Science.gov

Sample records for modern hydraulic science

  1. Percolation Theory and Modern Hydraulic Fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, J. Q.; Turcotte, D. L.; Rundle, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    During the past few years, we have been developing a percolation model for fracking. This model provides a powerful tool for understanding the growth and properties of the complex fracture networks generated during a modern high volume hydraulic fracture stimulations of tight shale reservoirs. The model can also be used to understand the interaction between the growing fracture network and natural reservoir features such as joint sets and faults. Additionally, the model produces a power-law distribution of bursts which can easily be compared to observed microseismicity.

  2. Acupuncture: From Ancient Practice to Modern Science

    MedlinePlus

    ... Section CAM Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... of Progress / Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science / Low Back Pain and CAM / Time to Talk / ...

  3. Atmospheric deterioration of ancient and modern hydraulic mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbioni, C.; Zappia, G.; Riontino, C.; Blanco-Varela, M. T.; Aguilera, J.; Puertas, F.; Balen, K. Van; Toumbakari, E. E.

    Different types of ancient and recent hydraulic mortars were collected from well-documented archaeological, historic and modern buildings in various geographical locations (urban, suburban, rural and maritime) of Italy, Spain and Belgium, representative of different environmental impacts, types and degrees of deterioration. A synthesis of the characteristics of the collected samples is presented, along with the identification of the formation products that occurred on the sample surfaces as a result of the reaction of the mortars with atmospheric pollutants. The analyses were performed by means of optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX) and ion chromatography (IC). The results obtained prove that sulphation processes takes place on hydraulic mortars, leading to gypsum formation on the external surface of the samples. Through the reaction of gypsum with the aluminate hydrate of the binder, ettringite formation was found to occur on a cement-based restoration mortar sampled in Antwerp.

  4. Antiquity versus modern times in hydraulics - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroia, L.; Georgescu, S. C.; Georgescu, A. M.

    2010-08-01

    Water supply and water management in Antiquity represent more than Modern World can imagine about how people in that period used to think about, and exploit the resources they had, aiming at developing and improving their society and own lives. This paper points out examples of how they handled different situations, and how they managed to cope with the growing number of population in the urban areas, by adapting or by improving their water supply systems. The paper tries to emphasize the engineering contribution of Rome and the Roman Empire, mainly in the capital but also in the provinces, as for instance the today territory of France, by analysing some aqueducts from the point of view of modern Hydraulic Engineering. A third order polynomial regression is proposed to compute the water flow rate, based on the flow cross-sectional area measured in quinaria. This paper also emphasizes on contradictory things between what we thought we knew about Ancient Roman civilization, and what could really be proven, either by a modern engineering approach, a documentary approach, or by commonsense, where none of the above could be used. It is certain that the world we live in is the heritage of the Greco-Roman culture and therefore, we are due to acknowledge their contribution, especially taking into account the lack of knowledge of that time, and the poor resources they had.

  5. Hydraulics for Royal Gardens: Water Art as a Challenge for 18th Century Science and 21st Century Physics Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Michael

    2007-06-01

    Hydraulics is an engineering specialty and largely neglected as a topic in physics teaching. But the history of hydraulics from the Renaissance to the Baroque, merits our attention because hydraulics was then more broadly conceived as a practical and theoretical science; it served as a constant bone of contention for mechanics and mathematics; its obvious practical importance from raising water in mines to the playful fountains in royal gardens illustrates the social role of science like few others do. The playful character of historic hydraulics problems makes it also an appealing topic for modern science education.

  6. Modern Science and Human Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrance, William W.

    Designed to provide scientific personnel, policymakers, and the public with a succinct summary of the public aspects of scientific issues, this book focuses on how values and science intersect and how social values can be brought to bear on complex technical enterprises. Themes examined include: (1) relation of science and technology to human…

  7. Invisible World and Modern Physics: Modern Science and Theology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.; Danezis, E.

    2010-07-01

    A characteristic of the Western thought is the effort to counter Christian theology through arguments based on scientific discoveries (antirrhetic theology). Two objections can be raised against this trait: a) Modern science considers as a fact the future expansions, corrections, even total abolishment of scientific knowledge in the face of new discoveries. Therefore, dogmatic positions must not be based on temporary scientific views. b) Antirrhetic theology is mostly based on out-of-date scientific views of the period 1650-1900, which are not valid any more. The example of modern physics and cosmology is prime among them; in these sciences, the prevailing theories are based on the existence of an imperceptible reality, or on apparently “illogical” (in the sense of classical logic) fundamental properties of matter and its particles in quantum mechanics.

  8. [Natural science and historicity in modern times].

    PubMed

    von Engelhardt, D

    1977-09-29

    The history of science in modern times is the history of the loss of and gain in historicity. In contrast to the increasing historicizing of nature (as the objective dimension), the knowledge of nature (as the subjective dimension) after a time of parallelism between historical studies and scientific research (Enlightenment) and a time of integration (Idealism/Romanticism) was fundamentally dehistoricized during the positivistic 19th century. The history of science and science itself have since that time fallen apart--consciousness of science is restricted to consciousness of the presence. PMID:334653

  9. [On the origins of modern science].

    PubMed

    de Micheli-Serra, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    The Renaissance savants essentially repelled the scholastic translations and commentaries of the ancient writings. Nevertheless, they did not reach a modern vision of experimental science. Moreover, education at the universities was not credited for the development of science. In fact, academic training of students was rather precarious. The first professional associations, such as the "Royal College of Physicians" of London, were not any better. Regarding the hermetic influence on Renaissance thought, the cultured and philosophical reformed magic (so-called white magic) was the equivalent of science at the time. Once the animistic universe, operated by magic, was transformed into the mathematical universe operated by mechanics, the era of science came into being. This movement began during the post-Renaissance age and gradually progressed following the physical-mathematical orientation of Galileo and his pupils: Borelli; Fabrizi; Santorio; Harvey, etc. They initiated physiological studies and introduced the quantitative method into the research field. Harvey's doctrine was the first adequate explanation of an organic phenomenon and a starting point for the way toward experimental physiology. However, the English physician did not completely leave the pre-scientific era, as can be inferred from his monography on animals reproduction. In this work, some points suggesting the birth of modern scientific reasoning alternate with confused, vague, and capricious assertions. In fact, modern science did not arise suddenly, but was elaborated and sustained slowly starting in the XVII century: Galileo's century. PMID:14635572

  10. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  11. Science and the state in modern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zuoyue

    2007-09-01

    The question of the role of the state has, in one way or another, dominated historical studies of science and technology in modern China, a field that has experienced rapid growth since the early 1980s both inside and outside of China. While Western scholars have focused their analysis on the state control of science and scientists, Chinese historians and writers, often working under political restrictions, have largely adopted a descriptive approach with an emphasis on biographical, institutional, and disciplinary histories and on the theme of Chinese nationalism. The emergence of an international community of younger historians of science, the easing of access to primary source materials, and new attention to transnational and comparative perspectives promise to make the field an exciting area of scholarship. PMID:17970427

  12. Natural products in modern life science

    PubMed Central

    Göransson, Ulf; Alsmark, Cecilia; Wedén, Christina; Backlund, Anders

    2010-01-01

    With a realistic threat against biodiversity in rain forests and in the sea, a sustainable use of natural products is becoming more and more important. Basic research directed against different organisms in Nature could reveal unexpected insights into fundamental biological mechanisms but also new pharmaceutical or biotechnological possibilities of more immediate use. Many different strategies have been used prospecting the biodiversity of Earth in the search for novel structure–activity relationships, which has resulted in important discoveries in drug development. However, we believe that the development of multidisciplinary incentives will be necessary for a future successful exploration of Nature. With this aim, one way would be a modernization and renewal of a venerable proven interdisciplinary science, Pharmacognosy, which represents an integrated way of studying biological systems. This has been demonstrated based on an explanatory model where the different parts of the model are explained by our ongoing research. Anti-inflammatory natural products have been discovered based on ethnopharmacological observations, marine sponges in cold water have resulted in substances with ecological impact, combinatory strategy of ecology and chemistry has revealed new insights into the biodiversity of fungi, in depth studies of cyclic peptides (cyclotides) has created new possibilities for engineering of bioactive peptides, development of new strategies using phylogeny and chemography has resulted in new possibilities for navigating chemical and biological space, and using bioinformatic tools for understanding of lateral gene transfer could provide potential drug targets. A multidisciplinary subject like Pharmacognosy, one of several scientific disciplines bridging biology and chemistry with medicine, has a strategic position for studies of complex scientific questions based on observations in Nature. Furthermore, natural product research based on intriguing scientific

  13. Natural products in modern life science.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, Lars; Göransson, Ulf; Alsmark, Cecilia; Wedén, Christina; Backlund, Anders

    2010-06-01

    With a realistic threat against biodiversity in rain forests and in the sea, a sustainable use of natural products is becoming more and more important. Basic research directed against different organisms in Nature could reveal unexpected insights into fundamental biological mechanisms but also new pharmaceutical or biotechnological possibilities of more immediate use. Many different strategies have been used prospecting the biodiversity of Earth in the search for novel structure-activity relationships, which has resulted in important discoveries in drug development. However, we believe that the development of multidisciplinary incentives will be necessary for a future successful exploration of Nature. With this aim, one way would be a modernization and renewal of a venerable proven interdisciplinary science, Pharmacognosy, which represents an integrated way of studying biological systems. This has been demonstrated based on an explanatory model where the different parts of the model are explained by our ongoing research. Anti-inflammatory natural products have been discovered based on ethnopharmacological observations, marine sponges in cold water have resulted in substances with ecological impact, combinatory strategy of ecology and chemistry has revealed new insights into the biodiversity of fungi, in depth studies of cyclic peptides (cyclotides) has created new possibilities for engineering of bioactive peptides, development of new strategies using phylogeny and chemography has resulted in new possibilities for navigating chemical and biological space, and using bioinformatic tools for understanding of lateral gene transfer could provide potential drug targets. A multidisciplinary subject like Pharmacognosy, one of several scientific disciplines bridging biology and chemistry with medicine, has a strategic position for studies of complex scientific questions based on observations in Nature. Furthermore, natural product research based on intriguing scientific

  14. Modern Science and Conservative Islam: An Uneasy Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edis, Taner

    2009-06-01

    Familiar Western debates about religion, science, and science education have parallels in the Islamic world. There are difficulties reconciling conservative, traditional versions of Islam with modern science, particularly theories such as evolution. As a result, many conservative Muslim thinkers are drawn toward creationism, hopes of Islamizing science, or other ways to retain the primacy of faith while continuing efforts to catch up with modern technology. Muslims argue that science and Islam coexist in harmony, but both intellectually and institutionally, the Islamic world harbors many tensions between science and religion.

  15. Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Robert L.; Kirby, Klane

    This curriculum guide contains a course in hydraulics to train entry-level workers for automotive mechanics and other fields that utilize hydraulics. The module contains 14 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to hydraulics; (2) fundamentals of hydraulics; (3) reservoirs; (4) lines, fittings, and couplers; (5)…

  16. The Mona Lisa of modern science.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Martin

    2003-01-23

    No molecule in the history of science has reached the iconic status of the double helix of DNA. Its image has been imprinted on all aspects of society, from science, art, music, cinema, architecture and advertising. This review of the Mona Lisa of science examines the evolution of its form at the hands of both science and art. PMID:12540913

  17. On Modern Cosmology and Its Place in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragh, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Cosmology in its current meaning of the science of the universe is a topic that attracts as much popular as scientific interest. This paper argues that modern cosmology and its philosophical aspects should have a prominent place in science education. In the context of science teaching a partly historical approach is recommended, in particular an…

  18. Modern Science and Conservative Islam: An Uneasy Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edis, Taner

    2009-01-01

    Familiar Western debates about religion, science, and science education have parallels in the Islamic world. There are difficulties reconciling conservative, traditional versions of Islam with modern science, particularly theories such as evolution. As a result, many conservative Muslim thinkers are drawn toward creationism, hopes of Islamizing…

  19. Photon Science at Modern Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, John

    2009-12-01

    energy resolution (˜100 eV for solid state detectors), or very poor angular acceptance (10-3 sr or worse for grating and crystal analyzer detectors). Photon detectors at synchrotron light sources can be presented with very high signal count rates. At the new FEL sources, this issue will be especially acute, since each sub-picosecond pulse will deliver the flux produced in one second by a synchrotron. This invites the use of multiple small detectors to spread the load. The ideal energy-resolving detector for x-ray science at modern light sources would combine eV-level energy resolution, 100-μm pixel size, and a low per-pixel cost allowing several megapixels to be deployed.

  20. Modern Elementary Science Curricula and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ben Afton

    Comparisons of the growth in science achievement of 2,000 elementary science students in six elementary science programs used in Southwestern Michigan were made. Relationships between students' ranking in class, the type of school, sex and growth in achievement were sought, as well as relationships among teacher variables (pre-service science…

  1. Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

    These instructional materials provide an orientation to hydraulics for use at the postsecondary level. The first of 12 sections presents an introduction to hydraulics, including discussion of principles of liquids, definitions, liquid flow, the two types of hydraulic fluids, pressure gauges, and strainers and filters. The second section identifies…

  2. Marcello Malpighi and the difficult birth of modern life sciences.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, M

    1999-01-01

    All his life, Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694), the founder of modern microscopic anatomy, was unwillingly involved in difficult debates within a reactionary medical milieu that questioned the significance of modern science and its utility to medicine. Malpighi's responses to his detractors, included in posthumous works first published in 1697 by the Royal Society, offer an important insight into a critical phase of scientific progress in the 17th century and help to reveal the prevailing conception of science. In some ways, Malpighi's views predate important ideas in modern biology. PMID:10643137

  3. MODERN SCIENCE. INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RICE, GLORIA; AND OTHERS

    ELEVEN UNITS OF STUDY INCLUDE--SCIENCE IN OUR LIVES TODAY, APPLIED CHEMISTRY, MODERN MATERIALS, MAN AND MECHANICS, HEAT AND FUELS, NUCLEAR ENERGY, SOUND, LIGHT, ELECTRICITY, ELECTRONICS, AND SPACE. ALL ARE DIRECTED AT THE STUDENT WHO WOULD USE THE INFORMATION GAINED IN EVERYDAY LIFE, RATHER THAN AT THE POTENTIAL SCIENCE STUDENT. UNIT 1 EXPLAINS…

  4. People Interview: Black-tie science gets modern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    INTERVIEW Black-tie science gets modern Baroness Susan Greenfield CBE is director of the Royal Institution and professor of pharmacology at Oxford where she heads a multidisciplinary group studying neurodegenerative disorders. David Smith speaks to her about specialities, keeping busy and how science is changing.

  5. Can science survive in the modern age?

    PubMed

    Brooks, H

    1971-10-01

    A recent newspaper account of the 1970 annual meeting of the AAAS was headlined, "Science's Blank Check Bounces." I am not, however, advocating that giving a "blank check" to science will solve all our problems. The discussion of science policy in the last three decades has too often confused necessary with sufficient conditions. A strong basic science is a necessary condition for a strong economy, a livable environment, and a tolerable society. But it is by no means a sufficient condition. That a vital science is an indispensable tool of human welfare in the present stage of evolution of man on the planet does not mean that it is the only tool or that it cannot also produce the opposite. Indeed, there seems almost to be a complementarity between the power for good and the power for evil inherent in science. Nuclear energy poses the possibility of nuclear holocaust, but is indispensable to a continuing supply of energy after fossil fuels run out. The computer threatens us with "big brother," but seems indispensable to the rational management of our complex social structures. Molecular genetics could be used for frightful purposes, but opens up the prospect of the final conquest of human disease and food supply. Drugs which control human behavior have opened up frightful possibilities for abuse and self-destruction, but they also offer the hope of conquest of mental illness. What I have referred to are really technologies, not science, but science is needed to use them wisely, although it will not guarantee their wise use. Although science cannot ask for a blank check, there is a part of it which must have the autonomy to "do its own thing"if it is to continue to serve society. How much of science should have this autonomy, and what sort of accountability should be required of it will be matters of continuing debate. Some accountability outside the scientific system itself is essential, as in any other human activity, but the degree of external accountability which

  6. Modern Data Center Services Supporting Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varner, J. D.; Cartwright, J.; McLean, S. J.; Boucher, J.; Neufeld, D.; LaRocque, J.; Fischman, D.; McQuinn, E.; Fugett, C.

    2011-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) World Data Center for Geophysics and Marine Geology provides scientific stewardship, products and services for geophysical data, including bathymetry, gravity, magnetics, seismic reflection, data derived from sediment and rock samples, as well as historical natural hazards data (tsunamis, earthquakes, and volcanoes). Although NGDC has long made many of its datasets available through map and other web services, it has now developed a second generation of services to improve the discovery and access to data. These new services use off-the-shelf commercial and open source software, and take advantage of modern JavaScript and web application frameworks. Services are accessible using both RESTful and SOAP queries as well as Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard protocols such as WMS, WFS, WCS, and KML. These new map services (implemented using ESRI ArcGIS Server) are finer-grained than their predecessors, feature improved cartography, and offer dramatic speed improvements through the use of map caches. Using standards-based interfaces allows customers to incorporate the services without having to coordinate with the provider. Providing fine-grained services increases flexibility for customers building custom applications. The Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping program and Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning program are two examples of national initiatives that require common data inventories from multiple sources and benefit from these modern data services. NGDC is also consuming its own services, providing a set of new browser-based mapping applications which allow the user to quickly visualize and search for data. One example is a new interactive mapping application to search and display information about historical natural hazards. NGDC continues to increase the amount of its data holdings that are accessible and is augmenting the capabilities with modern web

  7. Rejoinder: Infusing Indigenous Science into Western Modern Science for a Sustainable Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsiglia, John; Snively, Gloria

    2001-01-01

    Comments on the responses to the original article in this journal issue concerning universalism and multiculturalism. Indigenous science offers important scientific knowledge that western modern science has not yet learned to produce. (SAH)

  8. Modern Lesson Plans in Environmental Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotsonis, Helen Hoch; Baker, Bill

    This sourcebook, developed for teachers of ecology, biology, general science and hygiene, contains 27 lesson plans that have been organized into 5 units. The units are: The Dynamics of Pollution, Conservation and the Environment, Biological Controls and their Relationship to the Environment, Urban Ecology, and Environment and Health. The lesson…

  9. Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Robert L.

    Designed for use in courses where students are expected to become proficient in the area of hydraulics, including diesel engine mechanic programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of fourteen units of instruction. Unit titles include (1) Introduction, (2) Fundamentals of Hydraulics, (3) Reservoirs, (4) Lines, Fittings, and Couplers, (5) Seals,…

  10. Building bridges between Ayurveda and Modern Science

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Sanjeev

    2010-01-01

    The recent decade has witnessed many landmark observations, which have added to the scientific credentials of Ayurveda.It is however believed that instead of a retrospective approach of looking into the Ayurveda through the scientific reappraisals, a prospective approach through primary understanding of Ayurveda followed by a search into scientific linkage would be more appealing. This article brings the simplified yet scientific decoding of the core concepts of Ayurveda that form the framework of this ancient science of health. PMID:20532097

  11. Investigating the Purpose of Trigonometry in the Modern Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertel, Joshua T.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation reports the results of a qualitative research project that aimed to develop a research-based perspective on the purpose of trigonometry in the modern sciences. The investigation was guided by three objectives. First, the study sought to identify the purpose of trigonometry as described by educators and high school textbooks.…

  12. Krakatoa Erupts!: Using a Historic Cataclysm to Teach Modern Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2011-01-01

    Through integration of geology, biology, chemistry, and the history of science, the historic Krakatoa eruption offers a unique portal for student inquiry in the classroom. Students are inherently fascinated by natural disasters, and modern comparisons to the Krakatoa cataclysm are as close as the day's news. This article uses the historic Krakatoa…

  13. Emirates Secondary School Science Teachers' Perspectives on the Nexus between Modern Science and Arab Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haidar, Abdullateef H.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study involving (n=286) secondary school science teachers from the seven Emirates which constitute the United Arab Emirates. Reports that Emirates secondary school science teachers did not view modern science as only a subculture of Western culture. (Contains 40 references.) (Author/YDS)

  14. Archives and the Boundaries of Early Modern Science.

    PubMed

    Popper, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    This contribution argues that the study of early modern archives suggests a new agenda for historians of early modern science. While in recent years historians of science have begun to direct increased attention toward the collections amassed by figures and institutions traditionally portrayed as proto-scientific, archives proliferated across early modern Europe, emerging as powerful tools for creating knowledge in politics, history, and law as well as natural philosophy, botany, and more. The essay investigates the methods of production, collection, organization, and manipulation used by English statesmen and Crown officers such as Keeper of the State Papers Thomas Wilson and Secretary of State Joseph Williamson to govern their disorderly collections. Their methods, it is shown, were shared with contemporaries seeking to generate and manage other troves of evidence and in fact reflect a complex ecosystem of imitation and exchange across fields of inquiry. These commonalities suggest that historians of science should look beyond the ancestors of modern scientific disciplines to examine how practices of producing knowledge emerged and migrated throughout cultures of learning in Europe and beyond. Creating such a map of knowledge production and exchange, the essay concludes, would provide a renewed and expansive ambition for the field. PMID:27197414

  15. On Modern Cosmology and its Place in Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Helge

    2011-03-01

    Cosmology in its current meaning of the science of the universe is a topic that attracts as much popular as scientific interest. This paper argues that modern cosmology and its philosophical aspects should have a prominent place in science education. In the context of science teaching a partly historical approach is recommended, in particular an approach that gives priority to the relationship between observation and theory during the formative years of modern cosmology from about 1910-1970. It is further argued that there are very important aspects of cosmology that are not primarily of a scientific nature, but are mainly conceptual and philosophical (and perhaps religious), and that these, too, might advantageously enter courses in astronomy and physics. While cosmology is a science, it is not just a science. Among the topics dealt with are the big bang, the cosmological principle, cosmic creation, and the multiverse. The paper outlines some cosmological questions of a qualitative and conceptual nature that, in the author's view, are organic parts of cosmology. Courses and textbooks which deal with cosmology should encourage discussions of such questions, not shun them in the name of science.

  16. George Orwell and Modern Science Fiction: The Legacy of Big Brother.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Fred

    1984-01-01

    Discusses George Orwell's lack of influence on modern science fiction and presents a selected annotated bibliography of modern science fiction materials depicting a wide variety of totalitarian societies. (MBR)

  17. Magic Universe - The Oxford Guide to Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, Nigel

    2003-11-01

    As a prolific author, BBC commentator, and magazine editor, Nigel Calder has spent a lifetime spotting and explaining the big discoveries in all branches of science. In Magic Universe , he draws on his vast experience to offer readers a lively, far-reaching look at modern science in all its glory, shedding light on the latest ideas in physics, biology, chemistry, medicine, astronomy, and many other fields. What is truly magical about Magic Universe is Calder's incredible breadth. Migrating birds, light sensors in the human eye, black holes, antimatter, buckyballs and nanotubes--with exhilarating sweep, Calder can range from the strings of a piano to the superstrings of modern physics, from Pythagoras's theory of musical pitch to the most recent ideas about atoms and gravity and a ten-dimensional universe--all in one essay. The great virtue of this wide-ranging style--besides its liveliness and versatility--is that it allows Calder to illuminate how the modern sciences intermingle and cross-fertilize one another. Indeed, whether discussing astronauts or handedness or dinosaurs, Calder manages to tease out hidden connections between disparate fields of study. What is most wondrous about the "magic universe" is that one can begin with stellar dust and finish with life itself. Drawing on interviews with more than 200 researchers, from graduate students to Nobel prize-winners, Magic Universe takes us on a high-spirited tour through the halls of science, one that will enthrall everyone interested in science, whether a young researcher in a high-tech lab or an amateur buff sitting in the comfort of an armchair.

  18. [Cardiology was born with the modern medical science].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Modern medical science was born in the post-Renaissance age and began to consolidate towards the middle of the XVII century thanks to physicists, physiologists and biologists, most of whom were direct or indirect pupils of Galileo. The discovery of blood circulation by Harvey is now considered the only progress in physiology at the beginning of the XVII century, comparable to the current advances seen in physical sciences. The history of this exploit could be written from view point of the progressive advance in knowledge. In his experiments, Harvey referred to the authentic not imaginary experiments, and put forward irrefutable quantitative arguments. We can therefore claim that his discovery of blood circulation was the first proper explanation of an organic process and the starting point leading to experimental physiology. So it seems justified to assert that modern medical science did not all rise suddenly, but was gradually structured starting from the middle of the XVII century following the path traced by William Harvey in light of Galileo's thought. PMID:25554458

  19. Hydraulics for Royal Gardens: Water Art as a Challenge for 18th Century Science and 21st Century Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Hydraulics is an engineering specialty and largely neglected as a topic in physics teaching. But the history of hydraulics from the Renaissance to the Baroque, merits our attention because hydraulics was then more broadly conceived as a practical "and" theoretical science; it served as a constant bone of contention for mechanics and…

  20. 77 FR 50505 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office Request for Nominations of Experts for the SAB Hydraulic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office Request for Nominations of Experts for the SAB Hydraulic... hydraulic fracturing. DATES: Nominations should be submitted by September 11, 2012 per instructions below... and environmental protection issues that may be associated with hydraulic fracturing should...

  1. Pious Science: The Gulen Community and the Making of a Conservative Modernity in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Berna

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the ways in which the Islamic Fethullah Gulen community engages with science as a response to globalization and modernity. Framed with the theoretical discussions on multiple modernities, it investigates how the community contests for hegemony in the field of science against the project of secular modernity, and…

  2. The Name of the Rose: A Path to Discuss the Birth of Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Andreia; Braga, Marco

    2014-03-01

    Various science education researchers believe that science tuition should include some discussion about how science has developed over time. Therefore, deliberations about the nature of science should be integrated in the science curriculum. Many researchers argue that teaching the history of science is a good way to place the nature of science in science classes. This paper contributes to this debate and argues the importance of having young students study the birth of modern science. Such study could allow students to understand that some of the issues about the nature of science arose in the seventeenth century with the birth of modern science. To achieve this purpose, it is important to discuss the different factors that immersed the birth of modern science. To accomplish this goal, the novel The Name of the Rose by Umberto Eco may be used. Beyond introducing issues surrounding the nature of science, this strategy could help overcome the separation between the arts and humanities in education.

  3. Jorge Luis Borges and the New Physics: the Literature of Modern Science and the Science of Modern Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, Mark Robert

    1992-01-01

    By examining the works of the Argentine writer, Jorge Luis Borges, and the parallels it has with modern physics, literature and science converge in their quest for truth regarding the structure and meaning of the universe. The classical perception of physics as a "hard" science--that of quantitative, rational thought which was established during the Newtonian era--has been replaced by the "new physics," which integrates the so-called "soft" elements into its paradigm. It presents us with a universe based not exclusively on a series of particle-like interactions, or a "billiard-ball" hypothesis where discrete objects have a measurable position and velocity in absolute space and time, but rather on a combination of these mechanistic properties and those that make up the non-physical side of nature such as intuition, consciousness, and emotion. According to physicists like James Jeans science has been "humanized" to the extent that the universe as a "great machine" has been converted into a "great thought.". In nearly all his collections of essays and short stories, Borges complements the new physics by producing a literature that can be described as "scientized." The abstract, metaphysical implications and concerns of the new world-view, such as space, time, language, consciousness, free will, determinism, etc., appear repeatedly throughout Borges' texts, and are treated in terms that are remarkably similar to those expressed in the scientific texts whose authors include Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schrodinger. As a final comparison, Borges and post-modern physicists address the question of the individual's ability to ever comprehend the universe. They share an attitude of incredulity toward all models and theories of reality simply because they are based on partial information, and therefore seen only as conjectures.

  4. Nature-of-Science Literacy in "Benchmarks" and "Standards": Post-Modern/Relativist or Modern/Realist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Ron; Shymansky, James

    2001-01-01

    "Benchmarks" and "Standards" describe science in terms that seem to emphasize tentative, local knowledge while at other times emphasizing stable, universal knowledge. Presents an overall picture of science to be one of modern realism, and shows how the postmodern relativist could select statements that paint a scene as epistemically equivalent to…

  5. Investigating the purpose of trigonometry in the modern sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, Joshua T.

    This dissertation reports the results of a qualitative research project that aimed to develop a research-based perspective on the purpose of trigonometry in the modern sciences. The investigation was guided by three objectives. First, the study sought to identify the purpose of trigonometry as described by educators and high school textbooks. Second, the research investigated the perspectives these sources held about definitions of the trigonometric functions. Third, the investigation examined the potential benefits and drawbacks of a line-segment definition of the trigonometric functions. The study followed a grounded theory methodology with data collection and analysis intertwined. Participants included faculty from two large Midwestern research universities, high school teachers, and authors of standards documents. Textbooks were drawn from introductory algebra, geometry, advanced algebra, precalculus, and calculus texts. Data collected included surveys, interviews, and textbook excerpts. Analysis used the constant comparative method (Corbin & Strauss, 2008; Glaser & Strauss, 2006/1967). Analysis resulted in the emergence of a grounded theory, the tensions of trigonometry, which described three interrelated themes within the data: definition, application, and role. Two ideas emerged that connected the tensions of trigonometry, the regions of interaction, which described the interplay between the three tensions, and the idealized dichotomy of trigonometry education, which outlined opposing perspectives on trigonometry: trigonometry for all and trigonometry for some. The grounded theory outlines a range of competing purposes for trigonometry in the modern sciences. It suggests that educators are engaged in a process of continual negotiation that results in the formation of a localized purpose of trigonometry. The benefits and drawbacks of different definitions are not based on mathematical sophistication, but are situational. Furthermore, the theory suggests that

  6. The Ripper Project. Modern science solving mysteries of history.

    PubMed

    Eckert, W G

    1989-06-01

    Modern scientific techniques may be applied to solve historical--even ancient--mysteries. Many such mysteries have been studied by forensic scientists, including anthropologists. One example is the recent examination of the artifacts and grave sites at the Little Bighorn in Montana, the scene of the battle between General George A. Custer's troops and the Northern Plains Indian tribes. Similarly, skeleton remains of the Indian tribes of the Pre-Columbian and Columbian periods have been studied to answer many questions regarding life and death in those early civilizations. The Ripper Project began as a research activity of the Milton Helpern International Center for the Forensic Sciences at Wichita State University Wichita, Kansas, in 1981, after the concept had been discussed in a night session during the annual meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in Los Angeles. These century-old serial murders of five prostitutes--The Whitechapel Murders--in London in 1888 were discussed in great detail from the standpoints of the forensic pathologist, the forensic psychiatrist, the criminalist, the forensic historian, and the forensic dentist. The information gained during this phase of the project plus the advances made possible by the development of criminal personality profiling by the FBI led to the present status of this project, which was recently discussed in a live telecast, and which is the subject of this article. PMID:2662752

  7. Courses in Modern Physics for Non-science Majors, Future Science Teachers, and Biology Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollman, Dean

    2001-03-01

    For the past 15 years Kansas State University has offered a course in modern physics for students who are not majoring in physics. This course carries a prerequisite of one physics course so that the students have a basic introduction in classical topics. The majors of students range from liberal arts to engineering. Future secondary science teachers whose first area of teaching is not physics can use the course as part of their study of science. The course has evolved from a lecture format to one which is highly interactive and uses a combination of hands-on activities, tutorials and visualizations, particularly the Visual Quantum Mechanics materials. Another course encourages biology students to continue their physics learning beyond the introductory course. Modern Miracle Medical Machines introduces the basic physics which underlie diagnosis techniques such as MRI and PET and laser surgical techniques. Additional information is available at http://www.phys.ksu.edu/perg/

  8. 75 FR 42087 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations of Experts for the SAB Hydraulic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 13125)]. On June 24, 2010 the SAB provided the EPA Administrator with an advisory report... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations of Experts for the SAB Hydraulic... an SAB Ad Hoc Panel to review EPA's draft Hydraulic Fracturing Study Plan to investigate...

  9. Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing in California - AN Overview of a Comprehensive Science Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkholzer, J. T.; Long, J. C. S.; Feinstein, L.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Jordan, P. D.; Varadharajan, C.; Foxall, W.; Dobson, P. F.; Houseworth, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    In 2013, California's Senate Bill 4 required an independent science study to assess current and potential future hydraulic fracturing practices in California, and to evaluate potential impacts on water, air, seismicity, ecological systems, and health. The study, completed in July 2015, found that hydraulic fracturing currently supports about one quarter of California's oil production, and is expected to continue to do so in the near future. California's experience with hydraulic fracturing differs from that in other states because operators mostly conduct relatively shallow stimulations in relatively high-permeability reservoirs. The upside of this is that operations use relatively little water, but the downside is that in a few locations, fractures could extend into protected groundwater. The study also found that direct impacts of hydraulic fracturing appear small but have not been fully investigated in California. These direct impacts all stem from the use of stimulation chemicals and the study calls for precautionary limits on chemical use. Indirect impacts, which are not directly attributable to the stimulation activity but rather caused by oil and gas production enabled by stimulation, are likely more important. For example, underground injection of produced water from a hydraulically fractured reservoir causes problems common to all oil and gas production, such as the risk of inducing an earthquake or causing groundwater contamination. To date, there have been no reported cases of induced seismicity associated with produced water injection in California. However, it is difficult to distinguish California's frequent natural earthquakes from those possibly caused by water injection. California also disposes of produced water from all oil and gas production in percolation ponds and injects some of this water into protected aquifers. These are serious issues, often tagged to hydraulic fracturing but actually common to all oil and gas production.

  10. Science for Survival: The Modern Synthesis of Evolution and The Biological Sciences Curriculum Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Lisa Anne

    In this historical dissertation, I examined the process of curriculum development in the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) in the United States during the period 1959-1963. The presentation of evolution in the high school texts was based on a more robust form of Darwinian evolution which developed during the 1930s and 1940s called "the modern synthesis of evolution." Building primarily on the work of historians Vassiliki Smocovitis and John L. Rudolph, I used the archival papers and published writings of the four architects of the modern synthesis and the four most influential leaders of the BSCS in regards to evolution to investigate how the modern synthetic theory of evolution shaped the BSCS curriculum. The central question was "Why was evolution so important to the BSCS to make it the central theme of the texts?" Important answers to this question had already been offered in the historiography, but it was still not clear why every citizen in the world needed to understand evolution. I found that the emphasis on natural selection in the modern synthesis shifted the focus away from humans as passive participants to the recognition that humans are active agents in their own cultural and biological evolution. This required re-education of the world citizenry, which was accomplished in part by the BSCS textbooks. I also found that BSCS leaders Grobman, Glass, and Muller had serious concerns regarding the effects of nuclear radiation on the human gene pool, and were actively involved in informing th public. Lastly, I found that concerns of 1950s reform eugenicists were addressed in the BSCS textbooks, without mentioning eugenics by name. I suggest that the leaders of the BSCS, especially Bentley Glass and Hermann J. Muller, thought that students needed to understand genetics and evolution to be able to make some of the tough choices they might be called on to make as the dominant species on earth and the next reproductive generation in the nuclear age. This

  11. Reasoning About Nature: Graduate students and teachers integrating historic and modern science in high school math and science classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. B.; Rigsby, C. A.; Muston, C.; Robinson, Z.; Morehead, A.; Stellwag, E. J.; Shinpaugh, J.; Thompson, A.; Teller, J.

    2010-12-01

    Graduate students and faculty at East Carolina University are working with area high schools to address the common science and mathematics deficiencies of many high school students. Project RaN (Reasoning about Nature), an interdisciplinary science/math/education research project, addresses these deficiencies by focusing on the history of science and the relationship between that history and modern scientific thought and practice. The geological sciences portion of project RaN has three specific goals: (1) to elucidate the relationships among the history of scientific discovery, the geological sciences, and modern scientific thought; (2) to develop, and utilize in the classroom, instructional modules that are relevant to the modern geological sciences curriculum and that relate fundamental scientific discoveries and principles to multiple disciplines and to modern societal issues; and (3) to use these activity-based modules to heighten students’ interest in science disciplines and to generate enthusiasm for doing science in both students and instructors. The educational modules that result from this linkage of modern and historical scientific thought are activity-based, directly related to the National Science Standards for the high school sciences curriculum, and adaptable to fit each state’s standard course of study for the sciences and math. They integrate historic sciences and mathematics with modern science, contain relevant background information on both the concept(s) and scientist(s) involved, present questions that compel students to think more deeply (both qualitatively and quantitatively) about the subject matter, and include threads that branch off to related topics. Modules on topics ranging from the density to cladistics to Kepler’s laws of planetary motion have been developed and tested. Pre- and post-module data suggest that both students and teachers benefit from these interdisciplinary historically based classroom experiences.

  12. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science

    MedlinePlus

    ... Section CAM Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... others feel relaxed. Acupuncture is used for a wide range of conditions, from arthritis and low back ...

  13. Science against modernism: the relevance of the social theory of Michael Polanyi.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, C

    2001-03-01

    Science, as an institution, is widely taken by sociologists to exemplify the modern tendency towards vesting trust and authority in impersonal offices and procedures, rather than in embodied human individuals. Such views of science face an important challenge in the social philosophy of Michael Polanyi. His work provides important insights into the continuing role of embodied personal authority and tradition in science and, hence, in late modernity. I explicate Polanyi's relevance for social theory, through a comparison with Weber's essay 'Science as a Vocation'. An understanding of the personal dimensions of trust and authority in science suggests practical limits to the position of Giddens on the disembedding of social relations and on the scepticism and reflexivity of modernity. PMID:11321228

  14. Science and the Making of the Modern World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, John

    An account of the development of science and the growth of the scientific community is presented in this book. It aims to provide the reader with some of the background knowledge needed to make informed and intelligent contributions to contemporary debates on the interaction between science, technology, and society. Highlighted are the historical…

  15. Modern Publishing Approach of Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Filling a needed scholarly publishing avenue for astronomy education researchers and earth science education researchers, the Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education - JAESE published its first volume and issue in 2014. The Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education - JAESE is a scholarly, peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original discipline-based education research and evaluation, with an emphasis of significant scientific results derived from ethical observations and systematic experimentation in science education and evaluation. International in scope, JAESE aims to publish the highest quality and timely articles from discipline-based education research that advance understanding of astronomy and earth sciences education and are likely to have a significant impact on the discipline or on policy. Articles are solicited describing both (i) systematic science education research and (ii) evaluated teaching innovations across the broadly defined Earth & space sciences education, including the disciplines of astronomy, climate education, energy resource science, environmental science, geology, geography, agriculture, meteorology, planetary sciences, and oceanography education. The publishing model adopted for this new journal is open-access and articles appear online in GoogleScholar, ERIC, and are searchable in catalogs of 440,000 libraries that index online journals of its type. Rather than paid for by library subscriptions or by society membership dues, the annual budget is covered by page-charges paid by individual authors, their institutions, grants or donors: This approach is common in scientific journals, but is relatively uncommon in education journals. Authors retain their own copyright. The journal is owned by the Clute Institute of Denver, which owns and operates 17 scholarly journals and currently edited by former American Astronomical Society Education Officer Tim Slater, who is an endowed professor at the University of Wyoming and

  16. How Political Science Became Modern: Racial Thought and the Transformation of the Discipline, 1880-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation argues that changing ideas about race and engagement with race science were at the heart of a major transformation of political science in the 1920s, a transformation that I characterize as "becoming modern." This transformation was at once conceptual--visible in the basic categories and theoretical apparatus of the…

  17. Effects of a Science Education Module on Attitudes towards Modern Biotechnology of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klop, Tanja; Severiens, Sabine E.; Knippels, Marie-Christine P. J.; van Mil, Marc H. W.; Ten Dam, Geert T. M.

    2010-01-01

    This article evaluated the impact of a four-lesson science module on the attitudes of secondary school students. This science module (on cancer and modern biotechnology) utilises several design principles, related to a social constructivist perspective on learning. The expectation was that the module would help students become more articulate in…

  18. Modern Science Fiction and Fantasy: A Frame of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Roland J.

    1977-01-01

    This article reviews the development of the literature of science fiction and fantasy since the mid-19th century. Diversity of topics is a remarkable characteristic of this writing. An annotated reading list is included. (GC)

  19. Moments in the Modern History of the Language Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swales, John M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the beginning of the ascendancy of the language sciences in the past 50 years to become the "queen" of social studies. Focuses on contributions by Mikhail Bakhtin, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Noam Chomsky, Erving Goffman, and Michael Halliday. (SC)

  20. Quantitative biology: where modern biology meets physical sciences

    PubMed Central

    Shekhar, Shashank; Zhu, Lian; Mazutis, Linas; Sgro, Allyson E.; Fai, Thomas G.; Podolski, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative methods and approaches have been playing an increasingly important role in cell biology in recent years. They involve making accurate measurements to test a predefined hypothesis in order to compare experimental data with predictions generated by theoretical models, an approach that has benefited physicists for decades. Building quantitative models in experimental biology not only has led to discoveries of counterintuitive phenomena but has also opened up novel research directions. To make the biological sciences more quantitative, we believe a two-pronged approach needs to be taken. First, graduate training needs to be revamped to ensure biology students are adequately trained in physical and mathematical sciences and vice versa. Second, students of both the biological and the physical sciences need to be provided adequate opportunities for hands-on engagement with the methods and approaches necessary to be able to work at the intersection of the biological and physical sciences. We present the annual Physiology Course organized at the Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, MA) as a case study for a hands-on training program that gives young scientists the opportunity not only to acquire the tools of quantitative biology but also to develop the necessary thought processes that will enable them to bridge the gap between these disciplines. PMID:25368426

  1. Open science versus commercialization: a modern research conflict?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Efforts to improve research outcomes have resulted in genomic researchers being confronted with complex and seemingly contradictory instructions about how to perform their tasks. Over the past decade, there has been increasing pressure on university researchers to commercialize their work. Concurrently, they are encouraged to collaborate, share data and disseminate new knowledge quickly (that is, to adopt an open science model) in order to foster scientific progress, meet humanitarian goals, and to maximize the impact of their research. Discussion We present selected guidelines from three countries (Canada, United States, and United Kingdom) situated at the forefront of genomics to illustrate this potential policy conflict. Examining the innovation ecosystem and the messages conveyed by the different policies surveyed, we further investigate the inconsistencies between open science and commercialization policies. Summary Commercialization and open science are not necessarily irreconcilable and could instead be envisioned as complementary elements of a more holistic innovation framework. Given the exploratory nature of our study, we wish to point out the need to gather additional evidence on the coexistence of open science and commercialization policies and on its impact, both positive and negative, on genomics academic research. PMID:22369790

  2. Quantitative biology: where modern biology meets physical sciences.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Shashank; Zhu, Lian; Mazutis, Linas; Sgro, Allyson E; Fai, Thomas G; Podolski, Marija

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative methods and approaches have been playing an increasingly important role in cell biology in recent years. They involve making accurate measurements to test a predefined hypothesis in order to compare experimental data with predictions generated by theoretical models, an approach that has benefited physicists for decades. Building quantitative models in experimental biology not only has led to discoveries of counterintuitive phenomena but has also opened up novel research directions. To make the biological sciences more quantitative, we believe a two-pronged approach needs to be taken. First, graduate training needs to be revamped to ensure biology students are adequately trained in physical and mathematical sciences and vice versa. Second, students of both the biological and the physical sciences need to be provided adequate opportunities for hands-on engagement with the methods and approaches necessary to be able to work at the intersection of the biological and physical sciences. We present the annual Physiology Course organized at the Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, MA) as a case study for a hands-on training program that gives young scientists the opportunity not only to acquire the tools of quantitative biology but also to develop the necessary thought processes that will enable them to bridge the gap between these disciplines. PMID:25368426

  3. The fourfold Democritus on the stage of early modern science.

    PubMed

    Lüthy, C

    2000-09-01

    The renewed success of ancient atomism in the seventeenth century has baffled historians not only because of the lack of empirical evidence in its favor but also because of the exotic heterogeneity of the models that were proposed under its name. This essay argues that one of the more intriguing reasons for the motley appearance of early modern atomism is that Democritus, with whose name this doctrine was most commonly associated, was a figure of similar incoherence. There existed in fact no fewer than four quite different Democriti of Abdera and as many literary traditions: the atomist, the "laughing philosopher," the moralizing anatomist, and the alchemist. Around the year 1600 the doctrines of these literary figures, three of whom had no tangible connection with atomism, began to merge into further hybrid personae, some of whom possessed notable scientific potential. This essay offers the story of how these Democriti contributed to the rise of incompatible "atomisms." PMID:11143784

  4. Speculative Truth - Henry Cavendish, Natural Philosophy, and the Rise of Modern Theoretical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormmach, Russell

    2004-03-01

    With a never-before published paper by Lord Henry Cavendish, as well as a biography on him, this book offers a fascinating discourse on the rise of scientific attitudes and ways of knowing. A pioneering British physicist in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Cavendish was widely considered to be the first full-time scientist in the modern sense. Through the lens of this unique thinker and writer, this book is about the birth of modern science.

  5. Blending Entertainment, Education, and Science in a Modern Digital Planetarium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortenkamp, Stephen J.

    2015-11-01

    Students at the University of Arizona have a relatively rare opportunity to learn in a state-of-the-art planetarium. Originally opened as a campus planetarium in 1975, the Flandrau Science Center recently expanded into the digital realm. In 2014 Flandrau’s antique Minolta star projector was joined by a full-dome 4K digital projection system powered by a high performance computer cluster. Currently three science courses are taught in the planetarium for non-science majors — stellar astronomy, astrobiology, and planetary science (taught by SJK).The new digital system allows us to take our classes off the surface of Earth on a journey into the cosmos. Databases from dozens of spacecraft missions and deep-space telescopic surveys are tapped by the software to generate a realistic immersive 3D perspective of the universe, from local planets, satellites and rings to distant stars and galaxies all the way out to the limit of the visible universe. Simple clicks of a mouse allow us to change the orientation, trajectory, and speed of the virtual spacecraft, giving our students diverse views of different phenomena.The challenge with this system is harnessing the entertainment aspect for educational purposes. The visualization capabilities allow us to artificially enhance certain features and time scales. For example, the sizes of Earth and the moon can be enlarged on-the-fly to help demonstrate phases and eclipses. Polar axes and latitude lines can be added to Earth as it orbits the sun to help convey the reasons for seasons. Orbital paths can be highlighted to allow students to more accurately comprehend the population of near-Earth asteroids.These new immersive computer-generated visualization techniques have the potential to enhance comprehension in science education, especially for concepts involving 3D spatial and temporal relationships. Whether or not this potential is being realized will require studies to gauge student learning and retention beyond the short

  6. BiteScis: Connecting K-12 teachers with science graduate students to produce lesson plans on modern science research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battersby, Cara

    2016-01-01

    Many students graduate high school having never learned about the process and people behind modern science research. The BiteScis program addresses this gap by providing easily implemented lesson plans that incorporate the whos, whats, and hows of today's scienctific discoveries. We bring together practicing scientists (motivated graduate students from the selective communicating science conference, ComSciCon) with K-12 science teachers to produce, review, and disseminate K-12 lesson plans based on modern science research. These lesson plans vary in topic from environmental science to neurobiology to astrophysics, and involve a range of activities from laboratory exercises to art projects, debates, or group discussion. An integral component of the program is a series of short, "bite-size" articles on modern science research written for K-12 students. The "bite-size" articles and lesson plans will be made freely available online in an easily searchable web interface that includes association with a variety of curriculum standards. This ongoing program is in its first year with about 15 lesson plans produced to date.

  7. Thomism and science education: history informs a modern debate.

    PubMed

    Kondrick, Linda C

    2008-08-01

    There is no debate over the Theory of Evolution. Among biologists the Theory of Evolution is a settled principle. Yet, the issue is far from settled in the larger context of society; between sectors of lay society and biological scientists in the United States there is evidence of a deep divide. Faith and reason, religion, and science at odds-that is hardly a recent divide. It is the premise of the author that the origin of the current conflict over the teaching of evolution stems from a fundamental philosophical divide that began long before Darwin first proposed his Theory of Evolution. It predates the inclusion of physical and biological sciences in the curriculum of western universities. It is older than either Islam or Christianity. The conflict goes back to Plato's Academy in 385 BC where the schools of Idealism and Realism first emerged as two distinct philosophical systems. Idealism and Realism diverged over essential issues of philosophy: What are we, what is true, and how do we know? Answers to these questions about the natural order are framed within philosophical constructs, themselves based upon essential assumptions about the essence of being, the essence of truth, and the nature of learning. Idealism and Realism developed independently for over 1500 years into two competing schools: the Augustinians (fundamentally Idealists) and the Latin Averroists (fundamentally Realists). It was over the place of natural philosophy in the curriculum that these two competing schools collided violently at the University of Paris in 1252. It was Thomas Aquinas who brokered a ceasefire between two embattled schools. Aquinas forged a philosophical system, called Thomism, that allowed the two schools to agree to disagree to the extent that in the graduate curriculum of the University Natural Philosophy could be taught apart from theology. This separation of secular or natural philosophy from theology opened the way for the development of the empirical sciences, the

  8. Antikythera Calculator advances modern science of 19 centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Giovanni

    2010-08-01

    The Greek astronomic calculator, discovered in the depth of the sea in a naval wreckage of the 1st century B.C. in front of the island of Antikythera, is the most amazing among the archaeological discoveries of last century. The mechanism immediately appeared like a device out of its time. After years of study this devise is still provoking a discussion between scientists and archaeologists because of the complexity and the modernity of the scientific knowledge the work presupposes. Its epicyclical gearings show the high level of the scientific culture reached in that period of history. The knowledge of the planetary motion, necessary to the design of the epicyclic gearing of the Calculator of Antikythera, presumes that ancient Greek scientists knew the planetary motion of the celestial bodies and had already achieved the same results that have been attributed to scientists 19 centuries later. The scientific value of this gear mechanism is indisputable because the inventor of the Calculator of Antikythera had the knowledge that was "re-discovered" centuries later as the heliocentric theory proposed by Niccolò Copernicus in 1543 ( De revolutionibus orbium coelestium), the universal gravitation law formulated by Isaac Newton in 1687 ( Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica), and the kinematic study of the epicyclical gearings published by Robert Willis in 1841 ( Principles of mechanism).

  9. Modern analytical ultracentrifugation in protein science: A tutorial review

    PubMed Central

    Lebowitz, Jacob; Lewis, Marc S.; Schuck, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Analytical ultracentrifugation (AU) is reemerging as a versatile tool for the study of proteins. Monitoring the sedimentation of macromolecules in the centrifugal field allows their hydrodynamic and thermodynamic characterization in solution, without interaction with any matrix or surface. The combination of new instrumentation and powerful computational software for data analysis has led to major advances in the characterization of proteins and protein complexes. The pace of new advancements makes it difficult for protein scientists to gain sufficient expertise to apply modern AU to their research problems. To address this problem, this review builds from the basic concepts to advanced approaches for the characterization of protein systems, and key computational and internet resources are provided. We will first explore the characterization of proteins by sedimentation velocity (SV). Determination of sedimentation coefficients allows for the modeling of the hydrodynamic shape of proteins and protein complexes. The computational treatment of SV data to resolve sedimenting components has been achieved. Hence, SV can be very useful in the identification of the oligomeric state and the stoichiometry of heterogeneous interactions. The second major part of the review covers sedimentation equilibrium (SE) of proteins, including membrane proteins and glycoproteins. This is the method of choice for molar mass determinations and the study of self-association and heterogeneous interactions, such as protein–protein, protein–nucleic acid, and protein–small molecule binding. PMID:12192063

  10. Academic cartography: Understanding the directions of modern biological science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Leah Grace

    2007-12-01

    Over the last three decades, the biological research has undergone drastic change. In addition to the many scientific and technological advancements, the legal, and hence economic, structures within which biological research occurs have also been significantly altered. In the early 1980's the patent laws were extended to encompass almost all products of biological research, including living organisms, and the U.S. Congress passed a series of laws which encouraged the intertwining of academic and industrial interests. This research explores how these legal and economic changes have shaped academic research agendas in the biological sciences. Using the University of California, Berkeley as a case study, I have employed a variety of quantitative and qualitative methods to (a) map the directions of biological research occurring in the four main UC Berkeley biology departments over the last two and a half decades, (b) characterize industrial involvement in biological research at UC Berkeley, and (c) understand the decision making calculus scientists and university administrators employ in crafting their personal research agendas and the research directions for their departments and colleges. This dissertation elucidates the necessary convergence of interests, resources, and skills required for any research project to proceed, explores the motivation of academic strength in both the laboratory and the university as a whole, and finally examines the co-construction of the cutting edge These concepts offer new insight into understanding the processes through which science takes its shape.

  11. The New Alliance between Science and Education: Otto Neurath's Modernity beyond Descartes' "Adamitic" Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliverio, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Starting from a suggestion of Stephen Toulmin and through an interpretation of the criticism to which Neurath, one of the founders of the Vienna Circle, submits Descartes' views on science, the paper attempts to outline a pattern of modernity opposed to the Cartesian one, that has been obtaining over the last four centuries. In particular, it…

  12. Literature, Science, and the Rise of Modernism: 1880-1930, a Team-Taught Course in Science and the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Tim; Reiland, Bob

    1995-01-01

    Illustrates the social construction of scientific knowledge by examining the modernist literary works of Chekhov, Ibsen, and Kafka. Demonstrates philosophical conflicts among the authors centering on the benefits and drawbacks of scientific inquiry and modernism. Students also read textbooks and treatises on the history of science. (MJP)

  13. The physician healer: ancient magic or modern science?

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, D M; Sweeney, K G; Gray, D J

    1999-01-01

    The therapeutic role of general practitioners (GPs) is one that, over the years, has slowly diminished with the growing fashion for evidence-based medicine. However, it is clear that the art of healing and the strength of the doctor-patient relationship play a vital role in improving the well-being of patients. This is exemplified by the placebo effect, where the attitude of the doctor can make an appreciable difference to the psychological response of the patient who feels the need to be understood and listened to empathically. By maximizing the role of the physician healer, there is considerable scope for bridging the gap left by the impersonality of medical science, while at the same time increasing the GP's effectiveness. PMID:10736913

  14. First principles calculations for modern ceramic science and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Isao; Oba, Fumiyasu

    2008-02-01

    The free energy of compounds can be theoretically obtained as a function of temperature, pressure and chemical potentials by a combination of a first principles method including phonon calculations and statistical approaches using cluster expansion and Monte Carlo simulations. The information is quite useful in ceramic science and engineering since experimental data are not abundantly available. As an example of phonon calculations, results for graphite in comparison to diamond are presented. The free energy difference among polymorphs of Ga2O3 is shown as a function of temperature as well. Theoretical calculations of x-ray absorption near edge structures (XANES) and electron energy loss near edge structures (ELNES) are also demonstrated. Proper inclusion of the core-hole effect is mandatory in the calculation. For 3d transition element L2,3 XANES/ELNES, a configuration interaction approach to take account of the correlation among the core-hole and the excited electron satisfactorily reproduces experimental spectra. As an example, results for Mn-doped ZnO are shown.

  15. Science Teachers' Misconceptions in Science and Engineering Distinctions: Reflections on Modern Research Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antink-Meyer, Allison; Meyer, Daniel Z.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to learn about the misconceptions that may arise for elementary and high school science teachers in their reflections on science and engineering practice. Using readings and videos of real science and engineering work, teachers' reflections were used to uncover the underpinnings of their understandings. This knowledge ultimately provides information about supporting professional development (PD) for science teachers' knowledge of engineering. Six science teachers (two elementary and four high school teachers) participated in the study as part of an online PD experience. Cunningham and Carlsen's (Journal of Science Teacher Education 25:197-210, 2014) relative emphases of science and engineering practices were used to frame the design of PD activities and the analyses of teachers' views. Analyses suggest misconceptions within the eight practices of science and engineering from the US Next Generation Science Standards in four areas. These are that: (1) the nature of the practices in both science and engineering research is determined by the long-term implications of the research regardless of the nature of the immediate work, (2) engineering and science are hierarchical, (3) creativity is inappropriate, and (4) research outcomes cannot be processes. We discuss the nature of these understandings among participants and the implications for engineering education PD for science teachers.

  16. Science for Survival: The Modern Synthesis of Evolution and the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lisa Anne

    2012-01-01

    In this historical dissertation, I examined the process of curriculum development in the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) in the United States during the period 1959-1963. The presentation of evolution in the high school texts was based on a more robust form of Darwinian evolution which developed during the 1930s and 1940s called…

  17. The modern instrumentation used for monitoring and controlling the main parameters of the regenerative electro-mechano-hydraulic drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, Corneliu; Drumea, Petrin; Krevey, Petrica

    2009-01-01

    In this work is presented the modern instrumentation used for monitoring and controlling the main parameters for one regenerative drive system, used to recovering the kinetic energy of motor vehicles, lost in the braking phase, storing and using this energy in the starting or accelerating phases. Is presented a Romanian technical solution for a regenerative driving system, based on a hybrid solution containing a hydro-mechanic module and an existing thermal motor drive, all conceived as a mechatronics system. In order to monitoring and controlling the evolution of the main parameters, the system contains a series of sensors and transducers that provide the moment, rotation, temperature, flow and pressure values. The main sensors and transducers of the regenerative drive system, their principal features and tehnical conecting solutions are presented in this paper, both with the menaging electronic and informational subsystems.

  18. Knowledge in motion: The cultural politics of modern science translations in Arabic.

    PubMed

    Elshakry, Marwa S

    2008-12-01

    This essay looks at the problem of the global circulation of modem scientific knowledge by looking at science translations in modern Arabic. In the commercial centers of the late Ottoman Empire, emerging transnational networks lay behind the development of new communities of knowledge, many of which sought to break with old linguistic and literary norms to redefine the basis of their authority. Far from acting as neutral purveyors of "universal truths," scientific translations thus served as key instruments in this ongoing process of sociopolitical and epistemological transformation and mediation. Fierce debates over translators' linguistic strategies and choices involved deliberations over the character of language and the nature of "science" itself. They were also crucially shaped by such geopolitical factors as the rise of European imperialism and anticolonial nationalism in the region. The essay concludes by arguing for the need for greater attention to the local factors involved in the translation of scientific concepts across borders. PMID:19334518

  19. Families made by science. Arnold Gesell and the technologies of modern child adoption.

    PubMed

    Herman, E

    2001-12-01

    This essay considers the effort to transform child adoption into a modern scientific enterprise during the first half of the twentieth century via a case study of Arnold Gesell (1880-1961), a Yale developmentalist well known for his studies of child growth and the applied technologies that emerged from them: normative scales promising to measure and predict development. Scientific adoption was a central aspiration for many human scientists, helping professionals, and state regulators. They aimed to reduce the numerous hazards presumed to be inherent in adopting children, especially infants, who were not one's "own." By importing insights and techniques drawn from the world of science into the practical world of family formation, scientific adoption stood for kinship by design. This case study explores one point of intersection between the history of science and the history of social welfare and social policy, simultaneously illustrating the cultural progress and power of scientific authority and the numerous obstacles to its practical realization. PMID:11921680

  20. [Trueness of modern natural science (1): the scientific revolution and the problem of philosophy].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Y

    2001-12-01

    How can one characterize modern Europe? This problem is essentially related to the meaning of modern natural science, which was developed during the scientific revolution. Then how did viewpoints change during this revolution? The answer to this question also determined the basic character of modern philosophy. Through the examination of Aristotle's geocentric theory and kinematics, I have come to believe that the defect of Aristotle's was that he concluded that a visible sense image is an actual reflection of the reality as it is. From this point of view, the traditional theory of truth called "correspondence theory" is found to be an insufficient one. Therefore, in this paper I will show that the methodological and philosophical question "How do we see reality among phenomena?" is a very important one. This question is the one Plato struggled with, and also the one which guided Kant. It may be said that this can be seen as a group for a new metaphysics as a basic theory of reality. PMID:11789139

  1. Transforming Traditional Sophomore Quant into a Course on Modern Analytical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perone, S. P.; Pesek, J.; Stone, C.; Englert, P.

    1998-11-01

    We are involved in a curriculum development project at San Jose State University directed at transforming traditional sophomore quantitative analysis into a course on modern analytical science. This project is supported by an NSF Curriculum Development Grant. The new sophomore course emulates the working environment of a modern commercial laboratory where students must deal directly with contemporary analytical problems and technology. We have developed several laboratory investigations that reflect a commitment to addressing organic, biological, and environmental studies, in place of much of the traditional emphasis on simple inorganic systems. The types of investigations include separations science (mixture analysis), multielement and trace analysis, and combined physical and chemical characterization. Laboratory studies are conducted, as far as possible, with state-of-the-art equipment and methodology. Pervading all of this is a laboratory structure based on Good Laboratory Practice principles, where students are responsible for calibration, certification, and documentation. A small but diverse group of interested academic institutions is evaluating the transportability of the courseware developed at SJSU and is also contributing to further developments.

  2. Major Challenges for the Modern Chemistry in Particular and Science in General

    PubMed Central

    Uskokovíc, Vuk

    2013-01-01

    In the past few hundred years, science has exerted an enormous influence on the way the world appears to human observers. Despite phenomenal accomplishments of science, science nowadays faces numerous challenges that threaten its continued success. As scientific inventions become embedded within human societies, the challenges are further multiplied. In this critical review, some of the critical challenges for the field of modern chemistry are discussed, including: (a) interlinking theoretical knowledge and experimental approaches; (b) implementing the principles of sustainability at the roots of the chemical design; (c) defining science from a philosophical perspective that acknowledges both pragmatic and realistic aspects thereof; (d) instigating interdisciplinary research; (e) learning to recognize and appreciate the aesthetic aspects of scientific knowledge and methodology, and promote truly inspiring education in chemistry. In the conclusion, I recapitulate that the evolution of human knowledge inherently depends upon our ability to adopt creative problem-solving attitudes, and that challenges will always be present within the scope of scientific interests. PMID:24465151

  3. Tillage Effects on Soil Hydraulic Properties in Space and Time: State of the Science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil tillage practices can affect soil hydraulic properties and processes in space and time with consequent and coupled effects on chemical movement and plant growth. This literature review addresses the quantitative effects of soil tillage and associated management (e.g., crop residues) on the tem...

  4. The Role of Toxicological Science in Meeting the Challenges and Opportunities of Hydraulic Fracturing

    EPA Science Inventory

    We briefly describe how toxicology can inform the discussion and debate of the merits of hydraulic fracturing by providing information on the potential toxicity of the chemical and physical agents associated with this process, individually and in combination. We consider upstream...

  5. Western teachers of science or teachers of Western science: On the influence of Western modern science in a post-colonial context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Lydia E. Carol-Ann

    An expanding body of research explores the social, political, cultural and personal challenges presented by the Western emphasis of curricula around the world. The aim of my study is to advance this field of inquiry by gaining insight into perceptions of Western modern science presented by students, teachers and administrators in a given Caribbean setting. Through this study I asked how my research participants described the nature of scientific knowledge, how they related scientific knowledge to other culturally-valued knowledges and the meanings they attached to the geographic origins of science teachers. Situating this work firmly within the practice of Foucauldian critical discourse analysis, I have utilised a conceptual framework defined by the power/knowledge and complicity/resistance themes of post-colonial theory to support my interpretation of participant commentary in an overall quest that is concerned about the ways in which Western modern science might be exerting a colonising influence. Fourteen students, nine teachers (both expatriate and local) and three administrators participated in the study. I combined a semi-structured question and answer interview format with a card sort activity. I used a procedure based on my own adaptation of Stephenson's Q methodology, where the respondents placed 24 statements hierarchically along a continuum of increasing strength of agreement, presenting their rationalisations, personal stories and illustrations as they sorted. I used an inverse factor analysis, in combination with the interview transcripts, to assist me in the identification of three discourse positions described by my research participants: The truth value of scientific knowledge, The pragmatic use of science to promote progress, and The priority of cultural preservation. The interview transcripts were also analysed for emergent themes, providing an additional layer of data interpretation. The research findings raise concerns regarding the hegemonic

  6. The Food Safety Modernization Act: a barrier to trade? Only if the science says so.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    The Food Safety Modernization Act improves oversight of America's food safety system. Title III, which regulates imported food, may create extra burdens for importers and therefore act as a barrier to trade. What will be on trial before the World Trade Organization (WTO), however, is not the law's content, but the science supporting it. Under the WTO regime, food safety laws that could restrict the free movement of food commodities must be sufficiently justified by scientific evidence. Member states must engage in risk assessments and regulate food imports in a manner that is "no more restrictive than necessary" to protect against the health risks identified by scientific evidence. This article examines the requirements of the WTO to evaluate the FSMA's legality under WTO rules. It analyzes the case law of the WTO Panel and Appellate Body and compares the FMSA to the EU's General Food Law. PMID:24620418

  7. Makers of Modern Science. Volume 9, Linus Pauling: Scientist and Advocate by David E. Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, George B.; Kauffman, Laurie M.

    1997-04-01

    Facts on File: New York, 1994. 136 pp. Figs. and photos. 15.0 x 22.6 cm. $16.95 Makers of Modern Science, a series of biographies (available on standing order at a 20% discount), explores the lives and achievements of scientists who have made the greatest contributions to human knowledge during the 19th and 20th centuries. Each scientist's achievements, including underlying scientific principles, are discussed simply and clearly and are free of technical jargon. Drawing on primary sources such as diaries, memoirs, letters, and contemporary news stories, as well as secondary sources, each volume depicts the human drama of scientific work, the excitement and frustration of research, and the exhilaration and rewards of discovery. Each book, which includes black-and-white photographs, diagrams, an annotated bibliography, and a detailed index, contains a final chapter summarizing the legacy of the scientist's achievements.

  8. Supporting EarthScope Cyber-Infrastructure with a Modern GPS Science Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, F. H.; Bock, Y.; Kedar, S.; Jamason, P.; Fang, P.; Dong, D.; Owen, S. E.; Prawirodirjo, L.; Squibb, M.

    2008-12-01

    Building on NASA's investment in the measurement of crustal deformation from continuous GPS, we are developing and implementing a Science Data System (SDS) that will provide mature, long-term Earth Science Data Records (ESDR's). This effort supports NASA's Earth Surface and Interiors (ESI) focus area and provide NASA's component to the EarthScope PBO. This multi-year development is sponsored by NASA's Making Earth System data records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program. The SDS integrates the generation of ESDRs with data analysis and exploration, product generation, and modeling tools based on daily GPS data that include GPS networks in western North America and a component of NASA's Global GPS Network (GGN) for terrestrial reference frame definition. The system is expandable to multiple regional and global networks. The SDS builds upon mature data production, exploration, and analysis algorithms developed under NASA's REASoN, ACCESS, and SENH programs. This SDS provides access to positions, time series, velocity fields, and strain measurements derived from continuous GPS data obtained at tracking stations in both the Plate Boundary Observatory and other regional Western North America GPS networks, dating back to 1995. The SDS leverages the IT and Web Services developments carried out under the SCIGN/REASoN and ACCESS projects, which have streamlined access to data products for researchers and modelers, and which have created a prototype an on-the-fly interactive research environment through a modern data portal, GPS Explorer. This IT system has been designed using modern IT tools and principles in order to be extensible to any geographic location, scale, natural hazard, and combination of geophysical sensor and related data. We have built upon open GIS standards, particularly those of the OGC, and have used the principles of Web Service-based Service Oriented Architectures to provide scalability and extensibility to new services and capabilities.

  9. The role of toxicological science in meeting the challenges and opportunities of hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Bernard D; Brooks, Bryan W; Cohen, Steven D; Gates, Alexander E; Honeycutt, Michael E; Morris, John B; Orme-Zavaleta, Jennifer; Penning, Trevor M; Snawder, John

    2014-06-01

    We briefly describe how toxicology can inform the discussion and debate of the merits of hydraulic fracturing by providing information on the potential toxicity of the chemical and physical agents associated with this process, individually and in combination. We consider upstream activities related to bringing chemical and physical agents to the site, on-site activities including drilling of wells and containment of agents injected into or produced from the well, and downstream activities including the flow/removal of hydrocarbon products and of produced water from the site. A broad variety of chemical and physical agents are involved. As the industry expands this has raised concern about the potential for toxicological effects on ecosystems, workers, and the general public. Response to these concerns requires a concerted and collaborative toxicological assessment. This assessment should take into account the different geology in areas newly subjected to hydraulic fracturing as well as evolving industrial practices that can alter the chemical and physical agents of toxicological interest. The potential for ecosystem or human exposure to mixtures of these agents presents a particular toxicological and public health challenge. These data are essential for developing a reliable assessment of the potential risks to the environment and to human health of the rapidly increasing use of hydraulic fracturing and deep underground horizontal drilling techniques for tightly bound shale gas and other fossil fuels. Input from toxicologists will be most effective when employed early in the process, before there are unwanted consequences to the environment and human health, or economic losses due to the need to abandon or rework costly initiatives. PMID:24706166

  10. The Role of Toxicological Science in Meeting the Challenges and Opportunities of Hydraulic Fracturing

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Bernard D.; Brooks, Bryan W.; Cohen, Steven D.; Gates, Alexander E.; Honeycutt, Michael E.; Morris, John B.; Orme-Zavaleta, Jennifer; Penning, Trevor M.; Snawder, John

    2014-01-01

    We briefly describe how toxicology can inform the discussion and debate of the merits of hydraulic fracturing by providing information on the potential toxicity of the chemical and physical agents associated with this process, individually and in combination. We consider upstream activities related to bringing chemical and physical agents to the site, on-site activities including drilling of wells and containment of agents injected into or produced from the well, and downstream activities including the flow/removal of hydrocarbon products and of produced water from the site. A broad variety of chemical and physical agents are involved. As the industry expands this has raised concern about the potential for toxicological effects on ecosystems, workers, and the general public. Response to these concerns requires a concerted and collaborative toxicological assessment. This assessment should take into account the different geology in areas newly subjected to hydraulic fracturing as well as evolving industrial practices that can alter the chemical and physical agents of toxicological interest. The potential for ecosystem or human exposure to mixtures of these agents presents a particular toxicological and public health challenge. These data are essential for developing a reliable assessment of the potential risks to the environment and to human health of the rapidly increasing use of hydraulic fracturing and deep underground horizontal drilling techniques for tightly bound shale gas and other fossil fuels. Input from toxicologists will be most effective when employed early in the process, before there are unwanted consequences to the environment and human health, or economic losses due to the need to abandon or rework costly initiatives. PMID:24706166

  11. Measurement of Bitumen Viscosity in a Room-Temperature Drop Experiment: Student Education, Public Outreach and Modern Science in One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widdicombe, A. T.; Ravindrarajah, P.; Sapelkin, A.; Phillips, A. E.; Dunstan, D.; Dove, M. T.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-01-01

    The slow flow of a viscous liquid is a thought-provoking experiment that challenges students, academics and the public to think about some fundamental questions in modern science. In the Queensland demonstration--the world's longest-running experiment, which has earned the Ig Nobel prize--one drop of pitch takes about ten years to fall,…

  12. "The Name of the Rose": A Path to Discuss the Birth of Modern Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Andreia; Braga, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Various science education researchers believe that science tuition should include some discussion about how science has developed over time. Therefore, deliberations about the nature of science should be integrated in the science curriculum. Many researchers argue that teaching the history of science is a good way to place the nature of science in…

  13. Science, humanism, judgement, ethics: person-centered medicine as an emergent model of modern clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Miles, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Medical University of Plovdiv (MUP) has as its motto 'Committed to humanity". But what does humanity in modern medicine mean? Is it possible to practise a form of medicine that is without humanity? In the current article, it is argued that modern medicine is increasingly being practised in a de-personalised fashion, where the patient is understood not as a unique human individual, a person, but rather as a subject or an object and more in the manner of a complex biological machine. Medicine has, it is contended, become distracted from its duty to care, comfort and console as well as to ameliorate, attenuate and cure and that the rapid development of medicine's scientific knowledge is, paradoxically, principally causative. Signal occurrences in the 'patient as a person' movement are reviewed, together with the emergence of the evidence-based medicine (EBM) and patient-centered care (PCC) movements. The characteristics of a model of medicine evolving in response to medicine's current deficiencies--person-centered healthcare (PCH)--are noted and described. In seeking to apply science with humanism, via clinical judgement, within an ethical framework, it is contended that PCH will prove to be far more responsive to the needs of the individual patient and his/her personal circumstances than current models of practice, so that neither a reductive anatomico-pathological, disease-centric model of illness (EBM), nor an aggressive patient-directed, consumerist form of care (PCC) is allowed continued dominance within modern healthcare systems. In conclusion, it is argued that PCH will enable affordable advances in biomedicine and technology to be delivered to patients within a humanistic framework of clinical practice that recognises the patient as a person and which takes full account of his/her stories, values, preferences, goals, aspirations, fears, worries, hopes, cultural context and which responds to his/her psychological, emotional, spiritual and social necessities

  14. [When was modern science born? Homage to the memory of Professor Arturo Rosenblueth at his birth centennial].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, A

    2000-01-01

    The Renaissance savants essentially repelled the scholastic translations and commentaries of the ancient writings. Nevertheless they did not reach a modern vision of the experimental science. Moreover, the education at the universities was not credited for the science's development. In fact, the academic training of students was rather precarious. The first professional associations, such as the "Royal College of Physicians" of London, were not any better. Regarding hermetic influence on the Renaissance thought, the cultured and philosophical reformed magic (the so called white magic) was the equivalent of science at the time. Once the animistic universe, operated by magic, is transformed into the mathematical universe, operated by mechanics, the era of science came into being. This movement began during the post-Renaissance age and gradually progressed following the physical-mathematical orientation of Galileo and his pupils: Borelli, Fabrizi, Santorio, Harvey, etc. They initiated the physiological studies and introduced the quantitative method into the research field. Harvey's circulatory doctrine was the first adequate explication of an organic phenomenon and a starting point for the way toward experimental physiology. However the English physician did not leave completely the pre-scientific era, as can be inferred from his monography on animals reproduction. In this work, some points suggesting the birth of modern scientific reasoning alternate with confused, vague and capricious assertions. In fact, the modern science did not arise suddenly, but was elaborated and sustained slowly starting from the XVII century: the Galileo's century. PMID:11534103

  15. Dire necessity and transformation: entry-points for modern science in Islamic bioethical assessment of porcine products in vaccines.

    PubMed

    Padela, Aasim I; Furber, Steven W; Kholwadia, Mohammad A; Moosa, Ebrahim

    2014-02-01

    The field of medicine provides an important window through which to examine the encounters between religion and science, and between modernity and tradition. While both religion and science consider health to be a 'good' that is to be preserved, and promoted, religious and science-based teachings may differ in their conception of what constitutes good health, and how that health is to be achieved. This paper analyzes the way the Islamic ethico-legal tradition assesses the permissibility of using vaccines that contain porcine-derived components by referencing opinions of several Islamic authorities. In the Islamic ethico-legal tradition controversy surrounds the use of proteins from an animal (pig) that is considered to be impure by Islamic law. As we discuss the Islamic ethico-legal constructs used to argue for or against the use of porcine-based vaccines we will call attention to areas where modern medical data may make the arguments more precise. By highlighting areas where science can buttress and clarify the ethico-legal arguments we hope to spur an enhanced applied Islamic bioethics discourse where religious scholars and medical experts use modern science in a way that remains faithful to the epistemology of Islamic ethics to clarify what Islam requires of Muslim patients and healthcare workers. PMID:23445524

  16. Foodomics: MS-based strategies in modern food science and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Miguel; Simó, Carolina; García-Cañas, Virginia; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Modern research in food science and nutrition is moving from classical methodologies to advanced analytical strategies in which MS-based techniques play a crucial role. In this context, Foodomics has been recently defined as a new discipline that studies food and nutrition domains through the application of advanced omics technologies in which MS techniques are considered indispensable. Applications of Foodomics include the genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and/or metabolomic study of foods for compound profiling, authenticity, and/or biomarker-detection related to food quality or safety; the development of new transgenic foods, food contaminants, and whole toxicity studies; new investigations on food bioactivity, food effects on human health, etc. This review work does not intend to provide an exhaustive revision of the many works published so far on food analysis using MS techniques. The aim of the present work is to provide an overview of the different MS-based strategies that have been (or can be) applied in the new field of Foodomics, discussing their advantages and drawbacks. Besides, some ideas about the foreseen development and applications of MS-techniques in this new discipline are also provided. PMID:21374694

  17. Molecular Nutrition Research—The Modern Way Of Performing Nutritional Science

    PubMed Central

    Norheim, Frode; Gjelstad, Ingrid M. F.; Hjorth, Marit; Vinknes, Kathrine J.; Langleite, Torgrim M.; Holen, Torgeir; Jensen, Jørgen; Dalen, Knut Tomas; Karlsen, Anette S.; Kielland, Anders; Rustan, Arild C.; Drevon, Christian A.

    2012-01-01

    In spite of amazing progress in food supply and nutritional science, and a striking increase in life expectancy of approximately 2.5 months per year in many countries during the previous 150 years, modern nutritional research has a great potential of still contributing to improved health for future generations, granted that the revolutions in molecular and systems technologies are applied to nutritional questions. Descriptive and mechanistic studies using state of the art epidemiology, food intake registration, genomics with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, advanced biostatistics, imaging, calorimetry, cell biology, challenge tests (meals, exercise, etc.), and integration of all data by systems biology, will provide insight on a much higher level than today in a field we may name molecular nutrition research. To take advantage of all the new technologies scientists should develop international collaboration and gather data in large open access databases like the suggested Nutritional Phenotype database (dbNP). This collaboration will promote standardization of procedures (SOP), and provide a possibility to use collected data in future research projects. The ultimate goals of future nutritional research are to understand the detailed mechanisms of action for how nutrients/foods interact with the body and thereby enhance health and treat diet-related diseases. PMID:23208524

  18. The national science agenda as a ritual of modern nation-statehood: The consequences of national "Science for National Development" projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drori, Gili S.

    This study is a comparative investigation of the ways by which the globalization of modern science affects the characteristics of different nation-states. Whereas much research and policy discussion focuses on science as an instrumental, or technical, system with immediate consequences for national conditions, such as economic development, science should also be regarded as a general cultural framework, which is highly institutionalized at the global level. As such, the institutionalization of science at both the global and national levels affects a wide variety of national properties. Following this line of reasoning, this dissertation study employs cross-national and longitudinal data and multiple-indicator methods to show national-level consequences of scientific expansion on the processes of rationalization and modernization of social and political life. It appears that the cross-national expansion of science practice results in, or is associated with, a variety of measures of (a) the standardization of civil and governmental procedures and (b) the expansion of the political rights and political engagement. I conclude from these empirical findings that scientization encourages (a) greater general societal rationalization and (b) expanded notions of social actorhood and agency. This evidence demonstrates how the globalization of science alters local conditions, both civil and political, by supporting the institutionalization of bureaucratic practices and participatory politics. Thus, the expansion of science--clearly affected by global processes--carries a general secularized faith in a rationalized world and in human agency. In this sense, the practice of science is a national ritual, whose social role is as a legitimacy-providing institution, rather then a technically functional institution. On a broader level, the study emphasizes the relations between globalization processes and the sovereignty of the nation-state. I conclude that science carries modernist

  19. Dynamical energy systems and modern physics: fostering the science and spirit of complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, G E; Russek, L G

    1997-05-01

    When systems theory is carefully applied to the concept of energy, some novel and far-reaching implications for modern physics and complementary medicine emerge. The heart of systems theory is dynamic interactions: systems do not simply act on systems, they interact with them in complex ways. By definition, systems at any level (e.g., physical, biological, social, ecological) are open to information, energy, and matter to varying degrees, and therefore interact with other systems to varying degrees. We first show how resonance between two tuning forks, a classic demonstration in physics, can be seen to reflect synchronized dynamic interactions over time. We then derive how the dynamic interaction of systems in mutual recurrent feedback relationships naturally create dynamic "memories" for their interactions over time. The mystery of how a photon (or electron) "knows" ahead of time whether to function as a particle or wave in the single slit/double slit quantum physics paradigm is potentially solved when energetic interactions inherent in the experimental system are recognized. The observation that energy decreases with the square of distance is shown not to be immutable when viewed from a dynamical energy systems perspective. Implications for controversial claims in complementary and alternative medicine, such as memory for molecules retained in water (homeopathy), remote diagnosis, and prayer and healing, are considered. A dynamical energy systems framework can facilitate the development of what might be termed "relationship consciousness," which has the potential to nurture both the science and spirit of complementary medicine and might help to create integrated medicine. PMID:9141291

  20. No photon left behind: How modern spectroscopy is transforming planetary sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Geronimo Luis

    2015-11-01

    The advent of sensitive high-resolution spectrometers and modern analytical spectroscopic tools is opening new windows in the exploration of planetary atmospheres. High-resolution infrared spectrometers with broad spectral coverage at ground-based observatories (e.g., Keck, IRTF, VLT) and arrays of radio telescopes with state of the art receivers (e.g., ALMA) now permit the exploration of the kinematics, composition and thermal structure of a broad range of planetary sources with unprecedented precision. These, combined with the advent of comprehensive spectroscopic databases containing billions of lines, robust radiative transfer models, and unprecedented available computational power, are transforming the way we investigate planetary atmospheres.Such advances have allowed us to obtain the first mapping of water D/H on Mars (Villanueva et al. 2015), to obtain one of the most comprehensive searches for organics in the Martian atmosphere (Villanueva et al. 2013), and to obtain the first measurement of water D/H of a periodic comet (Villanueva et al. 2009).In this talk, I will present the current frontiers in the exploration of planetary atmospheres and how the synergies between future space (e.g., ExoMars 2016, JWST) and ground astronomical assets (e.g., TMT, E-ELT) will transform our understanding of the composition, stability and evolution of the atmospheres in the Solar System and beyond.Villanueva, G.L., et al. 2009. Astrophys. J. Lett. 690 (1). pp. L5-L9.Villanueva, G.L., et al. 2013. Icarus 223 (1). pp. 11-27.Villanueva, G.L., et al. 2015. Science 348 (6). pp. 218-221.

  1. (Post) Modern Science (Education): Propositions and Alternative Paths. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, John A., Ed.; Morris, Marla, Ed.; Appelbaum, Peter, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers new perspectives for science educators, curriculum theorists, and cultural critics on science education, French post-structural thought, and the science debates. This book contains chapters on the work of Bruno Latour, Michael Serres, and Jean Baudrillard plus chapters on postmodern approaches to science education…

  2. Islamic View of Nature and Values: Could These Be the Answer to Building Bridges between Modern Science and Islamic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faruqi, Yasmeen Mahnaz

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the basic tenets of Islam and the Islamic view of nature that were influential in the development of science in the so-called "Golden Age of Islam". These findings have been the catalyst for present day Muslim scholars, who have emphasized the importance of Islamic science, as the means of understanding Western science. There…

  3. Machines, Materials, and Energy: A Source Book for the Modern Elementary School Science Program of the Science Manpower Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croasdale, William

    This source book consists of four parts. Part One, an introduction and overview, deals with the need for establishing new science programs and shows the relationship of the source book to the K-12 science program of the Science Manpower Project. Part Two consists of three chapters written for use in grades K-3: "Simple Machines,""Heart and…

  4. The Evolution of Research and Education Networks and their Essential Role in Modern Science

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, W.; Chaniotakis, E.; Dart, E.; Guok, C.; Metzger, J.; Tierney, B.

    2009-06-15

    ESnet - the Energy Sciences Network - has the mission of enabling the aspects of the US Department of Energy's Office of Science programs and facilities that depend on large collaborations and large-scale data sharing to accomplish their science. The Office of Science supports a large fraction of all U.S. physical science research and operates many large science instruments and supercomputers that are used by both DOE and University researchers. The network requirements of this community have been explored in some detail by ESnet and a long-term plan has been developed in order to ensure adequate networking to support the science. In this paper we describe the planning process (which has been in place for several years and was the basis of a new network that is just now being completed and a new set of network services) and examine the effectiveness and adequacy of the planning process in the light of evolving science requirements.

  5. The wage of fame: how non-epistemic motives have enabled the phenomenal success of modern science.

    PubMed

    Franck, Georg

    2015-01-01

    This paper ventures an economic view of modern science. It points out how science works as a closed economy of attention where researchers invest their own attention in order to get the attention of fellow researchers. Attention thus enters economy in two properties: (1) as a scarce resource energising scientific production and (2) as a means of gratification rewarding the effort of the working scientist. Economising on attention as a scarce resource is another expression of thought economy. The income of expert attention is what gives rise to reputation, renown, prominence and eventually fame. By its being conceived as a closed economy of attention, science shows to be capable of self-organising a tendency towards overall efficiency and thus towards collective rationality. PMID:25300615

  6. Some aspects on the development of the natural sciences and their importance for the modern society and for our global environment

    SciTech Connect

    Loewdin, P.O.

    1996-12-31

    A brief review is given of the development of the modern sciences from the early 1800 to the establishment of modern quantum theory around 1925 leading to the modern theoretical chemical physics. Special attention is given to the interplay between mathematics, physics and chemistry and to show how the development in one science strongly influences the development in the other sciences. A special chapter is devoted to the interplay between basic and applied research and to the interesting phenomenon that one may very likely get more and better technological applications if the basic research is left to flourish on its own. In this connection the relation between teaching and basic research is also discussed. Finally the importance of modern science for the protection of our global environment is briefly reviewed.

  7. Big Fleas Have Little Fleas: How discoveries of invertebrate diseases are advancing modern science.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Review of: “Big Fleas Have Little Fleas: How discoveries of invertebrate diseases are advancing modern science”. Elizabeth W. Davdison. 2006. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ. 208 pp. Dr. Davidson links many of the accomplishments in invertebrate pathology to subsequent successes in the l...

  8. Participation in Science and Technology: Young People's Achievement-Related Choices in Late-Modern Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Maria Vetleseter; Henriksen, Ellen Karoline; Lyons, Terry; Schreiner, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    Young people's participation in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is a matter of international concern. Studies and careers that require physical sciences and advanced mathematics are most affected by the problem and women in particular are under-represented in many STEM fields. This article views international research about…

  9. The rolling evolution of biomedical science as an essential tool in modern clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Blann, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The British Journal of Biomedical Science is committed to publishing high-quality original research that represents a clear advance in the practice of biomedical science, and reviews that summarise recent advances in the field of biomedical science. The overall aim of the Journal is to provide a platform for the dissemination of new and innovative information on the diagnosis and management of disease that is valuable to the practicing laboratory scientist. The Editorial that follows describes the Journal and provides a perspective of its aims and objectives. PMID:27182669

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The thermal, chemical, and biological quality of water in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and near coastal areas is inseparable from a consideration of hydraulic engineering principles: therefore, the term environmental hydraulics. In this chapter we discuss the basic principles of w...

  11. Measurement of bitumen viscosity in a room-temperature drop experiment: student education, public outreach and modern science in one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widdicombe, A. T.; Ravindrarajah, P.; Sapelkin, A.; Phillips, A. E.; Dunstan, D.; Dove, M. T.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-07-01

    The slow flow of a viscous liquid is a thought-provoking experiment that challenges students, academics and the public to think about some fundamental questions in modern science. In the Queensland demonstration—the world's longest-running experiment, which has earned the Ig Nobel prize—one drop of pitch takes about ten years to fall, leading to problems for actually observing the drops. Here, we describe our recent demonstration of slowly-flowing bitumen where appreciable flow is observed on the timescale of months. The experiment is free from dissipative heating effects and has the potential to improve the accuracy of measurement. Bitumen viscosity was calculated by undergraduate students during the summer project. Worldwide access to the experiment, as it runs, is provided by webcams uploading the images to a dedicated website, enhancing the student education experience and promotion of science. This demonstration serves as an attractive student education exercise and stimulates the discussion of fundamental concepts and hotly debated ideas in modern physics research: the difference between solids and liquids, the nature of the liquid-glass transition, the emergence of long timescales in a physical process and the conflict between human intuition and physical reality.

  12. Classic and Modern Meridian Studies: A Review of Low Hydraulic Resistance Channels along Meridians and Their Relevance for Therapeutic Effects in Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei-Bo; Wang, Guang-Jun; Fuxe, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    Meridian theory is one of the core components of the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It gives an integral explanation for how human life works, how a disease forms, and how a therapy acts to treat a disease. If we do not understand the meridians, it is hard to understand the TCM. People in China and abroad had been working hard for 50 years, trying to understand the meridians; then 15 years ago a breakthrough idea appeared when we realized that they are low resistance fluid channels where various chemical and physical transports take place. The channel is called low hydraulic resistance channel (LHRC) and the chemical transport is named volume transmission (VT). This review aims to give a full understanding of the essence of meridian and its works on the therapies of TCM. PMID:25821487

  13. Four windows on modern science in flavor and fragrance chemistry at Firmenich.

    PubMed

    Starkenmann, Christian; Wünsche, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Four young scientists, recently hired by Firmenich, presented lectures at the University of Geneva. The objective was to stimulate young students to choose sciences. The challenges in the discovery, synthesis, or extraction of new molecules were presented, as well as the structure-activity relationships of human odorant receptors. PMID:22867549

  14. Scientific Knowledge, Popularisation, and the Use of Metaphors: Modern Genetics in Popular Science Magazines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pramling, Niklas; Saljo, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The article reports an empirical study of how authors in popular science magazines attempt to render scientific knowledge intelligible to wide audiences. In bridging the two domains of "popular" and "scientific" knowledge, respectively, metaphor becomes central. We ask the empirical question of what metaphors are used when communicating about…

  15. A Bridge Too Far - Revisited: Reframing Bruer's Neuroeducation Argument for Modern Science of Learning Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Jared C; Donoghue, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    In Education and the Brain: A Bridge Too Far, John Bruer argues that, although current neuroscientific findings must filter through cognitive psychology in order to be applicable to the classroom, with increased knowledge the neuroscience/education bridge can someday be built. Here, we suggest that translation cannot be understood as a single process: rather, we demonstrate that at least four different 'bridges' can conceivably be built between these two fields. Following this, we demonstrate that, far from being a matter of information lack, a prescriptive neuroscience/education bridge (the one most relevant to Bruer's argument) is a practical and philosophical impossibility due to incommensurability between non-adjacent compositional levels-of-organization: a limitation inherent in all sciences. After defining this concept in the context of biology, we apply this concept to the learning sciences and demonstrate why all brain research must be behaviorally translated before prescriptive educational applicability can be elucidated. We conclude by exploring examples of how explicating different forms of translation and adopting a levels-of-organization framework can be used to contextualize and beneficially guide research and practice across all learning sciences. PMID:27014173

  16. HYDRAULIC SERVO

    DOEpatents

    Wiegand, D.E.

    1962-05-01

    A hydraulic servo is designed in which a small pressure difference produced at two orifices by an electrically operated flapper arm in a constantly flowing hydraulic loop is hydraulically amplified by two constant flow pumps, two additional orifices, and three unconnected ball pistons. Two of the pistons are of one size and operate against the additional orifices, and the third piston is of a different size and operates between and against the first two pistons. (AEC)

  17. [Contribution of teacher MEI Jian-Han to modern acup-moxibustion science].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Bin

    2008-09-01

    Acup-moxibustion experts are indispensable for probing into establishment of modern higher education and academic system of acupuncture and moxibustion. Among them, teacher MEI made a great distribution, mainly including: summarizing the outline of indications of acupoints of 14 channels, raising making prescription law of acupoints and indications law of acupoints, expounding the relationship between channels running and disease symptoms, summing up characteristics of theories of the twelve divergent meridians and the twelve muscle regions, drawing an indications diagram of acupoints of the 14 meridians and a schematic diagram of relation between the running of meridians and disease symptoms, a schematic diagram of running of the twelve divergent meridians, and a diagram of the relations between running of the twelve muscle regions and disease symptoms, inventing acupoint location method with finger-equal division, expounding Xiaheshu, simplifying the calculation of Ziwuliuzhu and inventing a calculation scale and simple acupoints selection table. In his later years, he systematically studied on the theories of eight extra meridians and clinical application, and raised theorem of meridians, etc. PMID:18822991

  18. Progress in art and science of crystal growth and its impacts on modern society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishinaga, Tatau

    2015-05-01

    The impacts of the progress in the art and science of crystal growth on human life are reviewed. Even before the invention of the transistor, quartz and corundum crystals were used as crystal oscillators and jewel bearings, respectively. However, a major impact of crystal growth on society was experienced with the invention of the transistor, which required high-purity and perfect germanium crystals. Once the importance of crystal growth was clearly recognized, the science of crystal growth also extensively developed. The growth of single crystalline silicon allows us to produce integrated circuits, which are used in all the electronic devices in everyday use. The technological developments in the growth of compound semiconductors have also had a large impact on society through the inventions of the laser diode for optical communication and the p-n junction nitride light-emitting diode toward the realization of a less energy-intensive society. The latter invention was awarded the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics. Finally, future aspects of crystal growth are discussed.

  19. [Historical sketch of modern pharmaceutical science and technology (Part 4). Post World War II 50 years].

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, K

    1995-01-01

    A short history of the pharmaceutical science and technology, postwar 50 years is divided into nine sections for the purpose of discussion. 1. Japan's postwar rehabilitation, Japanese pharmaceutical industries and newly developed pharmaceutical sciences and technologies. In 1945, the Japanese pharmaceutical industry was reconstructed. Production of penicillin was carried out with the strong support of the U.S. Occupation Forces. New sciences in pharmacy (biochemistry, biopharmacy, pharmacology, microbiology, physical chemistry, etc.) were introduced in this period. 2. Introduction age of foreign new drugs and technology (1951 to 1960s). Japan gained independence in 1951. Japanese pharmaceutical companies imported many new drugs and new pharmaceutical technologies from the U.S.A. and European countries in this period. Then, these companies were reconstruction rapidly. However, consequently Japanese pharmaceutical companies were formed as an imitation industry. 3. Rapid economic growth period for pharmaceutical companies (1956 to 1970s). In this period, many Japanese pharmaceutical companies grew rapidly at an annual rate of 15-20% over a period of 15 years, especially with regard to the production of active vitamin B1 analog drugs and some OTC (public health drugs). Some major companies made large profits, which were used to construct research facilities. 4. Problems for the harmful effects of medicines and its ethical responsibility. In the 1970s, many public toxic and harmful effects of medicines were caused, especially SMON's disease. In this time, many pharmaceutical companies changed to its security got development of ethical drugs. 5. Self development of new drugs and administration of pharmaceutical rules (1970s). During the 1970s, many pharmaceutical laws (GLP, GCP, GMP, GPMSP etc.) were enacted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. In 1976, the Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Law was revised, which set forth standards regarding the efficacy and safety of

  20. Science of breeding and heredity from ancient Persia to modern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kariminejad, Mohammad H.; Khorshidian, Ardeshir

    2012-01-01

    mainstream of world science, and development in biomedical sciences in the third millennium. PMID:22754218

  1. Results of the joint ESARDA/INMM workshop on science and modern technology for safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, G.; Dupree, S.; Sonnier, C.

    1997-06-01

    The Joint ESARDA/INMM Workshop on Science and Modem Technology for Safeguards was held in Arona, Italy, October 28-31, 1996. It was attended by some 120 participants, consisting principally of scientists from various disciplines and safeguards experts from the inspectorates. The Workshop provided a full discussion on the near and far term scientific technologies that may be applied to safeguards. In addition, there were extended discussions on the social and political aspects surrounding the areas of Nonproliferation, International Safeguards, and Regional Safeguards. The general opinion was that the Workshop met and exceeded its goals, setting the stage for future workshops of this type. One of the outstanding characteristics of this Workshop was the ample amount of time allowed for full discussion of each presentation, both for technical issues and social/political issues. This procedure was substantially different from the usual ESARDA and INMM meetings. This paper will discuss the organization and conduct of the Workshop, as well as the results as reported by the four Working Group Chairs and the Workshop Co-chairs.

  2. Modern Analytical Methods Applied to Earth and Planetary Sciences for Micro, Nano and Pico Space Devices and Robots in Landing Site Selection and Surface Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizi, P. G.; Bérczi, Sz.; Horváth, I.; Horváth, A. F.; Vizi, J. Cs.

    2014-11-01

    Fleet of Nano and Pico Sized Space Devices and Robots (NPSDR) are deployable to realize and accomplish in situ modern analytical methods in wide range of Earth and planetary sciences. Shorter time and bigger field of surfaces and volumes of space.

  3. Articles on Practical Cybernetics. Computer-Developed Computers; Heuristics and Modern Sciences; Linguistics and Practice; Cybernetics and Moral-Ethical Considerations; and Men and Machines at the Chessboard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, A. I.; And Others

    Five articles which were selected from a Russian language book on cybernetics and then translated are presented here. They deal with the topics of: computer-developed computers, heuristics and modern sciences, linguistics and practice, cybernetics and moral-ethical considerations, and computer chess programs. (Author/JY)

  4. Shedding new light on the K-Pg extinction event: application of modern fire science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadden, Rory; Rein, Guillermo; Belcher, Claire

    2016-04-01

    intense, long duration pulse that occurred at locations far from the impact site. Not only has this resulted in new insights into building our understanding of the end Cretaceous mass extinction, but it has also yielded a simple experimental method that rapidly allows investigation of the ignition propensity of specific ecosystems of utility to the fossil record. Finally, by applying fire science techniques to this problem, the underlying physical phenomena can be investigated allowing greater confidence in extrapolation of data to other scenarios. It is clear that such collaborative approaches in developing new experimental procedures drawing on existing knowledge from diverse research fields has allowed for rapid progress in interpreting the fossil evidence of fire through earth history. In addition to advancing the state of the art in palaeontology, this work has resulted in new developments in fire safety science clearly indicating the benefits of cross-disciplinary experimental research methods.

  5. FOREWORD: International Workshop on Theoretical Plasma Physics: Modern Plasma Science. Sponsored by the Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, P. K.; Stenflo, L.

    2005-01-01

    The "International Workshop on Theoretical Plasma Physics: Modern Plasma Science was held at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (Abdus Salam ICTP), Trieste, Italy during the period 5 16 July 2004. The workshop was organized by P K Shukla, R Bingham, S M Mahajan, J T Mendonça, L Stenflo, and others. The workshop enters into a series of previous biennial activities that we have held at the Abdus Salam ICTP since 1989. The scientific program of the workshop was split into two parts. In the first week, most of the lectures dealt with problems concerning astrophysical plasmas, while in the second week, diversity was introduced in order to address the important role of plasma physics in modern areas of science and technology. Here, attention was focused on cross-disciplinary topics including Schrödinger-like models, which are common in plasma physics, nonlinear optics, quantum engineering (Bose-Einstein condensates), and nonlinear fluid mechanics, as well as emerging topics in fundamental theoretical and computational plasma physics, space and dusty plasma physics, laser-plasma interactions, etc. The workshop was attended by approximately hundred-twenty participants from the developing countries, Europe, USA, and Japan. A large number of participants were young researchers from both the developing and industrial countries, as the directors of the workshop tried to keep a good balance in inviting senior and younger generations of theoretical, computational and experimental plasma physicists to our Trieste activities. In the first week, there were extensive discussions on the physics of electromagnetic wave emissions from pulsar magnetospheres, relativistic magnetohydrodynamics of astrophysical objects, different scale sizes turbulence and structures in astrophysics. The scientific program of the second week included five review talks (60 minutes) and about thirty invited topical lectures (30 minutes). In addition, during the two weeks, there

  6. FOREWORD: International Workshop on Theoretical Plasma Physics: Modern Plasma Science. Sponsored by the Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, P. K.; Stenflo, L.

    2005-01-01

    The "International Workshop on Theoretical Plasma Physics: Modern Plasma Science was held at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (Abdus Salam ICTP), Trieste, Italy during the period 5 16 July 2004. The workshop was organized by P K Shukla, R Bingham, S M Mahajan, J T Mendonça, L Stenflo, and others. The workshop enters into a series of previous biennial activities that we have held at the Abdus Salam ICTP since 1989. The scientific program of the workshop was split into two parts. In the first week, most of the lectures dealt with problems concerning astrophysical plasmas, while in the second week, diversity was introduced in order to address the important role of plasma physics in modern areas of science and technology. Here, attention was focused on cross-disciplinary topics including Schrödinger-like models, which are common in plasma physics, nonlinear optics, quantum engineering (Bose-Einstein condensates), and nonlinear fluid mechanics, as well as emerging topics in fundamental theoretical and computational plasma physics, space and dusty plasma physics, laser-plasma interactions, etc. The workshop was attended by approximately hundred-twenty participants from the developing countries, Europe, USA, and Japan. A large number of participants were young researchers from both the developing and industrial countries, as the directors of the workshop tried to keep a good balance in inviting senior and younger generations of theoretical, computational and experimental plasma physicists to our Trieste activities. In the first week, there were extensive discussions on the physics of electromagnetic wave emissions from pulsar magnetospheres, relativistic magnetohydrodynamics of astrophysical objects, different scale sizes turbulence and structures in astrophysics. The scientific program of the second week included five review talks (60 minutes) and about thirty invited topical lectures (30 minutes). In addition, during the two weeks, there

  7. Thinking with the saint: the miracle of Saint Januarius of Naples and science in early modern Europe.

    PubMed

    de Ceglia, Francesco Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the way in which early modem science questioned and indirectly influenced (while being in its turn influenced by) the conceptualization of the liquefaction of the blood of Saint Januarius, a phenomenon that has been taking place at regular intervals in Naples since the late Middle Ages. In the seventeenth century, a debate arose that divided Europe between supporters of a theory of divine intervention and believers in the occult properties of the blood. These two theoretical options reflected two different perspectives on the relationship between the natural and the supernatural. While in the seventeenth century, the emphasis was placed on the predictable periodicity of the miraculous event of liquefaction as a manifestation of God in his role as a divine regulator, in the eighteenth century the event came to be described as capricious and unpredictable, in an attempt to differentiate miracles from the workings of nature, which were deemed to be normative. The miracle of the blood of Saint Januarius thus provides a window through which we can catch a glimpse of how the natural order was perceived in early modern Europe at a time when the Continent was culturally fragmented into north and south, Protestantism and Catholicism, learned and ignorant. PMID:25080643

  8. Modern problems in the physical sciences (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 16 November 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-06-01

    On 16 November 2011, the scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held at the conference hall at the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS.The agenda of the session announced on the RAS Physical Sciences Division website www.gpad.ac.ru included the following reports: (1) Schelev M Ya (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Pico-femto-attosecond photoelectronics"; (2) Dal'karov O D (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "The physics of low-energy antiprotons and antimatter"; (3) Polukhina N G (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Nuclear track detection: advances and potential in astrophysics, particle physics, and applied research"; (4) Vedeneev S I (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "High-temperature superconductors in high and ultrahigh magnetic fields".Papers written on the base of reports 1, 3, and 4 are presented below. • Pico-femto-attosecond photoelectronics: looking through the lens of half a century, M Ya Shchelev Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 6, Pages 607-614 • Nuclear track detection: advances and potential in astrophysics, particle physics, and applied research, N G Polukhina Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 6, Pages 614-625 • High-temperature superconductors in high and ultrahigh magnetic fields, S I Vedeneev Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 6, Pages 625-632

  9. Modern problems in the physical sciences (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 23 November 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-07-01

    On 23 November 2011, the scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held at the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS.The following reports were put on the session agenda posted on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Ionin A A (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "High-power infrared and ultraviolet lasers and their applications"; (2) Romanovskii M Yu (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Laser-induced acceleration of the forbidden captures of orbital electrons by nuclei"; (3) Petrukovich A A (Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Earth's magnetosphere as a plasma laboratory"; (4) Shchur L N (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow region) "Computational physics and the verification of theoretical predictions". Articles written on the base of oral reports 1, 2, and 4 are published below. • High-power IR- and UV-laser systems and their applications, A A Ionin Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 7, Pages 721-728 • Laser radiation enhancement of forbidden orbital electron captures and of neutrinoless double electron captures by nuclei, M Yu Romanovskii Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 7, Pages 728-733 • Computational physics and testing theoretical predictions, L N Shchur Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 7, Pages 733-738

  10. Application of diet-derived taste active components for clinical nutrition: perspectives from ancient Ayurvedic medical science, space medicine, and modern clinical nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Anil D; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Rashid, Muhammad J; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Karkow, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to demonstrate the role of taste and flavor in health from the ancient science of Ayurveda to modern medicine; specifically their mechanisms and roles in space medicine and their clinical relevance in modern heath care. It also describes the brief history of the use of the monosodium glutamate or flavor enhancers ("Umami substance") that improve the quality of food intake by stimulating chemosensory perception. In addition, the dietary nucleotides are known to be the components of "Umami substance" and the benefit of their use has been proposed in various types of patients with cancer, radiation therapy, organ transplantation, and for application in space medicine. PMID:23886389

  11. Modern problems in the physical sciences (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 30 November 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-08-01

    On 30 November 2011, a scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS.The agenda of the session announced on the RAS Physical Sciences Division website www.gpad.ac.ru included the following reports: (1) Ivchenko E L (Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg) "Spin physics in semiconductor nanosystems"; (2) Golub L E (A F Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg) "Spin transport in heterostructures"; (3) Levchenko A A (Institute of Solid State Physics, RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow region) "Capillary turbulence on the surface of quantum liquids"; (4) Babin S A (Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch of the RAS) "New generation modes in fiber lasers"; (5) Kurt V G (Astro-Space Center of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Motion of the Sun through the interstellar medium"; (6) Lukash V N (Astro-Space Center of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Cosmological flow generation in general relativity".Papers written on the basis of oral reports 1-3, 5, and 6 are presented below. • Spin physics in semiconductor nanosystems, E L Ivchenko Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 8, Pages 808-814 • Spin transport in heterostructures, L E Golub Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 8, Pages 814-818 • Kinetic and discrete turbulence on the surface of quantum liquids, L V Abdurakhimov, M Yu Brazhnikov, A A Levchenko, I A Remizov, S V Filatov Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 8, Pages 818-825 • Motion of the Sun through the interstellar medium, V G Kurt, E N Mironova Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 8, Pages 825-831 • Generation of cosmological flows in general relativity, V N Lukash, E V Mikheeva, V N Strokov Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 8, Pages 831-837

  12. [Takeki Kudoh's Research on Modern Medical Science and Japanized Confucianism in Colonial Korea (Chosŏn)].

    PubMed

    Ch'oi, Jae-Mok; Kim, Jeŏng-Gon

    2015-12-01

    revealed that his brother Tadaske and Shigeo also stayed in Chosŏn to act as an important assistants for the Colonial Chosŏn Government-general. Kudoh was an important man in Japanese society in Chosŏn, acting as a member of 「Group of Same Origin」 and 'Chosŏn Association of great Asia'which was an important organization assisting Colonial Chosŏn Government-general and was a representative position in Seoul district of Bukmichang-jeong(now Bukchang-dong) Fifth, Kudoh Takeki's precise activity to terminate Chosŏn cultural 'gene'and lead to enlightenment was analyzed by an examination of his Medical Science as an occupation and Confucianism as a background of his thought. Even he attempted to enlighten the brutal Chosŏn people in cultural aspects but it was only a tool to assist the colonial policy of Japan by emphasizing 'Kyoikuchokugo(Imperial Rescript on Education)'to implant the Kodo-Seishin(Imperial Spirit). Analyzing the relationship of Kumamoto Practical Party with Yi Toegye, the intention of a deep connection toward 'One Unity of Japan and Chosŏn'by colonial policy was revealed. In conclusion, the paper revealed the Japanese modernization frame to complete 'One Unity of Japan and Chosŏn'and 'Make people to obey the Japan Emperor'by enlightening the dark Chosŏn and merging them with Japan as Kudoh intended. PMID:26819437

  13. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    the value of hydraulic machinery to the end user, to the societies, and to improve societies understanding and appreciation of that value. The series of IAHR Symposia on Hydraulic Machinery and Cavitation started with the 1st edition in Nice, France, 1960. For the past decade, all the symposia have focused on an extended portfolio of topics under the name of 'Hydraulic Machinery and Systems', such as the 20th edition in Charlotte, USA, 2000, the 21st in Lausanne, Switzerland, 2002, the 22nd in Stockholm, Sweden, 2004, the 23rd in Yokohama, Japan, 2006, the 24th in Foz do Iguassu, Brasil, 2008, and the 25th in Timisoara, Romania, 2010. The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems brings together more than 250 scientists and researchers from 25 countries, affiliated with universities, technology centers and industrial firms to debate topics related to advanced technologies for hydraulic machinery and systems, which will enhance the sustainable development of water resources and hydropower production. The Scientific Committee has selected 268 papers, out of 430 abstracts submitted, on the following topics: (i) Hydraulic Turbines and Pumps, (ii) Sustainable Hydropower, (iii) Hydraulic Systems, (iv) Advances in Computational and Experimental Techniques, (v) Application in Industries and in Special Conditions, to be presented at the symposium and to be included in the proceedings. All the papers, published in this Volume 15 of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems proceedings, those are Yulin Wu, Zhengwei Wang, Shuhong Liu, Shouqi Yuan, Xingqi Luo and Fujun Wang. We sincerely hope that this edition of the symposium will be a significant step forward in the worldwide efforts to address the present challenges facing the modern Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Professor Yulin Wu Chairman of the Organizing Committee

  14. 78 FR 55253 - Notification of Public Teleconference of the Hydraulic Fracturing Research Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... AGENCY Notification of Public Teleconference of the Hydraulic Fracturing Research Advisory Panel AGENCY...) Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public teleconference of the Hydraulic Fracturing... information related to hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. DATES: The public...

  15. [ELIE METCHNIKOFF--THE FOUNDER OF LONGEVITY SCIENCE AND A FOUNDER OF MODERN MEDICINE: IN HONOR OF THE 170TH ANNIVERSARY].

    PubMed

    Stambler, I S

    2015-01-01

    The years 2015-2016 mark a double anniversary--the 170th anniversary of birth and the 100th anni- versary of death--of one of the greatest Russian scientists, a person that may be considered a founding figure of modern immunology, aging and longevity science--Elie Metchnikoff (May 15, 1845-July 15, 1916). At this time of the rapid aging of the world population and the rapid development of technologies that may ameliorate degenerative aging processes, Metchnikoff's pioneering contribution to the search for anti-aging and healthspan-extending means needs to be recalled and honored. PMID:26856081

  16. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. Course Models for the History-Social Science Framework, Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Stephanie, Ed.; And Others

    This document is a response to teachers' requests for practical assistance in implementing California's history-social science framework. The document offers stimulating ideas to enrich the teaching of history and social science, enliven instruction for every student, focus on essential topics, and help make learning more memorable. Experiences…

  17. Educacion y Ciencias Sociales en el Mundo Moderno. [Education and the Social Sciences in the Modern World].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimoldi, Horacio J. A.

    The document, written in Spanish, discusses the relationship between research in the social sciences and the role of the university in social science education. The author considers the education of researchers, the application of research, the need for interdisciplinary research methods, and problems involved in cross-cultural studies. He states…

  18. New Science Curriculum Based on Inquiry Based Learning--A Model of Modern Educational System in Republic of Macedonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aceska, Natalija

    2016-01-01

    The process of globalization, more progressive development of the scientific findings, new technology and the way of communicating with the new forms of literacy in which the most secure spot has been taken by the development of natural sciences in the spirit of "sustainable development" have been the reasons that make science and…

  19. Forming Modern Citizens in the 1960s: Comparative Analysis of Teaching in Natural Sciences, Physical Sciences and Physical Education throughout France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Michael; Guedj-Chauchard, Muriel; Saint-Martin, Jean; Savaton, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Reforms made to France's education system structures during the 1960s resulted in a repositioning of academic subjects within study plans. This article looks at three relatively similar subjects (physical sciences, natural sciences and physical education) and throws light on the arguments put forward to defend the purpose of each of them in the…

  20. [The contribution of L.G. Ramensky theoretical legacy to modern vegetation science (to the 130 anniversary of the scientist's birth)].

    PubMed

    Mirkin, B M; Naumova, L G

    2015-01-01

    L.G. Ramensky (1884-1953) was an outstanding Soviet geobotanist of the first part of XX century. Considered is his theoretical legacy and its contribution to modern vegetation science. L.G. Ramensky formulated the principle of vegetation continuum based on which the modern paradigm of vegetation science has been put into shape. The scientist made a contribution to the development of such important theoretical conceptions as types of plant strategy, coenosis and coenobiosis (coexistence of species), patterns of interannual variability in plant communities, ecological successions. The unique ecological scales were established by L.G. Ramensky that characterize the distribution of 1400 species over the gradients of soil moistening, richness, and salinization as well as moistening variability, pastoral digression, and alluvial intensity. He came out against mechanistic notions by V.N. Sukachev on a biogeocoenosis structure. The scientist did not offer his own method of plant communities classification but his well-reasoned criticism of dominant classification played a great role in adoption of floristical classification principles (Braun-Blanquet approach) by phytocenology in our country. PMID:26201220

  1. Hydraulic fracturing-1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains papers on hydraulic fracturing. Topics covered include: An overview of recent advances in hydraulic fracturing technology; Containment of massive hydraulic fracture; and Fracturing with a high-strength proppant.

  2. Report on the ESO/OPTICON/IAU Summer School ''Modern Instruments, their Science Case, and Practical Data Reduction''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabath, P.; Dennefeld, M.; Gerbaldi, M.; Paunzen, E.; Karas, V.

    2015-12-01

    The Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences organised, jointly with its local partners from Masaryk University, and international partners OPTICON, ESO and the IAU, a two-week practical training course in astronomy for young researchers. The summer school is briefly summarised: lectures covered a wide range of theoretical and observational topics and the emphasis of the practical work was on the analysis of archival data.

  3. A Bridge Too Far – Revisited: Reframing Bruer’s Neuroeducation Argument for Modern Science of Learning Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Jared C.; Donoghue, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    In Education and the Brain: A Bridge Too Far, John Bruer argues that, although current neuroscientific findings must filter through cognitive psychology in order to be applicable to the classroom, with increased knowledge the neuroscience/education bridge can someday be built. Here, we suggest that translation cannot be understood as a single process: rather, we demonstrate that at least four different ‘bridges’ can conceivably be built between these two fields. Following this, we demonstrate that, far from being a matter of information lack, a prescriptive neuroscience/education bridge (the one most relevant to Bruer’s argument) is a practical and philosophical impossibility due to incommensurability between non-adjacent compositional levels-of-organization: a limitation inherent in all sciences. After defining this concept in the context of biology, we apply this concept to the learning sciences and demonstrate why all brain research must be behaviorally translated before prescriptive educational applicability can be elucidated. We conclude by exploring examples of how explicating different forms of translation and adopting a levels-of-organization framework can be used to contextualize and beneficially guide research and practice across all learning sciences. PMID:27014173

  4. Composite hydraulic system

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, W.A.

    1987-03-17

    A composite hydraulic system is described for a work vehicle having an implement hydraulic circuit and a steering hydraulic circuit comprising a first pump which supplies the implement hydraulic circuit primarily, a second pump which supplies the steering hydraulic circuit primarily, a third pump which is operable also as a motor and which transfers hydraulic fluid between the implement and the steering hydraulic circuits, an engine which operates the three pumps simultaneously, and servo system means whereby the third pump under at least one condition of operation operates as a motor to provide regeneration.

  5. Using Modern And Inexpensive Tools In the Classroom To Teach Spectroscopy And To Do Exciting Citizen Science On Astronomical Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, T.

    2014-12-01

    Spectroscopy is a key tool used in modern astronomical research. But, it's always been a difficult topic to teach or practice because the expense and complexity of the available tools. Over the past few years, there's been somewhat of a revolution in this field as new technologies have applied. In this presentation we'll review some new spectroscopy tools that enable educators, students and citizen scientists to do exciting spectroscopic work. With the addition of a simple, inexpensive grating, it's now possible to capture scientifically significant spectra of astronomical objects with small (6") telescopes and even just a DSLR. See the tools that citizen scientists are using to contribute data to pro-am collaborations around the world. We'll also examine a simple, surprisingly inexpensive, tripod-mounted spectrometer that can be used in the classroom for demonstrations and hands-on labs with gas tubes and other light sources. Both of the above instruments use a software program named RSpec, which is state of the art software suite that is easy to learn and easy to use. In this presentation we'll see these devices in operation and discuss how they can be used by educators to dramatically improve their teaching of this topic. You'll see how these tools can eliminate the frustration of hand-held rainbow foil and plastic spectrometers. And we'll review some exciting examples of astronomical spectra being collected by amateurs and educators.

  6. Ice sheets viewed from the ocean: the contribution of marine science to understanding modern and past ice sheets.

    PubMed

    Ó Cofaigh, Colm

    2012-12-13

    Over the last two decades, marine science, aided by technological advances in sediment coring, geophysical imaging and remotely operated submersibles, has played a major role in the investigation of contemporary and former ice sheets. Notable advances have been achieved with respect to reconstructing the extent and flow dynamics of the large polar ice sheets and their mid-latitude counterparts during the Quaternary from marine geophysical and geological records of landforms and sediments on glacier-influenced continental margins. Investigations of the deep-sea ice-rafted debris record have demonstrated that catastrophic collapse of large (10(5)-10(6) km(2)) ice-sheet drainage basins occurred on millennial and shorter time scales and had a major influence on oceanography. In the last few years, increasing emphasis has been placed on understanding physical processes at the ice-ocean interface, particularly at the grounding line, and on determining how these processes affect ice-sheet stability. This remains a major challenge, however, owing to the logistical constraints imposed by working in ice-infested polar waters and ice-shelf cavities. Furthermore, despite advances in reconstructing the Quaternary history of mid- and high-latitude ice sheets, major unanswered questions remain regarding West Antarctic ice-sheet stability, and the long-term offshore history of the East Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets remains poorly constrained. While these are major research frontiers in glaciology, and ones in which marine science has a pivotal role to play, realizing such future advances will require an integrated collaborative approach between oceanographers, glaciologists, marine geologists and numerical modellers. PMID:23129711

  7. FOREWORD: The XXV IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems marks half a century tradition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susan-Resiga, Romeo

    2010-05-01

    IAHR75_logoUPT90_logoARFT_logo International Association of Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research'Politehnica' University of TimisoaraRomanian Academy - Timisoara Branch The 25th edition of the IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, held in Timisoara, Romania, 20-24 September 2010, jointly organized by the 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara and the Romanian Academy - Timisoara Branch, marks a half century tradition of these prestigious symposia. However, it is the first time that Romania hosts such a symposium, and for good reasons. The Romanian electrical power system has a total of 20,630 MW installed power, out of which 6,422 MW in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was in 2008 of 17,105 GWh from a total of 64,772 GWh electrical energy production. Moreover, for the period 2009-2015, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 2,157 MW installed power and an estimated 5,770 GWh/year energy production. Within the same period of time, the refurbishment, modernization and repair programs will increase the actual hydropower production with an estimated 349 GWh/year. The 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara is proud to host the 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, in the year of its 90th anniversary. The 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara is one of the largest and most well-known technical universities from Central and Eastern Europe. It was founded in 1920, a short time after the union into one state of all the Romanian territories, following the end of the First World War, in order to respond to the need engineers felt by the Romanian society at that time, within the economical development framework. During its 90 years of existence, 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara educated over 100,000 engineers, greatly appreciated both in Romania and abroad, for their competence and seriousness. King Ferdinand I of Romania said while visiting the recently established

  8. Light sheet-based fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) reduces phototoxic effects and provides new means for the modern life sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pampaloni, Francesco; Ansari, Nari; Girard, Philippe; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

    2011-07-01

    Most optical technologies are applied to flat, basically two-dimensional cellular systems. However, physiological meaningful information relies on the morphology, the mechanical properties and the biochemistry of a cell's context. A cell requires the complex three-dimensional relationship to other cells. However, the observation of multi-cellular biological specimens remains a challenge. Specimens scatter and absorb light, thus, the delivery of the probing light and the collection of the signal light become inefficient; many endogenous biochemical compounds also absorb light and suffer degradation of some sort (photo-toxicity), which induces malfunction of a specimen. In conventional and confocal fluorescence microscopy, whenever a single plane, the entire specimen is illuminated. Recording stacks of images along the optical Z-axis thus illuminates the entire specimen once for each plane. Hence, cells are illuminated 10-20 and fish 100-300 times more often than they are observed. This can be avoided by changing the optical arrangement. The basic idea is to use light sheets, which are fed into the specimen from the side and overlap with the focal plane of a wide-field fluorescence microscope. In contrast to an epi-fluorescence arrangement, such an azimuthal fluorescence arrangement uses two independently operated lenses for illumination and detection. Optical sectioning and no photo-toxic damage or photo-bleaching outside a small volume close to the focal plane are intrinsic properties. Light sheet-based fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) takes advantage of modern camera technologies. LSFM can be operated with laser cutters and for fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. During the last few years, LSFM was used to record zebrafish development from the early 32-cell stage until late neurulation with sub-cellular resolution and short sampling periods (60-90 sec/stack). The recording speed was five 4-Megapixel large frames/sec with a dynamic range of 12-14 bit. We followed

  9. Making Modern Migraine Medieval: Men of Science, Hildegard of Bingen and the Life of a Retrospective Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Foxhall, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Charles Singer’s retrospective diagnosis of Hildegard of Bingen as a migraine sufferer, first made in 1913, has become commonly accepted. This article uses Hildegard as a case study to shift our focus from a polarised debate about the merits or otherwise of retrospective diagnosis, to examine instead what happens when diagnoses take on lives of their own. It argues that simply championing or rejecting retrospective diagnosis is not enough; that we need instead to appreciate how, at the moment of creation, a diagnosis reflects the significance of particular medical signs and theories in historical context and how, when and why such diagnoses can come to do meaningful work when subsequently mobilised as scientific ‘fact’. This article first traces the emergence of a new formulation of migraine in the nineteenth century, then shows how this context enabled Singer to retrospectively diagnose Hildegard’s migraine and finally examines some of the ways in which this idea has gained popular and academic currency in the second half of the twentieth century. The case of Hildegard’s migraine reminds us of the need to historicise scientific evidence just as rigorously as we historicise our other material and it exposes the cumulative methodological problems that can occur when historians use science, and scientists use history on a casual basis. PMID:25045179

  10. Gnotobiology in modern medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podoprigora, G. I.

    1980-01-01

    A review is given of currently accepted theories and applications of gnotobiology. A brief history of gnotobiology is supplied. Problems involved in creating germ-free gnotobiota and the use of these animals in experimental biology are cited. Examples of how gnotobiology is used in modern medical practice illustrate the future prospects for this area of science.

  11. Facility Modernization Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D; Ackley, R

    2007-05-10

    Modern and technologically up-to-date facilities and systems infrastructure are necessary to accommodate today's research environment. In response, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has a continuing commitment to develop and apply effective management models and processes to maintain, modernize, and upgrade its facilities to meet the science and technology mission. The Facility Modernization Pilot Study identifies major subsystems of facilities that are either technically or functionally obsolete, lack adequate capacity and/or capability, or need to be modernized or upgraded to sustain current operations and program mission. This study highlights areas that need improvement, system interdependencies, and how these systems/subsystems operate and function as a total productive unit. Although buildings are 'grandfathered' in and are not required to meet current codes unless there are major upgrades, this study also evaluates compliance with 'current' building, electrical, and other codes. This study also provides an evaluation of the condition and overall general appearance of the structure.

  12. Computing in Hydraulic Engineering Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Civil engineers, pioneers of our civilization, are rarely perceived as leaders and innovators in modern society because of retardations in technology innovation. This crisis has resulted in the decline of the prestige of civil engineering profession, reduction of federal funding on deteriorating infrastructures, and problems with attracting the most talented high-school students. Infusion of cutting-edge computer technology and stimulating creativity and innovation therefore are the critical challenge to civil engineering education. To better prepare our graduates to innovate, this paper discussed the adaption of problem-based collaborative learning technique and integration of civil engineering computing into a traditional civil engineering curriculum. Three interconnected courses: Open Channel Flow, Computational Hydraulics, and Sedimentation Engineering, were developed with emphasis on computational simulations. In Open Channel flow, the focuses are principles of free surface flow and the application of computational models. This prepares students to the 2nd course, Computational Hydraulics, that introduce the fundamental principles of computational hydraulics, including finite difference and finite element methods. This course complements the Open Channel Flow class to provide students with in-depth understandings of computational methods. The 3rd course, Sedimentation Engineering, covers the fundamentals of sediment transport and river engineering, so students can apply the knowledge and programming skills gained from previous courses to develop computational models for simulating sediment transport. These courses effectively equipped students with important skills and knowledge to complete thesis and dissertation research.

  13. [Historical sketch of modern pharmaceutical science and technology (Part 3). From the second half of the 19th century to World War II].

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, K

    1995-01-01

    The history of modern pharmaceutical science and technology, from the second half of the 19th century to the end of World War II, is divided into nine sections for the purpose of discussion. 1. The European medical and pharmaceutical science and technology at the end of the 19th century is reviewed. Pharmacology, bacteriology and biochemistry were built in this period. 2. The Meiji Government accepted Western medicine and medical law and regulations in 1883. Consequently, the Japanese physician changed from Eastern (Kanpooi) to Western (Seiyooi). 3. Modern scientific and engineering education had been accepted in America, England, Germany, and France etc. Foreign scientists and engineers (Oyatoi-gai-kokujin) were educated by practice and theory. The Faculty of Engineering was established in the universities in Japan. This fact is one of the differences in the history of universities in Europe and America. 4. Pharmaceutical education in the Meiji period (1873-1911). Twenty-nine schools of pharmacy were built in this period. However, 20 schools of pharmacy had been closed. Pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry was not established in the Meiji era. 5. The profession of pharmacist in 1873-1944. The policy of medicine was changed by the Meiji Government in 1889, when Western physicians were allowed to prepare medicines for patients, and this practice continues today. Political and technological power of Japanese pharmacists was weak, so their role was not estimated. 6. Consequences of world War I, and the establishment of the pharmaceutical industry. The Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) and Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) were won fortunately. The first pharmaceutical company was established in 1885. At this times, many pharmaceutical manufacturing companies, which were converted from whole sale merchants, were built. Then started the manufacturing of commercial drugs. 7. Hygienic chemistry and some problems of public hygiene. The causes of diseses unique to Japan, such as

  14. BOREAS HYD-1 Soil Hydraulic Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Kelly, Shaun F.; Stangel, David E.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-1 team coordinated a program of data collection to measure and monitor soil properties in collaboration with other science team measurement needs. This data set contains soil hydraulic properties determined at the Northern Study Area (NSA) and Southern Study Area (SSA) flux tower sites based on analysis of in situ tension infiltrometer tests and laboratory-determined water retention from soil cores collected during the 1994-95 field campaigns. Results from this analysis are saturated hydraulic conductivity, and fitting parameters for the van Genuchten-Mualem soil hydraulic conductivity and water retention function at flux tower sites. The data are contained in tabular ASCII files. The HYD-01 soil hydraulic properties data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  15. Modernity's Prometheus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Argues for reframing and reforging the relationship between text and context. Argues that the silences that modernity's tribute to text invites are grotesque, untenable, and fundamentally anti-intellectual. (SR)

  16. Electric-hydraulic car

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.W.; Greene, H.

    1993-07-27

    A propulsion system is described for a vehicle having a chassis and at least one drive wheel, the propulsion system including in combination: a constant speed power source comprising an alternating current electric motor operated at a constant speed corresponding to its optimum performance; a source of energy comprising a storage battery and an inverter connected to the electric motor for operating the electric motor of the constant speed power source; a hydraulic fluid system including a main hydraulic pump coupled with the electric motor of the constant speed power source and driven thereby; at least one hydraulic drive motor coupled with the hydraulic pump for receiving fluid flow therefrom; and means for varying the fluid flow through the main hydraulic pump to vary the speed of operation of the hydraulic drive motor.

  17. Science and Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Numbers, Ronald L.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the history of science and religion in the United States, examining: (1) science and religion in the colonies; (2) science and scripture in the early republic; (3) the Darwinian debates; and (4) science and religion in modern America. (JN)

  18. Modern trends in the development of small hydro power around the world and in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blyashko, Ya. I.

    2010-11-01

    Information on the development of small hydro power is given, specific features relating to construction of modern hydraulic power equipment for small hydraulic power stations are discussed, and experience gained at ZAO MNTO INSET with construction of small hydraulic power facilities in Russia and abroad is briefly described.

  19. Retraining the Modern Civil Engineer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priscoli, Jerome Delli

    1983-01-01

    Discusses why modern engineering requires social science and the nature of planning. After these conceptional discussions, 12 practical tools which social science brings to engineering are reviewed. A tested approach to training engineers in these tools is then described. Tools include institutional analysis, policy profiling, and other impact…

  20. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  1. EPA Study of Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    In its FY2010 Appropriations Committee Conference Report, Congress directed EPA to study the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using: • Best available science • Independent sources of information • Transparent, peer-reviewed process • Consultatio...

  2. Downhole hydraulic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Gregory, Danny L.; Hardee, Harry C.; Smallwood, David O.

    1992-01-01

    A downhole hydraulic seismic generator system for transmitting energy wave vibrations into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system contains an elongated, unitary housing operably connected to a well head aboveground by support and electrical cabling, and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a hydraulic oscillator containing a double-actuating piston whose movement is controlled by an electro-servovalve regulating a high pressure hydraulic fluid flow into and out of upper and lower chambers surrounding the piston. The spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator is stored and pumped back into the system to provide high pressure fluid for conducting another run at the same, or a different location within the borehole.

  3. Modern Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Gordon M.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the basic ideas of modern spectroscopy. Both the angular momenta and wave-nature approaches to the determination of energy level patterns for atomic and molecular systems are discussed. The interpretation of spectra, based on atomic and molecular models, is considered. (LC)

  4. Modern Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, London (England).

    This survey of educational practices in Great Britain is intended to allow a comparative view of the state of modern language instruction as it exists within the country and abroad. Chapters focus on general principles, language selection, grammar and secondary schools, instructional materials, foreign relations, teacher training, and teaching…

  5. Reviews Book: SEP Communications: Transmitting and Receiving Signals Book: Gliding for Gold Book: Radioactivity: A History of a Mysterious Science Book: The New Quantum Age Books: The Art of Science and The Oxford Book of Modern Science Writing Equipment: SEP Analogue/digital transmission unit Equipment: SEP Optical signal transmission set Book: Stars and their Spectra Book: Voicebox: The Physics and Evolution of Speech Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND Transmitting and Receiving Signals SEP booklet transmits knowledge The New Quantum Age Understanding modern quantum theory The Art of Science and The Oxford Book of Modern Science Writing Anthologies bring science to life SEP Analogue/digital transmission unit Kit transmits signal between two points SEP Optical signal transmission set Optical kit shows light transmission Stars and their Spectra New book for teaching astrophysics WORTH A LOOK Gliding for Gold Take a journey through the physics of winter sports Radioactivity: A History of a Mysterious Science Book looks at history of radioactivity Voicebox: The Physics and Evolution of Speech TExploring the evolution of the voice WEB WATCH An interactive program with promise?

  6. Electric versus hydraulic drives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This volume records the proceedings of a conference organised by the Engineering Manufacturing Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include high performance position control - a review of the current state of developments; hydrostatic drives - present and future; electric drives - present and future trends; electrical and hydraulic drives for heavy industrial robots; the development of an electro-mechanical tilt system for the advanced passenger train; industrial hydraulic ring mains - effective or efficient. the comparison of performance of servo feed-drive systems; overhead crane drives; the future of d.c. servodrives; the choice of actuator for military systems; linear electro-hydraulic actuators; and actuation for industrial robots.

  7. Cyberspace modernization :

    SciTech Connect

    Keliiaa, Curtis M.; McLane, Victor N.

    2014-07-01

    A common challenge across the communications and information technology (IT) sectors is Internet + modernization + complexity + risk + cost. Cyberspace modernization and cyber security risks, issues, and concerns impact service providers, their customers, and the industry at large. Public and private sectors are struggling to solve the problem. New service opportunities lie in mobile voice, video, and data, and machine-to-machine (M2M) information and communication technologies that are migrating not only to predominant Internet Protocol (IP) communications, but also concurrently integrating IP, version 4 (IPv4) and IP, version 6 (IPv6). With reference to the Second Internet and the Internet of Things, next generation information services portend business survivability in the changing global market. The planning, architecture, and design information herein is intended to increase infrastructure preparedness, security, interoperability, resilience, and trust in the midst of such unprecedented change and opportunity. This document is a product of Sandia National Laboratories Tribal Cyber and IPv6 project work. It is a Cyberspace Modernization objective advisory in support of bridging the digital divide through strategic partnership and an informed path forward.

  8. Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Linda E., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and Analysis" (Patricia…

  9. Controlling hydraulic system costs

    SciTech Connect

    Smiley, C.H.

    1982-06-01

    Hydraulic system preventive maintenance is largely a matter of using the senses and common logic to spot signs of impending problems. The ability to recognize a potential malfunction can save a great deal of money in repairs and lost production.

  10. Tribology of hydraulic pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, A.

    1997-12-31

    To obtain much higher performance than that of alternative power transmission systems, hydraulic systems have been continuously evolving to use high-pressure. Adoption of positive displacement pumps and motors is based on this reason. Therefore, tribology is a key terminology for hydraulic pumps and motors to obtain excellent performance and durability. In this paper the following topics are investigated: (1) the special feature of tribology of hydraulic pumps and motors; (2) indication of the important bearing/sealing parts in piston pumps and effects of the frictional force and leakage flow to performance; (3) the methods to break through the tribological limitation of hydraulic equipment; and (4) optimum design of the bearing/sealing parts used in the fluid to mixed lubrication regions.

  11. Suspensions in hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, S.N.

    1996-12-31

    Suspensions or slurries are widely used in well stimulation and hydraulic fracturing processes to enhance the production of oil and gas from the underground hydrocarbon-bearing formation. The success of these processes depends significantly upon having a thorough understanding of the behavior of suspensions used. Therefore, the characterization of suspensions under realistic conditions, for their rheological and hydraulic properties, is very important. This chapter deals with the state-of-the-art hydraulic fracturing suspension technology. Specifically it deals with various types of suspensions used in well stimulation and fracturing processes, their rheological characterization and hydraulic properties, behavior of suspensions in horizontal wells, review of proppant settling velocity and proppant transport in the fracture, and presently available measurement techniques for suspensions and their merits. Future industry needs for better understanding of the complex behavior of suspensions are also addressed. 74 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Portable Hydraulic Powerpack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. A.; Henry, R. L.; Fedor, O. H.; Owens, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Rechargeable hydraulic powerpack functions as lightweight, compact source of mechanical energy. Self-contained hydraulic powerpack derives energy from solid chemical charge. Combustion of charge initiated by small hammer, and revolving feeder replaces charges expended. Combustion gases cool during expansion in turbine and not too hot for release to atmosphere. Unit has applications driving wheelchairs and operating drills, winches, and other equipment in remote areas. Also replaces electric motors and internal-combustion engines as source of power in explosive atmospheres.

  13. Hydraulic motor for cars

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, D.C.

    1986-09-02

    A hydraulic motor for a car is described comprising, in combination, an automotive vehicle engine for travel self-propulsion, including a block, a plurality of cylinders in the block, a piston slidable in each cylinder, a crankshaft in the block, a piston rod connected between the crankshaft and each of the pistons, a power take-off gear on the crankshaft for the travel self-propulsion, and the engine including a hydraulic means for driving the pistons in the cylinders.

  14. An Experimental Study to Determine the Change in Attitude Toward Science of College Physics Students in Traditional and Modern Physics Content Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nance, William Ralph

    The experiment was designed to study the effects of an instructional strategy on prospective elementary school teachers receiving a course in the modern concepts of physics. The study involved two classes, both of which were taught with the same teaching method. The concepts presented were different. Those considered as traditional content…

  15. Offshore hydraulics: tough, reliable, and failsafe

    SciTech Connect

    Hoock, C.J.

    1983-08-01

    The Offshore Comet is a modern offshore drilling rig with a hydraulic-cylinder-actuated jacking (raising and lowering) system. Hydraulic-cylinder jacking provides a safe and efficient method for placing the rig at the desired height above the water and insuring that it can withstand the expected heavy loads imposed by machinery, supplies, and the ocean environment. The drilling rig consists of a steel-hulled barge that is floated to the site and then supported during drilling operations by four steel triangular-cross-section lattice legs. The legs are planted firmly on the ocean bottom by a procedure called preloading. Each leg with its integral footing weighs 657 tons. The barge with its deck load can weigh up to 9200 tons.

  16. Modern Physics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Douglas; Hiller, John R.; Moloney, Michael J.

    1995-10-01

    The Consortium for Upper Level Physics Software (CUPS) has developed a comprehensive series of Nine Book/Software packages that Wiley will publish in FY `95 and `96. CUPS is an international group of 27 physicists, all with extensive backgrounds in the research, teaching, and development of instructional software. The project is being supported by the National Science Foundation (PHY-9014548), and it has received other support from the IBM Corp., Apple Computer Corp., and George Mason University. The Simulations being developed are: Astrophysics, Classical Mechanics, Electricity & Magnetism, Modern Physics, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Solid State, Thermal and Statistical, and Wave and Optics.

  17. HYDRAULIC SERVO CONTROL MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Hussey, R.B.; Gottsche, M.J. Jr.

    1963-09-17

    A hydraulic servo control mechanism of compact construction and low fluid requirements is described. The mechanism consists of a main hydraulic piston, comprising the drive output, which is connected mechanically for feedback purposes to a servo control piston. A control sleeve having control slots for the system encloses the servo piston, which acts to cover or uncover the slots as a means of controlling the operation of the system. This operation permits only a small amount of fluid to regulate the operation of the mechanism, which, as a result, is compact and relatively light. This mechanism is particuiarly adaptable to the drive and control of control rods in nuclear reactors. (auth)

  18. Hydraulics of wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Thad G.

    1955-01-01

    Although the subject of this lecture is supposed to be concerned primarily with the hydraulics of wells, Professor Weers has asked that I also discuss the effects tat geological formations have on the quantity and quality of water available to wells. I will discuss the geology of Colorado in relation to the availability and quality of water with particular reference to the most productive aquifers or water-bearing formations in the State. I will then discuss the hydraulics of wells with the aim of emphasizing the differences between water-table and artesian conditions.

  19. Post-Modern Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    The history of software development includes elements of art, science, engineering, and fashion(though very little manufacturing). In all domains, old ideas give way or evolve to new ones: in the fine arts, the baroque gave way to rococo, romanticism, modernism, postmodernism, and so forth. What is the postmodern programming equivalent? That is, what comes after object orientation?

  20. Small hydraulic turbine drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostafinski, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Turbine, driven by the fluid being pumped, requires no external controls, is completely integrated into the flow system, and has bearings which utilize the main fluid for lubrication and cooling. Torque capabilities compare favorably with those developed by positive displacement hydraulic motors.

  1. Hydraulic Shutdown Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, S. T.; Harrington, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    Adding switch allows inappropriate control actions to be overridden. Four-pole, double-throw switch added to front panel of controller to disable tracking-error and endpoint-error circuitry yet still retain overload-detection capability. Previously, it was necessary to use adjustable-voltage-level detection equipment connected with cables to hydraulic "dump" or shutdown circuitry in controller.

  2. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  3. Integration in Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sworder, Steven C.

    This paper presents an application of integration to the field of hydraulics. An integral relation for the time required to drop the fluid contained in a cylindrical tank from one level to another using a hole in the tank wall is derived. Procedures for constructing the experimental equipment and procedures for determining the coefficient of…

  4. Hydraulic catworks system

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.L.

    1981-03-03

    A hydraulic catworks system is described for use on a well drilling rig for making up and breaking out a drill string which includes a hydraulic makeup piston and cylinder assembly for actuating a makeup line connected to the makeup tongs, and a breakout piston and cylinder assembly connected to a breakout line for actuating the breakout tongs. A makeup hydraulic control valve controls hydraulic fluid to first and second lines connected to the makeup assembly with the first line connected for extending the makeup line and the second line connected for retracting the makeup line. A breakout hydraulic control valve controls fluid to third and fourth lines with the third line connected for extending the breakout line and the fourth line connected for retracting the breakout line. Manual air control means are provided for selectively actuating the makeup and breakout control valves. A variable pressure control is connected to the second line for controlling the makeup torque. Preferably, the makeup and breakout assemblies are vertically connected to the legs of the drilling rig and rollers are positioned horizontally with the makeup and breakout tongs and connected to the breakout and makeup lines. Preferably, a sheave is connected to the makeup assembly and the makeup line passes over the sheave with its free end fixedly secured. A re-generative system is provided on the makeup assembly for increasing the speed of the makeup line extension. Preferably the makeup and breakout cylinders are of the same cross-sectional area with the stroke of the breakout cylinder being less than the stroke of the makeup cylinder.

  5. Mercury-contaminated hydraulic mining debris in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouse, Robin M.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Smith, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury concentrations in pre-Gold Rush sediment range between 0.03 and 0.08 μg g-1. In core sediments that have characteristics of the gold deposits and were deposited during the time of hydraulic mining, mercury concentrations can be up to 0.45 μg/g. Modern sediment (post-1952 deposition) contains mercury concentrations up to 0.79 μg/g and is likely a mix of hydraulic mining mercury and mercury introduced from other sources.

  6. The emergence of modern statistics in agricultural science: analysis of variance, experimental design and the reshaping of research at Rothamsted Experimental Station, 1919-1933.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Giuditta

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century statistical methods have transformed research in the experimental and social sciences. Qualitative evidence has largely been replaced by quantitative results and the tools of statistical inference have helped foster a new ideal of objectivity in scientific knowledge. The paper will investigate this transformation by considering the genesis of analysis of variance and experimental design, statistical methods nowadays taught in every elementary course of statistics for the experimental and social sciences. These methods were developed by the mathematician and geneticist R. A. Fisher during the 1920s, while he was working at Rothamsted Experimental Station, where agricultural research was in turn reshaped by Fisher's methods. Analysis of variance and experimental design required new practices and instruments in field and laboratory research, and imposed a redistribution of expertise among statisticians, experimental scientists and the farm staff. On the other hand the use of statistical methods in agricultural science called for a systematization of information management and made computing an activity integral to the experimental research done at Rothamsted, permanently integrating the statisticians' tools and expertise into the station research programme. Fisher's statistical methods did not remain confined within agricultural research and by the end of the 1950s they had come to stay in psychology, sociology, education, chemistry, medicine, engineering, economics, quality control, just to mention a few of the disciplines which adopted them. PMID:25311906

  7. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Love, L.J.

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  8. Mechanics of Hydraulic Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detournay, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic fractures represent a particular class of tensile fractures that propagate in solid media under pre-existing compressive stresses as a result of internal pressurization by an injected viscous fluid. The main application of engineered hydraulic fractures is the stimulation of oil and gas wells to increase production. Several physical processes affect the propagation of these fractures, including the flow of viscous fluid, creation of solid surfaces, and leak-off of fracturing fluid. The interplay and the competition between these processes lead to multiple length scales and timescales in the system, which reveal the shifting influence of the far-field stress, viscous dissipation, fracture energy, and leak-off as the fracture propagates.

  9. Characterize the hydraulic behaviour of grate inlet in urban drainage to prevent the urban's flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellez Alvarez, Jackson David; Gomez, Manuel; Russo, Beniamino; Redondo, Jose M.

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important problems that have some cities is the urban floods because of poor drainage design. Therefore the systems the drainage do not have the capacity of capture the flow of discharge generated in a rain event and insert it into the drainage network. Even though the two problems that have caught the main attention are the evaluation of the volumes falling in the river basin because extreme rainfall events often lead to urban pluvial flooding being a hydrologic problem and the hydraulic design of the sewer network being a hydraulic problem to limiting capacity of the drainage system, there is an intermediate step between these two processes that is necessary to solve that is the hydraulic behavior of the grate inlet. We need to collect the runoff produced on the city surface and to introduce it in the sewer network. Normally foundry companies provide complete information about drainage grate structural capacity but provide nothing about their hydraulic capacity. This fact can be seen because at the moment does not exist any official regulation at national or international level in this field. It's obvious that, nowadays, there is a great gap in this field at the legislative level owing to the complexity of this field and the modernity of the urban hydrology as science [1]. In essence, we shows the relevance to know the inlet hydraulic interception capacity because surface drainage requires a satisfactory knowledge on storm frequency, gutter flow and above all inlet capacity. In addition, we development an important achievement is the invention and development of techniques for measurement of field velocities in hydraulics engineering applications. Hence knowledge the technological advances in digital cameras with high resolution and high speed found in the environmental, and the advances in image processing techniques, therefore now is a tremendous potential to obtain of behavior of the water surface flow [2]. A novel technique using particle

  10. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  11. Towards a Science of Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    This article is a contribution to the search for evidence-based models of learning to improve science education. The author believes that modern teachers should look to the sciences of cognitive psychology and neuroscience to build a science of science teaching. Understanding the relationships between learning and the brain's structure and…

  12. Modern problems of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    The role of energy and methods of its saving for the development of human society and life are analyzed. The importance of future use of space energy flows and energy of water and air oceans is emphasized. The authors consider the idea of the unit for production of electric energy and pure substances using sodium chloride which reserves are limitless on the planet. Looking retrospectively at the development of power engineering from the elementary fire to modern electric power station, we see that the used method of heat production, namely by direct interaction of fuel and oxidizer, is the simplest. However, it may be possible to combust coal, i.e., carbon in salt melt, for instance, sodium chloride that would be more rational and efficient. If the stated problems are solved positively, we would master all energy properties of the substance; and this is the main problem of thermodynamics being one of the sciences on energy.

  13. High Speed Strain Measurements Surrounding Hydraulic Fracture in Brittle Hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhardt, Will; Rubinstein, Shmuel

    2015-11-01

    Hydraulic fractures of oil and gas shales occur miles underground, below complex, layered rocks, making measurements of their dynamics, extent, or structure difficult to impossible. Rocks are heterogeneous at a wide range of length scales, and investigating how these non-uniformities affect the propagation and extent of fractures is vital to improving both the safety and efficiency of hydraulic fracturing operations. To study these effects we have developed a model system using brittle, heavily cross-linked hydrogels that we can fracture with fluids and observe with a fast camera. By embedding tracer particles within the gel and using laser sheet microscopy, we obtain three dimensional stress and strain maps of the zone surrounding a hydraulic fracture tip. Gels can also be set in layers or interfaces with tunable strengths or with designed heterogeneities, allowing us to understand the fundamental science of hydraulic fractures and investigate the dynamics of controllably complex materials.

  14. Beck, Asia and second modernity.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Craig

    2010-09-01

    The work of Ulrich Beck has been important in bringing sociological attention to the ways issues of risk are embedded in contemporary globalization, in developing a theory of 'reflexive modernization', and in calling for social science to transcend 'methodological nationalism'. In recent studies, he and his colleagues help to correct for the Western bias of many accounts of cosmopolitanism and reflexive modernization, and seek to distinguish normative goals from empirical analysis. In this paper I argue that further clarification of this latter distinction is needed but hard to reach within a framework that still embeds the normative account in the idea that empirical change has a clear direction. Similar issues beset the presentation of diverse patterns in recent history as all variants of 'second modernity'. Lastly, I note that ironically, given the declared 'methodological cosmopolitanism' of the authors, the empirical studies here all focus on national cases. PMID:20840434

  15. The science in social science

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, H. Russell

    2012-01-01

    A recent poll showed that most people think of science as technology and engineering—life-saving drugs, computers, space exploration, and so on. This was, in fact, the promise of the founders of modern science in the 17th century. It is less commonly understood that social and behavioral sciences have also produced technologies and engineering that dominate our everyday lives. These include polling, marketing, management, insurance, and public health programs. PMID:23213222

  16. "Modern medical science and the divine providence of god": rethinking the place of religion in postwar U.S. medical history.

    PubMed

    Golden, Janet; Abel, Emily K

    2014-10-01

    Drawing on a large cache of letters to John and Frances Gunther after the death of their son as well as memoirs and fiction by bereaved parents, this essay challenges the assumptions of secularization that infuse histories of twentieth-century American medicine. Many parents who experienced the death of children during the postwar period relied heavily on religion to help make sense of the tragedies medicine could not prevent. Parental accounts included expression of belief in divine intervention and the power of prayer, gratitude for God's role in minimizing suffering, confidence in the existence of an afterlife, and acceptance of the will of God. Historians seeking to understand how parents and families understood both the delivery of medical care and the cultural authority of medical science must integrate an understanding of religious experiences and faith into their work. PMID:23946448

  17. Vehicle hydraulic cooling fan system

    SciTech Connect

    Nilson, C.A.

    1993-06-08

    A hydraulic cooling system for vehicles having an internal combustion engine cooled by a radiator and a coolant is described, comprising, in combination, a shroud adapted to be mounted adjacent the radiator having a wall forming an air passage and defining a first port disposed adjacent the radiator and a second port spaced from the first port, a fan located within the second port, a hydraulic fan motor operatively connected to the fan, a hydraulic pump operatively connected to the engine for producing a pressurized hydraulic fluid flow, a hydraulic circuit interconnecting the pump to the fan motor, the circuit including a control valve, a hydraulic fluid reservoir and a heat exchanger, the heat exchanger being mounted within the shroud air passage.

  18. Limits of downstream hydraulic geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2004-10-01

    Adjustments to flow width, depth, and velocity in response to changes in discharge are commonly characterized by using downstream hydraulic geometry relationships. The spatial limits of these relationships within a drainage basin have not been systematically quantified. Where the erosional resistance of the channel substrate is sufficiently large, hydraulic driving forces presumably will be unable to adjust channel form. Data sets from 10 mountain rivers in the United States, Panama, Nepal, and New Zealand are used in this study to explore the limits of downstream hydraulic geometry relationships. Where the ratio of stream power to sediment size (Ω/D84) exceeds 10,000 kg/s3, downstream hydraulic geometry is well developed; where the ratio falls below 10,000 kg/s3, downstream hydraulic geometry relationships are poorly developed. These limitations on downstream hydraulic geometry have important implications for channel engineering and simulations of landscape change.

  19. Hydraulic mining method

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  20. Mendel in the Modern Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mike U.; Gericke, Niklas M.

    2015-01-01

    Mendel is an icon in the history of genetics and part of our common culture and modern biology instruction. The aim of this paper is to summarize the place of Mendel in the modern biology classroom. In the present article we will identify key issues that make Mendel relevant in the classroom today. First, we recount some of the historical controversies that have relevance to modern curricular design, such as Fisher's (Ann Sci 1:115-137, 1936/2008) claim that Mendel's data were too good to be true. We also address questions about Mendel's status as the father of genetics as well as questions about the sequencing of Mendel's work in genetics instruction in relation to modern molecular genetics and evolution. Next, we present a systematic set of examples of research based approaches to the use of Mendel in the modern classroom along with criticisms of these designs and questions about the historical accuracy of the story of Mendel as presented in the typical classroom. Finally, we identify gaps in our understanding in need of further study and present a selected set of resources that, along with the references cited, should be valuable to science educators interested in further study of the story of Mendel.

  1. 110. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (109), LSB (BLDG. 770) ACCUMULATOR FOR MAST RETRACTION ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. 128. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (209), LSB (BLDG. 751). PUMP ON RIGHT; ACCUMULATOR FOR MAST RETRACTION ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  3. Fluid Power/Basic Hydraulics. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanbery, Richard

    This guide is designed to assist industrial vocational instructors in teaching a course on fluid power and basic hydraulics. Covered in the unit on the basics of fluid power and hydraulics are the following topics: the fundamentals of fluid power and hydraulics, basic hydraulic circuits, and servicing a hydraulic jack. The second unit, consisting…

  4. Potential Relationships Between Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The conferees urge the Agency to carry out a study on the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using a credible approach that relies on the best available science, as well as independent sources of information. The conferees expect the study to be conduct...

  5. The Hydraulic Jump: Finding Complexity in Turbulent Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Students who do not progress to more advanced science disciplines in college generally do not realize that seemingly simple physical systems are--when studied in detail--more complex than one might imagine. This article presents one such phenomenon--the hydraulic jump--as a way to help students see the complexity behind the seemingly simple, and…

  6. Discovering indigenous science: Implications for science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snively, Gloria; Corsiglia, John

    2001-01-01

    Indigenous science relates to both the science knowledge of long-resident, usually oral culture peoples, as well as the science knowledge of all peoples who as participants in culture are affected by the worldview and relativist interests of their home communities. This article explores aspects of multicultural science and pedagogy and describes a rich and well-documented branch of indigenous science known to biologists and ecologists as traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). Although TEK has been generally inaccessible, educators can now use a burgeoning science-based TEK literature that documents numerous examples of time-proven, ecologically relevant, and cost effective indigenous science. Disputes regarding the universality of the standard scientific account are of critical importance for science educators because the definition of science is a de facto gatekeeping device for determining what can be included in a school science curriculum and what cannot. When Western modern science (WMS) is defined as universal it does displace revelation-based knowledge (i.e., creation science); however, it also displaces pragmatic local indigenous knowledge that does not conform with formal aspects of the standard account. Thus, in most science classrooms around the globe, Western modern science has been taught at the expense of indigenous knowledge. However, because WMS has been implicated in many of the world's ecological disasters, and because the traditional wisdom component of TEK is particularly rich in time-tested approaches that foster sustainability and environmental integrity, it is possible that the universalist gatekeeper can be seen as increasingly problematic and even counter productive. This paper describes many examples from Canada and around the world of indigenous people's contributions to science, environmental understanding, and sustainability. The authors argue the view that Western or modern science is just one of many sciences that need to be

  7. Universalism, Multiculturalism, and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irzik, Gurol

    2001-01-01

    Describes the division of universalists and multiculturalists over the question of the nature of science. Universalists maintain that science has a universal essence and western modern science is the paradigm example of such science. Multiculturalists appeal to the disunity of science thesis to undermine the view that all sciences must have a…

  8. Adaptive Control System of Hydraulic Pressure Based on The Mathematical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, A. V.; Pilipenko, A. P.; Kanatnikov, N. V.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the authors highlight the problem of replacing an old heavy industrial equipment, and offer the replacement of obsolete control systems on the modern adaptive control system, which takes into account changes in the hydraulic system of the press and compensates them with a corrective action. The proposed system can reduce a water hammer and thereby increase the durability of the hydraulic system and tools.

  9. Tractor Hydraulics. A Teaching Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials, Athens, GA.

    The manual was developed to help provide a better understanding of how and why hydraulic principles serve the purposes of weight reduction, increase of physical effort, and more precise control to machines of all types. The four components that are necessary to have a workable hydraulic system--a reservoir, a pump, a valve, and a motor (cylinder)…

  10. Hydraulics. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on hydraulics is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids for training in the servicing of agricultural and industrial machinery. Focus is on oil hydraulics. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The twelve chapters focus…

  11. Hydraulically actuated well shifting tool

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, B.A.

    1992-10-20

    This patent describes a hydraulically actuated shifting tool for actuating a sliding member in a well tool. It comprises: a housing having a hydraulic fluid bore therein; shifting dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the housing; locking dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the body; shifting dog hydraulic actuating means in fluid communication with the bore for causing engagement of the shifting dogs with the sliding member; locking dog hydraulic actuating means in communication with the bore for causing engagement of the locking dogs with the locking means; and hydraulic shifting means in communication with the bore for causing relative movement between the shifting dog means and the locking dog means for shifting the sliding sleeve.

  12. High temperature hydraulic seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, K. R.

    1993-05-01

    This program investigated and evaluated high temperature hydraulic sealing technology, including seals, fluids, and actuator materials. Test limits for fluid pressure and temperature were 8000 psi and 700 F respectively. The original plan to investigate CTFE fluid at 350 F as well as other fluids at higher temperatures was reduced in scope to include only the higher temperature investigation. Seals were obtained from 11 manufacturers. Design requirements including materials, dimensions, clearances, and tolerances were established and test modules were constructed from the detail designs which were produced. Nine piston seals and one rod seal were tested at temperatures ranging from -65 to +600 F and pressures to 6000 psi. Fluid performance under these conditions was evaluated. Details of this activity and results of the effort are summarized in this report.

  13. Amazon flood wave hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigg, Mark A.; Wilson, Matthew D.; Bates, Paul D.; Horritt, Matthew S.; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Forsberg, Bruce R.; Vega, Maria C.

    2009-07-01

    SummaryA bathymetric survey of 575 km of the central Amazon River and one of its tributaries, the Purus, are combined with gauged data to characterise the Amazon flood wave, and for hydraulic modelling of the main channel for the period June 1995-March 1997 with the LISFLOOD-FP and HEC-RAS hydraulic models. Our investigations show that the Amazon flood wave is subcritical and diffusive in character and, due to shallow bed slopes, backwater conditions control significant reach lengths and are present for low and high water states. Comparison of the different models shows that it is necessary to include at least the diffusion term in any model, and the RMSE error in predicted water elevation at all cross sections introduced by ignoring the acceleration and advection terms is of the order of 0.02-0.03 m. The use of a wide rectangular channel approximation introduces an error of 0.10-0.15 m on the predicted water levels. Reducing the bathymetry to a simple bed slope and with mean cross section only, introduces an error in the order of 0.5 m. These results show that when compared to the mean annual amplitude of the Amazon flood wave of 11-12 m, water levels are relatively insensitive to the bathymetry of the channel model. The implication for remote sensing studies of the central Amazon channel, such as those proposed with the Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission (SWOT), is that even relatively crude assumptions regarding the channel bathymetry will be valid in order to derive discharge from water surface slope of the main channel, as long as the mean channel area is approximately correct.

  14. Valorization of phosphogypsum as hydraulic binder.

    PubMed

    Kuryatnyk, T; Angulski da Luz, C; Ambroise, J; Pera, J

    2008-12-30

    Phosphogypsum (calcium sulfate) is a naturally occurring part of the process of creating phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)), an essential component of many modern fertilizers. For every tonne of phosphoric acid made, from the reaction of phosphate rock with acid, commonly sulfuric acid, about 3t of phosphogypsum are created. There are three options for managing phosphogypsum: (i) disposal or dumping, (ii) stacking, (iii) use-in, for example, agriculture, construction, or landfill. This paper presents the valorization of two Tunisian phosphogypsums (referred as G and S) in calcium sulfoaluminate cement in the following proportions: 70% phosphogypsum-30% calcium sulfoaluminate clinker. The use of sample G leads to the production of a hydraulic binder which means that it is not destroyed when immersed in water. The binder including sample S performs very well when cured in air but is not resistant in water. Formation of massive ettringite in a rigid body leads to cracking and strength loss. PMID:18433998

  15. The Growth of Physical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeans, James

    2009-07-01

    1. The remote beginnings; 2. Ionia and early Greece; 3. Science and Alexandria; 4. Science in the dark ages; 5. The birth of modern science; 6. The century of genius; 7. The two centuries after Newton; 8. The era of modern physics.

  16. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, will be held in Beijing, China, 19-23 August 2012. It is jointly organized by Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Hydraulic Engineering, China, Jiangsu University, Xi'an University of Technology, China Agricultural University, National Engineering Research Center of Hydropower Equipment and Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. It is the second time that China hosts such a symposium. By the end of 2011, the China electrical power system had a total of 1 050 GW installed power, out of which 220 GW was in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was 662.6 TWh from a total of 4,720 TWh electrical energy production in 2011. Moreover, in 2020, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 180 GW installed power and an estimated 708 TWh/year energy production. And in 2011, the installed power of pumped storage stations was about 25GW. In 2020, the data will be 70GW. At the same time, the number of pumps used in China is increasing rapidly. China produces about 29,000,000 pumps with more than 220 series per year. By the end of 2011, the Chinese pumping system has a total of 950 GW installed power. The energy consumed in pumping facilities was 530 TWh in 2011. The pump energy consumption accounted for about 12% of the national electrical energy production. Therefore, there is a large market in the field of hydraulic machinery including water turbines, pump turbines and a variety of pumps in China. There are also many research projects in this field. For example, we have conducted National Key Research Projects on 1000 MW hydraulic turbine, and on the pump turbines with high head, as well as on the large capacity pumps for water supply. Tsinghua University of Beijing is proud to host the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Tsinghua University was established in 1911, after the founding of the People's Republic of China. It

  17. Pneumatic actuator with hydraulic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Hobart R., Jr.

    1992-11-01

    The present invention provides a pneumatically powered actuator having hydraulic control for both locking and controlling the velocity of an output rod without any sponginess. The invention includes a double-acting pneumatic actuator having a bore, a piston slidably engaged within the bore, and a control rod connected to the piston. The double-acting pneumatic actuator is mounted to a frame. A first double-acting hydraulic actuator having a bore, a piston slidably engaged within the bore, and a follower rod mounted to the piston is mounted to the frame such that the follower rod is fixedly connected to the control rod. The maximum translation of the piston within the bore of the first double-acting hydraulic actuator provides a volumetric displacement V1. The present invention also includes a second double-acting hydraulic actuator having a bore, a piston slidably engaged within the bore, and an output rod mounted to the piston. The maximum translation of the piston within the bore of the second double-acting hydraulic actuator provides a volumetric displacement V2, where V2=V1. A pair of fluid ports in each of the first and second double-acting hydraulic cylinders are operably connected by fluid conduits, one of which includes a valve circuit which may be used to control the velocity of the output rod or to lock the output rod in a static position by regulating the flow of hydraulic fluid between the double-acting cylinders.

  18. Research Explains Modern Art!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eickhorst, William S.

    1985-01-01

    This tongue-in-cheek article calls for the critical reexamination of the history of modern art. The author believes that modern art is neither an extension of the Renaissance aesthetic nor a collective by-product of artists possessed of creative genius. Creators of modern art were actually representational artists suffering from visual stuttering.…

  19. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

  20. Alluvial channel hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackers, Peter

    1988-07-01

    The development and utilisation of water resources for irrigation, hydropower and public supply can be severely affected by sediment. Where there is a mature and well vegetated landscape, sediment problems may be relatively minor; but where slopes are steep and vegetation sparse, the yield of sediment from the catchment gives high concentrations in the rivers. In utilising these resources, for whatever purpose, an understanding of the hydraulics of alluvial channels is vital. The regime of any conveyance channel in alluvium depends on the interrelationships of sediment transport, channel resistance and bank stability. The regime concept was originally based on empirical relations obtained from observations from canal systems in the Indian subcontinent, and for many years was surrounded by a certain degree of mystique and much scepticism from academics. In more recent years the unabashed empiricism of the original method has been replaced by process-based methods, which have also served as broad confirmation of the classic regime formulae, including their extension to natural channels and meandering channels. The empirical approach to the hydraulics of alluvial channels has thus been updated by physically based formulae for sediment transport and resistance, though there remains some uncertainty about the third function to complete the definition of slope and geometry. Latest thoughts in this respect are that the channel seeks a natural optimum state. Physical modelling using scaled down representations of rivers and estuaries has been used for almost a century, but it requires the correct simulation of the relevant processes. The coming of a better understanding of the physics of sediment transport and the complexity of alluvial channel roughness leads to the conclusion that only in very restricted circumstances can scale models simulate closely the full-size condition. However, the quantification of these processes has been instrumental in the development of

  1. On what basis hope? Modern progress and postmodern possibilities.

    PubMed

    Danforth, S

    1997-04-01

    Modern and postmodern versions of hope as they apply to services for persons labeled as having mental retardation were examined. Proponents of modernism construct hope as relying on an ever-improving science to accurately comprehend mental retardation and other disabilities and the effectiveness of professional interventions. This myth of scientific progress is traced in various forms through American intellectual history to the development of special education as interventionist social science. Advocates of postmodernism cast doubt upon the grand narrative of modernism and critique modern social science as perpetuating stigmatized "mentally retarded" identities through the exercise of power. A rhetorical analysis of the current controversy over facilitated communication demonstrates the utilization of the language of modern science for its power effects in special education discourse. PMID:9131869

  2. Science Fairs for Science Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, Katherine; Culbertson, Timothy

    2014-03-01

    Scientific discovery, technological revolutions, and complex global challenges are commonplace in the modern era. People are bombarded with news about climate change, pandemics, and genetically modified organisms, and scientific literacy has never been more important than in the present day. Yet only 29% of American adults have sufficient understanding to be able to read science stories reported in the popular press [Miller, 2010], and American students consistently rank below other nations in math and science [National Center for Education Statistics, 2012].

  3. Nuclear Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

  4. Romanticism and Romantic Science: Their Contribution to Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis; Schulz, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The unique contributions of romanticism and romantic science have been generally ignored or undervalued in history and philosophy of science studies and science education. Although more recent research in history of science has come to delineate the value of both topics for the development of modern science, their merit for the educational field…

  5. In-line hydraulic dashpot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Paul E.

    1992-10-01

    An in-line hydraulic dashpot is disclosed that effectively decelerates the piston of a power cylinder by controllably choking off the oil which is providing pressure to the piston. The in-line hydraulic dashpot of the invention includes a valve spool member movable between an open and closed position along a fluid flow path that supplies oil to the power cylinder. An actuator rod is cooperative with the valve spool member and the piston shaft of the power cylinder to move tile valve spool member between its open and closed positions. The in-line hydraulic dashpot eliminates the clashing of mechanical parts and therewith eliminates the noise that would otherwise be generated thereby. The in-line hydraulic dashpot of the present invention makes possible the adaptation of a fixed stroke power cylinder to applications that call for a variable stroke length.

  6. Hydraulic drive system prevents backlash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acord, J. D.

    1965-01-01

    Hydraulic drive system uses a second drive motor operating at reduced torque. This exerts a relative braking action which eliminates the normal gear train backlash that is intolerable when driving certain heavy loads.

  7. Production Hydraulic Packer Field Test

    SciTech Connect

    Schneller, Tricia; Salas, Jose

    2000-06-30

    In October 1999, the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center and Halliburton Energy Services cooperated on a field test of Halliburton's new Production Hydraulic Packer technology on Well 46-TPX-10 at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 near Casper, WY. Performance of the packer was evaluated in set and unset operations. The packer's ability to seal the annulus between the casing and tubing was hydraulically tested and the results were recorded.

  8. Advanced Performance Hydraulic Wind Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lam, Adrienne S.

    2013-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, has developed a novel advanced hydraulic wind energy design, which has up to 23% performance improvement over conventional wind turbine and conventional hydraulic wind energy systems with 5 m/sec winds. It also has significant cost advantages with levelized costs equal to coal (after carbon tax rebate). The design is equally applicable to tidal energy systems and has passed preliminary laboratory proof-of-performance tests, as funded by the Department of Energy.

  9. Cold fusion: A challenge to modern science?

    SciTech Connect

    Storms, E.

    1995-12-31

    Suppose the ancient Alchemists were on the right track after all - that nuclear reactions can be made to occur within unique chemical environments, that elements can be transmuted, and that power can be generated from such processes. On the other hand, conventional scientists might find this possibility too impossible to be believed and reject it regardless of how likely it might be. An objective debate is now overdue to resolve these two opposing views. I would like to start this process by giving an outline of the issues combined with a few examples of the information now available. More detail will be given in a latter, more complete paper. The problem now is more psychological than scientific. Although many of the novel observations are still difficult to replicate and some are clearly in error, the general patterns being reported strongly indicate that nuclear reactions of various kinds can be made to occur in a chemical environment. 32 refs.

  10. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.880 Section 28.880 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must be... times the system's maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with at...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 23.1435 Section 23.1435... § 23.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, the structural loads expected...

  12. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.880 Section 28.880 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must be... times the system's maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with at...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 23.1435 Section 23.1435... § 23.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, the structural loads expected...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 23.1435 Section 23.1435... § 23.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, the structural loads expected...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 29.1435 Section 29.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each element of the hydraulic system...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 23.1435 Section 23.1435... § 23.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, the structural loads expected...

  17. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.880 Section 28.880 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must be... times the system's maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with at...

  18. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.405 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system... than four times the system maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped...

  19. Electric versus hydraulics versus pneumatics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents a collection of papers from a conference which considered the advantages and disadvantages of electric, hydraulic and pneumatic drives and actuators. The volume follows on the success of the 1983 conference on electric and hydraulic drives. Topics considered include fork lift trucks - an ideal application for regenerative transmissions; a hybrid-electric power system with hydrostatic transmission; electrics and hydraulics on roadheader machinery; hydraulic, electrical, pneumatic control - which way to go. an electrically-powered servo to drive the two axes of a missile launching platform - pros and cons when compared with the traditional hydraulic solution; the encapsulation of a novel intrinsically safe displacement transducer; mobile cryogenic pumping systems; automation of a wood-turning machine, hydraulic or electric. The choice of a servo motor for a specific application; developments in the design and control of pneumatic linear actuators; compressed air purification for instrumentation in the high technology industries; trends in prime mover choice for powered hand tools; and choosing the drive system for the right application.

  20. River channel morphology and hydraulics properties due to introduction of plant basket hydraulic structures for river channel management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kałuża, Tomasz; Radecki-Pawlik, Artur; Plesiński, Karol; Walczak, Natalia; Szoszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Radecki-Pawlik, Bartosz

    2016-04-01

    In the present time integrated water management is directly connected with management and direct works in river channels themselves which are taking into account morphological processes in rivers and improve flow conditions. Our work focused on the hydraulic and hydrodynamic consequences upon the introduction of the concept of the improvement of the hydromorphological conditions of the Flinta River in a given reach following river channel management concept. Based on a comprehensive study of the hydromorphological state of the river, four sections were selected where restoration measures can efficiently improve river habitat conditions in the river. For each section a set of technical and biological measures were proposed and implemented in practice. One of the proposed solutions was to construct plant basket hydraulic structures (PBHS) within the river channel, which are essentially plant barriers working as sediment traps, changing river channel morphology and are in line with concepts of Water Framework Directive. These relatively small structures work as crested weirs and unquestionably change the channel morphology. Along our work we show the results of three-year long (2013-2015) systematic measurements that provided information on the morphological consequences of introducing such structures into a river channel. Our main conclusions are as follows: 1. Plant basket hydraulic structures cause changes in hydrodynamic conditions and result in sediment accumulation and the formation of river backwaters upstream and downstream the obstacle; 2. The introduced plant basket hydraulic structures cause plant debris accumulation which influences the hydrodynamic flow conditions; 3. The installation of plant basket hydraulic structures on the river bed changes flow pattern as well as flow hydrodynamic conditions causing river braiding process; 4. The erosion rate below the plant basket hydraulic structures is due to the hydraulic work conditions of the PBHS and its

  1. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  2. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  3. John Herschel: Britain's first modern physical scientist.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, M. J.

    The author presents a sketch of the life and contributions to science of Sir John F. W. Herschel (1792 - 1871). One of the theses he develops is that John Herschel can meaningfully be described as Britain's first modern physical scientist. In addition to developing this thesis, the author makes some remarks about lesser known aspects of Herschel's life.

  4. Education and Schooling: From Modernity to Postmodernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zufiaurre, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    The development of education and schooling in modern times emerged from the priorities of religion and politics in the sixteenth-century transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance and Reformation. Subsequently, liberal ideas about the maintenance and advancement of life on earth fostered a new dualism, between educational science and…

  5. Using the NRCS National Soils Information System (NASIS) to provide soil hydraulic properties for engineering applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern agricultural, biological, and environmental engineers have a multitude of uses for soil hydraulic parameters that quantify the ability of soils and sediments to retain and transmit water. These parameters are difficult and costly to obtain, especially if large areas of land need to be charac...

  6. The modern library: lost and found.

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, D A

    1996-01-01

    The modern library, a term that was heard frequently in the mid-twentieth century, has fallen into disuse. The over-promotion of computers and all that their enthusiasts promised probably hastened its demise. Today, networking is transforming how libraries provide--and users seek--information. Although the Internet is the natural environment for the health sciences librarian, it is going through growing pains as we face issues of censorship and standards. Today's "modern librarian" must not only be adept at using the Internet but must become familiar with digital information in all its forms--images, full text, and factual data banks. Most important, to stay "modern," today's librarians must embark on a program of lifelong learning that will enable them to make optimum use of the advantages offered by modern technology. PMID:8938334

  7. Selective perceptions of hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Sarge, Melanie A; VanDyke, Matthew S; King, Andy J; White, Shawna R

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) is a focal topic in discussions about domestic energy production, yet the American public is largely unfamiliar and undecided about the practice. This study sheds light on how individuals may come to understand hydraulic fracturing as this unconventional production technology becomes more prominent in the United States. For the study, a thorough search of HF photographs was performed, and a systematic evaluation of 40 images using an online experimental design involving N = 250 participants was conducted. Key indicators of hydraulic fracturing support and beliefs were identified. Participants showed diversity in their support for the practice, with 47 percent expressing low support, 22 percent high support, and 31 percent undecided. Support for HF was positively associated with beliefs that hydraulic fracturing is primarily an economic issue and negatively associated with beliefs that it is an environmental issue. Level of support was also investigated as a perceptual filter that facilitates biased issue perceptions and affective evaluations of economic benefit and environmental cost frames presented in visual content of hydraulic fracturing. Results suggested an interactive relationship between visual framing and level of support, pointing to a substantial barrier to common understanding about the issue that strategic communicators should consider. PMID:26399946

  8. ART MODERN/DIALOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Katharine K.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews ART MODERN, an on-line data base which provides comprehensive coverage of current worldwide literature on modern art and design since 1800. Areas described include scope, coverage, arrangement of printed and on-line indexes, characteristics of basic index and code searching; also search hints, search negotiation, searchguide, and data base…

  9. MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JACKSON, R. GRAHAM

    CHOICES AND ISSUES IN SELECTING MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS ARE DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT. BACKGROUND INFORMATION IS INTRODUCED IN TERMS OF REASONS FOR ABANDONMENT, THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SCHOOL BUILDING OBSOLESCENCE, AND PROBLEMS IN THE MODERNIZATION PROCESS. INTERIOR PARTITIONS ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF BUILDING MATERIALS,…

  10. Myth and Modern Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patai, Raphael

    Various theories about the purpose of myth are described briefly, and then the place of myth in modern life is explored. Modern man is found to still create his own myths, and his life is still influenced by mythical prototypes and images. Myths, mythical beliefs, and mythical thinking are discovered in socialist, Communist, and totalitarian…

  11. Astronomy in Modern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eker, Zeki; Demircan, Osman, Kirbiyik, Halil; Bilir, Selcuk

    2013-01-01

    Present-day astronomy and its development in the recent history of Turkey are described. Current astronomy education in modern-day Turkish Republic from primary to high schools, including modern-day university education is discussed. Astronomical and space research together with the existing observatories and present-day Turkish astronomy in the global state is presented.

  12. Hydraulic processes on alluvial fans

    SciTech Connect

    French, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Alluvial fans are among the most prominent landscape features in the American Southwest and throughout the semi-arid and arid regions of the world. The importance of developing a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the hydraulic processes which formed, and which continue to modify, these features derives from their rapid and significant development over the past four decades. As unplanned urban sprawl moved from valley floors onto alluvial fans, the serious damage incurred from infrequent flow events has dramatically increased. This book presents a discussion of our current and rapidly expanding knowledge of hydraulic processes on alluvial fans. It addresses the subject from a multidisciplinary viewpoint, acquainting the reader with geological principles pertinent to the analysis of hydraulic processes on alluvial fans.

  13. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    PubMed

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-06-01

    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process. PMID:27070765

  14. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2003-06-03

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based system. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  15. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2001-01-01

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  16. Method for directional hydraulic fracturing

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, David E.; Daly, Daniel W.

    1994-01-01

    A method for directional hydraulic fracturing using borehole seals to confine pressurized fluid in planar permeable regions, comprising: placing a sealant in the hole of a structure selected from geologic or cemented formations to fill the space between a permeable planar component and the geologic or cemented formation in the vicinity of the permeable planar component; making a hydraulic connection between the permeable planar component and a pump; permitting the sealant to cure and thereby provide both mechanical and hydraulic confinement to the permeable planar component; and pumping a fluid from the pump into the permeable planar component to internally pressurize the permeable planar component to initiate a fracture in the formation, the fracture being disposed in the same orientation as the permeable planar component.

  17. Attitudes of Trainers and Medical Students towards Using Modern Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadzhiiliev, Vassil Stefanov; Dobreva, Zhaneta Stoykova

    2011-01-01

    The development of universities as independent scientific centers determines their mission to incorporate the most modern achievements of science into the students' practical training. This research on the attitudes of the participants in this process towards the use of modern practices encompasses both trainers and students, and it consists of…

  18. Toward a Post-Modern Agenda in Instructional Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, David L.

    Traditional views in instructional technology are often based upon the application of scientific knowledge. An alternative paradigm, post-modernism questions whether science alone offers the best approach to teaching and learning. Post-modernism offers alternative perspectives on the theory and practice of instructional technology; however, its…

  19. Electokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic system having no moving parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force and for manipulating fluids. Electro-osmotic flow is used to provide a valve and means to compress a fluid or gas in a capillary-based system. By electro-osmotically moving an electrolyte between a first position opening communication between a fluid inlet and outlet and a second position closing communication between the fluid inlet and outlet the system can be configured as a valve. The system can also be used to generate forces as large as 2500 psi that can be used to compress a fluid, either a liquid or a gas.

  20. Upgrading the HFIR Thermal-Hydraulic Legacy Code Using COMSOL

    SciTech Connect

    Bodey, Isaac T; Arimilli, Rao V; Freels, James D

    2010-01-01

    Modernization of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) thermal-hydraulic (TH) design and safety analysis capability is an important step in preparation for the conversion of the HFIR core from a high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to a low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Currently, an important part of the HFIR TH analysis is based on the legacy Steady State Heat Transfer Code (SSHTC), which adds much conservatism to the safety analysis. The multi-dimensional multi-physics capabilities of the COMSOL environment allow the analyst to relax the number and magnitude of conservatisms, imposed by the SSHTC, to present a more physical model of the TH aspect of the HFIR.

  1. Giant Steps Through Science, Science I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertke, Mary Christopher; Feistritzer, Emily

    This text is designed for use in a first year high school science course and is an attempt to put basic physical science concepts into a logical order. This organization involves an historical approach, beginning with four chapters on astronomy: Modern Astronomy, The Ancient Astronomers, Astronomy - Ptolemy to Kepler, and Galileo and Newton. The…

  2. Applied Science in Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jeffrey L.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various topics and issues related to the scientific enterprise in Cuba. Notes that Cuban science is emphasizing biotechnology and research on the island's chief crop (sugarcane), although hampered by limited personnel and lack of modern laboratory equipment. (JN)

  3. Oersted Lecture 2014: Physics education research and teaching modern Modern Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollman, Dean

    2016-08-01

    Modern Physics has been used as a label for most of physics that was developed since the discovery of X-rays in 1895. Yet, we are teaching students who would not use the label "modern" for anything that happened before about 1995, when they were born. So, are we and our students in worlds that differ by a century? In addition to content, sometimes our students and we have differing views about methods and styles of teaching. A modern course in any topic of physics should include applications of contemporary research in physics education and the learning sciences as well as research and developments in methods of delivering the content. Thus, when we consider teaching Modern Physics, we are challenged with deciding what the content should be, how to adjust for the ever increasing information on how students learn physics, and the constantly changing tools that are available to us for teaching and learning. When we mix all of these together, we can teach modern Modern Physics or maybe teach Modern Physics modernly.

  4. Importance of Earth Science in the Precollege Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are the importance of earth science, how earth science should be taught, and when and to whom earth science should be taught. Topics which should be taught in a modern earth science course are suggested. (CW)

  5. Manual or hydraulic gearshifting apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, H.; Kojima, Y.

    1986-04-08

    A vehicle transmission control apparatus is described which consists of: a plurality of shift members for operating a vehicle transmission; a lever adapted for linear movement into a plurality of positions, one each of the lever being operatively coupled to a different one of the shift members in each of the positions; the lever being further adapted for pivotal movement in response to which the one end of the lever actuates the operatively coupled shift member; a select actuator means comprising a select hydraulic cylinder and a select piston retained thereby, the select piston being coupled to the lever and hydraulically controlled to produce the linear movement thereof; a shift actuator means comprising a shift hydraulic cylinder and a shift piston retained thereby, the shift piston being coupled to the lever and hydraulically controlled to produce the pivotal movement thereof; a casing means retaining the lever, the select actuator means, and the shift actuator means; and a control member comprising a portion within the casing means and coupled to the lever and a manually accessible portion always disposed outside the casing means and having means adapted for manual actuation to produce either the linear or the pivotal movement of the lever.

  6. Design of hydraulic recuperation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandourek, Pavel; Habán, Vladimír; Hudec, Martin; Dobšáková, Lenka; Štefan, David

    2016-03-01

    This article deals with design and measurement of hydraulic recuperation unit. Recuperation unit consist of radial turbine and axial pump, which are coupled on the same shaft. Speed of shaft with impellers are 6000 1/min. For economic reasons, is design of recuperation unit performed using commercially manufactured propellers.

  7. Tubing Cutter is Activated Hydraulically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsmith, D. G.; Richardson, J. I.

    1983-01-01

    Hydraulically-actuated tubing cutter severs tubing when operator squeezes handle grip. "Gooseneck" extension enables cutter to be used in areas where accessiblity is limited. Cutter has potential as flight-line tool and is useful in automobile and fire rescue work.

  8. Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many agrophysical applications require knowledge of the hydraulic properties of unsaturated soils. These properties reflect the ability of a soil to retain or transmit water and its dissolved constituents. The objective of this work was to develop an entry for the Encyclopedia of Agrophysics that w...

  9. Introduction to Hydraulics. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Extension Instruction and Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide on hydraulics is part of a series of individualized instructional materials. The guide is provided to help the instructor make certain that each student gets the most benefit possible from both the student's manual and what he/she does on the job. Notes for the instructor contain suggestions on how the student should use…

  10. Introduction to Hydraulics. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Extension Instruction and Materials Center.

    This manual on hydraulics is one of a series of individualized instructional materials for students. The manual is self-paced, but is designed to be used under the supervision of an instructor. The manual contains 10 assignments, each with all the information needed, a list of objectives that should be met, and exercise questions that can help in…

  11. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  12. Thermal-Hydraulic-Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    ELM computer program is simple computational tool for modeling steady-state thermal hydraulics of flows of propellants through fuel-element-coolant channels in nuclear thermal rockets. Evaluates various heat-transfer-coefficient and friction-factor correlations available for turbulent pipe flow with addition of heat. Comparisons possible within one program. Machine-independent program written in FORTRAN 77.

  13. CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    WITTEKIND WD

    2007-10-03

    This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

  14. HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE SECONDARY CLARIFIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study documented the hydraulic characteristics of typical activated sludge clarifiers. Modifications to the clarifier structures were made in an attempt to improve clarifier hydraulic characteristics and performance. Innovative fluorometric dye tracer studies were used to ob...

  15. Gender Equity in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Johanna R.

    2011-01-01

    The dearth of females in high-level science courses and professions is a well-documented phenomenon in modern society. Inequality in science instruction is a crucial component to the under representation of females in science. This paper provides a review of current literature published concerning gender inequality in K-12 science instruction.…

  16. Hydraulic characterization of " Furcraea andina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Velasquez, M. F.; Fallico, C.; Molinari, A.; Santillan, P.; Salazar, M.

    2012-04-01

    The present level of pollution, increasingly involving groundwaters, constitutes a serious risk for environment and human health. Therefore the remediation of saturated and unsaturated soils, removing pollutant materials through innovative and economic bio-remediation techniques is more frequently required. Recent studies on natural fiber development have shown the effectiveness of these fibers for removal of some heavy metals, due to the lignin content in the natural fibers which plays an important role in the adsorption of metal cations (Lee et al., 2004; Troisi et al., 2008; C. Fallico, 2010). In the context of remediation techniques for unsaturated and/or saturated zone, an experimental approach for the hydraulic characterization of the "Furcraea andina" (i.e., Cabuya Blanca) fiber was carried out. This fiber is native to Andean regions and grows easily in wild or cultivated form in the valleys and hillsides of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Fibers of "Furcraea andina" were characterized by experimental tests to determine their hydraulic conductivity or permeability and porosity in order to use this medium for bioremediation of contaminated aquifer exploiting the physical, chemical and microbial capacity of natural fiber in heavy metal adsorption. To evaluate empirically the hydraulic conductivity, laboratory tests were carried out at constant head specifically on the fibers manually extracted. For these tests we used a flow cell (used as permeameter), containing the "Furcraea andina" fibers to be characterized, suitably connected by a tygon pipe to a Marriott's bottle, which had a plastic tube that allow the adjustment of the hydraulic head for different tests to a constant value. By this experiment it was also possible to identify relationships that enable the estimation of permeability as a function of density, i.e. of the compaction degree of the fibers. Our study was carried out for three values of hydraulic head (H), namely 10, 18, and 25 cm and for each

  17. Hydraulic conductivity of rock fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1994-10-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada contains numerous geological units that are highly fractured. A clear understanding of the hydraulic conductivity of fractures has been identified as an important scientific problem that must be addressed during the site characterization process. The problem of the flow of a single-phase fluid through a rough-walled rock fracture is discussed within the context of rigorous fluid mechanics. The derivation of the cubic law is given as the solution to the Navier-Stokes equations for flow between smooth, parallel plates, the only fracture geometry that is amenable to exact treatment. The various geometric and kinetic conditions that are necessary in order for the Navier-Stokes equations to be replaced by the more tractable lubrication or Hele-Shaw equations are studied and quantified. Various analytical and numerical results are reviewed pertaining to the problem of relating the effective hydraulic aperture to the statistics of the aperture distribution. These studies all lead to the conclusion that the effective hydraulic aperture is always less than the mean aperture, by a factor that depends on the ratio of the mean value of the aperture to its standard deviation. The tortuosity effect caused by regions where the rock walls are in contact with each other is studied using the Hele-Shaw equations, leading to a simple correction factor that depends on the area fraction occupied by the contact regions. Finally, the predicted hydraulic apertures are compared to measured values for eight data sets from the literature for which aperture and conductivity data were available on the same fracture. It is found that reasonably accurate predictions of hydraulic conductivity can be made based solely on the first two moments of the aperture distribution function, and the proportion of contact area. 68 refs.

  18. A modern trends retrospective.

    PubMed

    Wallach, Edward E

    2011-06-01

    Editorship of the Modern Trends section has been a great ride. The section raised the level of interest and readership of Fertility and Sterility, while providing important, up-to-date material for students, scientists and practitioners. PMID:21496803

  19. 14 CFR 27.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 27.1435 Section 27.1435... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, any structural loads...

  20. 14 CFR 27.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 27.1435 Section 27.1435... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, any structural loads...

  1. 14 CFR 27.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 27.1435 Section 27.1435... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, any structural loads...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 27.1435 Section 27.1435... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, any structural loads...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 29.1435 Section 29.1435 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system...

  4. Hydraulic actuator motion limiter ensures operator safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinmetz, C. P.

    1971-01-01

    Device regulates action of hydraulic linkage to control column to minimize hazard to operator. Primary components of device are flow rate control valve, limiter accumulator, and shutoff valve. Limiter may be incorporated into other hydraulic systems to prevent undue wear on hydraulic actuators and associated components.

  5. The hydraulic conductivity of chopped sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, M.H.; Reddell, D.L.; Sweeten, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivity of water through chopped sweet sorghum at various packing densities and soaking times was measured using permeameters. Hydraulic conductivity decreased by two orders of magnitude as packing density increased from 400 to 897 kg/m/sup 3/. Soaking time had less effect on hydraulic conductivity, and the effect depended on packing density.

  6. 14 CFR 25.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 25.1435 Section 25.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Element design. Each element of the hydraulic system must be designed to: (1) Withstand the proof...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 27.1435 Section 27.1435... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, any structural loads...

  8. Design of hydraulic output Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toscano, W. M.; Harvey, A. C.; Lee, K.

    1983-01-01

    A hydraulic output system for the RE-1000 free piston stirling engine (FPSE) was designed. The hydraulic output system can be readily integrated with the existing hot section of RE-1000 FPSE. The system has two simply supported diaphragms which separate the engine gas from the hydraulic fluid, a dynamic balance mechanism, and a novel, null center band hydraulic pump. The diaphragms are designed to endure more than 10 billion cycles, and to withstand the differential pressure load as high as 14 MPa. The projected thermodynamic performance of the hydraulic output version of RE-1000 FPSE is 1.87 kW at 29/7 percent brake efficiency.

  9. Hydraulic design development of Xiluodu Francis turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. L.; Li, G. Y.; Shi, Q. H.; Wang, Z. N.

    2012-11-01

    Hydraulic optimization design with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) method, hydraulic optimization measures and model test results in the hydraulic development of Xiluodu hydropower station by DFEM (Dongfang Electric Machinery) of DEC (Dongfang Electric Corporation) of China were analyzed in this paper. The hydraulic development conditions of turbine, selection of design parameter, comparison of geometric parameters and optimization measure of turbine flow components were expatiated. And the measures of improving turbine hydraulic performance and the results of model turbine acceptance experiment were discussed in details.

  10. Trends in Modern Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Eder, Jörg; Herrling, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    Drugs discovered by the pharmaceutical industry over the past 100 years have dramatically changed the practice of medicine and impacted on many aspects of our culture. For many years, drug discovery was a target- and mechanism-agnostic approach that was based on ethnobotanical knowledge often fueled by serendipity. With the advent of modern molecular biology methods and based on knowledge of the human genome, drug discovery has now largely changed into a hypothesis-driven target-based approach, a development which was paralleled by significant environmental changes in the pharmaceutical industry. Laboratories became increasingly computerized and automated, and geographically dispersed research sites are now more and more clustered into large centers to capture technological and biological synergies. Today, academia, the regulatory agencies, and the pharmaceutical industry all contribute to drug discovery, and, in order to translate the basic science into new medical treatments for unmet medical needs, pharmaceutical companies have to have a critical mass of excellent scientists working in many therapeutic fields, disciplines, and technologies. The imperative for the pharmaceutical industry to discover breakthrough medicines is matched by the increasing numbers of first-in-class drugs approved in recent years and reflects the impact of modern drug discovery approaches, technologies, and genomics. PMID:26330257

  11. GIS application on modern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Bharath

    This is a GIS based tool for showcasing the history of modern Mexico starting from the post-colonial era to the elections of 2012. The tool is developed using simple language and is flexible so as to allow for future enhancements. The application consists of numerous images and textual information, and also some links which can be used by primary and high school students to understand the history of modern Mexico, and also by tourists to look for all the international airports and United States of America consulates. This software depicts the aftermaths of the Colonial Era or the Spanish rule of Mexico. It covers various topics like the wars, politics, important personalities, drug cartels and violence. All these events are shown on GIS (Geographic information Science) maps. The software can be customized according to the user requirements and is developed using JAVA and GIS technology. The user interface is created using JAVA and MOJO which contributes to effective learning and understanding of the concepts with ease. Some of the user interface features provided in this tool includes zoom-in, zoom-out, legend editing, location identifier, print command, adding a layer and numerous menu items.

  12. Hydraulic control unit for automotive transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, Y.; Ishida, H.

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes a hydraulic control unit for use in an automotive transmission having a speed change gear and a clutch, the hydraulic control unit including a housing, a change gear operating mechanism means for hydraulically operating the speed change gear, and a clutch operating mechanism means for hydraulically operating the clutch. The change gear operating mechanism means and the clutch operating mechanism means are both incorporated in the housing. The improvement described here is wherein the change gear operating mechanism means comprises a first hydraulic actuator means for effecting gear shifting of the speed change gear and gear selection thereof, first solenoid valve means for controlling the first hydraulic actuator means, first and second position sensor means for sensing positions of the first hydraulic actuator means indicative of a selected gear position thereof, respectively. The clutch operating mechanism means comprises a second hydraulic actuator means for effecting engagement and disengagement of the clutch, second solenoid valve means for controlling the second hydraulic actuator means, and a third position sensor means for sensing a position of the second hydraulic actuator means indicative of engagement and disengagement of the clutch. The first and second hydraulic actuator means, the first and second solenoid valve means, and the first, second and third position sensor means are all incorporated in one body in the housing.

  13. Gas-to-hydraulic power converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, C. W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A gas piston driven hydraulic piston pump is described in which the gas cycle is of high efficiency by injecting the gas in slugs at the beginning of each power stroke. The hydraulic piston is disposed to operate inside the as piston, and the two pistons, both slidably but nonrotatably mounted, are coupled together with a rotating but non-sliding motion transfer ring extending into antifriction grooves in the sidewalls of the two pistons. To make the hydraulic piston move at a constant speed during constant hydraulic horsepower demand and thus exert a constant pressure on the hydraulic fluid, these grooves are machined with variable pitches and one is the opposite of the other, i.e., the gas piston groove increases in pitch during its power stroke while the hydraulic piston groove decreases. Any number of piston assembly sets may be used to obtain desired hydraulic horsepower.

  14. Hydraulic fracture during epithelial stretching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casares, Laura; Vincent, Romaric; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Campillo, Noelia; Navajas, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino; Trepat, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    The origin of fracture in epithelial cell sheets subject to stretch is commonly attributed to excess tension in the cells’ cytoskeleton, in the plasma membrane, or in cell-cell contacts. Here, we demonstrate that for a variety of synthetic and physiological hydrogel substrates the formation of epithelial cracks is caused by tissue stretching independently of epithelial tension. We show that the origin of the cracks is hydraulic; they result from a transient pressure build-up in the substrate during stretch and compression manoeuvres. After pressure equilibration, cracks heal readily through actomyosin-dependent mechanisms. The observed phenomenology is captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which predicts the size and healing dynamics of epithelial cracks as a function of the stiffness, geometry and composition of the hydrogel substrate. Our findings demonstrate that epithelial integrity is determined in a tension-independent manner by the coupling between tissue stretching and matrix hydraulics.

  15. Hydraulic fracture during epithelial stretching.

    PubMed

    Casares, Laura; Vincent, Romaric; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Campillo, Noelia; Navajas, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino; Trepat, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    The origin of fracture in epithelial cell sheets subject to stretch is commonly attributed to excess tension in the cells' cytoskeleton, in the plasma membrane, or in cell-cell contacts. Here, we demonstrate that for a variety of synthetic and physiological hydrogel substrates the formation of epithelial cracks is caused by tissue stretching independently of epithelial tension. We show that the origin of the cracks is hydraulic; they result from a transient pressure build-up in the substrate during stretch and compression manoeuvres. After pressure equilibration, cracks heal readily through actomyosin-dependent mechanisms. The observed phenomenology is captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which predicts the size and healing dynamics of epithelial cracks as a function of the stiffness, geometry and composition of the hydrogel substrate. Our findings demonstrate that epithelial integrity is determined in a tension-independent manner by the coupling between tissue stretching and matrix hydraulics. PMID:25664452

  16. Hydraulic fracture during epithelial stretching

    PubMed Central

    Casares, Laura; Vincent, Romaric; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Campillo, Noelia; Navajas, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino; Trepat, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The origin of fracture in epithelial cell sheets subject to stretch is commonly attributed to excess tension in the cells’ cytoskeleton, in the plasma membrane, or in cell-cell contacts. Here we demonstrate that for a variety of synthetic and physiological hydrogel substrates the formation of epithelial cracks is caused by tissue stretching independently of epithelial tension. We show that the origin of the cracks is hydraulic; they result from a transient pressure build-up in the substrate during stretch and compression maneuvers. After pressure equilibration cracks heal readily through actomyosin-dependent mechanisms. The observed phenomenology is captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which predicts the size and healing dynamics of epithelial cracks as a function of the stiffness, geometry and composition of the hydrogel substrate. Our findings demonstrate that epithelial integrity is determined in a tension-independent manner by the coupling between tissue stretching and matrix hydraulics. PMID:25664452

  17. Probing Scientists' Beliefs: How Open-Minded Are Modern Scientists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Richard; Taylor, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews…

  18. GCFR thermal-hydraulic experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, G.; Baxi, C.B.; Dalle Donne, M.; Gat, U.; Fenech, H.; Hanson, D.; Hudina, M.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal-hydraulic experimental studies performed and planned for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) core assemblies are described. The experiments consist of basic studies performed to obtain correlations, and bundle experiments which provide input for code validation and design verification. These studies have been performed and are planned at European laboratories, US national laboratories, Universities in the US, and at General Atomic Company

  19. Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements Barrow 2014

    DOE Data Explorer

    Katie McKnight; Tim Kneafsey; Craig Ulrich; Jil Geller

    2015-02-22

    Six individual ice cores were collected from Barrow Environmental Observatory in Barrow, Alaska, in May of 2013 as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE). Each core was drilled from a different location at varying depths. A few days after drilling, the cores were stored in coolers packed with dry ice and flown to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. 3-dimensional images of the cores were constructed using a medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner at 120kV. Hydraulic conductivity samples were extracted from these cores at LBNL Richmond Field Station in Richmond, CA, in February 2014 by cutting 5 to 8 inch segments using a chop saw. Samples were packed individually and stored at freezing temperatures to minimize any changes in structure or loss of ice content prior to analysis. Hydraulic conductivity was determined through falling head tests using a permeameter [ELE International, Model #: K-770B]. After approximately 12 hours of thaw, initial falling head tests were performed. Two to four measurements were collected on each sample and collection stopped when the applied head load exceeded 25% change from the original load. Analyses were performed between 2 to 3 times for each sample. The final hydraulic conductivity calculations were computed using methodology of Das et al., 1985.

  20. Hydraulic jumps with upstream shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kelly; Helfrich, Karl

    2013-11-01

    Hydraulic jumps in flows with background shear are investigated, motivated by applications such as the flow over sills in Knight Inlet and the Pre-Bosphorus Channel. The full solution space and allowable solutions to several two-layer theories for hydraulic jumps with upstream shear are identified. The two-layer theories considered, including a recent theory by Borden et al. (JFM, 2012), are distinguished by how dissipation is partitioned between the layers. It is found that upstream shear with a faster and thinner lower layer causes an increase in bore speed, for a given jump height. Further, these two-layer solutions only exist for a limited range of upstream shear. 2D numerical simulations are conducted, guided by the two-layer theory solution space, and the results are compared to the theories. The simulations show the qualitative types of hydraulic transitions that occur, including undular bores, fully turbulent jumps, and conjugate state-like solutions; the type depends on the jump height and upstream shear for fixed upstream layer depths. Numerical simulations are used to investigate the mixing. Finally, a few 3D numerical simulations were made and are found to be consistent with the 2D results.

  1. Science teaching in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Reading the interesting article Discerning selective traditions in science education by Per Sund, which is published in this issue of CSSE, allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must constantly develop new methods to teach and differentiate between science education and teaching science in response to the changing needs of our students, and we must analyze what role teachers and teacher educators play in both. We must continually examine the methods and concepts involved in developing pedagogical content knowledge in science teachers. Otherwise, the possibility that these routines, based on subjective traditions, prevent emerging processes of educational innovation. Modern science is an enormous field of knowledge in its own right, which is made more expansive when examined within the context of its place in society. We propose the need to design educative interactions around situations that involve science and society. Science education must provide students with all four dimensions of the cognitive process: factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and metacognitive knowledge. We can observe in classrooms at all levels of education that students understand the concepts better when they have the opportunity to apply the scientific knowledge in a personally relevant way. When students find value in practical exercises and they are provided opportunities to reinterpret their experiences, greater learning gains are achieved. In this sense, a key aspect of educational innovation is the change in teaching methodology. We need new tools to respond to new problems. A shift in teacher education is needed to realize the rewards of situating science questions in a societal context and opening classroom doors to active methodologies in science education to promote meaningful learning through meaningful teaching.

  2. Science teaching in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    Reading the interesting article Discerning selective traditions in science education by Per Sund , which is published in this issue of CSSE, allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must constantly develop new methods to teach and differentiate between science education and teaching science in response to the changing needs of our students, and we must analyze what role teachers and teacher educators play in both. We must continually examine the methods and concepts involved in developing pedagogical content knowledge in science teachers. Otherwise, the possibility that these routines, based on subjective traditions, prevent emerging processes of educational innovation. Modern science is an enormous field of knowledge in its own right, which is made more expansive when examined within the context of its place in society. We propose the need to design educative interactions around situations that involve science and society. Science education must provide students with all four dimensions of the cognitive process: factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and metacognitive knowledge. We can observe in classrooms at all levels of education that students understand the concepts better when they have the opportunity to apply the scientific knowledge in a personally relevant way. When students find value in practical exercises and they are provided opportunities to reinterpret their experiences, greater learning gains are achieved. In this sense, a key aspect of educational innovation is the change in teaching methodology. We need new tools to respond to new problems. A shift in teacher education is needed to realize the rewards of situating science questions in a societal context and opening classroom doors to active methodologies in science education to promote meaningful learning through meaningful teaching.

  3. Expanding the modern synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2010-10-01

    The Modern Evolutionary Synthesis formalizes the role of variation, heredity, differential reproduction and mutation in population genetics. Here we explore a mathematical structure, based on the asymptotic limit theorems of communication theory, that instantiates the punctuated dynamic relations of organisms with their embedding environments, including the possibility of the transfer of heritage information between different classes of organism. The approach applies a standard coevolutionary argument to genes, environment, and gene expression reconfigured as interacting information sources. In essence, we provide something of a formal roadmap for the modernization of the Modern Synthesis, making applications to both relatively rapid evolutionary punctuated equilibrium and to the conservation of ecological interactions across deep evolutionary time. PMID:20965439

  4. Stoicism and Civic Duty. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.1. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.1 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the causes and effects of the vast expansion and ultimate disintegration of the Roman Empire." One important legacy of ancient Rome is the foundation it set for the development of modern democracies. The Roman Stoics built upon the Greek Stoic model by defining…

  5. PHILOSOPHICAL PRESUPPOSITIONS OF AYURVEDA AND MODERN MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of Ayurveda rests on the concepts of matter, vital principle, mind, and pure consciousness. It is a holistic theory of medicine, which aims at restoration of physical and mental health, and spiritual well-being in a sick person, so that he may self-actualize himself, and eventually, realize his nature as pure consciousness. Modern Western medicine tries to reduce consciousness, and vital principle to biochemical entities. It is a value-neutral science, and considers the aim of therapy as removal of pathological symptoms. Its theoretical position is weak. Interface between medical and value science is urgently needed. PMID:22557392

  6. Hydraulic Redistribution: A Modeling Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, E.; Verma, P.; Loheide, S. P., III

    2014-12-01

    Roots play a key role in the soil water balance. They extract and transport water for transpiration, which usually represents the most important soil water loss in vegetated areas, and can redistribute soil water, thereby increasing transpiration rates and enhancing root nutrient uptake. We present here a two-dimensional model capable of describing two key aspects of root water uptake: root water compensation and hydraulic redistribution. Root water compensation is the ability of root systems to respond to the reduction of water uptake from areas of the soil with low soil water potential by increasing the water uptake from the roots in soil parts with higher water potential. Hydraulic redistribution is a passive transfer of water through the root system from areas of the soil with greater water potential to areas with lower water potential. Both mechanisms are driven by gradients of water potential in the soil and the roots. The inclusion of root water compensation and hydraulic redistribution in models can be achieved by describing root water uptake as a function of the difference in water potential between soil and root xylem. We use a model comprising the Richards equation for the water flow in variably saturated soils and the Darcy's equation for the water flow in the xylem. The two equations are coupled via a sink term, which is assumed to be proportional to the difference between soil and xylem water potentials. The model is applied in two case studies to describe vertical and horizontal hydraulic redistribution and the interaction between vegetation with different root depths. In the case of horizontal redistribution, the model is used to reproduce the fluxes of water across the root system of a tree subjected to uneven irrigation. This example can be extended to situations when only part of the root system has access to water, such as vegetation near creeks, trees at the edge of forests, and street trees in urban areas. The second case is inspired by recent

  7. Science: Servant or Master?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgenthau, Hans J.

    In this tenth book of a series entitled "Perspectives in Humanism," analyses are included concerning the meaning of science for modern man and its effects on contemporary politics. Natural, social, and humanistic sciences are discussed in connection with religion, philosophy, and politics to indicate the importance of the scholar who fulfills the…

  8. Modern Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ping

    This book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the development of modern Chinese from the late 19th century up to the 1990s, concentrating on three major aspects: modern spoken Chinese, modern written Chinese, and the modern Chinese writing system. It describes and analyzes in detail, from historical and sociolinguistic perspectives,…

  9. Plant hydraulics as a central hub integrating plant and ecosystem function: meeting report for 'Emerging Frontiers in Plant Hydraulics' (Washington, DC, May 2015).

    PubMed

    Sack, Lawren; Ball, Marilyn C; Brodersen, Craig; Davis, Stephen D; Des Marais, David L; Donovan, Lisa A; Givnish, Thomas J; Hacke, Uwe G; Huxman, Travis; Jansen, Steven; Jacobsen, Anna L; Johnson, Daniel M; Koch, George W; Maurel, Christophe; McCulloh, Katherine A; McDowell, Nate G; McElrone, Andrew; Meinzer, Frederick C; Melcher, Peter J; North, Gretchen; Pellegrini, Matteo; Pockman, William T; Pratt, R Brandon; Sala, Anna; Santiago, Louis S; Savage, Jessica A; Scoffoni, Christine; Sevanto, Sanna; Sperry, John; Tyerman, Stephen D; Way, Danielle; Holbrook, N Michele

    2016-09-01

    Water plays a central role in plant biology and the efficiency of water transport throughout the plant affects both photosynthetic rate and growth, an influence that scales up deterministically to the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, hydraulic traits mediate the ways in which plants interact with their abiotic and biotic environment. At landscape to global scale, plant hydraulic traits are important in describing the function of ecological communities and ecosystems. Plant hydraulics is increasingly recognized as a central hub within a network by which plant biology is connected to palaeobiology, agronomy, climatology, forestry, community and ecosystem ecology and earth-system science. Such grand challenges as anticipating and mitigating the impacts of climate change, and improving the security and sustainability of our food supply rely on our fundamental knowledge of how water behaves in the cells, tissues, organs, bodies and diverse communities of plants. A workshop, 'Emerging Frontiers in Plant Hydraulics' supported by the National Science Foundation, was held in Washington DC, 2015 to promote open discussion of new ideas, controversies regarding measurements and analyses, and especially, the potential for expansion of up-scaled and down-scaled inter-disciplinary research, and the strengthening of connections between plant hydraulic research, allied fields and global modelling efforts. PMID:27037757

  10. Importance of mechanical testing of hydraulic fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Reichel, J.

    1997-12-31

    Anti-wear properties of hydraulic fluids are important because hydraulic pump and motor wear is costly. Hydraulic fluid performance specifications represent minimum requirements. International hydraulic fluid performance standards are being developed by ISO/TC28/SC4 committee as draft (ISO DIS 11158 ``Specifications for Mineral Oil Hydraulic Fluids``). Performance specifications for non-mineral oil hydraulic fluids are also being developed. Typically, both the user and fluid manufacturer have insufficient information relating to the anti-wear properties of a new fluid to be used in hydraulic equipment, such as axial piston pumps, vane pumps or radial piston motors. Therefore, pump lubrication and operation requirements, preferably pre-existing in pump manufacturer`s specifications, must be determined. The required fluid lubrication properties may be determined by either laboratory pump tests or by a field trial, often at the expense of the customer. More preferably, the lubrication properties of the hydraulic fluid should be determined under mechanical conditions equivalent to field practice. In this paper, the use of both the vane pump test and the FZG Gear Test to predetermine the recommended hydraulic fluid lubrication performance will be discussed. In this way, fluid performance may be determined at significantly lower cost than more expensive large scale hydraulic pump and motor tests which are slower and more energy consuming.

  11. Osiris: A Modern, High-Performance, Coupled, Multi-Physics Code For Nuclear Reactor Core Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Procassini, R J; Chand, K K; Clouse, C J; Ferencz, R M; Grandy, J M; Henshaw, W D; Kramer, K J; Parsons, I D

    2007-02-26

    To meet the simulation needs of the GNEP program, LLNL is leveraging a suite of high-performance codes to be used in the development of a multi-physics tool for modeling nuclear reactor cores. The Osiris code project, which began last summer, is employing modern computational science techniques in the development of the individual physics modules and the coupling framework. Initial development is focused on coupling thermal-hydraulics and neutral-particle transport, while later phases of the project will add thermal-structural mechanics and isotope depletion. Osiris will be applicable to the design of existing and future reactor systems through the use of first-principles, coupled physics models with fine-scale spatial resolution in three dimensions and fine-scale particle-energy resolution. Our intent is to replace an existing set of legacy, serial codes which require significant approximations and assumptions, with an integrated, coupled code that permits the design of a reactor core using a first-principles physics approach on a wide range of computing platforms, including the world's most powerful parallel computers. A key research activity of this effort deals with the efficient and scalable coupling of physics modules which utilize rather disparate mesh topologies. Our approach allows each code module to use a mesh topology and resolution that is optimal for the physics being solved, and employs a mesh-mapping and data-transfer module to effect the coupling. Additional research is planned in the area of scalable, parallel thermal-hydraulics, high-spatial-accuracy depletion and coupled-physics simulation using Monte Carlo transport.

  12. Modern Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a detailed discussion of the theory and practice of modern regression discontinuity (RD) analysis for estimating the effects of interventions or treatments. Part 1 briefly chronicles the history of RD analysis and summarizes its past applications. Part 2 explains how in theory an RD analysis can identify an average effect of…

  13. Modern Biotechnology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  14. Modernizing Mechanical Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, Norman L.

    Some of the problems of renovating school buildings and in particular the modernization of mechanical services in existing facilities are discussed. According to school management publications, approximately 42 per cent of our elementary and 59 per cent of our secondary schools are 15 years old or older. School plants, which were built 12 to 15…

  15. Principles of Modern Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beim, George

    This book is written to give a better understanding of the principles of modern soccer to coaches and players. In nine chapters the following elements of the game are covered: (1) the development of systems; (2) the principles of attack; (3) the principles of defense; (4) training games; (5) strategies employed in restarts; (6) physical fitness…

  16. Modern splinting bandages.

    PubMed

    Wytch, R; Ashcroft, G P; Ledingham, W M; Wardlaw, D; Ritchie, I K

    1991-01-01

    We have assessed the current range of synthetic splinting bandages, using physical and mechanical tests and the subjective opinions of patients, volunteers and orthopaedic staff. Modern bandages have some better properties than standard plaster bandage but do not conform as well, are more expensive, and potentially more hazardous. PMID:1991785

  17. Modern NMR Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelinski, Lynn W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses direct chemical information that can be obtained from modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, concentrating on the types of problems that can be solved. Shows how selected methods provide information about polymers, bipolymers, biochemistry, small organic molecules, inorganic compounds, and compounds oriented in a magnetic…

  18. Modern biotechnology in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned. PMID:19626302

  19. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  20. Modern programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  1. [Modern wound dressings].

    PubMed

    Triller, Ciril; Huljev, Dubravko; Planinsek Rucigaj, Tanja

    2013-10-01

    Chronic wounds are, due to the slow healing, a major clinical problem. In addition to classic materials, a great number of supportive wound dressings for chronic wound treatment, developed on the basis of new knowledge about the pathophysiological events in non-healing wounds, are available on the market. Today we know that modern wound dressings provide the best local environment for optimal healing (moisture, warmth, appropriate pH). Wound dressings control the amount of exudate from the wound and bacterial load, thus protecting local skin from the wound exudate and the wound from secondary infections from the environment. Using supportive wound dressings makes sense only when the wound has been properly assessed, the etiologic factors have been clarified and the obstacles making the wound chronic identified. The choice of dressing is correlated with the characteristics of the wound, the knowledge and experience of the medical staff, and the patient's needs. We believe that the main advantage of modern wound dressing versus conventional dressing is more effective wound cleaning, simple dressing application, painless bandaging owing to reduced adhesion to the wound, and increased absorption of the wound exudate. Faster wound granulation shortens the length of patient hospitalization, and eventually facilitates the work of medical staff. The overall cost of treatment is a minor issue due to faster wound healing despite the fact that modern supportive wound dressings are more expensive than conventional bandaging. The article describes different types of modern supportive wound dressings, as well as their characteristics and indications for use. PMID:24371980

  2. Teaching Modern Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, G., Ed.

    Key areas of modern language teaching are addressed in 10 articles. In addition to a general overview of methods and aims of foreign language teaching, attention is directed to the audiolingual and audiovisual revolution, language study for the slow-learning child and for the child with above average ability, imaginative learning activities for…

  3. The Development of the Foundations of Modern Pedagogy: Paradigmal and Methodological Aspects of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dmitrenko, ?amara ?.; Lavryk, Tatjana V.; Yaresko, Ekaterina V.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the various fields of knowledge influenced the pedagogical science. The article explains the structure of the foundations of modern pedagogy through paradigmal and methodological aspects. Bases of modern pedagogy include complex of paradigms, object and subject of science, general and specific principles, methods and technologies.…

  4. Combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system

    SciTech Connect

    Mericle, G.E.; Venkataperumal, R.R.

    1981-06-02

    A combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system and method is disclosed for an electric vehicle. The braking system being responsive to the applied hydraulic pressure in a brake line to control the braking of the vehicle to be completely hydraulic up to a first level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a constant braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly increasing braking force from the first level of applied brake line pressure to a higher second level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly decreasing braking force from the second level of applied line pressure to a third and higher level of applied line pressure, and to be completely hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force from the third level to all higher applied levels of line pressure.

  5. Combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system

    DOEpatents

    Venkataperumal, Rama R.; Mericle, Gerald E.

    1981-06-02

    A combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system and method for an electric vehicle, with the braking system being responsive to the applied hydraulic pressure in a brake line to control the braking of the vehicle to be completely hydraulic up to a first level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a constant braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly increasing braking force from the first level of applied brake line pressure to a higher second level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly decreasing braking force from the second level of applied line pressure to a third and higher level of applied line pressure, and to be completely hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force from the third level to all higher applied levels of line pressure.

  6. Combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system

    DOEpatents

    Venkataperumal, R.R.; Mericle, G.E.

    1979-08-09

    A combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system and method for an electric vehicle is disclosed. The braking system is responsive to the applied hydraulic pressure in a brake line to control the braking of the vehicle to be completely hydraulic up to a first level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a constant braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly increasing braking force from the first level of applied brake line pressure to a higher second level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly decreasing braking force from the second level of applied line pressure to a third and higher level of applied line pressure, and to be completely hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force from the third level to all higher applied levels of line pressure.

  7. Hydraulic fracturing and the creation of hydraulic breccias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehn, Daniel; Varga Vass, Anna; Toussaint, Renaud; Bons, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Vein systems that indicate paleofracture geometries can be found in variable settings including typical layer perpendicular and layer parallel veins. Some natural examples show layer parallel and perpendicular veins that appear to form synchronously. A more drastic example of fluid overpressures is the development of hydraulic breccias where the fractures also do not show a specific orientation. We argue that these structure develop due to local fluid overpressures leading to pressure gradients. Depending on the boundary conditions, for example seals in the system and localisation or non-localisation of fluid overpressure the developing effective stress fields can be quite complicated and the fluid pressure is not isotropic, but pressure gradients produce anisotropic stresses. We illustrate the complexity of the developing effective stress and fracture patterns with a hybrid numerical model linking pressure gradients to solid deformation. In the model fluid pressure rise below a seal leads to a decrease of the mean and differential stress of the solid. In a closed system where fluid pressure rise below a seal is not local, the main principle stresses flip with the effective horizontal stress becoming zero and the effective vertical stress tensile leading to horizontal hydrofractures. Such a system leads to the development of a hydraulic breccia if initially local high fluid pressure pulses produce vertical fractures. We argue that an fluid pressure gradients have to be taken into account to understand effective stresses in the Earth's crust.

  8. Re-Designing Science Pedagogy: Reversing the Flight from Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, Erica; Poronnik, Philip; Taylor, Peter G.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes as its starting point the ongoing downturn in student interest in, and engagement with, the enabling sciences. We make a case that embedding of creative pedagogies in science education has significant potential to arrest the flight from modern science. Five propositions are explored in order to argue the case: that young people…

  9. COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER

    SciTech Connect

    DAVENPORT,J.

    2004-11-01

    The Brookhaven Computational Science Center brings together researchers in biology, chemistry, physics, and medicine with applied mathematicians and computer scientists to exploit the remarkable opportunities for scientific discovery which have been enabled by modern computers. These opportunities are especially great in computational biology and nanoscience, but extend throughout science and technology and include for example, nuclear and high energy physics, astrophysics, materials and chemical science, sustainable energy, environment, and homeland security.

  10. Crosswell seismic investigation of hydraulically conductive, fracture bedrock near Mirror Lake, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Hsieh, P.A.; Shapiro, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Near Mirror Lake, New Hampshire (USA), hydraulically conductive, fractured bedrock was investigated with the crosswell seismic method to determine whether this method could provide any information about hydraulic conductivity between wells. To this end, crosswell seismic data, acoustic logs from boreholes, image logs from boreholes, and single borehole hydraulic tests were analyzed. The analysis showed that, first, the P-wave velocities from the acoustic logs tended to be higher in schist than they were in granite. (Schist and granite were the dominant rock types). Second, the P-wave velocities from the acoustic logs tended to be low near fractures. Third, the hydraulic conductivity was always low (always less than to 10-8 m/s) where no fractures intersected the borehole, but the hydraulic conductivity ranged from low to high (from less than to 10-10 m/s to 10-4 m/s) where one or more fractures intersected the borehole. Fourth, high hydraulic conductivities were slightly more frequent when the P-wave velocity was low (less than 5200 m/s) than when it was high (greater than or equal to 5200 m/s). The interpretation of this statistical relation was that the fractures tended to increase the hydraulic conductivity and to lower the P-wave velocity. This statistical relation was applied to a velocity tomogram to create a map showing the probability of high hydraulic conductivity; the map was consistent with results from independent hydraulic tests. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimization of hydraulic turbine diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moravec, Prokop; Hliník, Juraj; Rudolf, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic turbine diffuser recovers pressure energy from residual kinetic energy on turbine runner outlet. Efficiency of this process is especially important for high specific speed turbines, where almost 50% of available head is utilized within diffuser. Magnitude of the coefficient of pressure recovery can be significantly influenced by designing its proper shape. Present paper focuses on mathematical shape optimization method coupled with CFD. First method is based on direct search Nelder-Mead algorithm, while the second method employs adjoint solver and morphing. Results obtained with both methods are discussed and their advantages/disadvantages summarized.

  12. Tree hydraulics: how sap rises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown—a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by transpiration or capillary action; we investigate the effectiveness of both these forces for the two conduit architectures considered. The level of analysis is appropriate for undergraduates. The subject is of broad interest because it provides a naturally-occurring example of an unusual metastable state of matter: liquid under tension.

  13. Hydraulic Extractor For Electronic Connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Larry D.

    1994-01-01

    Tool separates multipin electrical connectors in electronic equipment. Based on use of hydraulic pressure to apply balanced forces to connector and gently pull it free without damage. Easily assembled from readily available parts. Includes actuator syringe, two extractor syringes of disposable plastic 5-mL type, several pieces of flexible plastic tubing, and adjustable mounting components that brace tool in desired spacing configuration to suit connector extracted. Tubes and syringes filled with suitable fluid. Designed specifically for use on "D"-type connectors, also adapted for use wherever linear extraction motion used.

  14. Fault Detection and Isolation for Hydraulic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Pressure sensors and isolation valves act to shut down defective servochannel. Redundant hydraulic system indirectly senses failure in any of its electrical control channels and mechanically isolates hydraulic channel controlled by faulty electrical channel so flat it cannot participate in operating system. With failure-detection and isolation technique, system can sustains two failed channels and still functions at full performance levels. Scheme useful on aircraft or other systems with hydraulic servovalves where failure cannot be tolerated.

  15. Hydraulically Driven Grips For Hot Tensile Specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, R. Keith; Johnson, George W.

    1994-01-01

    Pair of grips for tensile and compressive test specimens operate at temperatures up to 1,500 degrees F. Grips include wedges holding specimen inside furnace, where heated to uniform temperature. Hydraulic pistons drive wedges, causing them to exert clamping force. Hydraulic pistons and hydraulic fluid remain outside furnace, at room temperature. Cooling water flows through parts of grips to reduce heat transferred to external components. Advantages over older devices for gripping specimens in high-temperature tests; no need to drill holes in specimens, maintains constant gripping force on specimens, and heated to same temperature as that of specimen without risk of heating hydraulic fluid and acuator components.

  16. Monitoring hydraulic fracture growth: Laboratory experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Groenenboom, J.; Dam, D.B. van

    2000-04-01

    The authors carry out small-scale hydraulic fracture experiments to investigate the physics of hydraulic fracturing. The laboratory experiments are combined with time-lapse ultrasonic measurements with active sources using both compressional and shear-wave transducers. For the time-lapse measurements they focus on ultrasonic measurement changes during fracture growth. As a consequence they can detect the hydraulic fracture and characterize its shape and geometry during growth. Hence, this paper deals with fracture characterization using time-lapse acoustic data. Hydraulic fracturing is used in the oil and gas industry to stimulate reservoir production.

  17. Intriguing Freshmen with Materials Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pond, Robert B., Sr.

    Described is a course designed for engineering science and natural science freshmen and open to upperclass nonscience majors entitled "Science of Modern Materials" and which has been successfully presented for several years. This paper presents the philosophy behind the course, the teaching methods employed, and the content of the course. The…

  18. Science Education and Meaningful Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    Argues that there should be no equation between modern methods of teaching science and discovery methods, suggesting that the emphasis on discovery has resulted from confused thinking among science educators. Also, describes research-based developments promising better theoretical/practical perspectives for improved science teaching, focusing on…

  19. Helical coil thermal hydraulic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caramello, M.; Bertani, C.; De Salve, M.; Panella, B.

    2014-11-01

    A model has been developed in Matlab environment for the thermal hydraulic analysis of helical coil and shell steam generators. The model considers the internal flow inside one helix and its associated control volume of water on the external side, both characterized by their inlet thermodynamic conditions and the characteristic geometry data. The model evaluates the behaviour of the thermal-hydraulic parameters of the two fluids, such as temperature, pressure, heat transfer coefficients, flow quality, void fraction and heat flux. The evaluation of the heat transfer coefficients as well as the pressure drops has been performed by means of the most validated literature correlations. The model has been applied to one of the steam generators of the IRIS modular reactor and a comparison has been performed with the RELAP5/Mod.3.3 code applied to an inclined straight pipe that has the same length and the same elevation change between inlet and outlet of the real helix. The predictions of the developed model and RELAP5/Mod.3.3 code are in fairly good agreement before the dryout region, while the dryout front inside the helical pipes is predicted at a lower distance from inlet by the model.

  20. Control rod drive hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Ose, Richard A.

    1992-01-01

    A hydraulic system for a control rod drive (CRD) includes a variable output-pressure CR pump operable in a charging mode for providing pressurized fluid at a charging pressure, and in a normal mode for providing the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure, less than the charging pressure. Charging and purge lines are disposed in parallel flow between the CRD pump and the CRD. A hydraulic control unit is disposed in flow communication in the charging line and includes a scram accumulator. An isolation valve is provided in the charging line between the CRD pump and the scram accumulator. A controller is operatively connected to the CRD pump and the isolation valve and is effective for opening the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a charging mode for charging the scram accumulator, and closing the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a normal mode for providing to the CRD through the purge line the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure lower than the charging pressure.

  1. Embracing the Role of Science in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparace, Salvatore A.; Layfield, K. Dale

    2003-01-01

    The approach to agricultural production has come to rely on the application of modern science and technology for improvements and innovation. There has been a shift from traditional production careers to those involving science-driven agricultural development. (JOW)

  2. Searching for Meaning in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkheimer, Glenn D.; McLeod, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses how science programs K-16 should be developed to meet the modern objectives of science education and restore its true meaning. The theories of Phenix and Ausubel are included in this discussion. (HM)

  3. Nehruvian science and postcolonial India.

    PubMed

    Arnold, David

    2013-06-01

    This essay uses the seminal figure of Jawaharlal Nehru to interrogate the nature and representation of science in modern India. The problem posed by Nehruvian science--the conflict between (yet simultaneity of) science as both universal phenomenon and local effect--lies at the heart of current debates about what science means for the non-West. The problematic of Nehruvian science can be accessed through Nehru's own speeches and writings, but also through the wider project of science with which he identified--critiquing colonialism, forging India's place in the modern world, marrying intellectual endeavor with practical nation building. The essay makes a case for looking at Nehruvian science as a way of structuring the problem of postcolonial science, particularly in relation to understanding the authority of science and its evaluation in terms of its capacity to deliver socioeconomic change. PMID:23961694

  4. Modern Anaesthesia Vapourisers

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarti, Sucharita; Basu, Srabani

    2013-01-01

    Inhalational anaesthetic agents are usually liquids at room temperature and barometric pressure and need to be converted to vapour before being used and this conversion is effected using a vapouriser. Vapourisers have evolved from very basic devices to more complicated ones. Anaesthetists should understand the basic principles of anaesthetic vapouriser, including the principles that affect vapouriser output and how they influence vapouriser design. Most of the modern vapourisers in use are designed to be used between the flow meter and the common gas outlet on the anaesthesia machine. Modern vapourisers are flow and temperature compensated, concentration calibrated, direct reading, dial controlled and are unaffected by positive-pressure ventilation. Safety features include an anti-spill and a select-a-tec mechanism and a specific vapouriser filling device. Desflurane has unique physical properties requiring the use of a specific desflurane vapouriser. The most recently designed vapourisers are controlled by a central processing unit in the anaesthetic machine. The concentration of vapour is continuously monitored and adjusted by altering fresh gas flow through the vapouriser. This article looks at the basic design and functioning of the modern vapourisers. PMID:24249879

  5. TEACHING PHYSICS: Experiments in modern physics for the general public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, K. E.; Nilsson, Ch

    2000-07-01

    Experiments in modern physics interest and fascinate many people. In order to make such experiments available to them, the Stockholm Science Laboratory - normally dedicated to teachers and students - was opened to the general public on 15 occasions in Autumn 1999. AÂ total of nine different themes, mainly in modern physics and astronomy but also in the physics of sound, colour and light, were presented. Each laboratory session lasted for approximately three hours, and was almost always fully booked.

  6. The Implications for Science Education of Heidegger's Philosophy of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Science teaching always engages a philosophy of science. This article introduces a modern philosophy of science and indicates its implications for science education. The hermeneutic philosophy of science is the tradition of Kant, Heidegger, and Heelan. Essential to this tradition are two concepts of truth, truth as correspondence and truth as…

  7. Gravity-Driven Hydraulic Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germanovich, L. N.; Garagash, D.; Murdoch, L. C.; Robinowitz, M.

    2014-12-01

    This study is motived by a new method for disposing of nuclear waste by injecting it as a dense slurry into a hydraulic fracture that grows downward to great enough depth to permanently isolate the waste. Disposing of nuclear waste using gravity-driven hydraulic fractures is mechanically similar to the upward growth of dikes filled with low density magma. A fundamental question in both applications is how the injected fluid controls the propagation dynamics and fracture geometry (depth and breadth) in three dimensions. Analog experiments in gelatin [e.g., Heimpel and Olson, 1994; Taisne and Tait, 2009] show that fracture breadth (the short horizontal dimension) remains nearly stationary when the process in the fracture "head" (where breadth is controlled) is dominated by solid toughness, whereas viscous fluid dissipation is dominant in the fracture tail. We model propagation of the resulting gravity-driven (buoyant or sinking), finger-like fracture of stationary breadth with slowly varying opening along the crack length. The elastic response to fluid loading in a horizontal cross-section is local and can be treated similar to the classical Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) model of hydraulic fracturing. The propagation condition for a finger-like crack is based on balancing the global energy release rate due to a unit crack extension with the rock fracture toughness. It allows us to relate the net fluid pressure at the tip to the fracture breadth and rock toughness. Unlike the PKN fracture, where breadth is known a priori, the final breadth of a finger-like fracture is a result of processes in the fracture head. Because the head is much more open than the tail, viscous pressure drop in the head can be neglected leading to a 3D analog of Weertman's hydrostatic pulse. This requires relaxing the local elasticity assumption of the PKN model in the fracture head. As a result, we resolve the breadth, and then match the viscosity-dominated tail with the 3-D, toughness

  8. 14 CFR 25.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 25.1435 Section 25.1435 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Element design. Each element of...

  9. Hydraulically powered dissimilar teleoperated system controller design

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.

    1996-04-01

    This paper will address two issues associated with the implementation of a hydraulically powered dissimilar master-slave teleoperated system. These issues are the overall system control architecture and the design of robust hydraulic servo controllers for the position control problem. Finally, a discussion of overall system performance on an actual teleoperated system will be presented.

  10. Hydraulic hoist system for offshore cranes

    SciTech Connect

    Doan, T.C.; Featherstone, W.A.

    1982-11-01

    A problem of hydraulic hoist systems for cranes has been the generation of heat within the hydraulic circuit. The generation of heat affects efficiency and performance. This paper describes our approach to obtaining improved efficiency and good performance by reduced heat generation.

  11. Trimodernism and Social Sciences: A Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.

    2012-01-01

    The issues of premodern, modern, and postmodern can often confuse the social scientists because so much is drawn from modernism as the foundation of the social methodologies. Briefly, the author would like to differentiate the three modernism philosophies and indicate how a coalition of the three may apply to social sciences.

  12. Valuing Science: A Turkish-American Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titrek, Osman; Cobern, William W.

    2011-01-01

    The process of modernization began in Turkey under the reform government of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk (1881-1938). Turkey officially became a secular nation seeking to develop a modern economy with modern science and technology and political democracy. Turkey also has long been, and remains, a deeply religious society. Specifically, the practice of…

  13. TRANSLATING AVAILABLE BASIC SOIL DATA INTO MISSING SOIL HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil hydraulic pedotransfer functions transfer simple-to-measure soil survey information into soil hydraulic characteristics, that are otherwise costly to measure. Examples are presented of different equations describing hydraulic characteristics and of pedotransfer functions used to predict paramet...

  14. Issues of a Computer-Aided Design of Hydraulic Jacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averchenkov, V. I.; Averchenkov, A. V.; Kolyakinand, V. V.; Orekhov, O. D.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the issues of a computer-aided design of hydraulic equipment, namely hydraulic jacks. Design principles of the hydraulic jack CAD system are described. In addition, the possibilities for the system improvement and expansion are considered.

  15. Hydraulically amplified PZT mems actuator

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.

    2004-11-02

    A hydraulically amplified microelectromechanical systems actuator. A piece of piezoelectric material or stacked piezo bimorph is bonded or deposited as a thin film. The piece is operatively connected to a primary membrane. A reservoir is operatively connected to the primary membrane. The reservoir contains a fluid. A membrane is operatively connected to the reservoir. In operation, energizing the piezoelectric material causing the piezoelectric material to bow. Bowing of the piezoelectric material causes movement of the primary membrane. Movement of the primary membrane results in a force in being transmitted to the liquid in the reservoir. The force in the liquid causes movement of the membrane. Movement of the membrane results in an operating actuator.

  16. Thermal hydraulics development for CASL

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrie, Robert B

    2010-12-07

    This talk will describe the technical direction of the Thermal-Hydraulics (T-H) Project within the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) Department of Energy Innovation Hub. CASL is focused on developing a 'virtual reactor', that will simulate the physical processes that occur within a light-water reactor. These simulations will address several challenge problems, defined by laboratory, university, and industrial partners that make up CASL. CASL's T-H efforts are encompassed in two sub-projects: (1) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), (2) Interface Treatment Methods (ITM). The CFD subproject will develop non-proprietary, scalable, verified and validated macroscale CFD simulation tools. These tools typically require closures for their turbulence and boiling models, which will be provided by the ITM sub-project, via experiments and microscale (such as DNS) simulation results. The near-term milestones and longer term plans of these two sub-projects will be discussed.

  17. Thermal Hydraulic Computer Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-07-16

    Version 00 RELAP5 was developed to describe the behavior of a light water reactor (LWR) subjected to postulated transients such as loss of coolant from large or small pipe breaks, pump failures, etc. RELAP5 calculates fluid conditions such as velocities, pressures, densities, qualities, temperatures; thermal conditions such as surface temperatures, temperature distributions, heat fluxes; pump conditions; trip conditions; reactor power and reactivity from point reactor kinetics; and control system variables. In addition to reactor applications,more » the program can be applied to transient analysis of other thermal‑hydraulic systems with water as the fluid. This package contains RELAP5/MOD1/029 for CDC computers and RELAP5/MOD1/025 for VAX or IBM mainframe computers.« less

  18. Autoerotic fatalities with power hydraulics.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, R L; Dietz, P E

    1993-03-01

    We report two cases in which men used the hydraulic shovels on tractors to suspend themselves for masochistic sexual stimulation. One man developed a romantic attachment to a tractor, even giving it a name and writing poetry in its honor. He died accidentally while intentionally asphyxiating himself through suspension by the neck, leaving clues that he enjoyed perceptual distortions during asphyxiation. The other man engaged in sexual bondage and transvestic fetishism, but did not purposely asphyxiate himself. He died when accidentally pinned to the ground under a shovel after intentionally suspending himself by the ankles. We compare these cases with other autoerotic fatalities involving perceptual distortion, cross-dressing, machinery, and postural asphyxiation by chest compression. PMID:8454997

  19. Modern plasma fractionation.

    PubMed

    Burnouf, Thierry

    2007-04-01

    Protein products fractionated from human plasma are an essential class of therapeutics used, often as the only available option, in the prevention, management, and treatment of life-threatening conditions resulting from trauma, congenital deficiencies, immunologic disorders, or infections. Modern plasma product production technology remains largely based on the ethanol fractionation process, but much has evolved in the last few years to improve product purity, to enhance the recovery of immunoglobulin G, and to isolate new plasma proteins, such as alpha1-protease inhibitor, von Willebrand factor, and protein C. Because of the human origin of the starting material and the pooling of 10,000 to 50,000 donations required for industrial processing, the major risk associated to plasma products is the transmission of blood-borne infectious agents. A complete set of measures--and, most particularly, the use of dedicated viral inactivation and removal treatments--has been implemented throughout the production chain of fractionated plasma products over the last 20 years to ensure optimal safety, in particular, and not exclusively, against HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. In this review, we summarize the practices of the modern plasma fractionation industry from the collection of the raw plasma material to the industrial manufacture of fractionated products. We describe the quality requirements of plasma for fractionation and the various treatments applied for the inactivation and removal of blood-borne infectious agents and provide examples of methods used for the purification of the various classes of plasma protein therapies. We also highlight aspects of the good manufacturing practices and the regulatory environment that govern the whole chain of production. In a regulated and professional environment, fractionated plasma products manufactured by modern processes are certainly among the lowest-risk therapeutic biological products in use today. PMID:17397761

  20. Hydraulic fracturing of jointed formations

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, H.D.; Fehler, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    Measured by volume, North America's largest hydraulic fracturing operations have been conducted at Fenton Hill, New Mexico to create geothermal energy reservoirs. In the largest operation 21,000 m/sup 3/ of water were injected into jointed granitic rock at a depth of 3.5 km. Microearthquakes induced by this injection were measured with geophones placed in five wells drilled into, or very close, to the reservoir, as well as 11 surface seismometers. The large volume of rock over which the microearthquakes were distributed indicates a mechanism of hydraulic stimulation which is at odds with conventional fracturing theory, which predicts failure along a plane which is perpendicular to the least compressive earth stress. A coupled rock mechanics/fluid flow model provides much of the explanation. Shear slippage along pre-existing joints in the rock is more easily induced than conventional tensile failure, particularly when the difference between minimum and maximum earth stresses is large and the joints are oriented at angles between 30 and 60 degrees to the principal earth stresses, and a low viscosity fluid like water is injected. Shear slippage results in local redistribution of stresses, which allows a branching, or dendritic, stimulation pattern to evolve, in agreement with the patterns of microearthquake locations. These results are qualitatively similar to the controversial process known as ''Kiel'' fracturing, in which sequential injections and shut-ins are repeated to create dendritic fractures for enhanced oil and gas recovery. However, we believe that the explanation is shear slippage of pre-existing joints and stress redistribution, not proppant bridging and fluid blocking as suggested by Kiel. 15 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Our Modern Stone Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, W. D.

    Unlike most books dealing with industrial minerals and rocks, Our Modern Stone Age is a pleasure to read. Within a matter of several hours, one can get an excellent introduction to nonmetallic mineral resources and industries exclusive o f the mineral fuels. The book is very well written and well illustrated with photographs and drawings; although pitched for the intelligent layman, it is in no way dull reading for even a well-versed economic geologist. Nearly every geologist, mining engineer, mineral economist, planner, and politician will find points of interest in this book.

  2. Chinese Swing Back to Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swetz, Frank; Yu, Ying-king

    1979-01-01

    Describes the history of science education in the People's Republic of China since the 1950s, and discusses the new Chinese emphasis on "theory" and "expertness" to produce the scientists necessary for China's development and modernization. (GA)

  3. Teaching Twentieth-Century Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Considers the question: Can fundamental modern concepts of special relativity and quantum mechanics be taught to students with minimal preparation in science and mathematics in anything other than oversimplified terms? (PEB)

  4. INL Experimental Program Roadmap for Thermal Hydraulic Code Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn McCreery; Hugh McIlroy

    2007-09-01

    Advanced computer modeling and simulation tools and protocols will be heavily relied on for a wide variety of system studies, engineering design activities, and other aspects of the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), the DOE Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), and light-water reactors. The goal is for all modeling and simulation tools to be demonstrated accurate and reliable through a formal Verification and Validation (V&V) process, especially where such tools are to be used to establish safety margins and support regulatory compliance, or to design a system in a manner that reduces the role of expensive mockups and prototypes. Recent literature identifies specific experimental principles that must be followed in order to insure that experimental data meet the standards required for a “benchmark” database. Even for well conducted experiments, missing experimental details, such as geometrical definition, data reduction procedures, and manufacturing tolerances have led to poor Benchmark calculations. The INL has a long and deep history of research in thermal hydraulics, especially in the 1960s through 1980s when many programs such as LOFT and Semiscle were devoted to light-water reactor safety research, the EBRII fast reactor was in operation, and a strong geothermal energy program was established. The past can serve as a partial guide for reinvigorating thermal hydraulic research at the laboratory. However, new research programs need to fully incorporate modern experimental methods such as measurement techniques using the latest instrumentation, computerized data reduction, and scaling methodology. The path forward for establishing experimental research for code model validation will require benchmark experiments conducted in suitable facilities located at the INL. This document describes thermal hydraulic facility requirements and candidate buildings and presents examples of suitable validation experiments related

  5. Heliotropism in modern stromatolites

    SciTech Connect

    Awramik, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Three different examples of modern microbial mats and stromatolites have been discovered that exhibit a preferred orientation towards specular sunlight. In Hamelin Pool of Shark Bay, Western Australia, subtidal decimeter-sized discrete columns and intertidal centimeter-sized tufts were found pointing north. In thermal spring effluents and pools of Yellowstone National Park, columnar and conical centimeter-sized microbial structures were found to be inclined to the south. None of these inclined structures show growth orientation in response to prevailing fluid directions. Each example occurs in markedly different environments and each has different photosynthetic microbes: (1) the subtidal Shark Bay columns are dominated by surficial diatoms: (2) the intertidal Shark Bay tufts constructed by a filamentous cyanobacterium; and (3) the cones and columns in Yellowstone are built by filamentous flexibacteria and cyanobacteria. Sunlight must be considered a major driving force in stromatolite morphogenesis. Extrapolation of these modern heliotropic columnar stromatolites to fossil examples supports the paleolatitude hypothesis of Vologdin (1961) and of Nordeng (1963) and the days per year hypothesis of Vanyo and Awramik (1982). Taken together, and especially when combined with paleomagnetic analyses, the procedures yield an impressive array of data on Earth and Earth-Sun-Moon histories.

  6. The Comparison of Predicted and Measured Hydraulic Conductivities of Soils having Different Physical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zengin, Enes; Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal; Karakuş, Hüseyin

    2015-04-01

    Hydraulic conductivity is one of the most important parameter of earth science related studies such as engineering geology, soil physics, agriculture etc. In order to estimate the ability of soils to transport fluid through particles, field and laboratory tests have been performed since last decades of 19th century. Constant and falling head tests are widely used to directly measure hydraulic conductivity values in laboratory conditions for soils having different particle size distributions. The determination of hydraulic conductivity of soils by performing these methods are time consuming processes and also requires undisturbed samples to reflect in-situ natural condition. Considering these limitations, numerous approaches have been proposed to practically estimate hydraulic conductivity of soils by utilizing empirical equations based on simple physical and index properties such as grain size distribution curves related parameters, porosity, void ratio, etc. Many previous studies show that the hydraulic conductivity values calculated by empirical equations deviate more than two order magnitude than the measured hydraulic conductivity values obtained from convenient permeability tests. In order to investigate the main controlling parameters on hydraulic conductivity of soils, a comprehensive research program was carried out on some disturbed and undisturbed soil samples collected from different locations in Turkey. The hydraulic conductivity values of samples were determined as changing between 10-6 and 10-9 m/s by using falling head tests. In addition to these tests, basic soil properties such as natural water content, Atterberg limits, specific gravity and grain size analyses of these samples were also defined to be used as an input parameters of empirical equations for prediction hydraulic conductivity values. In addition, data from previous studies were also used for the aim of this study. The measured hydraulic conductivity values were correlated with all

  7. Rock Content Influence on Soil Hydraulic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parajuli, K.; Sadeghi, M.; Jones, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Soil hydraulic properties including the soil water retention curve (SWRC) and hydraulic conductivity function are important characteristics of soil affecting a variety of soil properties and processes. The hydraulic properties are commonly measured for seived soils (i.e. particles < 2 mm), but many natural soils include rock fragments of varying size that alter bulk hydraulic properties. Relatively few studies have addressed this important problem using physically-based concepts. Motivated by this knowledge gap, we set out to describe soil hydraulic properties using binary mixtures (i.e. rock fragment inclusions in a soil matrix) based on individual properties of the rock and soil. As a first step of this study, special attention was devoted to the SWRC, where the impact of rock content on the SWRC was quantified using laboratory experiments for six different mixing ratios of soil matrix and rock. The SWRC for each mixture was obtained from water mass and water potential measurements. The resulting data for the studied mixtures yielded a family of SWRC indicating how the SWRC of the mixture is related to that of the individual media, i.e., soil and rock. A consistent model was also developed to describe the hydraulic properties of the mixture as a function of the individual properties of the rock and soil matrix. Key words: Soil hydraulic properties, rock content, binary mixture, experimental data.

  8. Hydraulic control device for automatic transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, Y.; Taga, Y.; Kashihara, Y.

    1989-06-20

    This patent describes a hydraulic control device for an automatic transmission including a control unit, a shift gear mechanism, clutches and brakes for controlling the shift gear mechanism, hydraulic servos for actuating the clutches and brakes to control the shift gear mechanism and having hydraulic servo for a forward clutch, and an electronically operated regulating value for regulating pressure according to signals from the control unit. The control device consists of: a selecting value switched by signals indicating stopping and running condition of a vehicle, the selecting valve being connected to the hydraulic servo for the forward clutch for engaging and transmitting torque during the forward running conditon, the selecting valve selectively receiving a line pressure and a control pressure from the regulating valve so that hydraulic pressure just below engaging pressure regulated by the regulating valve is applied to the hydraulic servo for the forward clutch during stopping, and a line pressure is applied to the hydraulic servo for the forward clutch during running.

  9. The modern histopathologist: in the changing face of time.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Biman; Gupta, Kirti; Saikia, Uma N

    2008-01-01

    The molecular age histopathologist of today is practicing pathology in a totally different scenario than the preceding generations did. Histopathologists stand, as of now, on the cross roads of a traditional 'visible' morphological science and an 'invisible' molecular science. As molecular diagnosis finds more and more applicability in histopathological diagnosis, it is time for the policy makers to reframe the process of accreditation and re-accreditation of the modern histopathologist in context to the rapid changes taking place in this science. Incorporation of such 'molecular' training vis-a-vis information communication technology skills viz. telemedicine and telepathology, digital imaging techniques and photography and a sound knowledge of the economy that the fresh entrant would ultimately become a part of would go a long way to produce the Modern Histopathologist. This review attempts to look at some of these aspects of this rapidly advancing 'art of science.' PMID:18534037

  10. HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF ESSENTIALLY SATURATED PEAT

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, R

    2008-02-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory measured the hydraulic conductivity of peat samples using method ASTM D4511-00. Four samples of peat were packed into 73mm diameter plastic tubes and saturated from the bottom up with water. The columns were packed with Premier ProMoss III TBK peat to a dry density of approximately 0.16 gm/cc (10 lb/ft3). One column was packed using oven dried peat and the other 3 were packed using as delivered peat. The oven dried sample was the most difficult to saturate. All of the peat samples expanded during saturation resulting in a sample length (L) that was longer than when the sample was initially packed. Table 1 contains information related to the column packing. After saturation the hydraulic conductivity test was conducted using the apparatus shown in Figure 1. Three of the samples were tested at 2 different flow conductions, 1 high and 1 low. Table 2 and Figure 2 contain the results of the hydraulic conductivity testing. Each test was run for a minimum of 40 minutes to allow the test conditions to stabilize. The hydraulic conductivity at the end of each test is reported as the hydraulic conductivity for that test. The hydraulic conductivity of the 4 peat samples is 0.0052 {+-} 0.0009 cm/sec. This result compares well with the hydraulic conductivity measured in the pilot scale peat bed after approximately 2 months of operation. The similarity in results between the dry pack sample and moist pack samples shows the moisture content at the time of packing had a minimal effect on the hydraulic conductivity. Additionally, similarity between the results shows the test is reproducible. The hydraulic conductivity results are similar to those reported by other tests of peat samples reported in the literature.

  11. Space Shuttle Upgrades Advanced Hydraulic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Three Auxiliary Power Units (APU) on the Space Shuttle Orbiter each provide 145 hp shaft power to a hydraulic pump which outputs 3000 psi hydraulic fluid to 41 hydraulic actuators. A hydrazine fuel powered APU utilized throughout the Shuttle program has undergone many improvements, but concerns remain with flight safety, operational cost, critical failure modes, and hydrazine related hazards. The advanced hydraulic power system (AHPS), also known as the electric APU, is being evaluated as an upgrade to replace the hydrazine APU. The AHPS replaces the high-speed turbine and hydrazine fuel supply system with a battery power supply and electric motor/pump that converts 300 volt electrical power to 3000 psi hydraulic power. AHPS upgrade benefits include elimination of toxic hydrazine propellant to improve flight safety, reduction in hazardous ground processing operations, and improved reliability. Development of this upgrade provides many interesting challenges and includes development of four hardware elements that comprise the AHPS system: Battery - The battery provides a high voltage supply of power using lithium ion cells. This is a large battery that must provide 28 kilowatt hours of energy over 99 minutes of operation at 300 volts with a peak power of 130 kilowatts for three seconds. High Voltage Power Distribution and Control (PD&C) - The PD&C distributes electric power from the battery to the EHDU. This 300 volt system includes wiring and components necessary to distribute power and provide fault current protection. Electro-Hydraulic Drive Unit (EHDU) - The EHDU converts electric input power to hydraulic output power. The EHDU must provide over 90 kilowatts of stable, output hydraulic power at 3000 psi with high efficiency and rapid response time. Cooling System - The cooling system provides thermal control of the Orbiter hydraulic fluid and EHDU electronic components. Symposium presentation will provide an overview of the AHPS upgrade, descriptions of the four

  12. Hydraulic Fracturing and the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayatollahy Tafti, T.; Aminzadeh, F.; Jafarpour, B.; de Barros, F.

    2013-12-01

    In this presentation, we highlight two key environmental concerns of hydraulic fracturing (HF), namely induced seismicity and groundwater contamination (GC). We examine the induced seismicity (IS) associated with different subsurface fluid injection and production (SFIP) operations and the key operational parameters of SFIP impacting it. In addition we review the key potential sources for possible water contamination. Both in the case of IS and GC we propose modeling and data analysis methods to quantify the risk factors to be used for monitoring and risk reduction. SFIP include presents a risk in hydraulic fracturing, waste water injection, enhanced oil recovery as well as geothermal energy operations. Although a recent report (NRC 2012) documents that HF is not responsible for most of the induced seismicities, we primarily focus on HF here. We look into vaious operational parameters such as volume and rate of water injection, the direction of the well versus the natural fracture network, the depth of the target and the local stress field and fault system, as well as other geological features. The latter would determine the potential for triggering tectonic related events by small induced seismicity events. We provide the building blocks for IS risk assessment and monitoring. The system we propose will involve adequate layers of complexity based on mapped seismic attributes as well as results from ANN and probabilistic predictive modeling workflows. This leads to a set of guidelines which further defines 'safe operating conditions' and 'safe operating zones' which will be a valuable reference for future SFIP operations. We also illustrate how HF can lead to groundwater aquifer contamination. The source of aquifer contamination can be the hydrocarbon gas or the chemicals used in the injected liquid in the formation. We explore possible pathways of contamination within and discuss the likelihood of contamination from each source. Many of the chemical compounds used

  13. The circular internal hydraulic jump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, S. A.; Kavcic, I.

    Circular hydraulic jumps are familiar in single layers. Here we report the discovery of similar jumps in two-layer flows. A thin jet of fluid impinging vertically onto a rigid horizontal plane surface submerged in a deep layer of less-dense miscible fluid spreads radially, and a near-circular internal jump forms within a few centimetres from the point of impact with the plane surface. A jump is similarly formed as a jet of relatively less-dense fluid rises to the surface of a deep layer of fluid, but it appears less stable or permanent in form. Several experiments are made to examine the case of a downward jet onto a horizontal plate, the base of a square or circular container. The inlet Reynolds numbers, Re, of the jet range from 112 to 1790. Initially jumps have an undular, laminar form with typically 2-4 stationary waves on the interface between the dense and less-dense layers but, as the depth of the dense layer beyond the jump increases, the transitions become more abrupt and turbulent, resulting in mixing between the two layers. During the transition to a turbulent regime, single and sometimes moving multiple cusps are observed around the periphery of jumps. A semi-empirical model is devised that relates the parameters of the laboratory experiment, i.e. flow rate, inlet nozzle radius, kinematic viscosity and reduced gravity, to the layer depth beyond the jump and the radius at which an undular jump occurs. The experiments imply that surface tension is not an essential ingredient in the formation of circular hydraulic jumps and demonstrate that stationary jumps can exist in stratified shear flows which can be represented as two discrete layers. No stationary circular undular jumps are found, however, in the case of a downward jet of dense fluid when the overlying, less-dense, fluid is stratified, but a stationary turbulent transition is observed. This has implications for the existence of stationary jumps in continuously stratified geophysical flows: results

  14. Similitude in modern pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, M Z

    1999-07-01

    The principle of the similitude, the basis of homeopathy, has correspondences in the clinical studies of secondary effects of many modern pharmaceutical agents through the observation of the rebound effects of these drugs. Through clinical pharmacology, I proposed a model on which to base the scientificism of the homeopathic model. We have studied the effects of the drugs in the human body using pharmacological compendia and recent scientific works, confirming the mechanism of the homeopathic medicines' action through the verification of the primary action of the drugs and the consequent secondary reaction of the organism in hundreds of pharmaceutical agents. Treatment exploiting the "rebound" effect (curative vital reaction) may also be observed. This work suggests a research methodology to scientifically base the therapeutic principle of similitude. PMID:10449051

  15. Modern carbonate environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, A.; Friedman, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    This book offers help in evaluating potential sites for oil and gas accumulations. Pointing the way to discovery of hydrocarbons in carbonate reservoirs, this volume discusses modern carbonate depositional environments in different geomorphic settings. It compiles papers by scientists whose observations have revolutionized current thinking on facies relationships in ancient carbonate rock. Contents include: Selected carbonate regions --The Algal Sediments on Androa Island in the Bahamas, Sedimentary Facies, Interaction of Genetic Processes in Holocene Reefs off North Eleuthera Island in the Bahamas, Recent Anhydrite, Holocene Shallow-Water Carbonate and Evaporite Sediments of Khor al Bazam; Carbonate production--On the Origin of Aragonite in the Dead Sea, Carbonate Production by Coral Reefs; Cold-water carbonates--Contributions on the Geology of the Northwestern Peninsula of Iceland, Evaluation of Cold-Water Carbonates as a Possible Paleoclimatic Indicator.

  16. [Modernization of ophthalmoscopic techniques].

    PubMed

    Pomerantzeff, O; Vallat, M

    1987-01-01

    The great principles of ophthalmoscopy have been known for many decades. This paper intends show the new possibilities allowed by modern technology, especially in two fields. First of all, it is possible, even in keeping basic principles, to improve previous machines with, for example, better magnification, new ophthalmoscopic lens, or to create new materials as telescopes for clinical practice or intra-ocular surgery, wide angle or high magnification fundus cameras for posterior pole examination. Secondary, by revolutionary principles, it is possible to introduce laser in the ophthalmoscopic field and to imagine new ophthalmoscopes: SLO i.e. Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope or SLM i.e. Scanning Laser Microscope, which opens a window on the future. PMID:3598060

  17. Modernizing sports facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dustin, R.

    1996-09-01

    Modernization and renovation of sports facilities challenge the design team to balance a number of requirements: spectator and owner expectations, existing building and site conditions, architectural layouts, code and legislation issues, time constraints and budget issues. System alternatives are evaluated and selected based on the relative priorities of these requirements. These priorities are unique to each project. At Alexander Memorial Coliseum, project schedules, construction funds and facility usage became the priorities. The ACC basketball schedule and arrival of the Centennial Olympics dictated the construction schedule. Initiation and success of the project depended on the commitment of the design team to meet coliseum funding levels established three years ago. Analysis of facility usage and system alternative capabilities drove the design team to select a system that met the project requirements and will maximize the benefits to the owner and spectators for many years to come.

  18. Breazeale Reactor Modernization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, C. C.

    2003-04-16

    The Penn State Breazeale Nuclear Reactor is the longest operating licensed research reactor in the nation. The facility has played a key role in educating scientists, engineers and in providing facilities and services to researchers in many different disciplines. In order to remain a viable and effective research and educational institution, a multi-phase modernization project was proposed. Phase I was the replacement of the 25-year old reactor control and safety system along with associated wiring and hardware. This phase was fully funded by non-federal funds. Tasks identified in Phases II-V expand upon and complement the work done in Phase I to strategically implement state-of-the-art technologies focusing on identified national needs and priorities of the future.

  19. Modern Brain Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Ramon F.; Cha, Soonmee

    2015-01-01

    The imaging and clinical management of patients with brain tumor continue to evolve over time and now heavily rely on physiologic imaging in addition to high-resolution structural imaging. Imaging remains a powerful noninvasive tool to positively impact the management of patients with brain tumor. This article provides an overview of the current state-of-the art clinical brain tumor imaging. In this review, we discuss general magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods and their application to the diagnosis of, treatment planning and navigation, and disease monitoring in patients with brain tumor. We review the strengths, limitations, and pitfalls of structural imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging techniques, MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography/MR, and functional imaging. Overall this review provides a basis for understudying the role of modern imaging in the care of brain tumor patients. PMID:25977902

  20. Modern operative hysteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Centini, Gabriele; Troia, Libera; Lazzeri, Lucia; Petraglia, Felice; Luisi, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Hysteroscopy is an endoscopic surgical procedure that has become an important tool to evaluate intrauterine pathology. It offers a direct visualization of the entire uterine cavity and provides the possibility of performing biopsy of suspected lesions that can be missed by dilatation and curettage (D&C). In most cases, the intrauterine pathologies can be diagnosed and treated at the same setting as office hysteroscopy ("see and treat approach"). For example, endometrial polyps can be diagnosed and removed; similarly, intrauterine adhesions can be liberated in the outpatient setting without the need for an operating theatre. Today, many hysteroscopic procedures can be performed in the office or outpatient setting. This is due to the feasibility of operative hysteroscopy using saline as a distending medium, the vaginoscopic approach of hysteroscopy and the availability of mini-hysteroscopic endoscopes. There is good evidence to suggest that hysteroscopy in an ambulatory setting is preferable for the patient, and that it avoids complications, allows a quicker recovery time and lowers cost. Advances in technology have led to miniaturization of high-definition hysteroscopes without compromising optical performance, thereby making hysteroscopy a simple, safe and well-tolerated office procedure. The new surgical technology such as bipolar electrosurgery, endometrial ablation devices, hysteroscopic sterilization, and morcellators has revolutionized this surgical modality. The modern development of hysteroscopy completely transformed the approach to the uterine intracavitary pathologies moving from a blind procedure under general anesthesia to an outpatient procedure performed under direct visualization, offering therapeutic and irreplaceable possibilities of treatment that should belong to every modern gynecologist. PMID:26930389

  1. Microcomputers aid pipeline hydraulic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hein, M.A.; Brosius, M.

    1984-02-13

    Microcomputer technology has come a long way in the last few years, and now inexpensive desktop computers can be used to analyze fluid and heat flow in even the largest pipeline and networked piping systems. Except for network problems requiring dynamic compositional modeling and extremely large amounts of data storage, all processing, including input, calculation, and output, can be handled with the microcomputer. And, even for these large problems, a small personal computer can be used to efficiently build the input files, process the output, and generally enhance the whole computational procedure. Only a few years ago the engineer had to code up his data, give it to the keypunching department, wait several hours or days until he got his cards back, attach the appropriate job control language (JCL), submit the deck to the computer department, wait several more hours or days to receive the final results, and finally pore over endless tables of numbers to interpret the results. Further, if there was an error in the input or if several case studies were required, he had to go through the whole process repeatedly. With the advent of the microcomputer with graphics packages, light pens, graphic pads, tens of megaword, fast-access, disk storage, and versatile, user-friendly software the data preparation, interpretation, and computational times for hydraulic piping simulation are cut by an order of magnitude.

  2. Parker Hybrid Hydraulic Drivetrain Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, Raymond; Howland, James; Venkiteswaran, Prasad

    2014-03-31

    This report examines the benefits of Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid brake energy recovery systems used in commercial applications for vocational purposes. A detailed background on the problem statement being addressed as well as the solution set specific for parcel delivery will be provided. Objectives of the demonstration performed in high start & stop applications included opportunities in fuel usage reduction, emissions reduction, vehicle productivity, and vehicle maintenance. Completed findings during the demonstration period and parallel investigations with NREL, CALSTART, along with a literature review will be provided herein on this research area. Lastly, results identified in the study by third parties validated the savings potential in fuel reduction of on average of 19% to 52% over the baseline in terms of mpg (Lammert, 2014, p11), Parker data for parcel delivery vehicles in the field parallels this at a range of 35% - 50%, emissions reduction of 17.4% lower CO2 per mile and 30.4% lower NOx per mile (Gallo, 2014, p15), with maintenance improvement in the areas of brake and starter replacement, while leaving room for further study in the area of productivity in terms of specific metrics that can be applied and studied.

  3. Hydraulic straight hole drill collar

    SciTech Connect

    Townson, J. D.

    1985-01-15

    An improved drill collar for forming relatively straight holes in crooked hole type formations. One or more hydraulic drill collars are connected in series relationship within a drill string above a rotary bit at the point of tangency. Each drill collar includes at least one outwardly opening, longitudinally extending slot formed on the exterior thereof. The slot includes a back wall connected to confronting sidewalls and opposed end walls. One lower end of a slot commences in spaced relationship to the lower pin end of the collar. As the drill string is rotated, drilling fluid forms a cushion between the slot and the nearest sidewall of the borehole, thereby kicking or forcing the drill collar away from the borehole sidewall, which in turn forces the drill bit to penetrate in a downwardly direction back towards a vertical position. The borehole meanders a very small amount, as for example 3-4 degrees, rather than uncontrollably leaving the vertical and forming an excessively crooked hole. Various configurations and arrangements of slots are disclosed in the collar.

  4. Hydraulic fracturing in subterranean formations

    SciTech Connect

    Borchardt, J.K.

    1991-06-18

    This patent describes a process for the hydraulic fracturing of subterranean formations which comprises a step for the introduction into the formation at fracturing pressure of a fracturing fluid comprising solid particulate suspended in a fluid dispersion. It comprises water, a component selected from the group consisting of supercritical carbon dioxide and gaseous nitrogen, carbon dioxide and C{sub 1} to C{sub 3} hydrocarbons, and mixtures thereof, and one or more polysaccharide surfactants of the formula RO(R{sup 1}O){sub x}Sacc{sub z}, wherein R is a monovalent organic radical having a carbon number in the range from about 7 to 24. R{sup 1} represents a divalent hydrocarbon radical containing from about 2 to about 4 carbon atoms, x is a number having an average value in the range from 0 to about 12.0, and Saccz represents an average number z between about 0.7 and 10.0 of moieties derived from reducing saccharides containing 5 or 6 carbon atoms.

  5. Modernizing Natural History: Berkeley's Museum of Vertebrate Zoology in Transition.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the twentieth century calls to modernize natural history motivated a range of responses. It was unclear how research in natural history museums would participate in the significant technological and conceptual changes that were occurring in the life sciences. By the 1960s, the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at the University of California, Berkeley, was among the few university-based natural history museums that were able to maintain their specimen collections and support active research. The MVZ therefore provides a window to the modernization of natural history. This paper concentrates on the directorial transitions that occurred at the MVZ between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the MVZ had four directors: Alden H. Miller (Director 1940-1965), an ornithologist; Aldo Starker Leopold (Acting Director 1965-1966), a conservationist and wildlife biologist; Oliver P. Pearson (Director 1966-1971), a physiologist and mammalogist; and David B. Wake (Director 1971-1998), a morphologist, developmental biologist, and herpetologist. The paper explores how a diversity of overlapping modernization strategies, including hiring new faculty, building infrastructure to study live animals, establishing new kinds of collections, and building modern laboratories combined to maintain collections at the MVZ's core. The paper examines the tensions between the different modernization strategies to inform an analysis of how and why some changes were institutionalized while others were short-lived. By exploring the modernization of collections-based research, this paper emphasizes the importance of collections in the transformation of the life sciences. PMID:22990484

  6. Hydraulically controlled discrete sampling from open boreholes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater sampling from open boreholes in fractured-rock aquifers is particularly challenging because of mixing and dilution of fluid within the borehole from multiple fractures. This note presents an alternative to traditional sampling in open boreholes with packer assemblies. The alternative system called ZONFLO (zonal flow) is based on hydraulic control of borehole flow conditions. Fluid from discrete fractures zones are hydraulically isolated allowing for the collection of representative samples. In rough-faced open boreholes and formations with less competent rock, hydraulic containment may offer an attractive alternative to physical containment with packers. Preliminary test results indicate a discrete zone can be effectively hydraulically isolated from other zones within a borehole for the purpose of groundwater sampling using this new method.

  7. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... operated machinery must be fail-safe or equipped with a holding device to prevent uncontrolled movement or sudden loss of control due to loss of hydraulic system pressure. A system is considered to be...

  8. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... operated machinery must be fail-safe or equipped with a holding device to prevent uncontrolled movement or sudden loss of control due to loss of hydraulic system pressure. A system is considered to be...

  9. ENHANCING HSPF MODEL CHANNEL HYDRAULIC REPRESENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF) is a comprehensive watershed model, which employs depth-area-volume-flow relationships known as hydraulic function table (FTABLE) to represent stream channel cross-sections and reservoirs. An accurate FTABLE determination for a...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... maximum operating pressure of that system. (c) Accumulators. A hydraulic accumulator or reservoir may be..., or (2) The reservoir is nonpressurized and the total capacity of all such nonpressurized...

  11. Science Journalism: Using Science Literacy to Teach Fundamental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattson, B. J.; Lochner, J. C.

    2010-08-01

    Science has many stories to tell. A carefully crafted series of stories can create a rich experience based in science literacy to teach fundamental science concepts. In particular, framing the stories as historic news articles illustrates the process of science and opens up opportunities for multidisciplinary lessons. NASA's Cosmic Times materials illustrate how we applied this model to tell the story of our understanding of the expanding universe over the past century. Cosmic Times is a series of curriculum support materials and classroom activities for grades 7-12. The series includes six posters, each resembling the front page of a newspaper from a particular time during the past 100 years with articles describing the discoveries. The articles trace astronomer's efforts to determine the size of the universe, the nature of supernovae, and the nature of the expansion of the universe. Each poster is accompanied by inquiry-based lessons that teach the science, the process of science, and skills for science literacy. In addition, these lessons include cross-curricular activities exploring the times and social circumstances of the discoveries. These materials serve as a springboard for a discussion on using science literacy and storytelling with other science topics, ranging from our modern understanding of the planets and planet formation to the development of the theory of evolution.

  12. Teaching Modern Literature: Poetry and Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damashek, Richard

    This monograph, part of a series for language arts teachers, discusses the essential components for teaching modern poetry and modern fiction. The section on modern poetry considers traditional versus modern poetry, modernism in poetry, imagism, the function of poetry in modern times, social change in poetry, and offers a brief list of recommended…

  13. Hydraulic-Leak Detector for Hidden Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, G. E.; Loo, S.

    1986-01-01

    Slow leakage of fluid made obvious. Indicator consists of wick wrapped at one end around joint to be monitored. Wick absorbs hydraulic fluid leaking from joint and transmits to opposite end, located outside cover plate and visible to inspector. Leakage manifested as discoloration of outside end of wick. Indicator reveals leaks in hidden fittings on hydraulic lines. Fast inspection of joints without disassembly. Used in aerospace, petroleum, chemical, nuclear, and other industries where removing covers for inspection impossible, difficult, or time-consuming.

  14. Teacher's Guide to SERAPHIM Software III. Modern Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogner, Donna J.

    Designed to assist chemistry teachers in selecting appropriate software programs, this publication is the third in a series of six teacher's guides from Project SERAPHIM, a program sponsored by the National Science Foundation. This guide is keyed to the chapters of the text "Modern Chemistry." Program suggestions are arranged in the same order as…

  15. Teacher's Guide to SERAPHIM Software IV Chemistry: A Modern Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogner, Donna J.

    Designed to assist chemistry teachers in selecting appropriate software programs, this publication is the fourth in a series of six teacher's guides from Project SERAPHIM, a program sponsored by the National Science Foundation. This guide is keyed to the chapters of the text "Chemistry: A Modern Course." Program suggestions are arranged in the…

  16. Collaborative Thinking: The Challenge of the Modern University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    More collaborative work in the humanities could be instrumental in helping to break down the traditional rigid boundaries between academic divisions and disciplines in modern universities. The value of the traditional model of the solitary humanities scholar or the collaborative science paradigm should not be discounted. However, increasing the…

  17. How Can Modern Language Teaching Promote International Understanding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Marjorie C.

    International understanding, as an objective of the study of modern languages at the secondary school level, is emphasized due to recent advances in linguistic science and the trend toward interdisciplinary approaches to language study. Special attention is directed to the realization that language and culture are inextricably interwoven and to…

  18. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  19. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  20. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  1. 21 CFR 880.5110 - Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed. 880.5110... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5110 Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed. (a) Identification. A hydraulic adjustable hospital bed is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a bed with a hydraulic...

  2. 21 CFR 880.5110 - Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed. 880.5110... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5110 Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed. (a) Identification. A hydraulic adjustable hospital bed is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a bed with a hydraulic...

  3. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  4. 21 CFR 880.5110 - Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed. 880.5110... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5110 Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed. (a) Identification. A hydraulic adjustable hospital bed is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a bed with a hydraulic...

  5. 21 CFR 880.5110 - Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed. 880.5110... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5110 Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed. (a) Identification. A hydraulic adjustable hospital bed is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a bed with a hydraulic...

  6. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  7. 46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic starting. 112.50-3 Section 112.50-3 Shipping... POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting. A hydraulic starting system must meet the following: (a) The hydraulic starting system must be...

  8. 49 CFR 570.55 - Hydraulic brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic brake system. 570.55 Section 570.55... 10,000 Pounds § 570.55 Hydraulic brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with hydraulic brake systems. (a) Brake system failure indicator. The hydraulic brake system failure...

  9. Dialogue on Modernity and Modern Education in Dispute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael; Peters, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This is a dialogue or conversation between Michael Baker (MB) and Michael A. Peters (MP) on the concept of modernity and its significance for educational theory. The dialogue took place originally as a conversation about a symposium on modernity held at the American Educational Studies Association meeting 2010. It was later developed for…

  10. Hydraulic control system for automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, Y

    1989-05-16

    A hydraulic control system is described for an automatic transmission including hydraulic servos for clutches and brakes to engage and disengage components in the transmission gear mechanism and having a forward clutch hydraulic servo and a brake hydraulic servo, and a manual valve, comprising:a modulator valve for adjusting line pressure to a predetermined modulator pressure; a control valve adapted to be shifted in response to signals based on positions of the manual valve and the vehicle running condition; a first oil path connected between the control valve and the manual valve as a line pressure oil path; the control valve including a first port connecting to the forward clutch hydraulic servo; a second oil path connected between the control valve and the brake hydraulic servo; and a shift valve situated in the second oil path, the shift valve not operating during a low speed vehicle condition, the shift valve being adapted to connect the second oil path when the shift valve shifts to a low speed position and to disconnect the oil path when the shift valve shifts to a high speed position.

  11. Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

    2007-02-01

    The self-potential (SP) response during hydraulic fracturing of intact Sierra granite was investigated in the laboratory. Excellent correlation of pressure drop and SP suggests that the SP response is created primarily by electrokinetic coupling. For low pressures, the variation of SP with pressure drop is linear, indicating a constant coupling coefficient (Cc) of -200 mV/MPa. However, for pressure drops >2 MPa, the magnitude of the Cc increases by 80% in an exponential trend. This increasing Cc is related to increasing permeability at high pore pressures caused by dilatancy of microcracks and is explained by a decrease in the hydraulic tortuosity. Resistivity measurements reveal a decrease of 2% prior to hydraulic fracturing and a decrease of ˜35% after fracturing. An asymmetric spatial SP response created by injectate diffusion into dilatant zones is observed prior to hydraulic fracturing, and in most cases this SP variation revealed the impending crack geometry seconds before failure. At rupture, injectate rushes into the new fracture area where the zeta potential is different than in the rock porosity, and an anomalous SP spike is observed. After fracturing, the spatial SP distribution reveals the direction of fracture propagation. Finally, during tensile cracking in a point load device with no water flow, a SP spike is observed that is caused by contact electrification. However, the time constant of this event is much less than that for transients observed during hydraulic fracturing, suggesting that SP created solely from material fracture does not contribute to the SP response during hydraulic fracturing.

  12. Sociology of Modern Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Corredoira, M.

    2009-08-01

    Certain results of observational cosmology cast critical doubt on the foundations of standard cosmology but leave most cosmologists untroubled. Alternative cosmological models that differ from the Big Bang have been published and defended by heterodox scientists; however, most cosmologists do not heed these. This may be because standard theory is correct and all other ideas and criticisms are incorrect, but it is also to a great extent due to sociological phenomena such as the ``snowball effect'' or ``groupthink''. We might wonder whether cosmology, the study of the Universe as a whole, is a science like other branches of physics or just a dominant ideology.

  13. Little Science to Big Science: Big Scientists to Little Scientists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Hisham B. Ghassib's essay entitled "Where Does Creativity Fit into a Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production?" Professor Ghassib's (2010) essay presents a provocative portrait of how the little science of the Babylonians, Greeks, and Arabs became the Big Science of the modern industrial…

  14. On the Future of Thermochemical Databases, the Development of Solution Models and the Practical Use of Computational Thermodynamics in Volcanology, Geochemistry and Petrology: Can Innovations of Modern Data Science Democratize an Oligarchy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiorso, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Computational thermodynamics (CT) has now become an essential tool of petrologic and geochemical research. CT is the basis for the construction of phase diagrams, the application of geothermometers and geobarometers, the equilibrium speciation of solutions, the construction of pseudosections, calculations of mass transfer between minerals, melts and fluids, and, it provides a means of estimating materials properties for the evaluation of constitutive relations in fluid dynamical simulations. The practical application of CT to Earth science problems requires data. Data on the thermochemical properties and the equation of state of relevant materials, and data on the relative stability and partitioning of chemical elements between phases as a function of temperature and pressure. These data must be evaluated and synthesized into a self consistent collection of theoretical models and model parameters that is colloquially known as a thermodynamic database. Quantitative outcomes derived from CT reply on the existence, maintenance and integrity of thermodynamic databases. Unfortunately, the community is reliant on too few such databases, developed by a small number of research groups, and mostly under circumstances where refinement and updates to the database lag behind or are unresponsive to need. Given the increasing level of reliance on CT calculations, what is required is a paradigm shift in the way thermodynamic databases are developed, maintained and disseminated. They must become community resources, with flexible and assessable software interfaces that permit easy modification, while at the same time maintaining theoretical integrity and fidelity to the underlying experimental observations. Advances in computational and data science give us the tools and resources to address this problem, allowing CT results to be obtained at the speed of thought, and permitting geochemical and petrological intuition to play a key role in model development and calibration.

  15. Legacy Code Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code Modernization") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.

  16. IGISOL control system modernization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koponen, J.; Hakala, J.

    2016-06-01

    Since 2010, the IGISOL research facility at the Accelerator laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä has gone through major changes. Comparing the new IGISOL4 facility to the former IGISOL3 setup, the size of the facility has more than doubled, the length of the ion transport line has grown to about 50 m with several measurement setups and extension capabilities, and the accelerated ions can be fed to the facility from two different cyclotrons. The facility has evolved to a system comprising hundreds of manual, pneumatic and electronic devices. These changes have prompted the need to modernize also the facility control system taking care of monitoring and transporting the ion beams. In addition, the control system is also used for some scientific data acquisition tasks. Basic guidelines for the IGISOL control system update have been remote control, safety, usability, reliability and maintainability. Legacy components have had a major significance in the control system hardware and for the renewed control system software the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been chosen as the architectural backbone.

  17. Helping teachers change science instruction

    SciTech Connect

    Consuegra, G.F.

    1994-12-31

    Scientists and science educators jointly believe that science is important to society. So strong are these beliefs that many educational and scientific organizations have issued reports and recommendations calling for systemic revisions to science education. Collectively these documents describe an enlightened view of science and science education. Such a view includes identifying key concepts, skills, and attitudes in science for the scientifically literate citizen, and describes effective instructional strategies, delineates characteristics of successful science programs for others to imitate and emulate, and lists resources for educators, scientists, and parents to use. The effects of these resources have been clearly visible over the past five years. Science process-based objectives provide infrastructure and promote modern and traditional science teachers` efforts to provide science programming that supports scientific literacy needed for the 21st century.

  18. Science and Human Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Leon N.

    2014-12-01

    Part I. Science and Society: 1. Science and human experience; 2. Does science undermine our values?; 3. Can science serve mankind?; 4. Modern science and contemporary discomfort: metaphor and reality; 5. Faith and science; 6. Art and science; 7. Fraud in science; 8. Why study science? The keys to the cathedral; 9. Is evolution a theory? A modest proposal; 10. The silence of the second; 11. Introduction to Copenhagen; 12. The unpaid debt; Part II. Thought and Consciousness: 13. Source and limits of human intellect; 14. Neural networks; 15. Thought and mental experience: the Turing test; 16. Mind as machine: will we rubbish human experience?; 17. Memory and memories: a physicist's approach to the brain; 18. On the problem of consciousness; Part III. On the Nature and Limits of Science: 19. What is a good theory?; 20. Shall we deconstruct science?; 21. Visible and invisible in physical theory; 22. Experience and order; 23. The language of physics; 24. The structure of space; 25. Superconductivity and other insoluble problems; 26. From gravity to light and consciousness: does science have limits?

  19. Science and Human Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Leon N.

    2015-01-01

    Part I. Science and Society: 1. Science and human experience; 2. Does science undermine our values?; 3. Can science serve mankind?; 4. Modern science and contemporary discomfort: metaphor and reality; 5. Faith and science; 6. Art and science; 7. Fraud in science; 8. Why study science? The keys to the cathedral; 9. Is evolution a theory? A modest proposal; 10. The silence of the second; 11. Introduction to Copenhagen; 12. The unpaid debt; Part II. Thought and Consciousness: 13. Source and limits of human intellect; 14. Neural networks; 15. Thought and mental experience: the Turing test; 16. Mind as machine: will we rubbish human experience?; 17. Memory and memories: a physicist's approach to the brain; 18. On the problem of consciousness; Part III. On the Nature and Limits of Science: 19. What is a good theory?; 20. Shall we deconstruct science?; 21. Visible and invisible in physical theory; 22. Experience and order; 23. The language of physics; 24. The structure of space; 25. Superconductivity and other insoluble problems; 26. From gravity to light and consciousness: does science have limits?

  20. Testability and epistemic shifts in modern cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Helge

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade new developments in theoretical and speculative cosmology have reopened the old discussion of cosmology's scientific status and the more general question of the demarcation between science and non-science. The multiverse hypothesis, in particular, is central to this discussion and controversial because it seems to disagree with methodological and epistemic standards traditionally accepted in the physical sciences. But what are these standards and how sacrosanct are they? Does anthropic multiverse cosmology rest on evaluation criteria that conflict with and go beyond those ordinarily accepted, so that it constitutes an "epistemic shift" in fundamental physics? The paper offers a brief characterization of the modern multiverse and also refers to a few earlier attempts to introduce epistemic shifts in the science of the universe. It further discusses the several meanings of testability, addresses the question of falsifiability as a sine qua non for a theory being scientific, and briefly compares the situation in cosmology with the one in systematic biology. Multiverse theory is not generally falsifiable, which has led to proposals from some physicists to overrule not only Popperian standards but also other evaluation criteria of a philosophical nature. However, this is hardly possible and nor is it possible to get rid of explicit philosophical considerations in some other aspects of cosmological research, however advanced it becomes.

  1. Environmental science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Manahan, S.E.

    1998-12-31

    This complete survey of modern environmental science covers the four traditional spheres of the environment: water, air, earth, and life, and introduces a fifth sphere -- the anthrosphere -- which the author defines as the sphere of human activities, especially technology, that affect the earth. The book discusses how technology can be used in a manner that minimizes environmental disruption.

  2. Modern challenges for flow investigations in model hydraulic turbines on classical test rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deschênes, C.; Houde, S.; Aeschlimann, V.; Fraser, R.; Ciocan, G. D.

    2014-03-01

    The BulbT project involved several investigations of flow phenomena in different parts of a model bulb turbine installed on the test rig of Laval University Laboratory. The aim is to create a comprehensive data base in order to increase the knowledge of the flow phenomena in this type of turbines and to validate or improve numerical flow simulation strategies. This validation being based on a kinematic comparison between experimental and numerical data, the project had to overcome challenges to facilitate the use of the experimental data for that purpose. Many parameters were checked, such as the test bench repeatability, the intrusiveness of a priori non-intrusive methods, the geometry of the runner and draft tube. This paper illustrates how some of those problematic were solved.

  3. Feyerabend on Science and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a sympathetic interpretation of Paul Feyerabend's remarks on science and education. I present a formative episode in the development of his educational ideas--the "Berkeley experience"--and describe how it affected his views on the place of science within modern education. It emerges that Feyerabend arrived at a…

  4. The Mathematical Sciences in 2025

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The mathematical sciences are part of nearly all aspects of everyday life--the discipline has underpinned such beneficial modern capabilities as Internet search, medical imaging, computer animation, numerical weather predictions, and all types of digital communications. "The Mathematical Sciences in 2025" examines the current state of the…

  5. Modern Written Arabic, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naja, A. Nashat; Snow, James A.

    This second volume of Modern Written Arabic builds on the previous volume and is the second step designed to teach members of the Foreign Service to read the modern Arabic press. The student will gain recognitional mastery of an extensive set of vocabulary items and will be more intensively exposed to wider and more complex morphological and…

  6. Mendel in the Modern Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mike U.; Gericke, Niklas M.

    2015-01-01

    Mendel is an icon in the history of genetics and part of our common culture and modern biology instruction. The aim of this paper is to summarize the place of Mendel in the modern biology classroom. In the present article we will identify key issues that make Mendel relevant in the classroom today. First, we recount some of the historical…

  7. When and What to Modernize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, D. Dana

    After a brief discussion of when a school board should consider modernizing mechanical and electrical equipment the speaker explored the specifics of lighting, heating, and ventilation. Technical data on foot candles, types of light fixtures, and the importance of air conditioning in modern school buildings are presented. The presentation…

  8. Modernizing medical photography, part 1.

    PubMed

    Crompton, Paul

    2004-12-01

    Government, media and public focus on waiting times in the National Health Service in the United Kingdom has forced the organization to look closely at the process by which a patient progresses through an increasingly complex and ever changing system. In an effort to streamline the patient journey or care pathway, modernizers have turned to business and manufacturing for solutions. Whilst medical photographers need to recognize their role in this context, they are also facing major technological modernization through the development of digital photography. Part 1 of this paper looks at the origins of some of the techniques presently being used to modernize the patient journey. Part 2 shows how these tools of modernization can be utilized to harness the advantages of digital technology to provide a modern and appropriate medical photography service in a large, disparate teaching hospital. PMID:15805027

  9. Hydraulic Conductivity Anisotropy of Heterogeneous Unsaturated Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dongmin; Zhu, Jianting

    2010-05-01

    The effects of saturation degree (or capillary pressure) on hydraulic conductivity anisotropy in unsaturated soils have not been fully understood. This study developed an approach based on a conceptualization of combining the neural network based pedo-transfer function (PTF) results with the thin layer concept to explore the capillary pressure-dependent anisotropy in relation to soil texture and soil bulk density. The main objective is to examine how anisotropy characteristics are related to the relationships between hydraulic parameters and the basic soil attributes such as texture and bulk density. The hydraulic parameters are correlated with the texture and bulk density based on the pedo-transfer function (PTF) results. It is demonstrated that non-monotonic behavior of the unsaturated soil anisotropy in relation to the capillary pressure is only observed when the saturated hydraulic conductivity and the shape parameter are both related to the mean particle diameter. When only one hydraulic parameter is related to the grain diameter or when both are not related to the same attribute simultaneously, the unsaturated soil anisotropy increases monotonically with the increasing capillary pressure head. Therefore, it is suggested that this behavior is mainly due to the coupled dependence of the layer saturated hydraulic conductivities and the shape factors on the texture and bulk density. The correlation between the soil grain diameter and bulk density decreases the anisotropy effects of the unsaturated layered soils. The study illustrates that the inter-relationships of soil texture, bulk density, and hydraulic properties may cause vastly different characteristics of anisotropic unsaturated soils.

  10. Peat hydraulic conductivity in different landuses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustamo, Pirkko; Hyvärinen, Maarit; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kløve, Bjørn

    2013-04-01

    Information on hydraulic conductivity and water retention properties of peatlands is needed, e.g., for modelling hydrology and soil carbon balance of peat soils. Ability to model the behaviour of peat soils, especially those drained for agricultural use, is important as cultivated peatlands act as a major source of CO2 and N2O emissions in Nordic countries. Peat soil hydraulic conductivity and water retention properties vary greatly, and their relationship to soil depth and degree of decomposition is not straightforward. The aim of this study was to produce new information about peat physical properties in different land uses and the relationship between peat soil hydraulic conductivity and variables such as soil porosity and degree of humification. Peat hydraulic conductivity was measured in situ with infiltrometer (direct push piezometer) in six study sites (two pristine bogs, two sites drained for forestry, a cultivated peat land site and a peat extraction site). Measurements were made in several depths according to soil profile. To examine relationship of soil properties and the hydraulic conductivity, undisturbed peat cores of known volume and also disturbed peat samples were collected from the study sites for determination of von Post humification factor, ash content, porosity and bulk density. Surface layer of the agricultural site had high ash content and bulk density and low porosity compared to the soil beneath it and the soil in other study sites. This was due to added sand and compaction by agricultural practice. Bog, in contrast, had very low bulk density and high porosity. Results show a great variation in hydraulic conductivity within the study sites even when the observations were in the same soil layer. Hydraulic conductivity was lowest in the peat extraction site and the agricultural site, and had higher correlation with study site (= landuse) and the measured layer than with soil porosity.

  11. [Modern mitral valve surgery].

    PubMed

    Bothe, W; Beyersdorf, F

    2016-04-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, Cutler and Levine performed the first successful surgical treatment of a stenotic mitral valve, which was the only treatable heart valve defect at that time. Mitral valve surgery has evolved significantly since then. The introduction of the heart-lung machine in 1954 not only reduced the surgical risk, but also allowed the treatment of different mitral valve pathologies. Nowadays, mitral valve insufficiency has become the most common underlying pathomechanism of mitral valve disease and can be classified into primary and secondary mitral insufficiency. Primary mitral valve insufficiency is mainly caused by alterations of the valve (leaflets and primary order chords) itself, whereas left ventricular dilatation leading to papillary muscle displacement and leaflet tethering via second order chords is the main underlying pathomechanism for secondary mitral valve regurgitation. Valve reconstruction using the "loop technique" plus annuloplasty is the surgical strategy of choice and normalizes life expectancy in patients with primary mitral regurgitation. In patients with secondary mitral regurgitation, implanting an annuloplasty is not superior to valve replacement and results in high rates of valve re-insufficiency (up to 30 % after 3 months) due to ongoing ventricular dilatation. In order to improve repair results in these patients, we add a novel subvalvular technique (ring-noose-string) to the annuloplasty that aims to prevent ongoing ventricular remodeling and re-insufficiency. In modern mitral surgery, a right lateral thoracotomy is the approach of choice with excellent repair and cosmetic results. PMID:26907868

  12. Kraepelin and modern psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, M

    1995-01-01

    A summarised account is given of Emil Kraepelin's research in the field of mental disorder, underlining his emphasis on objectivity and natural science and the need for a multi-disciplinary approach. At the same time attention is drawn to the limitations of his general outlook and to his political views, which in their historical context carry disturbing overtones of proto-fascism. It does not detract from the value of his work as a clinical scientist to conclude that his philosophical amblyopia, allied to an ineradicable chauvinism that was shared by many Germans of his class and status, resulted in a failure to demarcate the boundaries of his professional expertise and distorted his judgment on the wider implications of his own achievements. The lessons for the theory and practice of psychological medicine are briefly discussed. PMID:7578280

  13. Joint Application of TDR, GPR and Inverse Hydraulic Modeling to Infer Field Scale Hydraulic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollschläger, U.; Gerhards, H.; Schneider, S.; Roth, K.

    2007-12-01

    Estimating field scale hydraulic properties is still a challenge in hydrology. Most classical methods require undisturbed soil samples that have to be excavated during time consuming and labour intensive field work which is often followed by tedious measurements of hydraulic properties in the laboratory. Since these methods can only be applied with a limited number of samples, often only a few point measurements need to be used to characterize field scale hydraulic properties while layer geometry has to be derived from interpolation of these values and additional drilling. The combination of geophysical measurement techniques and hydraulic modeling offers an attractive alternative to bridge the gap between i) few accurate point measurements that are used to infer local hydraulic properties and ii) spatial mapping of the respective layers over large scales. We use a time series of water contents measured in a soil profile with time domain reflectometry to estimate hydraulic properties of the different soil layers with a 1D hydraulic inverse model. Here, hydraulic properties are estimated from \\it in situ \

  14. Where Tradition and "Modern" Knowledge Meet: Exploring Two Islamic Schools in Singapore and Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2011-01-01

    Muslims live in a "modern" world where subjects such as the English language, mathematics, sciences, and information and communication technology (ICT) are highly valued and enthusiastically transmitted in schools. How some Islamic schools attempt to equip their students with "modern knowledge" while remaining faithful to their religious…

  15. The Underdevelopment and Modernization of the Third World. Commission on College Geography. Resource Paper No. 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza, Anthony R.; Porter, Philip W.

    Helping undergraduate college geography students understand the processes and forces which, in the name of modernization, continue to intensify a world spatial disequilibrium in the relations of people and resources is the purpose of this resource paper. It presents current ideas in social science research on modernization and development with…

  16. The Modern Ways of Development of the Scientific Data Processing Centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, E. A.; Amzarakov, M. B.; Pugachev, V. D.; Samodurov, V. A.; Sukhov, P. P.; Kobylka, N. A.

    In this paper shown, the development of modern datacenters (DC) for science and business. As an example of modern scientific datacenters used: buffer datacenter PRAO ASC LPI for the space project "Radioastron", compute cluster Pushchino Research Center (IMPB RAS) and Stack Data Network (SDN) - Russia's first network of datacenters.

  17. Effects of soil hydraulic properties on the spatial variability of soil water content: Evidence from sensor network data and inverse modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved understanding of the temporal variability and stability of soil water content (SWC) and its relation to local and nonlocal controls is a major challenge in modern hydrology. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of soil hydraulic parameters on temporal stability of SWC with...

  18. Science communication as political communication.

    PubMed

    Scheufele, Dietram A

    2014-09-16

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science. PMID:25225389

  19. Science communication as political communication

    PubMed Central

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science. PMID:25225389

  20. COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER

    SciTech Connect

    DAVENPORT, J.

    2005-11-01

    The Brookhaven Computational Science Center brings together researchers in biology, chemistry, physics, and medicine with applied mathematicians and computer scientists to exploit the remarkable opportunities for scientific discovery which have been enabled by modern computers. These opportunities are especially great in computational biology and nanoscience, but extend throughout science and technology and include, for example, nuclear and high energy physics, astrophysics, materials and chemical science, sustainable energy, environment, and homeland security. To achieve our goals we have established a close alliance with applied mathematicians and computer scientists at Stony Brook and Columbia Universities.

  1. Efficient hydraulic properties of root systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechmann, Marcel; Schneider, Christoph; Carminati, Andrea; Hildebrandt, Anke

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of ecosystem root water uptake (RWU) is paramount for parameterizing hydrological models. With the increase in computational power it is possible to calculate RWU explicitly up to the single plant scale using physical models. However, application of these models for increasing our understanding of ecosystem root water uptake is hindered by the deficit in knowledge about the detailed hydraulic parameter distribution within root systems. However, those physical models may help us to identify efficient parameterizations and to describe the influence of these hydraulic parameters on RWU profiles. In this research, we investigated the combined influence of root hydraulic parameters and different root topologies on shaping efficient root water uptake. First, we use a conceptual model of simple branching structures to understand the influence of branching location and transitions in root hydraulic properties on the RWU patterns in typical sub root structures. Second, we apply a physical model called "aRoot" to test our conclusions on complex root system architectures of single plants. aRoot calculates the distribution of xylem potential within arbitrary root geometries to satisfy a given water demand depending on the available water in the soil. Redistribution of water within the bulk soil is calculated using the Richards equation. We analyzed results using a measure of uptake efficiency, which describes the effort necessary for transpiration. Simulations with the conceptual model showed that total transpiration in sub root structures is independent of root hydraulic properties over a wide range of hydraulic parameters. On the other hand efficiency of root water uptake depends crucially on distribution hydraulic parameters in line with root topology. At the same time, these parameters shape strongly the distribution of RWU along the roots, and its evolution in time, thus leading to variable individual root water uptake profiles. Calculating

  2. Numerical simulations of hydraulic redistribution across climates: The role of the root hydraulic conductivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quijano, Juan C.; Kumar, Praveen

    2015-10-01

    Hydraulic redistribution, a process by which vegetation roots redistribute soil moisture, has been recognized as an important mechanism impacting several processes that regulate plant water uptake, energy and water partitioning, and biogeochemical cycling. We analyze how the magnitude of hydraulic redistribution varies across ecosystems that are exposed to different climates and seasonal patterns of incoming shortwave radiation and precipitation. Numerical simulation studies are performed over 10 Ameriflux sites, which show that hydraulic redistribution predictions are significantly influenced by the specified root hydraulic conductivities. We performed sensitivity analyses by considering expected ranges of root conductivities based on previous experimental studies, and found contrasting patterns in energy-limited and water-limited ecosystems. In energy-limited ecosystems, there is a threshold above which high root conductivities enhance hydraulic redistribution with no increase in transpiration, while in water-limited ecosystems increase in root conductivities was always associated with enhancements in both transpiration and hydraulic redistribution. Further we found differences in the magnitude and seasonality of hydraulic redistribution and transpiration across different climates, regulated by interplay between precipitation and transpiration. The annual hydraulic redistribution to transpiration flux ratio (HR/Tr) was significant in Mediterranean climates (HR/Tr ≈ 30%), and in the tropical humid climates (HR/Tr ≈ 15%). However, in the continental climates hydraulic redistribution occurs only during sporadic precipitation events throughout the summer resulting in lower annual magnitudes (HR/Tr < 5%). These results provide more insights for suitable implementation of numerical models to capture belowground processes in eco-hydrology, and enhance our understanding about the variability of hydraulic redistribution across different climates.

  3. The hydraulic capacity of deteriorating sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Pollert, J; Ugarelli, R; Saegrov, S; Schilling, W; Di Federico, V

    2005-01-01

    Sewer and wastewater systems suffer from insufficient capacity, construction flaws and pipe deterioration. Consequences are structural failures, local floods, surface erosion and pollution of receiving waters bodies. European cities spend in the order of five billion Euro per year for wastewater network rehabilitation. This amount is estimated to increase due to network ageing. The project CARE-S (Computer Aided RE-habilitation of Sewer Networks) deals with sewer and storm water networks. The final project goal is to develop integrated software, which provides the most cost-efficient system of maintenance, repair and rehabilitation of sewer networks. Decisions on investments in rehabilitation often have to be made with uncertain information about the structural condition and the hydraulic performance of a sewer system. Because of this, decision-making involves considerable risks. This paper presents the results of research focused on the study of hydraulic effects caused by failures due to temporal decline of sewer systems. Hydraulic simulations are usually carried out by running commercial models that apply, as input, default values of parameters that strongly influence results. Using CCTV inspections information as dataset to catalogue principal types of failures affecting pipes, a 3D model was used to evaluate their hydraulic consequences. The translation of failures effects in parameters values producing the same hydraulic conditions caused by failures was carried out through the comparison of laboratory experiences and 3D simulations results. Those parameters could be the input of 1D commercial models instead of the default values commonly inserted. PMID:16477988

  4. Microbial effect on soil hydraulic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, Alex; Rosenzweig, Ravid; Volk, Elazar; Rosenkranz, Hella; Iden, Sascha; Durner, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Although largely ignored, the soil contains large amount of biofilms (attached microbes) that can affect many processes. While biochemical processes are studied, biophysical processes receive only little attention. Biofilms may occupy some of the pore space, and by that affect the soil hydraulic properties. This effect on unsaturated soils, however, was not intensively studied. In this research we directly measure the hydraulic properties, namely the soil's unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function and retention curve, for soils containing real biofilm. To do that we inoculate soil with biofilm-forming bacteria and incubate it with sufficient amounts of nutrient until biofilm is formed. The hydraulic properties of the incubated soil are then measured using several techniques, including multi-step outflow and evaporation method. The longer measurements (evaporation method) are conducted under refrigeration conditions to minimize microbial activity during the experiment. The results show a clear effect of the biofilm, where the biofilm-affected soil (sandy loam in our case) behaves like a much finer soil. This qualitatively makes sense as the biofilm generates an effective pore size distribution that is characterized by smaller pores. However, the effect is much more complex and needs to be studied carefully considering (for example) dual porosity models. We compare our preliminary results with other experiments, including flow-through column experiments and experiments with biofilm analogues. Clearly a better understanding of the way microbial activity alters the hydraulic properties may help designing more efficient bioremediation, irrigation, and other soil-related processes.

  5. Subsurface well safety valve with hydraulic strainer

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, A.J.; Knieriemen, J.L.

    1988-12-20

    This patent describes in combination with a subsurface safety valve for controlling fluid flow through a well conduit and including a housing having a bore and a valve closure member moving between open and closed positions for controlling fluid flow through the bore, a flow tube telescopically moving in the housing for controlling the movement of the valve closure member, biasing means for moving the tubular member in a direction to close the valve and a hydraulic piston and cylinder assembly for actuating the valve closure member, of a hydraulic strainer comprising, means defining a closed chamber positioned above the hydraulic piston and cylinder assembly, means defining an inlet fluid passageway having first and second ends, the first end adapted to receive hydraulic control fluid through a control line from the well surface, the second end extending into the chamber, means defining an outlet fluid passageway having first and second ends. The first end of the outlet fluid passageway extending into the chamber, and the second end of the outlet fluid passageway connected in fluid communication to the top of the hydraulic piston and cylinder assembly, the second end of the inlet fluid passageway being positioned away from the first end of the outlet fluid passageway for allowing debris to accumulate in the chamber and protect the piston and cylinder assembly.

  6. Modernity and acceptance of family limitation in four developing countries.

    PubMed

    Miller, K A; Inkeles, A

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between individual modernity and adoption of family planning was investigated in East Pakistan (Bangladesh), Israel, India, and Nigeria. The survey involved interviews with approximately 1000 males in each country, with an emphasis on industrial, nonindustrial, and agricultural workers. Results indicated that the variables of modernity, i.e., literacy and amount of education received, degree of exposure to mass media, urban residence, white-collar occupation, and a high standard of living, were only slightly significant in explaining the acceptance of family planning. Survey results indicate that modern experiences have their effect in indirect ways through general psychological modernity. Variables related to family and sex roles do not explain attitudes toward family planning. 2 variables which did relate to family planning attitudes were: belief in science, medicine, and technology, and a secular as opposed to religious life orientation. Implications of the study are that the only way to insure decreasing birthrates in developing countries is to progress with general economic development. However, mere modernization will not achieve the desired results. There must be an emphasis in communication on the value of science, medicine, and technology. PMID:12308805

  7. BOOK REVIEW: Modern Supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulish, Petr P.

    2006-12-01

    We have spent more than twenty years applying supersymmetry (SUSY) to elementary particle physics and attempting to find an experimental manifestation of this symmetry. Terning's monograph demonstrates the strong influence of SUSY on theoretical elaborations in the field of elementary particles. It gives both an overview of modern supersymmetry in elementary particle physics and calculation techniques. The author, trying to be closer to applications of SUSY in the real world of elementary particles, is also anticipating the importance of supersymmetry for rigorous study of nonperturbative phenomena in quantum field theory. In particular, he presents the `exact' SUSY β function using instanton methods, phenomena of anomalies and dualities. Supersymmetry algebra is introduced by adding two anticommuting spinor generators to Poincaré algebra and by presenting massive and massless supermultiplets of its representations. The author prefers to use mostly the component description of field contents of the theories in question rather than the superfield formalism. Such a style makes the account closer to physical chartacteristics. Relations required by SUSY among β functions of the gauge, Yukawa and quartic interactions are checked by direct calculations as well as to all orders in perturbation theory, thus demonstrating that SUSY survives quantization. A discussion is included of the hierarchy problem of different scales of weak and strong interactions and its possible solution by the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Different SUSY breaking mechanisms are presented corresponding to a realistic phenomenology. The monograph can also be considered as a guide to `duality' relations connecting different SUSY gauge theories, supergravities and superstrings. This is demonstrated referring to the particular properties and characteristics of these theories (field contents, scaling dimensions of appropriate operators etc). In particular, the last chapter deals with the Ad

  8. Bioinformatics in High School Biology Curricula: A Study of State Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wefer, Stephen H.; Sheppard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    The proliferation of bioinformatics in modern biology marks a modern revolution in science that promises to influence science education at all levels. This study analyzed secondary school science standards of 49 U.S. states (Iowa has no science framework) and the District of Columbia for content related to bioinformatics. The bioinformatics…

  9. Heat Transfer and Hydraulic Flow Resistance for Streams of High Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lelchuk, V. L.

    1943-01-01

    Problems of hydraulic flow resistance and heat transfer for streams with velocities comparable with acoustic have present great importance for various fields of technical science. Especially, they have great importance for the field of heat transfer in designing and constructing boilers.of the "Velox" type. In this article a description of experiments and their results as regards definition of the laws of heat transfer in differential form for high velocity air streams inside smooth tubes are given.

  10. Hydraulic generator with free-piston engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bouthers, P.; Breting, O.

    1983-11-15

    A hydraulic generator is disclosed with a free-piston engine and hydropneumatic return cushion and with an associated hydraulic-fluid pumping piston feeding a hydraulic accumulator intended to be charged between two detected levels of pressure. The generator includes a lock device for the free piston at the power-stroke dead center with voluntary control, and servo-control means for this lock device with means for detection of the aforementioned two pressure levels, to assure locking the piston in response to detection of the aforementioned highest pressure level and to assure its unlocking in response to detection of the aforementioned lowest pressure level, and thus an automatic intermittent running of said engine.

  11. Hydraulic characterization of hydrothermally altered Nopal tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.T.; Meyer-James, K.A.; Rice, G.

    1995-07-01

    Understanding the mechanics of variably saturated flow in fractured-porous media is of fundamental importance to evaluating the isolation performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository for the Yucca Mountain site. Developing that understanding must be founded on the analysis and interpretation of laboratory and field data. This report presents an analysis of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of tuff cores from the Pena Blanca natural analog site in Mexico. The basic intent of the analysis was to examine possible trends and relationships between the hydraulic properties and the degree of hydrothermal alteration exhibited by the tuff samples. These data were used in flow simulations to evaluate the significance of a particular conceptual (composite) model and of distinct hydraulic properties on the rate and nature of water flow.

  12. High-precision hydraulic Stewart platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Silfhout, Roelof G.

    1999-08-01

    We present a novel design for a Stewart platform (or hexapod), an apparatus which performs positioning tasks with high accuracy. The platform, which is supported by six hydraulic telescopic struts, provides six degrees of freedom with 1 μm resolution. Rotations about user defined pivot points can be specified for any axis of rotation with microradian accuracy. Motion of the platform is performed by changing the strut lengths. Servo systems set and maintain the length of the struts to high precision using proportional hydraulic valves and incremental encoders. The combination of hydraulic actuators and a design which is optimized in terms of mechanical stiffness enables the platform to manipulate loads of up to 20 kN. Sophisticated software allows direct six-axis positioning including true path control. Our platform is an ideal support structure for a large variety of scientific instruments that require a stable alignment base with high-precision motion.

  13. Hydraulic Fracturing Mineback Experiment in Complex Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, S. J.; McLennan, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (or "fracking") for the recovery of gas and liquids from tight shale formations has gained much attention. This operation which involves horizontal well drilling and massive hydraulic fracturing has been developed over the last decade to produce fluids from extremely low permeability mudstone and siltstone rocks with high organic content. Nearly thirteen thousand wells and about one hundred and fifty thousand stages within the wells were fractured in the US in 2011. This operation has proven to be successful, causing hundreds of billions of dollars to be invested and has produced an abundance of natural gas and is making billions of barrels of hydrocarbon liquids available for the US. But, even with this commercial success, relatively little is clearly known about the complexity--or lack of complexity--of the hydraulic fracture, the extent that the newly created surface area contacts the high Reservoir Quality rock, nor the connectivity and conductivity of the hydraulic fractures created. To better understand this phenomena in order to improve efficiency, a large-scale mine-back experiment is progressing. The mine-back experiment is a full-scale hydraulic fracture carried out in a well-characterized environment, with comprehensive instrumentation deployed to measure fracture growth. A tight shale mudstone rock geologic setting is selected, near the edge of a formation where one to two thousand feet difference in elevation occurs. From the top of the formation, drilling, well logging, and hydraulic fracture pumping will occur. From the bottom of the formation a horizontal tunnel will be mined using conventional mining techniques into the rock formation towards the drilled well. Certain instrumentation will be located within this tunnel for observations during the hydraulic fracturing. After the hydraulic fracturing, the tunnel will be extended toward the well, with careful mapping of the created hydraulic fracture. Fracturing fluid will be

  14. Simulation of a Hydraulic Pump Control Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molen, G. Vander; Akers, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the mode of operation of a control valve assembly that is used with a hydraulic pump. The operating system of the valve is modelled in a simplified form, and an analogy for hydraulic resonance of the pressure sensing system is presented. For the control valve investigated, air entrainment, length and diameter of the resonator neck, and valve mass produced the greatest shift in resonant frequency. Experimental work was conducted on the hydraulic system so that the resonance levels and frequencies could be measured and the accuracy of the theory verified. The results obtained make it possible to evaluate what changes to any of the variables considered would be most effective in driving the second harmonic frequency above the operating range.

  15. A new dawn for citizen science.

    PubMed

    Silvertown, Jonathan

    2009-09-01

    A citizen scientist is a volunteer who collects and/or processes data as part of a scientific enquiry. Projects that involve citizen scientists are burgeoning, particularly in ecology and the environmental sciences, although the roots of citizen science go back to the very beginnings of modern science itself. PMID:19586682

  16. Hydraulic Mining, Extreme Floods, and the Geomorphic Context of the Trinity River, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, A.

    2012-12-01

    The geomorphology of modern Trinity River is the product of remarkable human impacts to the flow and sediment regimes. Virtually nothing is known about the river prior to the first discovery of gold in 1848. The Trinity River experienced 110 years of hydraulic mining from 1860 to 1970, a time period nearly four time as long as hydraulic mining in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Hydraulic mining produced vast amounts of debris that aggraded unconfined valleys of the Trinity River creating sediment wedges up to 4 meters high and 20 kilometers long. Subsequent dredger gold mining dug though the valley alluvium to the bedrock interface, mixing the sediment profile and creating large tailings piles that artificially constrain the valley width. A series of large storms in the mid 20th century reworked these mining sediments, creating the modern terraces and large hydraulic controls that persist today. Subsequent flow regulation diverted up to 90 percent of the basin runoff out of the Trinity River and virtually eliminated floods, causing riparian encroachment, channel narrowing, and a largely static channel. Established in 2000, the Trinity River Restoration Program uses a process-based restoration strategy to create a dynamic channel capable of creating and maintaining sufficient salmonid habitat to meet fish population targets. The associated restoration management actions include: flow releases, coarse sediment augmentation, mechanical channel rehabilitation, and watershed restoration. Full implementation of high flow releases to promote channel dynamism began in 2005. In May 2011, a release of 11,000 cfs was conducted for river restoration purposes. The 11,000 cfs peak magnitude release is the maximum authorized for restoration purposes, the largest release in since 1974, and the third largest release since flow regulation began in November 1960. The release caused scour and deposition, creating gravel bars in several locations. The location and magnitude of scour and

  17. FOREWORD: The XXV IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems marks half a century tradition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susan-Resiga, Romeo

    2010-05-01

    IAHR75_logoUPT90_logoARFT_logo International Association of Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research'Politehnica' University of TimisoaraRomanian Academy - Timisoara Branch The 25th edition of the IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, held in Timisoara, Romania, 20-24 September 2010, jointly organized by the 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara and the Romanian Academy - Timisoara Branch, marks a half century tradition of these prestigious symposia. However, it is the first time that Romania hosts such a symposium, and for good reasons. The Romanian electrical power system has a total of 20,630 MW installed power, out of which 6,422 MW in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was in 2008 of 17,105 GWh from a total of 64,772 GWh electrical energy production. Moreover, for the period 2009-2015, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 2,157 MW installed power and an estimated 5,770 GWh/year energy production. Within the same period of time, the refurbishment, modernization and repair programs will increase the actual hydropower production with an estimated 349 GWh/year. The 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara is proud to host the 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, in the year of its 90th anniversary. The 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara is one of the largest and most well-known technical universities from Central and Eastern Europe. It was founded in 1920, a short time after the union into one state of all the Romanian territories, following the end of the First World War, in order to respond to the need engineers felt by the Romanian society at that time, within the economical development framework. During its 90 years of existence, 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara educated over 100,000 engineers, greatly appreciated both in Romania and abroad, for their competence and seriousness. King Ferdinand I of Romania said while visiting the recently established

  18. Use of modern control theory in military command and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Timothy E.

    2001-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of modern control theoretic approaches in military command and control. The military enterprise is a highly dynamic and nonlinear environment. The desire on the part of military commanders to operate at faster operational tempos while still maintaining a stable and robust system, naturally leads to the consideration of a control theoretic approach to providing decision aids. I will present a brief history of the science of command and control of military forces and discuss how modern control theory might be applied to air operations.

  19. Rapid field application of hydraulic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauchler, R.; Hu, R.; Hu, L.; Parras, S. J.; Bayer, P.; Dietrich, P.; Ptak, T.

    2013-12-01

    The motivation of this field study is the need for investigation methods that are both rapid and well suited for resolving the spatial distribution of hydraulic properties in aquifers. Therefore, we propose a field strategy for hydraulic tomography that can be analyzed and performed with a similar speed as direct-push profiling. The field implementation is designed in a way that a suite of tomographic measurements can be recorded in one day. We utilize direct-push technology for the well installation and limit the pumping time to 300 s, which permits us to record 30 transient pressure response curves between two wells in one working day. For the inversion, we applied a computationally efficient inversion scheme which is based on the transformation of the ground water flow equation into a form of the eikonal equation. By exploiting the early part of a transient hydraulic pressure response recorded during cross-well tests only short-term pumping tests are required. The main advantages of the inversion scheme are the low computational requirements of eikonal solvers and that no information about the hydraulic boundaries is needed. The short pumping time in combination with the straightforward inversion technique allows for the reconstruction of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage distributions already in the field, which is particularly useful for an adaptive site investigation approach. Additionally, direct-push injection logging is performed at the field site, and the obtained field data is utilized for successful validation of the hydraulic tomograms. We also compare both methods with respect to the necessary requirements, time demand in the field and complexity of interpretation.

  20. Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

    2007-09-13

    The self-potential (SP) response during hydraulic fracturing of intact Sierra granite was investigated in the laboratory. Excellent correlation of pressure drop and SP suggests that the SP response is created primarily by electrokinetic coupling. For low pressures, the variation of SP with pressure drop is linear, indicating a constant coupling coefficient (Cc) of -200 mV/MPa. However for pressure drops >2 MPa, the magnitude of the Cc increases by 80% in an exponential trend. This increasing Cc is related to increasing permeability at high pore pressures caused by dilatancy of micro-cracks, and is explained by a decrease in the hydraulic tortuosity. Resistivity measurements reveal a decrease of 2% prior to hydraulic fracturing and a decrease of {approx}35% after fracturing. An asymmetric spatial SP response created by injectate diffusion into dilatant zones is observed prior to hydraulic fracturing, and in most cases this SP variation revealed the impending crack geometry seconds before failure. At rupture, injectate rushes into the new fracture area where the zeta potential is different than in the rock porosity, and an anomalous SP spike is observed. After fracturing, the spatial SP distribution reveals the direction of fracture propagation. Finally, during tensile cracking in a point load device with no water flow, a SP spike is observed that is caused by contact electrification. However, the time constant of this event is much less than that for transients observed during hydraulic fracturing, suggesting that SP created solely from material fracture does not contribute to the SP response during hydraulic fracturing.

  1. Promoting water hydraulics in Malaysia: A green educational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Ahmad Anas; Zaili, Zarin Syukri; Hassan, Siti Nor Habibah; Tuan, Tee Boon; Saadun, Mohd Noor Asril; Ibrahim, Mohd Qadafie

    2014-10-01

    In promoting water hydraulics in Malaysia, this paper presents research development of water hydraulics educational training system for secondary and tertiary levels in Malaysia. Water hydraulics trainer with robotic attachment has been studied in order to promote the usefulness of such educational tools in promoting sustainability and green technology in the country. The trainer is being developed in order to allow constructive curriculum development and continuous marketing research for the effectiveness and usefulness of using water in hydraulic power trainer. The research on water-based hydraulic trainer is now possible with the current development in water hydraulics technology.

  2. Mineral resource of the month: hydraulic cement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic cements are the binders in concrete and most mortars and stuccos. Concrete, particularly the reinforced variety, is the most versatile of all construction materials, and most of the hydraulic cement produced worldwide is portland cement or similar cements that have portland cement as a basis, such as blended cements and masonry cements. Cement typically makes up less than 15 percent of the concrete mix; most of the rest is aggregates. Not counting the weight of reinforcing media, 1 ton of cement will typically yield about 8 tons of concrete.

  3. Simulation of a hydraulic air ingestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, F.C.; Golshani, A.

    1981-01-01

    A hydraulic air ingestion process which requires no mechanical moving parts to accomplish air compression but a downward flow of water and operates at nearly isothermal compression mode can be a viable alternative for the noncondensibles disposal of an OTEC open-cycle power system. A computer simulation of the process is presented based on one-dimensional lumped parameter analysis. Results of laboratory-scale experiments were obtained which compared favorably with the analytical results. A sensitivity study which depicts the effects of various parameters upon the applied head of the hydraulic air ingestion process is also presented.

  4. Nonelastomeric Rod Seals for Advanced Hydraulic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hady, W. F.; Waterman, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    Advanced high temperature hydraulic system rod sealing requirements can be met by using seals made of nonelastomeric (plastic) materials in applications where elastomers do not have adequate life. Exploratory seal designs were optimized for advanced applications using machinable polyimide materials. These seals demonstrated equivalent flight hour lives of 12,500 at 350 F and 9,875 at 400 F in advanced hydraulic system simulation. Successful operation was also attained under simulated space shuttle applications; 96 reentry thermal cycles and 1,438 hours of vacuum storage. Tests of less expensive molded plastic seals indicated a need for improved materials to provide equivalent performance to the machined seals.

  5. Acoustic flowmeters: Their applications in hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitzsche, Ulf

    Flowmeter installations for viscous and high hydrostatic pressure media are developed. Their usability is considered for characteristic measuring tasks in the field of oil hydraulics. The properties of flow sensors are evaluated by system analysis. Acoustic measuring systems are preferred. Two ultrasonic flowmeters are realized. Simulation models, installation with piezoceramic material parameters, and sound visualization support these developments. A computer aided hydraulic test stand is developed in order to detect the measuring characteristics of this system. Flowmeter applications are shown using the identification of the static and dynamic parameters of an electrohydraulic pilot valve.

  6. Hydraulic Actuator System for Rotor Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Heinz; Althaus, Josef

    1991-01-01

    In the last ten years, several different types of actuators were developed and fabricated for active control of rotors. A special hydraulic actuator system capable of generating high forces to rotating shafts via conventional bearings is addressed. The actively controlled hydraulic force actuator features an electrohydraulic servo valve which can produce amplitudes and forces at high frequencies necessary for influencing rotor vibrations. The mathematical description will be given in detail. The experimental results verify the theoretical model. Simulations already indicate the usefulness of this compact device for application to a real rotor system.

  7. Paul Ehrenfest and the dilemmas of modernity.

    PubMed

    van Lunteren, Frans H; Hollestelle, Marijn J

    2013-09-01

    This essay considers the highly ambivalent attitude of the Austrian-Dutch physicist Paul Ehrenfest toward contemporary developments in both science and society. On the one hand, he was in the vanguard of the quantum and relativity revolutions, supported industrialization and economic planning based on mathematical models, and, in general, cherished technocratic ideals. The essay highlights several influences that shaped his attitude in these respects, from his ties with the Philips Physics Laboratory and his sojourns in the United States to the utopian visions of H. G. Wells. On the other hand, he was extremely worried about the harmful consequences of contemporary changes in science and society, such as specialization, the growing pace of city life, and the increasing dependence on modern technologies, be they material or mathematical. In this regard, he agreed with cultural critics such as Max Nordau, Henri Bergson, Ostwald Spengler, and Ludwig Klages. Rather than attempting to solve this paradox, the essay suggests that this kind of ambiguity characterized a great deal of innovative science in the period. PMID:24341262

  8. Theme: The Role of Science in the Agricultural Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Thirteen theme articles discuss integration of science and agriculture, the role of science in agricultural education, biotechnology, agriscience in Tennessee and West Virginia, agriscience and program survival, modernization of agricultural education curriculum, agriscience and service learning, and biotechnology websites. (SK)

  9. Modernizing Fortran 77 Legacy Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decyk, Viktor; Norton, Charles

    2003-01-01

    An incremental approach to modernization of scientific software written in the Fortran 77 computing language has been developed. This approach makes it possible to preserve the investment in legacy Fortran software while augmenting the software with modern capabilities to satisfy expanded requirements. This approach could be advantageous (1) in situations in which major rewriting of application programs is undesirable or impossible, or (2) as a means of transition to major rewriting.

  10. Temporal changes of topsoil hydraulic conductivity studied by multiple-point tension disk infiltrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipa, Vladimir; Zumr, David; Snehota, Michal; Dohnal, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Hydraulic conductivity of cultivated soils is strongly affected by agrotechnical procedures, soil compaction, plant growth etc. This contribution is focused on series of measurement of topsoil unsaturated hydraulic conductivity using automated multipoint tension infiltrometer developed at CTU in Prague. The apparatus consists of two triplets of minidisk infiltrometers that are supported by a light aluminum frame. Therefore it allows simultaneous measurement of six tension infiltrations at two different pressure heads. Experiments were conducted at the experimental agricultural catchment Nučice (Central Bohemia, Czech Republic) as a part of the broader research of rainfall-runoff and soil erosion processes. The soil in the catchment is classified as Cambisol with texture that is ranging from loam to clay loam and is conservatively tilled. Series of ten infiltration campaigns (56 individual infiltration experiments) were carried out on a single experimental plot during period of two years. Dataset involves measurement under various agricultural activities and crop phenophases. The hydraulic conductivities were determined using extended semiempirical estimation procedure of Zhang. Additionally, large undisturbed soil samples were analyzed with use of X-ray computed tomography to assess the soil structure morphology in detail. Results show that unsaturated hydraulic conductivity was the lowest in early spring and did increase at beginning of summer. Unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity was higher when the soil bulk density was high. During the summer and autumn the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity remained relatively unchanged. The impact of agricultural procedures was not apparent in the dataset.. The study has been supported by the Czech Science Foundation Project No. 13-20388P and by CTU in Prague funding via Student's Grant Competition SGS No. SGS14/131/OHK1/2T/11. The MultiDisk infiltrometer was developed within the framework of the project supported by the

  11. Proceedings of the 7th International Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics NURETH-7. Volume 1, Sessions 1-5

    SciTech Connect

    Block, R.C.; Feiner, F.

    1995-09-01

    This document, Volume 1, includes papers presented at the 7th International Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics (NURETH-7) September 10--15, 1995 at Saratoga Springs, N.Y. The following subjects are discussed: Progress in analytical and experimental work on the fundamentals of nuclear thermal-hydraulics, the development of advanced mathematical and numerical methods, and the application of advancements in the field in the development of novel reactor concepts. Also combined issues of thermal-hydraulics and reactor/power-plant safety, core neutronics and/or radiation. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Science in Science Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Offers some suggestions as to how science fiction, especially television science fiction programs such as "Star Trek" and "Star Wars", can be drawn into physics lessons to illuminate some interesting issues. (Author/KHR)

  13. Interaction between soil mineralogy and the application of crop residues on aggregate stability and hydraulic conductivity of the soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lado, M.; Kiptoon, R.; Bar-Tal, A.; Wakindiki, I. I. C.; Ben-Hur, M.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main goals of modern agriculture is to achieve sustainability by maintaining crop productivity while avoiding soil degradation. Intensive cultivation could lead to a reduction in soil organic matter that could affect the structure stability and hydraulic conductivity of the soil. Moreover, crops extract nutrients from the soil that are taken away from the field when harvested, and as a consequence, the addition of fertilizers to the soil is necessary to maintain crop productivity. One way to deal with these problems is to incorporate crop residues into the soil after harvest. Crop residues are a source of organic matter that could improve soil physical properties, such as aggregate stability and soil hydraulic conductivity. However, this effect could vary according to other soil properties, such as clay content, clay mineralogy, and the presence of other cementing materials in the soil (mainly carbonates and aluminum and iron oxides). In the present work, the interaction between the addition of chickpea crop residues to the soil and clay mineralogy on aggregate stability and saturated hydraulic conductivity were studied. Chickpea plant residues were added at a rate of 0.5% (w/w) to smectitic, kaolinitic, illitic and non-phyllosilicate soils from different regions. The soils without (control) and with chickpea residues were incubated for 0, 3, 7 and 30 days, and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soils was measured in columns after each incubation time. The response of hydraulic conductivity to the addition of residues and incubation time was different in the soils with various mineralogies, although in general, the addition of chickpea residues increased the saturated hydraulic conductivity as compared with the control soils. This positive effect of crop residues on hydraulic conductivity was mainly a result of improved aggregate stability and resistance to slaking during wetting.

  14. Redrawing the map: science in twentieth-century China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Fa-ti

    2007-09-01

    This essay argues that science in twentieth-century China is a rich topic that can be productively integrated into research and teaching on the history of modern science. It identifies major issues of science in twentieth-century China and demonstrates that they can prove useful to any scholar who wishes to consider science in a comparative and trans/international context. The essay suggests two important steps for a fruitful investigation into the topic of science in twentieth-century China: first, revising the historiographic assumptions and categories that underlie much of the conventional historical narrative of modern science; and, second, breaking free from the tunnel history of national science. To illustrate these points, the essay examines a series of case studies of science in modern China and discusses the relevance of such subjects as scientific nationalism, Maoist mass science, and transnational scientific networks for the understanding of science in the twentieth-century world. PMID:17970425

  15. On Heidegger, medicine, and the modernity of modern medical technology.

    PubMed

    Brassington, Iain

    2007-06-01

    This paper examines medicine's use of technology in a manner from a standpoint inspired by Heidegger's thinking on technology. In the first part of the paper, I shall suggest an interpretation of Heidegger's thinking on the topic, and attempt to show why he associates modern technology with danger. However, I shall also claim that there is little evidence that medicine's appropriation of modern technology is dangerous in Heidegger's sense, although there is no prima facie reason why it mightn't be. The explanation for this, I claim, is ethical. There is an initial attraction to the thought that Heidegger's thought echoes Kantian moral thinking, but I shall dismiss this. Instead, I shall suggest that the considerations that make modern technology dangerous for Heidegger are simply not in the character - the ethos - of medicine properly understood. This is because there is a distinction to be drawn between chronological and historical modernity, and that even up-to-date medicine, empowered by technology, retains in its ethos crucial aspects of a historically pre-modern understanding of technology. A large part of the latter half of the paper will be concerned with explaining the difference. PMID:17077993

  16. 'Wellbeing': a collateral casualty of modernity?

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Sandra; Henderson, Gregor; Hanlon, Phil W

    2009-11-01

    In the now vast empirical and theoretical literature on wellbeing knowledge of the subject is provided mainly by psychology and economics, where understanding of the concept are framed in very different ways. We briefly rehearse these, before turning to some important critical points which can be made about this burgeoning research industry, including the tight connections between the meanings of the concept with the moral value systems of particular 'modern' societies. We then argue that both the 'science' of wellbeing and its critique are, despite their diversity, re-connected by and subsumed within the emerging environmental critique of modern consumer society. This places concerns for individual and social wellbeing within the broader context of global human problems and planetary wellbeing. A growing number of thinkers now suggest that Western society and culture are dominated by materialistic and individualistic values, made manifest at the political and social levels through the unending pursuit of economic growth, and at the individual level by the seemingly endless quest for consumer goods, regardless of global implications such as broader environmental harms. The escalating growth of such values is associated with a growing sense of individual alienation, social fragmentation and civic disengagement and with the decline of more spiritual, moral and ethical aspects of life. Taken together, these multiple discourses suggest that wellbeing can be understood as a collateral casualty of the economic, social and cultural changes associated with late modernity. However, increasing concerns for the environment have the potential to counter some of these trends, and in so doing could also contribute to our wellbeing as individuals and as social beings in a finite world. PMID:19765875

  17. Trading Zones in Early Modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Long, Pamela O

    2015-12-01

    This essay adopts the concept of trading zones first developed for the history of science by Peter Galison and redefines it for the early modern period. The term "trading zones" is used to mean arenas in which substantive and reciprocal communication occurred between individuals who were artisanally trained and learned (university-trained) individuals. Such trading zones proliferated in the sixteenth century. They tended to arise in certain kinds of places and not in others, but their existence must be determined empirically. The author's work on trading zones differs from the ideas of Edgar Zilsel, who emphasized the influence of artisans on the scientific revolution. In contrast, in this essay, the mutual influence of artisans and the learned on each other is stressed, and translation is used as a modality that was important to communication within trading zones. PMID:27024940

  18. Iron deposition in modern and archaeological teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, A.-M. M.; Siegele, R.

    2014-09-01

    Iron surface concentrations and profile maps were measured on the enamel of archaeological and modern teeth to determine how iron is deposited in tooth enamel and if it was affected by the post-mortem environment. Teeth from Australian children who died in the second half of the 19th century were compared with contemporary teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Surface analysis of the teeth was performed using the 3 MV Van Der Graff Accelerator at The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Sydney, Australia. A small sample of teeth were then cut in the mid sagittal plane and analysed using ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe. Maps and linear profiles were produced showing the distribution of iron across the enamel. Results show that both the levels and distribution of iron in archaeological teeth is quite different to contemporary teeth, raising the suggestion that iron has been significantly altered by the post-mortem environment.

  19. Constructing Hydraulic Barriers in Deep Geologic Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, E.E.; Carter, P.E.; Cooper, D.C.

    2008-07-01

    Many construction methods have been developed to create hydraulic barriers to depths of 30 to 50 meters, but few have been proposed for depths on the order of 500 meters. For these deep hydraulic barriers, most methods are potentially feasible for soil but not for hard rock. In the course of researching methods of isolating large subterranean blocks of oil shale, the authors have developed a wax thermal permeation method for constructing hydraulic barriers in rock to depths of over 500 meters in competent or even fractured rock as well as soil. The technology is similar to freeze wall methods, but produces a permanent barrier; and is potentially applicable in both dry and water saturated formations. Like freeze wall barriers, the wax thermal permeation method utilizes a large number of vertical or horizontal boreholes around the perimeter to be contained. However, instead of cooling the boreholes, they are heated. After heating these boreholes, a specially formulated molten wax based grout is pumped into the boreholes where it seals fractures and also permeates radially outward to form a series of columns of wax-impregnated rock. Rows of overlapping columns can then form a durable hydraulic barrier. These barriers can also be angled above a geologic repository to help prevent influx of water due to atypical rainfall events. Applications of the technique to constructing containment structures around existing shallow waste burial sites and water shutoff for mining are also described. (authors)

  20. Hydraulic conductivity of desiccated geosynthetic clay liners

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, B.T.; Daniel, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    Large-scale tests were performed to determine the effect of a cycle of wetting and drying on the hydraulic conductivity of several geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs). The GCLs were covered with 0.6 m of pea gravel and permeated with water. After steady seepage had developed, the water was drained away, and the GCL was desiccated by circulating heated air through the overlying gravel. The drying caused severe cracking in the bentonite component of the GCLs. The GCLs were again permeated with water. As the cracked bentonite hydrated and swelled, the hydraulic conductivity slowly decreased from an initially high value. The long-term, steady value of hydraulic conductivity after the wetting and drying cycle was found to be essentially the same as the value for the undesiccated GCL. It is concluded that GCLs possess the ability to self-heal after a cycle of wetting and drying, which is important for applications in which there may be alternate wetting and drying of a hydraulic barrier (e.g. within a landfill final cover).

  1. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Requirements for Vessels Which Have Their Keel Laid or Are at a Similar Stage...

  2. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Requirements for Vessels Which Have Their Keel Laid or Are at a Similar Stage...

  3. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Requirements for Vessels Which Have Their Keel Laid or Are at a Similar Stage...

  4. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Requirements for Vessels Which Have Their Keel Laid or Are at a Similar Stage...

  5. Method for hydraulic fracturing cased wellbores

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.H.

    1991-12-24

    This patent describes a method of hydraulically fracturing a cased wellbore in an earth formation. It comprises determining the angle with respect to the wellbore axis and a reference point on the circumference of the wellbore which will provide for initiation of a hydraulic fracture in the formation which will turn with the largest radius of curvature into a fracture plane normal to the minimum in situ stress in the formation; perforating the wellbore casing at the angle with respect to the reference point; initiating a hydraulic fracture in the formation by pumping a liquid through the perforation and into the formation to force the initiation of a fracture in the formation at a point which develops the highest tensile stress in the formation in relation to increasing the hydraulic pressure in the wellbore; extending the fracture by pumping a relatively proppant-free quantities of proppant per unit volume of pumped fluid and in successive discrete stages of increasing proppant density to provide a propped portion of increasing proppant density to provide a propped portion of the fracture in the near wellbore region of the fracture which will prevent reclosing of the fracture in the near wellbore region.

  6. Digital hydraulic valving system. [design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design and development are reported of a digital hydraulic valving system that would accept direct digital inputs. Topics include: summary of contractual accomplishments, design and function description, valve parameters and calculations, conclusions, and recommendations. The electrical control circuit operating procedure is outlined in an appendix.

  7. Combustion waves in hydraulically resisted systems.

    PubMed

    Brailovsky, I; Kagan, L; Sivashinsky, G

    2012-02-13

    The effects of hydraulic resistance on the burning of confined/obstacle-laden gaseous and gas-permeable solid explosives are discussed on the basis of recent research. Hydraulic resistance is found to induce a new powerful mechanism for the reaction spread (diffusion of pressure) allowing for both fast subsonic as well as supersonic propagation. Hydraulic resistance appears to be of relevance also for the multiplicity of detonation regimes as well as for the transitions from slow conductive to fast convective, choked or detonative burning. A quasi-one-dimensional Fanno-type model for premixed gas combustion in an obstructed channel open at the ignition end is discussed. It is shown that, similar to the closed-end case studied earlier, the hydraulic resistance causes a gradual precompression and preheating of the unburned gas adjacent to the advancing deflagration, which leads (after an extended induction period) to a localized autoignition that triggers an abrupt transition from deflagrative to detonative combustion. In line with the experimental observations, the ignition at the open end greatly encumbers the transition (compared with the closed-end case), and the deflagration practically does not accelerate up to the very transition point. Shchelkin's effect, that ignition at a small distance from the closed end of a tube facilitates the transition, is described. PMID:22213662

  8. Compact Hydraulic Excavator and Support Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Continuous-coal-mining machine maneuverable. Hydraulic coal excavator combined with chock, or roof-support structure, in self-contained unit that moves itself forward as it removes coal from seam. Unlike previous such units, new machine compact enough to be easily maneuverable; even makes small-radius right-angle turns.

  9. Ocean thermal gradient hydraulic power plant.

    PubMed

    Beck, E J

    1975-07-25

    Solar energy stored in the oceans may be used to generate power by exploiting ploiting thermal gradients. A proposed open-cycle system uses low-pressure steam to elevate vate water, which is then run through a hydraulic turbine to generate power. The device is analogous to an air lift pump. PMID:17813707

  10. HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF THREE GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hydraulic conductivity of three 2.9 m2 (32 sq ft) geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) was measured. Tests were performed on individual sheets of the GCLs, on overlapped pieces of GCLs, and on composite liners consisting of a punctured geomembrane overlying a GCL. Hyd...

  11. Evaluation of hydraulic lift in cotton germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydraulic lift (HL) in plants is defined as the redistribution of water from wetter to drier soil through the plant roots in response to soil water potential gradients. Water is released from the roots into the dry soil when transpiration is low (night) and reabsorbed by the plant when higher transp...

  12. Spiral groove seal. [for hydraulic rotating shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Mating flat surfaces inhibit leakage of a fluid around a stationary shaft. A spiral groove pattern produces a pumping action toward the fluid when the shaft rotates which prevents leakage while a generated hydraulic lifting force separates the mating surfaces to minimize wear.

  13. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OF CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydraulic fracturing is a physical process that creates fractures in silty clay soil to enhance its permeability. The technology, developed by the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) and the University of Cincinnati, creates sand-filled horizontal fractures up to 1 in. i...

  14. Linking earthquakes and hydraulic fracturing operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing, also known as fracking, to extract oil and gas from rock, has been a controversial but increasingly common practice; some studies have linked it to groundwater contamination and induced earthquakes. Scientists discussed several studies on the connection between fracking and earthquakes at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco in December.

  15. ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTRACTORS - HYDRAULIC VERSUS ORGANIC LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional and alternative flow configurations of rotating biological contractors were compared for soluble organic carbon and ammonia-nitrogen removal. Each treatment train contained eight shafts with a cumulative surface area of 800,000 ft sq. The hydraulic bay used the conve...

  16. International Institute for Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostertman, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the activities of the International Institute for Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering (IHE), whose primary function is the promotion of the better use of water resources as a vehicle of development by the transfer of knowledge and experience. (Author/RK)

  17. Recent advances in modeling of well hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Hund-Der; Chang, Ya-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Well hydraulics is a discipline to understand the process of flow to the well in an aquifer which is regarded as a source of groundwater. A variety of analytical and numerical models have been developed over the last few decades to provide a framework for understanding and quantifying the flow behavior in aquifer systems. In this review, we first briefly introduce the background of the theory of well hydraulics and the concepts, methodologies, and applications of analytical, semi-analytical, numerical and approximate methods in solving the well-hydraulic problems. We then address the subjects of current interests such as the incorporation of effects of finite well radius, wellbore storage, well partial penetration, and the presence of skin into various practical problems of groundwater flow. Furthermore, we also summarize recent developments of flow modeling such as the flow in aquifers with horizontal wells or collector wells, the capture zone delineation, and the non-Darcian flow in porous media and fractured formations. Finally, we present a comprehensive review on the numerical calculations for five well functions frequently appearing in well-hydraulic literature and suggest some topics in groundwater flow for future research.

  18. 93. STARBOARD CATAPULT HYDRAULIC PUMP PORT LOOKING TO STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. STARBOARD CATAPULT HYDRAULIC PUMP - PORT LOOKING TO STARBOARD SHOWING ONE OF THE SEVEN (7) HYDRAULIC USED TO OPERATE THE CATAPULT. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  19. HYDRAULIC STUDIES AND CLEANING EVALUATIONS OF ULTRAVIOLET DISINFECTION UNITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various types of operating ultraviolet disinfection reactor designs were evaluated for hydraulic characteristics and cleaning requirements. The fluorocarbon polymer tube designs promote plug-flow behavior because of their relatively high length-to-diameter ratio. Hydraulic evalua...

  20. 10. Floor Layout of Thermal Hydraulics Laboratory, from The Thermal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Floor Layout of Thermal Hydraulics Laboratory, from The Thermal Hydraulics Laboratory at Hanford. General Electric Company, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, Richland, Washington, 1961. - D-Reactor Complex, Deaeration Plant-Refrigeration Buildings, Area 100-D, Richland, Benton County, WA