Science.gov

Sample records for modern hydraulic science

  1. Percolation Theory and Modern Hydraulic Fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, J. Q.; Turcotte, D. L.; Rundle, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    During the past few years, we have been developing a percolation model for fracking. This model provides a powerful tool for understanding the growth and properties of the complex fracture networks generated during a modern high volume hydraulic fracture stimulations of tight shale reservoirs. The model can also be used to understand the interaction between the growing fracture network and natural reservoir features such as joint sets and faults. Additionally, the model produces a power-law distribution of bursts which can easily be compared to observed microseismicity.

  2. Acupuncture: From Ancient Practice to Modern Science

    MedlinePlus

    ... Section CAM Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... of Progress / Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science / Low Back Pain and CAM / Time to Talk / ...

  3. Atmospheric deterioration of ancient and modern hydraulic mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbioni, C.; Zappia, G.; Riontino, C.; Blanco-Varela, M. T.; Aguilera, J.; Puertas, F.; Balen, K. Van; Toumbakari, E. E.

    Different types of ancient and recent hydraulic mortars were collected from well-documented archaeological, historic and modern buildings in various geographical locations (urban, suburban, rural and maritime) of Italy, Spain and Belgium, representative of different environmental impacts, types and degrees of deterioration. A synthesis of the characteristics of the collected samples is presented, along with the identification of the formation products that occurred on the sample surfaces as a result of the reaction of the mortars with atmospheric pollutants. The analyses were performed by means of optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX) and ion chromatography (IC). The results obtained prove that sulphation processes takes place on hydraulic mortars, leading to gypsum formation on the external surface of the samples. Through the reaction of gypsum with the aluminate hydrate of the binder, ettringite formation was found to occur on a cement-based restoration mortar sampled in Antwerp.

  4. Antiquity versus modern times in hydraulics - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroia, L.; Georgescu, S. C.; Georgescu, A. M.

    2010-08-01

    Water supply and water management in Antiquity represent more than Modern World can imagine about how people in that period used to think about, and exploit the resources they had, aiming at developing and improving their society and own lives. This paper points out examples of how they handled different situations, and how they managed to cope with the growing number of population in the urban areas, by adapting or by improving their water supply systems. The paper tries to emphasize the engineering contribution of Rome and the Roman Empire, mainly in the capital but also in the provinces, as for instance the today territory of France, by analysing some aqueducts from the point of view of modern Hydraulic Engineering. A third order polynomial regression is proposed to compute the water flow rate, based on the flow cross-sectional area measured in quinaria. This paper also emphasizes on contradictory things between what we thought we knew about Ancient Roman civilization, and what could really be proven, either by a modern engineering approach, a documentary approach, or by commonsense, where none of the above could be used. It is certain that the world we live in is the heritage of the Greco-Roman culture and therefore, we are due to acknowledge their contribution, especially taking into account the lack of knowledge of that time, and the poor resources they had.

  5. Hydraulics for Royal Gardens: Water Art as a Challenge for 18th Century Science and 21st Century Physics Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Michael

    2007-06-01

    Hydraulics is an engineering specialty and largely neglected as a topic in physics teaching. But the history of hydraulics from the Renaissance to the Baroque, merits our attention because hydraulics was then more broadly conceived as a practical and theoretical science; it served as a constant bone of contention for mechanics and mathematics; its obvious practical importance from raising water in mines to the playful fountains in royal gardens illustrates the social role of science like few others do. The playful character of historic hydraulics problems makes it also an appealing topic for modern science education.

  6. Modern Science and Human Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrance, William W.

    Designed to provide scientific personnel, policymakers, and the public with a succinct summary of the public aspects of scientific issues, this book focuses on how values and science intersect and how social values can be brought to bear on complex technical enterprises. Themes examined include: (1) relation of science and technology to human…

  7. Invisible World and Modern Physics: Modern Science and Theology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.; Danezis, E.

    2010-07-01

    A characteristic of the Western thought is the effort to counter Christian theology through arguments based on scientific discoveries (antirrhetic theology). Two objections can be raised against this trait: a) Modern science considers as a fact the future expansions, corrections, even total abolishment of scientific knowledge in the face of new discoveries. Therefore, dogmatic positions must not be based on temporary scientific views. b) Antirrhetic theology is mostly based on out-of-date scientific views of the period 1650-1900, which are not valid any more. The example of modern physics and cosmology is prime among them; in these sciences, the prevailing theories are based on the existence of an imperceptible reality, or on apparently “illogical” (in the sense of classical logic) fundamental properties of matter and its particles in quantum mechanics.

  8. [Natural science and historicity in modern times].

    PubMed

    von Engelhardt, D

    1977-09-29

    The history of science in modern times is the history of the loss of and gain in historicity. In contrast to the increasing historicizing of nature (as the objective dimension), the knowledge of nature (as the subjective dimension) after a time of parallelism between historical studies and scientific research (Enlightenment) and a time of integration (Idealism/Romanticism) was fundamentally dehistoricized during the positivistic 19th century. The history of science and science itself have since that time fallen apart--consciousness of science is restricted to consciousness of the presence. PMID:334653

  9. [On the origins of modern science].

    PubMed

    de Micheli-Serra, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    The Renaissance savants essentially repelled the scholastic translations and commentaries of the ancient writings. Nevertheless, they did not reach a modern vision of experimental science. Moreover, education at the universities was not credited for the development of science. In fact, academic training of students was rather precarious. The first professional associations, such as the "Royal College of Physicians" of London, were not any better. Regarding the hermetic influence on Renaissance thought, the cultured and philosophical reformed magic (so-called white magic) was the equivalent of science at the time. Once the animistic universe, operated by magic, was transformed into the mathematical universe operated by mechanics, the era of science came into being. This movement began during the post-Renaissance age and gradually progressed following the physical-mathematical orientation of Galileo and his pupils: Borelli; Fabrizi; Santorio; Harvey, etc. They initiated physiological studies and introduced the quantitative method into the research field. Harvey's doctrine was the first adequate explanation of an organic phenomenon and a starting point for the way toward experimental physiology. However, the English physician did not completely leave the pre-scientific era, as can be inferred from his monography on animals reproduction. In this work, some points suggesting the birth of modern scientific reasoning alternate with confused, vague, and capricious assertions. In fact, modern science did not arise suddenly, but was elaborated and sustained slowly starting in the XVII century: Galileo's century. PMID:14635572

  10. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  11. Science and the state in modern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zuoyue

    2007-09-01

    The question of the role of the state has, in one way or another, dominated historical studies of science and technology in modern China, a field that has experienced rapid growth since the early 1980s both inside and outside of China. While Western scholars have focused their analysis on the state control of science and scientists, Chinese historians and writers, often working under political restrictions, have largely adopted a descriptive approach with an emphasis on biographical, institutional, and disciplinary histories and on the theme of Chinese nationalism. The emergence of an international community of younger historians of science, the easing of access to primary source materials, and new attention to transnational and comparative perspectives promise to make the field an exciting area of scholarship. PMID:17970427

  12. Natural products in modern life science.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, Lars; Göransson, Ulf; Alsmark, Cecilia; Wedén, Christina; Backlund, Anders

    2010-06-01

    With a realistic threat against biodiversity in rain forests and in the sea, a sustainable use of natural products is becoming more and more important. Basic research directed against different organisms in Nature could reveal unexpected insights into fundamental biological mechanisms but also new pharmaceutical or biotechnological possibilities of more immediate use. Many different strategies have been used prospecting the biodiversity of Earth in the search for novel structure-activity relationships, which has resulted in important discoveries in drug development. However, we believe that the development of multidisciplinary incentives will be necessary for a future successful exploration of Nature. With this aim, one way would be a modernization and renewal of a venerable proven interdisciplinary science, Pharmacognosy, which represents an integrated way of studying biological systems. This has been demonstrated based on an explanatory model where the different parts of the model are explained by our ongoing research. Anti-inflammatory natural products have been discovered based on ethnopharmacological observations, marine sponges in cold water have resulted in substances with ecological impact, combinatory strategy of ecology and chemistry has revealed new insights into the biodiversity of fungi, in depth studies of cyclic peptides (cyclotides) has created new possibilities for engineering of bioactive peptides, development of new strategies using phylogeny and chemography has resulted in new possibilities for navigating chemical and biological space, and using bioinformatic tools for understanding of lateral gene transfer could provide potential drug targets. A multidisciplinary subject like Pharmacognosy, one of several scientific disciplines bridging biology and chemistry with medicine, has a strategic position for studies of complex scientific questions based on observations in Nature. Furthermore, natural product research based on intriguing scientific

  13. Natural products in modern life science

    PubMed Central

    Göransson, Ulf; Alsmark, Cecilia; Wedén, Christina; Backlund, Anders

    2010-01-01

    With a realistic threat against biodiversity in rain forests and in the sea, a sustainable use of natural products is becoming more and more important. Basic research directed against different organisms in Nature could reveal unexpected insights into fundamental biological mechanisms but also new pharmaceutical or biotechnological possibilities of more immediate use. Many different strategies have been used prospecting the biodiversity of Earth in the search for novel structure–activity relationships, which has resulted in important discoveries in drug development. However, we believe that the development of multidisciplinary incentives will be necessary for a future successful exploration of Nature. With this aim, one way would be a modernization and renewal of a venerable proven interdisciplinary science, Pharmacognosy, which represents an integrated way of studying biological systems. This has been demonstrated based on an explanatory model where the different parts of the model are explained by our ongoing research. Anti-inflammatory natural products have been discovered based on ethnopharmacological observations, marine sponges in cold water have resulted in substances with ecological impact, combinatory strategy of ecology and chemistry has revealed new insights into the biodiversity of fungi, in depth studies of cyclic peptides (cyclotides) has created new possibilities for engineering of bioactive peptides, development of new strategies using phylogeny and chemography has resulted in new possibilities for navigating chemical and biological space, and using bioinformatic tools for understanding of lateral gene transfer could provide potential drug targets. A multidisciplinary subject like Pharmacognosy, one of several scientific disciplines bridging biology and chemistry with medicine, has a strategic position for studies of complex scientific questions based on observations in Nature. Furthermore, natural product research based on intriguing scientific

  14. Modern Science and Conservative Islam: An Uneasy Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edis, Taner

    2009-06-01

    Familiar Western debates about religion, science, and science education have parallels in the Islamic world. There are difficulties reconciling conservative, traditional versions of Islam with modern science, particularly theories such as evolution. As a result, many conservative Muslim thinkers are drawn toward creationism, hopes of Islamizing science, or other ways to retain the primacy of faith while continuing efforts to catch up with modern technology. Muslims argue that science and Islam coexist in harmony, but both intellectually and institutionally, the Islamic world harbors many tensions between science and religion.

  15. Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Robert L.; Kirby, Klane

    This curriculum guide contains a course in hydraulics to train entry-level workers for automotive mechanics and other fields that utilize hydraulics. The module contains 14 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to hydraulics; (2) fundamentals of hydraulics; (3) reservoirs; (4) lines, fittings, and couplers; (5)…

  16. The Mona Lisa of modern science.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Martin

    2003-01-23

    No molecule in the history of science has reached the iconic status of the double helix of DNA. Its image has been imprinted on all aspects of society, from science, art, music, cinema, architecture and advertising. This review of the Mona Lisa of science examines the evolution of its form at the hands of both science and art. PMID:12540913

  17. On Modern Cosmology and Its Place in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragh, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Cosmology in its current meaning of the science of the universe is a topic that attracts as much popular as scientific interest. This paper argues that modern cosmology and its philosophical aspects should have a prominent place in science education. In the context of science teaching a partly historical approach is recommended, in particular an…

  18. Modern Science and Conservative Islam: An Uneasy Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edis, Taner

    2009-01-01

    Familiar Western debates about religion, science, and science education have parallels in the Islamic world. There are difficulties reconciling conservative, traditional versions of Islam with modern science, particularly theories such as evolution. As a result, many conservative Muslim thinkers are drawn toward creationism, hopes of Islamizing…

  19. Photon Science at Modern Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, John

    2009-12-01

    energy resolution (˜100 eV for solid state detectors), or very poor angular acceptance (10-3 sr or worse for grating and crystal analyzer detectors). Photon detectors at synchrotron light sources can be presented with very high signal count rates. At the new FEL sources, this issue will be especially acute, since each sub-picosecond pulse will deliver the flux produced in one second by a synchrotron. This invites the use of multiple small detectors to spread the load. The ideal energy-resolving detector for x-ray science at modern light sources would combine eV-level energy resolution, 100-μm pixel size, and a low per-pixel cost allowing several megapixels to be deployed.

  20. Modern Elementary Science Curricula and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ben Afton

    Comparisons of the growth in science achievement of 2,000 elementary science students in six elementary science programs used in Southwestern Michigan were made. Relationships between students' ranking in class, the type of school, sex and growth in achievement were sought, as well as relationships among teacher variables (pre-service science…

  1. Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

    These instructional materials provide an orientation to hydraulics for use at the postsecondary level. The first of 12 sections presents an introduction to hydraulics, including discussion of principles of liquids, definitions, liquid flow, the two types of hydraulic fluids, pressure gauges, and strainers and filters. The second section identifies…

  2. Marcello Malpighi and the difficult birth of modern life sciences.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, M

    1999-01-01

    All his life, Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694), the founder of modern microscopic anatomy, was unwillingly involved in difficult debates within a reactionary medical milieu that questioned the significance of modern science and its utility to medicine. Malpighi's responses to his detractors, included in posthumous works first published in 1697 by the Royal Society, offer an important insight into a critical phase of scientific progress in the 17th century and help to reveal the prevailing conception of science. In some ways, Malpighi's views predate important ideas in modern biology. PMID:10643137

  3. MODERN SCIENCE. INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RICE, GLORIA; AND OTHERS

    ELEVEN UNITS OF STUDY INCLUDE--SCIENCE IN OUR LIVES TODAY, APPLIED CHEMISTRY, MODERN MATERIALS, MAN AND MECHANICS, HEAT AND FUELS, NUCLEAR ENERGY, SOUND, LIGHT, ELECTRICITY, ELECTRONICS, AND SPACE. ALL ARE DIRECTED AT THE STUDENT WHO WOULD USE THE INFORMATION GAINED IN EVERYDAY LIFE, RATHER THAN AT THE POTENTIAL SCIENCE STUDENT. UNIT 1 EXPLAINS…

  4. People Interview: Black-tie science gets modern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    INTERVIEW Black-tie science gets modern Baroness Susan Greenfield CBE is director of the Royal Institution and professor of pharmacology at Oxford where she heads a multidisciplinary group studying neurodegenerative disorders. David Smith speaks to her about specialities, keeping busy and how science is changing.

  5. Can science survive in the modern age?

    PubMed

    Brooks, H

    1971-10-01

    A recent newspaper account of the 1970 annual meeting of the AAAS was headlined, "Science's Blank Check Bounces." I am not, however, advocating that giving a "blank check" to science will solve all our problems. The discussion of science policy in the last three decades has too often confused necessary with sufficient conditions. A strong basic science is a necessary condition for a strong economy, a livable environment, and a tolerable society. But it is by no means a sufficient condition. That a vital science is an indispensable tool of human welfare in the present stage of evolution of man on the planet does not mean that it is the only tool or that it cannot also produce the opposite. Indeed, there seems almost to be a complementarity between the power for good and the power for evil inherent in science. Nuclear energy poses the possibility of nuclear holocaust, but is indispensable to a continuing supply of energy after fossil fuels run out. The computer threatens us with "big brother," but seems indispensable to the rational management of our complex social structures. Molecular genetics could be used for frightful purposes, but opens up the prospect of the final conquest of human disease and food supply. Drugs which control human behavior have opened up frightful possibilities for abuse and self-destruction, but they also offer the hope of conquest of mental illness. What I have referred to are really technologies, not science, but science is needed to use them wisely, although it will not guarantee their wise use. Although science cannot ask for a blank check, there is a part of it which must have the autonomy to "do its own thing"if it is to continue to serve society. How much of science should have this autonomy, and what sort of accountability should be required of it will be matters of continuing debate. Some accountability outside the scientific system itself is essential, as in any other human activity, but the degree of external accountability which

  6. Modern Data Center Services Supporting Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varner, J. D.; Cartwright, J.; McLean, S. J.; Boucher, J.; Neufeld, D.; LaRocque, J.; Fischman, D.; McQuinn, E.; Fugett, C.

    2011-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) World Data Center for Geophysics and Marine Geology provides scientific stewardship, products and services for geophysical data, including bathymetry, gravity, magnetics, seismic reflection, data derived from sediment and rock samples, as well as historical natural hazards data (tsunamis, earthquakes, and volcanoes). Although NGDC has long made many of its datasets available through map and other web services, it has now developed a second generation of services to improve the discovery and access to data. These new services use off-the-shelf commercial and open source software, and take advantage of modern JavaScript and web application frameworks. Services are accessible using both RESTful and SOAP queries as well as Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard protocols such as WMS, WFS, WCS, and KML. These new map services (implemented using ESRI ArcGIS Server) are finer-grained than their predecessors, feature improved cartography, and offer dramatic speed improvements through the use of map caches. Using standards-based interfaces allows customers to incorporate the services without having to coordinate with the provider. Providing fine-grained services increases flexibility for customers building custom applications. The Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping program and Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning program are two examples of national initiatives that require common data inventories from multiple sources and benefit from these modern data services. NGDC is also consuming its own services, providing a set of new browser-based mapping applications which allow the user to quickly visualize and search for data. One example is a new interactive mapping application to search and display information about historical natural hazards. NGDC continues to increase the amount of its data holdings that are accessible and is augmenting the capabilities with modern web

  7. Rejoinder: Infusing Indigenous Science into Western Modern Science for a Sustainable Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsiglia, John; Snively, Gloria

    2001-01-01

    Comments on the responses to the original article in this journal issue concerning universalism and multiculturalism. Indigenous science offers important scientific knowledge that western modern science has not yet learned to produce. (SAH)

  8. Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Robert L.

    Designed for use in courses where students are expected to become proficient in the area of hydraulics, including diesel engine mechanic programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of fourteen units of instruction. Unit titles include (1) Introduction, (2) Fundamentals of Hydraulics, (3) Reservoirs, (4) Lines, Fittings, and Couplers, (5) Seals,…

  9. Modern Lesson Plans in Environmental Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotsonis, Helen Hoch; Baker, Bill

    This sourcebook, developed for teachers of ecology, biology, general science and hygiene, contains 27 lesson plans that have been organized into 5 units. The units are: The Dynamics of Pollution, Conservation and the Environment, Biological Controls and their Relationship to the Environment, Urban Ecology, and Environment and Health. The lesson…

  10. Building bridges between Ayurveda and Modern Science

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Sanjeev

    2010-01-01

    The recent decade has witnessed many landmark observations, which have added to the scientific credentials of Ayurveda.It is however believed that instead of a retrospective approach of looking into the Ayurveda through the scientific reappraisals, a prospective approach through primary understanding of Ayurveda followed by a search into scientific linkage would be more appealing. This article brings the simplified yet scientific decoding of the core concepts of Ayurveda that form the framework of this ancient science of health. PMID:20532097

  11. Krakatoa Erupts!: Using a Historic Cataclysm to Teach Modern Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2011-01-01

    Through integration of geology, biology, chemistry, and the history of science, the historic Krakatoa eruption offers a unique portal for student inquiry in the classroom. Students are inherently fascinated by natural disasters, and modern comparisons to the Krakatoa cataclysm are as close as the day's news. This article uses the historic Krakatoa…

  12. Investigating the Purpose of Trigonometry in the Modern Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertel, Joshua T.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation reports the results of a qualitative research project that aimed to develop a research-based perspective on the purpose of trigonometry in the modern sciences. The investigation was guided by three objectives. First, the study sought to identify the purpose of trigonometry as described by educators and high school textbooks.…

  13. Emirates Secondary School Science Teachers' Perspectives on the Nexus between Modern Science and Arab Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haidar, Abdullateef H.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study involving (n=286) secondary school science teachers from the seven Emirates which constitute the United Arab Emirates. Reports that Emirates secondary school science teachers did not view modern science as only a subculture of Western culture. (Contains 40 references.) (Author/YDS)

  14. Archives and the Boundaries of Early Modern Science.

    PubMed

    Popper, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    This contribution argues that the study of early modern archives suggests a new agenda for historians of early modern science. While in recent years historians of science have begun to direct increased attention toward the collections amassed by figures and institutions traditionally portrayed as proto-scientific, archives proliferated across early modern Europe, emerging as powerful tools for creating knowledge in politics, history, and law as well as natural philosophy, botany, and more. The essay investigates the methods of production, collection, organization, and manipulation used by English statesmen and Crown officers such as Keeper of the State Papers Thomas Wilson and Secretary of State Joseph Williamson to govern their disorderly collections. Their methods, it is shown, were shared with contemporaries seeking to generate and manage other troves of evidence and in fact reflect a complex ecosystem of imitation and exchange across fields of inquiry. These commonalities suggest that historians of science should look beyond the ancestors of modern scientific disciplines to examine how practices of producing knowledge emerged and migrated throughout cultures of learning in Europe and beyond. Creating such a map of knowledge production and exchange, the essay concludes, would provide a renewed and expansive ambition for the field. PMID:27197414

  15. On Modern Cosmology and its Place in Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Helge

    2011-03-01

    Cosmology in its current meaning of the science of the universe is a topic that attracts as much popular as scientific interest. This paper argues that modern cosmology and its philosophical aspects should have a prominent place in science education. In the context of science teaching a partly historical approach is recommended, in particular an approach that gives priority to the relationship between observation and theory during the formative years of modern cosmology from about 1910-1970. It is further argued that there are very important aspects of cosmology that are not primarily of a scientific nature, but are mainly conceptual and philosophical (and perhaps religious), and that these, too, might advantageously enter courses in astronomy and physics. While cosmology is a science, it is not just a science. Among the topics dealt with are the big bang, the cosmological principle, cosmic creation, and the multiverse. The paper outlines some cosmological questions of a qualitative and conceptual nature that, in the author's view, are organic parts of cosmology. Courses and textbooks which deal with cosmology should encourage discussions of such questions, not shun them in the name of science.

  16. George Orwell and Modern Science Fiction: The Legacy of Big Brother.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Fred

    1984-01-01

    Discusses George Orwell's lack of influence on modern science fiction and presents a selected annotated bibliography of modern science fiction materials depicting a wide variety of totalitarian societies. (MBR)

  17. Magic Universe - The Oxford Guide to Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, Nigel

    2003-11-01

    As a prolific author, BBC commentator, and magazine editor, Nigel Calder has spent a lifetime spotting and explaining the big discoveries in all branches of science. In Magic Universe , he draws on his vast experience to offer readers a lively, far-reaching look at modern science in all its glory, shedding light on the latest ideas in physics, biology, chemistry, medicine, astronomy, and many other fields. What is truly magical about Magic Universe is Calder's incredible breadth. Migrating birds, light sensors in the human eye, black holes, antimatter, buckyballs and nanotubes--with exhilarating sweep, Calder can range from the strings of a piano to the superstrings of modern physics, from Pythagoras's theory of musical pitch to the most recent ideas about atoms and gravity and a ten-dimensional universe--all in one essay. The great virtue of this wide-ranging style--besides its liveliness and versatility--is that it allows Calder to illuminate how the modern sciences intermingle and cross-fertilize one another. Indeed, whether discussing astronauts or handedness or dinosaurs, Calder manages to tease out hidden connections between disparate fields of study. What is most wondrous about the "magic universe" is that one can begin with stellar dust and finish with life itself. Drawing on interviews with more than 200 researchers, from graduate students to Nobel prize-winners, Magic Universe takes us on a high-spirited tour through the halls of science, one that will enthrall everyone interested in science, whether a young researcher in a high-tech lab or an amateur buff sitting in the comfort of an armchair.

  18. [Cardiology was born with the modern medical science].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Modern medical science was born in the post-Renaissance age and began to consolidate towards the middle of the XVII century thanks to physicists, physiologists and biologists, most of whom were direct or indirect pupils of Galileo. The discovery of blood circulation by Harvey is now considered the only progress in physiology at the beginning of the XVII century, comparable to the current advances seen in physical sciences. The history of this exploit could be written from view point of the progressive advance in knowledge. In his experiments, Harvey referred to the authentic not imaginary experiments, and put forward irrefutable quantitative arguments. We can therefore claim that his discovery of blood circulation was the first proper explanation of an organic process and the starting point leading to experimental physiology. So it seems justified to assert that modern medical science did not all rise suddenly, but was gradually structured starting from the middle of the XVII century following the path traced by William Harvey in light of Galileo's thought. PMID:25554458

  19. Hydraulics for Royal Gardens: Water Art as a Challenge for 18th Century Science and 21st Century Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Hydraulics is an engineering specialty and largely neglected as a topic in physics teaching. But the history of hydraulics from the Renaissance to the Baroque, merits our attention because hydraulics was then more broadly conceived as a practical "and" theoretical science; it served as a constant bone of contention for mechanics and…

  20. 77 FR 50505 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office Request for Nominations of Experts for the SAB Hydraulic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office Request for Nominations of Experts for the SAB Hydraulic... hydraulic fracturing. DATES: Nominations should be submitted by September 11, 2012 per instructions below... and environmental protection issues that may be associated with hydraulic fracturing should...

  1. Pious Science: The Gulen Community and the Making of a Conservative Modernity in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Berna

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the ways in which the Islamic Fethullah Gulen community engages with science as a response to globalization and modernity. Framed with the theoretical discussions on multiple modernities, it investigates how the community contests for hegemony in the field of science against the project of secular modernity, and…

  2. The Name of the Rose: A Path to Discuss the Birth of Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Andreia; Braga, Marco

    2014-03-01

    Various science education researchers believe that science tuition should include some discussion about how science has developed over time. Therefore, deliberations about the nature of science should be integrated in the science curriculum. Many researchers argue that teaching the history of science is a good way to place the nature of science in science classes. This paper contributes to this debate and argues the importance of having young students study the birth of modern science. Such study could allow students to understand that some of the issues about the nature of science arose in the seventeenth century with the birth of modern science. To achieve this purpose, it is important to discuss the different factors that immersed the birth of modern science. To accomplish this goal, the novel The Name of the Rose by Umberto Eco may be used. Beyond introducing issues surrounding the nature of science, this strategy could help overcome the separation between the arts and humanities in education.

  3. Jorge Luis Borges and the New Physics: the Literature of Modern Science and the Science of Modern Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, Mark Robert

    1992-01-01

    By examining the works of the Argentine writer, Jorge Luis Borges, and the parallels it has with modern physics, literature and science converge in their quest for truth regarding the structure and meaning of the universe. The classical perception of physics as a "hard" science--that of quantitative, rational thought which was established during the Newtonian era--has been replaced by the "new physics," which integrates the so-called "soft" elements into its paradigm. It presents us with a universe based not exclusively on a series of particle-like interactions, or a "billiard-ball" hypothesis where discrete objects have a measurable position and velocity in absolute space and time, but rather on a combination of these mechanistic properties and those that make up the non-physical side of nature such as intuition, consciousness, and emotion. According to physicists like James Jeans science has been "humanized" to the extent that the universe as a "great machine" has been converted into a "great thought.". In nearly all his collections of essays and short stories, Borges complements the new physics by producing a literature that can be described as "scientized." The abstract, metaphysical implications and concerns of the new world-view, such as space, time, language, consciousness, free will, determinism, etc., appear repeatedly throughout Borges' texts, and are treated in terms that are remarkably similar to those expressed in the scientific texts whose authors include Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schrodinger. As a final comparison, Borges and post-modern physicists address the question of the individual's ability to ever comprehend the universe. They share an attitude of incredulity toward all models and theories of reality simply because they are based on partial information, and therefore seen only as conjectures.

  4. Nature-of-Science Literacy in "Benchmarks" and "Standards": Post-Modern/Relativist or Modern/Realist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Ron; Shymansky, James

    2001-01-01

    "Benchmarks" and "Standards" describe science in terms that seem to emphasize tentative, local knowledge while at other times emphasizing stable, universal knowledge. Presents an overall picture of science to be one of modern realism, and shows how the postmodern relativist could select statements that paint a scene as epistemically equivalent to…

  5. Investigating the purpose of trigonometry in the modern sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, Joshua T.

    This dissertation reports the results of a qualitative research project that aimed to develop a research-based perspective on the purpose of trigonometry in the modern sciences. The investigation was guided by three objectives. First, the study sought to identify the purpose of trigonometry as described by educators and high school textbooks. Second, the research investigated the perspectives these sources held about definitions of the trigonometric functions. Third, the investigation examined the potential benefits and drawbacks of a line-segment definition of the trigonometric functions. The study followed a grounded theory methodology with data collection and analysis intertwined. Participants included faculty from two large Midwestern research universities, high school teachers, and authors of standards documents. Textbooks were drawn from introductory algebra, geometry, advanced algebra, precalculus, and calculus texts. Data collected included surveys, interviews, and textbook excerpts. Analysis used the constant comparative method (Corbin & Strauss, 2008; Glaser & Strauss, 2006/1967). Analysis resulted in the emergence of a grounded theory, the tensions of trigonometry, which described three interrelated themes within the data: definition, application, and role. Two ideas emerged that connected the tensions of trigonometry, the regions of interaction, which described the interplay between the three tensions, and the idealized dichotomy of trigonometry education, which outlined opposing perspectives on trigonometry: trigonometry for all and trigonometry for some. The grounded theory outlines a range of competing purposes for trigonometry in the modern sciences. It suggests that educators are engaged in a process of continual negotiation that results in the formation of a localized purpose of trigonometry. The benefits and drawbacks of different definitions are not based on mathematical sophistication, but are situational. Furthermore, the theory suggests that

  6. The Ripper Project. Modern science solving mysteries of history.

    PubMed

    Eckert, W G

    1989-06-01

    Modern scientific techniques may be applied to solve historical--even ancient--mysteries. Many such mysteries have been studied by forensic scientists, including anthropologists. One example is the recent examination of the artifacts and grave sites at the Little Bighorn in Montana, the scene of the battle between General George A. Custer's troops and the Northern Plains Indian tribes. Similarly, skeleton remains of the Indian tribes of the Pre-Columbian and Columbian periods have been studied to answer many questions regarding life and death in those early civilizations. The Ripper Project began as a research activity of the Milton Helpern International Center for the Forensic Sciences at Wichita State University Wichita, Kansas, in 1981, after the concept had been discussed in a night session during the annual meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in Los Angeles. These century-old serial murders of five prostitutes--The Whitechapel Murders--in London in 1888 were discussed in great detail from the standpoints of the forensic pathologist, the forensic psychiatrist, the criminalist, the forensic historian, and the forensic dentist. The information gained during this phase of the project plus the advances made possible by the development of criminal personality profiling by the FBI led to the present status of this project, which was recently discussed in a live telecast, and which is the subject of this article. PMID:2662752

  7. Courses in Modern Physics for Non-science Majors, Future Science Teachers, and Biology Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollman, Dean

    2001-03-01

    For the past 15 years Kansas State University has offered a course in modern physics for students who are not majoring in physics. This course carries a prerequisite of one physics course so that the students have a basic introduction in classical topics. The majors of students range from liberal arts to engineering. Future secondary science teachers whose first area of teaching is not physics can use the course as part of their study of science. The course has evolved from a lecture format to one which is highly interactive and uses a combination of hands-on activities, tutorials and visualizations, particularly the Visual Quantum Mechanics materials. Another course encourages biology students to continue their physics learning beyond the introductory course. Modern Miracle Medical Machines introduces the basic physics which underlie diagnosis techniques such as MRI and PET and laser surgical techniques. Additional information is available at http://www.phys.ksu.edu/perg/

  8. 75 FR 42087 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations of Experts for the SAB Hydraulic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 13125)]. On June 24, 2010 the SAB provided the EPA Administrator with an advisory report... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations of Experts for the SAB Hydraulic... an SAB Ad Hoc Panel to review EPA's draft Hydraulic Fracturing Study Plan to investigate...

  9. Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing in California - AN Overview of a Comprehensive Science Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkholzer, J. T.; Long, J. C. S.; Feinstein, L.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Jordan, P. D.; Varadharajan, C.; Foxall, W.; Dobson, P. F.; Houseworth, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    In 2013, California's Senate Bill 4 required an independent science study to assess current and potential future hydraulic fracturing practices in California, and to evaluate potential impacts on water, air, seismicity, ecological systems, and health. The study, completed in July 2015, found that hydraulic fracturing currently supports about one quarter of California's oil production, and is expected to continue to do so in the near future. California's experience with hydraulic fracturing differs from that in other states because operators mostly conduct relatively shallow stimulations in relatively high-permeability reservoirs. The upside of this is that operations use relatively little water, but the downside is that in a few locations, fractures could extend into protected groundwater. The study also found that direct impacts of hydraulic fracturing appear small but have not been fully investigated in California. These direct impacts all stem from the use of stimulation chemicals and the study calls for precautionary limits on chemical use. Indirect impacts, which are not directly attributable to the stimulation activity but rather caused by oil and gas production enabled by stimulation, are likely more important. For example, underground injection of produced water from a hydraulically fractured reservoir causes problems common to all oil and gas production, such as the risk of inducing an earthquake or causing groundwater contamination. To date, there have been no reported cases of induced seismicity associated with produced water injection in California. However, it is difficult to distinguish California's frequent natural earthquakes from those possibly caused by water injection. California also disposes of produced water from all oil and gas production in percolation ponds and injects some of this water into protected aquifers. These are serious issues, often tagged to hydraulic fracturing but actually common to all oil and gas production.

  10. Science for Survival: The Modern Synthesis of Evolution and The Biological Sciences Curriculum Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Lisa Anne

    In this historical dissertation, I examined the process of curriculum development in the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) in the United States during the period 1959-1963. The presentation of evolution in the high school texts was based on a more robust form of Darwinian evolution which developed during the 1930s and 1940s called "the modern synthesis of evolution." Building primarily on the work of historians Vassiliki Smocovitis and John L. Rudolph, I used the archival papers and published writings of the four architects of the modern synthesis and the four most influential leaders of the BSCS in regards to evolution to investigate how the modern synthetic theory of evolution shaped the BSCS curriculum. The central question was "Why was evolution so important to the BSCS to make it the central theme of the texts?" Important answers to this question had already been offered in the historiography, but it was still not clear why every citizen in the world needed to understand evolution. I found that the emphasis on natural selection in the modern synthesis shifted the focus away from humans as passive participants to the recognition that humans are active agents in their own cultural and biological evolution. This required re-education of the world citizenry, which was accomplished in part by the BSCS textbooks. I also found that BSCS leaders Grobman, Glass, and Muller had serious concerns regarding the effects of nuclear radiation on the human gene pool, and were actively involved in informing th public. Lastly, I found that concerns of 1950s reform eugenicists were addressed in the BSCS textbooks, without mentioning eugenics by name. I suggest that the leaders of the BSCS, especially Bentley Glass and Hermann J. Muller, thought that students needed to understand genetics and evolution to be able to make some of the tough choices they might be called on to make as the dominant species on earth and the next reproductive generation in the nuclear age. This

  11. Reasoning About Nature: Graduate students and teachers integrating historic and modern science in high school math and science classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. B.; Rigsby, C. A.; Muston, C.; Robinson, Z.; Morehead, A.; Stellwag, E. J.; Shinpaugh, J.; Thompson, A.; Teller, J.

    2010-12-01

    Graduate students and faculty at East Carolina University are working with area high schools to address the common science and mathematics deficiencies of many high school students. Project RaN (Reasoning about Nature), an interdisciplinary science/math/education research project, addresses these deficiencies by focusing on the history of science and the relationship between that history and modern scientific thought and practice. The geological sciences portion of project RaN has three specific goals: (1) to elucidate the relationships among the history of scientific discovery, the geological sciences, and modern scientific thought; (2) to develop, and utilize in the classroom, instructional modules that are relevant to the modern geological sciences curriculum and that relate fundamental scientific discoveries and principles to multiple disciplines and to modern societal issues; and (3) to use these activity-based modules to heighten students’ interest in science disciplines and to generate enthusiasm for doing science in both students and instructors. The educational modules that result from this linkage of modern and historical scientific thought are activity-based, directly related to the National Science Standards for the high school sciences curriculum, and adaptable to fit each state’s standard course of study for the sciences and math. They integrate historic sciences and mathematics with modern science, contain relevant background information on both the concept(s) and scientist(s) involved, present questions that compel students to think more deeply (both qualitatively and quantitatively) about the subject matter, and include threads that branch off to related topics. Modules on topics ranging from the density to cladistics to Kepler’s laws of planetary motion have been developed and tested. Pre- and post-module data suggest that both students and teachers benefit from these interdisciplinary historically based classroom experiences.

  12. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science

    MedlinePlus

    ... Section CAM Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... others feel relaxed. Acupuncture is used for a wide range of conditions, from arthritis and low back ...

  13. Science against modernism: the relevance of the social theory of Michael Polanyi.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, C

    2001-03-01

    Science, as an institution, is widely taken by sociologists to exemplify the modern tendency towards vesting trust and authority in impersonal offices and procedures, rather than in embodied human individuals. Such views of science face an important challenge in the social philosophy of Michael Polanyi. His work provides important insights into the continuing role of embodied personal authority and tradition in science and, hence, in late modernity. I explicate Polanyi's relevance for social theory, through a comparison with Weber's essay 'Science as a Vocation'. An understanding of the personal dimensions of trust and authority in science suggests practical limits to the position of Giddens on the disembedding of social relations and on the scepticism and reflexivity of modernity. PMID:11321228

  14. Science and the Making of the Modern World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, John

    An account of the development of science and the growth of the scientific community is presented in this book. It aims to provide the reader with some of the background knowledge needed to make informed and intelligent contributions to contemporary debates on the interaction between science, technology, and society. Highlighted are the historical…

  15. Modern Publishing Approach of Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Filling a needed scholarly publishing avenue for astronomy education researchers and earth science education researchers, the Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education - JAESE published its first volume and issue in 2014. The Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education - JAESE is a scholarly, peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original discipline-based education research and evaluation, with an emphasis of significant scientific results derived from ethical observations and systematic experimentation in science education and evaluation. International in scope, JAESE aims to publish the highest quality and timely articles from discipline-based education research that advance understanding of astronomy and earth sciences education and are likely to have a significant impact on the discipline or on policy. Articles are solicited describing both (i) systematic science education research and (ii) evaluated teaching innovations across the broadly defined Earth & space sciences education, including the disciplines of astronomy, climate education, energy resource science, environmental science, geology, geography, agriculture, meteorology, planetary sciences, and oceanography education. The publishing model adopted for this new journal is open-access and articles appear online in GoogleScholar, ERIC, and are searchable in catalogs of 440,000 libraries that index online journals of its type. Rather than paid for by library subscriptions or by society membership dues, the annual budget is covered by page-charges paid by individual authors, their institutions, grants or donors: This approach is common in scientific journals, but is relatively uncommon in education journals. Authors retain their own copyright. The journal is owned by the Clute Institute of Denver, which owns and operates 17 scholarly journals and currently edited by former American Astronomical Society Education Officer Tim Slater, who is an endowed professor at the University of Wyoming and

  16. How Political Science Became Modern: Racial Thought and the Transformation of the Discipline, 1880-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation argues that changing ideas about race and engagement with race science were at the heart of a major transformation of political science in the 1920s, a transformation that I characterize as "becoming modern." This transformation was at once conceptual--visible in the basic categories and theoretical apparatus of the…

  17. Effects of a Science Education Module on Attitudes towards Modern Biotechnology of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klop, Tanja; Severiens, Sabine E.; Knippels, Marie-Christine P. J.; van Mil, Marc H. W.; Ten Dam, Geert T. M.

    2010-01-01

    This article evaluated the impact of a four-lesson science module on the attitudes of secondary school students. This science module (on cancer and modern biotechnology) utilises several design principles, related to a social constructivist perspective on learning. The expectation was that the module would help students become more articulate in…

  18. Modern Science Fiction and Fantasy: A Frame of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Roland J.

    1977-01-01

    This article reviews the development of the literature of science fiction and fantasy since the mid-19th century. Diversity of topics is a remarkable characteristic of this writing. An annotated reading list is included. (GC)

  19. Moments in the Modern History of the Language Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swales, John M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the beginning of the ascendancy of the language sciences in the past 50 years to become the "queen" of social studies. Focuses on contributions by Mikhail Bakhtin, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Noam Chomsky, Erving Goffman, and Michael Halliday. (SC)

  20. Open science versus commercialization: a modern research conflict?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Efforts to improve research outcomes have resulted in genomic researchers being confronted with complex and seemingly contradictory instructions about how to perform their tasks. Over the past decade, there has been increasing pressure on university researchers to commercialize their work. Concurrently, they are encouraged to collaborate, share data and disseminate new knowledge quickly (that is, to adopt an open science model) in order to foster scientific progress, meet humanitarian goals, and to maximize the impact of their research. Discussion We present selected guidelines from three countries (Canada, United States, and United Kingdom) situated at the forefront of genomics to illustrate this potential policy conflict. Examining the innovation ecosystem and the messages conveyed by the different policies surveyed, we further investigate the inconsistencies between open science and commercialization policies. Summary Commercialization and open science are not necessarily irreconcilable and could instead be envisioned as complementary elements of a more holistic innovation framework. Given the exploratory nature of our study, we wish to point out the need to gather additional evidence on the coexistence of open science and commercialization policies and on its impact, both positive and negative, on genomics academic research. PMID:22369790

  1. Quantitative biology: where modern biology meets physical sciences

    PubMed Central

    Shekhar, Shashank; Zhu, Lian; Mazutis, Linas; Sgro, Allyson E.; Fai, Thomas G.; Podolski, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative methods and approaches have been playing an increasingly important role in cell biology in recent years. They involve making accurate measurements to test a predefined hypothesis in order to compare experimental data with predictions generated by theoretical models, an approach that has benefited physicists for decades. Building quantitative models in experimental biology not only has led to discoveries of counterintuitive phenomena but has also opened up novel research directions. To make the biological sciences more quantitative, we believe a two-pronged approach needs to be taken. First, graduate training needs to be revamped to ensure biology students are adequately trained in physical and mathematical sciences and vice versa. Second, students of both the biological and the physical sciences need to be provided adequate opportunities for hands-on engagement with the methods and approaches necessary to be able to work at the intersection of the biological and physical sciences. We present the annual Physiology Course organized at the Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, MA) as a case study for a hands-on training program that gives young scientists the opportunity not only to acquire the tools of quantitative biology but also to develop the necessary thought processes that will enable them to bridge the gap between these disciplines. PMID:25368426

  2. Quantitative biology: where modern biology meets physical sciences.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Shashank; Zhu, Lian; Mazutis, Linas; Sgro, Allyson E; Fai, Thomas G; Podolski, Marija

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative methods and approaches have been playing an increasingly important role in cell biology in recent years. They involve making accurate measurements to test a predefined hypothesis in order to compare experimental data with predictions generated by theoretical models, an approach that has benefited physicists for decades. Building quantitative models in experimental biology not only has led to discoveries of counterintuitive phenomena but has also opened up novel research directions. To make the biological sciences more quantitative, we believe a two-pronged approach needs to be taken. First, graduate training needs to be revamped to ensure biology students are adequately trained in physical and mathematical sciences and vice versa. Second, students of both the biological and the physical sciences need to be provided adequate opportunities for hands-on engagement with the methods and approaches necessary to be able to work at the intersection of the biological and physical sciences. We present the annual Physiology Course organized at the Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, MA) as a case study for a hands-on training program that gives young scientists the opportunity not only to acquire the tools of quantitative biology but also to develop the necessary thought processes that will enable them to bridge the gap between these disciplines. PMID:25368426

  3. Speculative Truth - Henry Cavendish, Natural Philosophy, and the Rise of Modern Theoretical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormmach, Russell

    2004-03-01

    With a never-before published paper by Lord Henry Cavendish, as well as a biography on him, this book offers a fascinating discourse on the rise of scientific attitudes and ways of knowing. A pioneering British physicist in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Cavendish was widely considered to be the first full-time scientist in the modern sense. Through the lens of this unique thinker and writer, this book is about the birth of modern science.

  4. The fourfold Democritus on the stage of early modern science.

    PubMed

    Lüthy, C

    2000-09-01

    The renewed success of ancient atomism in the seventeenth century has baffled historians not only because of the lack of empirical evidence in its favor but also because of the exotic heterogeneity of the models that were proposed under its name. This essay argues that one of the more intriguing reasons for the motley appearance of early modern atomism is that Democritus, with whose name this doctrine was most commonly associated, was a figure of similar incoherence. There existed in fact no fewer than four quite different Democriti of Abdera and as many literary traditions: the atomist, the "laughing philosopher," the moralizing anatomist, and the alchemist. Around the year 1600 the doctrines of these literary figures, three of whom had no tangible connection with atomism, began to merge into further hybrid personae, some of whom possessed notable scientific potential. This essay offers the story of how these Democriti contributed to the rise of incompatible "atomisms." PMID:11143784

  5. Blending Entertainment, Education, and Science in a Modern Digital Planetarium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortenkamp, Stephen J.

    2015-11-01

    Students at the University of Arizona have a relatively rare opportunity to learn in a state-of-the-art planetarium. Originally opened as a campus planetarium in 1975, the Flandrau Science Center recently expanded into the digital realm. In 2014 Flandrau’s antique Minolta star projector was joined by a full-dome 4K digital projection system powered by a high performance computer cluster. Currently three science courses are taught in the planetarium for non-science majors — stellar astronomy, astrobiology, and planetary science (taught by SJK).The new digital system allows us to take our classes off the surface of Earth on a journey into the cosmos. Databases from dozens of spacecraft missions and deep-space telescopic surveys are tapped by the software to generate a realistic immersive 3D perspective of the universe, from local planets, satellites and rings to distant stars and galaxies all the way out to the limit of the visible universe. Simple clicks of a mouse allow us to change the orientation, trajectory, and speed of the virtual spacecraft, giving our students diverse views of different phenomena.The challenge with this system is harnessing the entertainment aspect for educational purposes. The visualization capabilities allow us to artificially enhance certain features and time scales. For example, the sizes of Earth and the moon can be enlarged on-the-fly to help demonstrate phases and eclipses. Polar axes and latitude lines can be added to Earth as it orbits the sun to help convey the reasons for seasons. Orbital paths can be highlighted to allow students to more accurately comprehend the population of near-Earth asteroids.These new immersive computer-generated visualization techniques have the potential to enhance comprehension in science education, especially for concepts involving 3D spatial and temporal relationships. Whether or not this potential is being realized will require studies to gauge student learning and retention beyond the short

  6. BiteScis: Connecting K-12 teachers with science graduate students to produce lesson plans on modern science research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battersby, Cara

    2016-01-01

    Many students graduate high school having never learned about the process and people behind modern science research. The BiteScis program addresses this gap by providing easily implemented lesson plans that incorporate the whos, whats, and hows of today's scienctific discoveries. We bring together practicing scientists (motivated graduate students from the selective communicating science conference, ComSciCon) with K-12 science teachers to produce, review, and disseminate K-12 lesson plans based on modern science research. These lesson plans vary in topic from environmental science to neurobiology to astrophysics, and involve a range of activities from laboratory exercises to art projects, debates, or group discussion. An integral component of the program is a series of short, "bite-size" articles on modern science research written for K-12 students. The "bite-size" articles and lesson plans will be made freely available online in an easily searchable web interface that includes association with a variety of curriculum standards. This ongoing program is in its first year with about 15 lesson plans produced to date.

  7. Thomism and science education: history informs a modern debate.

    PubMed

    Kondrick, Linda C

    2008-08-01

    There is no debate over the Theory of Evolution. Among biologists the Theory of Evolution is a settled principle. Yet, the issue is far from settled in the larger context of society; between sectors of lay society and biological scientists in the United States there is evidence of a deep divide. Faith and reason, religion, and science at odds-that is hardly a recent divide. It is the premise of the author that the origin of the current conflict over the teaching of evolution stems from a fundamental philosophical divide that began long before Darwin first proposed his Theory of Evolution. It predates the inclusion of physical and biological sciences in the curriculum of western universities. It is older than either Islam or Christianity. The conflict goes back to Plato's Academy in 385 BC where the schools of Idealism and Realism first emerged as two distinct philosophical systems. Idealism and Realism diverged over essential issues of philosophy: What are we, what is true, and how do we know? Answers to these questions about the natural order are framed within philosophical constructs, themselves based upon essential assumptions about the essence of being, the essence of truth, and the nature of learning. Idealism and Realism developed independently for over 1500 years into two competing schools: the Augustinians (fundamentally Idealists) and the Latin Averroists (fundamentally Realists). It was over the place of natural philosophy in the curriculum that these two competing schools collided violently at the University of Paris in 1252. It was Thomas Aquinas who brokered a ceasefire between two embattled schools. Aquinas forged a philosophical system, called Thomism, that allowed the two schools to agree to disagree to the extent that in the graduate curriculum of the University Natural Philosophy could be taught apart from theology. This separation of secular or natural philosophy from theology opened the way for the development of the empirical sciences, the

  8. Antikythera Calculator advances modern science of 19 centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Giovanni

    2010-08-01

    The Greek astronomic calculator, discovered in the depth of the sea in a naval wreckage of the 1st century B.C. in front of the island of Antikythera, is the most amazing among the archaeological discoveries of last century. The mechanism immediately appeared like a device out of its time. After years of study this devise is still provoking a discussion between scientists and archaeologists because of the complexity and the modernity of the scientific knowledge the work presupposes. Its epicyclical gearings show the high level of the scientific culture reached in that period of history. The knowledge of the planetary motion, necessary to the design of the epicyclic gearing of the Calculator of Antikythera, presumes that ancient Greek scientists knew the planetary motion of the celestial bodies and had already achieved the same results that have been attributed to scientists 19 centuries later. The scientific value of this gear mechanism is indisputable because the inventor of the Calculator of Antikythera had the knowledge that was "re-discovered" centuries later as the heliocentric theory proposed by Niccolò Copernicus in 1543 ( De revolutionibus orbium coelestium), the universal gravitation law formulated by Isaac Newton in 1687 ( Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica), and the kinematic study of the epicyclical gearings published by Robert Willis in 1841 ( Principles of mechanism).

  9. Modern analytical ultracentrifugation in protein science: A tutorial review

    PubMed Central

    Lebowitz, Jacob; Lewis, Marc S.; Schuck, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Analytical ultracentrifugation (AU) is reemerging as a versatile tool for the study of proteins. Monitoring the sedimentation of macromolecules in the centrifugal field allows their hydrodynamic and thermodynamic characterization in solution, without interaction with any matrix or surface. The combination of new instrumentation and powerful computational software for data analysis has led to major advances in the characterization of proteins and protein complexes. The pace of new advancements makes it difficult for protein scientists to gain sufficient expertise to apply modern AU to their research problems. To address this problem, this review builds from the basic concepts to advanced approaches for the characterization of protein systems, and key computational and internet resources are provided. We will first explore the characterization of proteins by sedimentation velocity (SV). Determination of sedimentation coefficients allows for the modeling of the hydrodynamic shape of proteins and protein complexes. The computational treatment of SV data to resolve sedimenting components has been achieved. Hence, SV can be very useful in the identification of the oligomeric state and the stoichiometry of heterogeneous interactions. The second major part of the review covers sedimentation equilibrium (SE) of proteins, including membrane proteins and glycoproteins. This is the method of choice for molar mass determinations and the study of self-association and heterogeneous interactions, such as protein–protein, protein–nucleic acid, and protein–small molecule binding. PMID:12192063

  10. Academic cartography: Understanding the directions of modern biological science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Leah Grace

    2007-12-01

    Over the last three decades, the biological research has undergone drastic change. In addition to the many scientific and technological advancements, the legal, and hence economic, structures within which biological research occurs have also been significantly altered. In the early 1980's the patent laws were extended to encompass almost all products of biological research, including living organisms, and the U.S. Congress passed a series of laws which encouraged the intertwining of academic and industrial interests. This research explores how these legal and economic changes have shaped academic research agendas in the biological sciences. Using the University of California, Berkeley as a case study, I have employed a variety of quantitative and qualitative methods to (a) map the directions of biological research occurring in the four main UC Berkeley biology departments over the last two and a half decades, (b) characterize industrial involvement in biological research at UC Berkeley, and (c) understand the decision making calculus scientists and university administrators employ in crafting their personal research agendas and the research directions for their departments and colleges. This dissertation elucidates the necessary convergence of interests, resources, and skills required for any research project to proceed, explores the motivation of academic strength in both the laboratory and the university as a whole, and finally examines the co-construction of the cutting edge These concepts offer new insight into understanding the processes through which science takes its shape.

  11. The New Alliance between Science and Education: Otto Neurath's Modernity beyond Descartes' "Adamitic" Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliverio, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Starting from a suggestion of Stephen Toulmin and through an interpretation of the criticism to which Neurath, one of the founders of the Vienna Circle, submits Descartes' views on science, the paper attempts to outline a pattern of modernity opposed to the Cartesian one, that has been obtaining over the last four centuries. In particular, it…

  12. Literature, Science, and the Rise of Modernism: 1880-1930, a Team-Taught Course in Science and the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Tim; Reiland, Bob

    1995-01-01

    Illustrates the social construction of scientific knowledge by examining the modernist literary works of Chekhov, Ibsen, and Kafka. Demonstrates philosophical conflicts among the authors centering on the benefits and drawbacks of scientific inquiry and modernism. Students also read textbooks and treatises on the history of science. (MJP)

  13. The physician healer: ancient magic or modern science?

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, D M; Sweeney, K G; Gray, D J

    1999-01-01

    The therapeutic role of general practitioners (GPs) is one that, over the years, has slowly diminished with the growing fashion for evidence-based medicine. However, it is clear that the art of healing and the strength of the doctor-patient relationship play a vital role in improving the well-being of patients. This is exemplified by the placebo effect, where the attitude of the doctor can make an appreciable difference to the psychological response of the patient who feels the need to be understood and listened to empathically. By maximizing the role of the physician healer, there is considerable scope for bridging the gap left by the impersonality of medical science, while at the same time increasing the GP's effectiveness. PMID:10736913

  14. First principles calculations for modern ceramic science and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Isao; Oba, Fumiyasu

    2008-02-01

    The free energy of compounds can be theoretically obtained as a function of temperature, pressure and chemical potentials by a combination of a first principles method including phonon calculations and statistical approaches using cluster expansion and Monte Carlo simulations. The information is quite useful in ceramic science and engineering since experimental data are not abundantly available. As an example of phonon calculations, results for graphite in comparison to diamond are presented. The free energy difference among polymorphs of Ga2O3 is shown as a function of temperature as well. Theoretical calculations of x-ray absorption near edge structures (XANES) and electron energy loss near edge structures (ELNES) are also demonstrated. Proper inclusion of the core-hole effect is mandatory in the calculation. For 3d transition element L2,3 XANES/ELNES, a configuration interaction approach to take account of the correlation among the core-hole and the excited electron satisfactorily reproduces experimental spectra. As an example, results for Mn-doped ZnO are shown.

  15. Science Teachers' Misconceptions in Science and Engineering Distinctions: Reflections on Modern Research Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antink-Meyer, Allison; Meyer, Daniel Z.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to learn about the misconceptions that may arise for elementary and high school science teachers in their reflections on science and engineering practice. Using readings and videos of real science and engineering work, teachers' reflections were used to uncover the underpinnings of their understandings. This knowledge ultimately provides information about supporting professional development (PD) for science teachers' knowledge of engineering. Six science teachers (two elementary and four high school teachers) participated in the study as part of an online PD experience. Cunningham and Carlsen's (Journal of Science Teacher Education 25:197-210, 2014) relative emphases of science and engineering practices were used to frame the design of PD activities and the analyses of teachers' views. Analyses suggest misconceptions within the eight practices of science and engineering from the US Next Generation Science Standards in four areas. These are that: (1) the nature of the practices in both science and engineering research is determined by the long-term implications of the research regardless of the nature of the immediate work, (2) engineering and science are hierarchical, (3) creativity is inappropriate, and (4) research outcomes cannot be processes. We discuss the nature of these understandings among participants and the implications for engineering education PD for science teachers.

  16. Science for Survival: The Modern Synthesis of Evolution and the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lisa Anne

    2012-01-01

    In this historical dissertation, I examined the process of curriculum development in the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) in the United States during the period 1959-1963. The presentation of evolution in the high school texts was based on a more robust form of Darwinian evolution which developed during the 1930s and 1940s called…

  17. The modern instrumentation used for monitoring and controlling the main parameters of the regenerative electro-mechano-hydraulic drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, Corneliu; Drumea, Petrin; Krevey, Petrica

    2009-01-01

    In this work is presented the modern instrumentation used for monitoring and controlling the main parameters for one regenerative drive system, used to recovering the kinetic energy of motor vehicles, lost in the braking phase, storing and using this energy in the starting or accelerating phases. Is presented a Romanian technical solution for a regenerative driving system, based on a hybrid solution containing a hydro-mechanic module and an existing thermal motor drive, all conceived as a mechatronics system. In order to monitoring and controlling the evolution of the main parameters, the system contains a series of sensors and transducers that provide the moment, rotation, temperature, flow and pressure values. The main sensors and transducers of the regenerative drive system, their principal features and tehnical conecting solutions are presented in this paper, both with the menaging electronic and informational subsystems.

  18. Families made by science. Arnold Gesell and the technologies of modern child adoption.

    PubMed

    Herman, E

    2001-12-01

    This essay considers the effort to transform child adoption into a modern scientific enterprise during the first half of the twentieth century via a case study of Arnold Gesell (1880-1961), a Yale developmentalist well known for his studies of child growth and the applied technologies that emerged from them: normative scales promising to measure and predict development. Scientific adoption was a central aspiration for many human scientists, helping professionals, and state regulators. They aimed to reduce the numerous hazards presumed to be inherent in adopting children, especially infants, who were not one's "own." By importing insights and techniques drawn from the world of science into the practical world of family formation, scientific adoption stood for kinship by design. This case study explores one point of intersection between the history of science and the history of social welfare and social policy, simultaneously illustrating the cultural progress and power of scientific authority and the numerous obstacles to its practical realization. PMID:11921680

  19. Knowledge in motion: The cultural politics of modern science translations in Arabic.

    PubMed

    Elshakry, Marwa S

    2008-12-01

    This essay looks at the problem of the global circulation of modem scientific knowledge by looking at science translations in modern Arabic. In the commercial centers of the late Ottoman Empire, emerging transnational networks lay behind the development of new communities of knowledge, many of which sought to break with old linguistic and literary norms to redefine the basis of their authority. Far from acting as neutral purveyors of "universal truths," scientific translations thus served as key instruments in this ongoing process of sociopolitical and epistemological transformation and mediation. Fierce debates over translators' linguistic strategies and choices involved deliberations over the character of language and the nature of "science" itself. They were also crucially shaped by such geopolitical factors as the rise of European imperialism and anticolonial nationalism in the region. The essay concludes by arguing for the need for greater attention to the local factors involved in the translation of scientific concepts across borders. PMID:19334518

  20. [Trueness of modern natural science (1): the scientific revolution and the problem of philosophy].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Y

    2001-12-01

    How can one characterize modern Europe? This problem is essentially related to the meaning of modern natural science, which was developed during the scientific revolution. Then how did viewpoints change during this revolution? The answer to this question also determined the basic character of modern philosophy. Through the examination of Aristotle's geocentric theory and kinematics, I have come to believe that the defect of Aristotle's was that he concluded that a visible sense image is an actual reflection of the reality as it is. From this point of view, the traditional theory of truth called "correspondence theory" is found to be an insufficient one. Therefore, in this paper I will show that the methodological and philosophical question "How do we see reality among phenomena?" is a very important one. This question is the one Plato struggled with, and also the one which guided Kant. It may be said that this can be seen as a group for a new metaphysics as a basic theory of reality. PMID:11789139

  1. Transforming Traditional Sophomore Quant into a Course on Modern Analytical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perone, S. P.; Pesek, J.; Stone, C.; Englert, P.

    1998-11-01

    We are involved in a curriculum development project at San Jose State University directed at transforming traditional sophomore quantitative analysis into a course on modern analytical science. This project is supported by an NSF Curriculum Development Grant. The new sophomore course emulates the working environment of a modern commercial laboratory where students must deal directly with contemporary analytical problems and technology. We have developed several laboratory investigations that reflect a commitment to addressing organic, biological, and environmental studies, in place of much of the traditional emphasis on simple inorganic systems. The types of investigations include separations science (mixture analysis), multielement and trace analysis, and combined physical and chemical characterization. Laboratory studies are conducted, as far as possible, with state-of-the-art equipment and methodology. Pervading all of this is a laboratory structure based on Good Laboratory Practice principles, where students are responsible for calibration, certification, and documentation. A small but diverse group of interested academic institutions is evaluating the transportability of the courseware developed at SJSU and is also contributing to further developments.

  2. Major Challenges for the Modern Chemistry in Particular and Science in General

    PubMed Central

    Uskokovíc, Vuk

    2013-01-01

    In the past few hundred years, science has exerted an enormous influence on the way the world appears to human observers. Despite phenomenal accomplishments of science, science nowadays faces numerous challenges that threaten its continued success. As scientific inventions become embedded within human societies, the challenges are further multiplied. In this critical review, some of the critical challenges for the field of modern chemistry are discussed, including: (a) interlinking theoretical knowledge and experimental approaches; (b) implementing the principles of sustainability at the roots of the chemical design; (c) defining science from a philosophical perspective that acknowledges both pragmatic and realistic aspects thereof; (d) instigating interdisciplinary research; (e) learning to recognize and appreciate the aesthetic aspects of scientific knowledge and methodology, and promote truly inspiring education in chemistry. In the conclusion, I recapitulate that the evolution of human knowledge inherently depends upon our ability to adopt creative problem-solving attitudes, and that challenges will always be present within the scope of scientific interests. PMID:24465151

  3. Tillage Effects on Soil Hydraulic Properties in Space and Time: State of the Science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil tillage practices can affect soil hydraulic properties and processes in space and time with consequent and coupled effects on chemical movement and plant growth. This literature review addresses the quantitative effects of soil tillage and associated management (e.g., crop residues) on the tem...

  4. The Role of Toxicological Science in Meeting the Challenges and Opportunities of Hydraulic Fracturing

    EPA Science Inventory

    We briefly describe how toxicology can inform the discussion and debate of the merits of hydraulic fracturing by providing information on the potential toxicity of the chemical and physical agents associated with this process, individually and in combination. We consider upstream...

  5. Western teachers of science or teachers of Western science: On the influence of Western modern science in a post-colonial context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Lydia E. Carol-Ann

    An expanding body of research explores the social, political, cultural and personal challenges presented by the Western emphasis of curricula around the world. The aim of my study is to advance this field of inquiry by gaining insight into perceptions of Western modern science presented by students, teachers and administrators in a given Caribbean setting. Through this study I asked how my research participants described the nature of scientific knowledge, how they related scientific knowledge to other culturally-valued knowledges and the meanings they attached to the geographic origins of science teachers. Situating this work firmly within the practice of Foucauldian critical discourse analysis, I have utilised a conceptual framework defined by the power/knowledge and complicity/resistance themes of post-colonial theory to support my interpretation of participant commentary in an overall quest that is concerned about the ways in which Western modern science might be exerting a colonising influence. Fourteen students, nine teachers (both expatriate and local) and three administrators participated in the study. I combined a semi-structured question and answer interview format with a card sort activity. I used a procedure based on my own adaptation of Stephenson's Q methodology, where the respondents placed 24 statements hierarchically along a continuum of increasing strength of agreement, presenting their rationalisations, personal stories and illustrations as they sorted. I used an inverse factor analysis, in combination with the interview transcripts, to assist me in the identification of three discourse positions described by my research participants: The truth value of scientific knowledge, The pragmatic use of science to promote progress, and The priority of cultural preservation. The interview transcripts were also analysed for emergent themes, providing an additional layer of data interpretation. The research findings raise concerns regarding the hegemonic

  6. The Food Safety Modernization Act: a barrier to trade? Only if the science says so.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    The Food Safety Modernization Act improves oversight of America's food safety system. Title III, which regulates imported food, may create extra burdens for importers and therefore act as a barrier to trade. What will be on trial before the World Trade Organization (WTO), however, is not the law's content, but the science supporting it. Under the WTO regime, food safety laws that could restrict the free movement of food commodities must be sufficiently justified by scientific evidence. Member states must engage in risk assessments and regulate food imports in a manner that is "no more restrictive than necessary" to protect against the health risks identified by scientific evidence. This article examines the requirements of the WTO to evaluate the FSMA's legality under WTO rules. It analyzes the case law of the WTO Panel and Appellate Body and compares the FMSA to the EU's General Food Law. PMID:24620418

  7. Makers of Modern Science. Volume 9, Linus Pauling: Scientist and Advocate by David E. Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, George B.; Kauffman, Laurie M.

    1997-04-01

    Facts on File: New York, 1994. 136 pp. Figs. and photos. 15.0 x 22.6 cm. $16.95 Makers of Modern Science, a series of biographies (available on standing order at a 20% discount), explores the lives and achievements of scientists who have made the greatest contributions to human knowledge during the 19th and 20th centuries. Each scientist's achievements, including underlying scientific principles, are discussed simply and clearly and are free of technical jargon. Drawing on primary sources such as diaries, memoirs, letters, and contemporary news stories, as well as secondary sources, each volume depicts the human drama of scientific work, the excitement and frustration of research, and the exhilaration and rewards of discovery. Each book, which includes black-and-white photographs, diagrams, an annotated bibliography, and a detailed index, contains a final chapter summarizing the legacy of the scientist's achievements.

  8. Supporting EarthScope Cyber-Infrastructure with a Modern GPS Science Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, F. H.; Bock, Y.; Kedar, S.; Jamason, P.; Fang, P.; Dong, D.; Owen, S. E.; Prawirodirjo, L.; Squibb, M.

    2008-12-01

    Building on NASA's investment in the measurement of crustal deformation from continuous GPS, we are developing and implementing a Science Data System (SDS) that will provide mature, long-term Earth Science Data Records (ESDR's). This effort supports NASA's Earth Surface and Interiors (ESI) focus area and provide NASA's component to the EarthScope PBO. This multi-year development is sponsored by NASA's Making Earth System data records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program. The SDS integrates the generation of ESDRs with data analysis and exploration, product generation, and modeling tools based on daily GPS data that include GPS networks in western North America and a component of NASA's Global GPS Network (GGN) for terrestrial reference frame definition. The system is expandable to multiple regional and global networks. The SDS builds upon mature data production, exploration, and analysis algorithms developed under NASA's REASoN, ACCESS, and SENH programs. This SDS provides access to positions, time series, velocity fields, and strain measurements derived from continuous GPS data obtained at tracking stations in both the Plate Boundary Observatory and other regional Western North America GPS networks, dating back to 1995. The SDS leverages the IT and Web Services developments carried out under the SCIGN/REASoN and ACCESS projects, which have streamlined access to data products for researchers and modelers, and which have created a prototype an on-the-fly interactive research environment through a modern data portal, GPS Explorer. This IT system has been designed using modern IT tools and principles in order to be extensible to any geographic location, scale, natural hazard, and combination of geophysical sensor and related data. We have built upon open GIS standards, particularly those of the OGC, and have used the principles of Web Service-based Service Oriented Architectures to provide scalability and extensibility to new services and capabilities.

  9. The Role of Toxicological Science in Meeting the Challenges and Opportunities of Hydraulic Fracturing

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Bernard D.; Brooks, Bryan W.; Cohen, Steven D.; Gates, Alexander E.; Honeycutt, Michael E.; Morris, John B.; Orme-Zavaleta, Jennifer; Penning, Trevor M.; Snawder, John

    2014-01-01

    We briefly describe how toxicology can inform the discussion and debate of the merits of hydraulic fracturing by providing information on the potential toxicity of the chemical and physical agents associated with this process, individually and in combination. We consider upstream activities related to bringing chemical and physical agents to the site, on-site activities including drilling of wells and containment of agents injected into or produced from the well, and downstream activities including the flow/removal of hydrocarbon products and of produced water from the site. A broad variety of chemical and physical agents are involved. As the industry expands this has raised concern about the potential for toxicological effects on ecosystems, workers, and the general public. Response to these concerns requires a concerted and collaborative toxicological assessment. This assessment should take into account the different geology in areas newly subjected to hydraulic fracturing as well as evolving industrial practices that can alter the chemical and physical agents of toxicological interest. The potential for ecosystem or human exposure to mixtures of these agents presents a particular toxicological and public health challenge. These data are essential for developing a reliable assessment of the potential risks to the environment and to human health of the rapidly increasing use of hydraulic fracturing and deep underground horizontal drilling techniques for tightly bound shale gas and other fossil fuels. Input from toxicologists will be most effective when employed early in the process, before there are unwanted consequences to the environment and human health, or economic losses due to the need to abandon or rework costly initiatives. PMID:24706166

  10. The role of toxicological science in meeting the challenges and opportunities of hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Bernard D; Brooks, Bryan W; Cohen, Steven D; Gates, Alexander E; Honeycutt, Michael E; Morris, John B; Orme-Zavaleta, Jennifer; Penning, Trevor M; Snawder, John

    2014-06-01

    We briefly describe how toxicology can inform the discussion and debate of the merits of hydraulic fracturing by providing information on the potential toxicity of the chemical and physical agents associated with this process, individually and in combination. We consider upstream activities related to bringing chemical and physical agents to the site, on-site activities including drilling of wells and containment of agents injected into or produced from the well, and downstream activities including the flow/removal of hydrocarbon products and of produced water from the site. A broad variety of chemical and physical agents are involved. As the industry expands this has raised concern about the potential for toxicological effects on ecosystems, workers, and the general public. Response to these concerns requires a concerted and collaborative toxicological assessment. This assessment should take into account the different geology in areas newly subjected to hydraulic fracturing as well as evolving industrial practices that can alter the chemical and physical agents of toxicological interest. The potential for ecosystem or human exposure to mixtures of these agents presents a particular toxicological and public health challenge. These data are essential for developing a reliable assessment of the potential risks to the environment and to human health of the rapidly increasing use of hydraulic fracturing and deep underground horizontal drilling techniques for tightly bound shale gas and other fossil fuels. Input from toxicologists will be most effective when employed early in the process, before there are unwanted consequences to the environment and human health, or economic losses due to the need to abandon or rework costly initiatives. PMID:24706166

  11. Measurement of Bitumen Viscosity in a Room-Temperature Drop Experiment: Student Education, Public Outreach and Modern Science in One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widdicombe, A. T.; Ravindrarajah, P.; Sapelkin, A.; Phillips, A. E.; Dunstan, D.; Dove, M. T.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-01-01

    The slow flow of a viscous liquid is a thought-provoking experiment that challenges students, academics and the public to think about some fundamental questions in modern science. In the Queensland demonstration--the world's longest-running experiment, which has earned the Ig Nobel prize--one drop of pitch takes about ten years to fall,…

  12. "The Name of the Rose": A Path to Discuss the Birth of Modern Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Andreia; Braga, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Various science education researchers believe that science tuition should include some discussion about how science has developed over time. Therefore, deliberations about the nature of science should be integrated in the science curriculum. Many researchers argue that teaching the history of science is a good way to place the nature of science in…

  13. Science, humanism, judgement, ethics: person-centered medicine as an emergent model of modern clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Miles, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Medical University of Plovdiv (MUP) has as its motto 'Committed to humanity". But what does humanity in modern medicine mean? Is it possible to practise a form of medicine that is without humanity? In the current article, it is argued that modern medicine is increasingly being practised in a de-personalised fashion, where the patient is understood not as a unique human individual, a person, but rather as a subject or an object and more in the manner of a complex biological machine. Medicine has, it is contended, become distracted from its duty to care, comfort and console as well as to ameliorate, attenuate and cure and that the rapid development of medicine's scientific knowledge is, paradoxically, principally causative. Signal occurrences in the 'patient as a person' movement are reviewed, together with the emergence of the evidence-based medicine (EBM) and patient-centered care (PCC) movements. The characteristics of a model of medicine evolving in response to medicine's current deficiencies--person-centered healthcare (PCH)--are noted and described. In seeking to apply science with humanism, via clinical judgement, within an ethical framework, it is contended that PCH will prove to be far more responsive to the needs of the individual patient and his/her personal circumstances than current models of practice, so that neither a reductive anatomico-pathological, disease-centric model of illness (EBM), nor an aggressive patient-directed, consumerist form of care (PCC) is allowed continued dominance within modern healthcare systems. In conclusion, it is argued that PCH will enable affordable advances in biomedicine and technology to be delivered to patients within a humanistic framework of clinical practice that recognises the patient as a person and which takes full account of his/her stories, values, preferences, goals, aspirations, fears, worries, hopes, cultural context and which responds to his/her psychological, emotional, spiritual and social necessities

  14. Dire necessity and transformation: entry-points for modern science in Islamic bioethical assessment of porcine products in vaccines.

    PubMed

    Padela, Aasim I; Furber, Steven W; Kholwadia, Mohammad A; Moosa, Ebrahim

    2014-02-01

    The field of medicine provides an important window through which to examine the encounters between religion and science, and between modernity and tradition. While both religion and science consider health to be a 'good' that is to be preserved, and promoted, religious and science-based teachings may differ in their conception of what constitutes good health, and how that health is to be achieved. This paper analyzes the way the Islamic ethico-legal tradition assesses the permissibility of using vaccines that contain porcine-derived components by referencing opinions of several Islamic authorities. In the Islamic ethico-legal tradition controversy surrounds the use of proteins from an animal (pig) that is considered to be impure by Islamic law. As we discuss the Islamic ethico-legal constructs used to argue for or against the use of porcine-based vaccines we will call attention to areas where modern medical data may make the arguments more precise. By highlighting areas where science can buttress and clarify the ethico-legal arguments we hope to spur an enhanced applied Islamic bioethics discourse where religious scholars and medical experts use modern science in a way that remains faithful to the epistemology of Islamic ethics to clarify what Islam requires of Muslim patients and healthcare workers. PMID:23445524

  15. [When was modern science born? Homage to the memory of Professor Arturo Rosenblueth at his birth centennial].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, A

    2000-01-01

    The Renaissance savants essentially repelled the scholastic translations and commentaries of the ancient writings. Nevertheless they did not reach a modern vision of the experimental science. Moreover, the education at the universities was not credited for the science's development. In fact, the academic training of students was rather precarious. The first professional associations, such as the "Royal College of Physicians" of London, were not any better. Regarding hermetic influence on the Renaissance thought, the cultured and philosophical reformed magic (the so called white magic) was the equivalent of science at the time. Once the animistic universe, operated by magic, is transformed into the mathematical universe, operated by mechanics, the era of science came into being. This movement began during the post-Renaissance age and gradually progressed following the physical-mathematical orientation of Galileo and his pupils: Borelli, Fabrizi, Santorio, Harvey, etc. They initiated the physiological studies and introduced the quantitative method into the research field. Harvey's circulatory doctrine was the first adequate explication of an organic phenomenon and a starting point for the way toward experimental physiology. However the English physician did not leave completely the pre-scientific era, as can be inferred from his monography on animals reproduction. In this work, some points suggesting the birth of modern scientific reasoning alternate with confused, vague and capricious assertions. In fact, the modern science did not arise suddenly, but was elaborated and sustained slowly starting from the XVII century: the Galileo's century. PMID:11534103

  16. Foodomics: MS-based strategies in modern food science and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Miguel; Simó, Carolina; García-Cañas, Virginia; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Modern research in food science and nutrition is moving from classical methodologies to advanced analytical strategies in which MS-based techniques play a crucial role. In this context, Foodomics has been recently defined as a new discipline that studies food and nutrition domains through the application of advanced omics technologies in which MS techniques are considered indispensable. Applications of Foodomics include the genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and/or metabolomic study of foods for compound profiling, authenticity, and/or biomarker-detection related to food quality or safety; the development of new transgenic foods, food contaminants, and whole toxicity studies; new investigations on food bioactivity, food effects on human health, etc. This review work does not intend to provide an exhaustive revision of the many works published so far on food analysis using MS techniques. The aim of the present work is to provide an overview of the different MS-based strategies that have been (or can be) applied in the new field of Foodomics, discussing their advantages and drawbacks. Besides, some ideas about the foreseen development and applications of MS-techniques in this new discipline are also provided. PMID:21374694

  17. Molecular Nutrition Research—The Modern Way Of Performing Nutritional Science

    PubMed Central

    Norheim, Frode; Gjelstad, Ingrid M. F.; Hjorth, Marit; Vinknes, Kathrine J.; Langleite, Torgrim M.; Holen, Torgeir; Jensen, Jørgen; Dalen, Knut Tomas; Karlsen, Anette S.; Kielland, Anders; Rustan, Arild C.; Drevon, Christian A.

    2012-01-01

    In spite of amazing progress in food supply and nutritional science, and a striking increase in life expectancy of approximately 2.5 months per year in many countries during the previous 150 years, modern nutritional research has a great potential of still contributing to improved health for future generations, granted that the revolutions in molecular and systems technologies are applied to nutritional questions. Descriptive and mechanistic studies using state of the art epidemiology, food intake registration, genomics with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, advanced biostatistics, imaging, calorimetry, cell biology, challenge tests (meals, exercise, etc.), and integration of all data by systems biology, will provide insight on a much higher level than today in a field we may name molecular nutrition research. To take advantage of all the new technologies scientists should develop international collaboration and gather data in large open access databases like the suggested Nutritional Phenotype database (dbNP). This collaboration will promote standardization of procedures (SOP), and provide a possibility to use collected data in future research projects. The ultimate goals of future nutritional research are to understand the detailed mechanisms of action for how nutrients/foods interact with the body and thereby enhance health and treat diet-related diseases. PMID:23208524

  18. The national science agenda as a ritual of modern nation-statehood: The consequences of national "Science for National Development" projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drori, Gili S.

    This study is a comparative investigation of the ways by which the globalization of modern science affects the characteristics of different nation-states. Whereas much research and policy discussion focuses on science as an instrumental, or technical, system with immediate consequences for national conditions, such as economic development, science should also be regarded as a general cultural framework, which is highly institutionalized at the global level. As such, the institutionalization of science at both the global and national levels affects a wide variety of national properties. Following this line of reasoning, this dissertation study employs cross-national and longitudinal data and multiple-indicator methods to show national-level consequences of scientific expansion on the processes of rationalization and modernization of social and political life. It appears that the cross-national expansion of science practice results in, or is associated with, a variety of measures of (a) the standardization of civil and governmental procedures and (b) the expansion of the political rights and political engagement. I conclude from these empirical findings that scientization encourages (a) greater general societal rationalization and (b) expanded notions of social actorhood and agency. This evidence demonstrates how the globalization of science alters local conditions, both civil and political, by supporting the institutionalization of bureaucratic practices and participatory politics. Thus, the expansion of science--clearly affected by global processes--carries a general secularized faith in a rationalized world and in human agency. In this sense, the practice of science is a national ritual, whose social role is as a legitimacy-providing institution, rather then a technically functional institution. On a broader level, the study emphasizes the relations between globalization processes and the sovereignty of the nation-state. I conclude that science carries modernist

  19. Dynamical energy systems and modern physics: fostering the science and spirit of complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, G E; Russek, L G

    1997-05-01

    When systems theory is carefully applied to the concept of energy, some novel and far-reaching implications for modern physics and complementary medicine emerge. The heart of systems theory is dynamic interactions: systems do not simply act on systems, they interact with them in complex ways. By definition, systems at any level (e.g., physical, biological, social, ecological) are open to information, energy, and matter to varying degrees, and therefore interact with other systems to varying degrees. We first show how resonance between two tuning forks, a classic demonstration in physics, can be seen to reflect synchronized dynamic interactions over time. We then derive how the dynamic interaction of systems in mutual recurrent feedback relationships naturally create dynamic "memories" for their interactions over time. The mystery of how a photon (or electron) "knows" ahead of time whether to function as a particle or wave in the single slit/double slit quantum physics paradigm is potentially solved when energetic interactions inherent in the experimental system are recognized. The observation that energy decreases with the square of distance is shown not to be immutable when viewed from a dynamical energy systems perspective. Implications for controversial claims in complementary and alternative medicine, such as memory for molecules retained in water (homeopathy), remote diagnosis, and prayer and healing, are considered. A dynamical energy systems framework can facilitate the development of what might be termed "relationship consciousness," which has the potential to nurture both the science and spirit of complementary medicine and might help to create integrated medicine. PMID:9141291

  20. No photon left behind: How modern spectroscopy is transforming planetary sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Geronimo Luis

    2015-11-01

    The advent of sensitive high-resolution spectrometers and modern analytical spectroscopic tools is opening new windows in the exploration of planetary atmospheres. High-resolution infrared spectrometers with broad spectral coverage at ground-based observatories (e.g., Keck, IRTF, VLT) and arrays of radio telescopes with state of the art receivers (e.g., ALMA) now permit the exploration of the kinematics, composition and thermal structure of a broad range of planetary sources with unprecedented precision. These, combined with the advent of comprehensive spectroscopic databases containing billions of lines, robust radiative transfer models, and unprecedented available computational power, are transforming the way we investigate planetary atmospheres.Such advances have allowed us to obtain the first mapping of water D/H on Mars (Villanueva et al. 2015), to obtain one of the most comprehensive searches for organics in the Martian atmosphere (Villanueva et al. 2013), and to obtain the first measurement of water D/H of a periodic comet (Villanueva et al. 2009).In this talk, I will present the current frontiers in the exploration of planetary atmospheres and how the synergies between future space (e.g., ExoMars 2016, JWST) and ground astronomical assets (e.g., TMT, E-ELT) will transform our understanding of the composition, stability and evolution of the atmospheres in the Solar System and beyond.Villanueva, G.L., et al. 2009. Astrophys. J. Lett. 690 (1). pp. L5-L9.Villanueva, G.L., et al. 2013. Icarus 223 (1). pp. 11-27.Villanueva, G.L., et al. 2015. Science 348 (6). pp. 218-221.

  1. (Post) Modern Science (Education): Propositions and Alternative Paths. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, John A., Ed.; Morris, Marla, Ed.; Appelbaum, Peter, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers new perspectives for science educators, curriculum theorists, and cultural critics on science education, French post-structural thought, and the science debates. This book contains chapters on the work of Bruno Latour, Michael Serres, and Jean Baudrillard plus chapters on postmodern approaches to science education…

  2. Islamic View of Nature and Values: Could These Be the Answer to Building Bridges between Modern Science and Islamic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faruqi, Yasmeen Mahnaz

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the basic tenets of Islam and the Islamic view of nature that were influential in the development of science in the so-called "Golden Age of Islam". These findings have been the catalyst for present day Muslim scholars, who have emphasized the importance of Islamic science, as the means of understanding Western science. There…

  3. Machines, Materials, and Energy: A Source Book for the Modern Elementary School Science Program of the Science Manpower Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croasdale, William

    This source book consists of four parts. Part One, an introduction and overview, deals with the need for establishing new science programs and shows the relationship of the source book to the K-12 science program of the Science Manpower Project. Part Two consists of three chapters written for use in grades K-3: "Simple Machines,""Heart and…

  4. The wage of fame: how non-epistemic motives have enabled the phenomenal success of modern science.

    PubMed

    Franck, Georg

    2015-01-01

    This paper ventures an economic view of modern science. It points out how science works as a closed economy of attention where researchers invest their own attention in order to get the attention of fellow researchers. Attention thus enters economy in two properties: (1) as a scarce resource energising scientific production and (2) as a means of gratification rewarding the effort of the working scientist. Economising on attention as a scarce resource is another expression of thought economy. The income of expert attention is what gives rise to reputation, renown, prominence and eventually fame. By its being conceived as a closed economy of attention, science shows to be capable of self-organising a tendency towards overall efficiency and thus towards collective rationality. PMID:25300615

  5. The Evolution of Research and Education Networks and their Essential Role in Modern Science

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, W.; Chaniotakis, E.; Dart, E.; Guok, C.; Metzger, J.; Tierney, B.

    2009-06-15

    ESnet - the Energy Sciences Network - has the mission of enabling the aspects of the US Department of Energy's Office of Science programs and facilities that depend on large collaborations and large-scale data sharing to accomplish their science. The Office of Science supports a large fraction of all U.S. physical science research and operates many large science instruments and supercomputers that are used by both DOE and University researchers. The network requirements of this community have been explored in some detail by ESnet and a long-term plan has been developed in order to ensure adequate networking to support the science. In this paper we describe the planning process (which has been in place for several years and was the basis of a new network that is just now being completed and a new set of network services) and examine the effectiveness and adequacy of the planning process in the light of evolving science requirements.

  6. Some aspects on the development of the natural sciences and their importance for the modern society and for our global environment

    SciTech Connect

    Loewdin, P.O.

    1996-12-31

    A brief review is given of the development of the modern sciences from the early 1800 to the establishment of modern quantum theory around 1925 leading to the modern theoretical chemical physics. Special attention is given to the interplay between mathematics, physics and chemistry and to show how the development in one science strongly influences the development in the other sciences. A special chapter is devoted to the interplay between basic and applied research and to the interesting phenomenon that one may very likely get more and better technological applications if the basic research is left to flourish on its own. In this connection the relation between teaching and basic research is also discussed. Finally the importance of modern science for the protection of our global environment is briefly reviewed.

  7. Big Fleas Have Little Fleas: How discoveries of invertebrate diseases are advancing modern science.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Review of: “Big Fleas Have Little Fleas: How discoveries of invertebrate diseases are advancing modern science”. Elizabeth W. Davdison. 2006. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ. 208 pp. Dr. Davidson links many of the accomplishments in invertebrate pathology to subsequent successes in the l...

  8. Participation in Science and Technology: Young People's Achievement-Related Choices in Late-Modern Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Maria Vetleseter; Henriksen, Ellen Karoline; Lyons, Terry; Schreiner, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    Young people's participation in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is a matter of international concern. Studies and careers that require physical sciences and advanced mathematics are most affected by the problem and women in particular are under-represented in many STEM fields. This article views international research about…

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The thermal, chemical, and biological quality of water in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and near coastal areas is inseparable from a consideration of hydraulic engineering principles: therefore, the term environmental hydraulics. In this chapter we discuss the basic principles of w...

  10. The rolling evolution of biomedical science as an essential tool in modern clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Blann, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The British Journal of Biomedical Science is committed to publishing high-quality original research that represents a clear advance in the practice of biomedical science, and reviews that summarise recent advances in the field of biomedical science. The overall aim of the Journal is to provide a platform for the dissemination of new and innovative information on the diagnosis and management of disease that is valuable to the practicing laboratory scientist. The Editorial that follows describes the Journal and provides a perspective of its aims and objectives. PMID:27182669

  11. Measurement of bitumen viscosity in a room-temperature drop experiment: student education, public outreach and modern science in one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widdicombe, A. T.; Ravindrarajah, P.; Sapelkin, A.; Phillips, A. E.; Dunstan, D.; Dove, M. T.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-07-01

    The slow flow of a viscous liquid is a thought-provoking experiment that challenges students, academics and the public to think about some fundamental questions in modern science. In the Queensland demonstration—the world's longest-running experiment, which has earned the Ig Nobel prize—one drop of pitch takes about ten years to fall, leading to problems for actually observing the drops. Here, we describe our recent demonstration of slowly-flowing bitumen where appreciable flow is observed on the timescale of months. The experiment is free from dissipative heating effects and has the potential to improve the accuracy of measurement. Bitumen viscosity was calculated by undergraduate students during the summer project. Worldwide access to the experiment, as it runs, is provided by webcams uploading the images to a dedicated website, enhancing the student education experience and promotion of science. This demonstration serves as an attractive student education exercise and stimulates the discussion of fundamental concepts and hotly debated ideas in modern physics research: the difference between solids and liquids, the nature of the liquid-glass transition, the emergence of long timescales in a physical process and the conflict between human intuition and physical reality.

  12. Classic and Modern Meridian Studies: A Review of Low Hydraulic Resistance Channels along Meridians and Their Relevance for Therapeutic Effects in Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei-Bo; Wang, Guang-Jun; Fuxe, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    Meridian theory is one of the core components of the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It gives an integral explanation for how human life works, how a disease forms, and how a therapy acts to treat a disease. If we do not understand the meridians, it is hard to understand the TCM. People in China and abroad had been working hard for 50 years, trying to understand the meridians; then 15 years ago a breakthrough idea appeared when we realized that they are low resistance fluid channels where various chemical and physical transports take place. The channel is called low hydraulic resistance channel (LHRC) and the chemical transport is named volume transmission (VT). This review aims to give a full understanding of the essence of meridian and its works on the therapies of TCM. PMID:25821487

  13. Scientific Knowledge, Popularisation, and the Use of Metaphors: Modern Genetics in Popular Science Magazines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pramling, Niklas; Saljo, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The article reports an empirical study of how authors in popular science magazines attempt to render scientific knowledge intelligible to wide audiences. In bridging the two domains of "popular" and "scientific" knowledge, respectively, metaphor becomes central. We ask the empirical question of what metaphors are used when communicating about…

  14. Four windows on modern science in flavor and fragrance chemistry at Firmenich.

    PubMed

    Starkenmann, Christian; Wünsche, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Four young scientists, recently hired by Firmenich, presented lectures at the University of Geneva. The objective was to stimulate young students to choose sciences. The challenges in the discovery, synthesis, or extraction of new molecules were presented, as well as the structure-activity relationships of human odorant receptors. PMID:22867549

  15. A Bridge Too Far - Revisited: Reframing Bruer's Neuroeducation Argument for Modern Science of Learning Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Jared C; Donoghue, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    In Education and the Brain: A Bridge Too Far, John Bruer argues that, although current neuroscientific findings must filter through cognitive psychology in order to be applicable to the classroom, with increased knowledge the neuroscience/education bridge can someday be built. Here, we suggest that translation cannot be understood as a single process: rather, we demonstrate that at least four different 'bridges' can conceivably be built between these two fields. Following this, we demonstrate that, far from being a matter of information lack, a prescriptive neuroscience/education bridge (the one most relevant to Bruer's argument) is a practical and philosophical impossibility due to incommensurability between non-adjacent compositional levels-of-organization: a limitation inherent in all sciences. After defining this concept in the context of biology, we apply this concept to the learning sciences and demonstrate why all brain research must be behaviorally translated before prescriptive educational applicability can be elucidated. We conclude by exploring examples of how explicating different forms of translation and adopting a levels-of-organization framework can be used to contextualize and beneficially guide research and practice across all learning sciences. PMID:27014173

  16. HYDRAULIC SERVO

    DOEpatents

    Wiegand, D.E.

    1962-05-01

    A hydraulic servo is designed in which a small pressure difference produced at two orifices by an electrically operated flapper arm in a constantly flowing hydraulic loop is hydraulically amplified by two constant flow pumps, two additional orifices, and three unconnected ball pistons. Two of the pistons are of one size and operate against the additional orifices, and the third piston is of a different size and operates between and against the first two pistons. (AEC)

  17. [Contribution of teacher MEI Jian-Han to modern acup-moxibustion science].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Bin

    2008-09-01

    Acup-moxibustion experts are indispensable for probing into establishment of modern higher education and academic system of acupuncture and moxibustion. Among them, teacher MEI made a great distribution, mainly including: summarizing the outline of indications of acupoints of 14 channels, raising making prescription law of acupoints and indications law of acupoints, expounding the relationship between channels running and disease symptoms, summing up characteristics of theories of the twelve divergent meridians and the twelve muscle regions, drawing an indications diagram of acupoints of the 14 meridians and a schematic diagram of relation between the running of meridians and disease symptoms, a schematic diagram of running of the twelve divergent meridians, and a diagram of the relations between running of the twelve muscle regions and disease symptoms, inventing acupoint location method with finger-equal division, expounding Xiaheshu, simplifying the calculation of Ziwuliuzhu and inventing a calculation scale and simple acupoints selection table. In his later years, he systematically studied on the theories of eight extra meridians and clinical application, and raised theorem of meridians, etc. PMID:18822991

  18. Progress in art and science of crystal growth and its impacts on modern society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishinaga, Tatau

    2015-05-01

    The impacts of the progress in the art and science of crystal growth on human life are reviewed. Even before the invention of the transistor, quartz and corundum crystals were used as crystal oscillators and jewel bearings, respectively. However, a major impact of crystal growth on society was experienced with the invention of the transistor, which required high-purity and perfect germanium crystals. Once the importance of crystal growth was clearly recognized, the science of crystal growth also extensively developed. The growth of single crystalline silicon allows us to produce integrated circuits, which are used in all the electronic devices in everyday use. The technological developments in the growth of compound semiconductors have also had a large impact on society through the inventions of the laser diode for optical communication and the p-n junction nitride light-emitting diode toward the realization of a less energy-intensive society. The latter invention was awarded the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics. Finally, future aspects of crystal growth are discussed.

  19. [Historical sketch of modern pharmaceutical science and technology (Part 4). Post World War II 50 years].

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, K

    1995-01-01

    A short history of the pharmaceutical science and technology, postwar 50 years is divided into nine sections for the purpose of discussion. 1. Japan's postwar rehabilitation, Japanese pharmaceutical industries and newly developed pharmaceutical sciences and technologies. In 1945, the Japanese pharmaceutical industry was reconstructed. Production of penicillin was carried out with the strong support of the U.S. Occupation Forces. New sciences in pharmacy (biochemistry, biopharmacy, pharmacology, microbiology, physical chemistry, etc.) were introduced in this period. 2. Introduction age of foreign new drugs and technology (1951 to 1960s). Japan gained independence in 1951. Japanese pharmaceutical companies imported many new drugs and new pharmaceutical technologies from the U.S.A. and European countries in this period. Then, these companies were reconstruction rapidly. However, consequently Japanese pharmaceutical companies were formed as an imitation industry. 3. Rapid economic growth period for pharmaceutical companies (1956 to 1970s). In this period, many Japanese pharmaceutical companies grew rapidly at an annual rate of 15-20% over a period of 15 years, especially with regard to the production of active vitamin B1 analog drugs and some OTC (public health drugs). Some major companies made large profits, which were used to construct research facilities. 4. Problems for the harmful effects of medicines and its ethical responsibility. In the 1970s, many public toxic and harmful effects of medicines were caused, especially SMON's disease. In this time, many pharmaceutical companies changed to its security got development of ethical drugs. 5. Self development of new drugs and administration of pharmaceutical rules (1970s). During the 1970s, many pharmaceutical laws (GLP, GCP, GMP, GPMSP etc.) were enacted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. In 1976, the Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Law was revised, which set forth standards regarding the efficacy and safety of

  20. Science of breeding and heredity from ancient Persia to modern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kariminejad, Mohammad H.; Khorshidian, Ardeshir

    2012-01-01

    mainstream of world science, and development in biomedical sciences in the third millennium. PMID:22754218

  1. Results of the joint ESARDA/INMM workshop on science and modern technology for safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, G.; Dupree, S.; Sonnier, C.

    1997-06-01

    The Joint ESARDA/INMM Workshop on Science and Modem Technology for Safeguards was held in Arona, Italy, October 28-31, 1996. It was attended by some 120 participants, consisting principally of scientists from various disciplines and safeguards experts from the inspectorates. The Workshop provided a full discussion on the near and far term scientific technologies that may be applied to safeguards. In addition, there were extended discussions on the social and political aspects surrounding the areas of Nonproliferation, International Safeguards, and Regional Safeguards. The general opinion was that the Workshop met and exceeded its goals, setting the stage for future workshops of this type. One of the outstanding characteristics of this Workshop was the ample amount of time allowed for full discussion of each presentation, both for technical issues and social/political issues. This procedure was substantially different from the usual ESARDA and INMM meetings. This paper will discuss the organization and conduct of the Workshop, as well as the results as reported by the four Working Group Chairs and the Workshop Co-chairs.

  2. Modern Analytical Methods Applied to Earth and Planetary Sciences for Micro, Nano and Pico Space Devices and Robots in Landing Site Selection and Surface Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizi, P. G.; Bérczi, Sz.; Horváth, I.; Horváth, A. F.; Vizi, J. Cs.

    2014-11-01

    Fleet of Nano and Pico Sized Space Devices and Robots (NPSDR) are deployable to realize and accomplish in situ modern analytical methods in wide range of Earth and planetary sciences. Shorter time and bigger field of surfaces and volumes of space.

  3. Articles on Practical Cybernetics. Computer-Developed Computers; Heuristics and Modern Sciences; Linguistics and Practice; Cybernetics and Moral-Ethical Considerations; and Men and Machines at the Chessboard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, A. I.; And Others

    Five articles which were selected from a Russian language book on cybernetics and then translated are presented here. They deal with the topics of: computer-developed computers, heuristics and modern sciences, linguistics and practice, cybernetics and moral-ethical considerations, and computer chess programs. (Author/JY)

  4. Shedding new light on the K-Pg extinction event: application of modern fire science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadden, Rory; Rein, Guillermo; Belcher, Claire

    2016-04-01

    intense, long duration pulse that occurred at locations far from the impact site. Not only has this resulted in new insights into building our understanding of the end Cretaceous mass extinction, but it has also yielded a simple experimental method that rapidly allows investigation of the ignition propensity of specific ecosystems of utility to the fossil record. Finally, by applying fire science techniques to this problem, the underlying physical phenomena can be investigated allowing greater confidence in extrapolation of data to other scenarios. It is clear that such collaborative approaches in developing new experimental procedures drawing on existing knowledge from diverse research fields has allowed for rapid progress in interpreting the fossil evidence of fire through earth history. In addition to advancing the state of the art in palaeontology, this work has resulted in new developments in fire safety science clearly indicating the benefits of cross-disciplinary experimental research methods.

  5. FOREWORD: International Workshop on Theoretical Plasma Physics: Modern Plasma Science. Sponsored by the Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, P. K.; Stenflo, L.

    2005-01-01

    The "International Workshop on Theoretical Plasma Physics: Modern Plasma Science was held at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (Abdus Salam ICTP), Trieste, Italy during the period 5 16 July 2004. The workshop was organized by P K Shukla, R Bingham, S M Mahajan, J T Mendonça, L Stenflo, and others. The workshop enters into a series of previous biennial activities that we have held at the Abdus Salam ICTP since 1989. The scientific program of the workshop was split into two parts. In the first week, most of the lectures dealt with problems concerning astrophysical plasmas, while in the second week, diversity was introduced in order to address the important role of plasma physics in modern areas of science and technology. Here, attention was focused on cross-disciplinary topics including Schrödinger-like models, which are common in plasma physics, nonlinear optics, quantum engineering (Bose-Einstein condensates), and nonlinear fluid mechanics, as well as emerging topics in fundamental theoretical and computational plasma physics, space and dusty plasma physics, laser-plasma interactions, etc. The workshop was attended by approximately hundred-twenty participants from the developing countries, Europe, USA, and Japan. A large number of participants were young researchers from both the developing and industrial countries, as the directors of the workshop tried to keep a good balance in inviting senior and younger generations of theoretical, computational and experimental plasma physicists to our Trieste activities. In the first week, there were extensive discussions on the physics of electromagnetic wave emissions from pulsar magnetospheres, relativistic magnetohydrodynamics of astrophysical objects, different scale sizes turbulence and structures in astrophysics. The scientific program of the second week included five review talks (60 minutes) and about thirty invited topical lectures (30 minutes). In addition, during the two weeks, there

  6. FOREWORD: International Workshop on Theoretical Plasma Physics: Modern Plasma Science. Sponsored by the Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, P. K.; Stenflo, L.

    2005-01-01

    The "International Workshop on Theoretical Plasma Physics: Modern Plasma Science was held at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (Abdus Salam ICTP), Trieste, Italy during the period 5 16 July 2004. The workshop was organized by P K Shukla, R Bingham, S M Mahajan, J T Mendonça, L Stenflo, and others. The workshop enters into a series of previous biennial activities that we have held at the Abdus Salam ICTP since 1989. The scientific program of the workshop was split into two parts. In the first week, most of the lectures dealt with problems concerning astrophysical plasmas, while in the second week, diversity was introduced in order to address the important role of plasma physics in modern areas of science and technology. Here, attention was focused on cross-disciplinary topics including Schrödinger-like models, which are common in plasma physics, nonlinear optics, quantum engineering (Bose-Einstein condensates), and nonlinear fluid mechanics, as well as emerging topics in fundamental theoretical and computational plasma physics, space and dusty plasma physics, laser-plasma interactions, etc. The workshop was attended by approximately hundred-twenty participants from the developing countries, Europe, USA, and Japan. A large number of participants were young researchers from both the developing and industrial countries, as the directors of the workshop tried to keep a good balance in inviting senior and younger generations of theoretical, computational and experimental plasma physicists to our Trieste activities. In the first week, there were extensive discussions on the physics of electromagnetic wave emissions from pulsar magnetospheres, relativistic magnetohydrodynamics of astrophysical objects, different scale sizes turbulence and structures in astrophysics. The scientific program of the second week included five review talks (60 minutes) and about thirty invited topical lectures (30 minutes). In addition, during the two weeks, there

  7. Thinking with the saint: the miracle of Saint Januarius of Naples and science in early modern Europe.

    PubMed

    de Ceglia, Francesco Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the way in which early modem science questioned and indirectly influenced (while being in its turn influenced by) the conceptualization of the liquefaction of the blood of Saint Januarius, a phenomenon that has been taking place at regular intervals in Naples since the late Middle Ages. In the seventeenth century, a debate arose that divided Europe between supporters of a theory of divine intervention and believers in the occult properties of the blood. These two theoretical options reflected two different perspectives on the relationship between the natural and the supernatural. While in the seventeenth century, the emphasis was placed on the predictable periodicity of the miraculous event of liquefaction as a manifestation of God in his role as a divine regulator, in the eighteenth century the event came to be described as capricious and unpredictable, in an attempt to differentiate miracles from the workings of nature, which were deemed to be normative. The miracle of the blood of Saint Januarius thus provides a window through which we can catch a glimpse of how the natural order was perceived in early modern Europe at a time when the Continent was culturally fragmented into north and south, Protestantism and Catholicism, learned and ignorant. PMID:25080643

  8. Application of diet-derived taste active components for clinical nutrition: perspectives from ancient Ayurvedic medical science, space medicine, and modern clinical nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Anil D; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Rashid, Muhammad J; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Karkow, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to demonstrate the role of taste and flavor in health from the ancient science of Ayurveda to modern medicine; specifically their mechanisms and roles in space medicine and their clinical relevance in modern heath care. It also describes the brief history of the use of the monosodium glutamate or flavor enhancers ("Umami substance") that improve the quality of food intake by stimulating chemosensory perception. In addition, the dietary nucleotides are known to be the components of "Umami substance" and the benefit of their use has been proposed in various types of patients with cancer, radiation therapy, organ transplantation, and for application in space medicine. PMID:23886389

  9. Modern problems in the physical sciences (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 16 November 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-06-01

    On 16 November 2011, the scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held at the conference hall at the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS.The agenda of the session announced on the RAS Physical Sciences Division website www.gpad.ac.ru included the following reports: (1) Schelev M Ya (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Pico-femto-attosecond photoelectronics"; (2) Dal'karov O D (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "The physics of low-energy antiprotons and antimatter"; (3) Polukhina N G (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Nuclear track detection: advances and potential in astrophysics, particle physics, and applied research"; (4) Vedeneev S I (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "High-temperature superconductors in high and ultrahigh magnetic fields".Papers written on the base of reports 1, 3, and 4 are presented below. • Pico-femto-attosecond photoelectronics: looking through the lens of half a century, M Ya Shchelev Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 6, Pages 607-614 • Nuclear track detection: advances and potential in astrophysics, particle physics, and applied research, N G Polukhina Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 6, Pages 614-625 • High-temperature superconductors in high and ultrahigh magnetic fields, S I Vedeneev Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 6, Pages 625-632

  10. Modern problems in the physical sciences (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 23 November 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-07-01

    On 23 November 2011, the scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held at the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS.The following reports were put on the session agenda posted on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Ionin A A (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "High-power infrared and ultraviolet lasers and their applications"; (2) Romanovskii M Yu (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Laser-induced acceleration of the forbidden captures of orbital electrons by nuclei"; (3) Petrukovich A A (Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Earth's magnetosphere as a plasma laboratory"; (4) Shchur L N (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow region) "Computational physics and the verification of theoretical predictions". Articles written on the base of oral reports 1, 2, and 4 are published below. • High-power IR- and UV-laser systems and their applications, A A Ionin Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 7, Pages 721-728 • Laser radiation enhancement of forbidden orbital electron captures and of neutrinoless double electron captures by nuclei, M Yu Romanovskii Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 7, Pages 728-733 • Computational physics and testing theoretical predictions, L N Shchur Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 7, Pages 733-738

  11. Modern problems in the physical sciences (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 30 November 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-08-01

    On 30 November 2011, a scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS.The agenda of the session announced on the RAS Physical Sciences Division website www.gpad.ac.ru included the following reports: (1) Ivchenko E L (Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg) "Spin physics in semiconductor nanosystems"; (2) Golub L E (A F Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg) "Spin transport in heterostructures"; (3) Levchenko A A (Institute of Solid State Physics, RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow region) "Capillary turbulence on the surface of quantum liquids"; (4) Babin S A (Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch of the RAS) "New generation modes in fiber lasers"; (5) Kurt V G (Astro-Space Center of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Motion of the Sun through the interstellar medium"; (6) Lukash V N (Astro-Space Center of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Cosmological flow generation in general relativity".Papers written on the basis of oral reports 1-3, 5, and 6 are presented below. • Spin physics in semiconductor nanosystems, E L Ivchenko Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 8, Pages 808-814 • Spin transport in heterostructures, L E Golub Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 8, Pages 814-818 • Kinetic and discrete turbulence on the surface of quantum liquids, L V Abdurakhimov, M Yu Brazhnikov, A A Levchenko, I A Remizov, S V Filatov Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 8, Pages 818-825 • Motion of the Sun through the interstellar medium, V G Kurt, E N Mironova Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 8, Pages 825-831 • Generation of cosmological flows in general relativity, V N Lukash, E V Mikheeva, V N Strokov Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 8, Pages 831-837

  12. [Takeki Kudoh's Research on Modern Medical Science and Japanized Confucianism in Colonial Korea (Chosŏn)].

    PubMed

    Ch'oi, Jae-Mok; Kim, Jeŏng-Gon

    2015-12-01

    revealed that his brother Tadaske and Shigeo also stayed in Chosŏn to act as an important assistants for the Colonial Chosŏn Government-general. Kudoh was an important man in Japanese society in Chosŏn, acting as a member of 「Group of Same Origin」 and 'Chosŏn Association of great Asia'which was an important organization assisting Colonial Chosŏn Government-general and was a representative position in Seoul district of Bukmichang-jeong(now Bukchang-dong) Fifth, Kudoh Takeki's precise activity to terminate Chosŏn cultural 'gene'and lead to enlightenment was analyzed by an examination of his Medical Science as an occupation and Confucianism as a background of his thought. Even he attempted to enlighten the brutal Chosŏn people in cultural aspects but it was only a tool to assist the colonial policy of Japan by emphasizing 'Kyoikuchokugo(Imperial Rescript on Education)'to implant the Kodo-Seishin(Imperial Spirit). Analyzing the relationship of Kumamoto Practical Party with Yi Toegye, the intention of a deep connection toward 'One Unity of Japan and Chosŏn'by colonial policy was revealed. In conclusion, the paper revealed the Japanese modernization frame to complete 'One Unity of Japan and Chosŏn'and 'Make people to obey the Japan Emperor'by enlightening the dark Chosŏn and merging them with Japan as Kudoh intended. PMID:26819437

  13. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    the value of hydraulic machinery to the end user, to the societies, and to improve societies understanding and appreciation of that value. The series of IAHR Symposia on Hydraulic Machinery and Cavitation started with the 1st edition in Nice, France, 1960. For the past decade, all the symposia have focused on an extended portfolio of topics under the name of 'Hydraulic Machinery and Systems', such as the 20th edition in Charlotte, USA, 2000, the 21st in Lausanne, Switzerland, 2002, the 22nd in Stockholm, Sweden, 2004, the 23rd in Yokohama, Japan, 2006, the 24th in Foz do Iguassu, Brasil, 2008, and the 25th in Timisoara, Romania, 2010. The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems brings together more than 250 scientists and researchers from 25 countries, affiliated with universities, technology centers and industrial firms to debate topics related to advanced technologies for hydraulic machinery and systems, which will enhance the sustainable development of water resources and hydropower production. The Scientific Committee has selected 268 papers, out of 430 abstracts submitted, on the following topics: (i) Hydraulic Turbines and Pumps, (ii) Sustainable Hydropower, (iii) Hydraulic Systems, (iv) Advances in Computational and Experimental Techniques, (v) Application in Industries and in Special Conditions, to be presented at the symposium and to be included in the proceedings. All the papers, published in this Volume 15 of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems proceedings, those are Yulin Wu, Zhengwei Wang, Shuhong Liu, Shouqi Yuan, Xingqi Luo and Fujun Wang. We sincerely hope that this edition of the symposium will be a significant step forward in the worldwide efforts to address the present challenges facing the modern Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Professor Yulin Wu Chairman of the Organizing Committee

  14. 78 FR 55253 - Notification of Public Teleconference of the Hydraulic Fracturing Research Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... AGENCY Notification of Public Teleconference of the Hydraulic Fracturing Research Advisory Panel AGENCY...) Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public teleconference of the Hydraulic Fracturing... information related to hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. DATES: The public...

  15. [ELIE METCHNIKOFF--THE FOUNDER OF LONGEVITY SCIENCE AND A FOUNDER OF MODERN MEDICINE: IN HONOR OF THE 170TH ANNIVERSARY].

    PubMed

    Stambler, I S

    2015-01-01

    The years 2015-2016 mark a double anniversary--the 170th anniversary of birth and the 100th anni- versary of death--of one of the greatest Russian scientists, a person that may be considered a founding figure of modern immunology, aging and longevity science--Elie Metchnikoff (May 15, 1845-July 15, 1916). At this time of the rapid aging of the world population and the rapid development of technologies that may ameliorate degenerative aging processes, Metchnikoff's pioneering contribution to the search for anti-aging and healthspan-extending means needs to be recalled and honored. PMID:26856081

  16. Educacion y Ciencias Sociales en el Mundo Moderno. [Education and the Social Sciences in the Modern World].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimoldi, Horacio J. A.

    The document, written in Spanish, discusses the relationship between research in the social sciences and the role of the university in social science education. The author considers the education of researchers, the application of research, the need for interdisciplinary research methods, and problems involved in cross-cultural studies. He states…

  17. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. Course Models for the History-Social Science Framework, Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Stephanie, Ed.; And Others

    This document is a response to teachers' requests for practical assistance in implementing California's history-social science framework. The document offers stimulating ideas to enrich the teaching of history and social science, enliven instruction for every student, focus on essential topics, and help make learning more memorable. Experiences…

  18. New Science Curriculum Based on Inquiry Based Learning--A Model of Modern Educational System in Republic of Macedonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aceska, Natalija

    2016-01-01

    The process of globalization, more progressive development of the scientific findings, new technology and the way of communicating with the new forms of literacy in which the most secure spot has been taken by the development of natural sciences in the spirit of "sustainable development" have been the reasons that make science and…

  19. Forming Modern Citizens in the 1960s: Comparative Analysis of Teaching in Natural Sciences, Physical Sciences and Physical Education throughout France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Michael; Guedj-Chauchard, Muriel; Saint-Martin, Jean; Savaton, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Reforms made to France's education system structures during the 1960s resulted in a repositioning of academic subjects within study plans. This article looks at three relatively similar subjects (physical sciences, natural sciences and physical education) and throws light on the arguments put forward to defend the purpose of each of them in the…

  20. Hydraulic fracturing-1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains papers on hydraulic fracturing. Topics covered include: An overview of recent advances in hydraulic fracturing technology; Containment of massive hydraulic fracture; and Fracturing with a high-strength proppant.

  1. [The contribution of L.G. Ramensky theoretical legacy to modern vegetation science (to the 130 anniversary of the scientist's birth)].

    PubMed

    Mirkin, B M; Naumova, L G

    2015-01-01

    L.G. Ramensky (1884-1953) was an outstanding Soviet geobotanist of the first part of XX century. Considered is his theoretical legacy and its contribution to modern vegetation science. L.G. Ramensky formulated the principle of vegetation continuum based on which the modern paradigm of vegetation science has been put into shape. The scientist made a contribution to the development of such important theoretical conceptions as types of plant strategy, coenosis and coenobiosis (coexistence of species), patterns of interannual variability in plant communities, ecological successions. The unique ecological scales were established by L.G. Ramensky that characterize the distribution of 1400 species over the gradients of soil moistening, richness, and salinization as well as moistening variability, pastoral digression, and alluvial intensity. He came out against mechanistic notions by V.N. Sukachev on a biogeocoenosis structure. The scientist did not offer his own method of plant communities classification but his well-reasoned criticism of dominant classification played a great role in adoption of floristical classification principles (Braun-Blanquet approach) by phytocenology in our country. PMID:26201220

  2. Composite hydraulic system

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, W.A.

    1987-03-17

    A composite hydraulic system is described for a work vehicle having an implement hydraulic circuit and a steering hydraulic circuit comprising a first pump which supplies the implement hydraulic circuit primarily, a second pump which supplies the steering hydraulic circuit primarily, a third pump which is operable also as a motor and which transfers hydraulic fluid between the implement and the steering hydraulic circuits, an engine which operates the three pumps simultaneously, and servo system means whereby the third pump under at least one condition of operation operates as a motor to provide regeneration.

  3. Report on the ESO/OPTICON/IAU Summer School ''Modern Instruments, their Science Case, and Practical Data Reduction''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabath, P.; Dennefeld, M.; Gerbaldi, M.; Paunzen, E.; Karas, V.

    2015-12-01

    The Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences organised, jointly with its local partners from Masaryk University, and international partners OPTICON, ESO and the IAU, a two-week practical training course in astronomy for young researchers. The summer school is briefly summarised: lectures covered a wide range of theoretical and observational topics and the emphasis of the practical work was on the analysis of archival data.

  4. A Bridge Too Far – Revisited: Reframing Bruer’s Neuroeducation Argument for Modern Science of Learning Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Jared C.; Donoghue, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    In Education and the Brain: A Bridge Too Far, John Bruer argues that, although current neuroscientific findings must filter through cognitive psychology in order to be applicable to the classroom, with increased knowledge the neuroscience/education bridge can someday be built. Here, we suggest that translation cannot be understood as a single process: rather, we demonstrate that at least four different ‘bridges’ can conceivably be built between these two fields. Following this, we demonstrate that, far from being a matter of information lack, a prescriptive neuroscience/education bridge (the one most relevant to Bruer’s argument) is a practical and philosophical impossibility due to incommensurability between non-adjacent compositional levels-of-organization: a limitation inherent in all sciences. After defining this concept in the context of biology, we apply this concept to the learning sciences and demonstrate why all brain research must be behaviorally translated before prescriptive educational applicability can be elucidated. We conclude by exploring examples of how explicating different forms of translation and adopting a levels-of-organization framework can be used to contextualize and beneficially guide research and practice across all learning sciences. PMID:27014173

  5. Using Modern And Inexpensive Tools In the Classroom To Teach Spectroscopy And To Do Exciting Citizen Science On Astronomical Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, T.

    2014-12-01

    Spectroscopy is a key tool used in modern astronomical research. But, it's always been a difficult topic to teach or practice because the expense and complexity of the available tools. Over the past few years, there's been somewhat of a revolution in this field as new technologies have applied. In this presentation we'll review some new spectroscopy tools that enable educators, students and citizen scientists to do exciting spectroscopic work. With the addition of a simple, inexpensive grating, it's now possible to capture scientifically significant spectra of astronomical objects with small (6") telescopes and even just a DSLR. See the tools that citizen scientists are using to contribute data to pro-am collaborations around the world. We'll also examine a simple, surprisingly inexpensive, tripod-mounted spectrometer that can be used in the classroom for demonstrations and hands-on labs with gas tubes and other light sources. Both of the above instruments use a software program named RSpec, which is state of the art software suite that is easy to learn and easy to use. In this presentation we'll see these devices in operation and discuss how they can be used by educators to dramatically improve their teaching of this topic. You'll see how these tools can eliminate the frustration of hand-held rainbow foil and plastic spectrometers. And we'll review some exciting examples of astronomical spectra being collected by amateurs and educators.

  6. FOREWORD: The XXV IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems marks half a century tradition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susan-Resiga, Romeo

    2010-05-01

    IAHR75_logoUPT90_logoARFT_logo International Association of Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research'Politehnica' University of TimisoaraRomanian Academy - Timisoara Branch The 25th edition of the IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, held in Timisoara, Romania, 20-24 September 2010, jointly organized by the 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara and the Romanian Academy - Timisoara Branch, marks a half century tradition of these prestigious symposia. However, it is the first time that Romania hosts such a symposium, and for good reasons. The Romanian electrical power system has a total of 20,630 MW installed power, out of which 6,422 MW in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was in 2008 of 17,105 GWh from a total of 64,772 GWh electrical energy production. Moreover, for the period 2009-2015, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 2,157 MW installed power and an estimated 5,770 GWh/year energy production. Within the same period of time, the refurbishment, modernization and repair programs will increase the actual hydropower production with an estimated 349 GWh/year. The 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara is proud to host the 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, in the year of its 90th anniversary. The 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara is one of the largest and most well-known technical universities from Central and Eastern Europe. It was founded in 1920, a short time after the union into one state of all the Romanian territories, following the end of the First World War, in order to respond to the need engineers felt by the Romanian society at that time, within the economical development framework. During its 90 years of existence, 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara educated over 100,000 engineers, greatly appreciated both in Romania and abroad, for their competence and seriousness. King Ferdinand I of Romania said while visiting the recently established

  7. Ice sheets viewed from the ocean: the contribution of marine science to understanding modern and past ice sheets.

    PubMed

    Ó Cofaigh, Colm

    2012-12-13

    Over the last two decades, marine science, aided by technological advances in sediment coring, geophysical imaging and remotely operated submersibles, has played a major role in the investigation of contemporary and former ice sheets. Notable advances have been achieved with respect to reconstructing the extent and flow dynamics of the large polar ice sheets and their mid-latitude counterparts during the Quaternary from marine geophysical and geological records of landforms and sediments on glacier-influenced continental margins. Investigations of the deep-sea ice-rafted debris record have demonstrated that catastrophic collapse of large (10(5)-10(6) km(2)) ice-sheet drainage basins occurred on millennial and shorter time scales and had a major influence on oceanography. In the last few years, increasing emphasis has been placed on understanding physical processes at the ice-ocean interface, particularly at the grounding line, and on determining how these processes affect ice-sheet stability. This remains a major challenge, however, owing to the logistical constraints imposed by working in ice-infested polar waters and ice-shelf cavities. Furthermore, despite advances in reconstructing the Quaternary history of mid- and high-latitude ice sheets, major unanswered questions remain regarding West Antarctic ice-sheet stability, and the long-term offshore history of the East Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets remains poorly constrained. While these are major research frontiers in glaciology, and ones in which marine science has a pivotal role to play, realizing such future advances will require an integrated collaborative approach between oceanographers, glaciologists, marine geologists and numerical modellers. PMID:23129711

  8. Light sheet-based fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) reduces phototoxic effects and provides new means for the modern life sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pampaloni, Francesco; Ansari, Nari; Girard, Philippe; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

    2011-07-01

    Most optical technologies are applied to flat, basically two-dimensional cellular systems. However, physiological meaningful information relies on the morphology, the mechanical properties and the biochemistry of a cell's context. A cell requires the complex three-dimensional relationship to other cells. However, the observation of multi-cellular biological specimens remains a challenge. Specimens scatter and absorb light, thus, the delivery of the probing light and the collection of the signal light become inefficient; many endogenous biochemical compounds also absorb light and suffer degradation of some sort (photo-toxicity), which induces malfunction of a specimen. In conventional and confocal fluorescence microscopy, whenever a single plane, the entire specimen is illuminated. Recording stacks of images along the optical Z-axis thus illuminates the entire specimen once for each plane. Hence, cells are illuminated 10-20 and fish 100-300 times more often than they are observed. This can be avoided by changing the optical arrangement. The basic idea is to use light sheets, which are fed into the specimen from the side and overlap with the focal plane of a wide-field fluorescence microscope. In contrast to an epi-fluorescence arrangement, such an azimuthal fluorescence arrangement uses two independently operated lenses for illumination and detection. Optical sectioning and no photo-toxic damage or photo-bleaching outside a small volume close to the focal plane are intrinsic properties. Light sheet-based fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) takes advantage of modern camera technologies. LSFM can be operated with laser cutters and for fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. During the last few years, LSFM was used to record zebrafish development from the early 32-cell stage until late neurulation with sub-cellular resolution and short sampling periods (60-90 sec/stack). The recording speed was five 4-Megapixel large frames/sec with a dynamic range of 12-14 bit. We followed

  9. Making Modern Migraine Medieval: Men of Science, Hildegard of Bingen and the Life of a Retrospective Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Foxhall, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Charles Singer’s retrospective diagnosis of Hildegard of Bingen as a migraine sufferer, first made in 1913, has become commonly accepted. This article uses Hildegard as a case study to shift our focus from a polarised debate about the merits or otherwise of retrospective diagnosis, to examine instead what happens when diagnoses take on lives of their own. It argues that simply championing or rejecting retrospective diagnosis is not enough; that we need instead to appreciate how, at the moment of creation, a diagnosis reflects the significance of particular medical signs and theories in historical context and how, when and why such diagnoses can come to do meaningful work when subsequently mobilised as scientific ‘fact’. This article first traces the emergence of a new formulation of migraine in the nineteenth century, then shows how this context enabled Singer to retrospectively diagnose Hildegard’s migraine and finally examines some of the ways in which this idea has gained popular and academic currency in the second half of the twentieth century. The case of Hildegard’s migraine reminds us of the need to historicise scientific evidence just as rigorously as we historicise our other material and it exposes the cumulative methodological problems that can occur when historians use science, and scientists use history on a casual basis. PMID:25045179

  10. Gnotobiology in modern medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podoprigora, G. I.

    1980-01-01

    A review is given of currently accepted theories and applications of gnotobiology. A brief history of gnotobiology is supplied. Problems involved in creating germ-free gnotobiota and the use of these animals in experimental biology are cited. Examples of how gnotobiology is used in modern medical practice illustrate the future prospects for this area of science.

  11. Facility Modernization Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D; Ackley, R

    2007-05-10

    Modern and technologically up-to-date facilities and systems infrastructure are necessary to accommodate today's research environment. In response, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has a continuing commitment to develop and apply effective management models and processes to maintain, modernize, and upgrade its facilities to meet the science and technology mission. The Facility Modernization Pilot Study identifies major subsystems of facilities that are either technically or functionally obsolete, lack adequate capacity and/or capability, or need to be modernized or upgraded to sustain current operations and program mission. This study highlights areas that need improvement, system interdependencies, and how these systems/subsystems operate and function as a total productive unit. Although buildings are 'grandfathered' in and are not required to meet current codes unless there are major upgrades, this study also evaluates compliance with 'current' building, electrical, and other codes. This study also provides an evaluation of the condition and overall general appearance of the structure.

  12. Computing in Hydraulic Engineering Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Civil engineers, pioneers of our civilization, are rarely perceived as leaders and innovators in modern society because of retardations in technology innovation. This crisis has resulted in the decline of the prestige of civil engineering profession, reduction of federal funding on deteriorating infrastructures, and problems with attracting the most talented high-school students. Infusion of cutting-edge computer technology and stimulating creativity and innovation therefore are the critical challenge to civil engineering education. To better prepare our graduates to innovate, this paper discussed the adaption of problem-based collaborative learning technique and integration of civil engineering computing into a traditional civil engineering curriculum. Three interconnected courses: Open Channel Flow, Computational Hydraulics, and Sedimentation Engineering, were developed with emphasis on computational simulations. In Open Channel flow, the focuses are principles of free surface flow and the application of computational models. This prepares students to the 2nd course, Computational Hydraulics, that introduce the fundamental principles of computational hydraulics, including finite difference and finite element methods. This course complements the Open Channel Flow class to provide students with in-depth understandings of computational methods. The 3rd course, Sedimentation Engineering, covers the fundamentals of sediment transport and river engineering, so students can apply the knowledge and programming skills gained from previous courses to develop computational models for simulating sediment transport. These courses effectively equipped students with important skills and knowledge to complete thesis and dissertation research.

  13. [Historical sketch of modern pharmaceutical science and technology (Part 3). From the second half of the 19th century to World War II].

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, K

    1995-01-01

    The history of modern pharmaceutical science and technology, from the second half of the 19th century to the end of World War II, is divided into nine sections for the purpose of discussion. 1. The European medical and pharmaceutical science and technology at the end of the 19th century is reviewed. Pharmacology, bacteriology and biochemistry were built in this period. 2. The Meiji Government accepted Western medicine and medical law and regulations in 1883. Consequently, the Japanese physician changed from Eastern (Kanpooi) to Western (Seiyooi). 3. Modern scientific and engineering education had been accepted in America, England, Germany, and France etc. Foreign scientists and engineers (Oyatoi-gai-kokujin) were educated by practice and theory. The Faculty of Engineering was established in the universities in Japan. This fact is one of the differences in the history of universities in Europe and America. 4. Pharmaceutical education in the Meiji period (1873-1911). Twenty-nine schools of pharmacy were built in this period. However, 20 schools of pharmacy had been closed. Pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry was not established in the Meiji era. 5. The profession of pharmacist in 1873-1944. The policy of medicine was changed by the Meiji Government in 1889, when Western physicians were allowed to prepare medicines for patients, and this practice continues today. Political and technological power of Japanese pharmacists was weak, so their role was not estimated. 6. Consequences of world War I, and the establishment of the pharmaceutical industry. The Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) and Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) were won fortunately. The first pharmaceutical company was established in 1885. At this times, many pharmaceutical manufacturing companies, which were converted from whole sale merchants, were built. Then started the manufacturing of commercial drugs. 7. Hygienic chemistry and some problems of public hygiene. The causes of diseses unique to Japan, such as

  14. BOREAS HYD-1 Soil Hydraulic Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Kelly, Shaun F.; Stangel, David E.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-1 team coordinated a program of data collection to measure and monitor soil properties in collaboration with other science team measurement needs. This data set contains soil hydraulic properties determined at the Northern Study Area (NSA) and Southern Study Area (SSA) flux tower sites based on analysis of in situ tension infiltrometer tests and laboratory-determined water retention from soil cores collected during the 1994-95 field campaigns. Results from this analysis are saturated hydraulic conductivity, and fitting parameters for the van Genuchten-Mualem soil hydraulic conductivity and water retention function at flux tower sites. The data are contained in tabular ASCII files. The HYD-01 soil hydraulic properties data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  15. Modernity's Prometheus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Argues for reframing and reforging the relationship between text and context. Argues that the silences that modernity's tribute to text invites are grotesque, untenable, and fundamentally anti-intellectual. (SR)

  16. Electric-hydraulic car

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.W.; Greene, H.

    1993-07-27

    A propulsion system is described for a vehicle having a chassis and at least one drive wheel, the propulsion system including in combination: a constant speed power source comprising an alternating current electric motor operated at a constant speed corresponding to its optimum performance; a source of energy comprising a storage battery and an inverter connected to the electric motor for operating the electric motor of the constant speed power source; a hydraulic fluid system including a main hydraulic pump coupled with the electric motor of the constant speed power source and driven thereby; at least one hydraulic drive motor coupled with the hydraulic pump for receiving fluid flow therefrom; and means for varying the fluid flow through the main hydraulic pump to vary the speed of operation of the hydraulic drive motor.

  17. Modern trends in the development of small hydro power around the world and in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blyashko, Ya. I.

    2010-11-01

    Information on the development of small hydro power is given, specific features relating to construction of modern hydraulic power equipment for small hydraulic power stations are discussed, and experience gained at ZAO MNTO INSET with construction of small hydraulic power facilities in Russia and abroad is briefly described.

  18. Science and Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Numbers, Ronald L.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the history of science and religion in the United States, examining: (1) science and religion in the colonies; (2) science and scripture in the early republic; (3) the Darwinian debates; and (4) science and religion in modern America. (JN)

  19. Retraining the Modern Civil Engineer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priscoli, Jerome Delli

    1983-01-01

    Discusses why modern engineering requires social science and the nature of planning. After these conceptional discussions, 12 practical tools which social science brings to engineering are reviewed. A tested approach to training engineers in these tools is then described. Tools include institutional analysis, policy profiling, and other impact…

  20. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  1. EPA Study of Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    In its FY2010 Appropriations Committee Conference Report, Congress directed EPA to study the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using: • Best available science • Independent sources of information • Transparent, peer-reviewed process • Consultatio...

  2. Downhole hydraulic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Gregory, Danny L.; Hardee, Harry C.; Smallwood, David O.

    1992-01-01

    A downhole hydraulic seismic generator system for transmitting energy wave vibrations into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system contains an elongated, unitary housing operably connected to a well head aboveground by support and electrical cabling, and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a hydraulic oscillator containing a double-actuating piston whose movement is controlled by an electro-servovalve regulating a high pressure hydraulic fluid flow into and out of upper and lower chambers surrounding the piston. The spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator is stored and pumped back into the system to provide high pressure fluid for conducting another run at the same, or a different location within the borehole.

  3. Modern Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, London (England).

    This survey of educational practices in Great Britain is intended to allow a comparative view of the state of modern language instruction as it exists within the country and abroad. Chapters focus on general principles, language selection, grammar and secondary schools, instructional materials, foreign relations, teacher training, and teaching…

  4. Modern Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Gordon M.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the basic ideas of modern spectroscopy. Both the angular momenta and wave-nature approaches to the determination of energy level patterns for atomic and molecular systems are discussed. The interpretation of spectra, based on atomic and molecular models, is considered. (LC)

  5. Electric versus hydraulic drives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This volume records the proceedings of a conference organised by the Engineering Manufacturing Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include high performance position control - a review of the current state of developments; hydrostatic drives - present and future; electric drives - present and future trends; electrical and hydraulic drives for heavy industrial robots; the development of an electro-mechanical tilt system for the advanced passenger train; industrial hydraulic ring mains - effective or efficient. the comparison of performance of servo feed-drive systems; overhead crane drives; the future of d.c. servodrives; the choice of actuator for military systems; linear electro-hydraulic actuators; and actuation for industrial robots.

  6. Cyberspace modernization :

    SciTech Connect

    Keliiaa, Curtis M.; McLane, Victor N.

    2014-07-01

    A common challenge across the communications and information technology (IT) sectors is Internet + modernization + complexity + risk + cost. Cyberspace modernization and cyber security risks, issues, and concerns impact service providers, their customers, and the industry at large. Public and private sectors are struggling to solve the problem. New service opportunities lie in mobile voice, video, and data, and machine-to-machine (M2M) information and communication technologies that are migrating not only to predominant Internet Protocol (IP) communications, but also concurrently integrating IP, version 4 (IPv4) and IP, version 6 (IPv6). With reference to the Second Internet and the Internet of Things, next generation information services portend business survivability in the changing global market. The planning, architecture, and design information herein is intended to increase infrastructure preparedness, security, interoperability, resilience, and trust in the midst of such unprecedented change and opportunity. This document is a product of Sandia National Laboratories Tribal Cyber and IPv6 project work. It is a Cyberspace Modernization objective advisory in support of bridging the digital divide through strategic partnership and an informed path forward.

  7. Reviews Book: SEP Communications: Transmitting and Receiving Signals Book: Gliding for Gold Book: Radioactivity: A History of a Mysterious Science Book: The New Quantum Age Books: The Art of Science and The Oxford Book of Modern Science Writing Equipment: SEP Analogue/digital transmission unit Equipment: SEP Optical signal transmission set Book: Stars and their Spectra Book: Voicebox: The Physics and Evolution of Speech Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND Transmitting and Receiving Signals SEP booklet transmits knowledge The New Quantum Age Understanding modern quantum theory The Art of Science and The Oxford Book of Modern Science Writing Anthologies bring science to life SEP Analogue/digital transmission unit Kit transmits signal between two points SEP Optical signal transmission set Optical kit shows light transmission Stars and their Spectra New book for teaching astrophysics WORTH A LOOK Gliding for Gold Take a journey through the physics of winter sports Radioactivity: A History of a Mysterious Science Book looks at history of radioactivity Voicebox: The Physics and Evolution of Speech TExploring the evolution of the voice WEB WATCH An interactive program with promise?

  8. Tribology of hydraulic pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, A.

    1997-12-31

    To obtain much higher performance than that of alternative power transmission systems, hydraulic systems have been continuously evolving to use high-pressure. Adoption of positive displacement pumps and motors is based on this reason. Therefore, tribology is a key terminology for hydraulic pumps and motors to obtain excellent performance and durability. In this paper the following topics are investigated: (1) the special feature of tribology of hydraulic pumps and motors; (2) indication of the important bearing/sealing parts in piston pumps and effects of the frictional force and leakage flow to performance; (3) the methods to break through the tribological limitation of hydraulic equipment; and (4) optimum design of the bearing/sealing parts used in the fluid to mixed lubrication regions.

  9. Controlling hydraulic system costs

    SciTech Connect

    Smiley, C.H.

    1982-06-01

    Hydraulic system preventive maintenance is largely a matter of using the senses and common logic to spot signs of impending problems. The ability to recognize a potential malfunction can save a great deal of money in repairs and lost production.

  10. Suspensions in hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, S.N.

    1996-12-31

    Suspensions or slurries are widely used in well stimulation and hydraulic fracturing processes to enhance the production of oil and gas from the underground hydrocarbon-bearing formation. The success of these processes depends significantly upon having a thorough understanding of the behavior of suspensions used. Therefore, the characterization of suspensions under realistic conditions, for their rheological and hydraulic properties, is very important. This chapter deals with the state-of-the-art hydraulic fracturing suspension technology. Specifically it deals with various types of suspensions used in well stimulation and fracturing processes, their rheological characterization and hydraulic properties, behavior of suspensions in horizontal wells, review of proppant settling velocity and proppant transport in the fracture, and presently available measurement techniques for suspensions and their merits. Future industry needs for better understanding of the complex behavior of suspensions are also addressed. 74 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Hydraulic motor for cars

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, D.C.

    1986-09-02

    A hydraulic motor for a car is described comprising, in combination, an automotive vehicle engine for travel self-propulsion, including a block, a plurality of cylinders in the block, a piston slidable in each cylinder, a crankshaft in the block, a piston rod connected between the crankshaft and each of the pistons, a power take-off gear on the crankshaft for the travel self-propulsion, and the engine including a hydraulic means for driving the pistons in the cylinders.

  12. Portable Hydraulic Powerpack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. A.; Henry, R. L.; Fedor, O. H.; Owens, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Rechargeable hydraulic powerpack functions as lightweight, compact source of mechanical energy. Self-contained hydraulic powerpack derives energy from solid chemical charge. Combustion of charge initiated by small hammer, and revolving feeder replaces charges expended. Combustion gases cool during expansion in turbine and not too hot for release to atmosphere. Unit has applications driving wheelchairs and operating drills, winches, and other equipment in remote areas. Also replaces electric motors and internal-combustion engines as source of power in explosive atmospheres.

  13. Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Linda E., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and Analysis" (Patricia…

  14. An Experimental Study to Determine the Change in Attitude Toward Science of College Physics Students in Traditional and Modern Physics Content Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nance, William Ralph

    The experiment was designed to study the effects of an instructional strategy on prospective elementary school teachers receiving a course in the modern concepts of physics. The study involved two classes, both of which were taught with the same teaching method. The concepts presented were different. Those considered as traditional content…

  15. Offshore hydraulics: tough, reliable, and failsafe

    SciTech Connect

    Hoock, C.J.

    1983-08-01

    The Offshore Comet is a modern offshore drilling rig with a hydraulic-cylinder-actuated jacking (raising and lowering) system. Hydraulic-cylinder jacking provides a safe and efficient method for placing the rig at the desired height above the water and insuring that it can withstand the expected heavy loads imposed by machinery, supplies, and the ocean environment. The drilling rig consists of a steel-hulled barge that is floated to the site and then supported during drilling operations by four steel triangular-cross-section lattice legs. The legs are planted firmly on the ocean bottom by a procedure called preloading. Each leg with its integral footing weighs 657 tons. The barge with its deck load can weigh up to 9200 tons.

  16. Modern Physics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Douglas; Hiller, John R.; Moloney, Michael J.

    1995-10-01

    The Consortium for Upper Level Physics Software (CUPS) has developed a comprehensive series of Nine Book/Software packages that Wiley will publish in FY `95 and `96. CUPS is an international group of 27 physicists, all with extensive backgrounds in the research, teaching, and development of instructional software. The project is being supported by the National Science Foundation (PHY-9014548), and it has received other support from the IBM Corp., Apple Computer Corp., and George Mason University. The Simulations being developed are: Astrophysics, Classical Mechanics, Electricity & Magnetism, Modern Physics, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Solid State, Thermal and Statistical, and Wave and Optics.

  17. HYDRAULIC SERVO CONTROL MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Hussey, R.B.; Gottsche, M.J. Jr.

    1963-09-17

    A hydraulic servo control mechanism of compact construction and low fluid requirements is described. The mechanism consists of a main hydraulic piston, comprising the drive output, which is connected mechanically for feedback purposes to a servo control piston. A control sleeve having control slots for the system encloses the servo piston, which acts to cover or uncover the slots as a means of controlling the operation of the system. This operation permits only a small amount of fluid to regulate the operation of the mechanism, which, as a result, is compact and relatively light. This mechanism is particuiarly adaptable to the drive and control of control rods in nuclear reactors. (auth)

  18. Hydraulics of wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Thad G.

    1955-01-01

    Although the subject of this lecture is supposed to be concerned primarily with the hydraulics of wells, Professor Weers has asked that I also discuss the effects tat geological formations have on the quantity and quality of water available to wells. I will discuss the geology of Colorado in relation to the availability and quality of water with particular reference to the most productive aquifers or water-bearing formations in the State. I will then discuss the hydraulics of wells with the aim of emphasizing the differences between water-table and artesian conditions.

  19. Post-Modern Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    The history of software development includes elements of art, science, engineering, and fashion(though very little manufacturing). In all domains, old ideas give way or evolve to new ones: in the fine arts, the baroque gave way to rococo, romanticism, modernism, postmodernism, and so forth. What is the postmodern programming equivalent? That is, what comes after object orientation?

  20. Small hydraulic turbine drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostafinski, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Turbine, driven by the fluid being pumped, requires no external controls, is completely integrated into the flow system, and has bearings which utilize the main fluid for lubrication and cooling. Torque capabilities compare favorably with those developed by positive displacement hydraulic motors.

  1. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  2. Integration in Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sworder, Steven C.

    This paper presents an application of integration to the field of hydraulics. An integral relation for the time required to drop the fluid contained in a cylindrical tank from one level to another using a hole in the tank wall is derived. Procedures for constructing the experimental equipment and procedures for determining the coefficient of…

  3. Hydraulic Shutdown Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, S. T.; Harrington, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    Adding switch allows inappropriate control actions to be overridden. Four-pole, double-throw switch added to front panel of controller to disable tracking-error and endpoint-error circuitry yet still retain overload-detection capability. Previously, it was necessary to use adjustable-voltage-level detection equipment connected with cables to hydraulic "dump" or shutdown circuitry in controller.

  4. Hydraulic catworks system

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.L.

    1981-03-03

    A hydraulic catworks system is described for use on a well drilling rig for making up and breaking out a drill string which includes a hydraulic makeup piston and cylinder assembly for actuating a makeup line connected to the makeup tongs, and a breakout piston and cylinder assembly connected to a breakout line for actuating the breakout tongs. A makeup hydraulic control valve controls hydraulic fluid to first and second lines connected to the makeup assembly with the first line connected for extending the makeup line and the second line connected for retracting the makeup line. A breakout hydraulic control valve controls fluid to third and fourth lines with the third line connected for extending the breakout line and the fourth line connected for retracting the breakout line. Manual air control means are provided for selectively actuating the makeup and breakout control valves. A variable pressure control is connected to the second line for controlling the makeup torque. Preferably, the makeup and breakout assemblies are vertically connected to the legs of the drilling rig and rollers are positioned horizontally with the makeup and breakout tongs and connected to the breakout and makeup lines. Preferably, a sheave is connected to the makeup assembly and the makeup line passes over the sheave with its free end fixedly secured. A re-generative system is provided on the makeup assembly for increasing the speed of the makeup line extension. Preferably the makeup and breakout cylinders are of the same cross-sectional area with the stroke of the breakout cylinder being less than the stroke of the makeup cylinder.

  5. Mercury-contaminated hydraulic mining debris in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouse, Robin M.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Smith, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury concentrations in pre-Gold Rush sediment range between 0.03 and 0.08 μg g-1. In core sediments that have characteristics of the gold deposits and were deposited during the time of hydraulic mining, mercury concentrations can be up to 0.45 μg/g. Modern sediment (post-1952 deposition) contains mercury concentrations up to 0.79 μg/g and is likely a mix of hydraulic mining mercury and mercury introduced from other sources.

  6. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Love, L.J.

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  7. Mechanics of Hydraulic Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detournay, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic fractures represent a particular class of tensile fractures that propagate in solid media under pre-existing compressive stresses as a result of internal pressurization by an injected viscous fluid. The main application of engineered hydraulic fractures is the stimulation of oil and gas wells to increase production. Several physical processes affect the propagation of these fractures, including the flow of viscous fluid, creation of solid surfaces, and leak-off of fracturing fluid. The interplay and the competition between these processes lead to multiple length scales and timescales in the system, which reveal the shifting influence of the far-field stress, viscous dissipation, fracture energy, and leak-off as the fracture propagates.

  8. Characterize the hydraulic behaviour of grate inlet in urban drainage to prevent the urban's flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellez Alvarez, Jackson David; Gomez, Manuel; Russo, Beniamino; Redondo, Jose M.

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important problems that have some cities is the urban floods because of poor drainage design. Therefore the systems the drainage do not have the capacity of capture the flow of discharge generated in a rain event and insert it into the drainage network. Even though the two problems that have caught the main attention are the evaluation of the volumes falling in the river basin because extreme rainfall events often lead to urban pluvial flooding being a hydrologic problem and the hydraulic design of the sewer network being a hydraulic problem to limiting capacity of the drainage system, there is an intermediate step between these two processes that is necessary to solve that is the hydraulic behavior of the grate inlet. We need to collect the runoff produced on the city surface and to introduce it in the sewer network. Normally foundry companies provide complete information about drainage grate structural capacity but provide nothing about their hydraulic capacity. This fact can be seen because at the moment does not exist any official regulation at national or international level in this field. It's obvious that, nowadays, there is a great gap in this field at the legislative level owing to the complexity of this field and the modernity of the urban hydrology as science [1]. In essence, we shows the relevance to know the inlet hydraulic interception capacity because surface drainage requires a satisfactory knowledge on storm frequency, gutter flow and above all inlet capacity. In addition, we development an important achievement is the invention and development of techniques for measurement of field velocities in hydraulics engineering applications. Hence knowledge the technological advances in digital cameras with high resolution and high speed found in the environmental, and the advances in image processing techniques, therefore now is a tremendous potential to obtain of behavior of the water surface flow [2]. A novel technique using particle

  9. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  10. The emergence of modern statistics in agricultural science: analysis of variance, experimental design and the reshaping of research at Rothamsted Experimental Station, 1919-1933.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Giuditta

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century statistical methods have transformed research in the experimental and social sciences. Qualitative evidence has largely been replaced by quantitative results and the tools of statistical inference have helped foster a new ideal of objectivity in scientific knowledge. The paper will investigate this transformation by considering the genesis of analysis of variance and experimental design, statistical methods nowadays taught in every elementary course of statistics for the experimental and social sciences. These methods were developed by the mathematician and geneticist R. A. Fisher during the 1920s, while he was working at Rothamsted Experimental Station, where agricultural research was in turn reshaped by Fisher's methods. Analysis of variance and experimental design required new practices and instruments in field and laboratory research, and imposed a redistribution of expertise among statisticians, experimental scientists and the farm staff. On the other hand the use of statistical methods in agricultural science called for a systematization of information management and made computing an activity integral to the experimental research done at Rothamsted, permanently integrating the statisticians' tools and expertise into the station research programme. Fisher's statistical methods did not remain confined within agricultural research and by the end of the 1950s they had come to stay in psychology, sociology, education, chemistry, medicine, engineering, economics, quality control, just to mention a few of the disciplines which adopted them. PMID:25311906

  11. Modern problems of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    The role of energy and methods of its saving for the development of human society and life are analyzed. The importance of future use of space energy flows and energy of water and air oceans is emphasized. The authors consider the idea of the unit for production of electric energy and pure substances using sodium chloride which reserves are limitless on the planet. Looking retrospectively at the development of power engineering from the elementary fire to modern electric power station, we see that the used method of heat production, namely by direct interaction of fuel and oxidizer, is the simplest. However, it may be possible to combust coal, i.e., carbon in salt melt, for instance, sodium chloride that would be more rational and efficient. If the stated problems are solved positively, we would master all energy properties of the substance; and this is the main problem of thermodynamics being one of the sciences on energy.

  12. High Speed Strain Measurements Surrounding Hydraulic Fracture in Brittle Hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhardt, Will; Rubinstein, Shmuel

    2015-11-01

    Hydraulic fractures of oil and gas shales occur miles underground, below complex, layered rocks, making measurements of their dynamics, extent, or structure difficult to impossible. Rocks are heterogeneous at a wide range of length scales, and investigating how these non-uniformities affect the propagation and extent of fractures is vital to improving both the safety and efficiency of hydraulic fracturing operations. To study these effects we have developed a model system using brittle, heavily cross-linked hydrogels that we can fracture with fluids and observe with a fast camera. By embedding tracer particles within the gel and using laser sheet microscopy, we obtain three dimensional stress and strain maps of the zone surrounding a hydraulic fracture tip. Gels can also be set in layers or interfaces with tunable strengths or with designed heterogeneities, allowing us to understand the fundamental science of hydraulic fractures and investigate the dynamics of controllably complex materials.

  13. Towards a Science of Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    This article is a contribution to the search for evidence-based models of learning to improve science education. The author believes that modern teachers should look to the sciences of cognitive psychology and neuroscience to build a science of science teaching. Understanding the relationships between learning and the brain's structure and…

  14. Beck, Asia and second modernity.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Craig

    2010-09-01

    The work of Ulrich Beck has been important in bringing sociological attention to the ways issues of risk are embedded in contemporary globalization, in developing a theory of 'reflexive modernization', and in calling for social science to transcend 'methodological nationalism'. In recent studies, he and his colleagues help to correct for the Western bias of many accounts of cosmopolitanism and reflexive modernization, and seek to distinguish normative goals from empirical analysis. In this paper I argue that further clarification of this latter distinction is needed but hard to reach within a framework that still embeds the normative account in the idea that empirical change has a clear direction. Similar issues beset the presentation of diverse patterns in recent history as all variants of 'second modernity'. Lastly, I note that ironically, given the declared 'methodological cosmopolitanism' of the authors, the empirical studies here all focus on national cases. PMID:20840434

  15. Limits of downstream hydraulic geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2004-10-01

    Adjustments to flow width, depth, and velocity in response to changes in discharge are commonly characterized by using downstream hydraulic geometry relationships. The spatial limits of these relationships within a drainage basin have not been systematically quantified. Where the erosional resistance of the channel substrate is sufficiently large, hydraulic driving forces presumably will be unable to adjust channel form. Data sets from 10 mountain rivers in the United States, Panama, Nepal, and New Zealand are used in this study to explore the limits of downstream hydraulic geometry relationships. Where the ratio of stream power to sediment size (Ω/D84) exceeds 10,000 kg/s3, downstream hydraulic geometry is well developed; where the ratio falls below 10,000 kg/s3, downstream hydraulic geometry relationships are poorly developed. These limitations on downstream hydraulic geometry have important implications for channel engineering and simulations of landscape change.

  16. Vehicle hydraulic cooling fan system

    SciTech Connect

    Nilson, C.A.

    1993-06-08

    A hydraulic cooling system for vehicles having an internal combustion engine cooled by a radiator and a coolant is described, comprising, in combination, a shroud adapted to be mounted adjacent the radiator having a wall forming an air passage and defining a first port disposed adjacent the radiator and a second port spaced from the first port, a fan located within the second port, a hydraulic fan motor operatively connected to the fan, a hydraulic pump operatively connected to the engine for producing a pressurized hydraulic fluid flow, a hydraulic circuit interconnecting the pump to the fan motor, the circuit including a control valve, a hydraulic fluid reservoir and a heat exchanger, the heat exchanger being mounted within the shroud air passage.

  17. "Modern medical science and the divine providence of god": rethinking the place of religion in postwar U.S. medical history.

    PubMed

    Golden, Janet; Abel, Emily K

    2014-10-01

    Drawing on a large cache of letters to John and Frances Gunther after the death of their son as well as memoirs and fiction by bereaved parents, this essay challenges the assumptions of secularization that infuse histories of twentieth-century American medicine. Many parents who experienced the death of children during the postwar period relied heavily on religion to help make sense of the tragedies medicine could not prevent. Parental accounts included expression of belief in divine intervention and the power of prayer, gratitude for God's role in minimizing suffering, confidence in the existence of an afterlife, and acceptance of the will of God. Historians seeking to understand how parents and families understood both the delivery of medical care and the cultural authority of medical science must integrate an understanding of religious experiences and faith into their work. PMID:23946448

  18. Hydraulic mining method

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  19. The science in social science

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, H. Russell

    2012-01-01

    A recent poll showed that most people think of science as technology and engineering—life-saving drugs, computers, space exploration, and so on. This was, in fact, the promise of the founders of modern science in the 17th century. It is less commonly understood that social and behavioral sciences have also produced technologies and engineering that dominate our everyday lives. These include polling, marketing, management, insurance, and public health programs. PMID:23213222

  20. Mendel in the Modern Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mike U.; Gericke, Niklas M.

    2015-01-01

    Mendel is an icon in the history of genetics and part of our common culture and modern biology instruction. The aim of this paper is to summarize the place of Mendel in the modern biology classroom. In the present article we will identify key issues that make Mendel relevant in the classroom today. First, we recount some of the historical controversies that have relevance to modern curricular design, such as Fisher's (Ann Sci 1:115-137, 1936/2008) claim that Mendel's data were too good to be true. We also address questions about Mendel's status as the father of genetics as well as questions about the sequencing of Mendel's work in genetics instruction in relation to modern molecular genetics and evolution. Next, we present a systematic set of examples of research based approaches to the use of Mendel in the modern classroom along with criticisms of these designs and questions about the historical accuracy of the story of Mendel as presented in the typical classroom. Finally, we identify gaps in our understanding in need of further study and present a selected set of resources that, along with the references cited, should be valuable to science educators interested in further study of the story of Mendel.

  1. 110. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (109), LSB (BLDG. 770) ACCUMULATOR FOR MAST RETRACTION ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. 128. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (209), LSB (BLDG. 751). PUMP ON RIGHT; ACCUMULATOR FOR MAST RETRACTION ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  3. Fluid Power/Basic Hydraulics. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanbery, Richard

    This guide is designed to assist industrial vocational instructors in teaching a course on fluid power and basic hydraulics. Covered in the unit on the basics of fluid power and hydraulics are the following topics: the fundamentals of fluid power and hydraulics, basic hydraulic circuits, and servicing a hydraulic jack. The second unit, consisting…

  4. Potential Relationships Between Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The conferees urge the Agency to carry out a study on the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using a credible approach that relies on the best available science, as well as independent sources of information. The conferees expect the study to be conduct...

  5. The Hydraulic Jump: Finding Complexity in Turbulent Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Students who do not progress to more advanced science disciplines in college generally do not realize that seemingly simple physical systems are--when studied in detail--more complex than one might imagine. This article presents one such phenomenon--the hydraulic jump--as a way to help students see the complexity behind the seemingly simple, and…

  6. Adaptive Control System of Hydraulic Pressure Based on The Mathematical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, A. V.; Pilipenko, A. P.; Kanatnikov, N. V.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the authors highlight the problem of replacing an old heavy industrial equipment, and offer the replacement of obsolete control systems on the modern adaptive control system, which takes into account changes in the hydraulic system of the press and compensates them with a corrective action. The proposed system can reduce a water hammer and thereby increase the durability of the hydraulic system and tools.

  7. Tractor Hydraulics. A Teaching Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials, Athens, GA.

    The manual was developed to help provide a better understanding of how and why hydraulic principles serve the purposes of weight reduction, increase of physical effort, and more precise control to machines of all types. The four components that are necessary to have a workable hydraulic system--a reservoir, a pump, a valve, and a motor (cylinder)…

  8. Hydraulics. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on hydraulics is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids for training in the servicing of agricultural and industrial machinery. Focus is on oil hydraulics. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The twelve chapters focus…

  9. Universalism, Multiculturalism, and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irzik, Gurol

    2001-01-01

    Describes the division of universalists and multiculturalists over the question of the nature of science. Universalists maintain that science has a universal essence and western modern science is the paradigm example of such science. Multiculturalists appeal to the disunity of science thesis to undermine the view that all sciences must have a…

  10. Discovering indigenous science: Implications for science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snively, Gloria; Corsiglia, John

    2001-01-01

    Indigenous science relates to both the science knowledge of long-resident, usually oral culture peoples, as well as the science knowledge of all peoples who as participants in culture are affected by the worldview and relativist interests of their home communities. This article explores aspects of multicultural science and pedagogy and describes a rich and well-documented branch of indigenous science known to biologists and ecologists as traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). Although TEK has been generally inaccessible, educators can now use a burgeoning science-based TEK literature that documents numerous examples of time-proven, ecologically relevant, and cost effective indigenous science. Disputes regarding the universality of the standard scientific account are of critical importance for science educators because the definition of science is a de facto gatekeeping device for determining what can be included in a school science curriculum and what cannot. When Western modern science (WMS) is defined as universal it does displace revelation-based knowledge (i.e., creation science); however, it also displaces pragmatic local indigenous knowledge that does not conform with formal aspects of the standard account. Thus, in most science classrooms around the globe, Western modern science has been taught at the expense of indigenous knowledge. However, because WMS has been implicated in many of the world's ecological disasters, and because the traditional wisdom component of TEK is particularly rich in time-tested approaches that foster sustainability and environmental integrity, it is possible that the universalist gatekeeper can be seen as increasingly problematic and even counter productive. This paper describes many examples from Canada and around the world of indigenous people's contributions to science, environmental understanding, and sustainability. The authors argue the view that Western or modern science is just one of many sciences that need to be

  11. Hydraulically actuated well shifting tool

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, B.A.

    1992-10-20

    This patent describes a hydraulically actuated shifting tool for actuating a sliding member in a well tool. It comprises: a housing having a hydraulic fluid bore therein; shifting dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the housing; locking dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the body; shifting dog hydraulic actuating means in fluid communication with the bore for causing engagement of the shifting dogs with the sliding member; locking dog hydraulic actuating means in communication with the bore for causing engagement of the locking dogs with the locking means; and hydraulic shifting means in communication with the bore for causing relative movement between the shifting dog means and the locking dog means for shifting the sliding sleeve.

  12. High temperature hydraulic seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, K. R.

    1993-05-01

    This program investigated and evaluated high temperature hydraulic sealing technology, including seals, fluids, and actuator materials. Test limits for fluid pressure and temperature were 8000 psi and 700 F respectively. The original plan to investigate CTFE fluid at 350 F as well as other fluids at higher temperatures was reduced in scope to include only the higher temperature investigation. Seals were obtained from 11 manufacturers. Design requirements including materials, dimensions, clearances, and tolerances were established and test modules were constructed from the detail designs which were produced. Nine piston seals and one rod seal were tested at temperatures ranging from -65 to +600 F and pressures to 6000 psi. Fluid performance under these conditions was evaluated. Details of this activity and results of the effort are summarized in this report.

  13. Amazon flood wave hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigg, Mark A.; Wilson, Matthew D.; Bates, Paul D.; Horritt, Matthew S.; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Forsberg, Bruce R.; Vega, Maria C.

    2009-07-01

    SummaryA bathymetric survey of 575 km of the central Amazon River and one of its tributaries, the Purus, are combined with gauged data to characterise the Amazon flood wave, and for hydraulic modelling of the main channel for the period June 1995-March 1997 with the LISFLOOD-FP and HEC-RAS hydraulic models. Our investigations show that the Amazon flood wave is subcritical and diffusive in character and, due to shallow bed slopes, backwater conditions control significant reach lengths and are present for low and high water states. Comparison of the different models shows that it is necessary to include at least the diffusion term in any model, and the RMSE error in predicted water elevation at all cross sections introduced by ignoring the acceleration and advection terms is of the order of 0.02-0.03 m. The use of a wide rectangular channel approximation introduces an error of 0.10-0.15 m on the predicted water levels. Reducing the bathymetry to a simple bed slope and with mean cross section only, introduces an error in the order of 0.5 m. These results show that when compared to the mean annual amplitude of the Amazon flood wave of 11-12 m, water levels are relatively insensitive to the bathymetry of the channel model. The implication for remote sensing studies of the central Amazon channel, such as those proposed with the Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission (SWOT), is that even relatively crude assumptions regarding the channel bathymetry will be valid in order to derive discharge from water surface slope of the main channel, as long as the mean channel area is approximately correct.

  14. Valorization of phosphogypsum as hydraulic binder.

    PubMed

    Kuryatnyk, T; Angulski da Luz, C; Ambroise, J; Pera, J

    2008-12-30

    Phosphogypsum (calcium sulfate) is a naturally occurring part of the process of creating phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)), an essential component of many modern fertilizers. For every tonne of phosphoric acid made, from the reaction of phosphate rock with acid, commonly sulfuric acid, about 3t of phosphogypsum are created. There are three options for managing phosphogypsum: (i) disposal or dumping, (ii) stacking, (iii) use-in, for example, agriculture, construction, or landfill. This paper presents the valorization of two Tunisian phosphogypsums (referred as G and S) in calcium sulfoaluminate cement in the following proportions: 70% phosphogypsum-30% calcium sulfoaluminate clinker. The use of sample G leads to the production of a hydraulic binder which means that it is not destroyed when immersed in water. The binder including sample S performs very well when cured in air but is not resistant in water. Formation of massive ettringite in a rigid body leads to cracking and strength loss. PMID:18433998

  15. Pneumatic actuator with hydraulic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Hobart R., Jr.

    1992-11-01

    The present invention provides a pneumatically powered actuator having hydraulic control for both locking and controlling the velocity of an output rod without any sponginess. The invention includes a double-acting pneumatic actuator having a bore, a piston slidably engaged within the bore, and a control rod connected to the piston. The double-acting pneumatic actuator is mounted to a frame. A first double-acting hydraulic actuator having a bore, a piston slidably engaged within the bore, and a follower rod mounted to the piston is mounted to the frame such that the follower rod is fixedly connected to the control rod. The maximum translation of the piston within the bore of the first double-acting hydraulic actuator provides a volumetric displacement V1. The present invention also includes a second double-acting hydraulic actuator having a bore, a piston slidably engaged within the bore, and an output rod mounted to the piston. The maximum translation of the piston within the bore of the second double-acting hydraulic actuator provides a volumetric displacement V2, where V2=V1. A pair of fluid ports in each of the first and second double-acting hydraulic cylinders are operably connected by fluid conduits, one of which includes a valve circuit which may be used to control the velocity of the output rod or to lock the output rod in a static position by regulating the flow of hydraulic fluid between the double-acting cylinders.

  16. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, will be held in Beijing, China, 19-23 August 2012. It is jointly organized by Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Hydraulic Engineering, China, Jiangsu University, Xi'an University of Technology, China Agricultural University, National Engineering Research Center of Hydropower Equipment and Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. It is the second time that China hosts such a symposium. By the end of 2011, the China electrical power system had a total of 1 050 GW installed power, out of which 220 GW was in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was 662.6 TWh from a total of 4,720 TWh electrical energy production in 2011. Moreover, in 2020, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 180 GW installed power and an estimated 708 TWh/year energy production. And in 2011, the installed power of pumped storage stations was about 25GW. In 2020, the data will be 70GW. At the same time, the number of pumps used in China is increasing rapidly. China produces about 29,000,000 pumps with more than 220 series per year. By the end of 2011, the Chinese pumping system has a total of 950 GW installed power. The energy consumed in pumping facilities was 530 TWh in 2011. The pump energy consumption accounted for about 12% of the national electrical energy production. Therefore, there is a large market in the field of hydraulic machinery including water turbines, pump turbines and a variety of pumps in China. There are also many research projects in this field. For example, we have conducted National Key Research Projects on 1000 MW hydraulic turbine, and on the pump turbines with high head, as well as on the large capacity pumps for water supply. Tsinghua University of Beijing is proud to host the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Tsinghua University was established in 1911, after the founding of the People's Republic of China. It

  17. Research Explains Modern Art!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eickhorst, William S.

    1985-01-01

    This tongue-in-cheek article calls for the critical reexamination of the history of modern art. The author believes that modern art is neither an extension of the Renaissance aesthetic nor a collective by-product of artists possessed of creative genius. Creators of modern art were actually representational artists suffering from visual stuttering.…

  18. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

  19. Alluvial channel hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackers, Peter

    1988-07-01

    The development and utilisation of water resources for irrigation, hydropower and public supply can be severely affected by sediment. Where there is a mature and well vegetated landscape, sediment problems may be relatively minor; but where slopes are steep and vegetation sparse, the yield of sediment from the catchment gives high concentrations in the rivers. In utilising these resources, for whatever purpose, an understanding of the hydraulics of alluvial channels is vital. The regime of any conveyance channel in alluvium depends on the interrelationships of sediment transport, channel resistance and bank stability. The regime concept was originally based on empirical relations obtained from observations from canal systems in the Indian subcontinent, and for many years was surrounded by a certain degree of mystique and much scepticism from academics. In more recent years the unabashed empiricism of the original method has been replaced by process-based methods, which have also served as broad confirmation of the classic regime formulae, including their extension to natural channels and meandering channels. The empirical approach to the hydraulics of alluvial channels has thus been updated by physically based formulae for sediment transport and resistance, though there remains some uncertainty about the third function to complete the definition of slope and geometry. Latest thoughts in this respect are that the channel seeks a natural optimum state. Physical modelling using scaled down representations of rivers and estuaries has been used for almost a century, but it requires the correct simulation of the relevant processes. The coming of a better understanding of the physics of sediment transport and the complexity of alluvial channel roughness leads to the conclusion that only in very restricted circumstances can scale models simulate closely the full-size condition. However, the quantification of these processes has been instrumental in the development of

  20. The Growth of Physical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeans, James

    2009-07-01

    1. The remote beginnings; 2. Ionia and early Greece; 3. Science and Alexandria; 4. Science in the dark ages; 5. The birth of modern science; 6. The century of genius; 7. The two centuries after Newton; 8. The era of modern physics.

  1. On what basis hope? Modern progress and postmodern possibilities.

    PubMed

    Danforth, S

    1997-04-01

    Modern and postmodern versions of hope as they apply to services for persons labeled as having mental retardation were examined. Proponents of modernism construct hope as relying on an ever-improving science to accurately comprehend mental retardation and other disabilities and the effectiveness of professional interventions. This myth of scientific progress is traced in various forms through American intellectual history to the development of special education as interventionist social science. Advocates of postmodernism cast doubt upon the grand narrative of modernism and critique modern social science as perpetuating stigmatized "mentally retarded" identities through the exercise of power. A rhetorical analysis of the current controversy over facilitated communication demonstrates the utilization of the language of modern science for its power effects in special education discourse. PMID:9131869

  2. In-line hydraulic dashpot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Paul E.

    1992-10-01

    An in-line hydraulic dashpot is disclosed that effectively decelerates the piston of a power cylinder by controllably choking off the oil which is providing pressure to the piston. The in-line hydraulic dashpot of the invention includes a valve spool member movable between an open and closed position along a fluid flow path that supplies oil to the power cylinder. An actuator rod is cooperative with the valve spool member and the piston shaft of the power cylinder to move tile valve spool member between its open and closed positions. The in-line hydraulic dashpot eliminates the clashing of mechanical parts and therewith eliminates the noise that would otherwise be generated thereby. The in-line hydraulic dashpot of the present invention makes possible the adaptation of a fixed stroke power cylinder to applications that call for a variable stroke length.

  3. Hydraulic drive system prevents backlash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acord, J. D.

    1965-01-01

    Hydraulic drive system uses a second drive motor operating at reduced torque. This exerts a relative braking action which eliminates the normal gear train backlash that is intolerable when driving certain heavy loads.

  4. Production Hydraulic Packer Field Test

    SciTech Connect

    Schneller, Tricia; Salas, Jose

    2000-06-30

    In October 1999, the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center and Halliburton Energy Services cooperated on a field test of Halliburton's new Production Hydraulic Packer technology on Well 46-TPX-10 at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 near Casper, WY. Performance of the packer was evaluated in set and unset operations. The packer's ability to seal the annulus between the casing and tubing was hydraulically tested and the results were recorded.

  5. Advanced Performance Hydraulic Wind Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lam, Adrienne S.

    2013-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, has developed a novel advanced hydraulic wind energy design, which has up to 23% performance improvement over conventional wind turbine and conventional hydraulic wind energy systems with 5 m/sec winds. It also has significant cost advantages with levelized costs equal to coal (after carbon tax rebate). The design is equally applicable to tidal energy systems and has passed preliminary laboratory proof-of-performance tests, as funded by the Department of Energy.

  6. Science Fairs for Science Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, Katherine; Culbertson, Timothy

    2014-03-01

    Scientific discovery, technological revolutions, and complex global challenges are commonplace in the modern era. People are bombarded with news about climate change, pandemics, and genetically modified organisms, and scientific literacy has never been more important than in the present day. Yet only 29% of American adults have sufficient understanding to be able to read science stories reported in the popular press [Miller, 2010], and American students consistently rank below other nations in math and science [National Center for Education Statistics, 2012].

  7. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.880 Section 28.880 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must be... times the system's maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with at...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 23.1435 Section 23.1435... § 23.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, the structural loads expected...

  9. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.880 Section 28.880 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must be... times the system's maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with at...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 23.1435 Section 23.1435... § 23.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, the structural loads expected...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 23.1435 Section 23.1435... § 23.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, the structural loads expected...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 29.1435 Section 29.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each element of the hydraulic system...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 23.1435 Section 23.1435... § 23.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, the structural loads expected...

  14. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.880 Section 28.880 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must be... times the system's maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with at...

  15. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.405 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system... than four times the system maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped...

  16. Romanticism and Romantic Science: Their Contribution to Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis; Schulz, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The unique contributions of romanticism and romantic science have been generally ignored or undervalued in history and philosophy of science studies and science education. Although more recent research in history of science has come to delineate the value of both topics for the development of modern science, their merit for the educational field…

  17. Electric versus hydraulics versus pneumatics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents a collection of papers from a conference which considered the advantages and disadvantages of electric, hydraulic and pneumatic drives and actuators. The volume follows on the success of the 1983 conference on electric and hydraulic drives. Topics considered include fork lift trucks - an ideal application for regenerative transmissions; a hybrid-electric power system with hydrostatic transmission; electrics and hydraulics on roadheader machinery; hydraulic, electrical, pneumatic control - which way to go. an electrically-powered servo to drive the two axes of a missile launching platform - pros and cons when compared with the traditional hydraulic solution; the encapsulation of a novel intrinsically safe displacement transducer; mobile cryogenic pumping systems; automation of a wood-turning machine, hydraulic or electric. The choice of a servo motor for a specific application; developments in the design and control of pneumatic linear actuators; compressed air purification for instrumentation in the high technology industries; trends in prime mover choice for powered hand tools; and choosing the drive system for the right application.

  18. Nuclear Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

  19. Cold fusion: A challenge to modern science?

    SciTech Connect

    Storms, E.

    1995-12-31

    Suppose the ancient Alchemists were on the right track after all - that nuclear reactions can be made to occur within unique chemical environments, that elements can be transmuted, and that power can be generated from such processes. On the other hand, conventional scientists might find this possibility too impossible to be believed and reject it regardless of how likely it might be. An objective debate is now overdue to resolve these two opposing views. I would like to start this process by giving an outline of the issues combined with a few examples of the information now available. More detail will be given in a latter, more complete paper. The problem now is more psychological than scientific. Although many of the novel observations are still difficult to replicate and some are clearly in error, the general patterns being reported strongly indicate that nuclear reactions of various kinds can be made to occur in a chemical environment. 32 refs.

  20. River channel morphology and hydraulics properties due to introduction of plant basket hydraulic structures for river channel management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kałuża, Tomasz; Radecki-Pawlik, Artur; Plesiński, Karol; Walczak, Natalia; Szoszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Radecki-Pawlik, Bartosz

    2016-04-01

    In the present time integrated water management is directly connected with management and direct works in river channels themselves which are taking into account morphological processes in rivers and improve flow conditions. Our work focused on the hydraulic and hydrodynamic consequences upon the introduction of the concept of the improvement of the hydromorphological conditions of the Flinta River in a given reach following river channel management concept. Based on a comprehensive study of the hydromorphological state of the river, four sections were selected where restoration measures can efficiently improve river habitat conditions in the river. For each section a set of technical and biological measures were proposed and implemented in practice. One of the proposed solutions was to construct plant basket hydraulic structures (PBHS) within the river channel, which are essentially plant barriers working as sediment traps, changing river channel morphology and are in line with concepts of Water Framework Directive. These relatively small structures work as crested weirs and unquestionably change the channel morphology. Along our work we show the results of three-year long (2013-2015) systematic measurements that provided information on the morphological consequences of introducing such structures into a river channel. Our main conclusions are as follows: 1. Plant basket hydraulic structures cause changes in hydrodynamic conditions and result in sediment accumulation and the formation of river backwaters upstream and downstream the obstacle; 2. The introduced plant basket hydraulic structures cause plant debris accumulation which influences the hydrodynamic flow conditions; 3. The installation of plant basket hydraulic structures on the river bed changes flow pattern as well as flow hydrodynamic conditions causing river braiding process; 4. The erosion rate below the plant basket hydraulic structures is due to the hydraulic work conditions of the PBHS and its

  1. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  2. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  3. Education and Schooling: From Modernity to Postmodernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zufiaurre, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    The development of education and schooling in modern times emerged from the priorities of religion and politics in the sixteenth-century transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance and Reformation. Subsequently, liberal ideas about the maintenance and advancement of life on earth fostered a new dualism, between educational science and…

  4. John Herschel: Britain's first modern physical scientist.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, M. J.

    The author presents a sketch of the life and contributions to science of Sir John F. W. Herschel (1792 - 1871). One of the theses he develops is that John Herschel can meaningfully be described as Britain's first modern physical scientist. In addition to developing this thesis, the author makes some remarks about lesser known aspects of Herschel's life.

  5. Using the NRCS National Soils Information System (NASIS) to provide soil hydraulic properties for engineering applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern agricultural, biological, and environmental engineers have a multitude of uses for soil hydraulic parameters that quantify the ability of soils and sediments to retain and transmit water. These parameters are difficult and costly to obtain, especially if large areas of land need to be charac...

  6. The modern library: lost and found.

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, D A

    1996-01-01

    The modern library, a term that was heard frequently in the mid-twentieth century, has fallen into disuse. The over-promotion of computers and all that their enthusiasts promised probably hastened its demise. Today, networking is transforming how libraries provide--and users seek--information. Although the Internet is the natural environment for the health sciences librarian, it is going through growing pains as we face issues of censorship and standards. Today's "modern librarian" must not only be adept at using the Internet but must become familiar with digital information in all its forms--images, full text, and factual data banks. Most important, to stay "modern," today's librarians must embark on a program of lifelong learning that will enable them to make optimum use of the advantages offered by modern technology. PMID:8938334

  7. Selective perceptions of hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Sarge, Melanie A; VanDyke, Matthew S; King, Andy J; White, Shawna R

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) is a focal topic in discussions about domestic energy production, yet the American public is largely unfamiliar and undecided about the practice. This study sheds light on how individuals may come to understand hydraulic fracturing as this unconventional production technology becomes more prominent in the United States. For the study, a thorough search of HF photographs was performed, and a systematic evaluation of 40 images using an online experimental design involving N = 250 participants was conducted. Key indicators of hydraulic fracturing support and beliefs were identified. Participants showed diversity in their support for the practice, with 47 percent expressing low support, 22 percent high support, and 31 percent undecided. Support for HF was positively associated with beliefs that hydraulic fracturing is primarily an economic issue and negatively associated with beliefs that it is an environmental issue. Level of support was also investigated as a perceptual filter that facilitates biased issue perceptions and affective evaluations of economic benefit and environmental cost frames presented in visual content of hydraulic fracturing. Results suggested an interactive relationship between visual framing and level of support, pointing to a substantial barrier to common understanding about the issue that strategic communicators should consider. PMID:26399946

  8. Astronomy in Modern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eker, Zeki; Demircan, Osman, Kirbiyik, Halil; Bilir, Selcuk

    2013-01-01

    Present-day astronomy and its development in the recent history of Turkey are described. Current astronomy education in modern-day Turkish Republic from primary to high schools, including modern-day university education is discussed. Astronomical and space research together with the existing observatories and present-day Turkish astronomy in the global state is presented.

  9. MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JACKSON, R. GRAHAM

    CHOICES AND ISSUES IN SELECTING MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS ARE DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT. BACKGROUND INFORMATION IS INTRODUCED IN TERMS OF REASONS FOR ABANDONMENT, THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SCHOOL BUILDING OBSOLESCENCE, AND PROBLEMS IN THE MODERNIZATION PROCESS. INTERIOR PARTITIONS ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF BUILDING MATERIALS,…

  10. ART MODERN/DIALOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Katharine K.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews ART MODERN, an on-line data base which provides comprehensive coverage of current worldwide literature on modern art and design since 1800. Areas described include scope, coverage, arrangement of printed and on-line indexes, characteristics of basic index and code searching; also search hints, search negotiation, searchguide, and data base…