diagnostic methods for sexually transmitted infections-results of a nationwide survey, Germany 2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Gilsdorf; Alexandra Hofmann; Osamah Hamouda; Viviane Bremer

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sexual transmitted infections (STIs) have increased in Germany and other countries in Europe since the mid-nineties. To obtain a better picture of diagnostic methods used in STI testing institutions in Germany, we performed a nationwide survey amongst STI specialists in order to evaluate the quality of STI reports and provide recommendations to harmonize and possibly improve STI diagnostics in

  8. Modern Methods of Real-Time Gamma Radiation Monitoring for General Personal Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

    Real-time radiation detectors become an essential part of emergency personnel who may have to respond to unknown accidents, incidents or terrorist attacks, which could involve radioactive material. More and more ordinary citizens are interested in personal radiation protection as well. Reasons include lost sources, nuclear industrial accidents, nuclear or radiological terrorism and the possibility of nuclear weapons being used in a war. People want to have the ability to measure it for themselves and they want to be notified when the radiation levels are increased. To meet this demand, considerable research into new sensors is underway, including efforts to enhance the sensor performance through both the material properties and manufacturing technologies. Deep understanding of physical properties of the materials under the influence of radiation exposure is vital for the effective design of dosimeter devices. Detection of radiation is based on the fact that both the electrical and the optical properties of the materials undergo changes upon the exposure to ionizing radiation. It is believed that radiation causes structural defects. The influence of radiation depends on both the dose and the parameters of the films including their thickness: the degradation is more severe for the higher dose and the thinner films. This paper presents overview of modern methods of real-time gamma radiation monitoring for personal protection of radiation workers and general public and suggests further developments in this area.

  9. Identification of moulds in the diagnostic laboratory--an algorithm implementing molecular and phenotypic methods.

    PubMed

    Ciardo, Diana E; Schär, Gertrud; Altwegg, Martin; Böttger, Erik C; Bosshard, Philipp P

    2007-09-01

    Sequence analysis provides a valuable alternative to phenotypic identification of moulds, especially for isolates lacking characteristic morphology. In this comparative prospective study, isolates that could not be identified by standard phenotypic criteria within 5 days (n = 244) were subjected to sequence analysis and further in-depth phenotypic investigations. Comparison of sequence-based with extended phenotypic identification revealed that sequence analysis was more precise in 52.0% of the isolates; in 38.6% of the isolates, both methods gave concordant results. The construction of a database consisting of high-quality sequences allowed improvement of sequence-based identification. Based on these results, we propose a diagnostic algorithm for the effective use of both phenotypic and genetic procedures for identification of moulds in the diagnostic laboratory. PMID:17662553

  10. Development of a diagnostic method applicable to various serotypes of hantavirus infection in rodents.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Takahiro; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Saasa, Ngonda; Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Seto, Takahiro; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Ivanov, Leonid I; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Yoshii, Kentaro; Takashima, Ikuo

    2012-09-01

    Antigenic diversity among different hantaviruses requires a variety of reagents for diagnosis of hantavirus infection. To develop a diagnostic method applicable to various hantavirus infections with a single set of reagents, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant nucleocapsid proteins of three hantaviruses, Amur, Hokkaido, and Sin Nombre viruses. This novel cocktail antigen-based ELISA enabled detection of antibodies against Hantaan, Seoul, Amur, Puumala, and Sin Nombre viruses in immunized laboratory animals. In wild rodent species, including Apodemus, Rattus, and Myodes, our ELISA detected antibodies against hantaviruses with high sensitivity and specificity. These data suggest that our novel diagnostic ELISA is a useful tool for screening hantavirus infections and could be effectively utilized for serological surveillance and quarantine purposes. PMID:22673703

  11. A new diagnostic method of bolt loosening detection for thermal protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Weihua; Meng, Songhe; Han, Jiecai; Du, Shanyi; Zhang, Boming; Yu, Dong

    2009-07-01

    Research and development efforts are underway to provide structural health monitoring systems to ensure the integrity of thermal protection system (TPS). An improved analytical method was proposed to assess the fastener integrity of a bolted structure in this paper. A new unsymmetrical washer was designed and fabricated, taking full advantage of piezoelectric ceramics (PZT) to play both roles as actuators and sensors, and using energy as the only extracted feature to identify abnormality. This diagnostic method is not restricted by the materials of the bracket, panel and base structure of the TPS whose condition is under inspection. A series of experiments on a metallic honeycomb sandwich panel were completed to demonstrate the capability of detecting bolt loosening on the TPS structure. Studies showed that this method can be used not only to identify the location of loosened bolts rapidly, but also to estimate the torque level of loosening bolts. Since that energy is the only extracted feature used to detect bolt loosening in this method, the diagnostic process become very simple and swift without sacrificing the accuracy of the results.

  12. An In Vivo Comparison of Two Diagnostic Methods in Secondary Caries Detection

    PubMed Central

    Hamishaki, Kazem Saber; Chiniforush, Nasim; Monzavi, Abbas; Khazarazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the level of agreement between four operators with different levels of experience for two methods of detecting secondary enamel and dentin carious lesions in composite restored teeth. Materials and Methods: Sixty teeth of 40 patients with with secondary carious lesions in the composite resin were selected. The teeth were examined by two methods; visual inspection and a laser fluorescence device (DIAGNO dent pen 2190) by four operators including an undergraduate student, a dentist with 5 years of clinical experience, a general dentist with 12 years of clinical experience and an oral and maxillofacial radiologist. Cohen's kappa statistic was applied in order to assess the agreement between the diagnoses performed by the four operators with each diagnostic method. Results: The diagnosis performed by different operators achieved an excellent agreement with high ICC. Conclusion: DIAGNOdent can be a useful device for secondary caries detection in posterior teeth as an adjunct to visual examination. PMID:24910672

  13. A Toxocara cati eggs concentration method from cats' faeces, for experimental and diagnostic purposes.

    PubMed

    Cardillo, N; Sommerfelt, I; Fariña, F; Pasqualetti, M; Pérez, M; Ercole, M; Rosa, A; Ribicich, M

    2014-09-01

    Toxocariosis is a zoonotic parasite infection worldwide distributed, now considered a neglected disease associated to poverty. For experimental infection in animals and to develop the diagnosis in humans it is necessary to obtain large number of Toxocara spp. larval eggs. Toxocara cati eggs recovered percentage from faeces of infected cats was determined employing a novel egg concentration method. The McMaster egg counting technique and the concentration method were applied on 20 positive cats' sample faeces obtained from naturally infected cats. The mean percentage of eggs recovered by the concentration method was 24.37% higher than the count obtained by McMaster egg counting technique. The main advantage of this method is that it can be obtained a small final volume with a high number of recovered eggs and a good quality inoculum for experimental and diagnostic purposes. PMID:24959943

  14. Instantaneous phasor method for obtaining instantaneous balanced fundamental components for power quality control and continuous diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Poor power quality not only causes additional energy losses, it may also cause detrimental interruptions to business and manufacturing operations. The growing popularity of electronic equipment, such as computers, televisions, electronic ballasts, solid-state motor controllers, and electronically controlled industry loads pollutes the power quality. In 1995, EPRI reported that the revenue losses due to poor power quality to US business alone were $400 billion per year. A new instantaneous phasor method for obtaining instantaneous balanced fundamental components is introduced. An example is presented. This technique may be used for active power quality control and for continuous diagnostics.

  15. Combined Use of Cytogenetic and Molecular Methods in Prenatal Diagnostics of Chromosomal Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Stomornjak-Vukadin, Meliha; Kurtovic-Basic, Ilvana; Mehinovic, Lejla; Konjhodzic, Rijad

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of prenatal diagnostics is to provide information of the genetic abnormalities of the fetus early enough for the termination of pregnancy to be possible. Chromosomal abnormalities can be detected in an unborn child through the use of cytogenetic, molecular- cytogenetic and molecular methods. In between them, central spot is still occupied by cytogenetic methods. In cases where use of such methods is not informative enough, one or more molecular cytogenetic methods can be used for further clarification. Combined use of the mentioned methods improves the quality of the final findings in the diagnostics of chromosomal abnormalities, with classical cytogenetic methods still occupying the central spot. Material and methods: Conducted research represent retrospective-prospective study of a four year period, from 2008 through 2011. In the period stated, 1319 karyotyping from amniotic fluid were conducted, along with 146 FISH analysis. Results: Karyotyping had detected 20 numerical and 18 structural aberrations in that period. Most common observed numerical aberration were Down syndrome (75%), Klinefelter syndrome (10%), Edwards syndrome, double Y syndrome and triploidy (5% each). Within observed structural aberrations more common were balanced chromosomal aberrations then non balanced ones. Most common balanced structural aberrations were as follows: reciprocal translocations (60%), Robertson translocations (13.3%), chromosomal inversions, duplications and balanced de novo chromosomal rearrangements (6.6% each). Conclusion: With non- balanced aberrations observed in the samples of amniotic fluid, non- balanced translocations, deletions and derived chromosomes were equally represented. Number of detected aneuploidies with FISH, prior to obtaining results with karyotyping, were 6. PMID:26005269

  16. Impact of gene patents on diagnostic testing: a new patent landscaping method applied to spinocerebellar ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Berthels, Nele; Matthijs, Gert; Van Overwalle, Geertrui

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports in Europe and the United States raise concern about the potential negative impact of gene patents on the freedom to operate of diagnosticians and on the access of patients to genetic diagnostic services. Patents, historically seen as legal instruments to trigger innovation, could cause undesired side effects in the public health domain. Clear empirical evidence on the alleged hindering effect of gene patents is still scarce. We therefore developed a patent categorization method to determine which gene patents could indeed be problematic. The method is applied to patents relevant for genetic testing of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). The SCA test is probably the most widely used DNA test in (adult) neurology, as well as one of the most challenging due to the heterogeneity of the disease. Typically tested as a gene panel covering the five common SCA subtypes, we show that the patenting of SCA genes and testing methods and the associated licensing conditions could have far-reaching consequences on legitimate access to this gene panel. Moreover, with genetic testing being increasingly standardized, simply ignoring patents is unlikely to hold out indefinitely. This paper aims to differentiate among so-called ‘gene patents' by lifting out the truly problematic ones. In doing so, awareness is raised among all stakeholders in the genetic diagnostics field who are not necessarily familiar with the ins and outs of patenting and licensing. PMID:21811306

  17. Development of a diagnostic method for neosporosis in cattle using recombinant Neospora caninum proteins

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neosporosis is an infectious disease primarily of cattle and dogs, caused by intracellular parasite, Neospora caninum. Neosporosis appears to be a major cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide and causes to huge economic loss to dairy industry. Results Recombinant surface associated antigen 1 (NcSAG1), NcSAG1 related sequence 2 (NcSRS2) and the dense granule antigen 2 (NcGRA2) of N. caninum were expressed either in silkworm or in Escherichia coli and purified. The purified recombinant proteins bound to the N. caninum-specific antibodies in serum samples from infected cattle as revealed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). By co-immobilizing these recombinant proteins, a novel indirect ELISA was developed for detection of neosporosis. With the use of 32 serum samples, comprising 12 positive serum samples and 20 negative serum samples, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were found to be 91.7 and 100%, respectively. Seventy-two serum samples from dairy farms were also tested and one was diagnosed with neosporasis with both this method and a commercial assay. Conclusions A diagnostic method employing recombinant proteins of N. caninum was developed. The method showed high sensitivity and specificity. Diagnostic test with field serum samples suggested its applicability to the practical diagnosis of neosporosis. PMID:22558916

  18. New diagnostic methods for laser plasma- and microwave-enhanced combustion.

    PubMed

    Miles, Richard B; Michael, James B; Limbach, Christopher M; McGuire, Sean D; Chng, Tat Loon; Edwards, Matthew R; DeLuca, Nicholas J; Shneider, Mikhail N; Dogariu, Arthur

    2015-08-13

    The study of pulsed laser- and microwave-induced plasma interactions with atmospheric and higher pressure combusting gases requires rapid diagnostic methods that are capable of determining the mechanisms by which these interactions are taking place. New rapid diagnostics are presented here extending the capabilities of Rayleigh and Thomson scattering and resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) detection and introducing femtosecond laser-induced velocity and temperature profile imaging. Spectrally filtered Rayleigh scattering provides a method for the planar imaging of temperature fields for constant pressure interactions and line imaging of velocity, temperature and density profiles. Depolarization of Rayleigh scattering provides a measure of the dissociation fraction, and multi-wavelength line imaging enables the separation of Thomson scattering from Rayleigh scattering. Radar REMPI takes advantage of high-frequency microwave scattering from the region of laser-selected species ionization to extend REMPI to atmospheric pressures and implement it as a stand-off detection method for atomic and molecular species in combusting environments. Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) generates highly excited molecular species and dissociation through the focal zone of the laser. The prompt fluorescence from excited molecular species yields temperature profiles, and the delayed fluorescence from recombining atomic fragments yields velocity profiles. PMID:26170432

  19. Expanded response-surfaces: a new method to reconstruct paleoclimates from fossil pollen assemblages that lack modern analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, L. M.; Williams, J. W.; Grimm, E. C.

    2009-12-01

    Pollen-based paleoclimatic interpretations of late-glacial to early Holocene climates (17-9 ka) in Midwestern North America are hampered by samples that lack modern analogues. Unresolved questions include the magnitude and direction of temperature seasonality (i.e. were these climates more or less seasonal than present) and the temporal changes in precipitation. Central to the no-analogue problem is the truncation of modern pollen-climate relationships for abundant late-glacial taxa such as Fraxinus. Here we present a new method called the expanded response-surface (ERS) method, developed to reconstruct climates from no-analogue pollen assemblages and applied to a high-resolution late-glacial pollen record from Crystal Lake, Illinois to test hypotheses about late-glacial climates. The key assumptions central to the ERS method are: (1) plant species and pollen abundances follow symmetrical unimodal distributions along climatic gradients, (2) taxa with truncated distributions in modern climate space occupy a subset of their fundamental niche, and (3) expansion of truncated distributions by mirroring around the distributional mode recovers the portion of the fundamental niche not realized in the modern climate space. With the ERS method, we expanded modern pollen-climate relationships by mirroring pollen abundances for each taxon around a mode defined with respect to four climate axes (mean winter temperature, mean summer temperature, mean winter precipitation, and mean summer precipitation). The ERS method reconstructed past temperatures and precipitation during the height of no-analogue conditions (14?160-12?370 cal yr BP) for 37% of the Crystal Lake samples where techniques that employed only modern observational data found matches for only 13% of the fossil samples. The total climate space of the expanded taxa set allowed analogue matches under more seasonal-than-present climates with higher-than-present precipitation. The ERS climate reconstructions for the height of no-analogue conditions indicated cooler-than-present summer and winter temperatures, similar-to-present seasonal range in temperatures, higher-than-present winter precipitation, and similar-to-present summer precipitation. These results thus suggest that high moisture availability helped drive the formation of the Midwestern no-analogue communities with high Fraxinus nigra abundances, but do not show higher-than-present temperature seasonality notwithstanding the higher-than-present insolation seasonality at this time. During the no-analogue late-glacial interval, Picea mariana, F. nigra, and Larix stands probably grew on low-lying, poorly drained soils in the Crystal Lake region; whereas Abies, Picea glauca, Quercus, and Ostrya/ Carpinus grew on upland positions with better soil drainage.

  20. Reliability of diagnostic methods based on low-frequency noise analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gorlov, M. I.; Smirnov, D. Yu., E-mail: dmitry.inf@mail.ru; Koz'yakov, N. N. [Voronezh State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-15

    Various methods for separating an integrated circuit (IC) batch were considered using noise parameters for the purpose of determining their reliability. The existing methods for screening semiconductor products using low-frequency (LF) noise were tested on transistors, as well as both digital and analog ICs, and showed good results. Selection criteria for semiconductor products were determined based on the statistics of a representative sample; however, their reliability was not estimated. The calculation of the correlation coefficient of determined LF noise parameters and reference reliability testing results was taken as the basis of the determination of reliability of diagnostic methods. For the experiment, KR142EN5A ICs made by bipolar technology were selected, which represent three-pin stabilizers with a fixed output voltage from 5 V and are used in many radio-electronic devices.

  1. [A method for determining plasminogen with a Russian chromogenic substrate and its diagnostic significance].

    PubMed

    Momot, A P; Mamaev, A N; Barkagan, Z S; Nevedrova, O E; Makarov, V A; Voiushina, T L; Erin, D N

    2000-03-01

    Measurement of plasminogen, the key component of fibrinolysis system, is one of the basic methods for estimation of fibrinolysis. Methods based on the use of chromogenic substrates are often used in diagnosis. Plasminogen measurements are important for laboratory diagnosis of thrombophilia caused by deficiency or abnormalities of this fiber, for detection and evaluation of the DIC syndrome, and for monitoring the treatment by fibrinolytic preparations (streptokinase, t-PA, urokinase, etc.). An original chromogenic substrate having no foreign analogs has been created at Institute of Genetics and Selection of Industrial Microorganisms and Research Center of Hematology (Moscow). Unlike previously described plasmin substrates, pNa has been obtained by microbiological methods with Russian commercial enzymes subtilisine 72 and megaterine. This paper presents the results of plasminogen measurements in patients with DIC with the use of the original chromogenic substrate. The results were compared with those of tests with Berihrom-Plasminogen diagnostic kit (Behringwerke AG). PMID:10878927

  2. Investigation of opportunities of the optical non-invasive diagnostics method for the blood sugar control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastovskaia, Elena A.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Korotaev, Valery V.

    2015-03-01

    The relevance of noninvasive method for determining the blood sugar is caused by necessity of regular monitoring of glucose levels in diabetic patients blood. Traditional invasive method is painful, because it requires a finger pricking. Despite the active studies in the field of non-invasive medical diagnostics, to date the painless and inexpensive instrument for blood sugar control for personal use doesn't exist. It's possible to measure the concentration of glucose in the blood with help of spectrophotometry method. It consists of registering and analyzing the spectral characteristics of the radiation which missed, reflected or absorbed by the object. The authors proposed a measuring scheme for studying the spectral characteristics of the radiation, missed by earlobe. Ultra-violet, visible and near infrared spectral ranges are considered. The paper presents the description of construction and working principles of the proposed special retaining clip and results of experiment with real patient.

  3. Method development for forensic identification of biodiesel based on chemical fingerprints and corresponding diagnostic ratios.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zeyu; Hollebone, Bruce P; Wang, Zhendi; Yang, Chun; Brown, Carl; Landriault, Mike

    2014-01-01

    A forensic identification method based on the chemical fingerprinting of the first generation of biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters as effective components), and several corresponding diagnostic ratios was developed and validated. The distribution of major fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and polar compounds (free fatty acids, glycerol, monoacylglycerides, and free sterols) in several representative above biodiesel products commercially available in Canada were positively quantified and compared, a number of cross-plots of diagnostic ratios of target FAMEs and sterols were developed for biofuel correlation and differentiation. It was found that the cross-plots of FAME ratios, for example, the sum of the di-unsaturated relative to saturated homologues of FAMEs (D/S) versus the sum of the mono-saturated to saturated FAMEs (M/S), and the sum of di-unsaturated to mono-saturated FAMEs (D/M) versus the sum of the mono-saturated to saturated FAMEs (M/S), could cluster samples clearly into their individual feedstock. The cross-plots of diagnostic ratios of individual major sterols (cholesterol, brassicasterol, campesterol, ?-stiosterol and stigmasterol) to the total sterols were also developed and proved to be effective in identifying biodiesel sources due to their self-normalizing effect on sterol data. The case study of a mystery biodiesel spill using this method showed that the two real samples can be tightly clustered into biodiesel from animal fat (Ban) group. However, the significant discrepancy of free fatty acids, glycerol, monoacylglycerides and sterol concentrations between the two real samples indicated their different producing batches. PMID:24378307

  4. Evaluation of Three Rapid Diagnostic Methods for Direct Identification of Microorganisms in Positive Blood Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Raquel M.; Bauerle, Elizabeth R.; Fang, Ferric C.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of organisms from positive blood cultures generally takes several days. However, recently developed rapid diagnostic methods offer the potential for organism identification within only a few hours of blood culture positivity. In this study, we evaluated the performance of three commercial methods to rapidly identify organisms directly from positive blood cultures: QuickFISH (AdvanDx, Wolburn, MA), Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture (BC-GP; Nanosphere, Northbrook, IL), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with Sepsityper processing (Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, MA). A total of 159 blood cultures (VersaTREK Trek Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, OH) positive for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as yeast were analyzed with QuickFISH and MALDI-TOF MS. In all, 102 blood cultures were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. For monomicrobial cultures, we observed 98.0% concordance with routine methods for both QuickFISH (143/146) and the BC-GP assay (93/95). MALDI-TOF MS demonstrated 80.1% (117/146) and 87.7% (128/146) concordance with routine methods to the genus and species levels, respectively. None of the methods tested were capable of consistently identifying polymicrobial cultures in their entirety or reliably differentiating Streptococcus pneumoniae from viridans streptococci. Nevertheless, the methods evaluated in this study are convenient and accurate for the most commonly encountered pathogens and have the potential to dramatically reduce turnaround time for the provision of results to the treating physician. PMID:24808235

  5. Evaluation of three rapid diagnostic methods for direct identification of microorganisms in positive blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Raquel M; Bauerle, Elizabeth R; Fang, Ferric C; Butler-Wu, Susan M

    2014-07-01

    The identification of organisms from positive blood cultures generally takes several days. However, recently developed rapid diagnostic methods offer the potential for organism identification within only a few hours of blood culture positivity. In this study, we evaluated the performance of three commercial methods to rapidly identify organisms directly from positive blood cultures: QuickFISH (AdvanDx, Wolburn, MA), Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture (BC-GP; Nanosphere, Northbrook, IL), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with Sepsityper processing (Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, MA). A total of 159 blood cultures (VersaTREK Trek Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, OH) positive for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as yeast were analyzed with QuickFISH and MALDI-TOF MS. In all, 102 blood cultures were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. For monomicrobial cultures, we observed 98.0% concordance with routine methods for both QuickFISH (143/146) and the BC-GP assay (93/95). MALDI-TOF MS demonstrated 80.1% (117/146) and 87.7% (128/146) concordance with routine methods to the genus and species levels, respectively. None of the methods tested were capable of consistently identifying polymicrobial cultures in their entirety or reliably differentiating Streptococcus pneumoniae from viridans streptococci. Nevertheless, the methods evaluated in this study are convenient and accurate for the most commonly encountered pathogens and have the potential to dramatically reduce turnaround time for the provision of results to the treating physician. PMID:24808235

  6. Fault detection for modern Diesel engines using signal- and process model-based methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Kimmich; Anselm Schwarte; Rolf Isermann

    2005-01-01

    Modern Diesel engines with direct fuel injection and turbo charging have shown a significant progress in fuel consumption, emissions and driveability. Together with exhaust gas recirculation and variable geometry turbochargers they became complicated and complex processes. Therefore, fault detection and diagnosis is not easily done and need to be improved. This contribution shows a systematic development of fault detection and

  7. Modern development methods and tools for embedded reconfigurable systems: A survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lech Józwiak; Nadia Nedjah; Miguel Figueroa

    2010-01-01

    Heterogeneous reconfigurable systems provide drastically higher performance and lower power consumption than traditional CPU-centric systems. Moreover, they do it at much lower costs and shorter times to market than non-reconfigurable hardware solutions. They also provide the flexibility that is often required for the engineering of modern robust and adaptive systems. Due to their heterogeneity, flexibility and potential for highly optimized

  8. A New Diagnostic Method for Assessment of Stellar Stratification in Star Clusters

    E-print Network

    Dimitrios A. Gouliermis; Richard de Grijs; Yu Xin

    2008-11-25

    We propose a new method for the characterization of stellar stratification in stellar systems. The method uses the mean-square radius (also called the Spitzer radius) of the system as a diagnostic tool. An estimate of the observable counterpart of this radius for stars of different magnitude ranges is used as the effective radius of each stellar species in a star cluster. We explore the dependence of these radii on magnitude as a possible indication of stellar stratification. This method is the first of its kind to use a dynamically stable radius, and though seemingly trivial it has never been applied before. We test the proposed method using model star clusters, which are constructed to be segregated on the basis of a Monte Carlo technique, and on Hubble Space Telescope observations of mass-segregated star clusters in order to explore the limitations of the method in relation to actual data. We conclude that the method performs efficiently in the detection of stellar stratification and its results do not depend on the data, provided that incompleteness has been accurately measured and the contamination by the field population has been thoroughly removed. Our diagnosis method is also independent of any model or theoretical prediction, in contrast to the `classical' methods used so far for the detection of mass segregation.

  9. Molecular IR Spectroscopy: New Trends and Methods of Noninvasive Diagnostics of Tissue IN VIVO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyeva, Natalia; Bruch, Reinhard

    1998-05-01

    Fiberoptic evanescent wave Fourier transform infrared (FEW-FTIR) spectroscopy using fiberoptic sensors operated in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) regime in the middle infrared (IR) region of the spectrum (850-1850 cm-1) has recently been applied to the diagnostics of tissues. The method is suitable for noninvasive and rapid (seconds) direct measurements of the spectra of normal and pathological tissues in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. The aim of our studies is the express testing of various tumor tissues at the early stages of their development. The method is expected to be further developed for endoscopic and biopsy applications. We measured the normal skin and malignant tissues in vivo on the surface (directly on patients) in various cases of basaloma, melanoma and nevus. The experiments were performed in the operating room to measure the skin in the depth (under/in the layers of epidermis) of human breast, stomach, lung, and kidney tissues. The breast and skin tissues at different stages of tumor or cancer were distinguished very clearly in spectra of amide, side cyclic and noncyclic hydrogen bonded fragments of aminoacid residuals, phosphate groups and sugars. Computer monitoring is being developed for diagnostics.

  10. A method for fine positioning of diagnostic packages in inertial confinement fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Tielin; Lee, Kok-Meng

    2011-12-01

    A method based on binocular vision servoing for positioning of a diagnostic package in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments is presented. The general diagnostic instrument manipulator will provide precision three dimension positioning and alignment-to-target capability in ICF experiments. In this work, we focus on the final precise automatic positioning with a binocular vision system. A three dimension image projection vector (IPV), which has an almost linear relationship with the target position in 3D space under the condition of weak perspective, is introduced to extract target position information from binocular image. The difference of the IPV between the current image and the desired image will be used as the input of servo controller. A differential motion model was found for the hybrid manipulator with three degrees of freedom. With this model and the said IPV, the servo strategy will be dramatically simplified compare with general image based visual servo in which the image Jacobian matrix needs estimated online. The experiment result implies that the locating accuracy of the manipulator is less than two pixels. This method can also be used in micromanipulation visual servo field.

  11. [Invasive and non-invasive diagnostic methods for evaluation of hypovolemia in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Gundling, F; Teich, N; Pehl, C; Schepp, W

    2006-12-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis leads to a dramatic fluid loss in the intraperitoneal space which may result in circulatory decompensation. Sequestration of fluid can amount up to 40 percent of the circulating blood volume. The amount of fluid and electrolyte replacement is often misjudged leading to a higher rate of complications and a higher mortality rate of the disease. Furthermore, subsequent and adequate fluid resuscitation seems to influence the prognostic course of the disease by improving the perfusion and oxygenation of the pancreas. Otherwise volume overload may cause cardiopulmonary decompensation in the case of synchronous cardiopulmonary comorbidities. Therefore, an important part of treatment relies on careful haemodynamic monitoring, if necessary managed in an intensive care unit. Usually most patients with acute pancreatitis will be treated on a non-intensive medical ward which allows a differentiated and continuous haemodynamic monitoring only to a limited extent. Apart from monitoring circulatory parameters and measuring central venous pressure, there are other clinical methods, laboratory tests and radiological diagnostic procedures to determine the amount of intravascular fluid deficit and the individual volume demand of patients with acute pancreatitis. Prospective clinical trials for evaluation of pancreatitis-specific volume management do not exist so far. The aim of this review is to provide background information on invasive and non-invasive diagnostic methods for detection of circulatory hypovolemia in acute pancreatitis. PMID:17163376

  12. [Clinical usefulness of diagnostic methods for human papilloma virus dependent lesions].

    PubMed

    Suwalska, Anna; Owczarek, Witold; Fiedor, Piotr

    2014-02-01

    Persistent infection of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is confirmed necessary factor for development of cervical cancer and anogenital neoplasia. DNA HPV is detected in 96% of cervical cancer, 40% of vulvar and vaginal cancer, 90% of anal cancer and 26% of oral cavity cancer cases in general population. The most common high-risk HPV types observed in anogenital intraepithelial neoplasia or anogenital cancer are HPV 16, 18 and 45. Numerous diagnostic methods of detection of HPV infection and lesions causes by persistent HPV infection are widely used. Epidemiological data reveals correlation of incidence and mortality reduction due to cervical cancer and consequent prosecution and improvement of screening programmes based on morphological assessment of exfoliative smears. In last decade some limitations of conventional smear method were pointed out and a new diagnostic techniques were introduced: liquid-based cytology and HPV DNA testing. Combination of cytological examination and HPV DNA testing seems to be optimal solution to be introduced in large population because of combining high sensitivity of molecular test with high specificity of cytological smear. PMID:24720112

  13. BREAST: a novel method to improve the diagnostic efficacy of mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, P. C.; Tapia, K.; Ryan, J.; Lee, W.

    2013-03-01

    High quality breast imaging and accurate image assessment are critical to the early diagnoses, treatment and management of women with breast cancer. Breast Screen Reader Assessment Strategy (BREAST) provides a platform, accessible by researchers and clinicians world-wide, which will contain image data bases, algorithms to assess reader performance and on-line systems for image evaluation. The platform will contribute to the diagnostic efficacy of breast imaging in Australia and beyond on two fronts: reducing errors in mammography, and transforming our assessment of novel technologies and techniques. Mammography is the primary diagnostic tool for detecting breast cancer with over 800,000 women X-rayed each year in Australia, however, it fails to detect 30% of breast cancers with a number of missed cancers being visible on the image [1-6]. BREAST will monitor the mistakes, identify reasons for mammographic errors, and facilitate innovative solutions to reduce error rates. The BREAST platform has the potential to enable expert assessment of breast imaging innovations, anywhere in the world where experts or innovations are located. Currently, innovations are often being assessed by limited numbers of individuals who happen to be geographically located close to the innovation, resulting in equivocal studies with low statistical power. BREAST will transform this current paradigm by enabling large numbers of experts to assess any new method or technology using our embedded evaluation methods. We are confident that this world-first system will play an important part in the future efficacy of breast imaging.

  14. A nondestructive method for diagnostic of insulated building walls using infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larbi Youcef, Mohamed H. A.; Mazioud, Atef; Bremond, Pierre; Ibos, Laurent; Candau, Yves; Piro, Michel; Filloux, Alain

    2007-04-01

    This work deals with the development of an experimental protocol for the diagnostic of multi-layered insulated building walls. First, a test bench is set up in order to measure front and back sides temperatures of standard panels. The panels considered have insulation thicknesses of 2, 6 and 10cm. The front side is heated by two halogen lamps of 500W. A CEDIP Jade Long wave infrared camera and thermocouples are used to carry out temperature measurements. In a second time, a one dimensional model based on thermal quadruples and Laplace transforms was developped under Matlab environment. Also, we developped a three dimensional model based on finite volumes using Fluent computational code. Finally, a method of identification of physical parameters is implemented by performing least square minimization based on Levenberg-Marquardt method. The experimental measurements are compared to theoretical results and by minimization we obtain thermal conductivity and diffusivity as well as thickness of the two layers.

  15. Diagnostic radiology peer review: a method inclusive of all interpreters of radiographic examinations regardless of specialty.

    PubMed

    Hopper, K D; Rosetti, G F; Edmiston, R B; Madewell, J E; Beam, L M; Landis, J R; Miller, K L; Ricci, J A; McCauslin, M A

    1991-08-01

    A proposed method of assessing the quality of diagnostic radiographic examinations includes peer review designed to evaluate physicians, including nonradiologists, involved in the performance and interpretation of such examinations. A pilot project evaluated this system with randomly selected Pennsylvania Blue Shield data files of 10 providers billing for chest radiography interpretations during the second quarter of 1989. Of the 98 chest radiographs reviewed blindly, all inadequately marked radiographs and incomplete written reports were produced by nonradiologists. Technical quality of images obtained by radiologists did not significantly differ from that of images obtained by nonradiologists (P = .189). All five interpretive errors that could have seriously affected the patient's health care were produced by nonradiologists (P = .019). Four of these serious errors were made by providers billing for fewer than 25 radiographs. While administrative and time cost limitations are obvious, this method of peer review encompasses all physicians billing for a particular radiographic service, irrespective of specialty. PMID:2068327

  16. A primer of biostatistic and economic methods for diagnostic and prognostic modeling in nuclear cardiology: Part I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslee J. Shaw; Rory Hachamovitch; Eric L. Eisenstein; Karen L. Kesler; Gary V. Heller; D. Douglas Miller

    1996-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of existing diagnostic and prognostic methodologies to be used for the evaluation of\\u000a patients undergoing noninvasive testing. In part I of this review, we will present methods for use of logistic and Cox regression\\u000a analyses in determining the diagnostic and prognostic value of nuclear imaging techniques. In part II of this review, we will

  17. Methods for processing experimental data in microwave diagnostics of shock waves and detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedov, Alexander; Rodionov, Alexey; Kanakov, Vladimir

    2013-06-01

    Microwave interferometry is a promising method of unperturbing diagnostics of short-time processes. It is a bit less effective than the optical methods in accuracy, but it provides a researcher with more capabilities, in particular, for measurements in optically opaque media. The classic methods for processing experimental interferograms using extremums allow to obtain data on motion of investigated objects with the resolution of a quarter of wavelength of probing radiation. It is insufficient for majority of practical applications. Use of the mathematical methods for processing output signals of the receiver allows to improve the method resolution significantly and to obtain motion measurement errors of 0.05...0.1 of wavelength or even less. This paper presents schemes of conduction and brief description of the methods for processing a series of tests, which were performed in RFNC-VNIIEF with use of radio interferometer having length of wave of probing radiation ? = 3.2 mm, namely: to measure velocity of stationary detonation; to measure depth of detonation initiation by shock wave; to investigate shock compressibility of dielectric materials; to investigate dynamics of constructions.

  18. Interobserver Reliability of Four Diagnostic Methods Using Traditional Korean Medicine for Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Ah; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Alraek, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate the consistency of pattern identification (PI), a set of diagnostic indicators used by traditional Korean medicine (TKM) clinicians. Methods. A total of 168 stroke patients who were admitted into oriental medical university hospitals from June 2012 through January 2013 were included in the study. Using the PI indicators, each patient was independently diagnosed by two experts from the same department. Interobserver consistency was assessed by simple percentage agreement as well as by kappa and AC1 statistics. Results. Interobserver agreement on the PI indicators (for all patients) was generally high: pulse diagnosis signs (AC1 = 0.66–0.89); inspection signs (AC1 = 0.66–0.95); listening/smelling signs (AC1 = 0.67–0.88); and inquiry signs (AC1 = 0.62–0.94). Conclusion. In four examinations, there was moderate agreement between the clinicians on the PI indicators. To improve clinician consistency (e.g., in the diagnostic criteria used), it is necessary to analyze the reasons for inconsistency and to improve clinician training. PMID:25574181

  19. Autoimmune diagnostics: the technology, the strategy and the clinical governance.

    PubMed

    Bizzaro, Nicola; Tozzoli, Renato; Villalta, Danilo

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, there has been a profound change in autoimmune diagnostics. From long, tiring and inaccurate manual methods, the art of diagnostics has turned to modern, rapid and automated technology. New antibody tests have been developed, and almost all autoimmune diseases now have some specific diagnostic markers. The current need to make the most of available economic and human resources has led to the production of diagnostic algorithms and guidelines designated for optimal strategic use of the tests and to increase the diagnostic appropriateness. An important role in this scenario was assumed by the laboratory autoimmunologist, whose task is not only to govern the analytical phase, but also to help clinicians in correctly choosing the most suitable test for each clinical situation and provide consultancy support. In this review, we summarize recent advances in technology, describe the diagnostic strategies and highlight the current role of the laboratory autoimmunologist in the clinical governance of autoimmune diagnostics. PMID:25398640

  20. A new diagnostic method for separating airborne and structureborne noise radiated by plates with applications for propeller driven aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGary, Michael C.

    1988-09-01

    The anticipated application of advanced turboprop propulsion systems is expected to increase the interior noise of future aircraft to unacceptably high levels. The absence of technically and economically feasible noise source-path diagnostic tools has been a prime obstacle in the development of efficient noise control treatments for propeller-driven aircraft. A new diagnostic method that permits the separation and prediction of the fully coherent airborne and structureborne components of the sound radiated by plates or thin shells has been developed. Analytical and experimental studies of the proposed method were performed on an aluminum plate. The results of the study indicate that the proposed method could be used in flight, and has fewer encumbrances than the other diagnostic tools currently available.

  1. Methods of use and presentation of the accurate astrometric data based on the modern terrestrial and celestial reference systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekowski, M.; Krynski, J.

    2012-12-01

    The increasing precision of the modern astrometric data as well as changes from the introduction of a new paradigm for the relations of terrestrial and celestial systems, forces the changes in methods of the usage and presentation of the data. The paper presents the efforts undertaken to satisfy these needs in the 'Rocznik Astronomiczny'. Among the issues under consideration are: 1) identification and analysis of the sources of problems with interpolation of the high accuracy data; 2) reviewing the used interpolation methods; 3) development of the new methods of presenting of the high accuracy data, allowing their proper interpolation; 4) research on the need and the possibility to redefine the Besselian Numbers algorithm in calculations of the apparent places, to the form in which it could be used in the new paradigm (CIP/CIO).

  2. Rapid diagnostic methods for influenza virus in clinical specimens - A comparative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, A. S.; Olson, B.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of five rapid viral diagnostic techniques for identifying influenza virus in nasopharyngeal aspirates has been made on patients with influenza-like illnesses. Initial results with immune electron microscopy were positive in only one of 11 specimens from which virus was isolated and further work abandoned. Four other rapid tests were carried out on 39 specimens from which influenza virus had been isolated in tissue culture in 28. Of these 28 specimens yielding virus, 24 (85.7 percent) were positive by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) on nasopharyngeal cells, 18 (64.3 percent) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 19 (67.8 percent) by enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA), and 26 (92.8 percent) by a rapid tissue culture amplification method (TCA) in a continuous Rhesus monkey kidney line (LLC-MK2) with identification of virus by fluorescent antibody. In terms of sensitivity, simplicity, and rapidity, a combination of the IFAT and TCA methods seems to be very useful.

  3. A modified time reversal method for Lamb wave based diagnostics of composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Ryan; Jha, Ratneshwar

    2012-08-01

    This experimental study presents Lamb wave based diagnostics of damage in a composite plate using time reversal of signals for baseline-free damage detection. A modified time reversal method (MTRM) is developed which requires only one transducer to actuate signals and the other transducer acts as a sensor for any signal path. An 8-layer symmetric cross-ply carbon-epoxy composite plate is fabricated and four PZT actuators/sensors are surface bonded at the corners of the plate. A 20 kHz, 9.5 cycle tone burst signal is used to generate fundamental asymmetric Lamb waves with high signal-to-noise ratio and low dispersion. Theoretical analysis and experimental measurements show that conventional time reversal method (TRM) and the MTRM yield identical signals at the end of time reversal. The composite plate is impacted incrementally with a steel ball to cause three levels of damage and MTRM is applied for prediction of damage severity. Results show that magnitudes of the two damage indices used are directly correlated to the severity of damage along any signal path. The development of MTRM paves the way for implementing time reversal of signals using a single actuator and multiple sensors, including non-contact sensor such as a laser vibrometer.

  4. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN DESIGN AND REFERENCE CORE NEUTRONICS METHODS FOR THE PBMR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T D NEWTON

    The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) introduces several challenges for core neutronic methods. The particulate fuel is highly heterogeneous with a random distribution within the fuel pebbles and requires unique methods to calculate the effects of fuel resonance self shielding. In addition, the flow of fuel through the core is specific to the PBMR, again requiring specialised methods to model

  5. Development of a benchtop baking method for chemically leavened crackers. I. Identification of a diagnostic formula and procedure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. In order to identify a diagnostic cracker formula, the effects of leavening system (sodium bicarbonate, monocalcium phosphate, and ammonium b...

  6. Unified Diagnostic Method Targeting Several Fault Models A. Rousset, P. Girard, S. Pravossoudovitch, C. Landrault, A. Virazel

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the set of suspected lines. From all the sets of suspected lines and by using also information on faultUnified Diagnostic Method Targeting Several Fault Models A. Rousset, P. Girard, S. Pravossoudovitch,girard,pravossoudovitch,landrault,virazel}@lirmm.fr Abstract Fault diagnosis is important in improving the design process and the manufacturing yield

  7. [Site inspection procedures and methods for evaluation of the quality management system of in vitro diagnostic regents].

    PubMed

    Tian, Shaolei

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, the procedures, logos, methods, essentials as well as notable problems for inspecting the qualification management system of in vitro diagnostic regent manufactures are discussed, with aims of promoting inspector's practical level and consequentially ensuring the quality, standard and efficacy of the inspection. PMID:20540299

  8. An In Vitro Comparison of Different Diagnostic Methods in Detection of Residual Dentinal Caries

    PubMed Central

    Unlu, Nimet; Ermis, Rabia Banu; Sener, Sevgi; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Cetin, Ali Riza

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of different diagnostic methods in detection of residual dentinal caries in excavated cavities. Fifty extracted molar with deep dentinal carious lesions were excavated using a slow-speed handpiece. All cavities were assessed by laser fluorescence(LF) device, electronic caries monitor(ECM), and caries detector dye(CDD) by three independent observers blindly. The measurements were repeated after two weeks. Specimens containing dentin slices 150??m in thickness were prepared for histological analyses. The existence and absence of carious dentin was determined using a lightmicroscope. The average intraobserver accuracy was 1.00 (perfect agreement) for CDD, 0.86 (excellent agreement) for ECM, and 0.50 (good agreement) for LF. The average interobserver accuracy values were 0.92 (excellent agreement), (0.36 marginal agreement) and 0.48 (good agreement), for CDD, ECM, and LF, respectively. The average specificity was 0.60 for CDD, 73% for ECM, and 0.50 for LF. The average sensitivity was 0.55 for CDD, 0.85 for LF, and 0.47 for ECM. The average accuracy values were 0.53, 0.51, and 0.81 for CDD, ECM, and LF, respectively. LF had the greatest sensitivity and accuracy values of any of the methods tested. As a conclusion, LF device is appeared to most reliable method in detection of remain caries in cavity. However, because of its technical sensitivity it may susceptible to variations in measurements. To pay attention to the rule of usage and repeated measurements can minimize such variations in clinical practice. It was concluded that LF is an improvement on the currently available aids for residual caries detection. PMID:20613961

  9. Modern Carbonate Field Studies Designed to Direct Inquiry-Based Learning That Teaches Research Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L. E.; Eves, R. L.

    2006-12-01

    Transitioning students from learner to investigator is best accomplished by incorporating research into the undergraduate classroom as a collaborative enterprise between students and faculty. Our course is a two-part design with a focus on a modern carbonate ecosystem and depositional environment on San Salvador Island, Bahamas in order to integrate geology, biology, and environmental science. Content background is provided in the classroom, which focuses on the geology of the Bahamian platform; the biological aspects of Caribbean island marine ecosystems; and the impact of human development on tropical islands. Application of course content is focused during an integrated field study of a specific carbonate environment, e.g. carbonate production in a tidal lagoon. The ultimate goals of the course are (1) identifying and acquiring both disciplinary and interdisciplinary research methodologies, (2) defining a specific investigative problem, (3) conducting `real' [meaningful] research, and (4) communicating research findings in the form of presentations at national meetings and publication in research journals. Assessment is based on specific criteria to be achieved during the research project. Criteria are determined through collaboration between faculty mentors and student researchers. Students are evaluated throughout the research phase with particular attention paid to an understanding of appropriate planning and background research, originality of thought; use of project-specific and appropriate data collection and sampling techniques; and analysis and interpretation of data. Students are expected to submit a final written report containing appropriate conclusions from data analysis and recommendations for further studies. Each student is also required to complete a self-assessment. The interdisciplinary experiences gained by faculty and students have already been incorporated into other courses and have led to publication of results. The course stimulates both faculty and students due to higher than usual levels of faculty-student interaction.

  10. ELISA-based coproantigen in human strongyloidiaisis: a diagnostic method correlating with worm burden.

    PubMed

    El-Badry, Ayman A

    2009-12-01

    In order to overcome the false negative diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in the absence of rhabditiform larvae in stools, an ELISA-based Strongyloides stercoralis-specific coproantigen detection assay in stools of infected patients was evaluated. In a sandwich ELISA, a rabbit hyperimmune serum against S. stercoralis ES (excretory/secretory) adult antigen succeeded in capturing S. stercoralis coproantigen from infected patients and did not react with coproantigens prepared from the stool samples of patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola gigantica and Capillaria philippenensis. Coproantigen was able to detect anti-S. stercoralis IgG antibodies in sera of infected patients at the same OD level as produced with S. stercoralis E/S worm antigen using an indirect ELISA did not cross-react with sera from patients with S. mansoni, F. gigantica and C. philippenensis. S. stercoralis coproantigen detection proved a sensitive, simple, reliable and inexpensive ELISA-based, and an alternative to coproscopical methods in copropositive (with larvae in stool) and copronegative (without larvae in stool) stool samples. Fecal ELISA showed a positive relationship between copro-Ag and worm burdens, and considered a starting point for the development of species-specific copro-immunological diagnostic assays using monoclonal antibodies and dipstick technology. PMID:20120743

  11. [Modern methodical approaches to determining the DNA methylation status and their use in oncology].

    PubMed

    Kvasha, S M

    2008-01-01

    Epigenome modifications of the human genome play an important role in gene expression regulation and chromatin structure formation. Methylation of cytosine of the CpG dinucleotides is one of the main epigenone modifications of the human genome. Changes in the CpG-islands methylation status of tumor-suppressing genes and oncogenes play an important role in carcinogenesis. Determination of DNA methylation status in oncology is important for early tumor diagnostics, choice and monitoring of cancer treatment and prognosis of survival of patients with cancer after surgeries. There is a wide range of approaches to determination of DNA methylation status now. The review purpose is to characterize main approaches to the determination of the CpG dinucleotides methylation status, which could be used in oncology. They include: bisulfite sequencing, bisulfite pyrosequencing, MS-REA (methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease assay), MSP (methylation-specific PCR), COBRA (combined bisulfite restriction analysis), MS-SnuPE (methylation-sensitive single nucleotide primer extension), MS-SSCA (methylation-sensitive single-strand conformation analysis), MethyLight, HeavyMethyl, MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-to-flight mass spectrometry), FMCA (fluorescence melting curve analysis), restriction genome scanning, use of microarrays for determining genes with increased expression after DNA methylation inhibition, DMH (differential methylation hybridization), use of capability of methylCpG-binding domain of MeCP2 protein to bind methylated DNA, immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA with antibodies specific for methylated cytosines. A general principle, advantages, disadvantages and potential artifacts here been described for each approach in the paper. PMID:19140445

  12. Exploration of Analysis Methods for Diagnostic Imaging Tests: Problems with ROC AUC and Confidence Scores in CT Colonography

    PubMed Central

    Mallett, Susan; Halligan, Steve; Collins, Gary S.; Altman, Doug G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Different methods of evaluating diagnostic performance when comparing diagnostic tests may lead to different results. We compared two such approaches, sensitivity and specificity with area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC AUC) for the evaluation of CT colonography for the detection of polyps, either with or without computer assisted detection. Methods In a multireader multicase study of 10 readers and 107 cases we compared sensitivity and specificity, using radiological reporting of the presence or absence of polyps, to ROC AUC calculated from confidence scores concerning the presence of polyps. Both methods were assessed against a reference standard. Here we focus on five readers, selected to illustrate issues in design and analysis. We compared diagnostic measures within readers, showing that differences in results are due to statistical methods. Results Reader performance varied widely depending on whether sensitivity and specificity or ROC AUC was used. There were problems using confidence scores; in assigning scores to all cases; in use of zero scores when no polyps were identified; the bimodal non-normal distribution of scores; fitting ROC curves due to extrapolation beyond the study data; and the undue influence of a few false positive results. Variation due to use of different ROC methods exceeded differences between test results for ROC AUC. Conclusions The confidence scores recorded in our study violated many assumptions of ROC AUC methods, rendering these methods inappropriate. The problems we identified will apply to other detection studies using confidence scores. We found sensitivity and specificity were a more reliable and clinically appropriate method to compare diagnostic tests. PMID:25353643

  13. Optical diagnostics methods of plasma current channels in plasma current open switches of the developed EMIR complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. I. Almazova; V. V. Borovkov; V. G. Komilov; I. M. Markevtsev; O. M. Tatsenko; V. D. Selemir

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. Technology development of electrophysical high-power and high-energy density facilities requires contactless methods of their parameters recording. Optical diagnostics, which were successfully applied for investigations of plasma open switches technologies, belong to these methods. Plasma current open switches (POS) with the level of transmitted current up to 2 MA and storage time 1-2 ms are

  14. Pathology of Newcastle disease in double-crested cormorants from Saskatchewan, with comparison of diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Kuiken, T; Wobeser, G; Leighton, F A; Haines, D M; Chelack, B; Bogdan, J; Hassard, L; Heckert, R A; Riva, J

    1999-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) in juvenile double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) occurred several times since 1975, but there are relatively few studies on its pathology and diagnosis. In order to describe the distribution of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and associated lesions in cormorants with ND and to compare diagnostic methods, 25 cormorants with nervous signs from a ND epizootic in Saskatchewan in 1995 (NDE cormorants) were compared with 18 negative control cormorants. Tissues of these birds were examined by necropsy, histology, virus isolation, immunohistochemistry, serology, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods. The NDE cormorants had a characteristic non-suppurative encephalomyelitis, with a significantly higher prevalence of neuronal necrosis, gliosis, perivascular infiltration with mononuclear cells, and endothelial hypertrophy than control cormorants. These lesions were found more frequently in the cerebellum and brain stem than in other parts of the central nervous system. Immunohistochemically, NDV antigen was limited to neurons, glial and endothelial cells in the central nervous system, and to tubular epithelial cells in the kidney. Newcastle disease virus was isolated with the highest prevalence (4/5) and the highest concentration (10(4.8) ELD50/g) from the kidney. The virus isolates often did not agglutinate erythrocytes in the standard hemagglutination test; the presence of NDV was confirmed by use of an indirect immunoperoxidase assay. By RT-PCR, NDV was detected in kidney and jejunum of a NDE cormorant. There was no significant difference between sensitivity of histology, virus isolation, and serology for detecting ND in NDE cormorants. PMID:10073341

  15. Studies to inform the methods for Cochrane systematic reviews of diagnostic accuracy in stroke medicine 

    E-print Network

    Brazzelli, Miriam

    2011-07-05

    Background A variety of tests are used in clinical practice to help the diagnostic process and so improve patient care. Many aspects of stroke management depend on accurate and rapid diagnosis. Brain imaging, including ...

  16. Towards an effective automated interpretation method for modern hydrocarbon borehole geophysical images 

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Angeleena

    2012-06-25

    Borehole imaging is one of the fastest and most precise methods for collecting subsurface data that provides high resolution information on layering, texture and dips, permitting a core-like description of the subsurface. ...

  17. Acute respiratory infection due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae : current status of diagnostic methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Loens; H. Goossens; M. Ieven

    2010-01-01

    Because of the absence of well-standardized both in-house and FDA-approved commercially available diagnostic tests, the reliable\\u000a diagnosis of respiratory infection due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae remains difficult. In addition, no formal external quality assessment schemes which would allow to conclude about the performance\\u000a of M. pneumoniae diagnostic tests exist. In this review, the current state of knowledge of M. pneumoniae-associated respiratory

  18. A modern method for analyzing thermal energy system with system state equation and analytical formula of performance index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunfa; Li, Liping; Wang, Huijie; Zhao, Ning

    2007-03-01

    This paper addresses overall performance analysis of coal-fired power unit. From the point of view of system engineering, a general steam-water distribution equation of the thermal plant system is presented. This system state equation is an exact expression combining system topological structure and system properties. Through proper mathematic transform, the inner relationship and interaction between the main system and auxiliary system are revealed and its general form is given. An analytical formula for the heat consumption rate of thermal power plant is one direct fruit of the equation, which greatly facilitate the online analyzing and optimizing of complex thermal system. The new approach, with the aid of modern data acquiring technology, is a perfect extension of the traditional analysis method based on the First Law of Thermodynamics.

  19. TIME FOR CHANGE - QUANTIFYING LANDSLIDE EVOLUTION USING HISTORICAL AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS AND MODERN PHOTOGRAMMETRIC METHODS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Walstra; J. H. Chandler; N. Dixon; T. A. Dijkstra

    A sequence of historical aerial photographs captures morphological change, which can only be unlocked by using appropriate photogrammetric methods. There are several challenges: initially it is necessary to trace and acquire suitable imagery in an appropriate format; typically there is a lack of precise photo-control available at the time of photography and similarly, it is rare to have access to

  20. Modern scientific methods and their potential in wastewater science and technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Wilderer; Hans-Joachim Bungartz; Hilde Lemmer; Michael Wagner; Jurg Keller; Stefan Wuertz

    2002-01-01

    Application of novel analytical and investigative methods such as fluorescence in situ hybridization, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), microelectrodes and advanced numerical simulation has led to new insights into micro-and macroscopic processes in bioreactors. However, the question is still open whether or not these new findings and the subsequent gain of knowledge are of significant practical relevance and if so,

  1. Reactive flow model development for PBXW-126 using modern nonlinear optimization methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Murphy; R. L. Simpson; P. A. Urtiew; P. C. Souers; F. Garcia; R. G. Garza

    1996-01-01

    The initiation and detonation behavior of PBXW-126 has been characterized and is described. PBXW-126 is a composite explosive consisting of approximately equal amounts of RDX, AP, AL, and NTO with a polyurethane binder. The three term ignition and growth of reaction model parameters (ignition+two growth terms) have been found using nonlinear optimization methods to determine the “best” set of model

  2. Reactive flow model development for PBXW-126 using modern nonlinear optimization methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Murphy; R. L. Simpson; P. A. Urtiew; P. C. Souers; F. Garcia; R. G. Garza

    1996-01-01

    The initiation and detonation behavior of PBXW-126 has been characterized and is described. PBXW-126 is a composite explosive consisting of approximately equal amounts of RDX, AP, AL, and NTO with a polyurethane binder. The three term ignition and growth of reaction model parameters (ignition+two growth terms) have been found using nonlinear optimization methods to determine the ``best'' set of model

  3. Psychology and Mathematical Method: A Capsule History and a Modern View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses histories of three current issues in the psychology and pedagogy of mathematical thinking: (1) the notion of a "prescriptive method"; (2) "associationism" as an explanation for learning; and (3) Gestaltism. Reviews theoretical perspectives that emerged starting in the mid-twentieth century, including behaviorism, artificial intelligence…

  4. Modern GPU-Based Forward-Projection Algorithm with a New Sampling Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun Yigang; Sun Xiuyu; Zhang Hongying

    2010-01-01

    Forward-projection is an important process of computed tomography reconstruction. An accurate forward-projection has a significant impact on increasing the reconstructed quality of iterative algorithms. However its computations are very costly. In order to improve performance of forward-projection, we proposed a GPU-accelerated scheme for it with a new sampling method. There are two novel techniques in our accelerating scheme. One is

  5. Reactive flow model development for PBXW-126 using modern nonlinear optimization methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Murphy; R. L. Simpson; P. A. Urtiew

    1995-01-01

    The initiation and detonation behavior of PBXW-126 has been characterized and is described. PBXW-126 is a composite explosive consisting of approximately equal amounts of RDX, AP, AL, and NTO with a polyurethane binder. The three term ignition and growth of reaction model parameters (ignition + two growth terms) have been found using nonlinear optimization methods to determine the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} set

  6. Traditional and modern plant breeding methods with examples in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Breseghello, Flavio; Coelho, Alexandre Siqueira Guedes

    2013-09-01

    Plant breeding can be broadly defined as alterations caused in plants as a result of their use by humans, ranging from unintentional changes resulting from the advent of agriculture to the application of molecular tools for precision breeding. The vast diversity of breeding methods can be simplified into three categories: (i) plant breeding based on observed variation by selection of plants based on natural variants appearing in nature or within traditional varieties; (ii) plant breeding based on controlled mating by selection of plants presenting recombination of desirable genes from different parents; and (iii) plant breeding based on monitored recombination by selection of specific genes or marker profiles, using molecular tools for tracking within-genome variation. The continuous application of traditional breeding methods in a given species could lead to the narrowing of the gene pool from which cultivars are drawn, rendering crops vulnerable to biotic and abiotic stresses and hampering future progress. Several methods have been devised for introducing exotic variation into elite germplasm without undesirable effects. Cases in rice are given to illustrate the potential and limitations of different breeding approaches. PMID:23551250

  7. Modern architectures for intelligent systems: reusable ontologies and problem-solving methods.

    PubMed Central

    Musen, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    When interest in intelligent systems for clinical medicine soared in the 1970s, workers in medical informatics became particularly attracted to rule-based systems. Although many successful rule-based applications were constructed, development and maintenance of large rule bases remained quite problematic. In the 1980s, an entire industry dedicated to the marketing of tools for creating rule-based systems rose and fell, as workers in medical informatics began to appreciate deeply why knowledge acquisition and maintenance for such systems are difficult problems. During this time period, investigators began to explore alternative programming abstractions that could be used to develop intelligent systems. The notions of "generic tasks" and of reusable problem-solving methods became extremely influential. By the 1990s, academic centers were experimenting with architectures for intelligent systems based on two classes of reusable components: (1) domain-independent problem-solving methods-standard algorithms for automating stereotypical tasks--and (2) domain ontologies that captured the essential concepts (and relationships among those concepts) in particular application areas. This paper will highlight how intelligent systems for diverse tasks can be efficiently automated using these kinds of building blocks. The creation of domain ontologies and problem-solving methods is the fundamental end product of basic research in medical informatics. Consequently, these concepts need more attention by our scientific community. PMID:9929181

  8. Fog forecasting: ``old fashioned'' semi-empirical methods from radio sounding observations versus ``modern'' numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtslag, M. C.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Holtslag, A. A. M.

    2010-07-01

    Fog forecasting is a very challenging task due to the local and small-scale nature of the relevant physical processes and land surface heterogeneities. Despite the many research efforts, numerical models remain to have difficulties with fog forecasting, and forecast skill from direct model output is relatively poor. In order to put the progress of fog forecasting in the last decades into a historical perspective, we compare the fog forecasting skill of a semi-empirical method based on radio sounding observations (developed in the 60s and 70s) with the forecasting skill of a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction model (MM5) for The Netherlands. The semi-empirical method under investigation, the Fog Stability Index, depends solely on the temperature difference between the surface and 850 hPa, the surface dew point depression and the wind speed at 850 hPa, and a threshold value to indicate the probability of fog in the coming hours. Using the critical success index (CSI) as a criterion for forecast quality, we find that the Fog Stability Index is a rather successful predictor for fog, with similar performance as MM5. The FSI could even been optimized for different observational stations in the Netherlands. Also, it appears that adding the 10 m wind as a predictor did not increase the CSI score for all stations. The results of the current study clearly indicate that the current state of knowledge requires improvement of the physical insight in different physical processes in order to beat simple semi-empirical methods.

  9. Modern Methods for Analysis of Antiepileptic Drugs in the Biological Fluids for Pharmacokinetics, Bioequivalence and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoo-Sin; Kim, Shin-Hee; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Jun, Min-Young

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic disease occurring in approximately 1.0% of the world's population. About 30% of the epileptic patients treated with availably antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) continue to have seizures and are considered therapy-resistant or refractory patients. The ultimate goal for the use of AEDs is complete cessation of seizures without side effects. Because of a narrow therapeutic index of AEDs, a complete understanding of its clinical pharmacokinetics is essential for understanding of the pharmacodynamics of these drugs. These drug concentrations in biological fluids serve as surrogate markers and can be used to guide or target drug dosing. Because early studies demonstrated clinical and/or electroencephalographic correlations with serum concentrations of several AEDs, It has been almost 50 years since clinicians started using plasma concentrations of AEDs to optimize pharmacotherapy in patients with epilepsy. Therefore, validated analytical method for concentrations of AEDs in biological fluids is a necessity in order to explore pharmacokinetics, bioequivalence and TDM in various clinical situations. There are hundreds of published articles on the analysis of specific AEDs by a wide variety of analytical methods in biological samples have appears over the past decade. This review intends to provide an updated, concise overview on the modern method development for monitoring AEDs for pharmacokinetic studies, bioequivalence and therapeutic drug monitoring. PMID:21660146

  10. Studies of the physical aspects of intumescence using advance diagnostics methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Hussain; Huang, Hua Wei; Zhang, Yang

    2014-04-01

    The use of intumescent paints as an active fire protection method has gained immense interest in recent years. A significant aspect of research has focused on studying the chemical aspects of the system to improve performance. The dynamics and physical aspects of intumescence in real time fire conditions are still unclear. The present research uses an experimental approach where diagnostics techniques such as thermal imaging camera was used to study intumescent characteristics that have been not been reported in great detail. T-panels are a substitute to the most commonly used part in construction, the I-beam. Studies were conducted using a cone calorimeter that provided a uniform heat flux through radiation on steel T-panel samples. The complex nature of char movement was recorded and a novel algorithm was used to track the growing char laye07r. The samples are designed to cater to different fire conditions. Therefore, the degree of intumescence was observed to be very different in the samples. The samples designed for low temperature cellulosic fires focus on high degree of intumesce. Whereas, mechanical strength is the focus for samples used in high temperature turbulent hydrocarbon fire conditions. The variation in the internal structure of the sample is presented. Furthermore, the phenomenon is phase shift is discussed. The phase shift is an essential part of the process of intumescence when the majority of intumescence occurs. It was observed to be different in all the samples. The movement of the samples is a property of great interest. This is because if any part of the substrate is exposed then the formulation does not meet strict commercialisation criterion. The movement was diagonal in nature as compared to flat panels where it is perpendicular. This is due tot the heating pattern of the plate that results in the web part of the panel to influence the growth of char on the flange part of the panel. A special case of char cracking is also highlighted and using image processing algorithm on the thermal imaging data. A quantitative method of analsysis is presented to an otherwise commonly qualitative nature of experimental study in this field.

  11. Atomic Resonance Radiation Energetics Investigation as a Diagnostic Method for Non-Equilibrium Hypervelocity Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Scott A.; Bershader, Daniel; Sharma, Surendra P.; Deiwert, George S.

    1996-01-01

    Absorption measurements with a tunable vacuum ultraviolet light source have been proposed as a concentration diagnostic for atomic oxygen, and the viability of this technique is assessed in light of recent measurements. The instrumentation, as well as initial calibration measurements, have been reported previously. We report here additional calibration measurements performed to study the resonance broadening line shape for atomic oxygen. The application of this diagnostic is evaluated by considering the range of suitable test conditions and requirements, and by identifying issues that remain to be addressed.

  12. Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design, an effective modern software development method for development of computing systems for a large physics detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlowski, T.; Carey, T.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Maguire, C.F. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    After evaluation of several modern object-oriented methods for development of the computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC, we selected the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented Analysis and Recursive Design method as the most appropriate for the needs and development environment of a large nuclear or high energy physics detector. This paper discusses our specific needs and environment, our method selection criteria, and major features and components of the Shlaer-Mellor method.

  13. Pure-rotational spectrometry: a vintage analytical method applied to modern breath analysis.

    PubMed

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W; Droege, Michael W

    2013-09-01

    Pure-rotational spectrometry (PRS) is an established method, typically used to study structures and properties of polar gas-phase molecules, including isotopic and isomeric varieties. PRS has also been used as an analytical tool where it is particularly well suited for detecting or monitoring low-molecular-weight species that are found in exhaled breath. PRS is principally notable for its ultra-high spectral resolution which leads to exceptional specificity to identify molecular compounds in complex mixtures. Recent developments using carbon aerogel for pre-concentrating polar molecules from air samples have extended the sensitivity of PRS into the part-per-billion range. In this paper we describe the principles of PRS and show how it may be configured in several different modes for breath analysis. We discuss the pre-concentration concept and demonstrate its use with the PRS analyzer for alcohols and ammonia sampled directly from the breath. PMID:23774191

  14. Reactive flow model development for PBXW-126 using modern nonlinear optimization methods

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M.J.; Simpson, R.L.; Urtiew, P.A.; Souers, P.C.; Garcia, F.; Garza, R.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, L-282, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The initiation and detonation behavior of PBXW-126 has been characterized and is described. PBXW-126 is a composite explosive consisting of approximately equal amounts of RDX, AP, AL, and NTO with a polyurethane binder. The three term ignition and growth of reaction model parameters (ignition+two growth terms) have been found using nonlinear optimization methods to determine the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} set of model parameters. The ignition term treats the initiation of up to 0.5{percent} of the RDX. The first growth term in the model treats the RDX growth of reaction up to 20{percent} reacted. The second growth term treats the subsequent growth of reaction of the remaining AP/AL/NTO. The unreacted equation of state (EOS) was determined from the wave profiles of embedded gauge tests while the JWL product EOS was determined from cylinder expansion test results. The nonlinear optimization code, NLQPEB/GLO, was used to determine the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} set of coefficients for the three term Lee-Tarver ignition and growth of reaction model. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Reactive flow model development for PBXW-126 using modern nonlinear optimization methods

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M.J.; Simpson, R.L.; Urtiew, P.A. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The initiation and detonation behavior of PBXW-126 has been characterized and is described. PBXW-126 is a composite explosive consisting of approximately equal amounts of RDX, AP, AL, and NTO with a polyurethane binder. The three term ignition and growth of reaction model parameters (ignition + two growth terms) have been found using nonlinear optimization methods to determine the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} set of model parameters. The ignition term treats the initiation of up to 0.5% of the RDX The first growth term in the model treats the RDX growth of reaction up to 20% reacted. The second growth term treats the subsequent growth of reaction of the remaining AP/AL/NTO. The unreacted equation of state (EOS) was determined from the wave profiles of embedded gauge tests while the JWL product EOS was determined from cylinder expansion test results. The nonlinear optimization code, NLQPEB/GLO, was used to determine the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} set of coefficients for the three term Lee-Tarver ignition and growth of reaction model.

  16. Reactive flow model development for PBXW-126 using modern nonlinear optimization methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M. J.; Simpson, R. L.; Urtiew, P. A.; Souers, P. C.; Garcia, F.; Garza, R. G.

    1996-05-01

    The initiation and detonation behavior of PBXW-126 has been characterized and is described. PBXW-126 is a composite explosive consisting of approximately equal amounts of RDX, AP, AL, and NTO with a polyurethane binder. The three term ignition and growth of reaction model parameters (ignition+two growth terms) have been found using nonlinear optimization methods to determine the "best" set of model parameters. The ignition term treats the initiation of up to 0.5% of the RDX. The first growth term in the model treats the RDX growth of reaction up to 20% reacted. The second growth term treats the subsequent growth of reaction of the remaining AP/AL/NTO. The unreacted equation of state (EOS) was determined from the wave profiles of embedded gauge tests while the JWL product EOS was determined from cylinder expansion test results. The nonlinear optimization code, NLQPEB/GLO, was used to determine the "best" set of coefficients for the three term Lee-Tarver ignition and growth of reaction model.

  17. REVIEW ARTICLE: Heterodyne methods in millimetre wave plasma diagnostics with applications to ECE, interferometry and reflectometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Hartfuss; T. Geist; M. Hirsch

    1997-01-01

    Basic principles of heterodyne techniques are introduced and the various components of a heterodyne system are summarized. Special applications in ECE, interferometry and reflectometry are discussed after introducing the diagnostic principles. Realized systems as described in the literature are briefly outlined. Ordering principles are radiometer types in the case of ECE, mixing scheme and generation and stabilization of local oscillator

  18. Mutual Information Item Selection Method in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing with Short Test Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) purports to combine the strengths of both CAT and cognitive diagnosis. Cognitive diagnosis models aim at classifying examinees into the correct mastery profile group so as to pinpoint the strengths and weakness of each examinee whereas CAT algorithms choose items to determine those…

  19. Improvement of optical diagnostic methods for a xenon operating thruster plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgy Karabadzhak

    2004-01-01

    Improvement of contemporary plasma optical diagnostic technique for xenon Hall effect based thrusters is considered. This improvement has become possible after critical revision of collisional radiative model for the thruster plasma. In particular, three important processes have been included into the collisional radiative model: excitation of the xenon emissions in collisions between xenon ions and atoms; step-wise excitation of xenon

  20. Apparatus and method for therapeutically irradiating a chosen area using a diagnostic computer tomography scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a diagnostic computer tomography scanner that uses a radiant energy beam for imaging purposes, an apparatus for therapeutically irradiating a chosen area with the radiant energy beam. It comprises: a masking member fabricated from a material that partially attenuates the radiant energy passing therethrough, but transmits a sufficient amount of the radiant energy for imaging purposes and

  1. Comparing modern and Pleistocene ENSO-like influences in NW Argentina using nonlinear time series analysis methods

    E-print Network

    N. Marwan; M. H. Trauth; M. Vuille; J. Kurths

    2003-03-24

    Higher variability in rainfall and river discharge could be of major importance in landslide generation in the north-western Argentine Andes. Annual layered (varved) deposits of a landslide dammed lake in the Santa Maria Basin (26 deg S, 66 deg W) with an age of 30,000 14C years provide an archive of precipitation variability during this time. The comparison of these data with present-day rainfall observations tests the hypothesis that increased rainfall variability played a major role in landslide generation. A potential cause of such variability is the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The causal link between ENSO and local rainfall is quantified by using a new method of nonlinear data analysis, the quantitative analysis of cross recurrence plots (CRP). This method seeks similarities in the dynamics of two different processes, such as an ocean-atmosphere oscillation and local rainfall. Our analysis reveals significant similarities in the statistics of both modern and palaeo-precipitation data. The similarities in the data suggest that an ENSO-like influence on local rainfall was present at around 30,000 14C years ago. Increased rainfall, which was inferred from a lake balance modeling in a previous study, together with ENSO-like cyclicities could help to explain the clustering of landslides at around 30,000 14C years ago.

  2. Beyond the Complete Blood Cell Count and C-Reactive Protein A Systematic Review of Modern Diagnostic Tests for Neonatal Sepsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arinder Malik; Charles P. S. Hui; Ross A. Pennie; Haresh Kirpalani

    2003-01-01

    Objective:Tosystematicallyreviewtheaccuracyofmod- ern laboratory tests for the diagnosis of serious bacterial infection in newborns. Methods: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Li- brary databases were searched using the keywords new- born, infection, sepsis, and diagnosis. We included stud- ies published from 1995 through 2001 that included infantsyoungerthan90dayswithprovenbacterialgrowth in a sample from a sterile site. Whenever possible, rel- evant data were extracted to

  3. Latent-Class Methods to Evaluate Diagnostics Tests for Echinococcus Infections in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hartnack, Sonja; Budke, Christine M.; Craig, Philip S.; Jiamin, Qiu; Boufana, Belgees; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Torgerson, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of canine echinococcosis can be a challenge in surveillance studies because there is no perfect gold standard that can be used routinely. However, unknown test specificities and sensitivities can be overcome using latent-class analysis with appropriate data. Methodology We utilised a set of faecal and purge samples used previously to explore the epidemiology of canine echinococcosis on the Tibetan plateau. Previously only the purge results were reported and analysed in a largely deterministic way. In the present study, additional diagnostic tests of copro-PCR and copro-antigen ELISA were undertaken on the faecal samples. This enabled a Bayesian analysis in a latent-class model to examine the diagnostic performance of a genus specific copro-antigen ELISA, species-specific copro-PCR and arecoline purgation. Potential covariates including co-infection with Taenia, age and sex of the dog were also explored. The dependence structure of these diagnostic tests could also be analysed. Principle findings The most parsimonious result, indicated by deviance-information criteria, suggested that co-infection with Taenia spp. was a significant covariate with the Echinococcus infection. The copro-PCRs had estimated sensitivities of 89% and 84% respectively for the diagnoses of Echinococcus multilocularis and E. granulosus. The specificities for the copro-PCR were estimated at 93 and 83% respectively. Copro-antigen ELISA had sensitivities of 55 and 57% for the diagnosis of E. multilocularis and E. granulosus and specificities of 71 and 69% respectively. Arecoline purgation with an assumed specificity of 100% had estimated sensitivities of 76% and 85% respectively. Significance This study also shows that incorporating diagnostic uncertainty, in other words assuming no perfect gold standard, and including potential covariates like sex or Taenia co-infection into the epidemiological analysis may give different results than if the diagnosis of infection status is assumed to be deterministic and this approach should therefore be used whenever possible. PMID:23459420

  4. Raman spectroscopy of saliva as a perspective method for periodontitis diagnostics Raman spectroscopy of saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Minaeva, S.

    2012-01-01

    In view of its potential for biological tissues analyses at a molecular level, Raman spectroscopy in optical range has been the object of biomedical research for the last years. The main aim of this work is the development of Raman spectroscopy for organic content identifying and determination of biomarkers of saliva at a molecular level for periodontitis diagnostics. Four spectral regions were determined: 1155 and 1525 cm-1, 1033 and 1611 cm-1, which can be used as biomarkers of this widespread disease.

  5. A REFINED QSO SELECTION METHOD USING DIAGNOSTICS TESTS: 663 QSO CANDIDATES IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dae-Won; Protopapas, Pavlos; Trichas, Markos; Alcock, Charles [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Rowan-Robinson, Michael [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Khardon, Roni [Department of Computer Science, Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States); Byun, Yong-Ik [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-10

    We present 663 QSO candidates in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) selected using multiple diagnostics. We started with a set of 2566 QSO candidates selected using the methodology presented in our previous work based on time variability of the MACHO LMC light curves. We then obtained additional information for the candidates by crossmatching them with the Spitzer SAGE, the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Chandra, the XMM, and an LMC UBVI catalog. Using this information, we specified six diagnostic features based on mid-IR colors, photometric redshifts using spectral energy distribution template fitting, and X-ray luminosities in order to further discriminate high-confidence QSO candidates in the absence of spectra information. We then trained a one-class Support Vector Machine model using the diagnostics features of the confirmed 58 MACHO QSOs. We applied the trained model to the original candidates and finally selected 663 high-confidence QSO candidates. Furthermore, we crossmatched these 663 QSO candidates with the newly confirmed 151 QSOs and 275 non-QSOs in the LMC fields. On the basis of the counterpart analysis, we found that the false positive rate is less than 1%.

  6. Modern computer-aided maintenance of manufacturing equipment and systems: Review and Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay Lee

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines various methods in modern computer-aided maintenance including machine monitoring, fault detection and fault diagnostics. A perspective on proactive maintenance by monitoring the degradation of manufacturing equipment and systems is presented and illustrated. If the behavior of manufacturing equipment and systems can be monitored and measured adaptively then an early warning of possible faults can be generated. By

  7. Tasks and methods of drawing up "The Program of Modernization of the Power Industry of Russia for the Period through the Year 2020"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, E. P.; Makarov, A. A.; Makarova, A. S.; Saparov, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    The structure of tasks, stages, and methods of drawing up "The Program of Modernization of the Power Industry for the Period through the Year 2020" as part of the state program "Energy Efficiency and Development of the Energy Industry" have been determined.

  8. Modern Methods of Estimating Biodiversity from Presence-Absence Robert M. Dorazio1, U.S. Geological Survey and University of Florida, Department of Statistics,

    E-print Network

    Gotelli, Nicholas J.

    in the replicated surveys is crucial because it allows species occurrences to be estimated without bias by using1 Modern Methods of Estimating Biodiversity from Presence-Absence Surveys Robert M. Dorazio1, U.S. Geological Survey and University of Florida, Department of Statistics, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Nicholas J

  9. Modern Methods of Monosaccharide Synthesis from Non-Carbohydrate Tomas Hudlicky,* David A. Entwistle, Kevin K. Pitzer, and Andrew J. Thorpe

    E-print Network

    Hudlicky, Tomas

    Modern Methods of Monosaccharide Synthesis from Non-Carbohydrate Sources Tomas Hudlicky,* David A Manipulations Leading to Carbohydrates 1198 4. Future Prospects of the Chemistry of Mono- and Oligosaccharides. Overview Humans have utilized carbohydrates in natural forms such as cellulose in cotton, sucrose in cane

  10. How Do Zoos "Talk" to Their General Visitors? Do Visitors "Listen"? A Mixed Method Investigation of the Communication between Modern Zoos and Their General Visitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Katie; McConney, Andrew; Mansfield, Caroline F.

    2014-01-01

    Modern zoos utilise a variety of education tools for communicating with visitors. Previous research has discussed the benefits of providing multiple education communications, yet little research provides an indication of what communications are being employed within zoos today. This research is a two-phased, mixed-methods investigation into the…

  11. A comparison of diagnostic techniques for detecting salmonella spp in equine fecal samples using culture methods, gel-based pcr, and real-time pcr assays 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Shelle Ann

    2007-09-17

    for improved diagnostic methods for detecting Salmonella in equine fecal samples. 120 fecal samples submitted to the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at Texas A&M University (CML, VMTH, TAMU) were tested...

  12. Chemical differentiation of Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang, a Chinese medicine formula, prepared by traditional and modern decoction methods using UPLC/Q-TOFMS-based metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jian-Bo; Bai, Xu; Cai, Xiu-Jiang; Rao, Yi; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2013-09-01

    In order to evaluate chemical consistency between traditional and modern decoctions of Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang (DCQT), a classical Chinese medicine formula commonly used in the treatment of digestive diseases, an ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOFMS) combined with multivariate statistical analysis was established to globally characterize the chemical profile and discover differentiating chemical markers. Two kinds of decoctions, namely traditional decoction (multi-step decoction of constituent herbs), and modern decoction (one-step decoction of all herbs), were prepared and subjected to UPLC-MS analysis, the datasets of tR-m/z pairs, ion intensities and sample codes were processed with supervised orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to comprehensively compare the chemical difference between these two kinds of decoction samples. The global chemical difference was found between traditional and modern decoctions, and rhein, sennoside A/B, diosmetin, magnoloside B and naringin were the components contributing most to these differences. Based on the fact that traditional decoction of DCQT presents the higher concentration of rhein and sennoside A/B, mainly contributed to laxative activity of DCQT, the purgative effect of traditional decoction might be more potent, compared with modern decoction. However, the comparative study on purgative effect of traditional and modern DCQT remains to be further investigated using pharmacological approaches. Our findings also provide the early scientific evidence of traditional decoction method of DCQT. PMID:23685412

  13. Dosimetry in diagnostic radiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Meghzifene; David R. Dance; Donald McLean; Hans-Michael Kramer

    2010-01-01

    Dosimetry is an area of increasing importance in diagnostic radiology. There is a realisation amongst health professionals that the radiation dose received by patients from modern X-ray examinations and procedures can be at a level of significance for the induction of cancer across a population, and in some unfortunate instances, in the acute damage to particular body organs such as

  14. A multi-center comparison of diagnostic methods for the biochemical evaluation of suspected mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Schoonderwoerd, G.C.; Tiranti, V.; Taylor, R.W.; Rötig, A.; Valente, L.; Invernizzi, F.; Chretien, D.; He, L.; Backx, G.P.B.M.; Janssen, K.J.G.M.; Chinnery, P.F.; Smeets, H.J.; de Coo, I.F.; van den Heuvel, L.P.

    2013-01-01

    A multicenter comparison of mitochondrial respiratory chain and complex V enzyme activity tests was performed. The average reproducibility of the enzyme assays is 16% in human muscle samples. In a blinded diagnostic accuracy test in patient fibroblasts and SURF1 knock-out mouse muscle, each lab made the correct diagnosis except for two complex I results. We recommend that enzyme activities be evaluated based on ratios, e.g. with complex IV or citrate synthase activity. In spite of large variations in observed enzyme activities, we show that inter-laboratory comparison of patient sample test results is possible by using normalization against a control sample. PMID:23164799

  15. Genetic mutation underlying orthostatic intolerance and diagnostic and therapeutic methods relating thereto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, David (Inventor); Blakely, Randy D. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Isolated polynucleotide molecules and peptides encoded by these molecules are used in the analysis of human norepinephrine (NE) transporter variants, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, relating to a human NE transporter polymorphism. By analyzing genomic DNA or amplified genomic DNA, or amplified cDNA derived from mRNA, it is possible to type a human NE transporter with regard to the human NE transporter polymorphism, for example, in the context of diagnosing and treating NE transport impairments, and disorders associated with NE transport impairments, such as orthostatic intolerance.

  16. Mastitis diagnostics and performance monitoring: a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tjgm; Olde Riekerink, Rgm; Sampimon, Oc; Smith, H

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a review is given of frequently used mastitis diagnostic methods in modern dairy practice. Methods used at the quarter, cow, herd and regional or national level are discussed, including their usability for performance monitoring in udder health. Future developments, such as systems in which milk-derived parameters are combined with modern analytical techniques, are discussed. It is concluded that, although much knowledge is available and science is still developing and much knowledge is available, it is not always fully exploited in practice. PMID:22081906

  17. Mastitis diagnostics and performance monitoring: a practical approach

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a review is given of frequently used mastitis diagnostic methods in modern dairy practice. Methods used at the quarter, cow, herd and regional or national level are discussed, including their usability for performance monitoring in udder health. Future developments, such as systems in which milk-derived parameters are combined with modern analytical techniques, are discussed. It is concluded that, although much knowledge is available and science is still developing and much knowledge is available, it is not always fully exploited in practice. PMID:22081906

  18. Determination of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtypes by a Rapid Method Useful for the Routine Diagnostic Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Harald H.; Deuretzbacher, Doris; Stelzl, Evelyn; Daghofer, Elisabeth; Santner, Brigitte I.; Marth, Egon

    2001-01-01

    The existence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes has many important implications for the global evolution of HIV and for the evaluation of pathogenicity, transmissibility, and candidate HIV vaccines. The aim of this study was to establish a rapid method for determination of HIV-1 subtypes useful for a routine diagnostic laboratory and to investigate the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes in Austrian patients. Samples were tested by a subtyping method based on a 1.3-kb sequence of the polymerase gene generated by a commercially available drug resistance assay. The generated sequence was subtyped by means of an HIV sequence database. Results of 74 routine samples revealed subtype B (71.6%) as the predominant subtype, followed by subtype A (13.5%) and subtype C (6.8%). Subtypes E, F, G, and AE (CM240) were also detected. This subtyping method was found to be very easy to handle, rapid, and inexpensive and has proved suitable for high-throughput routine diagnostic laboratories. The specific polymerase gene sequence, however, must be existent. PMID:11527821

  19. [The application of the Bayes-Wald-Gubler method for differential diagnostics of the causes of death at low environmental temperature].

    PubMed

    Bogomolova, I N; Saperovskaya, V E; Orlovskaya, A V

    2015-01-01

    The authors propose a modification of the Bayes-Wald-Gubler mathematical method designed for differential diagnostics that extends the possibilities of computer-assisted calculations and simplifies their performance. The practical application of the proposed modification is illustrated by differential diagnostics of the causes of death at low environmental temperature including lethal hypothermia, sudden death from cardiac diseases, mechanical asphyxia, mechanical injury, and acute alcoholic intoxication. The most informative histological features are described and diagnostic coefficients are presented. The method of calculations in the framework of the Microsoft Excel software package are proposed. The results obtained with the help of the standard and modified Bayes-Wald-Gubler mathematical method are compared, their effectiveness for the purpose of combined diagnostics of the causes of death is demonstrated. PMID:25874319

  20. Diagnostic methods for African horsesickness virus using monoclonal antibodies to structural and non-structural proteins.

    PubMed

    Ranz, A I; Miguet, J G; Anaya, C; Venteo, A; Cortés, E; Vela, C; Sanz, A

    1992-11-01

    A panel of 32 hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reactive with African horsesickness virus serotype 4 (AHSV-4) has been developed. Four of the MAbs recognized the major core antigen VP7, twenty recognized the outer capsid protein VP2 and eight reacted with the non-structural protein NS1. With the VP7-specific MAbs a rapid and sensitive double antibody sandwich immunoassay has been developed to detect viral antigen in infected Vero cells and in spleen tissue from AHSV-infected horses. The sensitivity of the assay is 10 ng viral antigen per 100 microliters. The NS1-specific MAbs allowed visualization by immunofluorescence of tubule-like structures in the cytoplasm of infected Vero cells. This can be very useful as a confirmatory diagnostic procedure. The antigenic map of the outer capsid VP2 protein with MAbs is also reported. PMID:1481354

  1. A method of diagnostics of the service characteristics of structures made of composite materials on the basis of materials science and technological factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Koshcheev; M. A. Yusufov

    1990-01-01

    istical), there are factors which complicate the effective and rapid introduction of the new methods. For each specific structure, even a structure of the same type with a previously examined analog, it is necessary to develop its own method and a model of diagnostics taking into account the design and technological special features of the object and equivalent methods of

  2. Development of diagnostic methods for characterization of physical-chemical evolution of on-site and laboratory high voltage cable insulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Clavreul; F. Wynant

    1993-01-01

    Contaminant measurement methods for polyethylene insulation cables have been studied. Water measurement based on the Karl-Fischer method is applicable to aged polyethylene cables insulation in order to detect water obtained by diffusion. Nothing can be concluded from impurity migration analysis diagnostic methods. PIXE and NAA at ppm concentrations indicated no impurity diffusion in aged polyethylene cable insulation. Improvements in the

  3. Depression and suicidal behavior in adolescents: a multi-informant and multi-methods approach to diagnostic classification

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Andrew J.; Bertino, Melanie D.; Bailey, Catherine M.; Skewes, Joanna; Lubman, Dan I.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Informant discrepancies have been reported between parent and adolescent measures of depressive disorders and suicidality. We aimed to examine the concordance between adolescent and parent ratings of depressive disorder using both clinical interview and questionnaire measures and assess multi-informant and multi-method approaches to classification. Method: Within the context of assessment of eligibility for a randomized clinical trial, 50 parent–adolescent pairs (mean age of adolescents = 15.0 years) were interviewed separately with a structured diagnostic interview for depression, the KID-SCID. Adolescent self-report and parent-report versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire were also administered. We examined the diagnostic concordance rates of the parent vs. adolescent structured interview methods and the prediction of adolescent diagnosis via questionnaire methods. Results: Parent proxy reporting of adolescent depression and suicidal thoughts and behavior is not strongly concordant with adolescent report. Adolescent self-reported symptoms on depression scales provide a more accurate report of diagnosable adolescent depression than parent proxy reports of adolescent depressive symptoms. Adolescent self-report measures can be combined to improve the accuracy of classification. Parents tend to over report their adolescent’s depressive symptoms while under reporting their suicidal thoughts and behavior. Conclusion: Parent proxy report is clearly less reliable than the adolescent’s own report of their symptoms and subjective experiences, and could be considered inaccurate for research purposes. While parent report would still be sought clinically where an adolescent refuses to provide information, our findings suggest that parent reporting of adolescent suicidality should be interpreted with caution. PMID:25101031

  4. Biogeosystem technique as a method to overcome the Biological and Environmental Hazards of modern Agricultural, Irrigational and Technological Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinitchenko, Valery; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Zinchenko, Vladimir; Zarmaev, Ali; Magomadov, Ali; Chernenko, Vladimir; Startsev, Viktor; Bakoev, Serojdin; Dikaev, Zaurbek

    2014-05-01

    Modern challenge for humanity is to replace the paradigm of nature use and overcome environmental hazards of agronomy, irrigation, industry, and other human activities in biosphere. It is utterly reasonable to stop dividing biosphere on shares - the human habitat and the environment. In the 21st century it is an outdated anthropocentrism. Contradicting himself to biosphere Humankind has the problems. The new paradigm of biosphere control by methods of Biogeosystem technique is on agenda of Humankind. Key directions of Biogeosystem technique. Tillage. Single rotary milling 20…30-50…60 sm soil layer optimizes the evolution and environment of soil, creates a favorable conditions for the rhizosphere, increases the biological productivity of biosphere by 30-50% compared to the standard agricultural practices for the period up to 40 years. Recycle material. Recycling of mineral and organic substances in soil layer of 20…30-50…60 sm in rotary milling soil processing provides wastes clean return to biosphere. Direct intrasoil substances synthesis. Environmentally friendly robot wasteless nanotechnology provides direct substances synthesis, including fertilizers, inside the soil. It eliminates the prerequisites of the wastes formation under standard industrial technologies. Selective substance's extraction from soil. Electrochemical robotic nanotechnology provides selective substances extraction from soil. The technology provides recovery, collection and subsequent safe industrial use of extracted substances out of landscape. Saving fresh water. An important task is to save fresh water in biosphere. Irrigation spends water 4-5 times more of biological requirements of plants, leads to degradation of soil and landscape. The intrasoil pulse continuous-discrete paradigm of irrigation is proposed. It provides the soil and landscape conservation, increases the biological productivity, save the fresh water up to 10-20 times. The subsurface soil rotary processing and intrasoil pulsed continuous-discrete irrigation provide environmentally safe disposal of municipal, industrial, biological and agricultural wastes. Hazardous chemical and biological agents are under the soil surface. It provided a medical and veterinary safety of environment. Biogeosystem technic controls the equilibria in the soil and soil solution, prevents excessive mineralization of organic matter in the surface layers of soil. Simultaneously a soil chemical reduction excluded, biological substance do not degrade to gases. Products of organic matter decomposition are directed to the food chain, 100% waste recycling is obtained. Biogeosystems technique allows producing more biological products hence to recycle excessive amount of man-made CO2 and other substances. Biogeosystems technique increases the rate of photosynthesis of the biosphere, the degree of air ionization. This enhances the formation of rains over land, ensures stability of the ionosphere, magnetosphere and atmosphere of Earth. The nowadays technologies allow applying technical solutions based on Biogeosystem technique, there is unique opportunity to accelerate the noosphere new technological platform.

  5. Combustion diagnostics by nonintrusive methods; Thermophysics Conference, 18th, Montreal, Canada, June 1-3, 1983, Selected Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccay, T. D. (editor); Roux, J. A. (editor)

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is outlined, and current diagnostic capabilities in particle and combustion diagnostics are demonstrated. The development and application of CARS to combustion systems is discussed, and the use of LIF for flow diagnostics is addressed. Nonintrusive particle diagnostics is treated, and a variety of nonintrusive techniques applied to combustion environments is considered.

  6. Novel readout method for molecular diagnostic assays based on optical measurements of magnetic nanobead dynamics.

    PubMed

    Donolato, Marco; Antunes, Paula; Bejhed, Rebecca S; Zardán Gómez de la Torre, Teresa; Østerberg, Frederik W; Strömberg, Mattias; Nilsson, Mats; Strømme, Maria; Svedlindh, Peter; Hansen, Mikkel F; Vavassori, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate detection of DNA coils formed from a Vibrio cholerae DNA target at picomolar concentrations using a novel optomagnetic approach exploiting the dynamic behavior and optical anisotropy of magnetic nanobead (MNB) assemblies. We establish that the complex second harmonic optical transmission spectra of MNB suspensions measured upon application of a weak uniaxial AC magnetic field correlate well with the rotation dynamics of the individual MNBs. Adding a target analyte to the solution leads to the formation of permanent MNB clusters, namely, to the suppression of the dynamic MNB behavior. We prove that the optical transmission spectra are highly sensitive to the formation of permanent MNB clusters and, thereby to the target analyte concentration. As a specific clinically relevant diagnostic case, we detect DNA coils formed via padlock probe recognition and isothermal rolling circle amplification and benchmark against a commercial equipment. The results demonstrate the fast optomagnetic readout of rolling circle products from bacterial DNA utilizing the dynamic properties of MNBs in a miniaturized and low-cost platform requiring only a transparent window in the chip. PMID:25539065

  7. Electrodiffusion Method of Near-Wall Flow Diagnostics in Microfluidic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tihona, J.; P?nkavová, V.; Stanovský, P.; Vejražka, J.

    2015-05-01

    The electrodiffusion technique has been mostly used for the near-wall flow diagnostics on large scales. A novel technique for fabrication of plastic microfluidic systems with integrated metal microelectrodes (called technique of sacrificed substrate) enables us to produce microfluidic devices with precisely shaped sensors for wall shear stress measurements. Several micrometer thick gold sensors, which are built-in a plastic substrate, exhibit good mechanical resistance and smoothness. Proper functioning of prepared chips with microsensors has been first tested in various calibration experiments (polarization curve, sensor response to polarization set-up, steady flow calibration, temperature dependence of diffusivity). Our first results obtained for separating/reattaching flow behind a backward-facing step and for gas-liquid Taylor flow in microchannels then demonstrate its applicability for the detection of near-wall flow reversal, the delimitation of flow - recirculation zones, and the determination of wall shear stress response to moving bubbles. Other applications of these sensors in microfluidics (e.g. characterization of liquid films, capillary waves, bubbles or drops) can be also envisaged.

  8. A diagnostic for determining the quality of single-reference electron correlation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    It was recently proposed that the Euclidian norm of the t(sub 1) vector of the coupled cluster wave function (normalized by the number of electrons included in the correlation procedure) could be used to determine whether a single-reference-based electron correlation procedure is appopriate. This diagnostic, T(sub 1) is defined for use with self-consistent-field molecular orbitals and is invariant to the same orbital rotations as the coupled cluster energy. T(sub 1) is investigated for several different chemical systems which exhibit a range of multireference behavior, and is shown to be an excellent measure of the importance of non-dynamical electron correlation and is far superior to C(sub 0) from a singles and doubles configuration interaction wave function. It is further suggested that when the aim is to recover a large fraction of the dynamical electron correlation energy, a large T(sub 1) (i.e., greater than 0.02) probably indicates the need for a multireference electron correlation procedure.

  9. A diagnostic for determining the quality of single-reference electron correlation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    It was recently proposed that the Euclidian norm of the t sub 1 vector of the coupled cluster wave function (normalized by the number of electrons included in the correlation procedure) could be used to determine whether a single-reference-based electron correlation procedure is appropriate. This diagnostic, T sub 1, is defined for use with self consistent field molecular orbitals and is invariant to the same orbital rotations as the coupled cluster energy. T sub 1 is investigated for several different chemical systems which exhibit a range of multireference behavior, and is shown to be an excellent measure of the importance of nondynamical electron correlation and is far superior to C sub 0 from a singles and doubles configuration interaction wave function. It is further suggested that when the aim is to recover a large fraction of the dynamical electron correlation energy, a large T sub 1 (i.e., greater than 0.02) probably indicates the need for a multireference electron correlation procedure.

  10. Sub-clinical diseases affecting performance in Standardbred trotters: diagnostic methods and predictive parameters.

    PubMed

    Richard, Eric A; Fortier, Guillaume D; Pitel, Pierre-Hugues; Dupuis, Marie-Capucine; Valette, Jean-Paul; Art, Tatiana; Denoix, Jean-Marie; Lekeux, Pierre M; Erck, Emmanuelle Van

    2010-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical diseases in poorly-performing Standardbred horses, compare their physiological response to exercise with control horses, and identify predictive parameters of poor-performance. Fifty horses underwent thorough clinical and ancillary examinations, including haematological and biochemical evaluation, Doppler echocardiography, standardised exercise tests (SETs) on both treadmill and racetrack, treadmill video-endoscopy and collection of respiratory fluids. Most of the poorly-performing horses exhibited many concomitant diseases. The most frequently diagnosed problems involved the lower and upper respiratory tract and the musculoskeletal system. Poor-performers had lower speeds at a blood lactate (LA) concentration of 4mmol/L (V(LA4)) and a heart rate (HR) of 200bpm (V(200)) on treadmill and racetrack, as well as lower values for haematological parameters, plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme and antioxidants, compared to control horses. Problems of the respiratory system were the most frequently diagnosed sub-clinical diseases affecting performance. SETs, together with some blood markers, may be useful as a non-specific diagnostic tool for early detection of diseases that may affect performance. PMID:19477143

  11. Paper Diagnostics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, focuses on diagnostic methods of investigation looking at the issue of HIV/AIDS. In this activity, students will explore "the societal impacts of engineering and science, specifically as it relates to the AIDS epidemic in developing countries. A series of videos and accompanying questions help students explore how engineers and scientists can contribute to various solutions related to diagnosing and preventing the spread of disease. The activity highlights the development of low-cost paper diagnostics for rapid and private diagnosis of AIDS and diseases  related to AIDS (TB, other sexually transmitted diseases, etc.)." This activity will take two 50 minute classroom sessions. A Teacher Preparation Guide, Next Generation Science Standards for this lesson, and a link to George Whitesides video used in lesson video from the NY Times are included.

  12. Differences in outcome according to Clostridium difficile testing method: a prospective multicentre diagnostic validation study of C difficile infection

    PubMed Central

    Planche, Timothy D; Davies, Kerrie A; Coen, Pietro G; Finney, John M; Monahan, Irene M; Morris, Kirsti A; O'Connor, Lily; Oakley, Sarah J; Pope, Cassie F; Wren, Mike W; Shetty, Nandini P; Crook, Derrick W; Wilcox, Mark H

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection is controversial because of many laboratory methods, compounded by two reference methods. Cytotoxigenic culture detects toxigenic C difficile and gives a positive result more frequently (eg, because of colonisation, which means that individuals can have the bacterium but no free toxin) than does the cytotoxin assay, which detects preformed toxin in faeces. We aimed to validate the reference methods according to clinical outcomes and to derive an optimum laboratory diagnostic algorithm for C difficile infection. Methods In this prospective, multicentre study, we did cytotoxigenic culture and cytotoxin assays on 12?420 faecal samples in four UK laboratories. We also performed tests that represent the three main targets for C difficile detection: bacterium (glutamate dehydrogenase), toxins, or toxin genes. We used routine blood test results, length of hospital stay, and 30-day mortality to clinically validate the reference methods. Data were categorised by reference method result: group 1, cytotoxin assay positive; group 2, cytotoxigenic culture positive and cytotoxin assay negative; and group 3, both reference methods negative. Findings Clinical and reference assay data were available for 6522 inpatient episodes. On univariate analysis, mortality was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (72/435 [16·6%] vs 20/207 [9·7%], p=0·044) and in group 3 (503/5880 [8·6%], p<0·001), but not in group 2 compared with group 3 (p=0·4). A multivariate analysis accounting for potential confounders confirmed the mortality differences between groups 1 and 3 (OR 1·61, 95% CI 1·12–2·31). Multistage algorithms performed better than did standalone assays. Interpretation We noted no increase in mortality when toxigenic C difficile alone was present. Toxin (cytotoxin assay) positivity correlated with clinical outcome, and so this reference method best defines true cases of C difficile infection. A new diagnostic category of potential C difficile excretor (cytotoxigenic culture positive but cytotoxin assay negative) could be used to characterise patients with diarrhoea that is probably not due to C difficile infection, but who can cause cross-infection. Funding Department of Health and Health Protection Agency, UK. PMID:24007915

  13. Microbial food safety: Potential of DNA extraction methods for use in diagnostic metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Josefsen, Mathilde H; Andersen, Sandra C; Christensen, Julia; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    The efficiency of ten widely applied DNA extraction protocols was evaluated for suitability for diagnostic metagenomics. The protocols were selected based on a thorough literature study. Chicken fecal samples inoculated with about 1×10(3) and 1×10(6)CFU/g Campylobacter jejuni were used as a model. The evaluation was performed based on total DNA yield measured by fluorometry, and quality and quantity of C. jejuni DNA measured by real-time PCR. There was up to a 25-fold variance between the lowest (NucliSens miniMAG, BIOMÉRIEUX) and highest (PowerLyzer PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit, MO BIO Laboratories) yielding protocols. The PowerLyzer PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit performed significantly better than all other protocols tested. Selected protocols were modified, i.e., extended heating and homogenization, resulting in increased yields of total DNA. For QIAamp Fast DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen) a 7-fold increase in total DNA was observed following the protocol for human DNA analysis and including a 5min heating step at 70°C. For the PowerLyzer PowerSoil and the PowerFecal DNA Isolation Kit (MO BIO Laboratories) the total DNA fold increase was 1.6 to 1.8 when including an extra 10min of bead-vortexing. There was no correlation between the yield of total DNA and the amount of PCR-amplifiable DNA from C. jejuni. The protocols resulting in the highest yield of total DNA did not show correspondingly increased levels of C. jejuni DNA as determined by PCR. In conclusion, substantial variation in the efficiency of the protocols to extract DNA was observed. The highest DNA yield was obtained with the PowerLyzer PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit, whereas the FastDNA SPIN Kit for Feces (MP Biomedicals) resulted in the highest amount of PCR-amplifiable C. jejuni DNA. PMID:25937085

  14. Computer Method for New Elliptical Abel Inversion Applied to Holographic Plasma Diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shun-ichi Himeno; Masaharu Seki; Hitoshi Mochizuki; Takeaki Enoto; Tadashi Sekiguchi

    1985-01-01

    A new and simple elliptical Abel inversion for calculating spatial distributions of electron density from elliptical shaped plasma is presented. In this numerical method inversion matrix elements were calculated analytically and examined using a test function. This method was applied to an end-on holographic interferogram of a theta-pinch plasma for the first time.

  15. Moisture diagnostics of power transformers by a fast and reliable dielectric response method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maik Koch; Stephanie Raetzke; Michael Krueger

    2010-01-01

    This contribution introduces a newly developed dielectric response method to measure the dielectric response and calculate the moisture concentration in oil-paper insulated power transformers. This method combines the measurement of charging and discharging currents in time domain (Polarization and Depolarization Currents PDC) and the dielectric spectroscopy in frequency domain (Frequency Domain Spectroscopy FDS). The frequency range from 5 kHz down

  16. Use of the Rotating Faraday Cup Method for Diagnostics of Radially Converging Electron Beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Narkhinov

    2002-01-01

    A method for measurement of the current nonuniformity in a radially converging multibeam emitter system is described. The device implementing this method contains a rotary Faraday cup coaxial with a radially converging electron flow. The nonuniformity of the experimentally measured azimuthal current distribution over the periphery a circle of 140 mm in diameter was 0.05.

  17. On absolute calibration with xenon of laser diagnostic methods based on two-photon absorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Goehlich; T. Kawetzki; H. F. Döbele

    1998-01-01

    A novel calibration method for the determination of absolute species densities by laser spectroscopy with two-photon absorption is presented. The method is based on a comparative measurement with a noble gas which has a two-photon resonance spectrally close to the transition investigated. Application of this scheme for the calibration of LIF measurements to determine atomic oxygen, generated in a capacitively

  18. PCR detection and identification of Leishmania parasites in clinical specimens in Ecuador: a comparison with classical diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Aviles, H; Belli, A; Armijos, R; Monroy, F P; Harris, E

    1999-04-01

    A simplified polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay was used for detection and typing of Leishmania parasites in clinical specimens from patients suspected of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Using cultures as the reference standard, our PCR detection method was more sensitive (92%) than classical diagnostic techniques, including microscopy (42% sensitivity), histologic staining (33%), and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent (20%). The PCR assay was also 100% specific. Parasites in both lesion biopsies and isolates cultured from lesion aspirates were identified as Leishmania braziliensis by PCR. In this study, we have demonstrated the suitability of simplified PCR assays for the simultaneous diagnosis and typing of parasites causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in a developing country where leishmaniasis is endemic. PMID:10219292

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy and Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Methods for Detection of Soil-Transmitted Helminths in a Post-Treatment Setting in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kepha, Stella; Kihara, Jimmy H.; Njenga, Sammy M.; Pullan, Rachel L.; Brooker, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC methods for detection of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in a post-treatment setting in western Kenya. A cost analysis also explores the cost implications of collecting samples during school surveys when compared to household surveys. Methods Stool samples were collected from children (n?=?652) attending 18 schools in Bungoma County and diagnosed by the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC coprological methods. Sensitivity and additional diagnostic performance measures were analyzed using Bayesian latent class modeling. Financial and economic costs were calculated for all survey and diagnostic activities, and cost per child tested, cost per case detected and cost per STH infection correctly classified were estimated. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the impact of various survey parameters on cost estimates. Results Both diagnostic methods exhibited comparable sensitivity for detection of any STH species over single and consecutive day sampling: 52.0% for single day Kato-Katz; 49.1% for single-day Mini-FLOTAC; 76.9% for consecutive day Kato-Katz; and 74.1% for consecutive day Mini-FLOTAC. Diagnostic performance did not differ significantly between methods for the different STH species. Use of Kato-Katz with school-based sampling was the lowest cost scenario for cost per child tested ($10.14) and cost per case correctly classified ($12.84). Cost per case detected was lowest for Kato-Katz used in community-based sampling ($128.24). Sensitivity analysis revealed the cost of case detection for any STH decreased non-linearly as prevalence rates increased and was influenced by the number of samples collected. Conclusions The Kato-Katz method was comparable in diagnostic sensitivity to the Mini-FLOTAC method, but afforded greater cost-effectiveness. Future work is required to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of STH surveillance in different settings. PMID:24810593

  20. CONCEPTUAL MODELS AND METHODS TO GUIDE DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH INTO CAUSES OF IMPAIRMENT TO AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods and conceptual models to guide the development of tools for diagnosing the causes of biological impairment within aquatic ecosystems of the United States are described in this report. The conceptual models developed here address nutrients, suspended and bedded sediments (...

  1. [Modern diagnosis of lung nodules].

    PubMed

    Abolmaali, N D; Vogl, T J

    2004-05-01

    Despite numerous technical improvements, modern diagnosis of lung nodules can still be divided into three partially overlapping stages: (1) detection, (2) characterization, and (3) follow-up and management. With respect to these steps, this article reviews the diagnostic significance of different modalities. New and not definitively evaluated techniques are considered. Furthermore, methods that are not routinely applied but have been published and are thought to have some value in the characterization of pulmonary lung nodules are discussed. Statistical data are included to assist the classification of the results of imaging. Remarks on biopsy of lung nodules to obtain histopathologic correlation complete this overview. The authors are convinced that the established methods (radiography for detection, spiral CT for characterization), after thorough evaluation, will soon be replaced by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recent experience with MRI points to its potential for detection and characterization of pulmonary nodules while avoiding ionizing radiation. The development of indications for MRI of the lung (e.g. paediatric radiology) will be fascinating to observe. PMID:15168025

  2. [A functional diagnostic method by measuring of distribution volume of 123I-IMP with SPECT].

    PubMed

    Odano, I; Ohkubo, M; Takahashi, M; Noguchi, E; Ohtaki, H; Kasahara, T; Hatano, M; Sato, T

    1996-06-01

    To measure distribution volume of 123I-IMP with one-point sampling of arterial blood and 2 times SPECT scans using the Magic square method (Rate constant square method), we introduced a program on a SPECT computer system. In this program four functional images; distribution volume, CBF (K1), k2 and delayed/early ratio, and absolute values with S.D. are obtained on the computer. We have been using the program on daily SPECT studies. In this study we discussed the usefulness of the method. Redistribution phenomenon of 123I-IMP, which is not exactly enough investigated, can be transformed into a functional parameter, distribution volume. Since distribution volume represents an extent of retention of 123I-IMP in brain tissue, it can play an important role to evaluate functional activity in the brain and to diagnose cerebral diseases. PMID:8741502

  3. Cyberspace modernization :

    SciTech Connect

    Keliiaa, Curtis M.; McLane, Victor N.

    2014-07-01

    A common challenge across the communications and information technology (IT) sectors is Internet + modernization + complexity + risk + cost. Cyberspace modernization and cyber security risks, issues, and concerns impact service providers, their customers, and the industry at large. Public and private sectors are struggling to solve the problem. New service opportunities lie in mobile voice, video, and data, and machine-to-machine (M2M) information and communication technologies that are migrating not only to predominant Internet Protocol (IP) communications, but also concurrently integrating IP, version 4 (IPv4) and IP, version 6 (IPv6). With reference to the Second Internet and the Internet of Things, next generation information services portend business survivability in the changing global market. The planning, architecture, and design information herein is intended to increase infrastructure preparedness, security, interoperability, resilience, and trust in the midst of such unprecedented change and opportunity. This document is a product of Sandia National Laboratories Tribal Cyber and IPv6 project work. It is a Cyberspace Modernization objective advisory in support of bridging the digital divide through strategic partnership and an informed path forward.

  4. Tate Modern

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Yesterday, Queen Elizabeth II officially opened the Tate Modern, Britain's new national museum of modern art housed in a former power station on London's Bankside. Those who weren't invited to the gala opening party last night and can't make it to the official public opening today can still visit the new museum online. In addition to the ordinary visiting information, special exhibitions, and so forth, the site offers a complete overview of the works displayed in each of its four themed groups. Though modern sounding, the four display themes (Landscape/ Matter/ Environment; Still Life/ Object/ Real Life; Nude/ Action/ Body; and History/ Memory/ Society) are actually based on the major genres of art established by the French Academy in the seventeenth century: landscape, still life, the nude, and history painting. Clicking on a section will bring up a list of rooms, each of which links to a short description and list of works. From this list, users can access more information on a particular work (and an image when available) and other pieces by the same artist held at Tate galleries via the Tate Collections Website (see the June 11, 1999 Scout Report).

  5. Computer method for Abel inversion for toroidal coordinates and its application to plasma diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaharu Seki; Shun-Ichi Himeno

    1997-01-01

    A new technique, Abel inversion for toroidal coordinates, is presented for calculating spatial distributions of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma density from observation beam incidents in the toroidal y direction. In this numerical method, inversion matrix elements are calculated analytically, and their usefulness is examined by using a hypothetical data set of beam intensity with asymmetry for the normal direction to

  6. Improved RF-driven probe method for RF discharge plasma diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ohsawa; M. Ohuchi; T. Kubota

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe an electrostatic probe technique for radio-frequency (RF) plasmas. The presence of RF potential fluctuations between probe and plasma distorts the Langmuir probe characteristic; it therefore introduces large errors into plasma parameters. The method presented an improved version of that proposed by Braithwaite et al. to remove the effect of an RF fluctuation on probe characteristics. It consists

  7. Patients' perspective: lupus in patients' drawings. Assessing drawing as a diagnostic and therapeutic method.

    PubMed

    Nowicka-Sauer, Katarzyna

    2007-09-01

    This is the first report from a qualitative research on lupus patients' perspective expressed in the disease drawings. The aim of the study was to examine the variety of ways of illness perception and experiences among systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. The goal was also to assess the utility of drawing as an unconventional research method as well as a therapeutic means. Participants were 38 women with SLE. Patients attended 'My life' courses addressed to the lupus patients held in 2000-2002. During the psychological group sessions, subjects were asked to draw their disease and then to comment on their pictures. There were no time limits. The participants were ensured that their drawing abilities had no meaning. Despite initial hesitation, all of the patients drew their pictures. This report presents three lupus patients' drawings. Analysis of disease pictures reveals that they are the priceless source of information on patients' perspective and make many dimensions of living with the disease uncovered, especially psychological. This unconventional, nonverbal method allows patient to know and realize one's emotions and feelings. From health professionals' point of view, the advantage of drawing as a research method is the possibility of gaining much information that cannot be gained from interview or traditional tests alone. Drawing is a 'good beginning' to talk, it makes the patients open up to share their emotions, views, and experiences. Thus, it can be the useful therapeutic method. It can also prevent health professionals from schematization in approach to the patients with the same diagnosis. PMID:17447104

  8. Optimization of plasma etch processes using evolutionary search methods with in situ diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Al-Kuzee; T. Matsuura; A. Goodyear; L. Nolle; A. A. Hopgood; P. D. Picton; N. St. J. Braithwaite

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents several approaches that have been used to control, optimize and characterize a low pressure (10-300 mTorr) plasma processing system. Methods such as contour following and differential evolution have been used to find contours of DC bias, total ion flux, ion energy flux, quadrupole mass spectrum (QMS) intensity ratios and line intensity ratios of the optical emission spectrum

  9. Optical-physical methods of remote diagnostics of high-temperature gas media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovskaya, O. K.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Egorov, O. V.; Kashirskii, D. E.

    2014-11-01

    Review of the authors' works devoted to research of properties of high-temperature gas mixtures and advancement of methods of a remote diagnosis of their optical and physical characteristics is presented. Results of the formation of the informational resource on mathematical, spectroscopic, software and hardware support of passive and active remote sensing techniques of gas-aerosol media are discussed.

  10. Analysis of new diagnostic methods in suspicious lesions of the oral mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Trullenque-Eriksson; Marta Muñoz-Corcuera; Julián Campo-Trapero; Jorge Cano-Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to analyse publications related to examination techniques that might improve the visualisation of suspicious lesions of the oral mucosa (ViziLite® system and VELscope® system) or that might facilitate the cytological identification of suspicious lesions (OralCDx®). Methods: A literature search was performed, using the PubMed database and the key words \\

  11. Noninvasive express diagnostics of pulmonary diseases based on control of patient's gas emission using methods of IR and terahertz laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikova, M. K.; Bulanova, A. A.; Bukreeva, E. B.; Karapuzikov, A. A.; Karapuzikov, A. I.; Kistenev, Y. V.; Klementyev, V. M.; Kolker, D. B.; Kuzmin, D. A.; Nikiforova, O. Y.; Ponomarev, Yu. N.; Sherstov, I. V.; Boyko, A. A.

    2013-11-01

    Pulmonary diseases diagnostics always occupies one of the key positions in medicine practices. A large variety of high technology methods are used today, but none of them cannot be used for early screening of pulmonary diseases. We discuss abilities of methods of IR and terahertz laser spectroscopy for noninvasive express diagnostics of pulmonary diseases on a base of analysis of absorption spectra of patient's gas emission, in particular, exhaled air. Experience in the field of approaches to experimental data analysis and hard-ware realization of gas analyzers for medical applications is also discussed.

  12. Superparamagnetic-bead Based Method: An Effective DNA Extraction from Dried Blood Spots (DBS) for Diagnostic PCR

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Storing blood as dried spots on filter paper is a trustworthy approach used in genetic screening issues which justifies the necessity for a reliable DNA extraction method. The present work aims to investigate the effectiveness of superparamagnetic-bead based method in extracting DNA from dried blood spots (DBS). Materials and Methods: Sixteen venous blood samples collected in K3-EDTA tubes (400?l of whole blood) were used for the spotting (4 circles each 100?l) on Ahlstrom 226 grad filter papers, for extraction and comparison. To ensure effectiveness, the extracted DNA was checked for quantity using the Quant-iT™ dsDNA Broad-Range Assay Kit and for quality by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 344 bp segment of the HBB gene. Hybridization assays based on the dynamic allele specific hybridization (DASH) technique for two hemoglobin beta (HBB) mutations in genomic DNA extracted from DBS of ß-thalassemia patients were also performed to ensure the quality of extraction. Results: The results revealed a compatible effectiveness of the superparamagnetic-bead based method in extracting DNA from DBS particularly when incubating the DBS with lysis buffers BL+BLM overnight. A mean concentration of 21ng/ ?l was obtained with lysis buffers BL+BLM overnight incubation compared to 5.2 ng/?l for 2 h incubation with lysis buffers BL+BLM and 4.7 ng/?l when extraction performed using the lysis buffer BLM alone. Moreover, PCR amplification of 344 bp segment of the HBB showed a good quality of the extracted DNA. Conclusion: It was concluded that the superparamagnetic-bead based method is a reliable and effective method for DNA extraction from DBS and can be adopted for genetic diagnostic purposes. PMID:24959449

  13. New results in human eye laser diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubochkin, L. P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    1991-05-01

    Different laser spectroscopy methods are applicable in ophthalmology for diseases diagnostics and biotissues state monitoring. Both groups of micro- and macrodiagnostics methods, especially laser Raman, resonance Raman, surface-enhanced Raman (SERS), Raman microprobe, fluorescence, Raman/fluorescence, infrared Fourier- transformation absorption method (FT-IR) and the method with the use of total reflection prism (ATR/FT-IR), FT-Raman , elastic and quasi-elastic light scattering spectroscopy have good possibilities in human and mammalia eye tissues diagnostics.''2 Microdiagnostics is realyzed with the help of all kinds of Raman, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and allows to study macromolecular structure and biochemical changes in eye tissues. These methods are very promising in analyzing of cataract mechanism formation, but not all of them can be used in early human cataract diagnostics, as far as they require comparatively high levels of laser radiation power. For example, modern means of Raman spectroscopy (computer controlled optical multichannel analyzer) in early cataract diagnostics need the crystalline lens has to be radiated by Ar laser with the power of 1 mW during is (Refs. 2,4). Macrodiagnostics of biotissues exploit such methods as elastic and quasi-elastic light scattering, interferometry, polarimetry and specle optics. These methods give information about form and dimensions of individual scattering particale of optically inhomogeneous media, distribution function of particales dimensions, optical constants, static characteristics of particles spatial location and presence of anisotropy. The investigations carried out for different eye. tissues demonstrate the possibility of use elastic light scattering techniques to diseases diagnostics and biotissues state monitoring in ophthalmology. Elastic scattering, interferometry and polarimetry methods require low levels of laser radiation power and comparatively simple installation for their realization. That's why they are very suitable for in vivo human eye diagnostics. In this paper laser light diagnostics methods and aapparatus for their realization are considered. Elastic laser light scattering, interferometry and polarimetry methods are used. The devices and techniques for the in vivo investigations of light scattering of human eye biotissues are described.

  14. Evaluation of Diagnostic Methods for Myocoptes musculinus According to Age and Treatment Status of Mice (Mus musculus)

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Kelly A; Albacarys, Lauren K; Pate, Kelly A Metcalf; Perkins, Cheryl; Henderson, Kenneth S; Watson, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Detecting and controlling murine fur mites continues to be challenging. Here we compared the efficacy of fur-pluck, cage PCR, and fur PCR testing of mice naturally infested with Myocoptes musculinus and make recommendations regarding the application of these diagnostic strategies in aged or treated mice. We compared all 3 diagnostic methods in groups of infested and noninfested control mice over time. For fur plucks, we used a scoring system to quantitatively compare mite infestations across ages. Mice that were 4 wk old had higher egg and mite scores than did older mice, with average scores at 4 wk corresponding to 40 to 100 individual fur mites and eggs per sample. Furthermore, 15% and 20% of samples from infested mice at 24 and 28 wk of age, respectively, lacked all fur mites and eggs. Cage PCR results varied as mice grew older. Fur PCR testing was the most sensitive and specific assay in untreated infested mice, particularly when mite densities were low. In addition, we compared fur-pluck and fur PCR tests for evaluating the efficacy of selamectin treatment. Two treatments with selamectin eliminated Myocoptes fur-mite infestations. At 8 wk after treatment, all fur-pluck samples were negative, but one-third of treated infested cages remained positive by fur PCR assay; at 16 wk after treatment, all cages were negative by fur PCR assay. Because offspring of infested mice were invariably heavily infested, breeding of suspected infested mice with subsequent testing of offspring was the definitive testing strategy when fur-pluck and PCR results conflicted. PMID:24351766

  15. New immunohistochemical method for improved myotonia and chloride channel mutation diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Penttilä, Sini; Suominen, Tiina; Kaakinen, Mika; Burge, James; Haworth, Andrea; Sud, Richa; Schorge, Stephanie; Haapasalo, Hannu; Sandell, Satu; Metsikkö, Kalervo; Hanna, Michael; Udd, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to validate the immunohistochemical assay for the diagnosis of nondystrophic myotonia and to provide full clarification of clinical disease to patients in whom basic genetic testing has failed to do so. Methods: An immunohistochemical assay of sarcolemmal chloride channel abundance using 2 different ClC1-specific antibodies. Results: This method led to the identification of new mutations, to the reclassification of W118G in CLCN1 as a moderately pathogenic mutation, and to confirmation of recessive (Becker) myotonia congenita in cases when only one recessive CLCN1 mutation had been identified by genetic testing. Conclusions: We have developed a robust immunohistochemical assay that can detect loss of sarcolemmal ClC-1 protein on muscle sections. This in combination with gene sequencing is a powerful approach to achieving a final diagnosis of nondystrophic myotonia. PMID:23152584

  16. Instantaneous phasor method for obtaining instantaneous balanced fundamental components for power quality control and continuous diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.

    1997-07-01

    This paper introduces an instantaneous phasor method that considers three phases simultaneously. This method produces the instantaneous fundamental balanced components of the polluted voltages or currents. A figure shows three-phase voltages that contain 5% of fundamental magnitude for each order of the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th and the 11th harmonics, respectively. Additionally, the voltages have 5% unbalance for all voltage components. A 10% fundamental-frequency zero-sequence component, as well as a 10% fundamental-frequency negative-sequence component are also added to the phase voltages. Furthermore, certain high-frequency pulses arbitrarily given at 5% of a 35th order to represent a possible carrier frequency of power electronic circuits are also included.

  17. Esophageal ulcer in Brazilian patients with HIV: prevalence and comparative analysis among diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Brunaldi, Mariângela Ottoboni; Rezende, Rosamar Eulira Fontes; Garcia, Sérgio Britto; Machado, Alcyone Artioli; Módena, José Luiz Pimenta; Zucoloto, Sérgio

    2010-05-01

    Esophageal ulcer (EU) represents an important comorbidity in AIDS. We evaluated the prevalence of EU, the accuracy of the endoscopic and histologic methods used to investigate viral EU in HIV-positive Brazilian patients and the numerical relevance of tissue sampling. A total of 399 HIV-positive patients underwent upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy. HIV-positive patients with EU determined by UGI endoscopy followed by biopsies were analyzed by the hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and immunohistochemical (IH) methods. EU was detected in 41 patients (mean age, 39.2 years; 23 males), with a prevalence of 10.27%. The median CD4 count was 49 cells/mm(3) (range, 1-361 cells/mm(3)) and the viral load was 58,869 copies per milliliter (range, 50-77,3290 copies per milliliter). UGI endoscopy detected 29 of 41 EU suggestive of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and 7 of 41 indicating herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. HE histology confirmed 4 of 29 ulcers induced by CMV, 2 of 7 induced by HSV, and 1 of 7 induced by HSV plus CMV. IH for CMV and HSV confirmed the HE findings and detected one additional CMV-induced case. UGI endoscopy showed 100% sensitivity and 15% specificity for the diagnosis of EU due to CMV or HSV compared to HE and IH. HE proved to be an adequate method for etiologic evaluation, with 87% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared to IH. The number of samples did not influence the etiologic evaluation. The data support the importance of IH as a complementary method for HE in the diagnosis of EU of viral etiology. PMID:20438377

  18. Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents

    DOEpatents

    Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G.; Dees, H.C.

    1998-11-10

    A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. 13 figs.

  19. Mesenteric vascular occlusion: a new diagnostic method using a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody reactive with platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Zamora, P.O. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (USA))

    1989-06-01

    A new method for diagnosing mesenteric vaso-occlusive bowel disease with the use of radioimmunoscintigraphy was developed and tested in experimental models of arterial and venous disease, as well as in a model simulating bowel strangulation. The method involves the use of a monoclonal antibody fragment mixture that binds to platelets. The antibody was labeled with technetium-99m, and imaging was performed with a gamma camera in the planar and single photon emission computed tomography modes. This method allowed visualization of areas of ischemia of 1-6 hours duration in bowel loops in 19 dogs 90-180 minutes after injection of the radiolabeled antibody. No bowel radioactivity accumulation occurred in dogs that underwent the same surgical procedure but were given a nonspecific Tc-99m-labeled antibody or in normal dogs given the specific antibody. It appears that the radiolabeled antibody used, which has higher reactivity with human platelets than with dog platelets, will be a good agent for noninvasive diagnosis of mesenteric vaso-occlusive disease in humans. It may also play a role in the intraoperative determination of the extent and location of ischemic bowel segments.

  20. Diagnostic possibilities with multidimensional images in head and neck area using efficient registration and visualization methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian U.; Krol, Zdzislaw; Sader, Robert; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Gerhardt, Paul; Schweiger, Markus; Horch, Hans-Henning

    1997-05-01

    For several diseases in the head and neck area different imaging modalities are applied to the same patient.Each of these image data sets has its specific advantages and disadvantages. The combination of different methods allows to make the best use of the advantageous properties of each method while minimizing the impact of its negative aspects. Soft tissue alterations can be judged better in an MRI image while it may be unrecognizable in the relating CT. Bone tissue, on the other hand, is optimally imaged in CT. Inflammatory nuclei of the bone can be detected best by their increased signal in SPECT. Only the combination of all modalities let the physical come to an exact statement on pathological processes that involve multiple tissue structures. Several surfaces and voxel based matching functions we have tested allowed a precise merging by means of numerical optimization methods like e.g. simulated annealing without the complicated assertion of fiducial markers or the localization landmarks in 2D cross sectional slice images. The quality of the registration depends on the choice of the optimization procedure according to the complexity of the matching function landscape. Precise correlation of the multimodal head and neck area images together with its 2D and 3D presentation techniques provides a valuable tool for physicians.

  1. Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents

    DOEpatents

    Wachter, Eric A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fisher, Walter G. (Knoxville, TN); Dees, H. Craig (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent.

  2. Teaching Modern Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, G., Ed.

    Key areas of modern language teaching are addressed in 10 articles. In addition to a general overview of methods and aims of foreign language teaching, attention is directed to the audiolingual and audiovisual revolution, language study for the slow-learning child and for the child with above average ability, imaginative learning activities for…

  3. MODERNITY, ANTI-MODERNITY AND POST-MODERNITY IN MALAYSIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond L. M. Lee

    1992-01-01

    The problem of modernity and post-modernity centres on the fate of the bourgeois carriers of the Protestant Ethic in an inordinately differentiated and rationalised world. Post-modernity is a reaction to the advanced alienation of late capitalism, an attempt to restore some meaning to the existential despair over the growing irrationality of modernity. The emphases on sensualism, pluralism and realism comprise

  4. [Commemorative lecture of receiving Imamura Memorial Prize. I. Studies on bacteriological diagnostic methods for mycobacteria].

    PubMed

    Abe, C

    1994-08-01

    Two systems, radiometric BACTEC and biphasic MB-Check, based on liquid media proved to be significantly better than the egg-based solid media for the isolation of mycobacteria from clinical specimens. The difference in the rates of isolation of mycobacteria between two groups of media was more remarkable with smear-negative specimens. The time to the detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex with MB- Check was shorter than that with the 3% Ogawa egg method but longer than that with BACTEC. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using oligonucleotides based on the repetitive sequence (IS986) of M. tuberculosis as a primer and the Gen-Probe Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test (MTD), which combines an M. tuberculosis rRNA amplification method with the hybridization protection assay format, were evaluated for detection of M. tuberculosis in clinical samples. Although the sensitivities of the PCR and MTD appeared to be similar to that of culture with the MB-Check system, the two methods based on nucleic acid amplification should be very useful for rapid detection of M. tuberculosis infections without the long time required for culture of M. tuberculosis. Epidemiological studies with techniques which allow differentiation of strains within M. tuberculosis groups are important for limiting the dissemination of the disease. We analyzed six groups of small outbreaks of M. tuberculosis infections by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Five showed identical fingerprints within each group, but one which as also suspected to have a common source of infection showed different banding patterns, emphasizing that RFLP analysis using IS986 as a probe is useful in epidemiological studies of tuberculosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7933779

  5. Applications of the LIF method for the diagnostics of the combustion process of gas-IC-engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchweger, Wolfram; Haslacher, Rainer; Hallmannsegger, Michael; Gerke, Udo

    2007-08-01

    Within the underlying project, the task was to develop methods for optical measurements in a hydrogen-fuelled engine with direct-injection, with the goal of measuring the jet patterns during injection, the stratification of the charge at ignition point and the propagation of the flame during combustion. Therefore, the method of planar laser-induced-fluorescence (PLIF) was chosen. In order to apply this technique for the named tasks, particular methods the visualisation of fuel distribution and the flame front were developed. The measurements were carried out on a single cylinder research engine installed at the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines at Graz University of Technology. This engine features optical access through a quartz-glass liner and a window in the piston while providing a layout equivalent to modern passenger car engines and the possibility to operate in fired mode. As it is hardly feasible to directly excite molecular hydrogen by means of laser light, it is necessary to add a tracer substance to the fuel that provides high fluorescence intensity while not changing the properties of the fuel. Consequently, Triethylamine was chosen as a tracer to be mixed with hydrogen at 200 ppm, which allows it to be used up to a maximum pressure of 200 bar while still providing a strong LIF signal. Due to the excellent linearity of the signal to the local air/fuel-ratio it was possible to develop a method for the calibration of the images in order to compensate for inhomogeneities of the laser beam and staining of the optical access and to ultimately allow a quantification of the fuel distribution. The results are images scaled on air/fuel-ratio which can be used for a direct optimisation of mixture formation processes and the validation of CFD-models. For the analysis of the combustion process the method was adapted with two different approaches. For homogeneous charges a new method was applied by marking the flame front using the tracer within the fuel, so that both are burned together. However, as this method is limited to measurements with a homogeneous distribution of tracer within the measured volume, an alternative technique had to be applied for the measurement of stratified charges. In this case, a direct visualisation of the flame front was achieved by exciting the OH-radicals formed during combustion. As this method has significantly increased demands on measuring equipment and is more time consuming, both methods are used in parallel on specific measuring tasks.

  6. Computer method for Abel inversion for toroidal coordinates and its application to plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, Masaharu [Hokkaido Information Univ., Ebetsu City (Japan); Himeno, Shun-Ichi [Nippon Bunri Univ., Oita City (Japan)

    1997-05-01

    A new technique, Abel inversion for toroidal coordinates, is presented for calculating spatial distributions of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma density from observation beam incidents in the toroidal y direction. In this numerical method, inversion matrix elements are calculated analytically, and their usefulness is examined by using a hypothetical data set of beam intensity with asymmetry for the normal direction to the direction of observation, which results in a valid local plasma density. The asymmetrical character associates with fundamental fixed length d for the toroidal coordinates. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Pathways to personalized medicine for breast and prostate cancers: emerging diagnostic methods and prognostic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Watson, Allison P; Egland, Kristi A

    2010-07-01

    Early and personal diagnosis to breast a prostate cancer is crucial for optimizing treatments leading to long-term patient survival. Once cancer metastasizes from the breast or prostate to other tissues of the body, therapies are limited, and there is no cure for the diseases. Currently used screening modalities for breast and prostate cancers have limitations. Routine screening for breast cancer includes clinical breast exams and mammograms. Improvements in imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance, ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis and ductography are being explored as adjuncts to mammography. A new approach to breast cancer screening involves the detection of abnormalities at the cellular level and uses various means to collect cellular material from the ductal system, including nipple aspirate fluid, breast ductal lavage, fiberoptic ductoscopy and random periareolar fine needle aspiration. Current screening methods for prostate cancer include digital rectal exam and serum PSA levels. However, these methods offer low sensitivity and specificity and do not allow differentiation between significant- and minimal-risk cancers. New approaches to prostate cancer screening involve different calculations using PSA, as well as molecular urine tests. With the recent advances in microarray technologies and whole-genome sequencing of tumors, the identification of specific biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis, as well as new therapeutic targets, is quickly paving the way for personalized medicine. In the future, routine patient care will include using the molecular signature of a patient's disease to guide treatment. PMID:20666024

  8. On re-initialization methods and spin-up periods effects on WRF precipitation diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Juan; Carvalho, Ana; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Rocha, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    In the scope of regional climate downscaling, with special focus on precipitation in complex terrain, several methods of dynamical downscaling with frequent re-initializations are being tested. In a configuration of three nested domains centered on a mountainous region in north-central Portugal with a complex topography, the WRF-ARW model is applied to the rainy periods during the first half of 2012. The large-scale data that are downscaled are those of the ERA Interim reanalysis of the ECMWF. The tests are designed to answer two questions regarding frequent re-initializations. The first concerns the spin-up period needed by the model to produce realistic precipitation predictions; the second relates to the initial conditions of each re-initialization. For every downscaling period, several initial conditions were tested: (1) interpolation of the large scale data into the computational domain of the study area; (2) 4DVAR assimilation of data from the ds351.4 and ds461.0 datasets from the CISL research data archive; (3) the same as under (2) butwith the assimilation of observed rainfall data. For each of the initialization tests described above, three spin-up periods were tested: 6h, 12h and 18h. The results of the different simulations are compared mutually as well as with the data from a dense network of automatic rain gauges that was installed in the domain for that specific purpose. The advantages and disadvantages of each method will be discussed in detail.

  9. [Comparison of the diagnostic methods for studying parvovirus and rotavirus infections of dogs].

    PubMed

    Kölbl, S; Vogel, I; Modli, M; Gerstl, F

    1990-07-01

    79 feces samples of dogs between 7 weeks till 13.5 years of age, showing clinical signs of a hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, were tested by a commercial ELISA (DiaSystems Canine Parvo, Tech-America) for Canine Parvovirus (CPV) and by two Latex-Agglutination tests for Rotavirus (30 probes were tested by Rota Screen, 49 samples by Slidex Rota-Kit 2, both tests from BioMerieux). All samples were also examined by electron microscopy. The results of the simultaneous investigations showed 28 times positive and 28 times negative for CPV (70.9%). In 93.7% the investigations for Rotavirus-infection showed identical results by the Latex-Agglutination and electron microscopy: 73 samples were negative, one case showed a positive reaction. In 4 feces samples Rotavirus could only be detected by the Latex-test. In one sample a double-infection (CPV/Rotavirus) could be observed by all methods, in two cases the double-infection was only found by using the Latex-Agglutination. No other viruses could be found by the electron microscope than those described above. The results and the performance of the methods are discussed and compared with the data of other authors. PMID:2167658

  10. Diagnostics of 3D Scaffolds by the Method of X-Ray Phase Contrast Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al'tapova, V. R.; Khlusov, I. A.; Karpov, D. A.; Chen, F.; Baumbach, T.; Pichugin, V. F.

    2014-02-01

    Polymers are one of the most interesting classes of materials for bioengineering due to their high biocompatibility and the possibility of regulating their strength and degradation. In bioengineering, the design of a polymer scaffold determines the functional possibilities of the scaffold and its possible medical applications. Traditionally, the design of polymer scaffolds is analyzed with the help of two-dimensional visualization methods, such as optical and electron microscopy, and computer tomography. However, the x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum is only insignificantly absorbed by polymers and soft tissue, which means that it does not support computer tomography with sufficient contrast. The present work investigates visualization with the help of an interferometer based on the Talbot effect for three-dimensional visualization of a polymer scaffold in absorption, phase, and dark-field contrasts. A comparison of images obtained by x-ray visualization with histological sections of the scaffold is made. Phase contrast has made it possible to visualize the polymer structure and growth of soft tissues in the volume of the scaffold. In the future, it will be possible to use phase contrast for three-dimensional visualization of polymer scaffolds and soft tissues in vivo as well as in vitro.

  11. Poisoning of wild birds from exposure to anticholinesterase compounds and lead: diagnostic methods and selected cases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Smith, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate compounds have largely replaced chlorinated hydrocarbons for pesticidal use in the United States, and many cases of poisoning resulting from exposure to these anticholinesterase agents have occurred in free-living birds. Although lead shot has been prohibited for waterfowl hunting throughout the United States since 1991, lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead shot is still occasionally seen in wild birds, and lead poisoning from the ingestion of fishing sinkers is an emerging issue of concern. A thorough history, a complete necropsy evaluation, and appropriate laboratory analysis of tissues are required to diagnose toxicoses in wild birds, including those caused by anticholinesterase compounds and lead. The interpretation of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity results depends on the methods of analysis and comparison with expected normal enzyme activities in brain tissue from the same species. Although lead residues in tissues vary among species, many lead poisoned birds have tissue residues that are much higher than the lower threshold commonly accepted for a diagnosis of lead poisoning. We review histories, necropsy findings, and analytical methodologies and results for selected anticholinesterase and lead poisoning cases diagnosed in wild raptors, waterfowl, and loons.

  12. Estimating measurement error values resulting from the peak position error, when using the Abel inversion and the numerical method in argon inductively coupled plasma diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susumu Nakamura

    1999-01-01

    In this study we calculate the measurement error values generated by the Abel inversion and the numerical method in Ar ICP diagnostics. We used a simple mathematical model to simulate the conditions in the Ar ICP. The results of this study indicated that the measurement errors increased with increasingly greater peak position error. The signal in the center had the

  13. Gas turbine diagnostic system

    E-print Network

    Talgat, Shuvatov

    2011-01-01

    In the given article the methods of parametric diagnostics of gas turbine based on fuzzy logic is proposed. The diagnostic map of interconnection between some parts of turbine and changes of corresponding parameters has been developed. Also we have created model to define the efficiency of the compressor using fuzzy logic algorithms.

  14. Comparison of diagnostic potential of serological, molecular and cell culture methods for detection of Q fever in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Szyma?ska-Czerwi?ska, Monika; ?mietanka, Krzysztof; Bocian, ?ukasz

    2014-06-25

    Q fever is an infectious disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. Diagnosis of Q fever based on clinical symptoms is unattainable; thus, different laboratory techniques are used to detect the infection. The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic potential of ELISA, CFT, conventional PCR, real-time PCR and cell culture. The tests were carried out on 2251 serum samples from ruminants. Moreover, 668 placentas, 1277 vaginal swabs and 306 specimens of the internal organs of aborted foetuses were examined by PCR and cell culture. Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare the results obtained by ELISA, CFT, PCR, real-time PCR and isolation in cell culture. The ?(2) test confirmed that in most cases the results obtained by means of the different methods were correlated with each other (P<0.05). The highest correlation coefficients (r=0.76-0.87) were observed in the case of real-time PCR and conventional PCR. ELISA and CFT were moderately correlated (r=0.43-0.45). When the comparison was made between the results of tests run on samples from swabs and aborted foetuses, the r values between ELISA and CFT were lower than those between ELISA and PCRs. A negligible, or weak to moderate relationship was mostly observed when the method of cell culture isolation was compared with all the other analytical techniques investigated. The use of a combination of different laboratory methods, preferably ELISA for serology and polymerase chain reactions for the agent detection, is suggested to achieve the correct diagnosis of Q fever. PMID:24725446

  15. Diagnostic interviews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ileana Calinoiu; Jon McClellan

    2004-01-01

    This review addresses issues related to the use of structured psychiatric diagnostic interviews in children and adolescents.\\u000a Structured diagnostic interviews improve the diagnostic process by better organizing the collection of clinical data and eliminating\\u000a biases when applying diagnostic criteria. Available interviews generally fall into two categories. Highly structured (or respondent-based)\\u000a measures use a set script and record subject’s responses without

  16. Integrated diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunthausen, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

  17. [Evaluation of 3 diagnostic methods in premature rupture of membranes: diamine-oxidase assay, alpha-fetoprotein assay, colorimetric method evaluating the pH].

    PubMed

    Filet, J P; More, N; Librati, C; Ruffie, A; Delouis, P; Cluzeau, M H; Hocke, C; Leng, J J

    1994-03-01

    The authors set out to assess the three diagnostic methods available which can detect early breaking of the membranes: radio-enzymatic assay of diamine-oxidase (DAO), radioenzymatic assay of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), colorimetric method for determining pH (Amnicator). Between June 1991 and March 1992, 114 samples of vaginal secretions were taken from 104 pregnant patients being followed up at Maternity Unit A, Bordeaux (France). The results of the assays were expressed in quantitative terms (microU/ml for DAO and ng/ml for AFP); ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curves were used to determine the positivity threshold in terms of the sensitivity and specificity (20 microU/ml for DAO and 15 ng/ml for AFP). The sensitivity of the pH test was 97.5%, which was significantly better than that of DAO (90.2%) and even that of AFP (82.9%). However, there was no difference between the specificities of the pH, DAO and AFP tests (93.3%, 96.6% and 93.5% respectively). The data were compared with those in the literature. The problems in collecting the vaginal secretions probably accounts for the better results of the colorimetric test. This is a reliable, fast and easily reproducible test; these qualities make it the preferred test in EBM, and it can be completed using a radioenzymatic method (DAO) or immunoradiometric test (AFP). PMID:7516088

  18. Threshold of detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in human stool specimens: evidence for low sensitivity of current diagnostic methods.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, R; Bryan, R T; Bishop, H S; Wahlquist, S P; Sullivan, J J; Juranek, D D

    1991-01-01

    To determine the minimum number of Cryptosporidium oocysts that can be detected in stool specimens by diagnostic procedures, stool samples seeded with known numbers of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were processed by the modified Formalin-ethyl acetate (FEA) stool concentration method. FEA concentrates were subsequently examined by both the modified cold Kinyoun acid-fast (AF) staining and fluorescein-tagged monoclonal antibody (immunofluorescence [IF]) techniques. Oocysts were more easily detected in watery diarrheal stool specimens than they were in formed stool specimens. For watery stool specimens, a 100% detection rate was accomplished at a concentration of 10,000 oocysts per g of stool by both the AF staining and IF techniques. In formed stool specimens, 100% of specimens seeded with 50,000 oocysts per gram of stool were detected by the IF technique, whereas 500,000 oocysts per g of stool were needed for a 100% detection rate by AF staining. Counting of all oocysts on IF slides indicated a mean oocyst loss ranging from 51.2 to 99.6%, depending on the stool consistency as determined by the FEA concentration procedure. Our findings suggest that the most commonly used coprodiagnostic techniques may fail to detect cryptosporidiosis in many immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. PMID:1715881

  19. Review of diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography using several endoscopic methods in patients with surgically altered gastrointestinal anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Shimatani, Masaaki; Takaoka, Makoto; Tokuhara, Mitsuo; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Ikeura, Tsukasa; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2015-01-01

    The endoscopic approach for biliary diseases in patients with surgically altered gastrointestinal anatomy (SAGA) had been generally deemed impractical. However, it was radically made feasible by the introduction of double balloon endoscopy (DBE) that was originally developed for diagnosis and treatments for small-bowel diseases. Followed by the subsequent development of single-balloon endoscopy (SBE) and spiral endoscopy (SE), interventions using several endoscopes for biliary disease in patients with SAGA widely gained an acceptance as a new modality. Many studies have been made on this new technique. Yet, some problems are to be solved. For instance, the mutual unavailability among devices due to different working lengths and channels, and unestablished standardization of procedural techniques can be raised. Additionally, in an attempt to standardize endoscopic procedures, it is important to evaluate biliary cannulating methods by case with existence of papilla or not. A full comprehension of the features of respective scope types is also required. However there are not many papers written as a review. In our manuscript, we would like to evaluate and make a review of the present status of diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography applying DBE, SBE and SE for biliary diseases in patients with SAGA for establishment of these modalities as a new technology and further improvement of the scopes and devices. PMID:26078830

  20. Development of a quantitative diagnostic method of estrogen receptor expression levels by immunohistochemistry using organic fluorescent material-assembled nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Gonda, Kohsuke, E-mail: gonda@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)] [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Miyashita, Minoru [Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Watanabe, Mika; Takahashi, Yayoi [Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Hospital, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)] [Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Hospital, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Goda, Hideki; Okada, Hisatake; Nakano, Yasushi [Optical and Biological R and D Center, Konica Minolta Technology Center, Inc., No. 1 Sakuramachi, Hino-shi, Tokyo 191-8511 (Japan)] [Optical and Biological R and D Center, Konica Minolta Technology Center, Inc., No. 1 Sakuramachi, Hino-shi, Tokyo 191-8511 (Japan); Tada, Hiroshi [Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Amari, Masakazu [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)] [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Ohuchi, Noriaki [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan) [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic fluorescent material-assembled nanoparticles for IHC were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New nanoparticle fluorescent intensity was 10.2-fold greater than Qdot655. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticle staining analyzed a wide range of ER expression levels in tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticle staining enhanced the quantitative sensitivity for ER diagnosis. -- Abstract: The detection of estrogen receptors (ERs) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using 3,3 Prime -diaminobenzidine (DAB) is slightly weak as a prognostic marker, but it is essential to the application of endocrine therapy, such as antiestrogen tamoxifen-based therapy. IHC using DAB is a poor quantitative method because horseradish peroxidase (HRP) activity depends on reaction time, temperature and substrate concentration. However, IHC using fluorescent material provides an effective method to quantitatively use IHC because the signal intensity is proportional to the intensity of the photon excitation energy. However, the high level of autofluorescence has impeded the development of quantitative IHC using fluorescence. We developed organic fluorescent material (tetramethylrhodamine)-assembled nanoparticles for IHC. Tissue autofluorescence is comparable to the fluorescence intensity of quantum dots, which are the most representative fluorescent nanoparticles. The fluorescent intensity of our novel nanoparticles was 10.2-fold greater than quantum dots, and they did not bind non-specifically to breast cancer tissues due to the polyethylene glycol chain that coated their surfaces. Therefore, the fluorescent intensity of our nanoparticles significantly exceeded autofluorescence, which produced a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio on IHC-imaged cancer tissues than previous methods. Moreover, immunostaining data from our nanoparticle fluorescent IHC and IHC with DAB were compared in the same region of adjacent tissues sections to quantitatively examine the two methods. The results demonstrated that our nanoparticle staining analyzed a wide range of ER expression levels with higher accuracy and quantitative sensitivity than DAB staining. This enhancement in the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity for ERs using our immunostaining method will improve the prediction of responses to therapies that target ERs and progesterone receptors that are induced by a downstream ER signal.

  1. Numerical simulations used for a validity check on the laser induced photo-detachment diagnostic method in electronegative plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Oudini, N. [Laboratoire des plasmas de décharges, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Cité du 20 Aout BP 17 Baba Hassen, 16081 Algiers (Algeria); Taccogna, F. [Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CNR, via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Bendib, A. [Laboratoire d'Electronique Quantique, Faculté de Physique, USTHB, El Alia BP 32, Bab Ezzouar 16111, Algiers (Algeria); Aanesland, A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas (CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris-Sud), École Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2014-06-15

    Laser photo-detachment is used as a method to measure or determine the negative ion density and temperature in electronegative plasmas. In essence, the method consists of producing an electropositive channel (negative ion free region) via pulsed laser photo-detachment within an electronegative plasma bulk. Electrostatic probes placed in this channel measure the change in the electron density. A second pulse might be used to track the negative ion recovery. From this, the negative ion density and temperature can be determined. We study the formation and relaxation of the electropositive channel via a two-dimensional Particle-In-Cell/Mote Carlo collision model. The simulation is mainly carried out in a Hydrogen plasma with an electronegativity of ??=?1, with a parametric study for ? up to 20. The temporal and spatial evolution of the plasma potential and the electron densities shows the formation of a double layer (DL) confining the photo-detached electrons within the electropositive channel. This DL evolves into two fronts that move in the opposite directions inside and outside of the laser spot region. As a consequence, within the laser spot region, the background and photo-detached electron energy distribution function relaxes/thermalizes via collisionless effects such as Fermi acceleration and Landau damping. Moreover, the simulations show that collisional effects and the DL electric field strength might play a non-negligible role in the negative ion recovery within the laser spot region, leading to a two-temperature negative ion distribution. The latter result might have important effects in the determination of the negative ion density and temperature from laser photo detachment diagnostic.

  2. Diagnostic interviews.

    PubMed

    Calinoiu, Ileana; McClellan, Jon

    2004-04-01

    This review addresses issues related to the use of structured psychiatric diagnostic interviews in children and adolescents. Structured diagnostic interviews improve the diagnostic process by better organizing the collection of clinical data and eliminating biases when applying diagnostic criteria. Available interviews generally fall into two categories. Highly structured (or respondent-based) measures use a set script and record subject's responses without interpretation. Thus, they are useful for epidemiologic surveys or other settings in which nonclinical interviewers are used. Semistructured (or interviewer-based) tools allow clinical interpretation of responses as well as the incorporation of other sources of information, thereby making them more relevant for clinicians. Structured diagnostic instruments are currently most often used in research settings, but potentially are useful for clinical settings as well. This review also addresses challenges in psychiatric diagnosis, a brief history of diagnostic standards, and the potential limitations/advantages of using structured diagnostic interviews. PMID:15038910

  3. Evaluation of Unbiased Next-Generation Sequencing of RNA (RNA-seq) as a Diagnostic Method in Influenza Virus-Positive Respiratory Samples.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Nicole; Indenbirken, Daniela; Meyer, Thomas; Lütgehetmann, Marc; Lellek, Heinrich; Spohn, Michael; Aepfelbacher, Martin; Alawi, Malik; Grundhoff, Adam

    2015-07-01

    Unbiased nontargeted metagenomic RNA sequencing (UMERS) has the advantage to detect known as well as unknown pathogens and, thus, can significantly improve the detection of viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal sequences in public health settings. In particular, conventional diagnostic methods successfully identify the putative pathogenic agent in only 30% to 40% of respiratory specimens from patients with acute respiratory illness. Here, we applied UMERS to 24 diagnostic respiratory specimens (bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL] fluid, sputum samples, and a swab) from patients with seasonal influenza infection and 5 BAL fluid samples from patients with pneumonia that tested negative for influenza to validate RNA sequencing as an unbiased diagnostic tool in comparison to conventional diagnostic methods. In addition to our comparison to PCR, we evaluated the potential to retrieve comprehensive influenza virus genomic information and the capability to detect known superinfecting pathogens. Compared to quantitative real-time PCR for influenza viral sequences, UMERS detected influenza viral sequences in 18 of 24 samples. Complete influenza virus genomes could be assembled from 8 samples. Furthermore, in 3 of 24 influenza-positive samples, additional viral pathogens could be detected, and 2 of 24 samples showed a significantly increased abundance of individual bacterial species known to cause superinfections during an influenza virus infection. Thus, analysis of respiratory samples from known or suspected influenza patients by UMERS provides valuable information that is relevant for clinical investigation. PMID:25972420

  4. Advanced diagnostics for reacting flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Hanson; D. Baganoff; C. T. Bowman; R. L. Byer; B. J. Cantwell

    1983-01-01

    Progress is reported for the third year of an interdisciplinary program to innovate modern diagnostic techniques for application to reacting flows. Project areas are: (1) fiber optic absorption\\/fluorescence probes for species measurements employing tunable ultraviolet, visable and infrared laser sources; (2) wavelength modulation spectroscopy, using rapid-scanning ultraviolet, visible and infrared laser sources, for measurements of species, temperature and absorption lineshapes,

  5. Diagnostics development plan for ZR.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, David Lester

    2003-09-01

    The Z Refurbishment (ZR) Project is a program to upgrade the Z machine at SNL with modern durable pulsed power technology, providing additional shot capacity and improved reliability as well as advanced capabilities for both pulsed x-ray production and high pressure generation. The development of enhanced diagnostic capabilities is an essential requirement for ZR to meet critical mission needs. This report presents a comprehensive plan for diagnostic instrument and infrastructure development for the first few years of ZR operation. The focus of the plan is on: (1) developing diagnostic instruments with high spatial and temporal resolution, capable of low noise operation and survival in the severe EMP, bremsstrahlung, and blast environments of ZR; and (2) providing diagnostic infrastructure improvements, including reduced diagnostic trigger signal jitter, more and flexible diagnostic line-of-sight access, and the capability for efficient exchange of diagnostics with other laboratories. This diagnostic plan is the first step in an extended process to provide enhanced diagnostic capabilities for ZR to meet the diverse programmatic needs of a broad range of defense, energy, and general science programs of an international user community into the next decade.

  6. An overview of the applied definitions and diagnostic methods to assess exercise oscillatory ventilation--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Justien; Beckers, Paul; Vanroy, Christel; Volckaerts, Tess; Vrints, Christiaan; Vissers, Dirk

    2015-07-01

    The variable "exercise oscillatory ventilation" (EOV), assessed during cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), recently became a fundamental prognostic parameter in patients with heart failure. In literature, various definitions are suggested, but an uniformly accepted description to identify EOV still lacks. We performed a systematic review of the literature in order to determine the different definitions and diagnostic techniques to assess EOV. A systematic search strategy was established and executed in seven databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Clinical Trials, Science Direct, Pedro, Web Of Science library and Medline (Ovid)) resulting in 605 citations after de-duplication. Full-text articles (n=124) were assessed for eligibility, resulting in 75 citations. The review accounted 17,440 patients of whom 4,638 subjects presented EOV. Seven studies described EOV in a non-heart failure population accounting 168 EOV subjects. The definitions could be categorized in nine subdivisions of which four (n=43) referred to an original description. The other subdivisions were combinations of the original definitions (n=11), quantifications (n=4), computational (n=3), vaguely described (n=8) or not defined (n=6). Symptom limited maximal exercise tests were conducted to assess EOV, however the modes, protocols, software and data sampling were divers. Heterogeneity in the numerous definitions to identify EOV and the vaguely described assessment methods are hindering the evolution to a standardized uniformly accepted definition and technique to identify this abnormal breathing pattern. Unity in definition and international adopted assessment is warranted to strengthen its validity as a prognostic marker and could promote communication. It may facilitate clinical trials on pathophysiology and origin of EOV. PMID:25918072

  7. Modern-day prospecting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Locating productive oil and mineral deposits takes a combination of money, time, and luck. However, the modern-day prospector has several new tools at his disposal. Some are conventional and relatively inexpensive; others are more innovative and high-priced. Improved seismic techniques, image processing, and some other innovative prospecting methods are described. These techniques are helping oil companies improve their exploration win-loss records.

  8. Tear-off patterning: a simple method for patterning nitrocellulose membranes to improve the performance of point-of-care diagnostic biosensors.

    PubMed

    Song, Mun-Bum; Joung, Hyou-Arm; Oh, Young Kyoung; Jung, Kwonyoung; Ahn, Young Deok; Kim, Min-Gon

    2015-06-30

    This article describes a new method, referred to as "tear-off patterning," for patterning nitrocellulose (NC) membranes in order to fabricate NC-based point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices. Paper-based microfluidic sensors usually employ hydrophobic barrier coatings such as paraffin wax on either paper or membranes. Herein, complex patterns were fabricated by stamping the target area with dimethyl sulfoxide before tearing off the stamped area. Fluid flow and morphological analyses were performed in order to characterize the patterned membranes. Furthermore, the myoglobin and creatine kinase-MB levels in human serum were measured simultaneously using a dual-fluidic-channel-patterned NC membrane in order to confirm the usefulness of the patterning method for fabricating POC biosensors. The proposed method for patterning NC membranes offers clear advantages, such as the ability to fabricate complex designs and patterns without a hydrophobic barrier after protein immobilization in a laboratory and in a simple, low-cost manner. We believe that this method can be used to develop various POC diagnostic biosensors at the research and development stage and can help improve the performance and features of POC diagnostic devices. PMID:26062104

  9. Exploiting the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring via chronobiometric and chaosbiometric methods for a more exhaustive diagnostic approach to arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Cugini, P

    2008-01-01

    Presently, the ambulatory (A) blood (B) pressure (P) monitoring (M) is mainly used for diagnosing arterial hypertension (AH) in some special clinical conditions in which the causal sphygmomanometry appears not to be enough exhaustive. However, it must be pointed out that the actual approach to ABPM is almost simplistic, only consisting in a biometric analysis of discrete raw temporal values for systolic (S) and diastolic (D) BP and heart rate (HR). It must be stressed that BP and HR are hemodynamic variables characterized by a well established circadian rhythm (C) in their 24-h physiological values. Therefore, an appropriate chronobiometric approach, via Single Cosinor method, can improve the diagnostic value, its optimal oscillatory curve reducing all the biometric information to three parameters, i.e., MESOR (M, mean level of oscillation), Amplitude (A, extent of oscillation from M) and Acrophase (phi, timing of A with respect to local midnight). Accordingly, one can detect whether the BP CR is still manifest, as it is in essential hypertension (EH), or altered , as it is in secondary hypertension (SH). Therefore, by using the discriminant analysis for the three multivariate parameters, M, A, phi, of the BP cosine curve, one can statistically predict whether a new monitored hypertensive patient has a significant probability to be affected by EH or SH. Interestingly, by applying a further chronobiometric integration analysis, i.e., the Cosint analysis, it is possible to estimate the area under the BP oscillatory curve, for calculating the overall, diurnal, nocturnal, hourly pressure load (Baric Impact, BI) in terms respectively of mm2 Hg/24-h, mm2 Hg/16-h, mm2Hg/8-h, mm2 Hg/1-h. By comparing the overall BI of the new monitored hypertensive patient to its upper reference limit, one can estimate how much is the Baric Excess (Hyperbaric Impact, HI) caused by the personal hypertensive regimen. Finally, by using the chaos method of fractal interpolation to BP 24-h values, it is possible to establish whether or not the monitored hypertensive subject is presumably at risk of unpredictable high BP values (presumable risk of hypertensive crisis). PMID:19169597

  10. Predictive research methods of enamel and dentine for initial caries detection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Currently, various research methods of enamel and dentine for precautionary diagnostics of initial caries forms are developed; however, the vast majority of these do not provide objective criteria of caries diagnostics or are very difficult to perform. Therefore, the search of diagnostics and enamel research methods, which will allow predicting caries emergence and to carry out personalised prevention of this pathology, is necessary. In this review, modern diagnostic methods that allow understanding the main aspects of caries process, assess the risk of its development, and also suggest the possibility of emergency prevention of caries progression in the nearest future are presented. PMID:23800183

  11. Diagnostic apparatus and method for use in the alignment of one or more laser means onto a fiber optics interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Johnson; R. R. Shannon

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic apparatus for use in determining the proper alignment of a plurality of laser beams onto a fiber optics interface is disclosed. The apparatus includes a lens assembly which serves two functions, first to focus a plurality of laser beams onto the fiber optics interface, and secondly to reflect and image the interface using scattered light to a monitor means.

  12. Diagnostic apparatus and method for use in the alignment of one or more laser means onto a fiber optics interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve A. Johnson; Robert R. Shannon

    1987-01-01

    Diagnostic apparatus for use in determining the proper alignment of a plurality of laser beams onto a fiber optics interface is disclosed. The apparatus includes a lens assembly which serves two functions, first to focus a plurality of laser beams onto the fiber optics interface, and secondly to reflect and image the interface using scattered light to a monitor means.

  13. Essential veterinary education in modern molecular tools for the detection of disease: what veterinarians will need to know about genomics and molecular biology and diagnostics (including bioterrorist weapons) in 2025.

    PubMed

    de Lamballerie, X

    2009-08-01

    Future veterinary education programmes in microbiology will undoubtedly include an increasing emphasis on new and existing molecular tools. They should also, however, provide veterinarians with a comprehensive and clear understanding of the types of results that can be obtained using a particular approach (for example, specific diagnostic procedures as against open diagnostic procedures, phenotypic versus genotypic characterisation, etc.). Furthermore, students should gain a sound knowledge of which type of test is the most appropriate in a given clinical or epidemiological situation, and what conclusions can or cannot be drawn from the results. Consequently, each veterinary curriculum should focus on the following items: the principles of molecular biology and genomics; the detection of disease and characteristics of molecular tests; the principles of micro-organism taxonomy, sequence comparison and molecular epidemiology and their applications (such as: taxonomic identification, epidemiological survey, genetic evolution and the traceability of strains); and the role of the veterinarian in the field of zoonoses and human public health. PMID:20128476

  14. Optical plasma diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liliia Trofimovna Lar'kina; Vladimir Semenovich Engel'Sht

    1987-01-01

    The existing methods for the optical diagnostics of low-temperature plasmas are reviewed with particular reference to spectral, schlieren, and interferometric methods, resonance laser fluorescence, holographic interferometry, laser anemometry, and holography of two-phase flows. The methods discussed are used to determine the principal plasma parameters, such as temperature and velocity, atom and electron concentration, and microparticle velocity. The discussion covers the

  15. Nanodevices in diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ye; Fine, Daniel H.; Tasciotti, Ennio; Bouamrani, Ali; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    The real-time, personalized and highly sensitive early-stage diagnosis of disease remains an important challenge in modern medicine. With the ability to interact with matter at the nanoscale, the development of nanotechnology architectures and materials could potentially extend subcellular and molecular detection beyond the limits of conventional diagnostic modalities. At the very least, nanotechnology should be able to dramatically accelerate biomarker discovery, as well as facilitate disease monitoring, especially of maladies presenting a high degree of molecular and compositional heterogeneity. This article gives an overview of several of the most promising nanodevices and nanomaterials along with their applications in clinical practice. Significant work to adapt nanoscale materials and devices to clinical applications involving large interdisciplinary collaborations is already underway with the potential for nanotechnology to become an important enabling diagnostic technology. PMID:20229595

  16. Accuracy and efficiency of modern methods for electronic structure calculation on heavy-and superheavy-element compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Titov; N. S. Mosyagin; T. A. Isaev; A. N. Petrov

    2003-01-01

    The methods that are actively used for electronic structure calculations of low-lying states of heavy-and superheavy-element\\u000a compounds are briefly described. The advantages and disadvantages of the Dirac-Coulomb-Breit Hamiltonian, Huzinaga-type potential,\\u000a shape-consistent Relativistic Effective Core Potential (RECP), and Generalized RECP are discussed. The nonvariational technique\\u000a of the electron-structure restoration in atomic cores after the RECP calculation of a molecule is presented.

  17. Investigation of the Utilization of Modern Industrial Methods, Processes, Ergonomics, and the Internet in the Scientific Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myer, Spencer S., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    On Oct. 1, 2001 Cleveland State University and NASA Glenn Research Center embarked on the above named cooperative agreement. Because NASA's research facilities often exhibit instances where the failure to use state-of-the-art technologies and methods to improve on outmoded systems of interface and control, and this runs contrary to the NASA philosophy of "faster, better, and cheaper", it was deemed an ideal opportunity for this collaboration. The main objectives of the proposed effort were to research and investigate the use of the latest technologies, methods, techniques, etc. which pertain to control and interface with industrial and research systems and facilities. The work was done in large part at NASA Glenn Research Center, using selected research facilities as real-world laboratories; such as certain Microgravity Science Division and Space Station projects. Microgravity Science Division at Glenn Research Center designs and builds experiments to be flown on the Space Shuttle and eventually on the International Space Station. Economy of space, weight, complexity, data storage, ergonomics, and many other factors present problems that also exist in industry. Many of the solutions can come from the same areas of study mentioned above.

  18. Calculation of diagnostic parameters of advanced serological and molecular tissue-print methods for detection of Citrus tristeza virus: a model for other plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Vidal, E; Yokomi, R K; Moreno, A; Bertolini, E; Cambra, M

    2012-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the most important virus diseases that affect citrus. Control of CTV is achieved by grafting selected virus-free citrus scions onto CTV-tolerant or -resistant rootstocks. Quarantine and certification programs are essential for avoiding the entry and propagation of severe strains of CTV. Citrus nurseries in Spain and central California (United States) maintain zero-tolerance policies for CTV that require sensitive, specific, and reliable pathogen-detection methods. Tissue-print (TP) real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was compared with the validated TP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using the CTV-specific monoclonal antibodies 3DF1 and 3CA5, for CTV detection. In total, 1,395 samples from healthy and CTV-infected nursery and mature tree plants were analyzed with both methods. The total agreement between both detection methods was substantial (Cohen's kappa index of 0.77 ± 0.03). The diagnostic parameters of each technique (i.e., the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios) were evaluated in a second test involving 658 Citrus macrophylla nursery plants. Mexican lime indexing was used to evaluate samples with discrepant results in the analysis. For TP-ELISA, a sensitivity of 0.8015, a specificity of 0.9963, and a positive and negative likelihood ratio of 216.42 and 0.199, respectively, were estimated. For TP real-time RT-PCR, a sensitivity of 0.9820, a specificity of 0.8519, and a positive and negative likelihood ratio of 6.63 and 0.021, respectively, were estimated. These diagnostic parameters show that TP real-time RT-PCR was the most sensitive technique, whereas TP-ELISA showed the highest specificity, validating the use of the molecular technique for routine CTV-detection purposes. In addition, our results show that the combination of both techniques can accurately substitute for the conventional biological Mexican lime index for the detection of CTV. The calculation of diagnostic parameters is discussed, as a necessary tool, to validate detection or diagnostic methods in plant pathology. Furthermore, assessment of the post-test probability of disease after a diagnostic result and CTV prevalence allows selection of the best method for accurate and reliable diagnosis. PMID:21879789

  19. Viewing Exemplars of Melanomas and Benign Mimics of Melanoma Modestly Improves Diagnostic Skills in Comparison with the ABCD Method and Other Image-based Methods for Lay Identification of Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Cornell, Ella; Robertson, Karen; McIntosh, Robert D; Rees, Jonathan L

    2015-06-24

    Using an experimental task in which lay persons were asked to distinguish between 30 images of melanomas and common mimics of melanoma, we compared various training strategies including the ABC(D) method, use of images of both melanomas and mimics of melanoma, and alternative methods of choosing training image exemplars. Based on a sample size of 976 persons, and an online experimental task, we show that all the positive training approaches increased diagnostic sensitivity when compared with no training, but only the simultaneous use of melanoma and benign exemplars, as chosen by experts, increased specificity and diagnostic accuracy. The ABCD method and use of melanoma exemplar images chosen by laypersons decreased specificity in comparison with the control. The method of choosing exemplar images is important. The levels of change in performance are however very modest, with an increase in accuracy between control and best-performing strategy of only 9%. PMID:25633058

  20. [Methods of mathematical modeling in morphological diagnostics of Chernobyl factor influence on the testes of coal miners of Donbas--the Chernobyl disaster fighters].

    PubMed

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2014-01-01

    The morphometric estimation of parenchyma and stroma condition included the determination of 29 parameters in testicles at 27 persons. The mathematical model of morphogenesis of testicles was created by Bayes' method. The method of differential diagnosis of testicles tissues' changes conditioned by the influence of the Chernobyl factor and/or unfavorable terms of the work in underground coal mines have been worked out. Its practical use provides exactness and reliability of the diagnosis (not less than 95%), independence from the level of the qualification and personal experience of the doctor, allows us to unify, optimize and individualize the diagnostic algorithms, answer the requirements of evidential medicine. PMID:24908955

  1. Modern methods of documentation for conservation - digital mapping in metigo® MAP, Software for documentation, mapping and quantity survey and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siedler, Gunnar; Vetter, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    Several years of experience of heritage documentation have given a background to develop methods of cartography and digital evaluation. The outcome of which is the development of a 2D-mapping software with integrated image rectification over a period of more then 10 years and that became the state of the art software in Germany initially and now elsewhere for Conservation and Restoration projects. If there are no mapping bases (image plan or CAD-drawing), the user can create its own image plans using different types of rectification functions. Based on true to scale mappings, quantity surveys of areas and lines can be calculated automatically. Digital maps were used for the documentation and analysis of materials and damages, for planning of required action and for calculation of costs. With the help of the hierarchy even large mapping projects with many sub projects can be managed. The results of quantification can be exported to excel spreadsheets for further processing. The combination of image processing and CAD-functionality makes operation of the programm user-friendly, both in the office and on-site. metigo MAP was developed in close cooperation with conservators and restorers. Based on simple equipment consisting of digital camera, laser measuring instrument for measuring distances or total station and standard notebook the mapping software is used in many restoration companies.

  2. On the understanding and development of modern physical neurorehabilitation methods: robotics and non-invasive brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Dylan J

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of physical disability in the community resulting from neurological dysfunction is predicted to increase in the coming years. The impetus for immediate and critical evaluation of physical neurorehabilitation strategies stems from the largely incomplete recovery following neurological damage, questionable efficacy of individual rehabilitation techniques, and the progressive acceptance of evidence-based medicine. The emergent technologies of non-invasive brain stimulation (NBS) and rehabilitation robotics enable a better understanding of the recovery process, as well as the mechanisms and effectiveness of intervention. With a more precise grasp of the relationship between dysfunctional and treatment-related plasticity, we can anticipate a move toward highly controlled and individualised prescription of rehabilitation. Both robotics and NBS can also be used to enhance motor control and learning in patients with neurological dysfunction. The merit of these contemporary methods as investigative and rehabilitation tools requires clarification and discussion. In this thematic series, five cohesive and eloquent papers address this issue from leading clinicians and scientists in the fields of robotics, NBS, plasticity and motor learning. PMID:19183466

  3. Instrumental multi-element analysis in plant materials: A modern method in environmental chemistry and tropical systems research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markert, Bernd

    This chapter describes possibilities of using instrumental multi-element methods to answer various ecological questions. Emphasis is placed on the ecosystem-related approach and thus on comparison of various ecosystems and their compartments. The basis for this is a project by the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) aimed at establishing element concentration catalogues in ecosystems (ECCEs). In principle, the intention is to collect data on the world-wide distribution of individual elements and element species in various ecosystems. Synthetic reference systems (reference plant, reference freshwater, etc.) in the form of chemical fingerprints can provide important aids for the chemical characterization of many different environmental specimens. From the point of view of both toxicology and nutrient physiology such a characterization of ecosystems is expected to provide important information on the concentrations, effects and reactions of individual elements in different systems. Interest has so far been focused mainly on data from the northern hemisphere, but from the biogeochemical viewpoint the scope urgently needs to be extended to cover tropical and subtropical systems.

  4. Nonparametric predictive inference for binary diagnostic tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tahani Coolen-Maturi; Pauline Coolen-Schrijner; Frank P. A. Coolen

    2012-01-01

    Measuring the accuracy of diagnostic tests is crucial in many application areas including medicine, health care and data mining. Good methods for determining diagnostic accuracy provide useful guidance on selection of patient treatment, and the ability to compare different diagnostic tests has a direct impact on quality of care. In this paper nonparametric predictive inference (NPI) for accuracy of diagnostic

  5. Computerized method for evaluating diagnostic image quality of calcified plaque images in cardiac CT: Validation on a physical dynamic cardiac phantom

    SciTech Connect

    King, Martin; Rodgers, Zachary; Giger, Maryellen L.; Bardo, Dianna M. E.; Patel, Amit R. [Department of Radiology, Committee on Medical Physics, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC 2026, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 Southwest Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239 (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC 5084, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: In cardiac computed tomography (CT), important clinical indices, such as the coronary calcium score and the percentage of coronary artery stenosis, are often adversely affected by motion artifacts. As a result, the expert observer must decide whether or not to use these indices during image interpretation. Computerized methods potentially can be used to assist in these decisions. In a previous study, an artificial neural network (ANN) regression model provided assessability (image quality) indices of calcified plaque images from the software NCAT phantom that were highly agreeable with those provided by expert observers. The method predicted assessability indices based on computer-extracted features of the plaque. In the current study, the ANN-predicted assessability indices were used to identify calcified plaque images with diagnostic calcium scores (based on mass) from a physical dynamic cardiac phantom. The basic assumption was that better quality images were associated with more accurate calcium scores. Methods: A 64-channel CT scanner was used to obtain 500 calcified plaque images from a physical dynamic cardiac phantom at different heart rates, cardiac phases, and plaque locations. Two expert observers independently provided separate sets of assessability indices for each of these images. Separate sets of ANN-predicted assessability indices tailored to each observer were then generated within the framework of a bootstrap resampling scheme. For each resampling iteration, the absolute calcium score error between the calcium scores of the motion-contaminated plaque image and its corresponding stationary image served as the ground truth in terms of indicating images with diagnostic calcium scores. The performances of the ANN-predicted and observer-assigned indices in identifying images with diagnostic calcium scores were then evaluated using ROC analysis. Results: Assessability indices provided by the first observer and the corresponding ANN performed similarly (AUC{sub OBS1}=0.80 [0.73,0.86] vs AUC{sub ANN1}=0.88 [0.82,0.92]) as that of the second observer and the corresponding ANN (AUC{sub OBS2}=0.87 [0.83,0.91] vs AUC{sub ANN2}=0.90 [0.85,0.94]). Moreover, the ANN-predicted indices were generated in a fraction of the time required to obtain the observer-assigned indices. Conclusions: ANN-predicted assessability indices performed similar to observer-assigned assessability indices in identifying images with diagnostic calcium scores from the physical dynamic cardiac phantom. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of using computerized methods for identifying images with diagnostic clinical indices in cardiac CT images.

  6. Diagnostic apparatus and method for use in the alignment of one or more laser means onto a fiber optics interface

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Steve A. (Tracy, CA); Shannon, Robert R. (Tucson, AZ)

    1987-01-01

    Diagnostic apparatus for use in determining the proper alignment of a plurality of laser beams onto a fiber optics interface is disclosed. The apparatus includes a lens assembly which serves two functions, first to focus a plurality of laser beams onto the fiber optics interface, and secondly to reflect and image the interface using scattered light to a monitor means. The monitor means permits indirect observation of the alignment or focusing of the laser beams onto the fiber optics interface.

  7. Diagnostic apparatus and method for use in the alignment of one or more laser means onto a fiber optics interface

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, S.A.; Shannon, R.R.

    1985-01-18

    Diagnostic apparatus for use in determining the proper alignment of a plurality of laser beams onto a fiber optics interface is disclosed. The apparatus includes a lens assembly which serves two functions, first to focus a plurality of laser beams onto the fiber optics interface, and secondly to reflect and image the interface using scattered light to a monitor means. The monitor means permits indirect observation of the alignment or focusing of the laser beams onto the fiber optics interface.

  8. Modern mathematics for modern cancer medicine ACC Coolen, July 2013 Modern Mathematics for Modern Cancer Medicine

    E-print Network

    Coolen, ACC "Ton"

    Modern mathematics for modern cancer medicine ACC Coolen, July 2013 Modern Mathematics for Modern Cancer Medicine Prof ACC Coolen Institute for Mathematical and Molecular Biomedicine, King's College to improve the life expectancy and quality of life for cancer pa- tients via personalised cancer therapies

  9. Evaluating College Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Modern Physics: Test of Understanding on Concepts of Modern Physics (TUCO-MP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akarsu, Bayram

    2011-01-01

    In present paper, we propose a new diagnostic test to measure students' conceptual knowledge of principles of modern physics topics. Over few decades since born of physics education research (PER), many diagnostic instruments that measure students' conceptual understanding of various topics in physics, the earliest tests developed in PER are Force…

  10. Quantification of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucosa by real-time polymerase chain reaction: comparison with traditional diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Belda, Sofía; Saez, Jesús; Santibáñez, Miguel; Rodríguez, Juan Carlos; Galiana, Antonio; Sola-Vera, Javier; Ruiz-García, Montserrat; Brotons, Alicia; López-Girona, Elena; Girona, Eva; Sillero, Carlos; Royo, Gloria

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the main diagnostic validity parameters of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system for detecting Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsies. Prospective study. The real-time PCR has an internal control for eliminating the false negatives. Our system has a good diagnostic capacity compared with the gold standard and was superior in antral mucosa: area under the curve was 0.91 for antrum (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87 to 0.96) and 0.83 for corpus (95% CI 0.77 to 0.9). The optimum cut-off point was 3.56 microorganisms/cell for antrum (sensitivity 83.5% [95% CI 74.2 to 89.9]; specificity 91.3% [95% CI 82.3 to 96.0]; positive predictive value 92.2%; negative predictive value 81.8%). The positive likelihood ratios were 9.61 and 8.52 for antrum and corpus, respectively. With the cut-off point that maximises the Youden index, 8.7% false positives were obtained. Our methodology is useful for diagnosing infection due to H. pylori and the false positives detected probably correspond to patients who were actually infected but the infection was not detected by traditional techniques. The clinical importance of these cases should be studied in greater detail since they may involve colonisations unrelated to the patient's digestive pathology. PMID:22921814

  11. Sedimentology of rocky shorelines: 1. A review of the problem, with analytical methods, and insights gained from the Hulopoe Gravel and the modern rocky shoreline of Lanai, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felton, E. Anne

    2002-10-01

    Hypotheses advanced concerning the origin of the Pleistocene Hulopoe Gravel on Lanai include mega-tsunami, abandoned beach, 'multiple event,' rocky shoreline, and for parts of the deposit, Native Hawaiian constructions and degraded lava flow fronts. Uplift of Lanai shorelines has been suggested for deposits occurring up to at least 190 m. These conflicting hypotheses highlight problems with the interpretation of coarse gravel deposits containing marine biotic remains. The geological records of the processes implied by these hypotheses should look very different. Discrimination among these or any other hypotheses for the origins of the Hulopoe Gravel will require careful study of vertical and lateral variations in litho- and biofacies, facies architecture, contact relationships and stratal geometries of this deposit. Observations of modern rocky shorelines, particularly on Lanai adjacent to Hulopoe Gravel outcrops, have shown that distinctive coarse gravel facies are present, several of which occur in specific geomorphic settings. Tectonic, isostatic and eustatic changes which cause rapid shoreline translations on steep slopes favour preservation of former rocky shorelines and associated sedimentary deposits both above and below sea level. The sedimentary record of those shorelines is likely to be complex. The modern rocky shoreline sedimentary environment is a hostile one, largely neglected by sedimentologists. A range of high-energy processes characterize these shorelines. Long-period swell, tsunami and storm waves can erode hard bedrock and generate coarse gravel. They also erode older deposits, depositing fresh ones containing mixtures of materials of different ages. Additional gravelly material may be contributed by rivers draining steep hinterlands. To fully evaluate rocky shoreline deposition in the broadest sense, for both the Hulopoe Gravel and other deposits, sedimentary facies models are needed for rocky shorelines occurring in a range of settings. Recognition and description of rocky shoreline deposits are crucial for correctly interpreting the geological history of oceanic and volcanic arc islands, for distinguishing between ancient tsunami and storm deposits, and for interpreting coarse-grained deposits preserved on high energy coasts of continents. Problems include not only the absence of appropriate sedimentary facies models linking rocky shoreline deposits and environments but also, until recently, lack of a systematic descriptive scheme applicable to coarse gravel deposits generally. Two complementary methods serve to integrate the wide range of bed and clast attributes and parameters which characterize complex coarse gravel deposits. The composition and fabric (CAF) method has a materials focus, providing detailed description of attributes of the constituent clasts, petrology, the proportions of gravel, sand and mud, and the ways in which these materials are organized. The sedimentary facies model building (FMB) method emphasizes the organization of a deposit on a bed-by-bed basis to identify facies and infer depositional processes. The systematic use of a comprehensive gravel fabric and petrography log (GFPL), in conjunction with detailed vertical profiles, provides visual representations of a range of deposit characteristics. Criteria useful for distinguishing sedimentary facies in the Hulopoe Gravel are: grain-size modes, amount of matrix, bed geometry, sedimentary structures, bed fabric and clast roundness.

  12. New ionization methods and miniature mass spectrometers for biomedicine: DESI imaging for cancer diagnostics and paper spray ionization for therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Cooks, R Graham; Manicke, Nicholas E; Dill, Allison L; Ifa, Demian R; Eberlin, Livia S; Costa, Anthony B; Wang, He; Huang, Guangming; Ouyang, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in two new ambient ionization methods for mass spectrometry, desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and paper spray (PS), is described and their utility is illustrated with new studies on tissue imaging and biofluid analysis. DESI is an ambient ionization method that can be performed on untreated histological sections of biological tissue in the open lab environment to image lipids, fatty acids, hormones and other compounds. Paper spray is performed in the open lab too; it involves electrospraying dry blood spots or biofluid deposits from a porous medium. PS is characterized by extreme simplicity and speed: a spot of whole blood or other biofluid is analyzed directly from paper, simply by applying a high voltage to the moist paper. Both methods are being developed for use in diagnostics as a means to inform therapy. DESI imaging is applied to create molecular maps of tissue sections without prior labeling or other sample preparation. Like other methods of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), it combines the chemical speciation of multiple analytes with information on spatial distributions. DESI imaging provides valuable information which correlates with the disease state of tissue as determined by standard histochemical methods. Positive-ion data are presented which complement previously reported negative-ion data on paired human bladder cancerous and adjacent normal tissue sections from 20 patients. These data add to the evidence already in the literature demonstrating that differences in the distributions of particular lipids contain disease-diagnostic information. Multivariate statistical analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) is used to analyze the imaging MS data, and so confirm differences between the lipid profiles of diseased and healthy tissue types. As more such data is acquired, DESI imaging has the potential to be a diagnostic tool for future cancer detection in situ; this suggests a potential role in guiding therapy in parallel with standard histochemical and immunohistological methods. The PS methodology is aimed at high-throughput clinical measurement of quantitative levels of particular therapeutic agents in blood and other biofluids. The experiment allows individual drugs to be quantified at therapeutic levels and data is presented showing quantitative drug analysis from mixtures of therapeutic drugs in whole blood. Data on cholesterol sulfate, a new possible prostate biomarker seen at elevated levels in diseased prostate tissue, but not in healthy prostate tissue in serum are reported using paper spray ionization. PMID:21413184

  13. Modern problems of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    The role of energy and methods of its saving for the development of human society and life are analyzed. The importance of future use of space energy flows and energy of water and air oceans is emphasized. The authors consider the idea of the unit for production of electric energy and pure substances using sodium chloride which reserves are limitless on the planet. Looking retrospectively at the development of power engineering from the elementary fire to modern electric power station, we see that the used method of heat production, namely by direct interaction of fuel and oxidizer, is the simplest. However, it may be possible to combust coal, i.e., carbon in salt melt, for instance, sodium chloride that would be more rational and efficient. If the stated problems are solved positively, we would master all energy properties of the substance; and this is the main problem of thermodynamics being one of the sciences on energy.

  14. The modern trends of the evolution laser information technology in oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikov, A. A.; Svirin, V. N.

    2008-04-01

    Laser-optical information technologies and devices develop since the 70- years at the end of 20 century and are broadly used for diagnostics and treatment of oncological diseases to date. Although such methods as photodynamic therapy (PDT), laser-induce thermotherapy (LITT), fluorescent diagnostics and spectrophotometry already more than 30 years are used for treatment and diagnostics of oncological diseases, nevertheless, they are enough new methods and, as a rule, are used in large scientific centers and medical institutions. This is bound, first of all, with lack of information on modern method of cancer treatment, the absence of widely available laser procedures and corresponding devices in the polyclinics and even in district hospitals, as well as insufficient understanding of application areas, where laser methods has an advantage by comparison, for instance, with beam or chemotherapy. At present day laser methods are fast upcoming direction of the treatment oncological diseases. This is explained by progress in development essentially laser, particularly diode, improvement electronic and computing components and broad introduction software-algorithmic methods of control the undertaking therapeutic and diagnostic procedures. In article are considered new laser methods of the undertaking diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and is shown that introduction multiwave laser radiation for probe and influences on tissue, the different methods of the determination of the functional state of tissues, realization of the on-line diagnostics when carrying out the therapeutic procedures, automatic control systems of the power laser radiation, which depends on state patient tissue, as well as software-algorithmic methods of management session therapeutic and diagnostic procedures greatly raises efficiency of the treatment oncological diseases. On an example of the multipurpose laser therapeutic devices("MLTA") developed and introduced in clinical practice and multipurpose laser diagnostic complexes ("MLDC"), the realizing offered methods, are shown the basic tendencies of development laser methods in oncology, concrete technical decisions and the experimental clinical material showing increase of efficiency of treatment of a cancer at their realization are resulted. It is shown, that realization of the offered methods and technical technologies opens new competitive advantages laser technologies in comparison with beam and chemical-therapy at treatment of oncological diseases.

  15. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography as a Diagnostic Method for Determination of Gingival Thickness and Distance between Gingival Margin and Bone Crest

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Germana Jayme; Ruiz, Luis Fernando Naldi; de Alencar, Ana Helena Gonçalves; Porto, Olavo César Lyra; Estrela, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a diagnostic method for determination of gingival thickness (GT) and distance between gingival margin and vestibular (GMBC-V) and interproximal bone crests (GMBC-I). GT and GMBC-V were measured in 348 teeth and GMBC-I was measured in 377 tooth regions of 29 patients with gummy smile. GT was assessed using transgingival probing (TP), ultrasound (US), and CBCT, whereas GMBC-V and GMBC-I were assessed by transsurgical clinical evaluation (TCE) and CBCT. Statistical analyses used independent t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and simple linear regression. Difference was observed for GT: between TP, CBCT, and US considering all teeth; between TP and CBCT and between TP and US in incisors and canines; between TP and US in premolars and first molars. TP presented the highest means for GT. Positive correlation and linear regression were observed between TP and CBCT, TP and US, and CBCT and US. Difference was observed for GMBC-V and GMBC-I using TCE and CBCT, considering all teeth. Correlation and linear regression results were significant for GMBC-V and GMBC-I in incisors, canines, and premolars. CBCT is an effective diagnostic method to visualize and measure GT, GMBC-V, and GMBC-I. PMID:25918737

  16. diagnostics Cataglyphis

    E-print Network

    Baddeley, Adrian

    Residuals and diagnostics for spatial point processes Adrian Baddeley Joint work with Martin arkk a (1993). #12; #12; Copper deposits (Ã?) and lineaments (|) in a geological survey . Berman) #17; #21; inhomogeneous Poisson, intensity function #21;(u): #21;(u; x) = #21;(u) Strauss process

  17. [METHODS OF MATHEMATICAL MODELING IN MORPHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF CHORNOBYL FACTOR INFLUENCE ON PROSTATE GLAND OF COAL MINERS-- THE CHERNOBYL DISASTER FIGHTERS].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    The morphometric estimation of parenchyma and stroma condition included the determination of 25 parameters in a prostate gland at 27 persons. The mathematical model of morphogenesis of prostate gland was created by Bayes' method. The method of differential diagnosis of a prostate gland tissues' changes conditioned by the influence of the Chernobyl factor and/or unfavorable terms of the work in underground coal mines have been worked out. Its practical use provides exactness and reliability of the diagnosis (not less than 95%), independence from the level of the qualification and personal experience of the doctor, allows us to unify, optimize and individualize the diagnostic algorithms, answer the requirements of evidential medicine. PMID:26118078

  18. A new diagnostic device: KINOX

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Zaritsky; G. A. Zaritskaya; V. S. Pronin; N. A. Raspopov; M. V. Fock

    2005-01-01

    A new diagnostic device KINOX created at P N Lebedev Physics Institute is described. With this device it is possible to trace the variations of oxygen permeability in erythrocyte membranes during the blood oxygenation. The molecular mechanism responsible for these variations was explained and experimentally tested at P N Lebedev Physics Institute. The diagnostic method is substantiated capable of estimating

  19. Laser plasma diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. N. Piatnitskii

    1976-01-01

    This book discusses theoretical and experimental principles of laser techniques for plasma diagnostics. Special attention is given to interferometry and to methods based on light scattering by plasma electrons. The basic electromagnetic properties of a plasma are reviewed along with characteristics of plasma electromagnetic fluctuations and wave scattering. Fundamental principles of laser interferometry are outlined, the use of laser interferometry

  20. Evaluation of Diagnostic Value of Elisa Method (EIA) & PCR in Diagnosis of Hepatitis C Virus In Hemodialysis Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Hassan; Khadem Ansari

    Background and Aims: Since hepatitis C Virus has contaminated approximately 170 millions people over the world. Applying serological screening methods using EIA has led to decline the risk of transmission. However, in chronic renal disease and hemodialysis patients, the EIA method is not sufficient for diagnosis of HCV. Therefore, PCR method is suggested for rapid diagnosis of the disease in

  1. A diagnostic study on folium and orchil dyes with non-invasive and micro-destructive methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Arrais, Aldo; Marsano, Francesco; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Idone, Ambra; Gulmini, Monica

    2015-05-01

    Folium and orchil are dyes of vegetal origin. Folium is obtained from Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) A. Juss., whereas orchil is obtained from Roccella and other genera of lichens. These dyes were used in the past to impart purple hue to paintings and textiles as substitutes for the more prised Tyrian purple dye, obtained from shellfish. Despite several citations in ancient technical treatises dating back at least to the Greek-Roman age, the identification of these dyes in artworks is rare. In the case of folium, an additional drawback is that its composition is presently unknown. In this work different non-invasive (FT-IR, FT-Raman, fibre optic reflectance spectrophotometry, spectrofluorimetry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and micro-invasive (surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) techniques were used in order to increase the diagnostic information available on these dyes. Measurements were carried out on the dyes extracted from raw materials and on painted or dyed parchments. The possibility to distinguish between folium and orchil by chemical analysis is discussed.

  2. Advances in Diagnostic Bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Andrew R.; Vachani, Anil; Sterman, Daniel H.

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic bronchoscopy has undergone two major paradigm shifts in the last 40 years. First, the advent of flexible bronchoscopy gave chest physicians improved access to the tracheobronchial tree with a rapid learning curve and greater patient comfort compared with rigid bronchoscopy. The second paradigm shift has evolved over the last 5 years with the proliferation of new technologies that have significantly enhanced the diagnostic capabilities of flexible bronchoscopy compared with traditional methods. At the forefront of these new technologies is endobronchial ultrasound. In its various forms, endobronchial ultrasound has improved diagnostic yield for pulmonary masses, nodules, intrathoracic adenopathy, and disease extent, thereby reducing the need for more invasive surgical interventions. Various navigational bronchoscopy systems have become available to increase flexible bronchoscope access to small peripheral pulmonary lesions. Furthermore, various modalities of airway assessment, including optical microscopic imaging technologies, may play significant roles in the diagnosis of a variety of pulmonary diseases in the future. Finally, the combination of new diagnostic bronchoscopy technologies and novel approaches in molecular analysis and biomarker assessment hold promise for enhanced diagnosis and personalized management of many pulmonary disorders. In this review, we provide a contemporary review of diagnostic bronchoscopy developments over the past decade. PMID:20378726

  3. Cortisol diurnal patterns, associations with depressive symptoms, and the impact of intervention in older adults: results using modern robust methods aimed at dealing with low power due to violations of standard assumptions.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Rand R; Granger, Douglas A; Szanton, Sarah; Clark, Florence

    2014-03-01

    Advances in salivary bioscience enable the widespread integration of biological measures into the behavioral and social sciences. While theoretical integration has progressed, much less attention has focused on analytical strategies and tactics. The statistical literature warns that common methods for comparing groups and studying associations can have relatively poor power compared to more modern robust techniques. Here we illustrate, in secondary data analyses using the USC Well Elderly II study (n=460, age 60-95, 66% female), that modern robust methods make a substantial difference when analyzing relations between salivary analyte and behavioral data. Analyses that deal with the diurnal pattern of cortisol and the association of the cortisol awakening response with depressive symptoms and physical well-being are reported. Non-significant results become significant when using improved methods for dealing with skewed distributions and outliers. Analytical strategies and tactics that employ modern robust methods have the potential to reduce the probability of both Type I and Type II errors in studies that compare salivary analytes between groups, across time, or examine associations with salivary analyte levels. PMID:24468639

  4. Modern Brain Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Ramon F.; Cha, Soonmee

    2015-01-01

    The imaging and clinical management of patients with brain tumor continue to evolve over time and now heavily rely on physiologic imaging in addition to high-resolution structural imaging. Imaging remains a powerful noninvasive tool to positively impact the management of patients with brain tumor. This article provides an overview of the current state-of-the art clinical brain tumor imaging. In this review, we discuss general magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods and their application to the diagnosis of, treatment planning and navigation, and disease monitoring in patients with brain tumor. We review the strengths, limitations, and pitfalls of structural imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging techniques, MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography/MR, and functional imaging. Overall this review provides a basis for understudying the role of modern imaging in the care of brain tumor patients. PMID:25977902

  5. Method for estimating the propagation direction of a coherent plasma structure using a one-dimensional diagnostic array

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, T., E-mail: kobayashi.tatsuya@LHD.nifs.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Birkenmeier, G.; Wolfrum, E.; Stroth, U. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Laggner, F. M. [Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Willensdorfer, M. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Inagaki, S.; Itoh, S.-I. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Research Center for Plasma Turbulence, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Itoh, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Research Center for Plasma Turbulence, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    This article proposes a new method to evaluate basic characteristics of the dynamics of a coherent plasma structure (blob). With this method, one can evaluate the propagation angle of a blob in a two-dimensional plasma cross section as well as the blob velocity, size, and amplitude from one-dimensional data. The method is applied to blob measurements from the Lithium beam emission spectroscopy system in ASDEX-Upgrade. Statistical features of the observed blob velocities, angles of propagation, blob sizes, and amplitudes are discussed. The validity of the method is examined by comparing two values of the propagation angle that are evaluated in an independent manner.

  6. An iterative method for the computation of nonlinear, wide-angle, pulsed acoustic fields of medical diagnostic transducers.

    PubMed

    Huijssen, J; Verweij, M D

    2010-01-01

    The development and optimization of medical ultrasound transducers and imaging modalities require a computational method that accurately predicts the nonlinear acoustic pressure field. A prospective method should provide the wide-angle, pulsed field emitted by an arbitrary planar source distribution and propagating in a three-dimensional, large scale domain holding a nonlinear acoustic medium. In this paper, a method is presented that is free of any assumed wavefield directionality. The nonlinear acoustic wave equation is solved by treating the nonlinear term as a contrast source. This formulation leads to an iterative scheme that involves the repetitive solution of a linear wave problem through Green's function method. It is shown that accurate field predictions may be obtained within a few iterations. Moreover, by employing a dedicated numerical convolution technique, the method allows for a discretization down to two points per wavelength or period of the highest frequency of interest. The performance of the method is evaluated through a number of nonlinear field predictions for pulsed transducers with various geometries. The results demonstrate the directional independence of the method. Moreover, comparison with results from several existing methods shows that the method accurately predicts the nonlinear field for weak to moderate nonlinearity. PMID:20058948

  7. Equipment and methods for studying radiation in ballistic experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. N. Baulin; A. M. Biriukov; D. G. Kuvalkin; N. N. Piliugin; O. K. Taganov

    1986-01-01

    Problems related to the instrumental and methodological support of model ballistic experiments are briefly reviewed with emphasis on optical instruments and methods. It is pointed out that the state-of-the-art instrumentation of modern aeroballistic testing equipment provides the necessary basis for the introduction of the known diagnostic techniques based on radiation scattering, such as Raman spectroscopy, resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, and coherent

  8. What Is Diagnostic Testing?

    MedlinePLUS

    Diagnostic testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for genetic conditions Diagnostic testing Testing for genetic conditions Carrier ... help you make the decision. What Is Diagnostic Testing? Diagnostic genetic testing can usually work out if ...

  9. The Downside of Diagnostic Imaging

    Cancer.gov

    An article about radiation exposure during computed tomography and nuclear imaging procedures and the risk of cancer. Several studies released in 2009 have helped to quantify the risk and the growing use of these diagnostic imaging methods.

  10. [Dysraphic spinal defekt - from diagnostics to therapy].

    PubMed

    Herman-Sucharska, Izabela; Bozek, Pawe?; Bryll, Amira

    2013-01-01

    Congenital malformations comprise all cases of abnormal fetal develop. ment. Among the most serious ano malies - those of the central nervous system (CNS) - the most common are disrafic disorders, i.e. malformations of neural tube closure. This study is an approach to the problem of congenital malformation diagnostics, in the context of modern prenatal treatment and prognosis. PMID:23944108

  11. Thermal Diagnostics with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory: A Validated Method for Differential Emission Measure Inversions

    E-print Network

    Cheung, Mark C M; Schrijver, C J; Testa, P; Chen, F; Peter, H; Malanushenko, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method for performing differential emission measure (DEM) inversions on narrow-band EUV images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The method yields positive definite DEM solutions by solving a linear program. This method has been validated against a diverse set of thermal models of varying complexity and realism. These include (1) idealized gaussian DEM distributions, (2) 3D models of NOAA Active Region 11158 comprising quasi-steady loop atmospheres in a non-linear force-free field, and (3) thermodynamic models from a fully-compressible, 3D MHD simulation of AR corona formation following magnetic flux emergence. We then present results from the application of the method to AIA observations of Active Region 11158, comparing the region's thermal structure on two successive solar rotations. Additionally, we show how the DEM inversion method can be adapted to simultaneously invert AIA and XRT data, and how supplementing AIA data with the latt...

  12. A direct comparison of next generation sequencing enrichment methods using an aortopathy gene panel- clinical diagnostics perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Aortopathies are a group of disorders characterized by aneurysms, dilation, and tortuosity of the aorta. Because of the phenotypic overlap and genetic heterogeneity of diseases featuring aortopathy, molecular testing is often required for timely and correct diagnosis of affected individuals. In this setting next generation sequencing (NGS) offers several advantages over traditional molecular techniques. Methods The purpose of our study was to compare NGS enrichment methods for a clinical assay targeting the nine genes known to be associated with aortopathy. RainDance emulsion PCR and SureSelect RNA-bait hybridization capture enrichment methods were directly compared by enriching DNA from eight samples. Enriched samples were barcoded, pooled, and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Depth of coverage, consistency of coverage across samples, and the overlap of variants identified were assessed. This data was also compared to whole-exome sequencing data from ten individuals. Results Read depth was greater and less variable among samples that had been enriched using the RNA-bait hybridization capture enrichment method. In addition, samples enriched by hybridization capture had fewer exons with mean coverage less than 10, reducing the need for followup Sanger sequencing. Variants sets produced were 77% concordant, with both techniques yielding similar numbers of discordant variants. Conclusions When comparing the design flexibility, performance, and cost of the targeted enrichment methods to whole-exome sequencing, the RNA-bait hybridization capture enrichment gene panel offers the better solution for interrogating the aortopathy genes in a clinical laboratory setting. PMID:23148498

  13. Method to correct the distortion caused by amplified stimulated emission as motivated by LIF-based flow diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuesong; Zhao, Yan; Ma, Lin

    2012-04-20

    Amplified stimulated emission (ASE) represents a significant issue in two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (TPLIF). The ASE effects are nonlinear and nonlocal, i.e., the ASE effects distort the LIF signal nonlinearly, and the distortion at one location depends on conditions at other locations. In this sense, the ASE effects pose a greater challenge to quantitative TPLIF than quenching and ionization. This work therefore seeks a method to correct such distortion. The method uses two LIF measurements, one with low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and negligible ASE distortion and another with high SNR but significant distortion, to generate a faithful measurement with high SNR. Extensive simulations were performed to evaluate the performance of this method for practical applications. PMID:22534923

  14. 3D navigation of CTVE and correction of MinIP methods in non-invasive diagnostic detection.

    PubMed

    Xiaomian, Xie; Duchun, Tao; Siping, Chen; Shangkai, Gao; Yalei, Bi

    2006-01-01

    Navigation is important in Computed Tomography Virtual Endoscopy (CTVE) functions. Existing navigation methods involve planning and pre-calculating of a fixed path before the viewpoint flight inside the targeted organs. This includes path construction, centering, smoothing and multi-branch processing. This paper proposes a 3D navigation method which was achieved by utilizing the compatibility of the 3D navigation and the ray casting 3D rendering method, without the necessity of planning and pre-calculating a fixed path, eliminating the multi-branch problems. In our 3D navigation method, the viewpoint direction and location are tracked in real time when the viewpoint is inside the organs. At the same time it presents and controls the direction changes and location changes of the viewpoint in x, y, z dimensions. With interactive control of the viewpoint, it can fly in any direction in 3D, not only along a fixed path, thus eliminating multi-branch problems. The viewpoint locations and directions will change smoothly and will be used to calculate the current scene of CTVE. Accelerated ray casting is used to render 3D scenes, which is compatible with the 3D navigation method. In Minimum Intensity Projection (MinIP) applications, if the conventional MinIP reconstruction method is used, realistic results cannot be achieved when they are rotated in multi-directions because the Computed Tomography (CT) images always contain empty regions surrounding the tissue regions. The conventional MinIP reconstruction algorithm always chalks up a minimum intensity voxel which relates to the empty regions instead of the tissue regions. To solve such valid voxel searching problems, seed-filling algorithms are used to fill the empty regions of each slice automatically. The empty voxels are labeled automatically and are avoided in MinIP calculation to gain correct results in all directions. PMID:17088046

  15. Use of galvanostatic charge method as a membrane electrode assembly diagnostic tool in a fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Pucheng; Xu, Huachi; Zeng, Xia; Zha, Hongshan; Song, Mancun

    2014-01-01

    To better measure and monitor the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) status in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack, a galvanostatic charge method is improved. The electrochemical active surface area (EAS), double-layer capacitance, hydrogen crossover current, and cell ohmic resistance can be measured by this method. In this method, two or more constant currents are applied to the fuel cell stack, and the voltage response between two electrodes of each cell is recorded and analyzed. Tests on a two-cell stack which is supplied with hydrogen in anode and nitrogen in cathode are carried out, and the influences of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the MEA parameters are investigated. Results show that with an increase of RH, both double-layer capacitance and EAS increase, while hydrogen crossover current and cell ohmic resistance decrease. With an increase of temperature, hydrogen crossover current increases, cell ohmic resistance decreases, and EAS and double-layer capacitance show little change. The galvanostatic charge method shows a convenient way to research cell consistency and MEA lifetime in a fuel cell stack.

  16. Diagnostics of the laser perforation of biological tissues by the method of autodyne detection of backscattered radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil'tsov, V V; Dmitriev, A K; Konovalov, Aleksei N; Kortunov, V N; Panchenko, Vladislav Ya; Ul'yanov, V A [Institute of Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Gordienko, Vyacheslav M [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2002-10-31

    The method of autodyne detection of backscattered radiation is used to study the passage of CO{sub 2} laser radiation through interfaces of model media and biological tissues in vitro during their laser perforation. It is shown that a stepwise change in the weighted mean frequency of the autodyne-signal power spectrum is a criterion for this passage in real time.

  17. Diagnostic comparison of three groups of examiners using visual and laser fluorescence methods to detect occlusal caries in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Fung; R. Smales; H. Ngo; G. Mount

    2004-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the accuracy of the DIAGNOdent laser device (DD) for detecting occlusal fissure caries when used by three groups of examiners. Methods: Three final-year dental students (S), three General Dental Practitioners (G), and three Academic Clinicians (A) individually examined the non-cavitated occlusal surfaces of 25 extracted permanent molars using visual inspection (VI) then DD assessments. The presence of

  18. The significance of morphometric methods in cytologic diagnostics: differentiation between mesothelial cells, mesothelioma cells and metastatic adenocarcinoma cells in pleural effusions with special emphasis on chromatin texture.

    PubMed

    Oberholzer, M; Ettlin, R; Christen, H; Gschwind, R; Buser, M; Rösel, F; Lötscher, R; Dalquen, P

    1991-01-01

    Opinions differ widely as to the value of morphometric techniques for differentiating between mesothelial cells, mesothelioma cells and metastatic adenocarcinoma cells in pleural effusions. The significance of the changes in the chromatin structure to differentiate between these three cell types was stressed by various scientific groups only qualitatively, and until now no group has used digital methods to quantify chromatin structures. The controversy about the value of morphometric methods was the reason for conducting the following study. We wanted to investigate (i) the importance of various planimetric and texture parameters as well as invariant moments as morphometric discriminators; and (ii) to set up a data structure to make possible the further diagnostic use of the multivariate morphometric analyses method for other applications. The present findings show that nuclear size and form are not the decisive factors in differentiating between reactive cells and mesothelioma cells, but pixel related texture parameters and invariant moments are. All parameter types used showed differences between reactive cells and cells of adenocarcinoma metastases. Invariant moments and shape descriptors, but not texture parameters are used to discriminate between mesothelioma cells and cells of adenocarcinoma metastases. PMID:2001333

  19. Modern Data The Microsoft Modern Data Warehouse

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    . The biggest, possibly most elaborate data management system in IT is changing."1 The modern enterprise needs in this document, including URL and other Internet Web site references, may change without notice. You bear Warehouse 4 Data warehousing technology began as a framework to better manage, understand, and capitalize

  20. MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JACKSON, R. GRAHAM

    CHOICES AND ISSUES IN SELECTING MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS ARE DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT. BACKGROUND INFORMATION IS INTRODUCED IN TERMS OF REASONS FOR ABANDONMENT, THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SCHOOL BUILDING OBSOLESCENCE, AND PROBLEMS IN THE MODERNIZATION PROCESS. INTERIOR PARTITIONS ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF BUILDING MATERIALS,…

  1. A back projection dosimetry method for diagnostic and orthovoltage x-ray from 40 to 140 kVp for patients and phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afrashteh, Hossein

    2005-07-01

    Patient dosimetry in practice is involved with time consuming, tedious calculations during the measurement process. There is a need for a straight forward and accurate method to perform patient dosimetry when required. A back projection dosimetry method for patient/phantom using Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) and its corresponding Exit Surface Dose with an average value for attenuation coefficient (mu), (e.g., mean effective attenuation coefficient (mu`)), was developed. The method focused on low energy X-ray units (40--140 kVp), primarily for conventional diagnostic radiography and low energy radiation therapy procedures. The assumption is that it may be used for similar concepts and modalities within the same energy range, (e.g., fluoroscopy, where the skin injuries have been common in the past, or mammography, where the radiation carcinogenesis has been a matter of concern). A new Gafchromic film, XR-QA, as a precision dosimeter was assessed and used with this algorithm. Due to the fact that the dose range often seen in conventional radiography exams in most cases is not high enough to activate the sensitive layer of this film sufficiently, the measured net Optical Density (OD) changes were not substantial enough. Therefore, a conventional and relatively low speed dental film, DF58 Ultra, was used. Various thicknesses of Acrylic, a tissue equivalent material, were used with the algorithm. When compared with the other sources and reference data, the results from the developed mathematical algorithm are in a reasonable agreement with these values. The developed method is straight forward, and within the acceptable accuracy range. The back projection dosimetry method is effective and may be used individually for the desired body parts or fetus areas, depending on the clinical practice and interests.

  2. Advances in the processing of policromat images as diagnostic method to determine white spot syndrome virus in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez-Sanchez, Cristina M.; Alvarez-Borrego, Josue; Montoya-Rodriguez, L.; Garcia-Gasca, A.; Fajer Avila, Emma J.; Pacheco-Marges, R.

    2004-10-01

    White spot syndrome (WSSV) is a viral disease which affects many crustacean species including commercial shrimps. Adequate, precise and quick methods to diagnose on time the presence of the disease in order to apply different strategies to avoid the dispersion and to reduce mortalities is necessary. Histopathology is an important diagnostic method. However, histopathology has the problem that requires time to prepare the histological slides and time to arrive to some diagnosis because this depend on the nature of the tissues, the pathogen(s) to find, the number of organisms, number of slides to analyze and the skill of the technician. This paper try to demonstrate the sensibility of one digital system of processing and recognition of images using color correlation with phase filters, to identify inclusion bodies of WSSV. Infected tissues were processed to obtain histological slides and to verify that the inclusion bodies observed were of WSV, in situ hybridization were carried out. The sensibility results of the recognition of the inclusion bodies of WSSV with the color correlation program was 86.1%. The highest percentage of recognition was in nervous system and tegument glands with 100%. The values in the stomach epithelium and heart tissue was 78.45% of recognition. Tissues with the lowest recognition values were lymphoid organ and hematopoietic tissue. It is necessary further studies to increase the sensibility and to obtain the specificity.

  3. Rotorcraft Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

    2012-01-01

    Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer decision support for optimal maintenance.

  4. A Review of Diagnostic Techniques for ISHM Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson-Hine, Ann; Biswas, Gautam; Aaseng, Gordon; Narasimhan, Sriam; Pattipati, Krishna

    2005-01-01

    System diagnosis is an integral part of any Integrated System Health Management application. Diagnostic applications make use of system information from the design phase, such as safety and mission assurance analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, hazards analysis, functional models, fault propagation models, and testability analysis. In modern process control and equipment monitoring systems, topological and analytic , models of the nominal system, derived from design documents, are also employed for fault isolation and identification. Depending on the complexity of the monitored signals from the physical system, diagnostic applications may involve straightforward trending and feature extraction techniques to retrieve the parameters of importance from the sensor streams. They also may involve very complex analysis routines, such as signal processing, learning or classification methods to derive the parameters of importance to diagnosis. The process that is used to diagnose anomalous conditions from monitored system signals varies widely across the different approaches to system diagnosis. Rule-based expert systems, case-based reasoning systems, model-based reasoning systems, learning systems, and probabilistic reasoning systems are examples of the many diverse approaches ta diagnostic reasoning. Many engineering disciplines have specific approaches to modeling, monitoring and diagnosing anomalous conditions. Therefore, there is no "one-size-fits-all" approach to building diagnostic and health monitoring capabilities for a system. For instance, the conventional approaches to diagnosing failures in rotorcraft applications are very different from those used in communications systems. Further, online and offline automated diagnostic applications are integrated into an operations framework with flight crews, flight controllers and maintenance teams. While the emphasis of this paper is automation of health management functions, striking the correct balance between automated and human-performed tasks is a vital concern.

  5. Modern Physics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Jorge; Correa, Jose

    1999-10-01

    Due to the lack of laboratories for introductory modern physics classes, Dr. Jorge A. Lopez and Mr. Jose Ricardo Correa from the UTEP Physics Department work in the development of computer simulations of important modern physics experiments for the aforementioned physics classes. The presentation will inform the audience about this resource in the instruction of introductory modern physics as well as the success it has had. Introductory modern physics classes expose students to radically new concepts that defy common sense. As if this was not hard enough, students encounter a lack of hands-on activities due to the lack of lab equipment for their modern physics class. This is to be understood since most of the experiments cannot be performed in the conditions university laboratories provide and at the undergraduate level organization. Therefore, much time and effort have been devoted to the development of computer simulations of key modern physics experiments. These virtual experiments are a great alternative that will alleviate the limitations physics professors face when teaching introductory modern physics courses in addition to enchance student understanding.

  6. Requirements for ITER diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    The development and design of plasma diagnostics for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) present a formidable challenge for experimental plasma physicists. The large plasma size, the high central density and temperature and the very high thermal wall loadings provide new challenges for present measurement techniques and lead to a search for new methods. But the physics and control requirements for the long burn phase of the discharge, combined with very limited access to the plasma, constrained by the requirement for radiation shielding of the coils and sharing of access ports with heating and current drive power, remote manipulation, fueling and turn blanket modules, make for very difficult design choices. An initial attempt at these choices has been made by an international team of diagnostic physicists, gathering together in a series of three workshops during the ITER Conceptual Design Activity. This paper is based on that report and provides a summary of its most important points. To provide a background against which to place the diagnostic requirements and design concepts, the ITER device, its most important plasma properties and the proposed experimental program will be described. The specifications for the measurement of the plasma parameters and the proposed diagnostics for these measurements will then be addressed, followed by some examples of the design concepts that have been proposed. As a result of these design studies, it was clear that there were many uncertainties associated with these concepts, particularly because of the nuclear radiation environment, so that a Research and Development Program for diagnostic hardware was established. It will also be briefly summarized.

  7. Advanced diagnostics for reacting flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, R. K.; Baganoff, D.; Bowman, C. T.; Byer, R. L.; Cantwell, B. J.

    1983-11-01

    Progress is reported for the third year of an interdisciplinary program to innovate modern diagnostic techniques for application to reacting flows. Project areas are: (1) fiber optic absorption/fluorescence probes for species measurements employing tunable ultraviolet, visable and infrared laser sources; (2) wavelength modulation spectroscopy, using rapid-scanning ultraviolet, visible and infrared laser sources, for measurements of species, temperature and absorption lineshapes, (3) quantitative flow visualization, including temporally and spatially resolved species measurements in a plane, using laser-induced fluorescence; (4) multiple-point velocity visualization; (5) plasma diagnostics, utilizing planar laser-induced fluorescence and wavelength modulation techniques; (6) diagnostic techniques for thermionic converter plasmas; (7) application of advanced diagnostic techniques for studies of turbulent reacting flows; (8) development of measurement techniques and a novel facility for investigations of droplet evaporation in turbulent flows; (9) holographic display techniques for 3-D visualization of flowfield data; (10) coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) for temperature and velocity measurements in a supersonic jet; and (11) computed absorption tomography system for species measurements in a plane.

  8. Diagnostic value of an amplification method (Gen-Probe) compared with that of culture for diagnosis of tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Vlaspolder, F; Singer, P; Roggeveen, C

    1995-01-01

    Five hundred fifty respiratory and nonrespiratory specimens from 340 patients were analyzed by comparing the Gen-Probe Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test (MTD) with conventional culture, which was the method of reference, for the detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. After resolution of discrepant results by retesting the samples and reviewing the patients' clinical histories, a total of 60 respiratory specimens were MTD and culture positive, 347 were MTD and culture negative, 4 were MTD positive and culture negative, and 1 was MTD negative and culture positive. This results in a sensitivity of 98.4%, a specificity of 98.9%, and positive and negative predictive values of 93.8 and 99.7%, respectively. Repeatedly, clinicians asked to test specimens of nonpulmonary origin by MTD. Although, MTD is not approved for use with nonrespiratory specimens, the following results were shown. Sixty-one pleural exudate specimens showed disappointing results (sensitivity, 20%). However, MTD performed well with another 77 nonrespiratory specimens; 17 samples were positive and 57 samples were negative by both MTD and culture. No false-negative results were found by MTD. Three MTD-positive, culture-negative specimens had high sample relative light unit/cutoff relative light unit ratios, strongly suggesting true tuberculosis. Positive microscopy and positive culture with MTD-negative results occurred 12 times. Those cultures showed atypical mycobacteria 11 times and Actinomyces species once. The stability of the reagents in the MTD kit was also assessed by testing reagents, including the enzyme mixture, kept at -70 degrees C for at least 6 months. No loss of activity was seen. PMID:8567908

  9. Salivary diagnostics: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Malathi, Narasimhan; Mythili, Sabesan; Vasanthi, Hannah R

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of disease plays a crucial role for treatment planning and prognosis. Saliva has great potential as a diagnostic fluid and offers advantage over serum and other biological fluids by an economic and noninvasive collection method for monitoring of systemic health and disease progression. The plethora of components in this fluid can act as biomarkers for diagnosis of various systemic and local diseases. In this review paper, we have emphasized the role of salivary biomarkers as diagnostic tools. PMID:24616813

  10. Turf Disease Diagnostic Form Schutter Diagnostic Lab

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Turf Disease Diagnostic Form Schutter Diagnostic Lab 119 Plant BioScience Facility Montana State the pattern of disease problem in the turf ____________________ County ___________________ #12;Pesticides used Please check: Yes or No (give name and rate if possible

  11. Comparison and evaluation of three diagnostic methods for detection of beet curly top virus in sugar beet using different visualizing systems.

    PubMed

    Almasi, Mohammad Amin; Hosseyni-Dehabadi, Seyed Mohammad; Aghapour-ojaghkandi, Mehdi

    2014-08-01

    To diminish the time required for some diagnostic assays including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP; due to mainly DNA extraction step) and also triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA) into a minimum level, an innovative immunocapture LAMP (IC-LAMP) and immunocapture PCR (IC-PCR) protocol on the basis of beet curly top virus (BCTV) genome was used and optimized. TAS-ELISA was employed first to validate the existence of the virus. All six IC-LAMP primers (i.e. forward outer primer (F3), backward outer primer (B3), forward inner primer (FIP), backward inner primer (BIP), loop forward (LF) and loop backward (LB)) together with IC-PCR primers were designed on the basis of the replication-associated protein (rep) gene (GenBank accession AF379637.1) of BCTV genome. Also, a novel colorimetric IC-LAMP assay for rapid and easy detection of BCTV was developed here, its potential compared with TAS-ELISA and IC-PCR assays. The method, on the whole, had the following advantages over the two mentioned procedures: (i) fascinatingly, no need of DNA extraction; (ii) no requirement of expensive and sophisticated tools for amplification and detection; (iii) no post-amplification treatment of the amplicons and (iv) a flexible and easy detection approach, which is visually detected by naked eyes using diverse visual dyes. PMID:24894659

  12. Modern Evolutionary Synthesis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wikipedia

    This site from Wickipedia describes the modern evolutionary synthesis. This theory brings together Charles Darwin's theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendel's theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance. Essentially, the modern synthesis (or neo-Darwinism) introduces the connection between two important discoveries; the units of evolution (genes) with the mechanism of evolution (selection). The site features links to any of the topics discussed.

  13. Destination Modern Art

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Bauman

    2010-04-27

    Explore the Museum of Modern Art in New York City and complete a sketch of a space ship you would like to travel in! This will be the introduction to our next unit Art In Space. Have you ever heard of a place called New York City? Here is a map to show you! View Larger Map In New York City there is a museum called the Museum of Modern Art. Click on the ...

  14. Olympics: Ancient vs. Modern

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Schaefer

    2008-09-13

    Objective: Students will compare the Ancient Olympics invented by the Greeks to a Modern Olympic games Materials: Computer with internet connection Paper and writing Utensil OR open blank Word Document Procedures: 1. On your paper or in your Word Document, create two columns and label one Ancient Greeks and the other Modern Olympics 2. Use a minimum of 2 of the following links to find information to compare the Ancient Olympics to the ...

  15. Graphical presentation of diagnostic information

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Penny F; Sterne, Jonathan AC; Westwood, Marie E; Bachmann, Lucas M; Harbord, Roger; Egger, Matthias; Deeks, Jonathan J

    2008-01-01

    Background Graphical displays of results allow researchers to summarise and communicate the key findings of their study. Diagnostic information should be presented in an easily interpretable way, which conveys both test characteristics (diagnostic accuracy) and the potential for use in clinical practice (predictive value). Methods We discuss the types of graphical display commonly encountered in primary diagnostic accuracy studies and systematic reviews of such studies, and systematically review the use of graphical displays in recent diagnostic primary studies and systematic reviews. Results We identified 57 primary studies and 49 systematic reviews. Fifty-six percent of primary studies and 53% of systematic reviews used graphical displays to present results. Dot-plot or box-and- whisker plots were the most commonly used graph in primary studies and were included in 22 (39%) studies. ROC plots were the most common type of plot included in systematic reviews and were included in 22 (45%) reviews. One primary study and five systematic reviews included a probability-modifying plot. Conclusion Graphical displays are currently underused in primary diagnostic accuracy studies and systematic reviews of such studies. Diagnostic accuracy studies need to include multiple types of graphic in order to provide both a detailed overview of the results (diagnostic accuracy) and to communicate information that can be used to inform clinical practice (predictive value). Work is required to improve graphical displays, to better communicate the utility of a test in clinical practice and the implications of test results for individual patients. PMID:18405357

  16. [Problems of epidemiology and diagnostics of leptospiroses in Siberia and Far East].

    PubMed

    Breneva, N V; Kiseleva, E Iu; Makeev, S M

    2012-01-01

    Multi-year literature data as well as materials of the Reference centre of monitoring of natural foci infections of Irkutsk Research Institute of Plague Control of Siberia and the Far East regarding epidemiology, epizootology and laboratory diagnostics of leptospiroses in Siberia and the Far East are analyzed and summarized in the review. Situation on leptospiroses in the region has changed significantly. In 50 - 70s of the 20th century diseases were registered ubiquitously in the form of outbreaks, group and single cases. Currently a low level of sporadic morbidity is noted in separate subjects of the Russian Federation. The contemporary state of the problem remains insufficiently clear, this demands the expansion of studies, creation of modern databases, as well as introduction into the practice of highly sensitive methods of express diagnostics in a complex with bacteriologic and serologic methods. PMID:22830283

  17. [Modern methods of diagnosis of thrombophylic states and complex treatment of patients with thrombotic complications of severe forms of varicose disease].

    PubMed

    Shchukin, S P

    2014-11-01

    Actual issues of surgical treatment of patients, suffering complications of severe forms of varicose disease of the lower extremities (VDLE) are discussed. The causes of unsatisfactory results of treatment in patients, suffering varicothrombophlebitis (VTHPH), the main of which--absence of the only one tactics for operative treatment and anticoagulant therapy, were analyzed. The results of patients examination, suffering thrombotic complications of severe forms of VDLE, while its recurrent course, in conjunction of VTHPH and thrombosis of deep veins of the lower extremities, using diagnostic complex "PLR genetics thrombophilia", are adduced. Differential tactics of treatment in patients, suffering severe forms of VDLE, while various localization of thrombotic process, concerning the presence of thrombophilic states, is proposed. PMID:25675742

  18. Conflicting results of serological, PCR and microscopic methods clarify the various risk levels of canine babesiosis in Slovakia: a complex approach to Babesia canis diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kubelová, Michaela; Sedlák, Kamil; Panev, Aleksandar; Široký, Pavel

    2013-01-31

    We have performed a survey of Babesia canis prevalence within group of dogs living in Southern and Western Slovakia. Blood samples and sera from 217 dogs, including individuals suspected of having babesiosis, were examined by nested PCR-RFLP, light microscopy and indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). The detection of B. canis DNA revealed the highest number of infected dogs in the region of Nové Zámky, with 23 B. canis-positive blood samples (35.4%, n=65), followed by an area close to Komárno (both areas of Southern Slovakia), where 1 dog out of 52 collected (1.9%) had detectible B. canis DNA in the blood stream. The serological method revealed an opposing pattern, with only 3 dogs (4.8%, n=63) sampled at Nové Zámky presenting IgG antibodies against B. canis, while in Komárno region such antibodies were detected in 15 dogs (28.8%, n=52). This discrepancy may be because the majority of samples from Nové Zámky were dogs suspected of an acute phase of canine babesiosis, whereas dogs at Komárno were sampled during a vaccination campaign, and thus were without any clinical signs of the disease. The latter group contains evidently recovered carriers of IgG against B. canis. Hence, the combination of PCR-based and serological methods enabled us to discover both recently infected as well as recovered dogs, thus obtaining a more realistic view on the epidemiological situation. Remarkably, we did not find any positive samples in the vicinity of Stupava (district Malacky, Western Slovakia), either by PCR-RFLP, microscopy or IFAT (n=100). Considering the numerous falsely diagnosed cases of canine babesiosis, we suggest that light microscopy as the simplest and most accessible diagnostic test. Southern Slovakia was confirmed as an area of high risk of canine babesiosis, whereas conclusions about B. canis spreading over Western Slovakia should be considered with wariness. PMID:23040770

  19. Diagnostic Classification Modeling: Opportunity for Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Gregory R.

    2009-01-01

    As Rupp and Templin (2008) stated directly, diagnostic classification methods "are confirmatory in nature." Methods, though, are neither inherently confirmatory nor exploratory. Diagnostic classification modeling, with its analytical and computational obstacles eventually yielding as a comprehensive and potent discipline emerges, will find itself…

  20. Fusion plasma diagnostics with microwaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans J Hartfuss

    2010-01-01

    An introductory overview is given on the established methods of probing magnetically confined hot fusion plasmas with microwaves in the mm and sub-mm wavelength regions. Since the plasma dielectric properties are mainly determined by the electron component of the plasma, primarily information on this component is being achieved. The methods can be divided into active and passive diagnostics. Applying the

  1. Fossil/modern mole phylogeny

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This study is introduced at the beginning of class, and runs throughout the quarter. Students are first given a paper describing a morphological phylogeny of modern moles. The first few weeks' labs teach the students basic phylogenetic methods and the aspects of skeletal morphology needed to understand the character descriptions. Students in groups of 2 or 3 are assigned a set of characters from a particular region of the skeleton (i.e. humerus, lower teeth, skull, etc.). Those groups are responsible for learning to distinguish those characters on a representative group of modern specimens (for which the character codings are already available in the paper they have) and then coding those characters for a number of fossil taxa. The fossils are either described in papers posted on the course website or are represented by specimens held in the instructor's research lab. Students are responsible for finding time to come in and work with the specimens. The next to last lab of the quarter is concerned with analyzing data within each group, for the class as a whole, for fossil taxa alone, and for fossil and modern taxa. Students then write up the results of their analyses for their term project due at the end of the quarter.

  2. Real-Time PCR for Diagnosing Helicobacter pylori Infection in Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Comparison with Other Classical Diagnostic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Saez, Jesús; Belda, Sofía; Santibáñez, Miguel; Sola-Vera, Javier; Galiana, Antonio; Ruiz-García, Montserrat; Brotons, Alicia; López-Girona, Elena; Girona, Eva; Sillero, Carlos; Royo, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic usefulness of quantification of the H. pylori genome in detection of infection in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB). A total of 158 consecutive patients with digestive disorders, 80 of whom had clinical presentation of UGB, were studied. The number of microorganisms was quantified using a real-time PCR system which amplifies the urease gene with an internal control for eliminating the false negatives. A biopsy sample from the antrum and corpus of each patient was processed. The rapid urease test, culture, histological study, stool antigen test, and breath test were done. The gold standard was a positive culture or positive results in at least two of the other techniques. When a positive result was defined as any number of microorganisms/human cell, the sensitivity of real-time PCR was greater in bleeding patients, especially in the gastric corpus: 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.3 to 84.5%) in non-UGB patients versus 91.5% (95% CI, 79.6 to 97.6%) in UGB patients. When a positive result was defined as a number of microorganisms/human cell above the optimal value that maximizes the Youden index (>3.56 microorganisms/human cell in the antrum and >2.69 in the corpus), the sensitivity and specificity in UGB patients were over 80% in both antrum and corpus. Our findings suggest that some bleeding patients with infection caused by H. pylori may not be correctly diagnosed by classical methods, and such patients could benefit from the improved diagnosis provided by real-time PCR. However, the clinical significance of a small number of microorganisms in patients with negative results in classical tests should be evaluated. PMID:22837325

  3. Real-time PCR for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding: comparison with other classical diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Saez, Jesús; Belda, Sofía; Santibáñez, Miguel; Rodríguez, Juan Carlos; Sola-Vera, Javier; Galiana, Antonio; Ruiz-García, Montserrat; Brotons, Alicia; López-Girona, Elena; Girona, Eva; Sillero, Carlos; Royo, Gloria

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic usefulness of quantification of the H. pylori genome in detection of infection in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB). A total of 158 consecutive patients with digestive disorders, 80 of whom had clinical presentation of UGB, were studied. The number of microorganisms was quantified using a real-time PCR system which amplifies the urease gene with an internal control for eliminating the false negatives. A biopsy sample from the antrum and corpus of each patient was processed. The rapid urease test, culture, histological study, stool antigen test, and breath test were done. The gold standard was a positive culture or positive results in at least two of the other techniques. When a positive result was defined as any number of microorganisms/human cell, the sensitivity of real-time PCR was greater in bleeding patients, especially in the gastric corpus: 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.3 to 84.5%) in non-UGB patients versus 91.5% (95% CI, 79.6 to 97.6%) in UGB patients. When a positive result was defined as a number of microorganisms/human cell above the optimal value that maximizes the Youden index (>3.56 microorganisms/human cell in the antrum and >2.69 in the corpus), the sensitivity and specificity in UGB patients were over 80% in both antrum and corpus. Our findings suggest that some bleeding patients with infection caused by H. pylori may not be correctly diagnosed by classical methods, and such patients could benefit from the improved diagnosis provided by real-time PCR. However, the clinical significance of a small number of microorganisms in patients with negative results in classical tests should be evaluated. PMID:22837325

  4. Indications and expectations for neuropsychological assessment in routine epilepsy care: Report of the ILAE Neuropsychology Task Force, Diagnostic Methods Commission, 2013-2017.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah J; Baxendale, Sallie; Barr, William; Hamed, Sherifa; Langfitt, John; Samson, Séverine; Watanabe, Masako; Baker, Gus A; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Hermann, Bruce P; Smith, Mary-Lou

    2015-05-01

    The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Diagnostic Methods Commission charged the Neuropsychology Task Force with the job of developing a set of recommendations to address the following questions: (1) What is the role of a neuropsychological assessment? (2) Who should do a neuropsychological assessment? (3) When should people with epilepsy be referred for a neuropsychological assessment? and (4) What should be expected from a neuropsychological assessment? The recommendations have been broadly written for health care clinicians in established epilepsy settings as well as those setting up new services. They are based on a detailed survey of neuropsychological assessment practices across international epilepsy centers, and formal ranking of specific recommendations for advancing clinical epilepsy care generated by specialist epilepsy neuropsychologists from around the world. They also incorporate the latest research findings to establish minimum standards for training and practice, reflecting the many roles of neuropsychological assessment in the routine care of children and adults with epilepsy. The recommendations endorse routine screening of cognition, mood, and behavior in new-onset epilepsy, and describe the range of situations when more detailed, formal neuropsychological assessment is indicated. They identify a core set of cognitive and psychological domains that should be assessed to provide an objective account of an individual's cognitive, emotional, and psychosocial functioning, including factors likely contributing to deficits identified on qualitative and quantitative examination. The recommendations also endorse routine provision of feedback to patients, families, and clinicians about the implications of the assessment results, including specific clinical recommendations of what can be done to improve a patient's cognitive or psychosocial functioning and alleviate the distress of any difficulties identified. By canvassing the breadth and depth of scope of neuropsychological assessment, this report demonstrates the pivotal role played by this noninvasive and minimally resource intensive investigation in the care of people with epilepsy. PMID:25779625

  5. New aspects of modern endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Johannes Wilhelm; Kiesslich, Ralf; Hoffman, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The prognosis for patients with malignancies of the gastrointestinal-tract is strictly dependent on early detection of premalignant and malignant lesions. However, small, flat or depressed neoplastic lesions remain difficult to detect with these technologies thereby limiting their value for polyp and cancer screening. At the same time computer and chip technologies have undergone major technological changes which have greatly improved endoscopic diagnostic investigation. New imaging modalities and techniques are very notable aspects of modern endoscopy. Chromoendoscopy or filter-aided colonoscopy (virtual chromoendoscopy) with high definition endoscopes is able to enhance the detection and characterization of lesions. Finally, confocal laser endomicroscopy provides histological confirmation of the presence of neoplastic changes. The developing techniques around colonoscopy such as the retro-viewing colonoscope, the balloon-colonoscope or the 330-degrees-viewing colonoscope try to enhance the efficacy by reducing the adenoma miss rate in right-sided, non-polypoid lesions. Colon capsule endoscopy is limited to identifying cancer and not necessarily small adenomas. Preliminary attempts have been made to introduce this technique in clinical routine. PMID:25132916

  6. Use of soft x-ray diagnostic on the COMPASS tokamak for investigations of sawteeth crash neighborhood and of plasma position using fast inversion methods

    SciTech Connect

    Imrisek, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Weinzettl, V.; Mlynar, J.; Panek, R.; Hron, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Odstrcil, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Odstrcil, M. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Optical Research Center, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Ficker, O. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Pinzon, J. R. [Institue Jean Lamour, Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Ehrlacher, C. [ENS Cachan, Paris (France)

    2014-11-15

    The soft x-ray diagnostic is suitable for monitoring plasma activity in the tokamak core, e.g., sawtooth instability. Moreover, spatially resolved measurements can provide information about plasma position and shape, which can supplement magnetic measurements. In this contribution, fast algorithms with the potential for a real-time use are tested on the data from the COMPASS tokamak. In addition, the soft x-ray data are compared with data from other diagnostics in order to discuss possible connection between sawtooth instability on one side and the transition to higher confinement mode, edge localized modes and productions of runaway electrons on the other side.

  7. Modern Physics for Kids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardeen, Marjorie

    2011-04-01

    But it's the last chapter in the book! What should young people learn about modern physics? The setting could be a school classroom or a university lecture hall, laboratory or computer lab. The experience should build understandings and relationships. The approach should involve engagement and exploration. We discuss several activities for secondary students based on experiences of the particle physics community.

  8. Educating the Modern Manager

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT HOGAN; RODNEY WARRENFELTZ

    2003-01-01

    Continuous changes in both the economy and technology, as well as changes in the speed of change, suggest that managers who lead modern organizations need to be engaged in a constant learning process. Although much executive education focuses on technical and financial issues, we believe that the big mistakes in careers and organizations result from a lack of knowledge of

  9. Gnotobiology in modern medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podoprigora, G. I.

    1980-01-01

    A review is given of currently accepted theories and applications of gnotobiology. A brief history of gnotobiology is supplied. Problems involved in creating germ-free gnotobiota and the use of these animals in experimental biology are cited. Examples of how gnotobiology is used in modern medical practice illustrate the future prospects for this area of science.

  10. Moderne Aspekte der Reproduktionsmedizin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ludwig; K. Diedrich

    2002-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Moderne Aspekte der Reproduktionsmedizin betreffen neben der In-vitro-Fertilisation (IVF) oder der intrazytoplasmatischen Spermieninjektion (ICSI) auch v. a. die ovarielle Stimulation. Technisch scheint sich seit Einführung der IVF bzw. ICSI kaum mehr eine Neuerung von ähnlich weitreichender Bedeutung ergeben zu haben. Die Effektivität favorisierter Verfahren wie des \\

  11. Acupuncture in Modern Society

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin VanderPloeg; Xiaobin Yi

    2009-01-01

    For at least 2,500 years, acupuncture has been an integral part of traditional Chinese medicine. However, recently as more people in western countries are diagnosed with chronic disease poorly treated with modern medical therapies, many are turning to acupuncture and other forms of alternative medical treatments. Based on the theory of harmonious flowing qi being the basis of good health,

  12. Modern Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard S. Bloom

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a detailed discussion of the theory and practice of modern regression discontinuity (RD) analysis for estimating the effects of interventions or treatments. Part 1 briefly chronicles the history of RD analysis and summarizes its past applications. Part 2 explains how in theory an RD analysis can identify an average effect of treatment for a population and how

  13. Modern biotechnology in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned. PMID:19626302

  14. Communication Networks and Modernization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1993-01-01

    The last three decades have witnessed an acceleration in the use, demand, and need of telecommunications, data communication, and mass communication transmitted and, increasingly, integrated into networks. This acceleration can be explained by a synthesis of the modernization theories of Giddens (the concept of time-space distantiation) and Beniger (the problems of control in a complex society). A central theme is

  15. Principles of Modern Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beim, George

    This book is written to give a better understanding of the principles of modern soccer to coaches and players. In nine chapters the following elements of the game are covered: (1) the development of systems; (2) the principles of attack; (3) the principles of defense; (4) training games; (5) strategies employed in restarts; (6) physical fitness…

  16. Modern Physics Resource Packet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Moloney, Mike

    This website contains a collection of computational resources for use in a modern physics class. Maple, Mathematica, and Excel files are provided to introduce students to scientific computation and can be downloaded from this page. This collection includes suggested problems for use with the CUPS software. Topics covered include blackbody radiation, scattering, atomic orbitals, tunneling, uncertainty, and relativity.

  17. The modern engineering bandwagon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Moore

    1968-01-01

    An outstanding educator in the field of electrical engineering expresses his concern over the trend to distort modern engineering curricula into a virtual maze of mathematics and theory. The practical aspects of electrical engineering are being neglected, since there is not enough time for both practical work and theory. To paraphrase, an expert on energy conversion theory could freeze to

  18. Similitude in modern pharmacology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MZ Teixeira

    1999-01-01

    The principle of the similitude, the basis of homeopathy, has correspondences in the clinical studies of secondary effects of many modern pharmaceutical agents through the observation of the rebound effects of these drugs. Through clinical pharmacology, I proposed a model on which to base the scientificism of the homeopathic model. We have studied the effects of the drugs in the

  19. Modern programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  20. Modern Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a detailed discussion of the theory and practice of modern regression discontinuity (RD) analysis for estimating the effects of interventions or treatments. Part 1 briefly chronicles the history of RD analysis and summarizes its past applications. Part 2 explains how in theory an RD analysis can identify an average effect of…

  1. [The drawbacks of diagnostic diligence].

    PubMed

    Giard, R W; Coebergh, J W

    1998-10-01

    More, earlier and better diagnostic work is being done nowadays, leasing to detection of abnormalities and preliminary stages that used to remain undetected; a large reservoir of subclinical disorders is found to exist. More intensive and sensitive diagnostic methods as a rule lead to higher disease prevalence figures, with the consequences of a seeming increase of disease risk, unnecessary further examinations, treatment and follow-up of individuals and overestimation of the effects of treatment. This may even start a vicious circle. More attention should be given to using diagnostic methods in such a way that the earlier and more frequent detection of disease actually profits the patient. The proof of this should be found in scientific (population) studies of the magnitude and severity of the burden of disease, the determinants of progression, the severity of abnormalities and diseases and the favourable effect of (early) treatment. PMID:9864479

  2. [X-ray diagnostic machine synchronization control on EMC test].

    PubMed

    Ding, Hongbin

    2013-03-01

    This paper puts forward a new synchronous loading control method using EMC test system & X-ray diagnostic machine in the field of X-ray diagnostic machine on EMC test, solves it's recurrence problem. PMID:23777073

  3. In vitro diagnostic prospects of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Azzazy, Hassan M E; Mansour, Mai M H

    2009-05-01

    There is a constant need to improve the performance of current diagnostic assays as well as develop innovative testing strategies to meet new testing challenges. The use of nanoparticles promises to help promote in vitro diagnostics to the next level of performance. Quantum dots (QDs), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and superparamagnetic nanoparticles are the most promising nanostructures for in vitro diagnostic applications. These nanoparticles can be conjugated to recognition moieties such as antibodies or oligonucleotides for detection of target biomolecules. Nanoparticles have been utilized in immunoassays, immunohistochemistry, DNA diagnostics, bioseparation of specific cell populations, and cellular imaging. Nanoparticle-based diagnostics may open new frontiers for detection of tumours, infectious diseases, bio-terrorism agents, and neurological diseases, to name a few. More work is necessary to fully optimize use of nanoparticles for clinical diagnosis and to resolve some concerns regarding potential health and environmental risks related to their use. However, we envision further developments of nanoparticle-based diagnostics will yield unique assays with enhanced sensitivity and multiplexing capability for the modern clinical laboratory. PMID:19361470

  4. Development of a Low-Energetic Metastable Helium Beam Injector for Electric Field Diagnostics by Laser-Induced Fluorescence Method in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Masuda; Takanori Ando; Tetsuya Nishi; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa

    2005-01-01

    Progresses in development of a metastable helium atomic beam injector as a beam prove for electric field diagnoses are described, which is applicable to a high electric potential region in inertial electrostatic confinement plasmas where a solid probe can hardly be utilized. Configuration refinement of setup of a skimmer to take a collimated diagnostic beam out of the gas jet

  5. A real-time intelligent multiple fault diagnostic system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Hwan Bae; Seok-Hee Lee; Ho-Chan Kim; Byung-Ryong Lee; Jaejin Jang; Jay Lee

    2006-01-01

    Modern manufacturing systems and their failure modes are very complex, and efficient fault diagnosis is essential for higher\\u000a productivity. However, traditional fault diagnostic systems that perform sequential fault diagnosis can fail during diagnosis\\u000a when fault propagation is very fast. This paper describes a real-time intelligent multiple fault diagnostic system (RIMFDS).\\u000a This system deals with multiple fault diagnosis, and is based

  6. A multispectral imaging approach for diagnostics of skin pathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihacova, Ilze; Derjabo, Aleksandrs; Spigulis, Janis

    2013-06-01

    Noninvasive multispectral imaging method was applied for different skin pathology such as nevus, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma diagnostics. Developed melanoma diagnostic parameter, using three spectral bands (540 nm, 650 nm and 950 nm), was calculated for nevus, melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. Simple multispectral diagnostic device was established and applied for skin assessment. Development and application of multispectral diagnostics method described further in this article.

  7. Volume 3, Chapter 9: The Method for Making Strings Note: In addition to the original text, please see a modern commentary at the end of this

    E-print Network

    Binkley, Jim

    with it after the strings are made. The method for matching up the cords: Silkworms make their cocoons out is made from the che (#) tree. 1 The next best is made from silkworms fed on mulberry leaves. The third best is made from original silkworms, [ second silkworms]. 2 The che kind is clear and the mulberry

  8. MOMA: Modern Women

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How are women represented at the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) in New York? It's a fascinating question and this website takes a look at just that. The site was designed to complement a publication looking at contemporary female artists whose work has been included in various MOMA collections. The materials here are divided into four areas, including Exhibitions, Video, Modern Women: A Partial History, and Online Collection. Within the Video section, visitors can look through over two dozen videos that include interviews with MOMA's archivists and leading artists such as Maya Deren. Moving on, visitors can click on the Artists tab to view biographical profiles and artwork by the women featured in the online collection. There are some great pieces here, such as "Malcolm X Speaks for Us" by Elizabeth Catlett or Eva Hesse's "Repetition Nineteen III." Visitors can also explore the Blog for meditations on Lillian Gish or musings on the use of art in everyday spaces.

  9. Modernizing engine displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, E. T.; Enevoldson, E. K.

    1984-01-01

    The introduction of electronic fuel control to modern turbine engines has a number of advantages, which are related to an increase in engine performance and to a reduction or elimination of the problems associated with high angle of attack engine operation from the surface to 50,000 feet. If the appropriate engine display devices are available to the pilot, the fuel control system can provide a great amount of information. Some of the wealth of information available from modern fuel controls are discussed in this paper. The considered electronic engine control systems in their most recent forms are known as the Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) and the Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC). Attention is given to some details regarding the control systems, typical engine problems, the solution of problems with the aid of displays, engine displays in normal operation, an example display format, a multipage format, flight strategies, and hardware considerations.

  10. A new diagnostic device: KINOX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaritsky, A. R.; Zaritskaya, G. A.; Pronin, V. S.; Raspopov, N. A.; Fock, M. V.

    2005-08-01

    A new diagnostic device KINOX created at P N Lebedev Physics Institute is described. With this device it is possible to trace the variations of oxygen permeability in erythrocyte membranes during the blood oxygenation. The molecular mechanism responsible for these variations was explained and experimentally tested at P N Lebedev Physics Institute. The diagnostic method is substantiated capable of estimating physiological reserves of organism basing on the results of blood oxygenation measurements performed with the KINOX. The possible reduction in physiological reserves of organism under the laser action on malignant tumor can be detected in this way.

  11. Modern anaesthesia vapourisers.

    PubMed

    Chakravarti, Sucharita; Basu, Srabani

    2013-09-01

    Inhalational anaesthetic agents are usually liquids at room temperature and barometric pressure and need to be converted to vapour before being used and this conversion is effected using a vapouriser. Vapourisers have evolved from very basic devices to more complicated ones. Anaesthetists should understand the basic principles of anaesthetic vapouriser, including the principles that affect vapouriser output and how they influence vapouriser design. Most of the modern vapourisers in use are designed to be used between the flow meter and the common gas outlet on the anaesthesia machine. Modern vapourisers are flow and temperature compensated, concentration calibrated, direct reading, dial controlled and are unaffected by positive-pressure ventilation. Safety features include an anti-spill and a select-a-tec mechanism and a specific vapouriser filling device. Desflurane has unique physical properties requiring the use of a specific desflurane vapouriser. The most recently designed vapourisers are controlled by a central processing unit in the anaesthetic machine. The concentration of vapour is continuously monitored and adjusted by altering fresh gas flow through the vapouriser. This article looks at the basic design and functioning of the modern vapourisers. PMID:24249879

  12. The emerging landscape of salivary diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Sun, Jie; Lin, Chien-Chung; Abemayor, Elliot; Wang, Marilene B; Wong, David T W

    2014-06-01

    Saliva as a diagnostic tool provides a noninvasive, simple and low-cost method for disease detection and screening. Saliva collection is more practical and comfortable compared with other invasive methods, and saliva can be a desirable body fluid for biomarker detection in clinical applications. The integration of omics methods has allowed accurate detection and quantification of transcripts found in saliva and a group of biomarkers has been discovered and validated in a series of studies. Here we review recent developments in salivary diagnostics that have been accomplished using salivaomics, the mechanisms of saliva diagnostics, as well as the translational and clinical application of saliva biomarkers. PMID:24984623

  13. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography, FibroScan®, Forns' index and their combination in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B, and the impact of inflammatory activity and steatosis on these diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Dong, Dao-Ran; Hao, Mei-Na; Li, Cheng; Peng, Ze; Liu, Xia; Wang, Gui-Ping; Ma, An-Lin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the combination of certain serological markers (Forns' index; FI), FibroScan® and acoustic radiation force impulse elastography (ARFI) in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis B, and to explore the impact of inflammatory activity and steatosis on the accuracy of these diagnostic methods. Eighty?one patients who had been diagnosed with hepatitis B were recruited and the stage of fibrosis was determined by biopsy. The diagnostic accuracy of FI, FibroScan and ARFI, as well as that of the combination of these methods, was evaluated based on the conformity of the results from these tests with those of biopsies. The effect of concomitant inflammation on diagnostic accuracy was also investigated by dividing the patients into two groups based on the grade of inflammation (G<2 and G?2). The overall univariate correlation between steatosis and the diagnostic value of the three methods was also evaluated. There was a significant association between the stage of fibrosis and the results obtained using ARFI and FibroScan (Kruskal?Wallis; P<0.001 for all patients), and FI (t-test, P<0.001 for all patients). The combination of FI with ARFI/FibroScan increased the predictive accuracy with a fibrosis stage of S?2 or cirrhosis. There was a significant correlation between the grade of inflammation and the results obtained using ARFI and FibroScan (Kruskal?Wallis, P<0.001 for all patients), and FI (t-test; P<0.001 for all patients). No significant correlation was detected between the measurements obtained using ARFI, FibroScan and FI, and steatosis (r=?0.100, P=0.407; r=0.170, P=0.163; and r=0.154, P=0.216, respectively). ARFI was shown to be as effective in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis as FibroScan or FI, and the combination of ARFI or FibroScan with FI may improve the accuracy of diagnosis. The presence of inflammatory activity, but not that of steatosis, may affect the diagnostic accuracy of these methods. PMID:25651500

  14. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography, FibroScan®, Forns’ index and their combination in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B, and the impact of inflammatory activity and steatosis on these diagnostic methods

    PubMed Central

    DONG, DAO-RAN; HAO, MEI-NA; LI, CHENG; PENG, ZE; LIU, XIA; WANG, GUI-PING; MA, AN-LIN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the combination of certain serological markers (Forns’ index; FI), FibroScan® and acoustic radiation force impulse elastography (ARFI) in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis B, and to explore the impact of inflammatory activity and steatosis on the accuracy of these diagnostic methods. Eighty-one patients who had been diagnosed with hepatitis B were recruited and the stage of fibrosis was determined by biopsy. The diagnostic accuracy of FI, FibroScan and ARFI, as well as that of the combination of these methods, was evaluated based on the conformity of the results from these tests with those of biopsies. The effect of concomitant inflammation on diagnostic accuracy was also investigated by dividing the patients into two groups based on the grade of inflammation (G<2 and G?2). The overall univariate correlation between steatosis and the diagnostic value of the three methods was also evaluated. There was a significant association between the stage of fibrosis and the results obtained using ARFI and FibroScan (Kruskal-Wallis; P<0.001 for all patients), and FI (t-test, P<0.001 for all patients). The combination of FI with ARFI/FibroScan increased the predictive accuracy with a fibrosis stage of S?2 or cirrhosis. There was a significant correlation between the grade of inflammation and the results obtained using ARFI and FibroScan (Kruskal-Wallis, P<0.001 for all patients), and FI (t-test; P<0.001 for all patients). No significant correlation was detected between the measurements obtained using ARFI, FibroScan and FI, and steatosis (r=?0.100, P=0.407; r=0.170, P=0.163; and r=0.154, P=0.216, respectively). ARFI was shown to be as effective in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis as FibroScan or FI, and the combination of ARFI or FibroScan with FI may improve the accuracy of diagnosis. The presence of inflammatory activity, but not that of steatosis, may affect the diagnostic accuracy of these methods. PMID:25651500

  15. Principles of plasma diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian H. Hutchinson

    1987-01-01

    Principles of Plasma Diagnostics provides a detailed derivation and discussion of the plasma physics principles on which diagnostics are base, including magnetic measurements, electric probes, refractive index, radiation emission and scattering, and ionic processes. The text is based on first-principles development of the required concepts and includes examples of diagnostics in action taken from fusion research.

  16. Practical dosimetry methods for the determination of effective skin and breast dose for a modern CT system, incorporating partial irradiation and prospective cardiac gating

    PubMed Central

    Loader, R J; Gosling, O; Roobottom, C; Morgan-Hughes, G; Rowles, N

    2012-01-01

    Objective For CT coronary angiography (CTCA), a generic chest conversion factor returns a significant underestimate of effective dose. The aim of this manuscript is to communicate new dosimetry methods to calculate weighted CT dose index (CTDIw), effective dose, entrance surface dose (ESD) and organ dose to the breast for prospectively gated CTCA. Methods CTDIw in 32 cm diameter Perspex phantom was measured using an adapted technique, accounting for the segmented scan characteristic. Gafchromic XRCT film (International Speciality Products, New Jersey, NJ) was used to measure the distribution and magnitude of ESD. Breast dose was measured using high sensitivity metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors and compared to the computer based imaging performance assessment of CT scanners (ImPACT) dosimetry calculations. Results For a typical cardiac scan the mean ESD remained broadly constant (7–9 mGy) when averaged over the circumference of the Perspex phantom. Typical absorbed dose to the breast with prospectively gated protocols was within the range 2–15 mGy. The subsequent lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence to the breast was found at 0.01–0.06 for a 20-year-old female. This compares favourably to 100 mGy (LAR ?0.43) for a retrospectively gated CTCA. Conclusions Care must be taken when considering radiation dosimetry associated with prospectively gated scanning for CTCA and a method has been conveyed to account for this. Breast doses for prospectively gated CTCA are an order of magnitude lower than retrospectively gated scans. Optimisation of cardiac protocols is expected to show further dose reduction. PMID:21896660

  17. Combined spectroscopic methods for electron-density diagnostics inside atmospheric-pressure glow discharge using He\\/N2 gas mixture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiichiro Urabe; Osamu Sakai; Kunihide Tachibana

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the spatiotemporal structures of electron density inside an atmospheric-pressure glow discharge in a gaseous medium of He with small N2 impurity using a parallel-plate dielectric barrier discharge configuration. To reveal the spatial distributions of temporal-peak electron density, we combined the measurement results of two spectroscopic diagnostics applied to the same plasma source: CO2-laser heterodyne interferometry and millimetre-wave transmission

  18. Review of Modern Spacecraft Thermal Control Technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek W. Hengeveld; Margaret M. Mathison; James E. Braun; Eckhard A. Groll; Andrew D. Williams

    2010-01-01

    Originally created and developed for space applications, several commercial terrestrial technologies still permeate our society today. Examples include solar cells, Global Positioning Systems, and less expensive methods of carbon nanotube manufacture. Given a long and successful history of spinoffs, there might exist opportunities for the transfer of modern spacecraft thermal control technologies to terrestrial HVAC&R applications. First, this paper presents

  19. CASE BASED ANTIPICATION FOR MODERN FASHION TREND

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Butdee; C. Noomtong

    Speed and flexibility are the two critical factors for competitiveness. Presently, product life cycle is shorten and more fashionable. The risky is that the new product must be met with market requirements. Modern fashion trend analysis is indispensable in order to reduce storage of end products. Effective methods together with sufficient database are needed to make the analysis more accurate.

  20. Optical access and diagnostic techniques for internal combustion engine devlopment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winklhofer, Ernst

    2001-07-01

    Methods for optical access to combustion chambers of internal combustion engines are shown. The optical access is either maximized to allow application of complex optical diagnostic techniques while maintaining minimum necessary operability of the engine or engine components, or full engine operability is maintained while optical access and diagnostic techniques are tailored to the diagnostic demand and the restraints of engine operation. As full optical access allows a wide range of diagnostics to be applied, it puts the emphasis on organizing and extending realistic engine operation conditions. Full engine operability, however, challenges the optical access and the design of diagnostic systems. The paper gives examples for diagnostic applications for both of these situations.

  1. Assessing modern ground survey methods and airborne laser scanning for digital terrain modelling: A case study from the Lake District, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallay, Michal; Lloyd, Christopher D.; McKinley, Jennifer; Barry, Lorraine

    2013-02-01

    This paper compares the applicability of three ground survey methods for modelling terrain: one man electronic tachymetry (TPS), real time kinematic GPS (GPS), and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). Vertical accuracy of digital terrain models (DTMs) derived from GPS, TLS and airborne laser scanning (ALS) data is assessed. Point elevations acquired by the four methods represent two sections of a mountainous area in Cumbria, England. They were chosen so that the presence of non-terrain features is constrained to the smallest amount. The vertical accuracy of the DTMs was addressed by subtracting each DTM from TPS point elevations. The error was assessed using exploratory measures including statistics, histograms, and normal probability plots. The results showed that the internal measurement accuracy of TPS, GPS, and TLS was below a centimetre. TPS and GPS can be considered equally applicable alternatives for sampling the terrain in areas accessible on foot. The highest DTM vertical accuracy was achieved with GPS data, both on sloped terrain (RMSE 0.16 m) and flat terrain (RMSE 0.02 m). TLS surveying was the most efficient overall but veracity of terrain representation was subject to dense vegetation cover. Therefore, the DTM accuracy was the lowest for the sloped area with dense bracken (RMSE 0.52 m) although it was the second highest on the flat unobscured terrain (RMSE 0.07 m). ALS data represented the sloped terrain more realistically (RMSE 0.23 m) than the TLS. However, due to a systematic bias identified on the flat terrain the DTM accuracy was the lowest (RMSE 0.29 m) which was above the level stated by the data provider. Error distribution models were more closely approximated by normal distribution defined using median and normalized median absolute deviation which supports the use of the robust measures in DEM error modelling and its propagation.

  2. Diagnostics for plasma processing -- An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, J.

    1999-07-01

    The use of plasmas in the production of integrated circuits has spurred the development of a variety of diagnostic tools. The goal of plasma diagnostics in this application is twofold. The diagnostic tools are used to aid in understanding of plasma physics and chemistry, so that processes and hardware may be optimized. For this goal the diagnostic tools are used in an R + D setting. Plasma diagnostic methods are also sought after to serve as sensors for process control. For this application the diagnostic techniques must be low cost, non-invasive, robust, and repeatable. Much understanding has been obtained by applying the classic plasma diagnostic techniques, such as langmuir probes, optical spectroscopy, and microwave interferometry, to processing plasmas. More detailed information has come from advanced diagnostics such as energy analysis of charged particles, laser induced fluorescence, and mass spectrometry. The demands of process control have been met by non-invasive techniques that require minimal access to the plasma, such as optical emission spectroscopy, RF measurements outside the plasma source, and to some extent by residual gas analysis. An overview of these diagnostics will be given, along with their contribution to the understanding of plasma physics and plasma chemistry.

  3. Diagnostic Accuracy of Consensus Diagnostic Criteria for Frontotemporal Dementia in a Memory Clinic Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yolande A. L. Pijnenburg; Jacqueline L. Mulder; John C. van Swieten; Bernard M. J. Uitdehaag; Martijn Stevens; Philip Scheltens; Cees Jonker

    2008-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The goal of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the core diagnostic criteria for frontotemporal dementia (FTD) [Neary D, et al: Neurology 1998;51:1546–1554] within a memory clinic population. Methods: The 5 core diagnostic criteria for FTD were operationalised in an informant-based written questionnaire. For a diagnosis of FTD the total clinical picture was weighted with

  4. Phillip Buehler: Modern Ruins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created and maintained by photographer Phillip Buehler, this site showcases photos he has taken at various "modern ruins," decaying buildings or sites that still perhaps echo human presence. While there are twenty collections of photos on the site, only the first six are presented as thumbnail indexes with brief introductions and captions. The remaining sections are available as small images with no descriptions. Still, Buehler offers some lovely photos. Highlights include Ellis Island, Coney Island, the 1964 New York World's Fair pavilions, and the airplane graveyard. Buehler's homepage contains several other photo collections, including "Street Fossils," items he found embedded in hot summer asphalt, "Above New York," and "New York Cityscapes."

  5. Equipment and methods for studying radiation in ballistic experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baulin, N. N.; Biriukov, A. M.; Kuvalkin, D. G.; Piliugin, N. N.; Taganov, O. K.

    Problems related to the instrumental and methodological support of model ballistic experiments are briefly reviewed with emphasis on optical instruments and methods. It is pointed out that the state-of-the-art instrumentation of modern aeroballistic testing equipment provides the necessary basis for the introduction of the known diagnostic techniques based on radiation scattering, such as Raman spectroscopy, resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, and coherent anti-Stokes scattering spectroscopy.

  6. "Developing next generation cancer diagnostics and therapeutics."

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    "Developing next generation cancer diagnostics and therapeutics." Kimberly Kelly Associate microenvironment, to develop targeted drug delivery systems, and to understand the signaling pathways involved agent · Developed functional proteomics methods to identify lead target molecules for imaging and drug

  7. Strategic health care demands modern NDE processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Teal; William Larsen

    2003-01-01

    If the goal is to improve either aviation or shuttle safety and systems reliability then modem methods of wire systems diagnostics, prognostics, mediation, repair, and validation are a must. This requires using modem non-destructive evaluation (NDE) procedures and equipment which yields information that supports the operator's wire health management program and feeds into his aging aircraft or shuttle containment processes.

  8. Diagnostic Transitions from Childhood to Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William E.; Adair, Carol E.; Smetanin, Paul; Stiff, David; Briante, Carla; Colman, Ian; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John; Poulton, Richie; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Quantifying diagnostic transitions across development is needed to estimate the long-term burden of mental illness. This study estimated patterns of diagnostic transitions from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to early adulthood. Methods: Patterns of diagnostic transitions were estimated using data from three prospective,…

  9. Fusion plasma diagnostics with mm-waves - basic principles and recent developments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Hartfuss

    2004-01-01

    Microwave techniques play an important role in modern fusion plasma diagnostics. Both passive radiometry as well as active probing techniques are in use. Basically the confining magnetic field and the electron density of the plasma determine its dielectric properties and resonances. The probing wavelength in interferometry are in the infrared range without changing the basic principles of the microwave diagnostic

  10. Translation: an example from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Liu; C. Hoede

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we gave an idea of translation by means of knowledge graph theory from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese, by using an example story. Actually, we give the details of the method of translation from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese step by step as carried out by hand. From the example, we found that knowledge graphs have a

  11. Advanced diagnostics and instrumentation for chemically reactive systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Hanson; D. Baganoff; C. T. Bowman; R. L. Byer; B. J. Cantwell; S. A. Self

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported for the first year of an interdisciplinary program to investigate and develop modern diagnostic techniques for application to reacting flows. Project areas include: (1) development and application of optical probes for species measurements employing tunable ultraviolet, visible and infrared laser sources; (2) development and application of a coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) system for temperature and velocity

  12. A Review of Diagnostic Techniques for ISHM Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Patterson-Hine; Gordon Aaseng

    System diagnosis is an integral part of any Integrated System Health Management application. Diagnostic applications make use of system information from the design phase, such as safety and mission assurance analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, hazards analysis, functional models, fault propagation models, and testability analysis. In modern process control and equipment monitoring systems, topological and analytic models of the

  13. SFMOMA: Explore Modern Art

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art website has a wonderful feature that aims to help visitors of the online exhibits (or the physical museum) understand what was going on in the mind of the artist, the curator, or art historian when they created, chose or studied a work of art. The "Explore Modern Art" link provides a multimedia resource which helps visitors better understand this often misunderstood mode of artistic endeavor. Visitors can go to the archive of multimedia presentations released by SFMOMA, which covers more than 50 artists, such as Sol LeWitt and Betye Saar. To hear the musings of curators on exhibits at SFMOMA, visitors should click on the "Audio" link under "Multimedia." If you are not familiar with the artwork featured in the audio, most of the audio features provide a link to a biography of the artist featured, as well as to a few of their works. Visitors shouldn't miss watching the time-lapse video of "SFMOMA installs Ann Hamilton's indigo blue", which can be found in the "Video" link on the left said of the page.

  14. Making the Modern World

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Making the Modern World offers a dynamic rendition of the permanent gallery at the Science Museum in London. The "learning modules" are "packed with demonstrations, activities and rich media experiences" and "designed for use by everyone interested in learning more about the evolution of the modern world." Topics include how to engineer DNA, how the world's most famous bridges were built, and war technology. The Stories Timeline section provides a timeline of stories about inventions to "show how our lives are shaped by the things we make, invent and use." Articles are embedded within the timeline for further exploration of the topics. Another section highlights some of the Icons of Invention, such as the home computer and the Apollo 10 command module. The Everyday Life section explores how "technology is woven through our daily lives at home, at work or at play." Finally, the Guided Tours chronologically follows a particular topic, such as women in science and technology. All of the sections include photographs and are easy to navigate.

  15. Heliotropism in modern stromatolites

    SciTech Connect

    Awramik, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Three different examples of modern microbial mats and stromatolites have been discovered that exhibit a preferred orientation towards specular sunlight. In Hamelin Pool of Shark Bay, Western Australia, subtidal decimeter-sized discrete columns and intertidal centimeter-sized tufts were found pointing north. In thermal spring effluents and pools of Yellowstone National Park, columnar and conical centimeter-sized microbial structures were found to be inclined to the south. None of these inclined structures show growth orientation in response to prevailing fluid directions. Each example occurs in markedly different environments and each has different photosynthetic microbes: (1) the subtidal Shark Bay columns are dominated by surficial diatoms: (2) the intertidal Shark Bay tufts constructed by a filamentous cyanobacterium; and (3) the cones and columns in Yellowstone are built by filamentous flexibacteria and cyanobacteria. Sunlight must be considered a major driving force in stromatolite morphogenesis. Extrapolation of these modern heliotropic columnar stromatolites to fossil examples supports the paleolatitude hypothesis of Vologdin (1961) and of Nordeng (1963) and the days per year hypothesis of Vanyo and Awramik (1982). Taken together, and especially when combined with paleomagnetic analyses, the procedures yield an impressive array of data on Earth and Earth-Sun-Moon histories.

  16. Diagnostic value of AgNOR staining in follicular cell neoplasms of the thyroid: comparison of evaluation methods and nucleolar features.

    PubMed

    Rüschoff, J; Prasser, C; Cortez, T; Höhne, H M; Hohenberger, W; Hofstädter, F

    1993-12-01

    The diagnostic value of argyrophil staining of nucleolar organizer regions (AgNOR) was studied in 95 nonneoplastic and neoplastic follicular lesions of the thyroid. Different AgNOR parameters such as number, size, and distribution pattern were determined using digital image analysis. In addition, nuclear and nucleolar size as well as the percentage of nucleoli touching the nuclear membrane (nucleolar margination) were assessed. A stepwise increase in nuclear size and AgNOR counts from normal thyroid tissue to follicular adenoma as well as from differentiated follicular to anaplastic carcinoma was found (mean nuclear area [micron2]/mean AgNOR number per cell: 21.5/1.6 vs. 34.4/3.5 and 45.3/5.0 vs. 66.5/10.8, p < 0.01/p < 0.001). There was, however, no clear separation between these diagnostic groups. In contrast, an almost total discrimination between follicular adenoma and carcinoma was achieved by quantification of AgNORs per tumor cell nucleolus (AgNOR distribution score). In benign adenomas, 3.3% (range, 0-8.8%) of the cells showed nucleoli with at least five AgNOR dots within one focal plane, whereas in follicular carcinomas, the corresponding value was 34.1% (range, 12-75%). Two of four cases of so-called atypical adenomas showed values in the range of benign adenomas, and two were in the range of follicular carcinomas. In comparison with other nuclear and nucleolar parameters, the AgNOR distribution score proved the most valuable diagnostic criterion for the cytomorphological differentiation between follicular adenoma and carcinoma of the thyroid. PMID:8238736

  17. Beam by design: Laser manipulation of electrons in modern accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemsing, Erik; Stupakov, Gennady; Xiang, Dao; Zholents, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Accelerator-based light sources such as storage rings and free-electron lasers use relativistic electron beams to produce intense radiation over a wide spectral range for fundamental research in physics, chemistry, materials science, biology, and medicine. More than a dozen such sources operate worldwide, and new sources are being built to deliver radiation that meets with the ever-increasing sophistication and depth of new research. Even so, conventional accelerator techniques often cannot keep pace with new demands and, thus, new approaches continue to emerge. In this article, a variety of recently developed and promising techniques that rely on lasers to manipulate and rearrange the electron distribution in order to tailor the properties of the radiation are reviewed. Basic theories of electron-laser interactions, techniques to create microstructures and nanostructures in electron beams, and techniques to produce radiation with customizable waveforms are reviewed. An overview of laser-based techniques for the generation of fully coherent x rays, mode-locked x-ray pulse trains, light with orbital angular momentum, and attosecond or even zeptosecond long coherent pulses in free-electron lasers is presented. Several methods to generate femtosecond pulses in storage rings are also discussed. Additionally, various schemes designed to enhance the performance of light sources through precision beam preparation including beam conditioning, laser heating, emittance exchange, and various laser-based diagnostics are described. Together these techniques represent a new emerging concept of "beam by design" in modern accelerators, which is the primary focus of this article.

  18. Integrating clinical indexes into four-diagnostic information contributes to the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) syndrome diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hong; Zhao, Yu; Li, Chao; Chen, Yujia; Tang, Kailin; Yang, Linlin; Ma, Chao; Peng, Jinghua; Zhu, Ruixin; Liu, Qi; Hu, Yiyang; Cao, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) treatment has been commonly used to treat Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) in Asian countries based on TCM syndrome diagnosis, also called "ZHENG". The syndrome is identified through the four-diagnostic methods, with certain degree of subjectivity and ambiguity from individual doctors. Normally those CHB patients also receive series of parameters from modern clinical examination, while they are routinely believed to be unrelated with the TCM syndrome diagnosis. In this study, we investigated whether these biomedical indexes in modern medicine could be beneficial to TCM syndrome diagnostics in an integrative way. Based on 634 patient samples from health controls and three subtypes of CHB syndromes, a two-view based hierarchical classification model was tested for TCM syndromes prediction based on totally 222 parameters integrated from both TCM practice and modern clinical tests. The results indicated that the performance of syndrome classification based on a proper integration of TCM and modern clinical indexes was significantly higher than those based on one view of parameters only. Furthermore, those indexes correlated with CHB syndrome diagnosis were successfully identified for CM indexes and biochemical indexes respectively, where potential associations between them were hinted to the MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:25797918

  19. Modernizing sports facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dustin, R. [McKenney`s, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Modernization and renovation of sports facilities challenge the design team to balance a number of requirements: spectator and owner expectations, existing building and site conditions, architectural layouts, code and legislation issues, time constraints and budget issues. System alternatives are evaluated and selected based on the relative priorities of these requirements. These priorities are unique to each project. At Alexander Memorial Coliseum, project schedules, construction funds and facility usage became the priorities. The ACC basketball schedule and arrival of the Centennial Olympics dictated the construction schedule. Initiation and success of the project depended on the commitment of the design team to meet coliseum funding levels established three years ago. Analysis of facility usage and system alternative capabilities drove the design team to select a system that met the project requirements and will maximize the benefits to the owner and spectators for many years to come.

  20. Modern carbonate environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, A.; Friedman, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    This book offers help in evaluating potential sites for oil and gas accumulations. Pointing the way to discovery of hydrocarbons in carbonate reservoirs, this volume discusses modern carbonate depositional environments in different geomorphic settings. It compiles papers by scientists whose observations have revolutionized current thinking on facies relationships in ancient carbonate rock. Contents include: Selected carbonate regions --The Algal Sediments on Androa Island in the Bahamas, Sedimentary Facies, Interaction of Genetic Processes in Holocene Reefs off North Eleuthera Island in the Bahamas, Recent Anhydrite, Holocene Shallow-Water Carbonate and Evaporite Sediments of Khor al Bazam; Carbonate production--On the Origin of Aragonite in the Dead Sea, Carbonate Production by Coral Reefs; Cold-water carbonates--Contributions on the Geology of the Northwestern Peninsula of Iceland, Evaluation of Cold-Water Carbonates as a Possible Paleoclimatic Indicator.

  1. Cornell Modern Indonesia Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In the 1950s, a group of scholars in Cornell University's Southeast Asia Program initiated the Cornell Modern Indonesia Project (CMIP). The intent of the program was to make contemporary analyses of Indonesia available to scholars and students. The titles were digitized by the Cornell University Library, and this marvelous collection represents the fruits of their endeavors and captures "the drama of Indonesia's political and social evolution through the twentieth century." Some of the topics covered include the development of Indonesian civil government, their civil insurgencies, and the Japanese Occupation. Visitors can search the collection, or they can also browse through the offerings here, which are arranged by author name and title. Visitors who are finding themselves a bit lost should also feel free to click on the "Help" section for hints on searching through the site and viewing and navigating these documents.

  2. Similitude in modern pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, M Z

    1999-07-01

    The principle of the similitude, the basis of homeopathy, has correspondences in the clinical studies of secondary effects of many modern pharmaceutical agents through the observation of the rebound effects of these drugs. Through clinical pharmacology, I proposed a model on which to base the scientificism of the homeopathic model. We have studied the effects of the drugs in the human body using pharmacological compendia and recent scientific works, confirming the mechanism of the homeopathic medicines' action through the verification of the primary action of the drugs and the consequent secondary reaction of the organism in hundreds of pharmaceutical agents. Treatment exploiting the "rebound" effect (curative vital reaction) may also be observed. This work suggests a research methodology to scientifically base the therapeutic principle of similitude. PMID:10449051

  3. Optical Diagnostics in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftimia, Nicusor

    2003-03-01

    Light has a unique potential for non-invasive tissue diagnosis. The relatively short wavelength of light allows imaging of tissue at the resolution of histopathology. While strong multiple scattering of light in tissue makes attainment of this resolution difficult for thick tissues, most pathology emanates from epithelial surfaces. Therefore, high-resolution diagnosis of many important diseases may be achieved by transmitting light to the surface of interest. The recent fiber-optic implementation of technologies that reject multiple scattering, such as confocal microscopy and optical low coherence interferometry, have brought us one step closer to realizing non-invasive imaging of architectural and cellular features of tissue. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can produce high-resolution cross-sectional images of biological structures. Clinical OCT studies conducted in the gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system have shown that OCT is capable of providing images of the architectural (> 20 µm) microanatomy of a variety of epithelial tissues, including the layered structure of squamous epithelium and arterial vessels. Fine Needle Aspiration- Low Coherence Interferometry (FNA-LCI) is another optical diagnostics technique, which is a suitable solution to increase the effectiveness of the FNA procedures. LCI is capable of measuring depth resolved (axial, z) tissue structure, birefringence, flow (Doppler shift), and spectra at a resolution of several microns. Since LCI systems are fiber-optic based, LCI probes may easily fit within the bore of a fine gauge needle, allowing diagnostic information to be obtained directly from the FNA biopsy site. Fiber optic spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a new confocal microscopy method, which eliminates the need for rapid beam scanning within the optical probe. This advance enables confocal microscopy to be performed through small diameter probes and will allow assessment of internal human tissues in vivo at the cellular level. A detailed description of several fiber optics based systems for early diseases diagnosis, as well as preliminary clinic results, will be presented.

  4. AESA diagnostics in operational environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, W. P.

    The author discusses some possible solutions to ASEA (active electronically scanned array) diagnostics in the operational environment using built-in testing (BIT), which can play a key role in reducing life-cycle cost if accurately implemented. He notes that it is highly desirable to detect and correct in the operational environment all degradation that impairs mission performance. This degradation must be detected with low false alarm rate and the appropriate action initiated consistent with low life-cycle cost. Mutual coupling is considered as a BIT signal injection method and is shown to have potential. However, the limits of the diagnostic capability using this method clearly depend on its stability and on the level of multipath for a specific application. BIT using mutual coupling may need to be supplemented on the ground by an externally mounted passive antenna that interfaces with onboard avionics.

  5. [The changing vasculo-cardiology in the midst of revolution of modern science and technology].

    PubMed

    Li, H; Chen, M; Han, Q

    1997-01-01

    Modern revolution of science and technology exerts profound and overall influences on the basic research, diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The application of molecular biology has been revealing the nature of cause, pathogenic mechanism, physiology and pathology of cardiovascular diseases, while gene therapy is expected to yield a radical cure of these diseases. The products of modern technology including computerized tomography, computer enhanced digital angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonic-cardiography, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computerized tomography, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and other techniques, laser, artificial pacemaker, artificial heart etc. have greatly improved the capacity of diagnosis and therapy of cardiovascular diseases. Now the studies probe not only the levels of organ and cell, but also the levels of protein, nucleic acid and gene. The diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases is focussed on, besides the traditional "four diagnostic methods", i.e. inspection, palpation, percussion and auscultation, precise diagnosis with the help of various advanced medical equipments. As to the treatment, in addition to traditional drugs and surgical operations, new therapeutic methods such as gene therapy and interventional measures are also applied. PMID:11618959

  6. Modern methods of investigation in speech production.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, O

    1980-01-01

    Methodologies of speech research with respect to the production processes are discussed, with an emphasis on the recent development of new instrumental techniques. It is argued that systematic studies of large amounts of speech data are necessary to understand the basic characteristics of speech. The traditional notion of phoneme-size segments seems inappropriate for interpreting multidimensional articulatory movements by a concatenative model. Experimental means such as a computer-controlled X-ray microbeam technique and advanced statistical processing, in combination with a new theoritical framework of phonetic description, promise future development. PMID:7413768

  7. MODERN METHODS TO MEASURE AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the requirements for the collection and analysis of ambient particles to satisfy data requirements for source and receptor models as applied to pollution control applications. The paper describes the following analytical procedures as applied to receptor model...

  8. Principles of Modern Molecular Simulation Methods

    E-print Network

    Shell, M. Scott

    · minimization (structures) · molecular dynamics (thermo & kinetics) · Monte Carlo (thermo) Free energy & phase will use Python programming language NumPy and SciPy Fortran (basics, for numerically intense routines only (exceeds?) commercial packages like Matlab, but is open source #12;Why Python + Fortran? Python alone

  9. PREFACE: 2nd International Workshop on Theoretical and Computational Physics (IWTCP-2): Modern Methods and Latest Results in Particle Physics, Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and the 39th National Conference on Theoretical Physics (NCTP-39)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Trinh Xuan; Ky, Nguyen Anh; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai

    2015-06-01

    This volume contains selected papers presented at the 2nd International Workshop on Theoretical and Computational Physics (IWTCP-2): Modern Methods and Latest Results in Particle Physics, Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and the 39th National Conference on Theoretical Physics (NCTP-39). Both the workshop and the conference were held from 28th – 31st July 2014 in Dakruco Hotel, Buon Ma Thuot, Dak Lak, Vietnam. The NCTP-39 and the IWTCP-2 were organized under the support of the Vietnamese Theoretical Physics Society, with a motivation to foster scientific exchanges between the theoretical and computational physicists in Vietnam and worldwide, as well as to promote high-standard level of research and education activities for young physicists in the country. The IWTCP-2 was also an External Activity of the Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP). About 100 participants coming from nine countries participated in the workshop and the conference. At the IWTCP-2 workshop, we had 16 invited talks presented by international experts, together with eight oral and ten poster contributions. At the NCTP-39, three invited talks, 15 oral contributions and 39 posters were presented. We would like to thank all invited speakers, participants and sponsors for making the workshop and the conference successful. Trinh Xuan Hoang, Nguyen Anh Ky, Nguyen Tri Lan and Nguyen Ai Viet

  10. Diagnostic system to measure spatial and temporal profiles of shock front using compact two-stage light-gas gun and line reflection method.

    PubMed

    Yokoo, Manabu; Kawai, Nobuaki; Hironaka, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Kazutaka G; Kondo, Ken-Ichi

    2007-04-01

    A diagnostic system has been developed to obtain spatial and temporal profiles of shock front. A two-stage light-gas gun is used to accelerate impactors in velocity range with 4-9 km/s. The system consists of the Faraday-type electromagnetic sensors to measure impactor velocity, optical system with high-speed streak camera to measure shock-wave velocities, and the delay trigger system with self-adjustable pre-event pulse generator. We describe the specifications and performance of this system and data-analysis technique on the tilt and distortion of the shock front. Finally, we obtained the Hugoniot data of copper for system demonstration. PMID:17477678

  11. Dialogue on Modernity and Modern Education in Dispute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael; Peters, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This is a dialogue or conversation between Michael Baker (MB) and Michael A. Peters (MP) on the concept of modernity and its significance for educational theory. The dialogue took place originally as a conversation about a symposium on modernity held at the American Educational Studies Association meeting 2010. It was later developed for…

  12. Differentiating Small (?1?cm) Focal Liver Lesions as Metastases or Cysts by means of Computed Tomography: A Case-Study to Illustrate a Fuzzy Logic-Based Method to Assess the Impact of Diagnostic Confidence on Radiological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Zanella, Gloria; Pullini, Serena; Como, Giuseppe; Bazzocchi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To quantify the impact of diagnostic confidence on radiological diagnosis with a fuzzy logic-based method. Materials and Methods. Twenty-two oncologic patients with 20 cysts and 30 metastases ?1?cm in size found at 64-row computed tomography were included. Two readers (R1/R2) expressed diagnoses as a subjective level of confidence P(d) in malignancy within the interval [0,1] rather than on a “crisp” basis (malignant/benign); confidence in benignancy was 1 ? p(d). When cross-tabulating data according to the standard of reference, 2 × 2 table cells resulted from the aggregation between p(d)/1 ? p(d) and final diagnosis. We then assessed (i) readers diagnostic performance on a fuzzy and crisp basis; (ii) the “divergence” ?(F, C) (%) as a measure of how confidence impacted on crisp diagnosis. Results. Diagnoses expressed with lower confidence increased fuzzy false positives compared to crisp ones (from 0 to 0.2 for R1; from 1 to 2.4 for R2). Crisp/fuzzy accuracy was 94.0%/93.6% (R1) and 94.0/91.6% (R2). ?(F, C) (%) was larger in the case of the less experienced reader (R2) (up to +7.95% for specificity). According to simulations, ?(F, C) (%) was negative/positive depending on the level of confidence in incorrect diagnoses. Conclusion. Fuzzy evaluation shows a measurable effect of uncertainty on radiological diagnoses. PMID:24587815

  13. Modern gas centrifuge and rarefied-gas dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, R. A.; Halle, E. V.; Wood, H. G., III

    1981-03-01

    The modern gas centrifuge appears to be the preferred method for the enrichment of the isotopes of uranium on a commercial scale. Centrifuge problems involving rarefield gas dynamics considerations are discussed.

  14. Modern design methodology and problems in training aircraft engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liseitsev, N. K.

    1989-01-01

    A brief report on the problem of modern aircraft specialist education is presented that is devoted to the content and methods of teaching a course in General Aircraft Design in the Moscow Aviation Institute.

  15. Diagnostic tolerance for missing sensor data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarl, Ethan A.

    1989-01-01

    For practical automated diagnostic systems to continue functioning after failure, they must not only be able to diagnose sensor failures but also be able to tolerate the absence of data from the faulty sensors. It is shown that conventional (associational) diagnostic methods will have combinatoric problems when trying to isolate faulty sensors, even if they adequately diagnose other components. Moreover, attempts to extend the operation of diagnostic capability past sensor failure will necessarily compound those difficulties. Model-based reasoning offers a structured alternative that has no special problems diagnosing faulty sensors and can operate gracefully when sensor data is missing.

  16. The way to universal and correct medical presentation of diagnostic informations for complex spectrophotometry noninvasive medical diagnostic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogatkin, Dmitrii A.; Tchernyi, Vladimir V.

    2003-07-01

    The optical noninvasive diagnostic systems are now widely applied and investigated in different areas of medicine. One of the such techniques is the noninvasive spectrophotometry, the complex diagnostic technique consisting on elastic scattering spectroscopy, absorption spectroscopy, fluorescent diagnostics, photoplethismography, etc. Today a lot of real optical diagnostic systems indicate the technical parameters and physical data only as a result of the diagnostic procedure. But, it is clear that for the medical staff the more convenient medical information is needed. This presentation lights the general way for development a diagnostic system"s software, which can produce the full processing of the diagnostic data from a physical to a medical level. It is shown, that this process is a multilevel (3-level) procedure and the main diagnostic result for noninvasive spectrophotometry methods, the biochemical and morphological composition of the tested tissues, arises in it on a second level of calculations.

  17. [Dysosmia : current aspects of diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Kühn, M; Abolmaali, N; Smitka, M; Podlesek, D; Hummel, T

    2013-11-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is a common disorder, especially in elderly people. From the etiological point of view a differentiation is made between sinunasal, traumatic and non-sinunasal causes of dysosmia. Olfactory disorders are often observed in neurodegenerative diseases, especially in patients with Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. Apart from an extensive medical history important diagnostic tools are a complete ear nose and throat (ENT) examination including nasal endoscopy and olfactory testing, for example, with "sniffin' sticks". For diagnostic purposes modern imaging procedures, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are becoming more and more important. For testing children, olfactory testing needs to be adapted and depending on the etiology, olfactory training, antiphlogistic and surgical procedures are the most promising therapeutic approaches. In cases of intracranial causes of dysosmia neurosurgeons should know and respect the anatomical structures of the olfactory signal pathway, not least for the long-term prognosis. PMID:24221226

  18. Principles of plasma diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. H. Hutchinson

    1990-01-01

    This book is a reprint of the 1987 edition (44.003.073). Contents: 1. Plasma diagnostics. 2. Magnetic diagnostics. 3. Plasma particle flux. 4. Refractive-index measurements. 5. Electromagnetic emission by free electrons. 6. Electromagnetic radiation from bound electrons. 7. Scattering of electromagnetic radiation. 8. Ion processes.

  19. Plasma diagnostic reflectometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. I. Cohen; B. B. Afeyan; J. C. Garrison; T. B. Kaiser; N. C. Jr. Luhmann; C. W. Domier; A. E. Chou; S. Baang

    1996-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of plasma diagnostic reflectometry have been undertaken as a collaborative research project between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California Department of Applied Science Plasma Diagnostics Group under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL. Theoretical analyses have explored the basic principles of reflectometry to understand its

  20. [Modern surgery of cataracts].

    PubMed

    Izák, M

    1990-03-01

    Surgery of cataract has a history of almost 250 years. The first 150 years were in the sign of extracapsular extracion. The subsequent 70 years were devoted to the development and improvement of the technique of intracapsular extraction and the last more than 20 years are a return to extracapsular extraction. This is due in particular to the development of microsurgery. "Modern surgery of cataract" is thus extracapsular extraction at a microsurgical level, in indicated cases associated also with implantation of an intraocular lens. The author analyzes recent aspects of indication for operation, preoperative examination techniques, preoperative preparation of the patient, anaesthesia, the operation proper, correction of aphakia, and postoperative care. In the author's opinion the future of microsurgery of cataract will involve improvement and wider use of phakoemulsification and laser systems as well as new models and materials for artificial lenses. It is no longer an unreal dream to make through a minimal paracentesis a microincision of the capsule, remove the nucleus and mass intracapsularity and replace them by injection of a transparent, artificial gel. PMID:2334988

  1. Development of diagnostic methods and study of the immunoreactivity of a mixture of recombinant core and E2 proteins fused to GST with control serum positive for hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Kenfe, Flávia Regina; Urbaczek, Ana Carolina; Silva, Juliana Cristina; Néo, Thalita Athie; da Silva, Flávio Henrique; da Costa, Paulo Inácio

    2013-06-15

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an enveloped virus that is about 50-70 nm in diameter, has positive-strand RNA, and belongs to the genus Hepacivirus and the family Flaviridae. The detection and quantification of the core antigen, HCV nucleocapsid protein, has been successful in many trials and is considered a marker of viral replication since it presents a sequence of highly conserved amino acids, giving it high sensitivity and specificity. The E2 protein is an envelope glycoprotein of HCV with 11 glycosylation sites; most of these are well-conserved, making it a target antigen. The aim of this study is to develop high-sensitivity, low-cost diagnostic methods for HCV, which could be used for serological screening. The genomic regions encoding the core (part 136 aa) and E2 proteins of HCV were expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta strain, cloned in expression vector pET-42a, and induced with 0.4 m mol L(-1) IPTG, producing recombinant proteins that were fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST) protein, which was then purified by affinity chromatography. The immunoreactivity was assessed by Western blot, Slot Blot, and developed and improved diagnostic methods (capture, indirect, and immunoblotting enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)). After applying the results to the formulas for determining the quality parameters, obtained for immunoblotting method 100% sensitivity and specificity and for ELISA 100% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity. The methods developed were more sensitive and specific using the mixture of the recombinant proteins fused to GST (core+E2). PMID:23618172

  2. DiagnosticsOcclusal caries: wherefore art thou?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony S. Blinkhorn

    2001-01-01

    ObjectiveTo compare the accuracy and repeatability of three diagnostic systems (DIAGNOdent, visual and radiographic) for occlusal caries diagnosis in primary molars.DesignTwo examiner, in vitro, blinded study. Histological gold standard.Materials and methods58 occlusal surfaces of primary molars examined in turn by two examiners using each of three diagnostic systems (DIAGNOdent, visual and radiographic). These results were compared with a histological gold

  3. Modernism and contraceptive use in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, W H; Pitt Ford, T R

    1976-03-01

    This analysis addresses the question of whether fertility can be lowered without the prior occurrence of the social and economic changes that have come to be labeled modernization. The data show that there exists in Colombia a relatively high level of motivation to control fertility that, for many women, is not coupled with both knowledge of and access to a method of contraception. For the "traditional" woman, the problem may not be lack of motivation so much as lack of access to methods that she is aware of, such as the pill, and lack of knowledge of methods that require few resources of supplies, such as rhythm and withdrawal. PMID:1273911

  4. Factors Influencing Attitudes of Florida Teachers toward Modern Foreign Language Teaching Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, William Whitmore

    This doctoral dissertation identifies certain factors which influence the attitudes of Florida modern language teachers toward contemporary teaching methodology. The study begins with a philosophical and historical view of methods of teaching modern foreign languages. Data, collected from 10 percent of the modern foreign language teachers in…

  5. Modern Measurement Techniques for Testing Advanced Military Communications and Radars, 2nd Edition

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    Modern Measurement Techniques for Testing Advanced Military Communications and Radars, 2nd Edition;Modern Measurement Techniques for Testing Advanced Military Communications and Radars, 2nd Edition methods. #12;Modern Measurement Techniques for Testing Advanced Military Communications and Radars, 2nd

  6. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online knowledge based system (KBS) that helps utilities select the most effective diagnostic technologies for a given cable circuit and circuit conditions.

  7. Diagnostic neuroimaging across diseases

    PubMed Central

    Klöppel, Stefan; Abdulkadir, Ahmed; Jack, Clifford R.; Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Mourao-Miranda, Janaina; Vemuri, Prashanthi

    2012-01-01

    Fully automated classification algorithms have been successfully applied to diagnose a wide range of neurological and psychiatric diseases. They are sufficiently robust to handle data from different scanners for many applications and in specific cases outperform radiologists. This article provides an overview of current applications taking structural imaging in Alzheimer's Disease and schizophrenia as well as functional imaging to diagnose depression as examples. In this context, we also report studies aiming to predict the future course of the disease and the response to treatment for the individual. This has obvious clinical relevance but is also important for the design of treatment studies that may aim to include a cohort with a predicted fast disease progression to be more sensitive to detect treatment effects. In the second part, we present our own opinions on i) the role these classification methods can play in the clinical setting; ii) where their limitations are at the moment and iii) how those can be overcome. Specifically, we discuss strategies to deal with disease heterogeneity, diagnostic uncertainties, a probabilistic framework for classification and multi-class classification approaches. PMID:22094642

  8. Lysosomal diseases: diagnostic update.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Bryan

    2014-07-01

    Technological developments in newborn and population screening, biomarker discovery for monitoring treatment and rapid high throughput DNA sequencing are having a great impact on the diagnostic procedure for symptomatic patients with lysosomal storage diseases. The use of dried blood spots, initially for newborn screening, has stimulated the introduction of automated, rapid and more sensitive methods for the assay of lysosomal enzymes, including the synthesis of novel substrates. Storage products and secondary metabolites in urine and cells can be identified and measured very accurately and sensitively by high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. This has enhanced the preliminary metabolite screen for LSDs and facilitated the diagnosis of transport defects. Fast, reliable and affordable high throughput DNA sequencing, such as whole or selected exome sequencing, is helping to make diagnoses in difficult cases, to reveal novel gene defects, to widen the clinical spectrum of diseases and possibly to identify modifying genetic factors. Bioinformatics will be necessary to handle the data generated by these new technologies. Notwithstanding, these technical innovations, accurate and reliable diagnosis will still depend on the knowledge and experience of skilled laboratory staff. PMID:24711203

  9. Plasma diagnostic reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.I.; Afeyan, B.B.; Garrison, J.C.; Kaiser, T.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Domier, C.W.; Chou, A.E.; Baang, S. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science

    1996-02-26

    Theoretical and experimental studies of plasma diagnostic reflectometry have been undertaken as a collaborative research project between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California Department of Applied Science Plasma Diagnostics Group under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL. Theoretical analyses have explored the basic principles of reflectometry to understand its limitations, to address specific gaps in the understanding of reflectometry measurements in laboratory experiments, and to explore extensions of reflectometry such as ultra-short-pulse reflectometry. The theory has supported basic laboratory reflectometry experiments where reflectometry measurements can be corroborated by independent diagnostic measurements.

  10. Advancing the research agenda for diagnostic error reduction

    PubMed Central

    Zwaan, Laura; Schiff, Gordon D; Singh, Hardeep

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic errors remain an underemphasised and understudied area of patient safety research. We briefly summarise the methods that have been used to conduct research on epidemiology, contributing factors and interventions related to diagnostic error and outline directions for future research. Research methods that have studied epidemiology of diagnostic error provide some estimate on diagnostic error rates. However, there appears to be a large variability in the reported rates due to the heterogeneity of definitions and study methods used. Thus, future methods should focus on obtaining more precise estimates in different settings of care. This would lay the foundation for measuring error rates over time to evaluate improvements. Research methods have studied contributing factors for diagnostic error in both naturalistic and experimental settings. Both approaches have revealed important and complementary information. Newer conceptual models from outside healthcare are needed to advance the depth and rigour of analysis of systems and cognitive insights of causes of error. While the literature has suggested many potentially fruitful interventions for reducing diagnostic errors, most have not been systematically evaluated and/or widely implemented in practice. Research is needed to study promising intervention areas such as enhanced patient involvement in diagnosis, improving diagnosis through the use of electronic tools and identification and reduction of specific diagnostic process ‘pitfalls’ (eg, failure to conduct appropriate diagnostic evaluation of a breast lump after a ‘normal’ mammogram). The last decade of research on diagnostic error has made promising steps and laid a foundation for more rigorous methods to advance the field. PMID:23942182

  11. Modern Art and Modern Movement: Images of Dance in American Art, c. 1900-1950

    E-print Network

    Stephens, JoLee Gillespie

    2011-04-12

    "Modern Art and Modern Movement: Images of Dance in American Art, c. 1900-1950," considers the intersections and interrelations of two of the major artistic developments of the twentieth century, modern dance and modern ...

  12. Comparative economics: evolution and the modern economy

    E-print Network

    Vermeij, Geerat J.

    2009-01-01

    is unique to the modern human species. The overwhelmingfertility in many species besides modern humans (Carey andspecies, and in fact provide the basis for much of the genetic engineering that characterizes modern

  13. The new biology: beyond the Modern Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R; Oakley, Todd H

    2007-01-01

    Modern Synthesis, genes were adaptive characteris- tics of species,were part of the Modern Synthesis. If species are the dura-species, or that we can speak mean- ingfully about the ancient history of modern "

  14. Phaedrus diagnostic system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Breun; D. Brouchous; J. Ferron; S. Golovato; N. Hershkowitz; J. Pew; P. Brooker; H. Persing; S. Ross; D. Sing

    1985-01-01

    The Phaedrus diagnostic system makes optimum use of probes and miniature gridded energy analyzers to measure detailed parameters such as density, plasma potential, and electron and ion energy. This requires miniaturization and provision for flexible access. Other diagnostics are made as flexible as possible. A multiple-aperture, end-loss analyzer is rotatable, allowing complete mapping of the end wall loss contours. Self-emissive

  15. Applications of Smart Materials to Diagnostics and Vibration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Inman

    Examples of smart materials used for diagnostics and vibration reduction are presented. The diagnostics method, referred to as the impedance-based health monitoring technique, utilizes electromechanical coupling property of piezoelectric materials. An overview and recent advances in the impedance method are presented. This paper also introduces experimental investigations of vibration testing and control of an inflatable space structure using smart materials.

  16. DIAGNOSTIC OF MELANOMAS VIA IMAGE PROCESSING 0. Hochmuth, Beate Meffert

    E-print Network

    Freytag, Johann-Christoph

    DIAGNOSTIC OF MELANOMAS VIA IMAGE PROCESSING 0. Hochmuth, Beate Meffert Department of Electrical in dermatology as diagnostic method for malignant melanomas and other skin deseases [1,2,3]. The method helps of the melanoma is shown in Fig. 2. The approximation is possible by different procedures, e. g. by a harmonic

  17. New diagnostic approach to brain lesions in nuclear medicine. Differential diagnosis of brain lesions with a computed brain scan diagnosis by the likelihood method.

    PubMed

    Mori, H; Suzuki, Y; Hisada, K; Kojima, K; Tonami, N

    1975-01-01

    Using 240 true positive brain scans, a computer system for the differential diagnosis of brain lesions has been evaluated. Eighty-six parameters were extracted from brain scan findings without relationship to neurological signs and symptoms, and the likelihood method was adopted as an example of mathematical logic. The results of our experiment indicated that the overall accuracy was 77 per cent for the maximum likelihood method. The digital computer gave satisfactory results, particularly for diseases such as infarct, meningioma, acoustic neurinoma, and subdural hematoma. In spite of several problems to be solved, this method could provide invaluable help in differential diagnosis of brain lesions. PMID:166053

  18. Fluorometric analysis for neoplasm diagnostics and localization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslaw Kwasny; Zygmunt Mierczyk

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents methods of laser-induced fluorescence with the use of endo- and exogenous dyes for diagnosis of early tumors of aerodigestive tracts, colons, bladder, GYN, and skin, as well as a review of equipment developed during laboratory examination, construction of diagnostic instruments and clinical use of fluorometric methods with application of various devices, from simple fluorometers to sophisticated endoscopic

  19. Diagnostic of CHORDIS ion source plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Rück; J. Jacoby; H. Emig

    1992-01-01

    Each ion source consists of two principle parts: the plasma source and the extraction system. The characterization of the plasma source of a high current bucket ion source has been investigated. An optical plasma diagnostic method was used. In the following paper a description of the experimental method and the data analysis is given. The results and the limitation of

  20. New optical diagnostic tools in renal cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Barwari, K; De Bruin, D M; Faber, D J; Van Leeuwen, T G; De La Rosette, J J; Laguna, M P

    2011-09-01

    In modern medicine the profound use of abdominal imaging has led to a dramatic change of presentation of renal tumors. Smaller tumors and therefore more benign masses are being discovered, and as systemic use of renal mass biopsies is not recommended by the general guidelines, an appropriate tool to assess the biology of renal tumors is highly desirable. Apart from new developments of currently applied diagnostic modalities, several research groups focus on the potential of optical diagnostic techniques to contribute to the diagnostic process of renal tumors. They use the interaction of light with biological tissue to gather information on the optical properties of a tissue sample and therefore providing information on the histological composition of this tissue in a non-invasive manner and in real-time. In this review we provide an overview of novel diagnostic techniques starting with the future of conventional diagnostics like Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) followed by optical technologies that are potentially employed in the nearby future to improve the diagnostic process of renal tumors with a focus on optical diagnostic techniques. PMID:21993320

  1. Physical criteria for distinguishing sandy tsunami and storm deposits using modern examples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Morton; Guy Gelfenbaum; Bruce E. Jaffe

    2007-01-01

    Modern subaerial sand beds deposited by major tsunamis and hurricanes were compared at trench, transect, and sub-regional spatial scales to evaluate which attributes are most useful for distinguishing the two types of deposits. Physical criteria that may be diagnostic include: sediment composition, textures and grading, types and organization of stratification, thickness, geometry, and landscape conformity.Published reports of Pacific Ocean tsunami

  2. TiV plots and the petrogenesis of modern and ophiolitic lavas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Shervais

    1982-01-01

    Plots of Ti vs. V for many modern volcanic rock associations are diagnostic of tectonic setting and can be used to determine possible tectonic settings of ophiolites as well. The basis of this plot is the variation in the crystal\\/liquid partition coefficients for vanadium, which range with increasing oxygen fugacity from > 1 to << 1. Since the partition coefficients

  3. Trends in Modern International Terrorism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boaz Ganor

    \\u000a This chapter examines some of the most widely researched trends and developments within the phenomenon of modern international\\u000a terrorism, providing policy recommendations on how to counter its emerging threats – particularly that of the Global Jihad\\u000a movement and “homegrown” terrorism. The magnitude of the modern terrorist threat was demonstrated by the attacks of September\\u000a 11, and ever since, the field

  4. Thermal Diagnostics with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory: A Validated Method for Differential Emission Measure Inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Mark C. M.; Boerner, P.; Schrijver, C. J.; Testa, P.; Chen, F.; Peter, H.; Malanushenko, A.

    2015-07-01

    We present a new method for performing differential emission measure (DEM) inversions on narrow-band EUV images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The method yields positive definite DEM solutions by solving a linear program. This method has been validated against a diverse set of thermal models of varying complexity and realism. These include (1) idealized Gaussian DEM distributions, (2) 3D models of NOAA Active Region 11158 comprising quasi-steady loop atmospheres in a nonlinear force-free field, and (3) thermodynamic models from a fully compressible, 3D MHD simulation of active region (AR) corona formation following magnetic flux emergence. We then present results from the application of the method to AIA observations of Active Region 11158, comparing the region's thermal structure on two successive solar rotations. Additionally, we show how the DEM inversion method can be adapted to simultaneously invert AIA and Hinode X-ray Telescope data, and how supplementing AIA data with the latter improves the inversion result. The speed of the method allows for routine production of DEM maps, thus facilitating science studies that require tracking of the thermal structure of the solar corona in time and space.

  5. Radiogenomics: creating a link between molecular diagnostics and diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Rutman, Aaron M; Kuo, Michael D

    2009-05-01

    Studies employing high-throughput biological techniques have recently contributed to an improved characterization of human cancers, allowing for novel sub-classification, better diagnostic accuracy, and more precise prognostication. However, requirement of surgical procurement of tissue among other things limits the clinical application of such methods in everyday patient care. Radiographic imaging is routine in clinical practice but is currently histopathology based. The use of routine radiographic imaging provides a potential platform for linking specific imaging traits with specific gene expression patterns that inform the underlying cellular pathophysiology; imaging features could then serve as molecular surrogates that contribute to the diagnosis, prognosis, and likely gene-expression-associated treatment response of various forms of human cancer. This review focuses on high-throughput methods such as microarray analysis of gene expression, their role in cancer research, and in particular, on novel methods of associating gene expression patterns with radiographic imaging phenotypes, known as "radiogenomics." These findings underline a potential future role of both diagnostic and interventional radiologists in genetic assessment of cancer patients with radiographic imaging studies. PMID:19303233

  6. Teaching Modern Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nason, Gerald, Ed.

    A review of a three-day conference on language teaching policies, methods, instructional materials, and teacher training in Canada is presented in this report. Articles and commentary focus on: (1) Canada's needs in language teaching, (2) language programs in the United Kingdom, United States, and the Soviet Union, (3) research in teaching…

  7. Use of Modern Contraception by the Poor Is Falling Behind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuela Gakidou; Effy Vayena

    2007-01-01

    BackgroundThe widespread increase in the use of contraception, due to multiple factors including improved access to modern contraception, is one of the most dramatic social transformations of the past fifty years. This study explores whether the global progress in the use of modern contraceptives has also benefited the poorest.Methods and FindingsDemographic and Health Surveys from 55 developing countries were analyzed

  8. Modern pollen assemblages as climate indicators in southern Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Finsinger; Oliver Heiri; Verushka Valsecchi; Willy Tinner; André F. Lotter

    2007-01-01

    Aim and Location Our aim is to develop pollen–climate inference models for southern Europe and to test their performance and inference power by cross-validation with modern climate data. Surface sediments collected from lakes along a climate gradient from the winter-cold\\/summer-wet Alps to winter-wet\\/summer-dry Sicily were analysed for modern pollen assemblages.\\u000a\\u000aMethods For each lake, mean monthly temperatures, seasonal precipitation and

  9. [Current options and principles of pathomorphology-based tumour diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Povýsil, C

    2010-07-01

    Modern pathomorphology tumour diagnostics involve comprehensive cytology cell examination and, importantly, tissue biopsy examination using the most up-to-date assessment techniques. To correctly classify a tumour process, it is essential not only to define its histological typology and identify its biological character but, at the same time, using immunohistochemistry and diagnostic molecular pathology, to evaluate prognostic and predictive indicators. As regards the prognostic indicators, it is mainly grading and staging as part of the TNM system, the sentinel lymph node assessment, if it is assessed, and other nodes extracted in this context. Histological specimens of invasive carcinomas and skin melanomas are assessed with respect to the depth of the invasion. Endocrine oestrogen and progesterone receptors are assessed in endocrine-dependent breast carcinomas. Predictive pathology uses biomarkers; biomarkers confirm the presence of target molecules following their reaction with the administered small molecule-like drugs, usually protein kinases or antibodies. HER2 gene amplification is estimated using the FISH method and predicts effectiveness of breast cancer therapies. In patients with a colon carcinoma, HER1 oncogene is identified immunohistochemically and the presence of a mutated K-ras is subsequently tested using the RT-PCR technique. CD 117 (c-kit) expression is determined in gastrointestinal stromal tumour and CD 20, 33 and 52 in malignant lymphomas and leukaemias. The most difficult task for a pathologist is defining the primary focus of the tumour in cases where only a fraction of a metastasis is available for examination. Nevertheless, at present, it is feasible to track the tumour differentiation down and, using an antibody battery, particularly against specific cytokeratines and vimentine and including organ-specific markers, to identify the primary source or at least to establish an assumption about the most likely organ affected by the tumour process. PMID:20842917

  10. Curriculum for modern aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, L.

    1975-01-01

    Methods for improving the university training of aeronautical engineering students are discussed. Specific topics considered are: (1) the kind of students which should be developed through aeronautical engineering education, (2) to what extent should aerospace engineering be prepared for diversity and change, (3) to what extent should theory be emphasized as compared with practical engineering and design, and (4) a suggestion for NASA/Industry/University collaboration.

  11. Sonicated Diagnostic Immunoblot for Bartonellosis

    PubMed Central

    Mallqui, Vania; Speelmon, Emily C.; Verástegui, Manuela; Maguiña-Vargas, Ciro; Pinell-Salles, Paula; Lavarello, Rosa; Delgado, Jose; Kosek, Margaret; Romero, Sofia; Arana, Yanina; Gilman, Robert H.

    2000-01-01

    Two simple Bartonella bacilliformis immunoblot preparation methods were developed. Antigen was prepared by two different methods: sonication of whole organisms or glycine extraction. Both methods were then tested for sensitivity and specificity. Well-defined control sera were utilized in the development of these diagnostic immunoblots, and possible cross-reactions were thoroughly examined. Sera investigated for cross-reaction with these diagnostic antigens were drawn from patients with brucellosis, chlamydiosis, Q fever, and cat scratch disease, all of whom were from regions where bartonellosis is not endemic. While both immunoblots yielded reasonable sensitivity and high specificity, we recommend the use of the sonicated immunoblot, which has a higher sensitivity when used to detect acute disease and produces fewer cross-reactions. The sonicated immunoblot reported here is 94% sensitive to chronic bartonellosis and 70% sensitive to acute bartonellosis. In a healthy group, it is 100% specific. This immunoblot preparation requires a simple sonication protocol for the harvesting of B. bacilliformis antigens and is well suited for use in regions of endemicity. PMID:10618267

  12. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Combined application of optical methods to increase the information content of optical coherent tomography in diagnostics of neoplastic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuranov, R. V.; Sapozhnikova, V. V.; Shakhova, N. M.; Gelikonov, V. M.; Zagainova, E. V.; Petrova, S. A.

    2002-11-01

    A combined application of optical methods [optical coherent tomography (OCT), cross-polarisation optical coherent tomography, and fluorescence spectroscopy] is proposed for obtaining information on morphological and biochemical changes occurring in tissues in norm and pathology. It is shown that neoplastic and scar changes in esophagus can be distinguished using a combination of polarisation and standard OCT due to the difference between the depolarising properties of the tissues caused by the structural properties of collagenic fibres in stroma. It is shown that OCT combined with fluorescence spectroscopy with the use of 5-aminolevulinic acid is promising for determining the boundaries of carcinoma of the uterine cervix and vulva. It is found that the tumour boundary detected by optical methods coincides with the morphological boundary and extends beyond colposcopically determined boundary by about 2 mm.

  13. A comprehensive analysis of selected diagnostic methods with respect to their usefulness in evaluating the biology of neoplastic cells in patients with laryngeal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Golusinski; J. Olofsson; Z. Szmeja; W. Biczysko; A. Krygier-Stoja?owska; B. Kulczy?ski

    1999-01-01

    The difficult and complicated mechanism of cancer development with little knowledge about the biology of existing cancers\\u000a can lead to a permanent search for new examination techniques to improve the precision of life expectancy in patients and\\u000a the selection of the most efficient methods of treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze certain prognostic factors,\\u000a i.e., p53, Ki67,

  14. A diagnostic method for both plasma ion and electron temperatures under simultaneous incidence of charge-exchange particles and x rays into a semiconductor detector array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Numakura; T. Cho; J. Kohagura; M. Hirata; R. Minami; Y. Nishizawa; T. Sasuga; M. Yoshida; Y. Sakamoto; Y. Nakashima; T. Tamano; K. Yatsu; S. Miyoshi

    2000-01-01

    An idea for using semiconductor detectors to simultaneously observe both plasma ion Ti and electron Te temperatures is proposed. The idea is also experimentally verified in tandem-mirror plasma shots. This method is developed on the basis of an alternative ``positive'' use of a semiconductor ``dead layer'' as an energy-analysis filter. Filtering dependence of charge-exchange neutral particles from plasmas on the

  15. The video fluorescent device for diagnostics of cancer of human reproductive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brysin, Nickolay N.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Savelieva, Tatiana A.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2008-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one of the advanced methods of treatment of skin cancer and surfaces of internal organs. The basic advantages of PDT are high efficiency and low cost of treatment. PDT technique is needed for providing fluorescent diagnostics. Laser-based systems are widely applied to the fluorescence excitations for diagnostic because of a narrow spectrum of fluorescence excitation and high density of radiation. Application of laser systems for carrying out fluorescent diagnostics gives the image of a tumor distorted by speckles that does not give an opportunity to obtain full information about the form of a tumor quickly. Besides, these laser excitation systems have complicated structure and high cost. As a base for the development and creation of a video fluorescent device one of commercially produced colposcopes was chosen. It allows to decrease cost of the device, and also has enabled to make modernization for already used colposcopes. A LED-based light source was offered to be used for fluorescence excitation in this work. The maximum in a spectrum of radiation of LEDs corresponds to the general spectral maximum of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) absorption. Irradiance in the center of a light spot is 31 mW/cm2. The receiving optical system of the fluorescent channel is adjusted at 635 nm where a general spectral maximum of fluorescence PPIX is located. Also the device contains a RGB video channel, a white light source and a USB spectrometer LESA-01-BIOSPEC, for measurement of spectra of fluorescence and diffusion reflections in treatment area. The software is developed for maintenance of the device. Some studies on laboratory animals were made. As a result, areas with the increased concentration of a PPIX were correctly detected. At present, the device is used for diagnostics of cancer of female reproductive system in Research Centre for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (Moscow, Russia).

  16. Modernization Enhancements in SCALE 6.2

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Lefebvre, Robert A [ORNL; Lefebvre, Jordan P [ORNL; Clarno, Kevin T [ORNL; Williams, Mark L [ORNL; Petrie Jr, Lester M [ORNL; Mertyurek, Ugur [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    SCALE is a widely used suite of tools for nuclear systems modeling and simulation that provides comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. For more than 30 years, regulators, industry, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for nuclear safety analysis and design. However, the underlying architecture of SCALE is based on a 40-year old design with dozens of independent functional modules and control programs, primarily implemented in the Fortran programming language, with extensive use of customized intermediate files to control the logical flow of the analysis. Data are passed between individual computational codes using custom binary files that are read from and written to the hard disk. The SCALE modernization plan provides a progression towards SCALE 7, which will provide an object-oriented parallel-enabled software infrastructure with state-of-the-art methods implemented as reusable components. This paper provides a brief overview of the goals of SCALE modernization and details some modernized features available with SCALE 6.2.

  17. Mendel in the Modern Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mike U.; Gericke, Niklas M.

    2015-01-01

    Mendel is an icon in the history of genetics and part of our common culture and modern biology instruction. The aim of this paper is to summarize the place of Mendel in the modern biology classroom. In the present article we will identify key issues that make Mendel relevant in the classroom today. First, we recount some of the historical controversies that have relevance to modern curricular design, such as Fisher's (Ann Sci 1:115-137, 1936/2008) claim that Mendel's data were too good to be true. We also address questions about Mendel's status as the father of genetics as well as questions about the sequencing of Mendel's work in genetics instruction in relation to modern molecular genetics and evolution. Next, we present a systematic set of examples of research based approaches to the use of Mendel in the modern classroom along with criticisms of these designs and questions about the historical accuracy of the story of Mendel as presented in the typical classroom. Finally, we identify gaps in our understanding in need of further study and present a selected set of resources that, along with the references cited, should be valuable to science educators interested in further study of the story of Mendel.

  18. ORION laser target diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K. [Plasma Physics Department, Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-10-15

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  19. Reversed field pinch diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) is a toroidal, axisymmetric magnetic confinement configuration characterized by a magnetic field configuration in which the toroidal magnetic field is of similar strength to the poloidal field, and is reversed at the edge compared to the center. The RFP routinely operates at high beta, and is a strong candidate for a compact fusion device. Relevant attributes of the configuration will be presented, together with an overview of present and planned experiments and their diagnostics. RFP diagnostics are in many ways similar to those of other magnetic confinement devices (such as tokamaks); these lectures will point out pertinent differences, and will present some diagnostics which provide special insights into unique attributes of the RFP.

  20. [Myocardial ischemia of the driver as a cause of a traffic road accident. Immunohistochemical C9 staining method in diagnostics of early myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Rzepecka-Wo?niak, Ewa; Konieczna, Marta; Bolecha?a, Filip

    2006-01-01

    The authors presented a case of verification of pathological lesions as a cause of traffic accident where the driver--the culprit--was a fatal victim due to multiple injuries. Histopathological examination of postmortem samples of myocardium was conducted, using the hematoxylin-eosin, Nielsen-Selye and immunohistochemical C9 staining methods in order to verify the hypothesis about a possible myocardial ischemia triggering the accident. The results of "routine" (H&E) and--especially--immunohistochemical C9 staining showed myocardial damage due to ischemia, which was a morphological indicator evidencing the cause of "misbehavior" of the driver. PMID:16970083

  1. Guidelines for pressure relief system modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, V.H.; Hu, L.L.; Lee, N.D. [Allstates/JBEK, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Pressure relief systems protect against catastrophic accidents caused by equipment overpressure. Despite their importance, pressure relief systems do not always receive adequate attention during design, construction, and maintenance. This is often due to the application of outdated analysis and calculation methods. The American Institute of Chemical Engineers` Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems (DIERS) has developed new methods to design relief systems for runaway reactions and for two-phase, vapor-liquid relief. The Occupational Safety and Health Adminstration`s Process Safety Management Regulation recognizes these new methods as {open_quotes}good engineering practice{close_quotes}. Application of these new methods has shown that a number of existing relief systems are inadequate. This article describes an approach to systematically modernize existing pressure relief systems using DIERS technology. 23 refs., 12 tabs.

  2. Comparing the presence of different genes in Salmonella subspecies I-IV and development of a diagnostic multiplex PCR method for identification of Salmonella subspecies.

    PubMed

    Münch, Sebastian; Wernery, Ulrich; Kinne, Jörg; Joseph, Marina; Braun, Peggy; Pees, Michael; Flieger, Antje; Fruth, Angelika; Rabsch, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Reptile-associated salmonellosis in humans has become a growing problem worldwide. Reptiles are frequently asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella and therefore, they are considered as an important reservoir for these bacteria. The classical biochemical method for Salmonella subspecies detection is time consuming, especially in samples from reptiles since they frequently carry more than one Salmonella subspecies. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a multiplex PCR assay for a rapid and accurate differentiation of Salmonella subspecies I, II, IIa, IIIb and IV. In the present study, the occurrence of the genes invA, ttrCA, iroB, STM4075, sciA, STM3690, sadA, gatD, foxA, pagN, fljB, iucD, spvB, lacZ, iutA, mdcA and irp2 was examined in 41 Salmonella strains from Middle Eastern animals (mainly reptiles) by monoplex PCR. According to the results a multiplex PCR assay was developed based on the genes ttrCA, sciA, foxA, iutA. Compared to biochemical analysis this method allowed a fast identification of the subspecies from all the Middle Eastern Salmonella strains (n = 41), as well as 79 strains from German children (n = 18) with reptile associated salmonellosis and other humans and animals (n = 61) with salmonellosis.These results revealed the multiplex PCR as a fast assay for a specific identification of Salmonella subspecies I, II, IIIa, and IIIb. PMID:23367664

  3. ZE interviewt BBC Modern Englisch (ZE Interviews BBC Modern English)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastwood, Charlotte; And Others

    1976-01-01

    In form of an interview with the editors and staff members of "BBC Modern English," goals and structures of this magazine for juvenile and adult language learners are outlined. The problems discussed include: linguistic progression, text contents and types of exercises. (Text is in German.) (IFS/MS)

  4. Infrared spectroscopy in biomedical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyeva, Natalia I.; Kolyakov, Sergei F.; Letokhov, Vladilen S.; Artioushenko, Vjacheslav G.; Golovkina, Viktoriya N.

    1998-01-01

    Fiberoptic evanescent wave Fourier transform infrared (FEW- FTIR) spectroscopy using fiberoptic sensors operated in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) regime in the middle infrared (IR) region of the spectrum (850 - 1850 cm-1) has recently found application in the diagnostics of tissues. The method is suitable for noninvasive and rapid (seconds) direct measurements of the spectra of normal and pathological tissues in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. The aim of our studies is the express testing of various tumor tissues at the early stages of their development. The method is expected to be further developed for endoscopic and biopsy applications. We measured in vivo the skin normal and malignant tissues on surface (directly on patients) in various cases of basaloma, melanoma and nevus. The experiments were performed in the operating room for measurements of skin in the depth (under/in the layers of epidermis), human breast, stomach, lung, kidney tissues. The breast and skin tissues at different stages of tumor or cancer were distinguished very clearly in spectra of amide, side cyclic and noncyclic hydrogen bonded fragments of amino acid residuals, phosphate groups and sugars. Computer monitoring is being developed for diagnostics.

  5. Plant Disease and General Diagnostic Form Schutter Diagnostic Lab

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Plant Disease and General Diagnostic Form Schutter Diagnostic Lab 119 Plant BioScience Facility/State_____________________________________ Zip___________________________ Plant common or scientific name____________________________________________________ Variety__________________________________________________________________ Planting date, age of plant

  6. Diagnosing Diagnostic Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yong-Won

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic language assessment (DLA) is gaining a lot of attention from language teachers, testers, and applied linguists. With a recent surge of interest in DLA, there seems to be an urgent need to assess where the field of DLA stands at the moment and develop a general sense of where it should be moving in the future. The current article, as the…

  7. Diagnostic du vertige

    PubMed Central

    Monday, Louise A.

    1981-01-01

    In cases of vertigo, the history is the most important diagnostic element. Questioning must be directed towards obtaining the most pertinent and precise answers possible. A classification based on the duration of vertigo, together with the physiopathology, is suggested. PMID:21289799

  8. Heterodyne laser diagnostic system

    DOEpatents

    Globig, Michael A. (Antioch, CA); Johnson, Michael A. (Pleasanton, CA); Wyeth, Richard W. (Livermore, CA)

    1990-01-01

    The heterodyne laser diagnostic system includes, in one embodiment, an average power pulsed laser optical spectrum analyzer for determining the average power of the pulsed laser. In another embodiment, the system includes a pulsed laser instantaneous optical frequency measurement for determining the instantaneous optical frequency of the pulsed laser.

  9. Logistic Regression Diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daryl Pregibon

    1981-01-01

    A maximum likelihood fit of a logistic regression model (and other similar models) is extremely sensitive to outlying responses and extreme points in the design space. We develop diagnostic measures to aid the analyst in detecting such observations and in quantifying their effect on various aspects of the maximum likelihood fit. The elements of the fitting process which constitute the

  10. Diagnostic Testing Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, David L.

    This paper presents an explanation of the program design of the three separate Pascal-language programs which comprise UCLA's Diagnostic Testing Package "DX." The three parts of the DX test package are three closely interrelated programs--Editest, Runtest, and Summary. Editest serves the following functions: (1) the creation of a suitable…

  11. Molecular diagnostics in virology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy Vernet

    2004-01-01

    Molecular biology has significantly improved diagnosis in the field of clinical virology. Virus discovery and rapid implementation of diagnostic tests for newly discovered viruses has strongly beneficiated from the development of molecular techniques. Viral load and antiviral resistance or subtyping assays are now part of the biological monitoring of patients chronically infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus

  12. Diagnostics of CVL plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrash, Gueorgii G.

    1995-08-01

    A review of the measurements of plasma parameters (gas temperature, density, and temperature of electrons) in active media of pulsed copper vapor lasers is given. Essential disagreement exists between many published results. The possible reasons of this disagreement and experimental difficulties associated with the measurements are discussed. Some suggestions for future CVL plasma diagnostics measurements are given.

  13. Diagnostics of Severe PCVAD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About 2 years ago case reports in Eastern Canada described a syndrome of an acute onset of high mortality in finishing age pigs. Within a year this syndrome had spread westward in Canada and was reported in several states in the U.S. Although diagnostic investigations into these cases have detecte...

  14. Beam Diagnostics for FACET

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.Z.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration beginning in summer 2011. The nominal FACET parameters are 23GeV, 3nC electron bunches compressed to about 20 {micro}m long and focussed to about 10 {micro}m wide. Characterization of the beam-plasma interaction requires complete knowledge of the incoming beam parameters on a pulse-to-pulse basis. FACET diagnostics include Beam Position Monitors, Toroidal current monitors, X-ray and Cerenkov based energy spectrometers, optical transition radiation (OTR) profile monitors and coherent transition radiation (CTR) bunch length measurement systems. The compliment of beam diagnostics and their expected performance are reviewed. Beam diagnostic measurements not only provide valuable insights to the running and tuning of the accelerator but also are crucial for the PWFA experiments in particular. Beam diagnostic devices are being set up at FACET and will be ready for beam commissioning in summer 2011.

  15. Tele diagnostic by web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Shigeki

    2006-03-01

    Because of the development of multimedia technologies like Web and Internet, it now becomes possible to think about Tele Medicine and Tele Diagnostic for a distant place where no doctors and no nurses are situated at or are available. And also some kind of intelligence can be added onto them, which makes possible to give certain kind of medical treatment assistance or suggestions for a patient from a computer diagnostic base through the Internetworking. For doing this, here considers about a basic system of "Tele Diagnostic for a remote place" where it dose not have a doctor and a medical assistance. In order to implement the system, JAVA, VRML, HTML, and CORTONA are used as a basic language and a viewer. And also in order to add a kind of intelligence, Augmented Knowledge In Agent (AKIA) by using Back Propagation Neural Networks (BPNN) is used. And by this study, here can introduce the system that has the following basic mechanisms; By inputting physical data like temperature or blood pressure, the system would show a diagnostic assistance by TEXT. And also the bad place of body would be shown graphically if there were any. The system can be put onto Web, so that anybody could have this assistance at any place ubiquitously only if a person has Internetworking access.

  16. Equivalent Diagnostic Classification Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo

    2009-01-01

    Rupp and Templin (2008) do a good job at describing the ever expanding landscape of Diagnostic Classification Models (DCM). In many ways, their review article clearly points to some of the questions that need to be answered before DCMs can become part of the psychometric practitioners toolkit. Apart from the issues mentioned in this article that…

  17. Saliva, diagnostics, and dentistry.

    PubMed

    Urdea, M S; Neuwald, P D; Greenberg, B L; Glick, M; Galloway, J; Williams, D; Wong, D T W

    2011-10-01

    Saliva, a scientific and clinical entity familiar to every oral health researcher and dental practitioner, has emerged as a translational and clinical commodity that has reached national visibility at the National Institutes of Health and the President's Office of Science and Technology. "Detecting dozens of diseases in a sample of saliva" was issued by President Obama as one of the 14 Grand Challenges for biomedical research in the 21(st) Century (National Economic Council, 2010). In addition, NIH's 2011 Government Performance Report Act (GPRA) listed 10 initiatives in the high-risk long-term category (Collins, 2011). The mandate is to determine the efficacy of using salivary diagnostics to monitor health and diagnose at least one systemic disease by 2013. The stage is set for the scientific community to capture these national and global opportunities to advance and substantiate the scientific foundation of salivary diagnostics to meet these goals. A specific calling is to the oral, dental, and craniofacial health community. Three areas will be highlighted in this paper: the concept of high-impact diagnostics, the role of dentists in diagnostics, and, finally, an infrastructure currently being developed in the United Kingdom--The UK Biobank--which will have an impact on the translational and clinical utilizations of saliva. PMID:21917745

  18. PCOS: a diagnostic challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Azziz

    2004-01-01

    Useful research and diagnostic criteria for PCOS arose from a conference in 1990, whereby PCOS could be defined by: (i) clinical and\\/or biochemical hyperandrogenism, (ii) chronic anovulation, and (iii) exclusion of related disorders. The presence of ‘polycystic ovaries’ was not included in this definition, which created significant concern since many women with PCOS have polycystic ovaries on ultrasound, and conversely

  19. Reducing Diagnostic Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.

    2002-01-01

    Skill using the American Psychiatric Association's 2000 "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Text Revision" is essential for increased professional credibility, career marketability, and third-party reimbursement of professional counselors. This article focuses on how to improve counselors' skill with the manual, by providing…

  20. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960`s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore`s Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail.