Science.gov

Sample records for modern physical theories

  1. Plato's Ideas and the Theories of Modern Particle Physics: Amazing Parallels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machleidt, Ruprecht

    2006-05-01

    It is generally known that the question, ``What are the most elementary particles that all matter is made from?'', was already posed in the antiquity. The Greek natural philosophers Leucippus and Democritus were the first to suggest that all matter was made from atoms. Therefore, most people perceive them as the ancient fathers of elementary particle physics. However, this perception is wrong. Modern particle physics is not just a simple atomism. The characteristic point of modern particle theory is that it is concerned with the symmetries underlying the particles we discover in experiment. More than 2000 years ago, a similar idea was already advanced by the Greek philosopher Plato in his dialogue Timaeus: Geometric symmetries generate the atoms from just a few even more elementary items. Plato's vision is amazingly close to the ideas of modern particle theory. This fact, which is unfortunately little known, has been pointed out repeatedly by Werner Heisenberg.

  2. Quantum corrections in modern gauge theories of fundamental interactions and the search for new physics

    SciTech Connect

    Zucchini, R.

    1988-01-01

    We show that the analysis of the quantum effects in gauge theories yields several constraints which may be used to test their internal consistency and physical viability. We have studied, in particular, the Higgs sector of the minimal standard model and tested the universality of the weak interactions and the conserved-vector-current hypothesis. Finally, we have analyzed modular invariance in the closed bosonic string.

  3. Modern Physics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Douglas; Hiller, John R.; Moloney, Michael J.

    1995-10-01

    The Consortium for Upper Level Physics Software (CUPS) has developed a comprehensive series of Nine Book/Software packages that Wiley will publish in FY `95 and `96. CUPS is an international group of 27 physicists, all with extensive backgrounds in the research, teaching, and development of instructional software. The project is being supported by the National Science Foundation (PHY-9014548), and it has received other support from the IBM Corp., Apple Computer Corp., and George Mason University. The Simulations being developed are: Astrophysics, Classical Mechanics, Electricity & Magnetism, Modern Physics, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Solid State, Thermal and Statistical, and Wave and Optics.

  4. Modern Theories of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Philip W.

    This volume explores objectively the essential characteristic of nine twentieth-century linguistic theories with the theoretical variant for discussion based on one closely representative of work within a given approach or usually associated with the name of the theory. First, the theory of Ferdinand de Saussure is discussed based on his book,…

  5. Chaos Theory and Post Modernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Chaos theory is often associated with post modernism. However, one may make the point that both terms are misunderstood. The point of this article is to define both terms and indicate their relationship. Description: Chaos theory is associated with a definition of a theory dealing with variables (butterflies) that are not directly related to a…

  6. Theories of Modern Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, W. Hal

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" identifies management theories that provide a fundamental conceptual knowledge base that school business officials can use to understand the school organizational setting and its influences on the day-to-day operation of the educational process. Particular attention is paid to aspects of…

  7. What Happened to Modern Physics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabajee, Paul; Postlethwaite, Keith

    2000-01-01

    Argues for including the concepts of "twentieth-century physics"--relativity, quantum mechanics, and chaos theory--within the National Curriculum in science for England and Wales, which almost entirely ignores them. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/ASK)

  8. Modern Detectors for Astroparticle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Adriani, Oscar

    2005-10-12

    This paper focus on the necessary requirements for a modern astroparticle physics detector based either on stratospheric balloons, either on satellite. The main technical solutions used to build a reliable detector are described. Finally, the most relevant experiments that have been developed with the INFN contribution and that will be ready in the near future (both for {gamma} and charged cosmic rays detection) are described.

  9. Invisible World and Modern Physics: Modern Science and Theology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.; Danezis, E.

    2010-07-01

    A characteristic of the Western thought is the effort to counter Christian theology through arguments based on scientific discoveries (antirrhetic theology). Two objections can be raised against this trait: a) Modern science considers as a fact the future expansions, corrections, even total abolishment of scientific knowledge in the face of new discoveries. Therefore, dogmatic positions must not be based on temporary scientific views. b) Antirrhetic theology is mostly based on out-of-date scientific views of the period 1650-1900, which are not valid any more. The example of modern physics and cosmology is prime among them; in these sciences, the prevailing theories are based on the existence of an imperceptible reality, or on apparently “illogical” (in the sense of classical logic) fundamental properties of matter and its particles in quantum mechanics.

  10. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: The nuclear shield in the 'thirty-year war' of physicists against ignorant criticism of modern physical theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizgin, Vladimir P.

    1999-12-01

    This article deals with the almost 'thirty-year war' led by physicists against the authorities' incompetent philosophical and ideological interference with science. The 'war' is shown to have been related to the history of Soviet nuclear weapons. Theoretical milestones of 20th century physics, to wit, theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, suffered endless 'attacks on philosophical grounds'. The theories were proclaimed idealistic as well as unduly abstract and out of touch with practice; their authors and followers were labelled 'physical idealists', and later, in the 1940s and 1950s, even 'cosmopolitans without kith or kin'. Meanwhile, quantum and relativistic theories, as is widely known, had become the basis of nuclear physics and of the means of studying the atomic nucleus (charged particle accelerators, for instance). The two theories thus served, to a great extent, as a basis for both peaceful and military uses of nuclear energy, made possible by the discovery of uranium nuclear fission under the action of neutrons. In the first part, the article recounts how prominent physicists led the way to resisting philosophical and ideological pressure and standing up for relativity, quantum theories and nuclear physics, thus enabling the launch of the atomic project. The second part contains extensive material proving the point that physicists effectively used the 'nuclear shield' in the 1940s and 1950s against the 'philosophical-cosmopolitan' pressure, indeed saving physics from a tragic fate as that of biology at the Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VASKhNIL) session in 1948.

  11. BOOK REVIEW: The Quantum Mechanics Solver: How to Apply Quantum Theory to Modern Physics, 2nd edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbin, J. M.

    2007-07-01

    he hallmark of a good book of problems is that it allows you to become acquainted with an unfamiliar topic quickly and efficiently. The Quantum Mechanics Solver fits this description admirably. The book contains 27 problems based mainly on recent experimental developments, including neutrino oscillations, tests of Bell's inequality, Bose Einstein condensates, and laser cooling and trapping of atoms, to name a few. Unlike many collections, in which problems are designed around a particular mathematical method, here each problem is devoted to a small group of phenomena or experiments. Most problems contain experimental data from the literature, and readers are asked to estimate parameters from the data, or compare theory to experiment, or both. Standard techniques (e.g., degenerate perturbation theory, addition of angular momentum, asymptotics of special functions) are introduced only as they are needed. The style is closer to a non-specialist seminar rather than an undergraduate lecture. The physical models are kept simple; the emphasis is on cultivating conceptual and qualitative understanding (although in many of the problems, the simple models fit the data quite well). Some less familiar theoretical techniques are introduced, e.g. a variational method for lower (not upper) bounds on ground-state energies for many-body systems with two-body interactions, which is then used to derive a surprisingly accurate relation between baryon and meson masses. The exposition is succinct but clear; the solutions can be read as worked examples if you don't want to do the problems yourself. Many problems have additional discussion on limitations and extensions of the theory, or further applications outside physics (e.g., the accuracy of GPS positioning in connection with atomic clocks; proton and ion tumor therapies in connection with the Bethe Bloch formula for charged particles in solids). The problems use mainly non-relativistic quantum mechanics and are organised into three

  12. School Physical Education in the Transition from Solid Modernity to Liquid Modernity: The Brazilian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracht, Valter; Gomes, Ivan Marcelo; de Almeida, Felipe Quintão

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the implications of the contemporary transition from a solid modernity to a liquid modernity for school physical education, according to the metaphors adopted by the Polish sociologist and English resident Zygmunt Bauman. By leveraging Bauman's sociological theory, this article pursues two aims: (1) to examine how physical…

  13. A philosophical theory on human communication and modern physics: e(,2)c(,2)H('2)T energy-exchange and consciousness-change toward humanism, healing, and transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins-Tate, Marnishia Laverne

    This dissertation addresses the need for a body of human communication theory that can be useful toward advancing personal and social transformation. Of the humanistic genre, it suggests that there is a need to promote humanism, healing, and personal transformation in the non-clinical settings of everyday living. Three questions guide the effort. First, it asks: what kind of human communication theory might describe some of the underlying dynamics of human interaction, while also suggesting ways to improve the quality of interactions of any related philosophical theory be grounded by some scientific discipline? Then finally, it asks: how might these proposed concepts be captured in a manner that can be useful to human beings in everyday human interaction? Extending the work of modern physics to the realm of human communication, the theory integrates conceptual aspects of quantum theory, relativity theory, communication accommodation theory, and various nonverbal communication theory. Then, it proposes the philosophical framework for a new body of theory which it calls the energy-exchange theory of human communication. Treating human beings as living forms of matter, it suggests that ``energy'' is the life-force that sustains all human beings, and that ``consciousness'' is that qualitative level of development at which energy manifests itself in the human experience. It proposes that human beings have the capacity to exchange energy and influence consciousness during the human communication process, and that these interactions can advance humanism, healing, and transformation-which it proposes are the higher states and levels of human consciousness. Thus, this research effort sought to know and to describe a phenomenon that is the interactive human being; and to suggest useful ways that this volitional being can know and transform itself through human interaction. With verisimilitude as a driving factor in describing human beings as communicators, the research is

  14. Modern Biological Theories of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Kunlin

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent advances in molecular biology and genetics, the mysteries that control human lifespan are yet to be unraveled. Many theories, which fall into two main categories: programmed and error theories, have been proposed to explain the process of aging, but neither of them appears to be fully satisfactory. These theories may interact with each other in a complex way. By understanding and testing the existing and new aging theories, it may be possible to promote successful aging. PMID:21132086

  15. Trends in modern system theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.

    1976-01-01

    The topics considered are related to linear control system design, adaptive control, failure detection, control under failure, system reliability, and large-scale systems and decentralized control. It is pointed out that the design of a linear feedback control system which regulates a process about a desirable set point or steady-state condition in the presence of disturbances is a very important problem. The linearized dynamics of the process are used for design purposes. The typical linear-quadratic design involving the solution of the optimal control problem of a linear time-invariant system with respect to a quadratic performance criterion is considered along with gain reduction theorems and the multivariable phase margin theorem. The stumbling block in many adaptive design methodologies is associated with the amount of real time computation which is necessary. Attention is also given to the desperate need to develop good theories for large-scale systems, the beginning of a microprocessor revolution, the translation of the Wiener-Hopf theory into the time domain, and advances made in dynamic team theory, dynamic stochastic games, and finite memory stochastic control.

  16. Modern Concepts of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, John L.

    1972-01-01

    The author calls for a whole new concept of physical education in the nation's schools. A change of lifestyle is needed, but also necessary are school programs that develop cardiovascular endurance fitness, not muscular fitness. (Editor)

  17. Set theory and physics

    SciTech Connect

    Svozil, K.

    1995-11-01

    Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible {open_quotes}solution of supertasks,{close_quotes} and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvantages for physical applications are discussed: Cantorian {open_quotes}naive{close_quotes} (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author`s opinion, an attitude, of {open_quotes}suspended attention{close_quotes} (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to {open_quotes}bizarre{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}mindboggling{close_quotes} new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the time of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.

  18. Set theory and physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svozil, K.

    1995-11-01

    Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible “solution of supertasks,” and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvatages for physical applications are discussed: Canlorian “naive” (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author's opinion, an attitude of “suspended attention” (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to “bizarre” or “mindboggling” new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the lime of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.

  19. TEACHING PHYSICS: Experiments in modern physics for the general public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, K. E.; Nilsson, Ch

    2000-07-01

    Experiments in modern physics interest and fascinate many people. In order to make such experiments available to them, the Stockholm Science Laboratory - normally dedicated to teachers and students - was opened to the general public on 15 occasions in Autumn 1999. AÂ total of nine different themes, mainly in modern physics and astronomy but also in the physics of sound, colour and light, were presented. Each laboratory session lasted for approximately three hours, and was almost always fully booked.

  20. Oersted Lecture 2014: Physics education research and teaching modern Modern Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollman, Dean

    2016-08-01

    Modern Physics has been used as a label for most of physics that was developed since the discovery of X-rays in 1895. Yet, we are teaching students who would not use the label "modern" for anything that happened before about 1995, when they were born. So, are we and our students in worlds that differ by a century? In addition to content, sometimes our students and we have differing views about methods and styles of teaching. A modern course in any topic of physics should include applications of contemporary research in physics education and the learning sciences as well as research and developments in methods of delivering the content. Thus, when we consider teaching Modern Physics, we are challenged with deciding what the content should be, how to adjust for the ever increasing information on how students learn physics, and the constantly changing tools that are available to us for teaching and learning. When we mix all of these together, we can teach modern Modern Physics or maybe teach Modern Physics modernly.

  1. Modernizing the Physics Curriculum by Being Less Modern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleckman, Philip

    2010-03-01

    This presentation offers suggestions for changes that could be made to the undergraduate physics program to better prepare scientists and engineers for careers in energy, and in particular, renewable energy. The author's perspective comes from the traditional academic training at the undergraduate and PhD levels in physics followed by work experience in industrial research in solar energy. The traditional physics undergraduate curriculum is composed of Hamiltonian mechanics, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, and special relativity. In the laboratory, students typically repeat famous experiments in modern physics. While these subjects are essential to a comprehensive understanding of the physical world they do not provide the foundation necessary for work in energy production. The subjects at the core of energy production are classical thermodynamics, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics, yet they receive little if any attention in the physics curriculum. Most students of physics are familiar with the historic year 1905 but few know that one year earlier Prandtl revolutionized our understanding of fluid mechanics with his invention of the boundary layer which is at the heart of heat transfer. Reynolds and Nusselt are equally obscure. We will give examples of how the design of solar power plants requires solving elementary physical problems that are foreign to most physics students. Thermodynamic analysis, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer are core disciplines underlying the production of steam from which 90 per cent of the electricity in the US is derived. Knowledge of these subjects will continue to be essential for the future development of renewable energy. Unlike quantum mechanics, classical physics also helps to explain the phenomena of everyday life.

  2. Physics and proof theory

    PubMed Central

    Paleo, Bruno Woltzenlogel

    2012-01-01

    Axiomatization of Physics (and science in general) has many drawbacks that are correctly criticized by opposing philosophical views of science. This paper shows that, by giving formal proofs a more prominent role in the formalization, many of the drawbacks can be solved and many of the opposing views are naturally conciliated. Moreover, this approach allows, by means of proof theory, to open new conceptual bridges between the disciplines of Physics and Computer Science. PMID:24976655

  3. Catastrophe theory in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, I.

    1982-02-01

    A discussion is presented of catastrophe theory, with attention to the developmental feedback between this field of mathematics and its applications in the physical sciences. Prominent concepts of catastrophe theory are co-dimension, determinacy, unfoldings, and organizing centers. The ways in which these concepts may be used are shown in light of specific applications taken from the literature, and the methods are generalized to areas not yet recognized to be within the purview of catastrophe theory. Note is taken of the philosophical background provided for this body of theory by the topological dynamics concept of structural stability. Catastrophe theory is in conclusion characterized as an important contribution to the understanding of nonlinear phenomena.

  4. Interactive Modern Physics Worksheets Methodology and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podolak, Ken; Danforth, Jordyn

    2013-01-01

    There are a variety of teaching tools available for use in introductory modern physics classrooms. Determining which teaching tool students support can help the teacher structure classroom instruction to include more effective teaching tools. Student participants were surveyed at the end of four separate semesters after using different teaching…

  5. John Herschel: Britain's first modern physical scientist.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, M. J.

    The author presents a sketch of the life and contributions to science of Sir John F. W. Herschel (1792 - 1871). One of the theses he develops is that John Herschel can meaningfully be described as Britain's first modern physical scientist. In addition to developing this thesis, the author makes some remarks about lesser known aspects of Herschel's life.

  6. Mad About Modern Physics: Braintwisters, Paradoxes, and Curiosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Franklin; Jargodzki, Christopher

    2004-12-01

    More mind-bending fun in physics The sequel to the popular Mad About Physics, Mad About Modern Physics promises endless hours of entertaining, challenging fun. With detailed answers to hundreds of questions ("Are fluorescent lights dangerous to your health?", "What is a fuel cell?"), the book is also a treasure trove of fun science trivia. Featuring diagrams and illustrations throughout, this fascinating physics compendium will educate and captivate students, teachers, and science buffs alike. FRANKLIN POTTER, Ph.D., is a retired physicist from the University of California at Irvine. He continues to conduct research in elementary particle physics and cosmology, as well as consult in physics education. CHRISTOPHER JARGODZKI, Ph.D., is Professor of Physics at Central Missouri State University. He is also founder and director of Center for Cooperative Phenomena. He was born and raised in Poland, and received his Ph.D. in quantum field theory from the University of California at Irvine.

  7. Aristotle's ethical theory & modern health care.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, S K

    1996-01-01

    The Greek physician of antiquity - Hippocrates (460-356 B.C.) is called the Father of Modern Medicine and the Hippocratic Oath to which doctors of modern medicine traditionally and formally express their allegiance, forms the basic foundation of medical ethics. The tradition of Western ethical philosophy began with the ancient Greeks. From Socrates (469-399 B.C.) and his immediate successors, Plato (427-347 B.C.) and Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), there is a clear line of continuity, through Hellenistic period (from the death of Alexander the Great (323 B.C.) to the end of Ptolemic dynasty (30 B.C.) and the Roman annexation of Egypt - broadly post-Aristotelian and medieval thought to the present day. But the society has qualitatively and quantitatively changed since the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Society, today, is just a collection of discrete individuals, each with his or her own purposes and interests. Hence it has become almost imperative to apply the principle of autonomy to issues in the ethics of health care. The aim of this short essay is, therefore, an attempt to explore the relevance, if any, of Aristotelian ethical theory to the modern health care. PMID:11619400

  8. Physical Activity and Modernization among Bolivian Amerindians

    PubMed Central

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V.; Kaplan, Hillard; Cummings, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity. Methods and Findings A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR), the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL) of 2.02–2.15 and 1.73–1.85, respectively. Little time was spent “sedentary”, whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity. Conclusions Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely caused by

  9. Plato's TIMAIOσ (TIMAEUS) and Modern Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machleidt, Ruprecht

    2005-04-01

    It is generally known that the question, ``What are the smallest particles (elementary particles) that all matter is made from?'', was posed already in the antiquity. The Greek natural philosophers Leucippus and Democritus were the first to suggest that all matter was made from atoms. Therefore, most people perceive them as the ancient fathers of elementary particle physics. It will be the purpose of my contribution to point out that this perception is wrong. Modern particle physics is not just a primitive atomism. More important than the materialistic particles are the underlying symmetries (e. g., SU(3) and SU(6)). A similar idea was first advanced by Plato in his dialog TIMAIOσ (Latin translation: TIMAEUS): Geometric symmetries generate the materialistic particles from a few even more elementary items. Plato's vision is amazingly close to the ideas of modern particle physics. This fact, which is unfortunately little known, has been pointed out repeatedly by Heisenberg (see, e. g., Werner Heisenberg, Across the Frontiers, Harper & Row, New York, 1974).

  10. Southern California Area Modern Physics Institute (SCAMPI): A Model Enhancement Program in Modern Physics for High School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanes, Roger; Jewett, John W.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a program aimed at assisting high school physics teachers with incorporating modern physics concepts into the curriculum. Summer and academic year activities are described. Project evaluation indicates the project promoted modern physics instruction and an increase in teacher self-esteem. (DDR)

  11. Gravitational consequences of modern field theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Gary T.

    1989-01-01

    Some gravitational consequences of certain extensions of Einstein's general theory of relativity are discussed. These theories are not alternative theories of gravity in the usual sense. It is assumed that general relativity is the appropriate description of all gravitational phenomena which were observed to date.

  12. A Brief Critique of Some Modern Theories of Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lally, Tim D. P.

    Six points appear prominently in modern theory of composition: theory basks in the shadow of literary criticism and scholarship; writing is an act involving creativity, of which theory should take account; creativity depends upon the primacy of personal insight, which is also the basis of intellectual development; the grapholect of standard edited…

  13. Actuality of transcendental æsthetics for modern physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitot, Jean

    1. The more mathematics and physics unify themselves in the physico-mathematical modern theories, the more an objective epistemology becomes necessary. Only such a transcendental epistemology is able to thematize correctly the status of the mathematical determination of physical reality. 2. There exists a transcendental history of the synthetic a priori and of the construction of physical categories. 3. The transcendental approach allows to supersed Wittgenstein's and Carnap's antiplatonist thesis according to which pure mathematics are physically applicable only if they lack any descriptive, cognitive or objective, content and reduce to mere prescriptive and normative devices. In fact, pure mathematics are prescriptive-normative in physics because: (i) the categories of physical objectivity are prescriptive-normative, and (ii) their categorial content is mathematically “constructed” through a Transcendental Aesthetics. Only a transcendental approach make compatible, in the one hand, a grammatical conventionalism of Wittgensteinian or Carnapian type and, on the other hand, a platonist realism of Gödelian type. Mathematics are not a grammar of the world but a mathematical hermeneutics of the intuitive forms and of the categorial grammar of the world.

  14. Teaching Modern Physics--Misconceptions of the Photon That Can Damage Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, D. G. C.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is how modern physics is usually approached via the photoelectric effect and how this can lead to a physically wrong picture of light. The importance of using the quantum theory developed after 1920 to explain the properties of light is discussed. (KR)

  15. Thoughts of Modern Women in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsbury, Liz; Heaney, Libby; Hodges, Vicki; Harkness, Laura; Russell, Laura

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the Women in Physics Group of the Institute of Physics initiated the Very Early Career Woman Physicist of the Year Award. The award seeks to recognise the outstanding achievements of women physicists who are embarking on a career in physics and to promote the career opportunities open to people with physics qualifications. The prize is…

  16. Percolation Theory and Modern Hydraulic Fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, J. Q.; Turcotte, D. L.; Rundle, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    During the past few years, we have been developing a percolation model for fracking. This model provides a powerful tool for understanding the growth and properties of the complex fracture networks generated during a modern high volume hydraulic fracture stimulations of tight shale reservoirs. The model can also be used to understand the interaction between the growing fracture network and natural reservoir features such as joint sets and faults. Additionally, the model produces a power-law distribution of bursts which can easily be compared to observed microseismicity.

  17. The multivariable Alexander polynomial and modern knot theory

    SciTech Connect

    Saleur, H. . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-06-01

    This paper is a summary of several recent works (by the author and collaborators) that study the Conway-Alexander link invariant in the light of quantum groups and topological quantum field theories. Their purpose is to understand connections between modern knot theory and more classical topological concepts.

  18. Geometric perturbation theory and plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Omohundro, S.M.

    1985-04-04

    Modern differential geometric techniques are used to unify the physical asymptotics underlying mechanics, wave theory and statistical mechanics. The approach gives new insights into the structure of physical theories and is suited to the needs of modern large-scale computer simulation and symbol manipulation systems. A coordinate-free formulation of non-singular perturbation theory is given, from which a new Hamiltonian perturbation structure is derived and related to the unperturbed structure. The theory of perturbations in the presence of symmetry is developed, and the method of averaging is related to reduction by a circle group action. The pseudo-forces and magnetic Poisson bracket terms due to reduction are given a natural asymptotic interpretation. Similar terms due to changing reference frames are related to the method of variation of parameters, which is also given a Hamiltonian formulation. These methods are used to answer a question about nearly periodic systems. The answer leads to a new secular perturbation theory that contains no ad hoc elements. Eikonal wave theory is given a Hamiltonian formulation that generalizes Whitham's Lagrangian approach. The evolution of wave action density on ray phase space is given a Hamiltonian structure using a Lie-Poisson bracket. The relationship between dissipative and Hamiltonian systems is discussed. A new type of attractor is defined which attracts both forward and backward in time and is shown to occur in infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems with dissipative behavior. The theory of Smale horseshoes is applied to gyromotion in the neighborhood of a magnetic field reversal and the phenomenon of reinsertion in area-preserving horseshoes is introduced. The central limit theorem is proved by renormalization group techniques. A natural symplectic structure for thermodynamics is shown to arise asymptotically from the maximum entropy formalism.

  19. Resilience: the viewpoint of modern thermodynamics and information theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzorana, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Understanding, qualifying and quantifying resilience as the system's effective performance and reserve capacity is an essential need for implementing effective and efficient risk mitigation strategies; in particular if possible synergies between different mitigation alternatives, such as active and passive measures, should be achieved. Relevant progress has recently been made in explaining the phenomenon of adaptation from the standpoint of physics, thereby delineating the difference is in terms of physical properties between something that is well-adapted to its surrounding environment, and something that is not (England, 2013). In this context the specific role of the second law of thermodynamics could be clarified (Schneider and Kay, 1994) and the added value of information theory could be illustrated (Ulanowicz, 2009). According to these findings Ecosystems resilience in response to a disturbance is a balancing act between system's effective performance and its reserve capacity. By extending this string of argumentation, the universe of discourse encompassing the concept of resilience of socio-ecologic systems impacted by natural hazard processes, is enriched by relevant implications derived from fundamental notions of modern thermodynamics and information theory. Metrics, meant to gauge ecosystems robustness in terms of the tradeoff allotment between systems effective performance and its beneficial reserve capacities developed by Ulanowicz (2009), are reviewed and their transferability to the natural hazard risk research domain is thoroughly discussed. The derived knowledge can be explored to identify priorities for action towards an increased institutional resilience. References: England, J. L. 2013. Statistical Physics of self-replication." J. Chem. Phys., 139, 121923. Schneider, E.D., Kay, J.J. 1994. Life as a manifestation of the second law of thermodynamics. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, Vol 19, No.6-8. Ulanowicz, R.E. 2009. Increasing entropy

  20. Roles of Magnetic Reconnection and Developments of Modern Theory^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, B.

    2007-11-01

    The role of reconnection was recognized in Solar and Space Physics and auroral substorms were suggested to originate in the night-side of the Earth's magnetosphere as a result collisionless reconnectionootnotetextB. Coppi, Nature 205, 998 (1965). well before the kind of modern theory employed for this became applied to laboratory plasmas. Experiments have reached low collisionality regimes where, like in space plasmas, the features of the electron distribution and in particular of the electron temperature gradient become important and the factors contributing to the electron thermal energy balance equation (transverse thermal and longitudinal diffusivities, or electron Landau dampingootnotetextB. Coppi, J.W.-K. Mark, L. Sugiyama, G. Bertin, Phys. Rev. Letters 42, 1058 (1978) and J. Drake, et al., Phys. Fluids 26, 2509 (1983). play a key role. For this an asymptotic theory of modes producing macroscopic islands has been developed involving 3 regions, the innermost one related to finite resistivity and the intermediate one to the finite ratio of the to thermal conductivitiesootnotetextB. Coppi, C. Crabtree, and V. Roytershteyn contribution to Paper TH/R2-19, I.A.E.A. Conference 2006.,^4. A background of excited micro-reconnecting modes, driven by the electron temperature gradient, is considered to make this ratio significantootnotetextB. Coppi, in``Collective Phenomena in Macroscopic Systems'' Eds. G. Bertin et al. (World Scientific, 2007) MIT-LNS Report 06/11(2006). ^*Supported in part by the US D.O.E.

  1. Teaching and Understanding of Quantum Interpretations in Modern Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2010-01-01

    Just as expert physicists vary in their personal stances on interpretation in quantum mechanics, instructors vary on whether and how to teach interpretations of quantum phenomena in introductory modern physics courses. In this paper, we document variations in instructional approaches with respect to interpretation in two similar modern physics…

  2. Field theory and particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Eboli, O.J.P.; Gomes, M.; Santoro, A.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the topics covered during the fifth Jorge Andre Swieca Summer School. The first part of the book collects the material devoted to quantum field theory. There were four courses on methods in Field Theory; H. O. Girotti lectured on constrained dynamics, R. Jackiw on the Schrodinger representation in Field Theory, S.-Y. Pi on the application of this representation to quantum fields in a Robertson-Walker spacetime, and L. Vinet on Berry Connections. There were three courses on Conformal Field Theory: I. Todorov focused on the problem of construction and classification of conformal field theories. Lattice models, two-dimensional S matrices and conformal field theory were looked from the unifying perspective of the Yang-Baxter algebras in the lectures given by M. Karowski. Parasupersymmetric quantum mechanics was discussed in the lectures by L. Vinet. Besides those courses, there was an introduction to string field theory given by G. Horowitz. There were also three seminars: F. Schaposnik reported on recent applications of topological methods in field theory, P. Gerbert gave a seminar on three dimensional gravity and V. Kurak talked on two dimensional parafermionic models. The second part of this proceedings is devoted to phenomenology. There were three courses on Particle Physics: Dan Green lectured on collider physics, E. Predrazzi on strong interactions and G. Cohen-Tanoudji on the use of strings in strong interactions.

  3. Modern Physics Buildings, Design and Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, R. Ronald; Rice, William Maxwell

    In order to serve college administrators, architects and physics educators, a collection was made of material reflecting the state-of-the-art of physics building design. This body of material, including drawings, diagrams, and photographs, resulted largely from extensive interviews with about 50 institutions who had recently built such facilities.…

  4. Evaluating College Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Modern Physics: Test of Understanding on Concepts of Modern Physics (TUCO-MP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akarsu, Bayram

    2011-01-01

    In present paper, we propose a new diagnostic test to measure students' conceptual knowledge of principles of modern physics topics. Over few decades since born of physics education research (PER), many diagnostic instruments that measure students' conceptual understanding of various topics in physics, the earliest tests developed in PER are Force…

  5. Modern Particle Physics Event Generation with WHIZARD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, J.; Bach, F.; Chokoufé, B.; Kilian, W.; Ohl, T.; Sekulla, M.; Weiss, C.

    2015-05-01

    We describe the multi-purpose Monte-Carlo event generator WHIZARD for the simulation of high-energy particle physics experiments. Besides the presentation of the general features of the program like SM physics, BSM physics, and QCD effects, special emphasis will be given to the support of the most accurate simulation of the collider environments at hadron colliders and especially at future linear lepton colliders. On the more technical side, the very recent code refactoring towards a completely object-oriented software package to improve maintainability, flexibility and code development will be discussed. Finally, we present ongoing work and future plans regarding higher-order corrections, more general model support including the setup to search for new physics in vector boson scattering at the LHC, as well as several lines of performance improvements.

  6. Modern theory and applications of photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, W.E.; Herrera-Gomez, A.

    1993-08-01

    Over the last thirty years, the Spicer Three-Step model has provided a very useful description of the process of photoemission for both fundamental and practical applications. By treating photoemission in terms of three successive steps-optical absorption, electron transport, and escape across the surface this theory allows photoemission to be related to parameters of the emitter, such as the optical absorption coefficient, electron scattering mechanisms, and the height of the potential barrier at the surface. Using simple equations and established parameters, the Three-Step model predicts the performance of cathodes and provides detailed understanding of the unexpected phenomena that appear when photocathodes are pushed into new practical domains. As an example, time responses are estimated for existing cathodes, and are found to cover a range of six orders of magnitude. Further, the time response is found to be directly related to the sensitivity (i.e., quantum efficiency) of the cathode. The quantum yield systematically decreases with the time response. Thus, metals are predicted to have the shortest time response (as little as 10{sup {minus}15} sec) and the smallest quantum efficiency (as little as 10{sup {minus}4} electrons per photon), whereas the negative affinity photocathodes have high yield (as high as 0.6 electrons per photon) but long response times (as long as 10{sup {minus}9} sec). Other applications of the Three-Step model are discussed.

  7. O Quirks and Quarks: 101 Metaphors of Modern Physics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Glenn Edward

    This dissertation examines the need for metaphoric language in modern physics, and how such metaphors have proven important vehicles of communication. Over one hundred metaphors appropriated from ordinary language for use in physics form a glossary in this dissertation. Each entry attempts to explain the rudiments of the physics concept, and whenever possible, provides etymological information on the metaphor, initially and as it is used in physics.

  8. Modern theory of van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, John

    2014-03-01

    van der Waals (vdW, dispersion) interactions are important in diverse areas such as colloid, surface and nano science, cohesion of molecular crystals, and biomolecular science. They also provide competition in experiments to discover the fifth fundamental force.While vdW interactions have been understood in principle for a century, their quantitative first-principles prediction and modelling down to chemical contact separations have proven stubbornly difficult because the quantal many-electron problem is involved. After some brief historical material, the current state of the art will be discussed with particular reference to several approaches: pairwise additive, perturbative quantum chemical, vdW-DF, Lifshitz-like scattering, RPA-like, Adiabatic Connection Fluctuation Dissipation / Time Dependent DFT based etc.. A potentially useful classification will be introduced to aid in understanding the physical causes of departures from pairwise additivity, that is from the usual sum of C6R-6 contributions. These departures result in non-standard power law decays of nanostructure vdW interactions as a function of separation D, as well as surprising dependences of the attraction on the number, N, of atoms within each vdW-interacting fragment. Some further recent results on non-additivity will also be presented. Work supported by an Australian Research Council Discovery Grant.

  9. Feyerabend's 'The concept of intelligibility in modern physics' (1948).

    PubMed

    Kuby, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    This essay introduces the transcription and translation of Paul Feyerabend's Der Begriff der Verständlichkeit in der modernen Physik [The concept of intelligibility in modern physics] (1948), which is an early essay written by Paul Feyerabend in 1948 on the topic of intelligibility (Verständlichkeit) and visualizability (Anschaulichkeit) of physical theories. The existence of such essay was likely. It is listed in his bibliography as his first publication. Yet the content of the essay was unknown, as no original or copy is extant in Feyerabend's Nachlass and no known published version was available to the community-until now. The essay has both historical and philosophical interest: it is, as far as our current knowledge goes, Feyerabend's earliest extant publication. It documents Feyerabend's philosophical interest as a physicist-to-be, in what he himself called his "positivist" phase; and it gives a rare if fragmentary insight into the early discussions of the 'Third Vienna Circle' and, more generally, the philosophical culture of discussion in Vienna. PMID:27269262

  10. Physics and Modern Warfare: The Awkward Silence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woollett, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the great dependence of the present arms race on a healthy physics enterprise and the pervasive connections between pure and applied science and military needs. This discussion is intended to orient college students about some problems directly related to progress made in science. (HM)

  11. A beginner's guide to the modern theory of polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Spaldin, Nicola A.

    2012-11-15

    The so-called Modern Theory of Polarization, which rigorously defines the spontaneous polarization of a periodic solid and provides a route for its computation in electronic structure codes through the Berry phase, is introduced in a simple qualitative discussion. - Graphical abstract: Cartoon of Wannier functions in a covalent solid shifting to contribute to the ferroelectric polarization.

  12. A Test of the Formal and Modern Theories of Matching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallery, Jesse; Soto, Paul L.; McDowell, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    The present study tested a formal, or purely mathematical, theory of matching, and a modern account derived by McDowell (1986) that incorporates deviations from strict matching--bias and sensitivity. Six humans pressed a lever for monetary reinforcers on five concurrent variable interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement. All schedules were…

  13. Use of modern control theory in military command and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Timothy E.

    2001-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of modern control theoretic approaches in military command and control. The military enterprise is a highly dynamic and nonlinear environment. The desire on the part of military commanders to operate at faster operational tempos while still maintaining a stable and robust system, naturally leads to the consideration of a control theoretic approach to providing decision aids. I will present a brief history of the science of command and control of military forces and discuss how modern control theory might be applied to air operations.

  14. An integration of integrated information theory with fundamental physics

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Adam B.

    2014-01-01

    To truly eliminate Cartesian ghosts from the science of consciousness, we must describe consciousness as an aspect of the physical. Integrated Information Theory states that consciousness arises from intrinsic information generated by dynamical systems; however existing formulations of this theory are not applicable to standard models of fundamental physical entities. Modern physics has shown that fields are fundamental entities, and in particular that the electromagnetic field is fundamental. Here I hypothesize that consciousness arises from information intrinsic to fundamental fields. This hypothesis unites fundamental physics with what we know empirically about the neuroscience underlying consciousness, and it bypasses the need to consider quantum effects. PMID:24550877

  15. Effective field theory: A modern approach to anomalous couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Degrande, Céline; Centre for Particle Physics and Phenomenology , Université Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve ; Greiner, Nicolas; Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München ; Kilian, Wolfgang; University of Siegen, Fachbereich Physik, D-57068 Siegen ; Mattelaer, Olivier; Mebane, Harrison; Stelzer, Tim; Willenbrock, Scott; Zhang, Cen; Centre for Particle Physics and Phenomenology , Université Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve

    2013-08-15

    We advocate an effective field theory approach to anomalous couplings. The effective field theory approach is the natural way to extend the standard model such that the gauge symmetries are respected. It is general enough to capture any physics beyond the standard model, yet also provides guidance as to the most likely place to see the effects of new physics. The effective field theory approach also clarifies that one need not be concerned with the violation of unitarity in scattering processes at high energy. We apply these ideas to pair production of electroweak vector bosons. -- Highlights: •We discuss the advantages of effective field theories compared to anomalous couplings. •We show that one need not be concerned with unitarity violation at high energy. •We discuss the application of effective field theory to weak boson physics.

  16. Project Management Using Modern Guidance, Navigation and Control Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry

    2010-01-01

    The idea of control theory and its application to project management is not new, however literature on the topic and real-world applications is not as readily available and comprehensive in how all the principals of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) apply. This paper will address how the fundamental principals of modern GN&C Theory have been applied to NASA's Constellation Space Suit project and the results in the ability to manage the project within cost, schedule and budget. A s with physical systems, projects can be modeled and managed with the same guiding principles of GN&C as if it were a complex vehicle, system or software with time-varying processes, at times non-linear responses, multiple data inputs of varying accuracy and a range of operating points. With such systems the classic approach could be applied to small and well-defined projects; however with larger, multi-year projects involving multiple organizational structures, external influences and a multitude of diverse resources, then modern control theory is required to model and control the project. The fundamental principals of G N&C stated that a system is comprised of these basic core concepts: State, Behavior, Control system, Navigation system, Guidance and Planning Logic, Feedback systems. The state of a system is a definition of the aspects of the dynamics of the system that can change, such as position, velocity, acceleration, coordinate-based attitude, temperature, etc. The behavior of the system is more of what changes are possible rather than what can change, which is captured in the state of the system. The behavior of a system is captured in the system modeling and if properly done, will aid in accurate system performance prediction in the future. The Control system understands the state and behavior of the system and feedback systems to adjust the control inputs into the system. The Navigation system takes the multiple data inputs and based upon a priori knowledge of the input

  17. Mechanical and physical properties of modern boron fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicarlo, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of accurate measurements of the modern boron fiber's Young's modulus, flexural modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio are reported. Physical property data concerning fiber density, thermal expansion, and resistance obtained during the course of the mechanical studies are also given.

  18. Physics Buildings Today. A Supplement to Modern Physics Buildings: Design and Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Physics, New York, NY.

    This supplement to "Modern Physics Buildings: Design and Function" is intended as an aid to physics department faculties, administrators, and architects responsible for designing new science buildings. It provides descriptions of 26 new physics buildings and science buildings with physics facilities. Presented are (1) floor plans, (2) photographs,…

  19. The Notion of Substance in Physical Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanzandt, Joseph David

    The thesis explores the philosophical consequences of adopting the view that the principle of non-contradiction, the principle of sufficient reason, and the monistic notion of substance are more closely linked than most modern and contemporary philosophers have supposed. This thesis is then applied to show the connections between the metaphysical views of Spinoza and the view of nature of Albert Einstein. The first chapter is an historical overview of the principles of sufficient reason and non-contradiction, and the notion of substance, followed by a presentation of the reasons that led the author to conclude that the usual treatment of these concepts requires revision. These reasons are based upon substantial cause theory, developed in the 1970s by Richard Cole. The second and third chapters are an interpretation of Book 1 of Spinoza's Ethics from the viewpoint presented in the first chapter. The implicit role of the principles of non-contradiction and sufficient reason in Spinoza's argument is drawn out through an examination of his definitions, axioms and propositions. The third and fourth chapters are an interpretation and criticism of Immanuel Kant. It is first shown that the common dismissal of Kant's philosophy based upon the discovery of non-Euclidean geometries and the denial of strict causality among some physical events is not well founded; ways in which Kant's framework can accommodate these problems are proposed. It is then argued that Kant's criticism of traditional metaphysics is not conclusive. In particular, Kant's arguments against the possibility of an ontological argument are examined and criticisms of his arguments are presented. The sixth and seventh chapters contain an historical account of the development of physics in the 20th century to illustrate the strong tendency toward unification found in science. It is suggested that this natural tendency to seek ever higher levels of unification is evidence that the principle of sufficient reason

  20. The Architects of Modern Physics & Sigma Pi Sigma Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Gary

    2004-10-01

    While the tools of modern physics were being honed throughout the last century, physicist Marsh W. White (no relation) served as the installation officer for over 200 chapters of the physics honor society, Sigma Pi Sigma. Years earlier, though, his 1926 thesis ``The Energy of High Velocity Electrons'' served as a direct test of one of Einstein's most radical 1905 ideas. The ``red books'' of Sigma Pi Sigma, into which all inductees pen their names, include some of the most talented quantum mechanics of the 20th century, such as Edward Teller and George Gamow. In this talk, I will review these and other links between Sigma Pi Sigma and some of the architects of modern physics.

  1. Physics Handbook: Activities for a Modern Program in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This handbook contains information that has been used in the high school laboratory by many teachers. Most of the experiments can be adapted for use as individual laboratory exercises or as teacher-student demonstrations. The resource material in this handbook should be helpful to all physics teachers as they continue to adapt their courses to…

  2. Project Management Using Modern Guidance, Navigation and Control Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.

    2011-01-01

    Implementing guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) theory principles and applying them to the human element of project management and control is not a new concept. As both the literature on the subject and the real-world applications are neither readily available nor comprehensive with regard to how such principles might be applied, this paper has been written to educate the project manager on the "laws of physics" of his or her project (not to teach a GN&C engineer how to become a project manager) and to provide an intuitive, mathematical explanation as to the control and behavior of projects. This paper will also address how the fundamental principles of modern GN&C were applied to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) space suit project, ensuring the project was managed within cost, schedule, and budget. A project that is akin to a physical system can be modeled and managed using the same over arching principles of GN&C that would be used if that project were a complex vehicle, a complex system(s), or complex software with time-varying processes (at times nonlinear) containing multiple data inputs of varying accuracy and a range of operating points. The classic GN&C theory approach could thus be applied to small, well-defined projects; yet when working with larger, multiyear projects necessitating multiple organizational structures, numerous external influences, and a multitude of diverse resources, modern GN&C principles are required to model and manage the project. The fundamental principles of a GN&C system incorporate these basic concepts: State, Behavior, Feedback Control, Navigation, Guidance and Planning Logic systems. The State of a system defines the aspects of the system that can change over time; e.g., position, velocity, acceleration, coordinate-based attitude, and temperature, etc. The Behavior of the system focuses more on what changes are possible within the system; this is denoted in the state

  3. Modern Administrative Practices in Physical Education and Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resick, Matthew C.; And Others

    This three-part book focuses upon some recent changes in administrative theory and their implication for programs of physical education and athletics. Part one includes chapters which are general in nature and which provide theoretical concepts germane to both physical education and athletics. Part two includes chapters which deal specifically…

  4. The modern theory of biological evolution: an expanded synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J

    2004-06-01

    In 1858, two naturalists, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, independently proposed natural selection as the basic mechanism responsible for the origin of new phenotypic variants and, ultimately, new species. A large body of evidence for this hypothesis was published in Darwin's Origin of Species one year later, the appearance of which provoked other leading scientists like August Weismann to adopt and amplify Darwin's perspective. Weismann's neo-Darwinian theory of evolution was further elaborated, most notably in a series of books by Theodosius Dobzhansky, Ernst Mayr, Julian Huxley and others. In this article we first summarize the history of life on Earth and provide recent evidence demonstrating that Darwin's dilemma (the apparent missing Precambrian record of life) has been resolved. Next, the historical development and structure of the "modern synthesis" is described within the context of the following topics: paleobiology and rates of evolution, mass extinctions and species selection, macroevolution and punctuated equilibrium, sexual reproduction and recombination, sexual selection and altruism, endosymbiosis and eukaryotic cell evolution, evolutionary developmental biology, phenotypic plasticity, epigenetic inheritance and molecular evolution, experimental bacterial evolution, and computer simulations (in silico evolution of digital organisms). In addition, we discuss the expansion of the modern synthesis, embracing all branches of scientific disciplines. It is concluded that the basic tenets of the synthetic theory have survived, but in modified form. These sub-theories require continued elaboration, particularly in light of molecular biology, to answer open-ended questions concerning the mechanisms of evolution in all five kingdoms of life. PMID:15241603

  5. The modern theory of biological evolution: an expanded synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J.

    In 1858, two naturalists, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, independently proposed natural selection as the basic mechanism responsible for the origin of new phenotypic variants and, ultimately, new species. A large body of evidence for this hypothesis was published in Darwin's Origin of Species one year later, the appearance of which provoked other leading scientists like August Weismann to adopt and amplify Darwin's perspective. Weismann's neo-Darwinian theory of evolution was further elaborated, most notably in a series of books by Theodosius Dobzhansky, Ernst Mayr, Julian Huxley and others. In this article we first summarize the history of life on Earth and provide recent evidence demonstrating that Darwin's dilemma (the apparent missing Precambrian record of life) has been resolved. Next, the historical development and structure of the ``modern synthesis'' is described within the context of the following topics: paleobiology and rates of evolution, mass extinctions and species selection, macroevolution and punctuated equilibrium, sexual reproduction and recombination, sexual selection and altruism, endosymbiosis and eukaryotic cell evolution, evolutionary developmental biology, phenotypic plasticity, epigenetic inheritance and molecular evolution, experimental bacterial evolution, and computer simulations (in silico evolution of digital organisms). In addition, we discuss the expansion of the modern synthesis, embracing all branches of scientific disciplines. It is concluded that the basic tenets of the synthetic theory have survived, but in modified form. These sub-theories require continued elaboration, particularly in light of molecular biology, to answer open-ended questions concerning the mechanisms of evolution in all five kingdoms of life.

  6. Modern Quantum Field Theory II - Proceeeings of the International Colloquium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S. R.; Mandal, G.; Mukhi, S.; Wadia, S. R.

    1995-08-01

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Foreword * 1. Black Holes and Quantum Gravity * Quantum Black Holes and the Problem of Time * Black Hole Entropy and the Semiclassical Approximation * Entropy and Information Loss in Two Dimensions * Strings on a Cone and Black Hole Entropy (Abstract) * Boundary Dynamics, Black Holes and Spacetime Fluctuations in Dilation Gravity (Abstract) * Pair Creation of Black Holes (Abstract) * A Brief View of 2-Dim. String Theory and Black Holes (Abstract) * 2. String Theory * Non-Abelian Duality in WZW Models * Operators and Correlation Functions in c ≤ 1 String Theory * New Symmetries in String Theory * A Look at the Discretized Superstring Using Random Matrices * The Nested BRST Structure of Wn-Symmetries * Landau-Ginzburg Model for a Critical Topological String (Abstract) * On the Geometry of Wn Gravity (Abstract) * O(d, d) Tranformations, Marginal Deformations and the Coset Construction in WZNW Models (Abstract) * Nonperturbative Effects and Multicritical Behaviour of c = 1 Matrix Model (Abstract) * Singular Limits and String Solutions (Abstract) * BV Algebra on the Moduli Spaces of Riemann Surfaces and String Field Theory (Abstract) * 3. Condensed Matter and Statistical Mechanics * Stochastic Dynamics in a Deposition-Evaporation Model on a Line * Models with Inverse-Square Interactions: Conjectured Dynamical Correlation Functions of the Calogero-Sutherland Model at Rational Couplings * Turbulence and Generic Scale Invariance * Singular Perturbation Approach to Phase Ordering Dynamics * Kinetics of Diffusion-Controlled and Ballistically-Controlled Reactions * Field Theory of a Frustrated Heisenberg Spin Chain * FQHE Physics in Relativistic Field Theories * Importance of Initial Conditions in Determining the Dynamical Class of Cellular Automata (Abstract) * Do Hard-Core Bosons Exhibit Quantum Hall Effect? (Abstract) * Hysteresis in Ferromagnets * 4. Fundamental Aspects of Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory

  7. Scintillation counters in modern high-energy physics experiments (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharzheev, Yu. N.

    2015-07-01

    Scintillation counters (SCs) based on organic plastic scintillators (OPSs) are widely used in modern high-energy physics (HEP) experiments. A comprehensive review is given to technologies for production of OPS strips and tiles (extrusion, injection molding, etc.), optical and physical characteristics of OPSs, and methods of light collection based on the use of wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibers coupled to multipixel vacuum and silicon PMs. Examples are given of the use of SCs in modern experiments involved in the search for quarks and new particles, including the Higgs boson (D0, CDF, ATLAS, CMS), new states of matter (ALICE), CP violation (LHCb, KLOE), neutrino oscillations (MINOS, OPERA), and cosmic particles in a wide mass and energy interval (AMS-02). Scintillation counters hold great promise for future HEP experiments (at the ILC, NICA, FAIR) due to properties of a high segmentation, WLS fiber light collection, and multipixel silicon PMT readout.

  8. A Modern Introduction to the Mathematical Theory of Water Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Robin Stanley

    1997-10-01

    For over a hundred years, the theory of water waves has been a source of intriguing and often difficult mathematical problems. Virtually every classical mathematical technique appears somewhere within its confines. Beginning with the introduction of the appropriate equations of fluid mechanics, the opening chapters of this text consider the classical problems in linear and nonlinear water-wave theory. This sets the stage for a study of more modern aspects, problems that give rise to soliton-type equations. The book closes with an introduction to the effects of viscosity. All the mathematical developments are presented in the most straightforward manner, with worked examples and simple cases carefully explained. Exercises, further reading, and historical notes on some of the important characters in the field round off the book and make this an ideal text for a beginning graduate course on water waves.

  9. Theories and Management of Aging: Modern and Ayurveda Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Hema Sharma; Mitra, S. K.; Paramesh, Rangesh; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2011-01-01

    Aging is a complex phenomenon, a sum total of changes that occur in a living organism with the passage of time and lead to decreasing ability to survive stress, increasing functional impairment and growing probability of death. There are many theories of aging and skin remains the largest organ of the study. Skin aging is described as a consequence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The most common amongst visible signs of skin aging are wrinkles and there are various therapies including antiaging cosmeceuticals, sunscreens, chemical peeling, injectable agents, such as botox, fibrel, autologous fat grafting as also few surgical procedures have been used. Ayurveda, the Indian traditional medicine, describes aging with great details. This review provides modern and Ayurvedic perspectives on theories and management of aging. PMID:19233879

  10. Population theory and practice in China's four modernizations.

    PubMed

    Wang, N; Yang, K

    1983-01-01

    This report from the Second National Symposium on Population Theory and Science discusses seven issues facing China's 4 modernization goals. 1) Population reproduction corresponding to the reproduction of material means dominates the population growth pattern in a socialist society. Symposium delegates agree that human and material reproduction, as described by Friedrich Engels, must be better understood and managed since China's goals depend upon promoting material production and controlling population growth. 2) Population development relates most closely to economic development so the production development must be a prerequisite. In China however, population control has significant bearing on modernization. 3) China's population problems differ from those of problems in capitalist societies, since they can be solved, not through reforms, but through planning and self-adjustment between the reproduction and material production ratio. Population quality must also be improved, and manpower resources fully used. 4) Population policy should also address such issues as geographical distribution and migration. Family planning should shift to the "1 child per couple" practice to accomplish zero growth by the year 2000. The attendees strongly endorse family planning legislation and taxation on extra-quota children. 5) Population projections and analyses show that "1 child per couple" policy is essential to achieve the 4 modernization goals. Population planning requires a nationwide general census; computers used within a national population data network will provide statistics for policy making. 6) Delegates agree that much reseach is needed done on urban population structure, standards for defining urban population and city scope, and on standards for cities and towns. Population control policy for national minorities should be practiced in densely populated areas and in areas where national minorities are scattered among major nationalities, and China should employ

  11. Effective field theory in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Martin J. Savage

    2000-12-12

    I review recent developments in the application of effective field theory to nuclear physics. Emphasis is placed on precision two-body calculations and efforts to formulate the nuclear shell model in terms of an effective field theory.

  12. The concept of intelligibility in modern physics (1948).

    PubMed

    Feyerabend, Paul K

    2016-06-01

    This is an English translation of Paul Feyerabend's earliest extant essay "Der Begriff der Verständlichkeit in der modernen Physik" (1948). In it, Feyerabend defends positivism as a progressive framework for scientific research in certain stages of scientific development. He argues that in physics visualizability (Anschaulichkeit) and intelligibility (Verständlichkeit) are time-conditioned concepts: what is deemed visualizable in the development of physical theories is relative to a specific historical context and changes over time. He concludes that from time to time the abandonment of visualizability is crucial for progress in physics, as it is conducive to major theory change, illustrating the point on the basis of advances in atomic theory. PMID:27269263

  13. Jorge Luis Borges and the New Physics: the Literature of Modern Science and the Science of Modern Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, Mark Robert

    1992-01-01

    By examining the works of the Argentine writer, Jorge Luis Borges, and the parallels it has with modern physics, literature and science converge in their quest for truth regarding the structure and meaning of the universe. The classical perception of physics as a "hard" science--that of quantitative, rational thought which was established during the Newtonian era--has been replaced by the "new physics," which integrates the so-called "soft" elements into its paradigm. It presents us with a universe based not exclusively on a series of particle-like interactions, or a "billiard-ball" hypothesis where discrete objects have a measurable position and velocity in absolute space and time, but rather on a combination of these mechanistic properties and those that make up the non-physical side of nature such as intuition, consciousness, and emotion. According to physicists like James Jeans science has been "humanized" to the extent that the universe as a "great machine" has been converted into a "great thought.". In nearly all his collections of essays and short stories, Borges complements the new physics by producing a literature that can be described as "scientized." The abstract, metaphysical implications and concerns of the new world-view, such as space, time, language, consciousness, free will, determinism, etc., appear repeatedly throughout Borges' texts, and are treated in terms that are remarkably similar to those expressed in the scientific texts whose authors include Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schrodinger. As a final comparison, Borges and post-modern physicists address the question of the individual's ability to ever comprehend the universe. They share an attitude of incredulity toward all models and theories of reality simply because they are based on partial information, and therefore seen only as conjectures.

  14. Medieval and early modern theories of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, R

    1979-04-01

    Historians of medieval and early modern psychiatry have utilized limited source materials in their research. They have focused on printed works, particularly formal treatises by celebrated authors, and neglected manuscript collections. The resulting histories depict early European psychiatric thought as dominated by demonology. Examination of the archives of an early English legal incompetency jurisdiction flatly contradicts this picture. Starting in the 13th century, the English government conducted mental status examinations of psychiatrically disabled individuals, using commonsense, naturalistic criteria of impairment; private, supervised guardians were appointed for such persons. Furthermore, etiological theories entertained by royal officials and laymen relied on physiological and psychological notions of psychiatric illness. These findings raise serious questions about conventional accounts of this period and underline the need for more research using original manuscripts. PMID:371576

  15. Using the Context of Modern Experimental Physics in the Undergraduate Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onihale, Sharif; Rangel, Melissa; Garcia, Edmundo; Sabella, Mel

    2010-02-01

    The goal of this project is to improve student understanding of modern physics in the undergraduate curriculum by building stronger content knowledge, reasoning, and laboratory skills. This project is centered on the development of lab modules that help students move beyond theory and develop an appreciation of modern experimental physics. These modules will allow students to experimentally determine the existence of subatomic particles using detectors made of scintillating plastic that produce light as particles cross the devices. These instructional modules will permeate throughout the undergraduate curriculum forming a coherent conceptual thread. As students progress through the materials the level of content knowledge increases as the level of scaffolding decreases. As students complete the conceptual thread, they will become well versed in using NEM boxes and LabView. In this talk we introduce the project, the experimental techniques, and how education research will be used to guide the development of instructional materials. )

  16. PREFACE: 2nd International Symposium on the Modern Physics of Compact Stars and Relativistic Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edvard Chubaryan, Professor; Aram Saharian, Professor; Armen Sedrakian, Professor

    2014-03-01

    The international conference ''The Modern Physics of Compact Stars and Relativistic Gravity'' took place in Yerevan, Armenia, from 18-21 September 2013. This was the second in a series of conferences which aim to bring together people working in astrophysics of compact stars, physics of dense matter, gravitation and cosmology, observations of pulsars and binary neutron stars and related fields. The conference was held on the occasion of 100th birthday of the founder of the Theoretical Physics Chair at the Department of Physics of Yerevan State University and prominent Armenian scientist Academician Gurgen S Sahakyan. The field of compact stars has seen extraordinary development since the discovery of pulsars in 1967. Even before this discovery, pioneering work of a number of theoretical groups had laid the foundation for this development. A pioneer of this effort was Professor G S Sahakyan who, together with Professor Victor Ambartsumyan and a group of young scientists, started in the early sixties their fundamental work on the properties of superdense matter and on the relativistic structure of compact stellar objects. This conference explored the vast diversity of the manifestations of compact stars, including the modern aspects of the equation of state of superdense matter, its magnetic and thermal properties, rotational dynamics, superfluidity and superconductivity, phase transition from hadronic to quark matter, etc. The articles on these subjects collected in this volume are evidence of liveliness of the field and of the continuous feedback between theory and the experiment. A part of this volume is devoted to the cosmology and the theories of gravity — the subfields of astrophysics that are of fundamental importance to our understanding of the universe. The reader will find here articles touching on the most diverse aspects of these fields such as modern problems in Einstein's classical theory of gravity and its alternatives, string theory motivated

  17. Electrical polarization and orbital magnetization: the modern theories.

    PubMed

    Resta, Raffaele

    2010-03-31

    Macroscopic polarization P and magnetization M are the most fundamental concepts in any phenomenological description of condensed media. They are intensive vector quantities that intuitively carry the meaning of dipole per unit volume. But for many years both P and the orbital term in M evaded even a precise microscopic definition, and severely challenged quantum-mechanical calculations. If one reasons in terms of a finite sample, the electric (magnetic) dipole is affected in an extensive way by charges (currents) at the sample boundary, due to the presence of the unbounded position operator in the dipole definitions. Therefore P and the orbital term in M--phenomenologically known as bulk properties--apparently behave as surface properties; only spin magnetization is problemless. The field has undergone a genuine revolution since the early 1990s. Contrary to a widespread incorrect belief, P has nothing to do with the periodic charge distribution of the polarized crystal: the former is essentially a property of the phase of the electronic wavefunction, while the latter is a property of its modulus. Analogously, the orbital term in M has nothing to do with the periodic current distribution in the magnetized crystal. The modern theory of polarization, based on a Berry phase, started in the early 1990s and is now implemented in most first-principle electronic structure codes. The analogous theory for orbital magnetization started in 2005 and is partly work in progress. In the electrical case, calculations have concerned various phenomena (ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, and lattice dynamics) in several materials, and are in spectacular agreement with experiments; they have provided thorough understanding of the behaviour of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials. In the magnetic case the very first calculations are appearing at the time of writing (2010). Here I review both theories on a uniform ground in a density functional theory (DFT) framework, pointing out

  18. Modern Gravitational Lens Cosmology for Introductory Physics and Astronomy Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huwe, Paul; Field, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Recent and exciting discoveries in astronomy and cosmology have inspired many high school students to learn about these fields. A particularly fascinating consequence of general relativity at the forefront of modern cosmology research is gravitational lensing, the bending of light rays that pass near massive objects. Gravitational lensing enables high-precision mapping of dark matter distributions in galaxies and galaxy clusters, provides insight into large-scale cosmic structure of the universe, aids in the search for exo-planets, and may offer valuable insight toward understanding the evolution of dark energy. In this article we describe a gravitational lensing lab and associated lecture/discussion material that was highly successful, according to student feedback. The gravitational lens unit was developed as part of a two-week summer enrichment class for junior and senior high school students. With minor modifications, this lab can be used within a traditional classroom looking to incorporate topics of modern physics (such as in a unit on optics).

  19. Spinning the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Mindset: A Modern Physics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roughani, Bahram

    2010-04-01

    Topics in Modern Physics course from relativity to quantum mechanics were examined in the context of innovation as part of the recent Kettering University program on ``Entrepreneurship Across Curriculum-EAC.'' The main goals were (a) to introduce innovation and entrepreneurship without eliminating any topics from this course, (b) to use EAC as a vehicle for intentional education that produces graduates with innovative mindsets, (c) to enrich the students learning experience aligned with the desired educational outcomes, and (d) to highlight the impact of scientific innovation in the society, while encouraging students to re-think how entrepreneurship mindset could maximize their impact in the society through innovation. Ideas such as principles behind innovation and innovative ideas, disciplines of innovations, formation of innovation teams, and effective methods for analyzing innovative value propositions were introduced in this course. Most of the implementation were achieved through out of class activities, and communicated through in class presentations, papers or weekly laboratory reports.

  20. The Mechanism of Moxibustion: Ancient Theory and Modern Research

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xueyong

    2013-01-01

    The moxibustion has a dual effect of tonification and purgation in TCM theories, which are based on two aspects: the actions of the meridian system and the roles of moxa and fire. Modern research works of the moxibustion mechanism mainly relate to the thermal effects, radiation effects, and pharmacological actions of moxa and its combustion products. Experimental results showed that moxibustion thermal stimulation affects both shallow and deep tissues of the skin, and the warm-heat effects of moxibustion have a close relation to the warm receptors or/and the polymodal receptor. The burning moxa radiation spectrum ranges from 0.8 to 5.6 μm; peak is nearby 1.5 μm, lying within the near infrared portion. There is an amazing consistency in the infrared spectrums of three types of indirect moxibustion and the unified spectrum of acupoints; all have their peaks of radiation near 10 μm. Lots of ingredients had been identified from mugwort leaves and moxa smoke, which have a variety of biological activities; they were considered to participate in the comprehensive effects of moxibustion. Although lots of research works have been carried out and made some progress, there is still a great distance from fully understanding the mechanism of moxibustion. PMID:24159344

  1. Curriculum theory in physical education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewett, Ann E.

    1989-03-01

    Primary current concerns of curriculum theorists in sport and physical education relate to clarification of value orientations underlying curricular decision-making, selection and statement of curriculum goals, identification and organization of programme content, and the process of curriculum change. Disciplinary mastery is the most traditional value orientation and that which is most frequently found in practice. Curriculum theorists have identified four other value orientations for study: social reconstruction, self-actualization, learning process, and ecological validity. Health-related fitness and the development of motor skills have long been the primary goals of physical education. In recent years, however, curriculum specialists have begun to assign higher priorities to goals of personal integration and challenge, of social development and multicultural understanding. There is general agreement that human movement activities constitute the subject-matter of the sport and physical education curriculum. Differences exist, however, as to how learning activities should be selected for particular programmes. The current trend in seeking better understanding of content is toward studying the operational curriculum with particular attention to the historical and social contexts. An important contemporary focus is the need to translate short-term results into lifestyle changes. The curriculum in sports and physical education should be viewed as a multitude of possibilities.

  2. Modern Fysics Phallacies: The Best Way Not to Unify Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichler, James E.

    Too many physicists believe the `phallacy' that the quantum is more fundamental than relativity without any valid supporting evidence, so the earliest attempts to unify physics based on the continuity of relativity have been all but abandoned. This belief is probably due to the wealth of pro-quantum propaganda and general `phallacies in fysics' that were spread during the second quarter of the twentieth century, although serious `phallacies' exist throughout physics on both sides of the debate. Yet both approaches are basically flawed because both relativity and the quantum theory are incomplete and grossly misunderstood as they now stand. Had either side of the quantum versus relativity controversy sought common ground between the two worldviews, total unification would have been accomplished long ago. The point is, literally, that the discrete quantum, continuous relativity, basic physical geometry, theoretical mathematics and classical physics all share one common characteristic that has never been fully explored or explained - a paradoxical duality between a dimensionless point (discrete) and an extended length (continuity) in any dimension - and if the problem of unification is approached from an understanding of how this paradox relates to each paradigm, all of physics and indeed all of science could be unified under a single new theoretical paradigm.

  3. The Stability of Physical Theories Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, R. Vilela

    The following sections are included: * Introduction: Physical Models and Structural Stability * From Galilean to Relativistic Dynamics and From Classical to Quantum Mechanics * Stabilizing the Heisenberg-Poincaré algebra * Stability, Universality and Critical Phenomena * Appendix A: Structural Stability in Dynamical Systems Theory * Appendix B: Algebraic Deformation Theory: Basic Notions * References

  4. "simplest Molecule" Clarifies Modern Physics I. Cw Laser Space-Time Frame Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, T. C.; Harter, W. G.

    2014-06-01

    Molecular spectroscopy makes very precise applications of quantum theory including GPS, BEC, and laser clocks. Now it can return the favor by shedding some light on modern physics mysteries by further unifying quantum theory and relativity. * We first ask, "What is the simplest molecule?" Hydrogen H2 is the simplest, stable molecule. Positronium is an electron-positron (e+e-)-pair. An even simpler "molecule" or "radical" is a photon-pair (γ, γ) that under certain conditions can create an (e+e-)-pair. * To help unravel relativistic and quantum mysteries consider CW laser beam pairs or TE-waveguides. Remarkably, their wave interference immediately gives Minkowski space-time coordinates and clearly relates eight kinds of space-time wave dilations or contractions to shifts in Doppler frequency or wavenumber. * Modern physics students may find this approach significantly simplifies and clarifies relativistic physics in space-time (x,ct) and inverse time-space (ω,ck). It resolves some mysteries surrounding super-constant c=299,792,458m/s by proving "Evenson's Axiom" named in honor of NIST metrologist Ken Evenson (1932-2002) whose spectroscopy established c to start a precision-renaissance in spectroscopy and GPS metrology. * The following Talk II applies this approach to relativistic quantum mechanics.

  5. ``Simplest Molecule'' Clarifies Modern Physics I. CW Laser Space-Time Frame Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, Tyle; Harter, William

    2015-05-01

    Molecular spectroscopy makes very precise applications of quantum theory including GPS, BEC, and laser clocks. Now it can return the favor by shedding some light on modern physics mysteries by further unifying quantum theory and relativity. We first ask, ``What is the simplest molecule?'' Hydrogen H2 is the simplest stable molecule. Positronium is an electron-positron (e+e-) -pair. An even simpler ``molecule'' or ``radical'' is a photon-pair (γ, γ) that under certain conditions can create an (e+e-) -pair. To help unravel relativistic and quantum mysteries consider CW laser beam pairs or TE-waveguides. Remarkably, their wave interference immediately gives Minkowski space-time coordinates and clearly relates eight kinds of space-time wave dilations or contractions to shifts in Doppler frequency or wavenumber. Modern physics students may find this approach significantly simplifies and clarifies relativistic physics in space-time (x,ct) and inverse time-space (ω,ck). It resolves some mysteries surrounding super-constant c = 299,792,458 m/s by proving ``Evenson's Axiom'' named in honor of NIST metrologist Ken Evenson (1932-2002) whose spectroscopy established c to start a precision renaissance in spectroscopy and GPS metrology.

  6. Cognition versus Constitution of Objects: From Kant to Modern Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstaedt, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Classical mechanics in phase space as well as quantum mechanics in Hilbert space lead to states and observables but not to objects that may be considered as carriers of observable quantities. However, in both cases objects can be constituted as new entities by means of invariance properties of the theories in question. We show, that this way of reasoning has a long history in physics and philosophy and that it can be traced back to the transcendental arguments in Kant’s critique of pure reason.

  7. New gravitational formula as a bridge to join the modern physics and the classical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    I deduce the new gravitational formula from the variance in mass of QFT and GR (H05-0029-08, E15-0039 -08, E14-0032-08, D31-0054-10) in the partial differential: f (QFT) = f (GR) = delta∂ (m v)/delta∂ t = f _{P} + f _{C} , f _{P} = m delta∂ v / delta∂ t = - ( G m M /r (2) ) r / r, f _{C} = v delta∂ m / delta∂ t = - ( G mM / r (2) ) v / c (1), f (QFT) is the quasi-Casimir pressure of net virtual neutrinos nuν _{0} flux (after counteract contrary direction nuν _{0}). f (GR) is equivalent to Einstein’s equation as a new version of GR. GR can be inferred from Eq.(1) thereby from QFT, but QFT cannot be inferred from Eq.(1) or GR. f (QFT) is essential but f (GR) is phenomenological. Eq.(1) is obtained just by to absorb the essence of corpuscule collided gravitation origin ism proposed by Fatio in 1690 and 1920 Majorana’s experiment concept about gravitational shield effect again fuse with QFT. Its core content is that the gravity produced by particles collide cannot linear addition, i.e., Eq.(1) with the adding nonlinearity caused by the variable mass to replace the nonlinearity of Einstein’s equation and the nonlinear gravitation problems can be solved using the classical gradual approximation of alone f _{P} and alone f _{C}. Such as the calculation of advance of the perihelion of QFT, let the gravitational potential U = - G M /r which is just the distribution density of net nuν _{0} flux. From SR we again get Eq.(1): f (QFT) = f _{P} + f _{C}, f _{P} = - m ( delta∂ U / delta∂ r) r / r, f _{C} = - m ( delta∂U / delta∂ r) v / c , U = (1 - betaβ (2) )V, V is the Newtonian gravitational potential. f_{ P} correspond the change rate of three-dimensional momentum p, f_{C} correspond the change rate of fourth dimensional momentum i m c which show directly as a dissipative force of mass change. In my paper ‘To cross the great gap between the modern physics and classic physics, China Science &Technology Overview 129 85-91(2011)’ with the

  8. ``Simplest Molecule'' Clarifies Modern Physics II. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, William; Reimer, Tyle

    2015-05-01

    A ``simplest molecule'' consisting of CW- laser beam pairs helps to clarify relativity from poster board - I. In spite of a seemingly massless evanescence, an optical pair also clarifies classical and quantum mechanics of relativistic matter and antimatter. Logical extension of (x,ct) and (ω,ck) geometry gives relativistic action functions of Hamiltonian, Lagrangian, and Poincare that may be constructed in a few ruler-and-compass steps to relate relativistic parameters for group or phase velocity, momentum, energy, rapidity, stellar aberration, Doppler shifts, and DeBroglie wavelength. This exposes hyperbolic and circular trigonometry as two sides of one coin connected by Legendre contact transforms. One is Hamiltonian-like with a longitudinal rapidity parameter ρ (log of Doppler shift). The other is Lagrange-like with a transverse angle parameter σ (stellar aberration). Optical geometry gives recoil in absorption, emission, and resonant Raman-Compton acceleration and distinguishes Einstein rest mass, Galilean momentum mass, and Newtonian effective mass. (Molecular photons appear less bullet-like and more rocket-like.) In conclusion, modern space-time physics appears as a simple result of the more self-evident Evenson's axiom: ``All colors go c.''

  9. "simplest Molecule" Clarifies Modern Physics II. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, T. C.; Harter, W. G.

    2014-06-01

    A "simplest molecule" consisting of CW-laser beam pairs helps to clarify relativity in Talk I. In spite of a seemingly massless evanescence, an optical pair also clarifies classical and quantum mechanics of relativistic matter and anti-matter. *Logical extension of (x,ct) and (ω,ck) geometry gives relativistic action functions of Hamiltonian, Lagrangian, and Poincare that may be constructed in a few ruler-and-compass steps to relate relativistic parameters for group or phase velocity, momentum, energy, rapidity, stellar aberration, Doppler shifts, and DeBroglie wavelength. This exposes hyperbolic and circular trigonometry as two sides of one coin connected by Legendre contact transforms. One is Hamiltonian-like with a longitudinal rapidity parameter ρ (log of Doppler shift). The other is Lagrange-like with a transverse angle parameter σ (stellar aberration). Optical geometry gives recoil in absorption, emission, and resonant Raman-Compton acceleration and distinguishes Einstein rest mass, Galilean momentum mass, and Newtonian effective mass. (Molecular photons appear less bullet-like and more rocket-like.) In conclusion, modern space-time physics appears as a simple result of the more self-evident Evenson's axiom: "All colors go c."

  10. Modern human ancestry at the peripheries: a test of the replacement theory.

    PubMed

    Wolpoff, M H; Hawks, J; Frayer, D W; Hunley, K

    2001-01-12

    The replacement theory of modern human origins stipulates that populations outside of Africa were replaced by a new African species of modern humans. Here we test the replacement theory in two peripheral areas far from Africa by examining the ancestry of early modern Australians and Central Europeans. Analysis of pairwise differences was used to determine if dual ancestry in local archaic populations and earlier modern populations from the Levant and/or Africa could be rejected. The data imply that both have a dual ancestry. The diversity of recent humans cannot result exclusively from a single Late Pleistocene dispersal. PMID:11209077

  11. Interdisciplinary and physics challenges of network theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianconi, Ginestra

    2015-09-01

    Network theory has unveiled the underlying structure of complex systems such as the Internet or the biological networks in the cell. It has identified universal properties of complex networks, and the interplay between their structure and dynamics. After almost twenty years of the field, new challenges lie ahead. These challenges concern the multilayer structure of most of the networks, the formulation of a network geometry and topology, and the development of a quantum theory of networks. Making progress on these aspects of network theory can open new venues to address interdisciplinary and physics challenges including progress on brain dynamics, new insights into quantum technologies, and quantum gravity.

  12. Self-Efficacy Theory and the Theory of Planned Behavior: Teaching Physically Active Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine determinants of teachers' intentions to teach physically active physical education classes (i.e., spend at least 50% of class time with the students engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity). Based on the theory of planned behavior, a model was examined hypothesizing that teachers'…

  13. Pores and Void in Asclepiades' Physical Theory.

    PubMed

    Leith, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a fundamental, though relatively understudied, aspect of the physical theory of the physician Asclepiades of Bithynia, namely his doctrine of pores. My principal thesis is that this doctrine is dependent on a conception of void taken directly from Epicurean physics. The paper falls into two parts: the first half addresses the evidence for the presence of void in Asclepiades' theory, and concludes that his conception of void was basically that of Epicurus; the second half focuses on the precise nature of Asclepiadean pores, and seeks to show that they represent void interstices between the primary particles of matter which are the constituents of the human body, and are thus exactly analogous to the void interstices between atoms within solid objects in Epicurus' theory. PMID:22984299

  14. Pores and Void in Asclepiades’ Physical Theory

    PubMed Central

    Leith, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a fundamental, though relatively understudied, aspect of the physical theory of the physician Asclepiades of Bithynia, namely his doctrine of pores. My principal thesis is that this doctrine is dependent on a conception of void taken directly from Epicurean physics. The paper falls into two parts: the first half addresses the evidence for the presence of void in Asclepiades’ theory, and concludes that his conception of void was basically that of Epicurus; the second half focuses on the precise nature of Asclepiadean pores, and seeks to show that they represent void interstices between the primary particles of matter which are the constituents of the human body, and are thus exactly analogous to the void interstices between atoms within solid objects in Epicurus’ theory. PMID:22984299

  15. The Role of Modern Control Theory in the Design of Controls for Aircraft Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J.; Lehtinen, B.; Merrill, W.

    1982-01-01

    Accomplishments in applying Modern Control Theory to the design of controls for advanced aircraft turbine engines were reviewed. The results of successful research programs are discussed. Ongoing programs as well as planned or recommended future thrusts are also discussed.

  16. Modern Psychometric Methodology: Applications of Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Christine A.; Kolakowsky-Hayner, Stephanie A.; Lewis, Allen N.; Armstrong, Amy J.

    2007-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) methodology is introduced as a tool for improving assessment instruments used with people who have disabilities. Need for this approach in rehabilitation is emphasized; differences between IRT and classical test theory are clarified. Concepts essential to understanding IRT are defined, necessary data assumptions are…

  17. Excellence in Physics Education Award: Modeling Theory for Physics Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestenes, David

    2014-03-01

    All humans create mental models to plan and guide their interactions with the physical world. Science has greatly refined and extended this ability by creating and validating formal scientific models of physical things and processes. Research in physics education has found that mental models created from everyday experience are largely incompatible with scientific models. This suggests that the fundamental problem in learning and understanding science is coordinating mental models with scientific models. Modeling Theory has drawn on resources of cognitive science to work out extensive implications of this suggestion and guide development of an approach to science pedagogy and curriculum design called Modeling Instruction. Modeling Instruction has been widely applied to high school physics and, more recently, to chemistry and biology, with noteworthy results.

  18. Toward a physical theory of quantum cognition.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Taiki

    2014-01-01

    Recently, mathematical models based on quantum formalism have been developed in cognitive science. The target articles in this special issue of Topics in Cognitive Science clearly illustrate how quantum theoretical formalism can account for various aspects of human judgment and decision making in a quantitatively and mathematically rigorous manner. In this commentary, we show how future studies in quantum cognition and decision making should be developed to establish theoretical foundations based on physical theory, by introducing Taketani's three-stage theory of the development of science. Also, implications for neuroeconomics (another rapidly evolving approach to human judgment and decision making) are discussed. PMID:24482329

  19. Symmetry-cum-Unification in physical theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, A. N.

    2014-06-01

    A new kind of duality in physical sciences-involving Symmetry (S)on the one hand and Unification(U) on the other- is proposed, wherein the two partners obey, not the traditional feature of mutual incompatibility of two canonically conjugate variables, but rather are bound by a cause-effect type of relationship, albeit at a probabilistic level. While a precise mathematical formulation of such relationship is still a distant goal, the possible impact of this new kind of duality on the growth of physical theories vis-a-vis experiment is envisaged.

  20. Modern Gravitational Lens Cosmology for Introductory Physics and Astronomy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huwe, Paul; Field, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Recent and exciting discoveries in astronomy and cosmology have inspired many high school students to learn about these fields. A particularly fascinating consequence of general relativity at the forefront of modern cosmology research is gravitational lensing, the bending of light rays that pass near massive objects. Gravitational lensing enables…

  1. Interpretative Modern Dance, Physical Education: 5551.97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Carolyn N.

    This course outline is a guide for teaching methods and approaches to interpretive modern dance in grades 7-12. The course format includes lectures and discussion, experimentation with movement, films, and tests that focus on exploring approaches to dance creativity, danceable and communicative ideas, performing creative work in class, and…

  2. Encountering Productive Forms of Complexity in Learning Modern Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levrini, Olivia; Fantini, Paola

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at supporting the claim that some forms of hyper-simplification, by making physics seem easy, are at risk of dangerously distorting the content as well as the process of learning physics. The paper presents examples of dangerous simplifications in the teaching of quantum physics. Then, examples of productive forms of complexity are…

  3. Report of the theory panel. [space physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashourabdalla, Maha; Rosner, Robert; Antiochos, Spiro; Curtis, Steven; Fejer, B.; Goertz, Christoph K.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Holzer, Thomas E.; Jokipii, J. R.; Lee, Lou-Chuang

    1991-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this research is to develop an understanding which is sufficiently comprehensive to allow realistic predictions of the behavior of the physical systems. Theory has a central role to play in the quest for this understanding. The level of theoretical description is dependent on three constraints: (1) the available computer hardware may limit both the number and the size of physical processes the model system can describe; (2) the fact that some natural systems may only be described in a statistical manner; and (3) the fact that some natural systems may be observable only through remote sensing which is intrinsically limited by spatial resolution and line of sight integration. From this the report discusses present accomplishments and future goals of theoretical space physics. Finally, the development and use of new supercomputer is examined.

  4. Dynamical energy systems and modern physics: fostering the science and spirit of complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, G E; Russek, L G

    1997-05-01

    When systems theory is carefully applied to the concept of energy, some novel and far-reaching implications for modern physics and complementary medicine emerge. The heart of systems theory is dynamic interactions: systems do not simply act on systems, they interact with them in complex ways. By definition, systems at any level (e.g., physical, biological, social, ecological) are open to information, energy, and matter to varying degrees, and therefore interact with other systems to varying degrees. We first show how resonance between two tuning forks, a classic demonstration in physics, can be seen to reflect synchronized dynamic interactions over time. We then derive how the dynamic interaction of systems in mutual recurrent feedback relationships naturally create dynamic "memories" for their interactions over time. The mystery of how a photon (or electron) "knows" ahead of time whether to function as a particle or wave in the single slit/double slit quantum physics paradigm is potentially solved when energetic interactions inherent in the experimental system are recognized. The observation that energy decreases with the square of distance is shown not to be immutable when viewed from a dynamical energy systems perspective. Implications for controversial claims in complementary and alternative medicine, such as memory for molecules retained in water (homeopathy), remote diagnosis, and prayer and healing, are considered. A dynamical energy systems framework can facilitate the development of what might be termed "relationship consciousness," which has the potential to nurture both the science and spirit of complementary medicine and might help to create integrated medicine. PMID:9141291

  5. Modern aspects of the kinetic theory of glass transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropin, T. V.; Schmelzer, J. W.; Aksenov, V. L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews glass transition kinetics models that are developed to describe the formation of structural (for example, covalent and metallic) glasses, as well as to account for the transition of a polymer to a solid glassy state. As the two approaches most frequently used over the last decade to model the glass transition, the Tool–Narayanaswamy–Moynihan model and the Adam–Gibbs theory of glass transition are described together with examples of their applications. Also discussed are entropy-based approaches that rely on irreversible thermodynamics methods originated in the work of De Donder, Mandelstam, and Leontovich. The actual problems that arise in applying these methods and the prospects of their development are discussed. A brief overview of statistical glass transition models is given, including the mode-coupling and energy-landscape theories.

  6. Modern Physical Chemistry: A Molecular Approach by George H. Duffey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranck, John P.

    2001-08-01

    The text has been carefully edited; I found no mathematical or typographical errors.

    Literature Cited

    1. Duffey, G. H. Physical Chemistry; McGraw-Hill: New York, 1962.
    2. Barrow, G. M. Physical Chemistry; McGraw-Hill: New York, 1961.
    3. McQuarrie, D. A.; Simon, J. D. Physical Chemistry: A Molecular Approach; University Science Books: Sausalito, CA, 1997.

  7. Topos models for physics and topos theory

    SciTech Connect

    Wolters, Sander

    2014-08-15

    What is the role of topos theory in the topos models for quantum theory as used by Isham, Butterfield, Döring, Heunen, Landsman, Spitters, and others? In other words, what is the interplay between physical motivation for the models and the mathematical framework used in these models? Concretely, we show that the presheaf topos model of Butterfield, Isham, and Döring resembles classical physics when viewed from the internal language of the presheaf topos, similar to the copresheaf topos model of Heunen, Landsman, and Spitters. Both the presheaf and copresheaf models provide a “quantum logic” in the form of a complete Heyting algebra. Although these algebras are natural from a topos theoretic stance, we seek a physical interpretation for the logical operations. Finally, we investigate dynamics. In particular, we describe how an automorphism on the operator algebra induces a homeomorphism (or isomorphism of locales) on the associated state spaces of the topos models, and how elementary propositions and truth values transform under the action of this homeomorphism. Also with dynamics the focus is on the internal perspective of the topos.

  8. The Physical Renormalization of Quantum Field Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Binger, Michael William.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2007-02-20

    The profound revolutions in particle physics likely to emerge from current and future experiments motivates an improved understanding of the precise predictions of the Standard Model and new physics models. Higher order predictions in quantum field theories inevitably requires the renormalization procedure, which makes sensible predictions out of the naively divergent results of perturbation theory. Thus, a robust understanding of renormalization is crucial for identifying and interpreting the possible discovery of new physics. The results of this thesis represent a broad set of investigations in to the nature of renormalization. The author begins by motivating a more physical approach to renormalization based on gauge-invariant Green's functions. The resulting effective charges are first applied to gauge coupling unification. This approach provides an elegant formalism for understanding all threshold corrections, and the gauge couplings unify in a more physical manner compared to the usual methods. Next, the gauge-invariant three-gluon vertex is studied in detail, revealing an interesting and rich structure. The effective coupling for the three-gluon vertex, {alpha}(k{sub 1}{sup 2}, k{sub 2}{sup 2}, k{sub 3}{sup 2}), depends on three momentum scales and gives rise to an effective scale Q{sub eff}{sup 2}(k{sub 1}{sup 2}, k{sub 2}{sup 2}, k{sub 3}{sup 2}) which governs the (sometimes surprising) behavior of the vertex. The effects of nonzero internal masses are important and have a complicated threshold and pseudo-threshold structure. The pinch-technique effective charge is also calculated to two-loops and several applications are discussed. The Higgs boson mass in Split Supersymmetry is calculated to two-loops, including all one-loop threshold effects, leading to a downward shift in the Higgs mass of a few GeV. Finally, the author discusses some ideas regarding the overall structure of perturbation theory. This thesis lays the foundation for a comprehensive multi

  9. Individualization of Physics for Increased Enrollment Through Modern Instructional Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Leslie A.; Szabo, Michael

    Presented is a description of a physics program format used, with a high degree of success, at Boyertown Area Senior High School in Pennsylvania. The program features integration of desirable curriculum innovations such as individualization with a recognized curriculum (Project Physics) while maintaining the quality of a solid first year physics…

  10. Fundamental Particles and Interactions. A Wall Chart of Modern Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achor, William T.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a wall chart, "The Standard Model of Fundamental Particles and Interactions," for use in introductory physics courses at either high school or college level. Describes the chart development process, introduction and terminology of particle physics, components of the chart, and suggestions for using the chart, booklet, and software. (YP)

  11. Physical Education in the Schools: Ways to Modernize the Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsevich, V. K.

    2005-01-01

    Against the background of the social and economic transformations in the country, physical education in the schools is undergoing a serious crisis. The level of health of the rising generation is low, and the quality of the instruction is failing to foster adolescents' and young adults' desire to learn the values of physical culture and get…

  12. Chemical and mechanical theories of digestion in early modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Clericuzio, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to survey the iatrochemists' and iatromechanists' explanations of digestion, from the sixteenth to the early decades of the eighteenth century. The iatrochemists substituted the Galenic thermal digestion with a series of chemical processes, the same as those produced in the laboratory. Jean Baptiste van Helmont marked a turning point in the chemical understanding of digestion, indicating the acid ferment in the stomach as the digestive agent. In the wake of van Helmont, an increasing number of physicians rejected the traditional Galenic theory of digestion, turning to the chemical reactions taking place in the ventricles. The iatrochemists saw nutrition as the outcome of the separation of an active invisible substance, i.e., spirits, from a thick inert covering. The emergence of the mechanical physiology, with its emphasis on the shape, size and motion of parts, did not bring about a decline of the chemical investigations of digestion. Descartes ruled out chemistry in the study of physiology, while a number of physiologists-notably in England-adopted a compromise between iatrochemical and mechanical theories. In the second half of the seventeenth century, the view of acid as an agent of gastric digestion became popular among physiologists. Late in the century, the acid-alkali doctrine spurred further investigations on digestion and nutrition. PMID:22520182

  13. Lattice Gauge Theory for Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinos Orginos

    2012-12-01

    Quantum Chromodynamcs (QCD) is now established as the theory of strong interactions. A plethora of hadronic physics phenomena can be explained and described by QCD. From the early days of QCD, it was clear that low energy phenomena require a non-perturbative approach. Lattice QCD is a non-perturbative formulation of QCD that is particularly suited for numerical calculations. Today, supercomputers have achieved performance cabable of performing calculations that allow us to understand complex phenomana that arise from QCD. In this talk I will review the most recent results, relevant to nuclear physics. In particular, I will focus on results relevant to the structure and interactions of hadrons. Finally, I will comment on the opportunities opening up as we approach the era of exaflop computing.

  14. Gasdynamic substantiation of physical theory of meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, Lidia A.; Tirskiy, Grigoriy A.

    2014-12-01

    Physical theory of meteors developing since 30s of the last century, based on two ordinary differential equations: the equation of motion for the center of mass of meteoroid and equation of meteoroid ablation. These equations contain drag and heat transfer coefficients, which are share of momentum and energy transferred from gas to meteoroid and effective enthalpy of mass loss. Accounting for different values of these coefficients substantially changes meteoroid ballistics compared with the results of simple physical theory of meteors. For the drag coefficient a simple interpolation formula is valid for all flow regimes and depends on the Reynolds number. The heat transfer coefficient represented in the form of the approximation depending on density and meteoroid radius. Based on the law of conservation of mass and energy at the front of meteoroid melting and evaporation the explicit expression for the effective enthalpy of mass loss Q was obtained, depending on the speed of the meteoroid and heterogeneous reactions on the surface. Classical solution gives a significant deviation from the exact one obtained in present study for small bodies (1 mm) at high altitudes and high speeds.

  15. Modern integral equation techniques for quantum reactive scattering theory

    SciTech Connect

    Auerbach, S.M.

    1993-11-01

    Rigorous calculations of cross sections and rate constants for elementary gas phase chemical reactions are performed for comparison with experiment, to ensure that our picture of the chemical reaction is complete. We focus on the H/D+H{sub 2} {yields} H{sub 2}/DH + H reaction, and use the time independent integral equation technique in quantum reactive scattering theory. We examine the sensitivity of H+H{sub 2} state resolved integral cross sections {sigma}{sub v{prime}j{prime},vj}(E) for the transitions (v = 0,j = 0) to (v{prime} = 1,j{prime} = 1,3), to the difference between the Liu-Siegbahn-Truhlar-Horowitz (LSTH) and double many body expansion (DMBE) ab initio potential energy surfaces (PES). This sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the origin of a large discrepancy between experimental cross sections with sharply peaked energy dependence and theoretical ones with smooth energy dependence. We find that the LSTH and DMBE PESs give virtually identical cross sections, which lends credence to the theoretical energy dependence.

  16. Modern studies of the Lunar Physical libration at the Kazan University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Natalia; Hanada, Hideo; Nefedyev, Yuri; Gusev, Alexander

    Main results in investigation of the lunar physical libration in the Kazan University are presented in the report. Modern problems in the lunar spin-dynamics are considered. The accent is done on the fine phenomena of the lunar libration caused by complicated interior structure. Parameters of a free libration are discussed; geometrical interpretation of the chandler-like and free core nutation is given. Over the past 10 years a creative cooperation has been formed between scientists of the Kazan University and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (Mizusava). The project ILOM (In situ Lunar Orientation Measurement), planned in the frame of SELENE-2 or -3 missions is aimed at monitoring the physical libration of the Moon. The Russian side has taken over some of the theoretical tasks to ensure the planned observations. One of the important elements of the project is placing of a small optical telescope on the lunar surface with the purpose to detect the lunar physical libration with millisecond accuracy. Computer simulation of the future observations is being done with the purpose of their optimization: effective placement of measuring system on the lunar surface, testing of sensitivity of new observations to various features of the lunar interior structure. The results of the first stage of the simulation are presented in the paper. At this stage the software for the selection of stars and reduction of their coordinates onto the period of observations is developed, the tracks for the selected stars are constructed and analyzed, their sensitivity to the internal characteristics of the lunar body, in the first place, to the selenopotential coefficients, is tested. Inverse problem of lunar physical libration is formulated and solved. It is shown that selenographic coordinates of polar stars are insensitive to longitudinal librations tau(t). Comparing coordinates calculated for two models of a rigid and deformable Moon is carried out and components sensitive to

  17. Stimulus-responsive hydrogels: Theory, modern advances, and applications

    PubMed Central

    Koetting, Michael C.; Peters, Jonathan T.; Steichen, Stephanie D.; Peppas, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past century, hydrogels have emerged as effective materials for an immense variety of applications. The unique network structure of hydrogels enables very high levels of hydrophilicity and biocompatibility, while at the same time exhibiting the soft physical properties associated with living tissue, making them ideal biomaterials. Stimulus-responsive hydrogels have been especially impactful, allowing for unprecedented levels of control over material properties in response to external cues. This enhanced control has enabled groundbreaking advances in healthcare, allowing for more effective treatment of a vast array of diseases and improved approaches for tissue engineering and wound healing. In this extensive review, we identify and discuss the multitude of response modalities that have been developed, including temperature, pH, chemical, light, electro, and shear-sensitive hydrogels. We discuss the theoretical analysis of hydrogel properties and the mechanisms used to create these responses, highlighting both the pioneering and most recent work in all of these fields. Finally, we review the many current and proposed applications of these hydrogels in medicine and industry. PMID:27134415

  18. Application of modern control theory for building structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basharkhah, M. A.; Yao, J. T. P.

    The design of feedback compensators is considered for linear and constant-coefficient multivariable systems and an attempt is made to find a suitable gain matrix for active control of structures. The application of the pole-assignment method is discussed. It is based on the shifting of open-loop poles to the left side of the s-plane, and is applicable to mechanical and electrical systems. The second method developed in this study provides a physical understanding of the active control of civil engineering structures because it allows control of several modes of the system. The K matrix of the control law can be found so that the first few modes of the system have smaller displacements than the corresponding displacements of the original system. Therefore, more modes of higher gain can be used to substantially reduce system displacements. Because the pole-assignment method will not always significantly reduce displacements, the second method is found to be better for the control of civil engineering structures.

  19. Master IDIFO for In-Service Teacher Training in Modern Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, Marisa; Santi, Lorenzo

    2008-05-01

    Within the context of a national project aimed to promote actions against disaffection for scientific studies in Italy, a Master in Didactic Innovation in Physics and Orientation was designed, as a result of researches carried out in this field by PERG of 9 Universities of Italy and aimed at the in-service training of teachers on modern physics.

  20. Enrico Fermi - And the Revolutions of Modern Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Dan

    1999-02-01

    In 1938, at the age of 37, Enrico Fermi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. That same year he emigrated from Italy to the United States and, in the course of his experiments, discovered nuclear fission--a process which forms the basis of nuclear power and atomic bombs. Soon the brilliant physicist was involved in the top secret race to produce the deadliest weapon on Earth. He created the first self-sustaining chain reaction, devised new methods for purifying plutonium, and eventually participated in the first atomic test. This compelling biography traces Fermis education in Italy, his meteoric career in the scientific world, his escape from fascism to America, and the ingenious experiments he devised and conducted at the University of Rome, Columbia University, and the Los Alamos laboratory. The book also presents a mini-course in quantum and nuclear physics in an accessible, fast-paced narrative that invokes all the dizzying passion of Fermis brilliant discoveries.

  1. Modern Integral Equation Techniques for Quantum Reactive Scattering Theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auerbach, Scott Michael

    Rigorous calculations of cross sections and rate constants for elementary gas phase chemical reactions are performed for comparison with experiment, to ensure that our picture of the chemical reaction is complete. We focus on the H/D + H_2 to H _2/DH + H reaction, and use the time independent integral equation technique in quantum reactive scattering theory. We examine the sensitivity of H + H_2 state resolved integral cross sections sigma_{v^' j^ ',vj}(E) for the transitions (v = 0, j = 0) to (v^' = 1,j^ ' = 1,3), to the difference between the Liu-Siegbahn-Truhlar-Horowitz (LSTH) and double many body expansion (DMBE) ab initio potential energy surfaces (PES). This sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the origin of a large discrepancy between experimental cross sections with sharply peaked energy dependence and theoretical ones with smooth energy dependence. We find that the LSTH and DMBE PESs give virtually identical cross sections, which lends credence to the theoretical energy dependence. To facilitate quantum calculations on more complex reactive systems, we develop a new method to compute the energy Green's function with absorbing boundary conditions (ABC), for use in calculating the cumulative reaction probability. The method is an iterative technique to compute the inverse of a non-Hermitian matrix which is based on Fourier transforming time dependent dynamics, and which requires very little core memory. The Hamiltonian is evaluated in a sinc-function based discrete variable representation (DVR) which we argue may often be superior to the fast Fourier transform method for reactive scattering. We apply the resulting power series Green's function to the benchmark collinear H + H_2 system over the energy range 3.37 to 1.27 eV. The convergence of the power series is stable at all energies, and is accelerated by the use of a stronger absorbing potential. The practicality of computing the ABC-DVR Green's function in a polynomial of the Hamiltonian is

  2. Quantitative biology: where modern biology meets physical sciences

    PubMed Central

    Shekhar, Shashank; Zhu, Lian; Mazutis, Linas; Sgro, Allyson E.; Fai, Thomas G.; Podolski, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative methods and approaches have been playing an increasingly important role in cell biology in recent years. They involve making accurate measurements to test a predefined hypothesis in order to compare experimental data with predictions generated by theoretical models, an approach that has benefited physicists for decades. Building quantitative models in experimental biology not only has led to discoveries of counterintuitive phenomena but has also opened up novel research directions. To make the biological sciences more quantitative, we believe a two-pronged approach needs to be taken. First, graduate training needs to be revamped to ensure biology students are adequately trained in physical and mathematical sciences and vice versa. Second, students of both the biological and the physical sciences need to be provided adequate opportunities for hands-on engagement with the methods and approaches necessary to be able to work at the intersection of the biological and physical sciences. We present the annual Physiology Course organized at the Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, MA) as a case study for a hands-on training program that gives young scientists the opportunity not only to acquire the tools of quantitative biology but also to develop the necessary thought processes that will enable them to bridge the gap between these disciplines. PMID:25368426

  3. Quantitative biology: where modern biology meets physical sciences.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Shashank; Zhu, Lian; Mazutis, Linas; Sgro, Allyson E; Fai, Thomas G; Podolski, Marija

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative methods and approaches have been playing an increasingly important role in cell biology in recent years. They involve making accurate measurements to test a predefined hypothesis in order to compare experimental data with predictions generated by theoretical models, an approach that has benefited physicists for decades. Building quantitative models in experimental biology not only has led to discoveries of counterintuitive phenomena but has also opened up novel research directions. To make the biological sciences more quantitative, we believe a two-pronged approach needs to be taken. First, graduate training needs to be revamped to ensure biology students are adequately trained in physical and mathematical sciences and vice versa. Second, students of both the biological and the physical sciences need to be provided adequate opportunities for hands-on engagement with the methods and approaches necessary to be able to work at the intersection of the biological and physical sciences. We present the annual Physiology Course organized at the Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, MA) as a case study for a hands-on training program that gives young scientists the opportunity not only to acquire the tools of quantitative biology but also to develop the necessary thought processes that will enable them to bridge the gap between these disciplines. PMID:25368426

  4. Modernization Theory and Changes over Time in the Reproduction of Socioeconomic Inequalities in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Gary N.

    2009-01-01

    Modernization theory argues that, as societies industrialize and further develop, the influence of social background and other ascribed characteristics on educational and socioeconomic outcomes declines, while achievement in the education system becomes more important. The purpose of this research is to investigate propositions derived from…

  5. Reconceptualization of the Diffusion Process: An Application of Selected Principles from Modern Systems Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Wayne

    A description of the communication behaviors in high innovation societies depends on the application of selected principles from modern systems theory. The first is the principle of equifinality which explains the activities of open systems. If the researcher views society as an open system, he frees himself from the client approach since society…

  6. Probing for the Multiplicative Term in Modern Expectancy-Value Theory: A Latent Interaction Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautwein, Ulrich; Marsh, Herbert W.; Nagengast, Benjamin; Ludtke, Oliver; Nagy, Gabriel; Jonkmann, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    In modern expectancy-value theory (EVT) in educational psychology, expectancy and value beliefs additively predict performance, persistence, and task choice. In contrast to earlier formulations of EVT, the multiplicative term Expectancy x Value in regression-type models typically plays no major role in educational psychology. The present study…

  7. Implications and Applications of Modern Test Theory in the Context of Outcomes Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David

    2002-01-01

    Uses a framework previously developed to relate outcomes based education and B. Bloom's "Taxonomy of Educational Objectives" to consider ways in which modern test theory can be used to connect aspects of assessment to the curriculum framework and to consider insights this connection might provide. (SLD)

  8. String theory effects on black hole physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Alejandra

    2009-09-01

    This thesis focuses on recent developments in black hole physics in the context of string theory. The two main topics discussed here are: the effects of quantum/string corrections to five dimensional black holes; and the holographic description of two dimensional black holes. In the gravitational theory the quantum/string corrections are encoded in higher derivative terms in the supergravity action, which are governed by the mixed gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons term. We describe the full asymptotically flat solution of black strings and black holes, and construct the near horizon attractor geometries. With these solutions in hand, we study the thermodynamic properties of black holes beyond the leading order. One important achievement was finding the corrected attractor geometries that contain a three dimensional Anti-de Sitter factor. This allows us to verify that the space-time central charge and the anomaly based derivation of it exactly agree. Another motivation to study higher derivative corrections is to resolve the singularities of small black strings. These objects correspond to classical solutions with a naked singularity and vanishing entropy. Once the stringy corrections are included, we obtain completely smooth geometries with the correct asymptotic behavior. We also studied the effect of the Taub-NUT geometry on the sub-leading corrections to the black hole entropy. This space contains a contractible circle that allows one to lift a four dimensional black hole to a five dimensional black hole by tuning the size of the circle. In the microscopic theory, due to the presence of Taub-NUT, the spectrum of states acquires additional modes. These states exactly account for the shift between 5D and 4D corrections to the entropy. Finally, we develop holographic renormalization for two dimensional gravity on Anti-de Sitter space. The transformation properties of the stress tensor indicate that the asymptotic SL(2,R) conformal symmetry of the theory is enhanced

  9. Recent Advances in Plasma Edge Physics Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, W. M.

    2015-11-01

    This presentation summarizes recent theory developments for interpreting plasma edge physics experiments in DIII-D. i) Radial and poloidal moment balance require that the radial particle flux be of a pinch-diffusive nature with the pinch representing the electromagnetic forces and external momentum input. Ion radial particle fluxes in experiment are found to be a smaller difference between large outward diffusion fluxes and inward pinch fluxes. When the pinch-diffusion relation is used in the continuity equation a new diffusion theory that preserves momentum balance is obtained. ii) The majority of thermalized ions and their energy cross the LCFS on ion loss orbits and are deposited in the SOL near the outboard midplane. The lost ions are predominantly ctr-current, producing a co-current intrinsic rotation of the remaining ions in the edge plasma. iii) While the contribution of the leading order parallel viscosity to toroidal momentum damping vanishes identically in axisymmetric plasmas, non-axisymmetric radial B-fields in the edge plasma enable parallel viscosity to enhance the damping of toroidal rotation. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FG02-00ER54538, DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  10. Courses in Modern Physics for Non-science Majors, Future Science Teachers, and Biology Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollman, Dean

    2001-03-01

    For the past 15 years Kansas State University has offered a course in modern physics for students who are not majoring in physics. This course carries a prerequisite of one physics course so that the students have a basic introduction in classical topics. The majors of students range from liberal arts to engineering. Future secondary science teachers whose first area of teaching is not physics can use the course as part of their study of science. The course has evolved from a lecture format to one which is highly interactive and uses a combination of hands-on activities, tutorials and visualizations, particularly the Visual Quantum Mechanics materials. Another course encourages biology students to continue their physics learning beyond the introductory course. Modern Miracle Medical Machines introduces the basic physics which underlie diagnosis techniques such as MRI and PET and laser surgical techniques. Additional information is available at http://www.phys.ksu.edu/perg/

  11. Attachment-dissociation network: some thoughts about a modern complex theory.

    PubMed

    Bovensiepen, Gustav

    2006-06-01

    The paper revises the complex theory in the light of modern infant research, neurosciences and object relation theory. The author takes up Jean Knox's idea to understand complexes as analogies to the internal working models of attachment theory. The author proposes to understand complexes as dissociated sub-networks out of the network structure of the psyche; these sub-networks contain the internal working models, the characteristic affects and unconscious expectation phantasies. With this network model one can try to understand severe defensive organizations in some patients as a pathological organization of different complexes. This is illustrated by a clinical example. PMID:16712687

  12. Modern evolutionary mechanics theories and resolving the programmed/non-programmed aging controversy.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Theodore C

    2014-10-01

    Modern programmed (adaptive) theories of biological aging contend that organisms including mammals have generally evolved mechanisms that purposely limit their lifespans in order to obtain an evolutionary benefit. Modern non-programmed theories contend that mammal aging generally results from natural deteriorative processes, and that lifespan differences between species are explained by differences in the degree to which they resist those processes. Originally proposed in the 19th century, programmed aging in mammals has historically been widely summarily rejected as obviously incompatible with the mechanics of the evolution process. However, relatively recent and continuing developments described here have dramatically changed this situation, and programmed mammal aging now has a better evolutionary basis than non-programmed aging. Resolution of this issue is critically important to medical research because the two theories predict that very different biological mechanisms are ultimately responsible for age-related diseases and conditions. PMID:25519063

  13. Physical Theory of the Immune System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deem, Michael

    2012-10-01

    I will discuss to theories of the immune system and describe a theory of the immune response to vaccines. I will illustrate this theory by application to design of the annual influenza vaccine. I will use this theory to explain limitations in the vaccine for dengue fever and to suggest a transport-inspired amelioration of these limitations.

  14. Compass models: Theory and physical motivations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussinov, Zohar; van den Brink, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Compass models are theories of matter in which the couplings between the internal spin (or other relevant field) components are inherently spatially (typically, direction) dependent. A simple illustrative example is furnished by the 90° compass model on a square lattice in which only couplings of the form τixτjx (where {τia}a denote Pauli operators at site i ) are associated with nearest-neighbor sites i and j separated along the x axis of the lattice while τiyτjy couplings appear for sites separated by a lattice constant along the y axis. Similar compass-type interactions can appear in diverse physical systems. For instance, compass models describe Mott insulators with orbital degrees of freedom where interactions sensitively depend on the spatial orientation of the orbitals involved as well as the low-energy effective theories of frustrated quantum magnets, and a host of other systems such as vacancy centers, and cold atomic gases. The fundamental interdependence between internal (spin, orbital, or other) and external (i.e., spatial) degrees of freedom which underlies compass models generally leads to very rich behaviors, including the frustration of (semi-)classical ordered states on nonfrustrated lattices, and to enhanced quantum effects, prompting, in certain cases, the appearance of zero-temperature quantum spin liquids. As a consequence of these frustrations, new types of symmetries and their associated degeneracies may appear. These intermediate symmetries lie midway between the extremes of global symmetries and local gauge symmetries and lead to effective dimensional reductions. In this article, compass models are reviewed in a unified manner, paying close attention to exact consequences of these symmetries and to thermal and quantum fluctuations that stabilize orders via order-out-of-disorder effects. This is complemented by a survey of numerical results. In addition to reviewing past works, a number of other models are introduced and new results

  15. The coincidence theory of consonance: A re-evaluation based on modern scientific evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcomb, Benjamin Dwight

    The coincidence theory was a theory of consonance advocated by many of the scientists of the period 1550-1800, including Galileo, Mersenne, Descartes, and Euler. It was the first truly scientific explanation of consonance, addressing the way that sound waves interact with each other either constructively or destructively. Within the present century, historians of music and science have turned their attention to the coincidence theory and the important role it played in both fields in the 17th century. Many of these same authors have charged the theory with having had serious faults. However, an investigation of modern scientific evidence reveals that these alleged problems are either answerable or irrelevant to the coincidence theory. Furthermore, a survey of the major theories of consonance since the 18th century shows that the premises of the coincidence theory pervade and underlie many of these more recent theories. Examples of such theories include those of Helmholtz, Lipps, Boomsliter and Creel, and Terhardt. In the process of establishing these theses, many relevant secondary issues are addressed. For example, this dissertation contains a discussion of the different meanings of the word consonance, the relationship between integer ratios and musical intervals, and the similarities between pitch perception and rhythmic perception. Also, several different versions of the coincidence theory are identified and evaluated.

  16. A Study of the Nature of Students' Models of Microscopic Processes in the Context of Modern Physics Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thacker, Beth Ann

    2003-01-01

    Interviews university students in modern physics about their understanding of three fundamental experiments. Explores their development of models of microscopic processes. Uses interactive demonstrations to probe student understanding of modern physics experiments in two high school physics classes. Analyzes the nature of students' models and the…

  17. Science against modernism: the relevance of the social theory of Michael Polanyi.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, C

    2001-03-01

    Science, as an institution, is widely taken by sociologists to exemplify the modern tendency towards vesting trust and authority in impersonal offices and procedures, rather than in embodied human individuals. Such views of science face an important challenge in the social philosophy of Michael Polanyi. His work provides important insights into the continuing role of embodied personal authority and tradition in science and, hence, in late modernity. I explicate Polanyi's relevance for social theory, through a comparison with Weber's essay 'Science as a Vocation'. An understanding of the personal dimensions of trust and authority in science suggests practical limits to the position of Giddens on the disembedding of social relations and on the scepticism and reflexivity of modernity. PMID:11321228

  18. Investigation of the Reasons of Negative Perceptions of Undergraduate Students Regarding the Modern Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksakalli, Ayhan; Salar, Riza; Turgut, Umit

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the negative perceptions of undergraduate students regarding modern physics course and the causes of their negative perceptions have been investigated. For this investigation, a qualitative and quantitative method (mix method) was chosen for data collection and analysis. The study group of the research consists of a total of 169…

  19. Modern Rhythmic Gymnastics. A Supplement to the K-12 Physical Education Curriculum Guide. Curriculum Support Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Heather; Plumton, Diane

    This resource package has been designed to assist the instructor in using modern rhythmic gymnastics (MRG) to support the objectives cited in the "K-12 Physical Education Curriculum Guide," developed by the Manitoba Department of Education. MRG is based on scientific principles of movement, and makes use of small, hand-held apparatus such as…

  20. The impact of Einsteinian relativity and quantum physics theories on conceptualizations of the self in psychology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechberger, Elke Ruth

    1999-11-01

    Prior to the 1600s c.e., the church was the final authority for theories about the universe and humanity's role within it. However, when the mathematical theories put forth by scientists such as Copernicus and Galileo refuted traditional theological explanations about the cosmos, a shift to science as the premiere authority for theories was established, a tradition which continues to this day. In the following century, the work of Newton set forth a theory of the universe operating as a machine, where all things were potentially knowable, measurable, and predictable. His mechanistic hypotheses helped substantiate a corollary philosophy known as modernism. In the early 1900s, Einstein's theories about light and relativity began to indicate a universe significantly less absolute. His work set the stage for the development of quantum physics theories, whose hallmarks are probability, uncertainty, and complementarity. Quantum physics theories helped substantiate the philosophy known as postmodernism, where truth is nonexistent, reality is a subjectively constructed phenomenon, and the concept of an individual self is considered an illusion. Given that developments in physics have had profound impact across academic disciplines, including psychology, this study examine the effect of major revolutions in physics to corollary developments in theories about the self in psychology. It is the assertion of this work that modernist conceptualization of the self is one that is highly individualistic and defined in mechanistic terms, whereas the postmodern conceptualization of the self is significantly more socially constructed and has more interpersonally fluid, amorphous boundaries. Implications for conceptualizations of the self from either the modern or postmodern paradigm are discussed, as well as suggestions for future theory development.

  1. Modeling transonic aerodynamic response using nonlinear systems theory for use with modern control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1993-01-01

    The presentation begins with a brief description of the motivation and approach that has been taken for this research. This will be followed by a description of the Volterra Theory of Nonlinear Systems and the CAP-TSD code which is an aeroelastic, transonic CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code. The application of the Volterra theory to a CFD model and, more specifically, to a CAP-TSD model of a rectangular wing with a NACA 0012 airfoil section will be presented.

  2. The unification of physics: the quest for a theory of everything.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Steve; Gleiser, Marcelo; Freese, Katherine; Tegmark, Max

    2015-12-01

    The holy grail of physics has been to merge each of its fundamental branches into a unified "theory of everything" that would explain the functioning and existence of the universe. The last step toward this goal is to reconcile general relativity with the principles of quantum mechanics, a quest that has thus far eluded physicists. Will physics ever be able to develop an all-encompassing theory, or should we simply acknowledge that science will always have inherent limitations as to what can be known? Should new theories be validated solely on the basis of calculations that can never be empirically tested? Can we ever truly grasp the implications of modern physics when the basic laws of nature do not always operate according to our standard paradigms? These and other questions are discussed in this paper. PMID:26359791

  3. Theory and experiment in gravitational physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    New technological advances have made it feasible to conduct measurements with precision levels which are suitable for experimental tests of the theory of general relativity. This book has been designed to fill a new need for a complete treatment of techniques for analyzing gravitation theory and experience. The Einstein equivalence principle and the foundations of gravitation theory are considered, taking into account the Dicke framework, basic criteria for the viability of a gravitation theory, experimental tests of the Einstein equivalence principle, Schiff's conjecture, and a model theory devised by Lightman and Lee (1973). Gravitation as a geometric phenomenon is considered along with the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism, the classical tests, tests of the strong equivalence principle, gravitational radiation as a tool for testing relativistic gravity, the binary pulsar, and cosmological tests.

  4. Foundations of Physical Theory, I: Force and Energy. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Nolan E.

    This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module is one of two units on the foundations of physical theory and the…

  5. Stationary state Kohn-Sham Theory: Modern algorithms breathe new life into an old theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunceler, Deniz; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Arias, T. A.

    2014-03-01

    In this talk, we will discuss stationary-state Kohn-Sham theory, an old (Phys. Rev. B 31, 6264-6272) but largely ignored idea that is recently undergoing revival. It is based on an in-principle exact scheme in which excited states are computed as the stationary states of the Hohenberg-Kohn functional. We will discuss the objections of Gaudoin and Burke (Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 17), and also describe the computational difficulties which prevented this theory from becoming popular in the past, and present new algorithms for computing the predictions of this theory. The resulting technique has inherent computational advantages over TDDFT and GW, and results using semilocal functionals show great promise for molecules. However, the method as implemented exhibits large errors for solids. In this talk, we shall show that the origin of this behaviour is related to the fact that different errors dominate the solid and molecular cases, and we shall discuss prospects for improvement of the theory in the future.

  6. LENR/"Cold Fusion" and Modern Physics: A Crisis Within a Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallove, Eugene F. E.

    2004-03-01

    The primary theorists in the field of Cold Fusion/LENR have generally assumed that the excess heat phenomena is commensurate with nuclear ash (such as helium), whether already identified or presumed to be present but not yet found, and moreover that it can be explained by hydrided metal lattice structures acting coherently. Though this was an excellent initial hypothesis, the commensurate nuclear ash hypothesis has not been proved, and appears to be approximately correct in only a few experiments. At the same time, compelling evidence has also emerged for other microphysical sources of energy that were unexpected by accepted physics. The exemplars have been the work Dr. Randell Mills and his colleagues at BlackLight Power Corporation and Dr. Paulo and Alexandra Correa in Canada.This has led to a crisis within a crisis: Neither "cold fusion" nor "Modern Physics" will be able to explain the full range of experimental data now available---not even the data within "mainstream" cold fusion/LENR per se--- by insisting that the fundamental paradigms of Modern Physics are without significant flaw. The present crisis is of magnitude comparable to the Copernican Revolution. Neither Modern Physics nor Cold Fusion/LENR will survive in their present forms when this long delayed revolution has run its course.

  7. The impetus theory: Between history of physics and science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannetto, Enrico

    1993-09-01

    Through a physical, historical and epistemological analysis it is shown how much is wrong with the idea that relates impetus theory to a “non-grown-up” physical and epistemological conception. Indeed, it yields that impetus theory of Buridan and Oresme can be formalised and can furnish us a “natural”, “non-violent” interpretation of (classical) mechanics as well as a more general, physical hermeneutics of the world. Then, the possible relevance of impetus theory for science education is strongly pointed out.

  8. Modern money theory and ecological tax reform: A functional finance approach to energy conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Scott L. B.

    This dissertation contributes to heterodox economics by developing a theoretical and policy-relevant link that will promote the conservation of energy while driving the value of the domestic currency. The analysis relies upon the theoretical foundation of modern money theory and functional finance, which states that "taxes-drive-money" where the value of a sovereign nation's currency is imputed through the acceptance by the sovereign nation of the currency in payment of taxation. This theoretical perspective lends itself to various public policy prescriptions, such as government employment policies or the employer of last resort (ELR), which has been discussed at length elsewhere (Wray 1998; Tcherneva 2007, Forstater 2003). This research contributes to this overall program by arguing that the basis for taxation under modern money theory allows public policy makers various alternatives regarding the make-up of the tax system in place. In particular, following functional finance, taxes do not have the sole purpose of paying for government spending, but rather drive the value of the currency and may be designed to perform other functions as well, such as penalizing socially undesirable behavior. The focus in this dissertation is on the amelioration of pollution and increasing energy conservation. The research question for this dissertation is this: what federally implemented tax would best serve the multiple criteria of 1) driving the value of the currency, 2) promoting energy conservation and 3) ameliorating income and wealth disparities inherent in a monetary production economy? This dissertation provides a suggestion for such a tax that would be part of a much larger overall policy program based upon the tenets of modern money theory and functional finance. Additionally, this research seeks to provide an important theoretical contribution to the emerging Post Keynesian and ecological economics dialog.

  9. (Nuclear theory). [Research in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion. (LSP)

  10. Continuum dislocation dynamics: Towards a physical theory of crystal plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochrainer, Thomas; Sandfeld, Stefan; Zaiser, Michael; Gumbsch, Peter

    2014-02-01

    The plastic deformation of metals is the result of the motion and interaction of dislocations, line defects of the crystalline structure. Continuum models of plasticity, however, remain largely phenomenological to date, usually do not consider dislocation motion, and fail when materials behavior becomes size dependent. In this work we present a novel plasticity theory based on systematic physical averages of the kinematics and dynamics of dislocation systems. We demonstrate that this theory can predict microstructure evolution and size effects in accordance with experiments and discrete dislocation simulations. The theory is based on only four internal variables per slip system and features physical boundary conditions, dislocation pile ups, dislocation curvature, dislocation multiplication and dislocation loss. The presented theory therefore marks a major step towards a physically based theory of crystal plasticity.

  11. Some remarks on discrete physics as an ultimate dynamical theory

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.

    1995-10-01

    The standard model of quarks and leptons currently fails to meet `t Hooft`s criterion for an ``Ultimate Dynamical Theory`` in that it contains 19 parameters which must be taken from experiment. Evaluating discrete physics in the same way we find that it requires 17 parameters and has already succeeded in computing 7 of them. While we are confident that the rest can also be computed, the very concept of an ultimate theory is incompatible with our attitude toward physics.

  12. Brane Physics in Non-Critical Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturla, Mauricio B.

    2010-09-01

    In this Thesis, we focus on the study of the low energy approximation to non-critical string theories. We present an exhaustive study of their solutions, which are divided in three cases: vacuum, NSNS charged, and RR charged solutions. In the first case, we find all possible solutions, including the previously known ones, which are special cases of ours. In the second case, we present the fundamental non-critical string, doubly localized in Minkowski times the cigar vacuum. There are only a few known solutions doubly localized. Also, we completely solve the problem of finding NSNS solutions that fill all the Minkowski space. In the third case, we present new parametric families that contain some of the previously known solutions at particular values of the parameters. For the latter families, we have obtained the gauge duals in the context of the gauge/gravity duality, and we show that, in a particular region of the parameter space, these theories can confine. Finally, we study the obtained YM in D=3 and YM in D=4 theories, and we show the corresponding glueball spectra, that are in very good agreement with those predicted by lattice QCD.

  13. Can Cognitive Theory Help Us Teach Physics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Robert L.; Lochhead, Jack

    The idea that cognitive science can provide useful guidance to the teaching of physics has been met by some with skepticism. One argument is that the current understanding of cognition is too crude to be helpful; another, that any scientific approach to education stifles the art of teaching. Some feel that art and science need not be incompatible.…

  14. Case Studies of Physics Graduates' Personal Theories of Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ke-Sheng

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports an interview case study with two physics doctoral students designed to explore their conceptions about the theory of evolution. Analysis of interview transcripts reveals that both students mistakenly constructed a "theory of evolution by environmentally driven adaptation" instead of the commonly accepted "theory…

  15. Psychological adjustment to physical disability: trends in theories.

    PubMed

    Shontz, F C

    1978-06-01

    Explanations of psychological reactions to physical disability have recently tended to ascribe maladjustment to environmental rather than to personal causes. Historically, common-sense theories were first replaced by metalistic doctrines. These, in turn, were later supplemented by theories that integrated mentalism with environmentalism and by approaches that recognized only environmental causes of behavior. Each theory makes a unique contribution to rehabilitation. Consequently, unification rather than elimination should be the goal of future theoretical development. PMID:149525

  16. Density functional theory across chemistry, physics and biology

    PubMed Central

    van Mourik, Tanja; Bühl, Michael; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The past decades have seen density functional theory (DFT) evolve from a rising star in computational quantum chemistry to one of its major players. This Theme Issue, which comes half a century after the publication of the Hohenberg–Kohn theorems that laid the foundations of modern DFT, reviews progress and challenges in present-day DFT research. Rather than trying to be comprehensive, this Theme Issue attempts to give a flavour of selected aspects of DFT. PMID:24516181

  17. Density functional theory across chemistry, physics and biology.

    PubMed

    van Mourik, Tanja; Bühl, Michael; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    2014-03-13

    The past decades have seen density functional theory (DFT) evolve from a rising star in computational quantum chemistry to one of its major players. This Theme Issue, which comes half a century after the publication of the Hohenberg-Kohn theorems that laid the foundations of modern DFT, reviews progress and challenges in present-day DFT research. Rather than trying to be comprehensive, this Theme Issue attempts to give a flavour of selected aspects of DFT. PMID:24516181

  18. Common Problems and Ideas of Modern Physics - Proceedings of the 6th Winter School on Hadronic Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressani, T.; Minetti, B.; Zenoni, A.

    1992-03-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. COHERENCE PHENOMENA * Coherence in QCD and QED * Quantum theory of scattering for tightly coupled scatterers * Gravitational radiation antenna cross sections * The EMC effect * The Mössbauer effect * II. SUBNUCLEAR PHYSICS * Heavy quarkonium spectroscopy * Baryonium phenomenology * Physics at DAΦNE * The "Darmstadt effect" * III. NUCLEAR PHYSICS * Frontiers and Perspectives in Nuclear Physics * Nuclear physics at DAΦNE * Intermediate energy antiproton-nucleus reactions to test quantum chromodynamics * Boundary condition approach to multiple scattering off composite systems * An updated survey of experimental work on nuclear cold fusion * IV. EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES AND PARTICLE ACCELERATORS * The Frascati Φ-factory project * The Obelix central detector * New trends in gas drift chambers * Multi-level triggers in modem experiments * List of Participants * Subject Index * Author Index

  19. Students' Notions regarding "Covariance" of a Physical Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Atanu; Kumar, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    A physical theory is said to be covariant with respect to a certain class of transformations when its basic equations retain their "form" under those transformations. It is one of the basic notions encountered in physics, particularly in the domain of relativity. In this paper we study in some detail how students deal with this notion in different…

  20. Preservice Teachers' Theory Development in Physical and Simulated Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jill A.; Young, Erica Slate

    2006-01-01

    We report a study of three prospective secondary science teachers' development of theories-in-action as they worked together in a group to explore collisions using both physical manipulatives and a computer simulation (Interactive Physics). Analysis of their investigations using an existing theoretical framework indicates that, as the group moved…

  1. 'Who Thinks Abstractly?': Quantum Theory and the Architecture of Physical Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2011-03-28

    Beginning with its introduction by W. Heisenberg, quantum mechanics was often seen as an overly abstract theory, mathematically and physically, vis-a-vis classical physics or relativity. This perception was amplified by the fact that, while the quantum-mechanical formalism provided effective predictive algorithms for the probabilistic predictions concerning quantum experiments, it appeared unable to describe, even by way idealization, quantum processes themselves in space and time, in the way classical mechanics or relativity did. The aim of the present paper is to reconsider the nature of mathematical and physical abstraction in modern physics by offering an analysis of the concept of ''physical fact'' and of the concept of 'physical concept', in part by following G. W. F. Hegel's and G. Deleuze's arguments concerning the nature of conceptual thinking. In classical physics, relativity, and quantum physics alike, I argue, physical concepts are defined by the following main features - 1) their multi-component multiplicity; 2) their essential relations to problems; 3) and the interactions between physical, mathematical, and philosophical components within each concept. It is the particular character of these interactions in quantum mechanics, as defined by its essentially predictive (rather than descriptive) nature, that distinguishes it from classical physics and relativity.

  2. Integrated information theory: from consciousness to its physical substrate.

    PubMed

    Tononi, Giulio; Boly, Melanie; Massimini, Marcello; Koch, Christof

    2016-07-01

    In this Opinion article, we discuss how integrated information theory accounts for several aspects of the relationship between consciousness and the brain. Integrated information theory starts from the essential properties of phenomenal experience, from which it derives the requirements for the physical substrate of consciousness. It argues that the physical substrate of consciousness must be a maximum of intrinsic cause-effect power and provides a means to determine, in principle, the quality and quantity of experience. The theory leads to some counterintuitive predictions and can be used to develop new tools for assessing consciousness in non-communicative patients. PMID:27225071

  3. Evaluation of internal validity using modern test theory: Application to word association.

    PubMed

    Shono, Yusuke; Ames, Susan L; Stacy, Alan W

    2016-02-01

    Word association tests (WATs) have been widely used to examine associative/semantic memory structures and shown to be relevant to behavior and its underpinnings. Despite successful applications of WATs in diverse research areas, few studies have examined psychometric properties of these tests or other open-ended cognitive tests of common use. Modern test theory models, such as item response theory (IRT) models, are well suited to evaluate interpretations of this class of test. In this evaluation, unidimensional IRT models were fitted to the data on the WAT designed to capture associative memory relevant to an important applied issue: casual sex in a sample of 1,138 adult drug offenders. Using association instructions, participants were instructed to generate the first behavior or action that came to mind in response to cues (e.g., "hotel/motel") that might elicit casual sex-related responses. Results indicate a multitude of evidence for the internal validity of WAT score interpretations. All WAT items measured a single latent trait of casual sex-related associative memory, strongly related to the latent trait, and were invariant across gender, ethnicity, age groups, and sex partner profiles. The WAT was highly informative at average-to-high levels of the latent trait and also associated with risky sex behavior, demonstrating the usefulness of this class of test. The study illustrates the utility of the assessments in this at-risk population as well as the benefits of application of the modern test theory models in the evaluation of internal validity of open-ended cognitive test score interpretation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26053001

  4. Fundamental physical theories: Mathematical structures grounded on a primitive ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allori, Valia

    In my dissertation I analyze the structure of fundamental physical theories. I start with an analysis of what an adequate primitive ontology is, discussing the measurement problem in quantum mechanics and theirs solutions. It is commonly said that these theories have little in common. I argue instead that the moral of the measurement problem is that the wave function cannot represent physical objects and a common structure between these solutions can be recognized: each of them is about a clear three-dimensional primitive ontology that evolves according to a law determined by the wave function. The primitive ontology is what matter is made of while the wave function tells the matter how to move. One might think that what is important in the notion of primitive ontology is their three-dimensionality. If so, in a theory like classical electrodynamics electromagnetic fields would be part of the primitive ontology. I argue that, reflecting on what the purpose of a fundamental physical theory is, namely to explain the behavior of objects in three-dimensional space, one can recognize that a fundamental physical theory has a particular architecture. If so, electromagnetic fields play a different role in the theory than the particles and therefore should be considered, like the wave function, as part of the law. Therefore, we can characterize the general structure of a fundamental physical theory as a mathematical structure grounded on a primitive ontology. I explore this idea to better understand theories like classical mechanics and relativity, emphasizing that primitive ontology is crucial in the process of building new theories, being fundamental in identifying the symmetries. Finally, I analyze what it means to explain the word around us in terms of the notion of primitive ontology in the case of regularities of statistical character. Here is where the notion of typicality comes into play: we have explained a phenomenon if the typical histories of the primitive

  5. PHYSICS OF OUR DAYS: String theory: what is it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A. Yu

    1992-08-01

    This is an attempt to describe the subject and the methodology of string theory as we understand them today, i.e., the entire set of problems which attract attention of theorists working in the field. The string model of Grand Unification of fundamental interactions is briefly discussed along with a broader string scenario of the unified field theory, a more mathematical concept, designed to facilitate understanding of the generic features of equivalence classes in different models of quantum field theory. A concise glossary of the most important notions unusual in physical literature but frequently used in papers on string theory is also included.

  6. The influence of instructional interactions on students’ mental models about the quantization of physical observables: a modern physics course case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didiş Körhasan, Nilüfer; Eryılmaz, Ali; Erkoç, Şakir

    2016-01-01

    Mental models are coherently organized knowledge structures used to explain phenomena. They interact with social environments and evolve with the interaction. Lacking daily experience with phenomena, the social interaction gains much more importance. In this part of our multiphase study, we investigate how instructional interactions influenced students’ mental models about the quantization of physical observables. Class observations and interviews were analysed by studying students’ mental models constructed in a modern physics course during an academic semester. The research revealed that students’ mental models were influenced by (1) the manner of teaching, including instructional methodologies and content specific techniques used by the instructor, (2) order of the topics and familiarity with concepts, and (3) peers.

  7. Qualtum cosmics-and-chaotics--the ultimate tortoise in physics and modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Kothari, M V; Mehta, L A

    1997-01-01

    Qualtum cosmics is the qualitative opposite of quantum mechanics. The flip-side of qualtum cosmics is qualtum chaotics, the two governing much of what is seen as inscrutable in medicine. The Ultimate (Last) Tortoise is close to Einsteinean idea of a Unified Theory, a single concept that can explain whatsoever there is in physics, (and in medicine, or what have you). PMID:10740733

  8. Information Theory - The Bridge Connecting Bounded Rational Game Theory and Statistical Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2005-01-01

    A long-running difficulty with conventional game theory has been how to modify it to accommodate the bounded rationality of all red-world players. A recurring issue in statistical physics is how best to approximate joint probability distributions with decoupled (and therefore far more tractable) distributions. This paper shows that the same information theoretic mathematical structure, known as Product Distribution (PD) theory, addresses both issues. In this, PD theory not only provides a principle formulation of bounded rationality and a set of new types of mean field theory in statistical physics; it also shows that those topics are fundamentally one and the same.

  9. Physical Theories of Winds From Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Cool stars in the late stages of their evolution generally lose mass at a prodigious rate. This includes low mass stars on the red giant branch, on the asymptotic giant branch, and those transiting from the asymptotic giant branch to the planetary nebula phase, as well as massive supergiants. All of these objects are surrounded by dense circumstellar gas and often dust envelopes. This mass loss is an important source of gas and dust for the interstellar medium. For some of these objects, the mass loss rate exceeds the nuclear burning rate and, hence, mass loss determines the subsequent evolution of the star. A variety processes have been invoked to explain the mass loss of these objects. A consensus has developed over the last decade: photospheric processes create an extended atmosphere which extends to several stellar radii. At this height above the photosphere, dust grains can form and radiation pressure drives the dust out. The gas is dragged along by friction. While the detailed processes involved, in particular those lifting the atmosphere, may differ from object to object, this paradigm seems applicable to all of these objects. The process of mass loss breaks up into three parts: 1) The formation of the extended atmosphere; 2) the nucleation and condensation of dust; and 3) The radiation pressure driven wind. Each of these processes will be discussed with an emphasis on those processes that play a role in the mass loss from asymptotic giant branch stars for which the most detailed theories have been developed.

  10. O the Use of Modern Control Theory for Active Structural Acoustic Control.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, William Richard

    A modern control theory formulation of Active Structural Acoustic Control (ASAC) of simple structures radiating acoustic energy into light or heavy fluid mediums is discussed in this dissertation. ASAC of a baffled, simply-supported plate subject to mechanical disturbances is investigated. For the case of light fluid loading, a finite element modelling approach is used to extend previous ASAC design methods. Vibration and acoustic controllers are designed for the plate. Comparison of the controller performance shows distinct advantages of the ASAC method for minimizing radiated acoustic power. A novel approach to the modelling of the heavy fluid-loaded plate is developed here. Augmenting structural and acoustic dynamics using state vector formalism allows the design of both vibration and ASAC controllers for the fluid-loaded plate. This modern control approach to active structural acoustic control is unique in its ability to suppress both persistent and transient disturbances on a plate in a heavy fluid. Numerical simulations of the open-loop and closed-loop plate response are provided to support the theoretical developments.

  11. Local State and Sector Theory in Local Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, Izumi; Okamura, Kazuya; Saigo, Hayato

    2016-04-01

    We define a new concept of local states in the framework of algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT). Local states are a natural generalization of states and give a clear vision of localization in the context of QFT. In terms of them, we can find a condition from which follows automatically the famous DHR selection criterion in DHR-DR theory. As a result, we can understand the condition as consequences of physically natural state preparations in vacuum backgrounds. Furthermore, a theory of orthogonal decomposition of completely positive (CP) maps is developed. It unifies a theory of orthogonal decomposition of states and order structure theory of CP maps. Using it, localized version of sectors is formulated, which gives sector theory for local states with respect to general reference representations.

  12. Local State and Sector Theory in Local Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, Izumi; Okamura, Kazuya; Saigo, Hayato

    2016-06-01

    We define a new concept of local states in the framework of algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT). Local states are a natural generalization of states and give a clear vision of localization in the context of QFT. In terms of them, we can find a condition from which follows automatically the famous DHR selection criterion in DHR-DR theory. As a result, we can understand the condition as consequences of physically natural state preparations in vacuum backgrounds. Furthermore, a theory of orthogonal decomposition of completely positive (CP) maps is developed. It unifies a theory of orthogonal decomposition of states and order structure theory of CP maps. Using it, localized version of sectors is formulated, which gives sector theory for local states with respect to general reference representations.

  13. The role of modern control theory in the design of controls for aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J.; Lehtinen, B.; Merrill, W.

    1982-01-01

    The development, applications, and current research in modern control theory (MCT) are reviewed, noting the importance for fuel-efficient operation of turbines with variable inlet guide vanes, compressor stators, and exhaust nozzle area. The evolution of multivariable propulsion control design is examined, noting a basis in a matrix formulation of the differential equations defining the process, leading to state space formulations. Reports and papers which appeared from 1970-1982 which dealt with problems in MCT applications to turbine engine control design are outlined, including works on linear quadratic regulator methods, frequency domain methods, identification, estimation, and model reduction, detection, isolation, and accommodation, and state space control, adaptive control, and optimization approaches. Finally, NASA programs in frequency domain design, sensor failure detection, computer-aided control design, and plant modeling are explored

  14. Introduction to Gyrokinetic Theory with Applications in Magnetic Confinement Research in Plasma Physics

    SciTech Connect

    W.M. Tang

    2005-01-03

    The present lecture provides an introduction to the subject of gyrokinetic theory with applications in the area of magnetic confinement research in plasma physics--the research arena from which this formalism was originally developed. It was presented as a component of the ''Short Course in Kinetic Theory within the Thematic Program in Partial Differential Equations'' held at the Fields Institute for Research in Mathematical Science (24 March 2004). This lecture also discusses the connection between the gyrokinetic formalism and powerful modern numerical simulations. Indeed, simulation, which provides a natural bridge between theory and experiment, is an essential modern tool for understanding complex plasma behavior. Progress has been stimulated in particular by the exponential growth of computer speed along with significant improvements in computer technology. The advances in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics have produced increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modeling. This was enabled by two key factors: (i) innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning widely disparate temporal and spatial scales and (ii) access to powerful new computational resources.

  15. Physical effects underlying the transition from primitive to modern cell membranes

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Itay; Szostak, Jack W.

    2011-01-01

    To understand the emergence of Darwinian evolution, it is necessary to identify physical mechanisms that enabled primitive cells to compete with one another. Whereas all modern cell membranes are composed primarily of diacyl or dialkyl glycerol phospholipids, the first cell membranes are thought to have self-assembled from simple, single-chain lipids synthesized in the environment. We asked what selective advantage could have driven the transition from primitive to modern membranes, especially during early stages characterized by low levels of membrane phospholipid. Here we demonstrate that surprisingly low levels of phospholipids can drive protocell membrane growth during competition for single-chain lipids. Growth results from the decreasing fatty acid efflux from membranes with increasing phospholipid content. The ability to synthesize phospholipids from single-chain substrates would have therefore been highly advantageous for early cells competing for a limited supply of lipids. We show that the resulting increase in membrane phospholipid content would have led to a cascade of new selective pressures for the evolution of metabolic and transport machinery to overcome the reduced membrane permeability of diacyl lipid membranes. The evolution of phospholipid membranes could thus have been a deterministic outcome of intrinsic physical processes and a key driving force for early cellular evolution. PMID:21402937

  16. Physical effects underlying the transition from primitive to modern cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Budin, Itay; Szostak, Jack W

    2011-03-29

    To understand the emergence of Darwinian evolution, it is necessary to identify physical mechanisms that enabled primitive cells to compete with one another. Whereas all modern cell membranes are composed primarily of diacyl or dialkyl glycerol phospholipids, the first cell membranes are thought to have self-assembled from simple, single-chain lipids synthesized in the environment. We asked what selective advantage could have driven the transition from primitive to modern membranes, especially during early stages characterized by low levels of membrane phospholipid. Here we demonstrate that surprisingly low levels of phospholipids can drive protocell membrane growth during competition for single-chain lipids. Growth results from the decreasing fatty acid efflux from membranes with increasing phospholipid content. The ability to synthesize phospholipids from single-chain substrates would have therefore been highly advantageous for early cells competing for a limited supply of lipids. We show that the resulting increase in membrane phospholipid content would have led to a cascade of new selective pressures for the evolution of metabolic and transport machinery to overcome the reduced membrane permeability of diacyl lipid membranes. The evolution of phospholipid membranes could thus have been a deterministic outcome of intrinsic physical processes and a key driving force for early cellular evolution. PMID:21402937

  17. Outlining social physics for modern societies—locating culture, economics, and politics: The Enlightenment reconsidered

    PubMed Central

    Iberall, A. S.

    1985-01-01

    A groundwork is laid for a formulation of the modern human social system as a field continuum. As in a simple material physical field, the independent implied relationships of materials or processes in flux have to be based on local conservations of mass, energy, and momentum. In complex fields, the transport fluctuations of momentum are transformed into action modes (e.g., [unk] pdq = ΣHi = H, a characteristic quantum of action over a characteristic cycle time). In complex living systems, a fourth local conservation of population number, the demographic variable, has to be added as a renormalized variable. Modern man, settled in place via agriculture, urbanized, and engaged largely in trade and war, invents a fifth local conservation—value-in-trade, the economic variable. The potentials that drive these five fluxes are also enumerated. Among the more evident external and internal physical-chemical potentials, the driving potentials include a sheaf of internal potential-like components that represent the command-control system emergent as politics. In toto, culture represents the social solvent with the main processes of economics and politics being driven by a social pressure. PMID:16593594

  18. Adjoint Function: Physical Basis of Variational & Perturbation Theory in Transport

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-07-27

    Version 00 Dr. J.D. Lewins has now released the following legacy book for free distribution: Importance: The Adjoint Function: The Physical Basis of Variational and Perturbation Theory in Transport and Diffusion Problems, North-Holland Publishing Company - Amsterdam, 582 pages, 1966 Introduction: Continuous Systems and the Variational Principle 1. The Fundamental Variational Principle 2. The Importance Function 3. Adjoint Equations 4. Variational Methods 5. Perturbation and Iterative Methods 6. Non-Linear Theory

  19. Osiris: A Modern, High-Performance, Coupled, Multi-Physics Code For Nuclear Reactor Core Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Procassini, R J; Chand, K K; Clouse, C J; Ferencz, R M; Grandy, J M; Henshaw, W D; Kramer, K J; Parsons, I D

    2007-02-26

    To meet the simulation needs of the GNEP program, LLNL is leveraging a suite of high-performance codes to be used in the development of a multi-physics tool for modeling nuclear reactor cores. The Osiris code project, which began last summer, is employing modern computational science techniques in the development of the individual physics modules and the coupling framework. Initial development is focused on coupling thermal-hydraulics and neutral-particle transport, while later phases of the project will add thermal-structural mechanics and isotope depletion. Osiris will be applicable to the design of existing and future reactor systems through the use of first-principles, coupled physics models with fine-scale spatial resolution in three dimensions and fine-scale particle-energy resolution. Our intent is to replace an existing set of legacy, serial codes which require significant approximations and assumptions, with an integrated, coupled code that permits the design of a reactor core using a first-principles physics approach on a wide range of computing platforms, including the world's most powerful parallel computers. A key research activity of this effort deals with the efficient and scalable coupling of physics modules which utilize rather disparate mesh topologies. Our approach allows each code module to use a mesh topology and resolution that is optimal for the physics being solved, and employs a mesh-mapping and data-transfer module to effect the coupling. Additional research is planned in the area of scalable, parallel thermal-hydraulics, high-spatial-accuracy depletion and coupled-physics simulation using Monte Carlo transport.

  20. A Modern Approach to L-S Coupling in the Theory of Atomic Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doggett, Graham; Sutcliffe, Brian

    1998-01-01

    In a recent article on the theory of atomic spectroscopy (1), Haigh remarks that "Many introductory textbooks on spectroscopy give satisfactory accounts of Russell-Saunders (LS) coupling, but their treatment of jj coupling is generally very brief." Although we do not wish to dissent from his sentiments on j-j coupling, we wonder whether the treatment of L-S coupling usually offered in introductory texts for term enumeration is not too old-fashioned to still be considered entirely satisfactory. In this article we present an approach to the construction of L-S terms that makes contact with modern group theoretical and tensorial approaches to the theory of atomic spectra and is as easy to present and to comprehend as is the old microstates approach (2, 3). We believe that it is at least as easy to use as the approach of Guofan and Elizey (4) presented in this Journal some ten years ago: in fact, we have been teaching the enumeration of L-S terms for the past ten years using the methods presented in Section 2.

  1. The physics of musical scales: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durfee, Dallin S.; Colton, John S.

    2015-10-01

    The theory of musical scales involves mathematical ratios, harmonic resonators, beats, and human perception and provides an interesting application of the physics of waves and sound. We first review the history and physics of musical scales, with an emphasis on four historically important scales: twelve-tone equal temperament, Pythagorean, quarter-comma meantone, and Ptolemaic just intonation. We then present an easy way for students and teachers to directly experience the qualities of different scales using MIDI synthesis.

  2. Evaluation of a Theory of Instructional Sequences for Physics Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wackermann, Rainer; Trendel, Georg; Fischer, Hans E.

    2010-05-01

    The background of the study is the theory of basis models of teaching and learning, a comprehensive set of models of learning processes which includes, for example, learning through experience and problem-solving. The combined use of different models of learning processes has not been fully investigated and it is frequently not clear under what circumstances a particular model should be used by teachers. In contrast, the theory under investigation here gives guidelines for choosing a particular model and provides instructional sequences for each model. The aim is to investigate the implementation of the theory applied to physics instruction and to show if possible effects for the students may be attributed to the use of the theory. Therefore, a theory-oriented education programme for 18 physics teachers was developed and implemented in the 2005/06 school year. The main features of the intervention consisted of coaching physics lessons and video analysis according to the theory. The study follows a pre-treatment-post design with non-equivalent control group. Findings of repeated-measures ANOVAs show large effects for teachers' subjective beliefs, large effects for classroom actions, and small to medium effects for student outcomes such as perceived instructional quality and student emotions. The teachers/classes that applied the theory especially well according to video analysis showed the larger effects. The results showed that differentiating between different models of learning processes improves physics instruction. Effects can be followed through to student outcomes. The education programme effect was clearer for classroom actions and students' outcomes than for teachers' beliefs.

  3. Role Socialization Theory: The Sociopolitical Realities of Teaching Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, K. Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Much has been learned about the socialization of physical education (PE) teachers using occupational socialization theory (OST). However, important to understanding any socialization process is explaining how the roles that individuals play are socially constructed and contextually bound. OST falls short of providing a comprehensive overview of…

  4. Life at the interface of particle physics and string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellekens, A. N.

    2013-10-01

    If the results of the first LHC run are not betraying us, many decades of particle physics are culminating in a complete and consistent theory for all nongravitational physics: the standard model. But despite this monumental achievement there is a clear sense of disappointment: many questions remain unanswered. Remarkably, most unanswered questions could just be environmental, and disturbingly to some the existence of life may depend on that environment. Meanwhile there has been increasing evidence that the seemingly ideal candidate for answering these questions, string theory, gives an answer few people initially expected: a large “landscape” of possibilities that can be realized in a multiverse and populated by eternal inflation. At the interface of “bottom-up” and “top-down” physics, a discussion of anthropic arguments becomes unavoidable. Developments in this area are reviewed, focusing especially on the last decade.

  5. Abstraction/Representation Theory for heterotic physical computing.

    PubMed

    Horsman, D C

    2015-07-28

    We give a rigorous framework for the interaction of physical computing devices with abstract computation. Device and program are mediated by the non-logical representation relation; we give the conditions under which representation and device theory give rise to commuting diagrams between logical and physical domains, and the conditions for computation to occur. We give the interface of this new framework with currently existing formal methods, showing in particular its close relationship to refinement theory, and the implications for questions of meaning and reference in theoretical computer science. The case of hybrid computing is considered in detail, addressing in particular the example of an Internet-mediated social machine, and the abstraction/representation framework used to provide a formal distinction between heterotic and hybrid computing. This forms the basis for future use of the framework in formal treatments of non-standard physical computers. PMID:26078343

  6. On the physical basis of a theory of human thermoregulation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iberall, A. S.; Schindler, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Theoretical study of the physical factors which are responsible for thermoregulation in nude resting humans in a physical steady state. The behavior of oxidative metabolism, evaporative and convective thermal fluxes, fluid heat transfer, internal and surface temperatures, and evaporative phase transitions is studied by physiological/physical modeling techniques. The modeling is based on the theories that the body has a vital core with autothermoregulation, that the vital core contracts longitudinally, that the temperature of peripheral regions and extremities decreases towards the ambient, and that a significant portion of the evaporative heat may be lost underneath the skin. A theoretical basis is derived for a consistent modeling of steady-state thermoregulation on the basis of these theories.

  7. The gatekeepers of modern physics: periodicals and peer review in 1920s Britain.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Imogen

    2015-03-01

    This essay analyzes the processes behind the publication of physics papers in two British journals in the 1920s: the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: Series A and the Philosophical Magazine. On the surface, it looked as though the Philosophical Magazine was managed very informally, while the Proceedings had in place a seemingly rigid system of committee approval and peer review. This essay shows, however, that in practice the two journals were both influenced by networks of expertise that afforded small groups of physicists considerable control over the content of these prestigious scientific publications. This study explores the nature of peer review, suggesting how a historical approach can contribute to contemporary debates. In studying these relationships, the essay also considers the interplay of "classical" and "modern" ideas and physicists in 1920s Britain and cautions against an anachronistic approach to this classification. PMID:26027308

  8. Field theory as a tool to constrain new physics models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, Axel

    2015-08-01

    One of the major problems in developing new physics scenarios is that very often the parameters can be adjusted such that in perturbation theory almost all experimental low-energy results can be accommodated. It is therefore desirable to have additional constraints. Field-theoretical considerations can provide such additional constraints on the low-lying spectrum and multiplicities of models. Especially for theories with elementary or composite Higgs particle the Fröhlich-Morchio-Strocchi (FMS) mechanism provides a route to create additional conditions, though showing it to be at work requires genuine non-perturbative calculations. The qualitative features of this procedure are discussed for generic 2-Higgs-doublet models (2HDMs), grand-unified theories (GUTs) and technicolor-type theories.

  9. Physical and chemical weathering in modern and Permian proximal fluvial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, Leslie Jo

    Chapter 1 Inferring paleoclimate from ancient fluvial strata can be challenging, and conflicting interpretations for a given system are common in the literature. This research uses a combination of physical and chemical weathering signals in an attempt to better define the paleoclimatic interpretations for the proximal Cutler Formation near Gateway, Colorado (Chapter 3) and the Post Oak Conglomerate in the Wichita Mountains, Oklahoma (Chapter 4), both Permian units. Chapter 4 includes a comparison of weathering signals from modern sediments in the Wichita Mountains. A methodology for pretreatment techniques used for grain-size analysis was evaluated during the course of the research and is the topic of Chapter 2. This dissertation is organized as three stand-alone manuscripts and a brief summary of each is presented below. Chapter 2 Pretreatment drying of mud-sized sediment (<63 im) resulted in clayrich (>39%) samples exhibiting more sensitivity to drying techniques than clay-poor (<39%) samples. This demonstrates an influence of the drying technique on the granulometric results. Employing freeze drying for sample drying yielded the most consistent results. However, for samples with <39% clay-sized material, all drying techniques are equally effective, and no apparent need exists for the extra effort (and expense) that accompanies freeze drying. Chapter 3 Scanning Electron Microscopy is a useful tool in the study of quartz grain microtextures. Microtextures on quartz grains from the proximal Cutler Formation near Gateway, CO were documented for the presence/absence of 18 distinct microtextures. Averaging of presence/absence data for the samples provided a means to use more quantitative techniques than previously employed for SEM microtextural analysis. These continuous quantitative variables were utilized for non-metric multidimensional scaling, a purely quantitative technique that does not rely on initial assumptions of what environments produce specific

  10. Perspectives in quantum physics: Epistemological, ontological and pedagogical An investigation into student and expert perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics, with implications for modern physics instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baily, Charles Raymond

    A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our studies suggest this notoriously difficult task may be frustrated by the intuitively realist perspectives of introductory students, and a lack of ontological flexibility in their conceptions of light and matter. We have developed a framework for understanding and characterizing student perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics, and demonstrate the differential impact on student thinking of the myriad ways instructors approach interpretive themes in their introductory courses. Like expert physicists, students interpret quantum phenomena differently, and these interpretations are significantly influenced by their overall stances on questions central to the so-called measurement problem: Is the wave function physically real, or simply a mathematical tool? Is the collapse of the wave function an ad hoc rule, or a physical transition not described by any equation? Does an electron, being a form of matter, exist as a localized particle at all times? These questions, which are of personal and academic interest to our students, are largely only superficially addressed in our introductory courses, often for fear of opening a Pandora's Box of student questions, none of which have easy answers. We show how a transformed modern physics curriculum (recently implemented at the University of Colorado) may positively impact student perspectives on indeterminacy and wave-particle duality, by making questions of classical and quantum reality a central theme of our course, but also by making the beliefs of our students, and not just those of scientists, an explicit topic of discussion.

  11. Modern ab initio valence bond theory calculations reveal charge shift bonding in protic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Patil, Amol Baliram; Bhanage, Bhalchandra Mahadeo

    2016-06-21

    The nature of bonding interactions between the cation and the anion of an ionic liquid is at the heart of understanding ionic liquid properties. A particularly interesting case is a special class of ionic liquids known as protic ionic liquids. The extent of proton transfer in protic ionic liquids has been observed to vary according to the interacting species. Back proton transfer renders protic ionic liquids volatile and to be considered as inferior ionic liquids. We try to address this issue by employing modern ab initio valence bond theory calculations. The results indicate that the bonding in the cation and the anion of a prototypical ionic liquid, ethylammonium nitrate, is fundamentally different. It is neither characteristic of covalent/polar covalent bonding nor ionic bonding but rather charge shift bonding as a resonance hybrid of two competing ionic molecular electronic structure configurations. An investigation of other analogous protic ionic liquids reveals that this charge shift bonding seems to be a typical characteristic of protic ionic liquids while the ionic solid analogue compound ammonium nitrate has less charge shift bonding character as compared to protic ionic liquids. Further the extent of charge shift bonding character has been found to be congruent with the trends in many physicochemical properties such as melting point, conductivity, viscosity, and ionicity of the studied ionic liquids indicating that percentage charge shift character may serve as a key descriptor for large scale computational screening of ionic liquids with desired properties. PMID:27229870

  12. [Investigations in dynamics of gauge theories in theoretical particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The major theme of the theoretical physics research conducted under DOE support over the past several years has been within the rubric of the standard model, and concerned the interplay between symmetries and dynamics. The research was thus carried out mostly in the context of gauge field theories, and usually in the presence of chiral fermions. Dynamical symmetry breaking was examined both from the point of view of perturbation theory, as well as from non-perturbative techniques associated with certain characteristic features of specific theories. Among the topics of research were: the implications of abelian and non-abelian anomalies on the spectrum and possible dynamical symmetry breaking in any theory, topological and conformal properties of quantum fields in two and higher dimensions, the breaking of global chiral symmetries by vector-like gauge theories such as QCD, the phenomenological implications of a strongly interacting Higgs sector in the standard model, and the application of soliton ideas to the physics to be explored at the SSC.

  13. Physical Theory of Vaccine Design for Influenza and Dengue Fever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deem, Michael

    2009-03-01

    The immune system normally protects the human host against death by infection. I will introduce a physical theory of the evolutionary dynamics that occurs in the antibody-mediated and T cell-mediated immune responses. The theory will be used to provide a mechanism for original antigenic sin, wherein an initial exposure to antigen can degrade the response of the immune system upon subsequent exposure to related, but different, antigens. A new order parameter to characterize antigenic distance will be introduced from the theory. This order parameter predicts effectiveness of the influenza vaccine more reliably than do results from animal model studies currently used by world health authorities. I will discuss how this order parameter might be a valuable new tool for making vaccine-related public health policy decisions. Next, I will briefly discuss dengue fever. Infection with, or vaccination against, one of the four serotypes of dengue fever typically increases susceptibility to dengue hemorrhagic fever from one of the other three serotypes. I will present a physical theory of this immunodominance and use this theory to quantify the predicted mitigation of immunodominance in a novel formulation of the dengue vaccine.

  14. Precision Higgs Boson Physics and Implications for Beyond the Standard Model Physics Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, James

    2015-06-10

    The discovery of the Higgs boson is one of science's most impressive recent achievements. We have taken a leap forward in understanding what is at the heart of elementary particle mass generation. We now have a significant opportunity to develop even deeper understanding of how the fundamental laws of nature are constructed. As such, we need intense focus from the scientific community to put this discovery in its proper context, to realign and narrow our understanding of viable theory based on this positive discovery, and to detail the implications the discovery has for theories that attempt to answer questions beyond what the Standard Model can explain. This project's first main object is to develop a state-of-the-art analysis of precision Higgs boson physics. This is to be done in the tradition of the electroweak precision measurements of the LEP/SLC era. Indeed, the electroweak precision studies of the past are necessary inputs to the full precision Higgs program. Calculations will be presented to the community of Higgs boson observables that detail just how well various couplings of the Higgs boson can be measured, and more. These will be carried out using state-of-the-art theory computations coupled with the new experimental results coming in from the LHC. The project's second main objective is to utilize the results obtained from LHC Higgs boson experiments and the precision analysis, along with the direct search studies at LHC, and discern viable theories of physics beyond the Standard Model that unify physics to a deeper level. Studies will be performed on supersymmetric theories, theories of extra spatial dimensions (and related theories, such as compositeness), and theories that contain hidden sector states uniquely accessible to the Higgs boson. In addition, if data becomes incompatible with the Standard Model's low-energy effective lagrangian, new physics theories will be developed that explain the anomaly and put it into a more unified framework beyond

  15. JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Papenbrock, Thomas

    2014-05-16

    The grant “JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei ” (DOE DE‐FG02‐06ER41407) ran from 02/01/2006 thru 12/31/2013. JUSTIPEN is a venue for international collaboration between U.S.‐based and Japanese scientists who share an interest in theory of rare isotopes. Since its inception JUSTIPEN has supported many visitors, fostered collaborations between physicists in the U.S. and Japan, and enabled them to deepen our understanding of exotic nuclei and their role in cosmos.

  16. Women in Physics in Australia as the Expectations of the Modern Researcher Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, C. P.

    2009-04-01

    Publicly funded science, which employs the majority of research scientists in Australia, has since 1988 had significant shifts in the basis for funding with the expectation that all research, regardless of how fundamental, should have a plan or potential for impact for the community's benefit. This may be solving major problems for Australia (e.g., climate change and provision of water and energy) to creating new technologies and industries to boost the Australian economy. At the same time, there has been some improvement in the status of women in science in Australia. There is recognition that women bring diversity to research teams, making teams more effective, and this is being embraced. However, other issues are still creating difficulties for women from the drop in the quality of child care while its costs increase; the need to juggle family and career, particularly balancing the need for travel; the poorly paid maternity leave provisions; and the difficulty in restarting a career in science if time is taken out for child rearing. The changing expectations of the modern researcher, the status of women in Australian physics as a specific example, and the issues that are limiting women's opportunities in a ``well meaning'' culture that does not realize the limitations it is creating are reported, along with what the Australian Institute of Physics is doing to overcome them.

  17. The foundation of Piaget's theories: mental and physical action.

    PubMed

    Beilin, H; Fireman, G

    1999-01-01

    Piaget's late theory of action and action implication was the realization of a long history of development. A review of that history shows the central place of action in all of his theoretical assertions, despite the waxing and waning of other important features of his theories. Action was said to be the primary source of knowledge with perception and language in secondary roles. Action is for the most part not only organized but there is logic in action. Action, which is at first physical, becomes internalized and transformed into mental action and mental representation, largely in the development of the symbolic or semiotic function in the sensorimotor period. A number of alternative theories of cognitive development place primary emphasis on mental representation. Piaget provided it with an important place as well, but subordinated it to mental action in the form of operations. In this, as Russell claims, he paralleled Schopenhauer's distinction between representation and will. Piaget's theory of action was intimately related to the gradual development of intentionality in childhood. Intentions were tied to actions by way of the conscious awareness of goals and the means to achieve them. Mental action, following the sensorimotor period, was limited in its logical form to semilogical or one-way functions. These forms were said by Piaget to lack logical reversibility, which was achieved only in the sixth or seventh year, in concrete operations. Mental action was not to be fully realized until the development of formal operations, with hypothetical reasoning, in adolescence, according to the classical Piagetian formulation. This view of the child's logical development, which relied heavily on truth-table (extensional) logic, underwent a number of changes. First from the addition of other logics: category theory and the theory of functions among them. In his last theory, however, an even more radical change occurred. With the collaboration of R. Garcia, he proposed

  18. Physical Disability and the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide.

    PubMed

    Khazem, Lauren R; Jahn, Danielle R; Cukrowicz, Kelly C; Anestis, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal Theory of Suicide constructs were examined in individuals with physical disabilities, a population identified as having heightened suicidal ideation. Students (N = 184) answered online-based self-report questionnaires. Students with physical disabilities (n = 49) were expected to endorse higher levels of constructs relative to other students (n = 133). Analyses of covariance indicated that those with disabilities reported higher perceived burdensomeness, but not thwarted belongingness, fearlessness about death, or suicidal ideation. Suicide prevention efforts, particularly in university settings, may benefit from focusing on reducing perceived burdensomeness in this population, as these individuals may be at heightened risk. PMID:26079648

  19. A topos foundation for theories of physics: II. Daseinisation and the liberation of quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, A.; Isham, C. J.

    2008-05-01

    This paper is the second in a series whose goal is to develop a fundamentally new way of constructing theories of physics. The motivation comes from a desire to address certain deep issues that arise when contemplating quantum theories of space and time. Our basic contention is that constructing a theory of physics is equivalent to finding a representation in a topos of a certain formal language that is attached to the system. Classical physics arises when the topos is the category of sets. Other types of theory employ a different topos. In this paper, we study in depth the topos representation of the propositional language, PL(S ), for the case of quantum theory. In doing so, we make a direct link with, and clarify, the earlier work on applying topos theory to quantum physics. The key step is a process we term "daseinisation" by which a projection operator is mapped to a subobject of the spectral presheaf—the topos quantum analog of a classical state space. In the second part of the paper, we change gear with the introduction of the more sophisticated local language L(S ). From this point forward, throughout the rest of the series of papers, our attention will be devoted almost entirely to this language. In the present paper, we use L(S ) to study "truth objects" in the topos. These are objects in the topos that play the role of states: a necessary development as the spectral presheaf has no global elements, and hence, there are no micro-states in the sense of classical physics. Truth objects therefore play a crucial role in our formalism.

  20. A topos foundation for theories of physics: I. Formal languages for physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, A.; Isham, C. J.

    2008-05-01

    This paper is the first in a series whose goal is to develop a fundamentally new way of constructing theories of physics. The motivation comes from a desire to address certain deep issues that arise when contemplating quantum theories of space and time. Our basic contention is that constructing a theory of physics is equivalent to finding a representation in a topos of a certain formal language that is attached to the system. Classical physics arises when the topos is the category of sets. Other types of theory employ a different topos. In this paper, we discuss two different types of language that can be attached to a system S. The first is a propositional language PL(S ); the second is a higher-order, typed language L(S ). Both languages provide deductive systems with an intuitionistic logic. The reason for introducing PL(S ) is that, as shown in Paper II of the series, it is the easiest way of understanding, and expanding on, the earlier work on topos theory and quantum physics. However, the main thrust of our program utilizes the more powerful language L(S ) and its representation in an appropriate topos.

  1. Psychosocial Factors and Theory in Physical Activity Studies in Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade K.; McNeill, Lorna H.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Evans, Alexandra E.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Adamus-Leach, Heather J.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To summarize the effectiveness of interventions targeting psychosocial factors to increase physical activity (PA) among ethnic minority adults and explore theory use in PA interventions. Methods Studies (N = 11) were identified through a systematic review and targeted African American/Hispanic adults, specific psychosocial factors, and PA. Data were extracted using a standard code sheet and the Theory Coding Scheme. Results Social support was the most common psychosocial factor reported, followed by motivational readiness, and self-efficacy, as being associated with increased PA. Only 7 studies explicitly reported using a theoretical framework. Conclusions Future efforts should explore theory use in PA interventions and how integration of theoretical constructs, including psychosocial factors, increases PA. PMID:25290599

  2. Future planning and evaluation for automated adaptive minehunting: a roadmap for mine countermeasures theory modernization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Gregory A.; Wettergren, Thomas A.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a discussion of U.S. naval mine countermeasures (MCM) theory modernization in light of advances in the areas of autonomy, tactics, and sensor processing. The unifying theme spanning these research areas concerns the capability for in situ adaptation of processing algorithms, plans, and vehicle behaviors enabled through run-time situation assessment and performance estimation. Independently, each of these technology developments impact the MCM Measures of Effectiveness1 [MOE(s)] of time and risk by improving one or more associated Measures of Performance2 [MOP(s)]; the contribution of this paper is to outline an integrated strategy for realizing the cumulative benefits of these technology enablers to the United States Navy's minehunting capability. An introduction to the MCM problem is provided to frame the importance of the foundational research and the ramifications of the proposed strategy on the MIW community. We then include an overview of current and future adaptive capability research in the aforementioned areas, highlighting a departure from the existing rigid assumption-based approaches while identifying anticipated technology acceptance issues. Consequently, the paper describes an incremental strategy for transitioning from the current minehunting paradigm where tactical decision aids rely on a priori intelligence and there is little to no in situ adaptation or feedback to a future vision where unmanned systems3, equipped with a representation of the commander's intent, are afforded the authority and ability to adapt to environmental perturbations with minimal human-in-the-loop supervision. The discussion concludes with an articulation of the science and technology issues which the MCM research community must continue to address.

  3. Modern Prescription Theory and Application: Realistic Expectations for Speech Recognition With Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A major decision at the time of hearing aid fitting and dispensing is the amount of amplification to provide listeners (both adult and pediatric populations) for the appropriate compensation of sensorineural hearing impairment across a range of frequencies (e.g., 160–10000 Hz) and input levels (e.g., 50–75 dB sound pressure level). This article describes modern prescription theory for hearing aids within the context of a risk versus return trade-off and efficient frontier analyses. The expected return of amplification recommendations (i.e., generic prescriptions such as National Acoustic Laboratories—Non-Linear 2, NAL-NL2, and Desired Sensation Level Multiple Input/Output, DSL m[i/o]) for the Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) and high-frequency audibility were traded against a potential risk (i.e., loudness). The modeled performance of each prescription was compared one with another and with the efficient frontier of normal hearing sensitivity (i.e., a reference point for the most return with the least risk). For the pediatric population, NAL-NL2 was more efficient for SII, while DSL m[i/o] was more efficient for high-frequency audibility. For the adult population, NAL-NL2 was more efficient for SII, while the two prescriptions were similar with regard to high-frequency audibility. In terms of absolute return (i.e., not considering the risk of loudness), however, DSL m[i/o] prescribed more outright high-frequency audibility than NAL-NL2 for either aged population, particularly, as hearing loss increased. Given the principles and demonstrated accuracy of desensitization (reduced utility of audibility with increasing hearing loss) observed at the group level, additional high-frequency audibility beyond that of NAL-NL2 is not expected to make further contributions to speech intelligibility (recognition) for the average listener. PMID:24253361

  4. Modern prescription theory and application: realistic expectations for speech recognition with hearing AIDS.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Earl E

    2013-01-01

    A major decision at the time of hearing aid fitting and dispensing is the amount of amplification to provide listeners (both adult and pediatric populations) for the appropriate compensation of sensorineural hearing impairment across a range of frequencies (e.g., 160-10000 Hz) and input levels (e.g., 50-75 dB sound pressure level). This article describes modern prescription theory for hearing aids within the context of a risk versus return trade-off and efficient frontier analyses. The expected return of amplification recommendations (i.e., generic prescriptions such as National Acoustic Laboratories-Non-Linear 2, NAL-NL2, and Desired Sensation Level Multiple Input/Output, DSL m[i/o]) for the Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) and high-frequency audibility were traded against a potential risk (i.e., loudness). The modeled performance of each prescription was compared one with another and with the efficient frontier of normal hearing sensitivity (i.e., a reference point for the most return with the least risk). For the pediatric population, NAL-NL2 was more efficient for SII, while DSL m[i/o] was more efficient for high-frequency audibility. For the adult population, NAL-NL2 was more efficient for SII, while the two prescriptions were similar with regard to high-frequency audibility. In terms of absolute return (i.e., not considering the risk of loudness), however, DSL m[i/o] prescribed more outright high-frequency audibility than NAL-NL2 for either aged population, particularly, as hearing loss increased. Given the principles and demonstrated accuracy of desensitization (reduced utility of audibility with increasing hearing loss) observed at the group level, additional high-frequency audibility beyond that of NAL-NL2 is not expected to make further contributions to speech intelligibility (recognition) for the average listener. PMID:24253361

  5. BOOK REVIEW: The Harvest of a Century: Discoveries of Modern Physics in 100 Episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisut, Ján

    2009-07-01

    The subtitle of the book is exact: the book presents an impression of the development of physics between 1895 (Röntgen's x-rays) and 2001 (Neutrinos have mass). Each episode describes a particular discovery in about five pages in an easily readable style. More demanding explanations are presented in inserted boxes. A nice feature of the book is that many episodes contain the original drawing of the scheme of the experiment, so that the reader can see how it really happened. For most of the past century, certainly for its first half, physics was the leading science and brought fundamental discoveries in the structure of matter, including the structure of nuclei and particles, and the structure of space-time. Most of the episodes in the book concern these two general fields. Among the episodes are the discoveries of radioactivity, the atomic nucleus, the structure of the atom, quantum mechanics, the theory of relativity, accelerators, superconductivity, superfluidity, nuclear reactions in stars, and also transistors, masers, lasers, black-body radiation of the Universe and Bose-Einstein condensation of atoms in traps amongst others. The author is to be congratulated for the selection of the 100 episodes, as it must have been a difficult task. The discovery of the structure of haemoglobin in Bragg's laboratory received only two lines, and there is no mention of the explanation of the chemical bond in hydrogen molecules or on the construction of fantastic medical instruments based on discoveries in physics. Perhaps there is scope in the future for another 100 episodes of discoveries in multidisciplinary fields where physics has played an essential role. Even some discoveries in pure physics could not be included, for instance, super-heavy nuclei. I would like to recommend this book to all those who like the history of physics and admire its achievements in the past century. In particular, I would also like to recommend it to teachers of introductory courses in atomic

  6. Focusing giga-electronvolt heavy ions to micrometers at the Institute of Modern Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Lina; Du, Guanghua; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Ruqun; Song, Mingtao; Yuan, Youjin; Xiao, Guoqing

    2013-05-01

    To study the radiation effect of cosmic heavy ions of low fluxes in electronics and living samples, a focusing heavy ion microbeam facility, for ions with energies of several MeV/u up to 100 MeV/u, was constructed in the Institute of Modern Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. This facility has a vertical design and an experiment platform for both in-vacuum analysis and in-air irradiation. Recently, microbeam of 12C6+ with energy of 80.55 MeV/u was successfully achieved at this interdisciplinary microbeam facility with a full beam spot size of 3 μm × 5 μm on target in air. Different from ions with energy of several MeV/u, the very high ion energy of hundred MeV/u level induces problems in beam micro-collimation, online beam spot diagnosis, radiation protection, etc. This paper presents the microbeam setup, difficulties in microbeam formation, and the preliminary experiments performed with the facility.

  7. An Experimental Study to Determine the Change in Attitude Toward Science of College Physics Students in Traditional and Modern Physics Content Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nance, William Ralph

    The experiment was designed to study the effects of an instructional strategy on prospective elementary school teachers receiving a course in the modern concepts of physics. The study involved two classes, both of which were taught with the same teaching method. The concepts presented were different. Those considered as traditional content…

  8. Principles and the Development of Physical Theory: Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovis, Robert Corby

    Three separate articles make up the chapters of this dissertation. They were written with different aims and audiences in mind, but each deals in some way with one or more "principles" that have been invoked in argumentation and explanation in the physical sciences. The principles of concern are propositions which have an "aesthetic" or "foundational" or "philosophical" character and which are (or have been) generally believed to be widely applicable or particularly powerful--for example, the Principle of Plenitude, the Principle of Mathematical Beauty, Occam's Razor, the Cosmological Principle, and the Copernican Principle. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the nature and uses of principles in scientific reasoning and examines in some detail the use of the Principle of Plenitude in the introduction of "tachyons" (faster-than-light particles) into theoretical physics during the 1960s. Chapter 2 is a short biography of P. A. M. Dirac (1902-1984), one of the founders of quantum mechanics, who believed that the Principle of Mathematical Beauty should serve as physicists' guide to truth. Chapter 3 traces the history of the idea of faster-than-light particles in physics since the late 1800s; this idea matured with the rise of the subfield of tachyon physics in the 1960s, and (as mentioned above) physicists appealed to the Principle of Plenitude to argue for the existence of the particles, which are still only hypothetical. According to the thesis developed in these chapters, the epistemological status of principles has evolved over the history of science. While they were once hallowed as a priori truths, in modern science they have increasingly been employed critically, in light of the results of scientific inquiry. That is, science has moved toward making principles testable, subject to rejection or revision, on a par with other scientific propositions.

  9. Blue holes: Windows into chemical and physical hydrogeologic processes in karst of modern carbonate platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. B.; Gulley, J.; Spellman, P.

    2011-12-01

    Potable water is extracted from thin freshwater lenses that float on saltwater underlying many modern carbonate platforms. Protection of these thin aquifers is critical for the sustainable use of the limited water resources. The fresh water lenses are frequently intersected by dissolution and collapse features, commonly referred to as blue holes in the Bahamas. These features offer windows into physical and chemical processes within and below the freshwater lenses and provide opportunities to study natural and anthropogenic changes to the fresh water quantity and quality. Blue holes also efficiently link surface and subsurface environments and allow fluxes of organic carbon and oxygen into the aquifers. Remineralization of the organic carbon should increase pCO2, reduce pH, and thus enhance dissolution of the aquifer rocks. Enhanced dissolution requires exchange of water between the blue holes and the aquifer porosity, but most modern carbonate platforms have hydraulic gradients as low as 10-5 and lack allogenic recharge, thereby limiting processes to drive exchange. We measured chemical compositions and levels of water in blue holes and wells on San Salvador Island and Rum Cay, Bahamas to develop new techniques to estimate aquifer characteristics and water quality of modern carbonate platforms. On both islands, dampened amplitudes and lags of tides at wells (representing matrix permeability) and blue holes (representing conduit permeability) relative to the ocean indicate approximately 2.5 orders of magnitude greater hydraulic conductivity of conduits than the aquifer matrix. Tidal flow modified by this aquifer heterogeneity exchanges water between blue holes and aquifer rocks at tidal frequency. At Ink Well Blue Hole, on San Salvador Island, organic carbon remineralization is observed as an increase from around 50 to 70 mg/g dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and a decrease in δ13CDIC values from around -10 to -15% with depth across the halocline. This

  10. NASA's space physics theory program - An opportunity for collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinas, Adolfo F.

    1990-01-01

    The field of theoretical space physics offers a unique opportunity to Latin American scientists for collaborative participation in NASA programs where the greatly increased complexity of both experimental observations and theoretical simulations requires in-depth comparisons between theory and observational data. The key problem areas identified by NASA for aggressive work in the decade of the 1990s are the nature of flows and turbulence, acceleration and transport of particles, the coupling of microphysics and macrophysics, the coupling of local and global dynamics, and nonclassical plasmas.

  11. Physical Activity in Early and Modern Populations. Papers from the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Physical Education (59th, Las Vegas, Nevada, April 11-13, 1987). No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malina, Robert M., Ed.; Eckert, Helen M., Ed.

    Eleven conference papers explore physical activity in ancient societies as well as human adaptation of physical activities in modern society. The following papers are included: (1) "Physical Activity in Early and Modern Populations: An Evolutionary View" (Robert M. Malina); (2) "How Active Were Early Populations? or Squeezing the Fossil Record"…

  12. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Patterns of Cooperation: Distance Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their ability to analyze international relations, this monograph presents data on the application of distance theory to patterns of cooperation among nations. Distance theory implies that international relations systems (nations, organizations, individuals, etc.) can be…

  13. Using modern stellar observables to constrain stellar parameters and the physics of the stellar interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Saders, Jennifer L.

    2014-05-01

    The current state and future evolution of a star is, in principle, specified by a only a few physical quantities: the mass, age, hydrogen, helium, and metal abundance. These same fundamental quantities are crucial for reconstructing the history of stellar systems ranging in scale from planetary systems to galaxies. However, the fundamental parameters are rarely directly observable, and we are forced to use proxies that are not always sensitive or unique functions of the stellar parameters we wish to determine. Imprecise or inaccurate determinations of the fundamental parameters often limit our ability to draw inferences about a given system. As new technologies, instruments, and observing techniques become available, the list of viable stellar observables increases, and we can explore new links between the observables and fundamental quantities in an effort to better characterize stellar systems. In the era of missions such as Kepler, time-domain observables such as the stellar rotation period and stellar oscillations are now available for an unprecedented number of stars, and future missions promise to further expand the sample. Furthermore, despite the successes of stellar evolution models, the processes and detailed structure of the deep stellar interior remains uncertain. Even in the case of well-measured, well understood stellar observables, the link to the underlying parameters contains uncertainties due to our imperfect understanding of stellar interiors. Model uncertainties arise from sources such as the treatment of turbulent convection, transport of angular momentum and mixing, and assumptions about the physical conditions of stellar matter. By carefully examining the sensitivity of stellar observables to physical processes operating within the star and model assumptions, we can design observational tests for the theory of stellar interiors. I propose a series of tools based on new or revisited stellar observables that can be used both to constrain

  14. Grand unified theories and supersymmetry in particle physics and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, W.

    A review is given on the consistency checks of Grand Unified Theories (GUT), which unify the electroweak and strong nuclear forces into a single theory. Such theories predict a new kind of force, which could provide answers to several open questions in cosmology. The possible role of such a ``primeval'' force will be discussed in the framework of the Big Bang Theory. Although such a force cannot be observed directly, there are several predictions of GUT's, which can be verified at low energies. The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) distinguishes itself from other GUT's by a successful prediction of many unrelated phenomena with a minimum number of parameters. Among them: a) Unification of the couplings constants; b) Unification of the masses; c) Existence of dark matter; d) Proton decay; e) Electroweak symmetry breaking at a scale far below the unification scale. A fit of the free parameters in the MSSM to these low energy constraints predicts the masses of the as yet unobserved superpartners of the SM particles, constrains the unknown top mass to a range between 140 and 200 GeV, and requires the second order QCD coupling constant to be between 0.108 and 0.132. ``The possibility that the universe was generated from nothing is very interesting and should be further studied. A most perplexing question relating to the singularity is this: what preceded the genesis of the universe? This question appears to be absolutely methaphysical, but our experience with metaphysics tells us that metaphysical questions are sometimes given answers by physics.'' A. Linde (1982)

  15. The physical theory and propagation model of THz atmospheric propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R.; Yao, J. Q.; Xu, D. G.; Wang, J. L.; Wang, P.

    2011-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is extensively applied in diverse fields, such as space communication, Earth environment observation, atmosphere science, remote sensing and so on. And the research on propagation features of THz wave in the atmosphere becomes more and more important. This paper firstly illuminates the advantages and outlook of THz in space technology. Then it introduces the theoretical framework of THz atmospheric propagation, including some fundamental physical concepts and processes. The attenuation effect (especially the absorption of water vapor), the scattering of aerosol particles and the effect of turbulent flow mainly influence THz atmosphere propagation. Fundamental physical laws are illuminated as well, such as Lamber-beer law, Mie scattering theory and radiative transfer equation. The last part comprises the demonstration and comparison of THz atmosphere propagation models like Moliere(V5), SARTre and AMATERASU. The essential problems are the deep analysis of physical mechanism of this process, the construction of atmospheric propagation model and databases of every kind of material in the atmosphere, and the standardization of measurement procedures.

  16. The Orbital Distribution of Meteorites Based on High Temperature Thermoluminescence. 1; Theory and Modern Falls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    2001-01-01

    Like 250 C Thermoluminescence (TL) data, 400 C TL levels of modern falls largely reflect solar heating, and thus perihelia. The 400 C data offers additional constraints on orbital information for ordinary chondrites. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. 19th Century Roots of Modern Interpretation Theory: Dickens as a Platform Performer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, John Samuel

    Charles Dickens was not only a master novelist but was also a master in the art of performance. His distinctive reading style was in marked contrast to the standard practices of mid-nineteenth century elocution, but his unique readings and performance philosophy closely resemble the text-centered approach of modern oral interpretation. Considered…

  18. Using the Diffusion of Innovation Theory to Explain the Degree of English Teachers' Adoption of Interactive Whiteboards in the Modern Systems School in Jordan: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jwaifell, Mustafa; Gasaymeh, Al-Mothana

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explain the use of interactive whiteboards (IWBs) by English female teachers in Modern Systems School in Jordan. Viewed from the lens of Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation Theory, the study examined and reported teachers' use of IWB and its features that have impact on their decisions to adopt it in Modern Systems School . The…

  19. Opening up Learning Theory to Social Theory in Research on Sport and Physical Education through a Focus on Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research on pedagogy in physical education and sport has increasingly been informed by contemporary learning theory with the socio-cultural perspective being prominent. Over a similar period research on the social dimensions of physical education and youth sport has drawn on a range of social theory yet there has been little systematic…

  20. The Lorentz-Dirac and Landau-Lifshitz equations from the perspective of modern renormalization theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhleh, Charles W.

    2013-03-01

    This paper uses elementary techniques drawn from renormalization theory to derive the Lorentz-Dirac equation for the relativistic classical electron from the Maxwell-Lorentz equations for a classical charged particle coupled to the electromagnetic field. I show that the resulting effective theory, valid for electron motions that change over distances large compared to the classical electron radius, reduces naturally to the Landau-Lifshitz equation. No familiarity with renormalization or quantum field theory is assumed.

  1. The Clifford algebra of physical space and Dirac theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Jayme, Jr.

    2016-09-01

    The claim found in many textbooks that the Dirac equation cannot be written solely in terms of Pauli matrices is shown to not be completely true. It is only true as long as the term β \\psi in the usual Dirac factorization of the Klein–Gordon equation is assumed to be the product of a square matrix β and a column matrix ψ. In this paper we show that there is another possibility besides this matrix product, in fact a possibility involving a matrix operation, and show that it leads to another possible expression for the Dirac equation. We show that, behind this other possible factorization is the formalism of the Clifford algebra of physical space. We exploit this fact, and discuss several different aspects of Dirac theory using this formalism. In particular, we show that there are four different possible sets of definitions for the parity, time reversal, and charge conjugation operations for the Dirac equation.

  2. Einstein's Math Errors Profoundly Affects Mathematical and Physical Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressler, David

    2007-05-01

    Einstein treats time as a vector, however time is a scalar. Vectors possess both magnitude and direction. To mathematically equate time with direction is a Fallacy of Ambiguity. It is physically impossible to have space with more than three directions. Any theory where time is represented as a forth direction does not represent reality, i.e., (x, y, z, t). The entire math used in the Special and General Theories of Relativity is meaningless, unreasonable and ambiguous. Second. Einstein defines the speed of light as a constant, in the equation c = d (distance)/t (time). In this direct proportion, c being the constant, change one factor and the other must change as well. Einstein changes the time factor in this formula when time slows down but he does not change the distance factor. In reality, time slows down when space contracts in all three directions or in the system of Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z,) being length, width, and height. The author defines this contraction as C-Space. Pressler's Law of C-Space: The speed of light will always be measured as a constant, c, in all three directions, in ones own inertial reference frame and the speed of light will always be measured to be different in all other inertial reference frames which are at a different gravity or kinetic energy levels. Time is defined as the rate of physical process; how fast things take place. Gravity is the distortion of space in all three directions, c-space. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.OSS07.D2.2

  3. Perspectives in Quantum Physics: Epistemological, Ontological and Pedagogical--An Investigation into Student and Expert Perspectives on the Physical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, with Implications for Modern Physics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baily, Charles Raymond

    2011-01-01

    A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our studies suggest this notoriously difficult task may be frustrated by the intuitively "realist" perspectives of introductory students, and…

  4. Einstein's Math Errors Profoundly Affect Mathematical and Physical Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressler, David

    2008-04-01

    Einstein treats time as a vector, however, time has no direction associated with it; it is a scalar, it only has magnitude and is specified completely by giving it a number or units. Vectors possess both magnitude and direction. To mathematically equate time with direction is ambiguous and commits a Fallacy of Ambiguity. It is physically impossible to have space with more than three directions. Any theory where time is represented as a forth direction does not represent reality, i.e., (x, y, z, t). Einstein defines the speed of light as a constant, in the equation c = d (distance)/t (time). In this direct proportion Einstein changes the time factor (denominator), when time slows down due to motion but he does not change the distance factor (numerator). This is an error. In reality, time slows down when space contracts in all three directions, in the system of Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z,); or C-Space. Pressler's Law of C-Space: The speed of light will always be measured as a constant, c, in all three directions, in ones own inertial reference frame and the speed of light will always be measured to be different in all other inertial reference frames which are at a different gravity or kinetic energy level. Time is exactly defined as the rate of physical process; how fast things take place. This new paradigm shift redefines the Michelson-Morley where both mirrors move inward toward the center of the interferometer.

  5. Surviving death-anxieties in liquid modern times: examining Zygmunt Bauman's cultural theory of death and dying.

    PubMed

    Higo, Masa

    2012-01-01

    Despite his prominence as a leading contemporary social theorist, Zygmunt Bauman's long-term writing on the cultural theory of death and dying has largely been overlooked in the sociological literature of death and dying, particularly in the United States. Bauman uniquely theorizes how we survive death-anxieties today: Contemporary, liquid modern culture has engaged us in ceaseless pursuit of the unattainable consumer sensation of bodily fitness as a way to suppress and thus survive our death-anxieties. Bauman also argues that the prevalence of this cultural formula to survive death-anxieties has simultaneously increased, more than ever before in social history, the volume of individual responsibility for restlessly coping with existential anxieties in the societies of consumers. While unique and insightful, his theoretical argument has a limitation; largely succeeding Freud's classic view of mortality, Bauman's contemporary theory may lead us to neglect potentially important social, cultural, and historical variations in how mortality has been understood. PMID:23057247

  6. Awareness and use of modern contraceptives among physically challenged in-school adolescents in Osun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olajide, Folakemi O; Omisore, Akinlolu G; Arije, Olujide O; Afolabi, Olusegun T; Olajide, Abimbola O

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed awareness and use of modern contraceptives among physically challenged in-school adolescents in Osun State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 215 adolescents in the special schools in the state. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers. Data analysis was done using SPSS 17 and statistical level of significance was set at p < 0.05. The mean age of the respondents was 15.5 years and more than half of them (56%) were males. Only about two fifths of them (38%) had ever heard about modern contraceptives. More males, older adolescents and visually impaired respondents had significantly heard about modern contraceptives compared with females, younger ones and those with other challenges at p-values of 0.026, 0.001 and 0.003 respectively. Only 34% of sexually experienced respondents had used a modern contraceptive method. The male condom was the most commonly used method. PMID:25022145

  7. Multiple traces or Fuzzy Traces? Converging evidence for applications of modern cognitive theory to psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Valerie F; Landa, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    Neurobiologically informed integration of research on memory, emotion, and behavior change in psychotherapy is needed, which Lane at al. advance. Memory reconsolidation that incorporates new emotional experience plays an important role in therapeutic change, converging with evidence for Fuzzy Trace Theory. Applications of Fuzzy Trace Theory to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for youth at risk for psychosis, and to other aspects of behavior change, are discussed. PMID:26050686

  8. MODERN THEORIES OF CARBON-BASED ELECTROCHEMICAL CAPACITORS: A SHORT REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, Vincent; Feng, Guang; Huang, Jingsong; Qiao, Rui; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical models for electrochemical capacitors range from the original Helmholtz model and mean-field continuum models, to the surface curvature-based post-Helmholtz models, and to modern atomistic simulations. Here, we review current theoretical models that have been useful at shedding light on experimental findings but also provide predictive capabilities that are needed to achieve the optimization of supercapacitors. Due to the non-planar surface of materials at the nanoscale, the original Helmholtz model is gradually found to be outdated, in particular for carbon materials. We show that the surface curvature-based models provide a better description of the interfacial behavior of carbon materials.

  9. BOOK REVIEW: Einstein's General Theory of Relativity—with Modern Applications in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrabès, C.

    2008-09-01

    The increasing prominence of general relativity in astrophysics and cosmology is reflected in the growing number of texts, particularly at the undergraduate level. A natural attitude before opening a new one is to ask i) what makes this different from those already published? And ii) does it follow the 'physics-first approach' as for instance the book by Hartle where the basic physical concepts are introduced first with as little formalism as possible, or does it follow the more traditional 'math-first approach' for which the mathematical formalism comes first and is then applied to phyics? As announced in the title, a distinctive feature of the book by Gron and Hervik is the space (almost half the book) devoted to cosmology and in particular to some of the most recent developments in this rapidly evolving field. It is also apparent that the authors have chosen, like the majority of current books on general relativity, the 'math-first approach'. The book is divided into six parts, each of them subdivided into chapters with part VI containing a few short technical appendices. The first part of the book briefly presents in chapter I the principles of relativity, Newtonian mechanics and the Newtonian theory of gravity. In chapter II, a short introduction to special relativity is given. It seems at first surprising that the four-dimensional structure of space-time is not more fully exploited so that the reader would gain familiarity early on with notions like 4-velocity, 4-momentum and the stress energy tensor. This is in fact postponed to part II as an illustration of the mathematical formalism. The second part is devoted to those elements of differential geometry needed in this kind of course. The authors' presentation is somewhat similar to that of the books by Misner, Thorne and Wheeler and by Straumann (2nd edition). Vectors and forms are treated separately and the formalism of differential forms is introduced in detail. The various kinds of differentiation on

  10. Assessing the effect of manual physical activity on proximal hand phalanges using Hellenistic and modern skeletal samples from Greece.

    PubMed

    Karakostis, F A; Le Quéré, E; Vanna, V; Moraitis, K

    2016-04-01

    In humans, physical activity is an important regulator of bone size. Furthermore, hand bones have been proposed as a potential avenue for assessing patterns of manual activity. However, there are very few studies presenting a metric comparison of proximal hand phalanges among different populations. Moreover, an osteoarchaeological approach to the manual activities performed by an ancient population is yet to be made. In this framework, this study aims at assessing and interpreting the metric variation in these bones between a documented modern Greek sample (20th century) and a Hellenistic sample from Demetrias (3rd-1st century BCE), in terms of size and sexual dimorphism. Ancient males were significantly larger than females for ten phalangeal measurements out of 35. Even though the degree of sexual dimorphism was lower in the Hellenistic material (the maximum sexual dimorphism observed - 12.46%) than in modern sample (the maximum observed - 21.19%), the ranking of rays and bone parts by sexual dimorphism was similar in both populations. No metric difference was observed between modern and ancient males, whereas ancient females were larger than modern females in seven dimensions (the maximum variation observed was 11.58%), which involved the bases and midshafts of phalanges. Given that these dimensions are affected by the degree of muscular recruitment for the formation of various hand grips, it is suggested that ancient females were involved in manual activities of greater grasping variance than modern females. Indeed, the historical and archaeological sources suggest that sexual distribution of labour in the Hellenistic society seems to explain the differences estimated between the sexes and the two populations under study. PMID:26772163

  11. The Place of Learning Quantum Theory in Physics Teacher Education: Motivational Elements Arising from the Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Körhasan, Nilüfer Didis

    2015-01-01

    Quantum theory is one of the most successful theories in physics. Because of its abstract, mathematical, and counter-intuitive nature, many students have problems learning the theory, just as teachers experience difficulty in teaching it. Pedagogical research on quantum theory has mainly focused on cognitive issues. However, affective issues about…

  12. Cultural Pluralism in Context: External History, Philosophic Premise, and Theories of Ethnicity in Modern America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Fred

    1984-01-01

    The cultural pluralism theories of Horace Kallen, Louis Adamic, and Michael Novak are related to the recent interest in questions about (1) the relation of ideas of ethnicity to the larger society in which ethnic groups exist, and (2) the theoretical bases of assertions of ethnicity. (KH)

  13. Uniting the Spheres: Modern Feminist Theory and Classic Texts in AP English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Simao J. A.; Bosnic, Brenda G.

    2008-01-01

    High school teachers Simao J. A. Drew and Brenda G. Bosnic help familiarize students with gender role analysis and feminist theory. Students examine classic literature and contemporary texts, considering characters' historical, literary, and social contexts while expanding their understanding of how patterns of identity and gender norms exist and…

  14. From Weber to Parsons and Shutz: The Eclipse of History in Modern Social Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaret, David

    1980-01-01

    Compares the relationship between theoretical synthesis and historical research in light of research by Max Weber, Talcott Parsons, and Alfred Schutz. Traces theoretical developments within one subfield of sociology (action theory) and relates these developments to research problems confronting contemporary theoretical work in sociology. (DB)

  15. Contributions of Modern Measurement Theory to Measuring Executive Function in Early Childhood: An Empirical Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Wirth, R. J.; Blair, Clancy B.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the merits of evaluating a newly developed battery of executive function tasks, designed for use in early childhood, from the perspective of item response theory (IRT). The battery was included in the 48-month assessment of the Family Life Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1292 children oversampled from…

  16. Using Modern Test Theory to Maintain Standards in Public Qualifications in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheadon, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how item response theory (IRT) methods of test-equating could be applied to the maintenance of public examination standards in England. IRT methods of test-equating have been sparingly applied to the main public examinations in England, namely the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), the equivalent of a school…

  17. Modernity, the Individual, and the Foundations of Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blunden, Andy

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that the problem of individual agency in relation to social institutions can be resolved within Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) by the use of the "subject" as a unit of analysis. Such an approach implies a reaffirmation of the fundamental tenets of CHAT but also a critique of the concepts of society and culture, which are…

  18. Reader-Response Theory: An Analysis of a Work of Chinese Post Modern Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Yan

    1995-01-01

    Illustrates reader-response theory by discussing a piece of Chinese art, "A Book from the Sky." Examines the relationship between and among viewer, text or artwork, and artist; and attempts to determine the meanings viewers of different ages, genders, ethnicity, and professions construct in reaction to the work of art and to postmodern art in…

  19. [Weizsäcker's cosmogony, Farm Hall and the origin of modern turbulence theory].

    PubMed

    Eckert, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The modem statistical theory of turbulence was originated by Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov (1903-1987), Lars Onsager (1903-1976), Ludwig Prandtl (1875-1953), Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976) und Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker (1912-2007). With the exception of Kolmogorovs theory which was published in 1941 but became widely known only after the war, these contributions emerged largely independently from another in a "remarkable series of coincidences" (Batchelor 1946). Heisenberg and Weizäscker developed their theories during their detention at Farm Hall. Their work was motivated by von Weizsäcker's interest in astrophysics. Weizsäcker aimed at an understanding of the role of turbulence for the motion of interstellar matter for his theory about the origin of the planetary system which he had published in 1943. Weizsäcker's work on cosmogony and turbulence illustrates an early interaction between the disciplines of astronomy and fluid mechanics that became characteristic for astrophysics in the second half of the twentieth century. PMID:24974597

  20. Physical basis for constrained lattice density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Men, Yumei; Zhang, Xianren

    2012-03-28

    To study nucleation phenomena in an open system, a constrained lattice density functional theory (LDFT) method has been developed before to identify the unstable directions of grand potential functional and to stabilize nuclei by imposing a suitable constraint. In this work, we answer several questions about the method on a fundamental level, and give a firmer basis for the constrained LDFT method. First, we demonstrate that the nucleus structure and free energy barrier from a volume constraint method are equivalent to those from a surface constraint method. Then, we show that for the critical nucleus, the constrained LDFT method in fact produces a bias-free solution for both the nucleus structure and nucleation barrier. Finally, we give a physical interpretation of the Lagrange multiplier in the constraint method, which provides the generalized force to stabilize a nucleus in an open system. The Lagrange multiplier is found to consist of two parts: part I of the constraint produces an effective pressure, and part II imposes a constraint to counteract the supersaturation. PMID:22462885

  1. From the Infinity (Apeiron) of Anaximander in Ancient Greece to the Theory of Infinite Universes in Modern Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Mantarakis, P.; Dimitrijevic, M. S.; Manimanis, V. N.; Danezis, E.

    The notion of the infinite, with the modern meaning of the term, was first introduced by the Greek philosopher Anaximander (6th Century BC). Anaximander introduced the apeiron (the boundless) as the beginning of everything (the first principle). According to his theory, the apeiron is undefined and ever moving. It gives birth to the contradictory terms of warm and cold, and of moist and dry, and their perpetual strife. Man is able to comprehend the result of this eternal process from the vast plurality of things and the infinite number of Universes. The cosmological aspect in Anaximander's theory is beautiful; innumerable worlds are born from the apeiron and absorbed by it, once they are destroyed. Thus, the apeiron is related to the eternal, through out time, cosmological procedure. The cosmological problem of the vastness of the Universe or of the innumerability of Universes is an elementary philosophical problem, while the Theory of Big Bang bounded with the notion of time-space, is a starting point for understanding the models that describe our Universe.

  2. The Conceptual Framework of the Eastern Approach in Physical Education: Ancient Wisdom for Modern Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Nancy; Lu, Chunlei

    2009-01-01

    The Eastern approach has been identified as an alternative approach in Western physical education. The why and how to integrate the Eastern approach in physical education has been addressed in the literature, while the what deserves scholarly attention. The objective of this paper is to present four core concepts and key elements that construct…

  3. Innovative Ways to Use Modern Technology to Enhance, Rather than Hinder, Physical Activity among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nicole J.; Ameluxen-Coleman, Evan J.; Heinrichs, Derikk M.

    2015-01-01

    It is recommended that each day youth get 60 minutes or more of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity that includes aerobic, muscle, and bone strengthening activities. The majority of youth, however, do not meet these physical activity guidelines. Children and adolescents spend on average seven hours engaging in sedentary "screen-based"…

  4. Active flutter suppression of a lifting surface using piezoelectric actuation and modern control theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jae-Hung; Tani, Junji; Qiu, Jinhao

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a numerical and experimental investigation on active flutter suppression of a swept-back cantilevered lifting surface using piezoelectric (PZT) actuation. A finite element method, a panel aerodynamic method, and the minimum state-space realization are involved in the development of the equation of motion in state-space, which is efficiently used for the analysis of the system and design of control laws with a modern control framework. PZT actuators, bonded symmetrically on the plate, are optimally grouped into two equivalent actuator sets using genetic algorithms to enhance controllability. H2- and μ-synthesized control laws are designed and the flutter suppression performance is evaluated via wind tunnel testing. In the μ-synthesis design, a simple parametric uncertainty model is used to take into account the system changes with respect to airflow speed. Both controllers show comparable flutter suppression performance around the flutter point. However, the μ-synthesized controller shows improved behavior over a wide flow speed range.

  5. Generalized Theory and Decoupled Evaluation Criteria for Unmatched Despreading of Modernized GNSS Signals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiayi; Yao, Zheng; Lu, Mingquan

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide better navigation service for a wide range of applications, modernized global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) employs increasingly advanced and complicated techniques in modulation and multiplexing of signals. This trend correspondingly increases the complexity of signal despreading at the receiver when matched receiving is used. Considering the numerous low-end receiver who can hardly afford such receiving complexity, it is feasible to apply some receiving strategies, which uses simplified forms of local despreading signals, which is termed unmatched despreading. However, the mismatch between local signal and received signal causes performance loss in code tracking, which is necessary to be considered in the theoretical evaluation methods of signals. In this context, we generalize the theoretical signal evaluation model for unmatched receiving. Then, a series of evaluation criteria are proposed, which are decoupled from unrelated influencing factors and concentrates on the key factors related to the signal and its receiving, thus better revealing the inherent performance of signals. The proposed evaluation criteria are used to study two GNSS signals, from which constructive guidance are derived for receivers and signal designer. PMID:27447648

  6. Generalized Theory and Decoupled Evaluation Criteria for Unmatched Despreading of Modernized GNSS Signals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiayi; Yao, Zheng; Lu, Mingquan

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide better navigation service for a wide range of applications, modernized global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) employs increasingly advanced and complicated techniques in modulation and multiplexing of signals. This trend correspondingly increases the complexity of signal despreading at the receiver when matched receiving is used. Considering the numerous low-end receiver who can hardly afford such receiving complexity, it is feasible to apply some receiving strategies, which uses simplified forms of local despreading signals, which is termed unmatched despreading. However, the mismatch between local signal and received signal causes performance loss in code tracking, which is necessary to be considered in the theoretical evaluation methods of signals. In this context, we generalize the theoretical signal evaluation model for unmatched receiving. Then, a series of evaluation criteria are proposed, which are decoupled from unrelated influencing factors and concentrates on the key factors related to the signal and its receiving, thus better revealing the inherent performance of signals. The proposed evaluation criteria are used to study two GNSS signals, from which constructive guidance are derived for receivers and signal designer. PMID:27447648

  7. A Genome-Wide Study of Modern-Day Tuscans: Revisiting Herodotus's Theory on the Origin of the Etruscans

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Amigo, Jorge; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Background The origin of the Etruscan civilization (Etruria, Central Italy) is a long-standing subject of debate among scholars from different disciplines. The bulk of the information has been reconstructed from ancient texts and archaeological findings and, in the last few years, through the analysis of uniparental genetic markers. Methods By meta-analyzing genome-wide data from The 1000 Genomes Project and the literature, we were able to compare the genomic patterns (>540,000 SNPs) of present day Tuscans (N = 98) with other population groups from the main hypothetical source populations, namely, Europe and the Middle East. Results Admixture analysis indicates the presence of 25–34% of Middle Eastern component in modern Tuscans. Different analyses have been carried out using identity-by-state (IBS) values and genetic distances point to Eastern Anatolia/Southern Caucasus as the most likely geographic origin of the main Middle Eastern genetic component observed in the genome of modern Tuscans. Conclusions The data indicate that the admixture event between local Tuscans and Middle Easterners could have occurred in Central Italy about 2,600–3,100 years ago (y.a.). On the whole, the results validate the theory of the ancient historian Herodotus on the origin of Etruscans. PMID:25230205

  8. Application of modern control theory to the design of optimum aircraft controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    A procedure is described for synthesis of optimal aircraft control systems by application of the concepts of optimal control theory to time-invariant linear systems with quadratic performance criteria. Essential in this synthesis procedure is the solution of the Riccati matrix equation which results in a constant linear feedback control law for an output regulator which maintains a plant in an equilibrium in the presence of impulse disturbances. An algorithm is derived for designing maneuverable output regulators with selected state variables for feedback.

  9. [Dynamic paradigm in psychopathology: "chaos theory", from physics to psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Pezard, L; Nandrino, J L

    2001-01-01

    For the last thirty years, progress in the field of physics, known as "Chaos theory"--or more precisely: non-linear dynamical systems theory--has increased our understanding of complex systems dynamics. This framework's formalism is general enough to be applied in other domains, such as biology or psychology, where complex systems are the rule rather than the exception. Our goal is to show here that this framework can become a valuable tool in scientific fields such as neuroscience and psychiatry where objects possess natural time dependency (i.e. dynamical properties) and non-linear characteristics. The application of non-linear dynamics concepts on these topics is more precise than a loose metaphor and can throw a new light on mental functioning and dysfunctioning. A class of neural networks (recurrent neural networks) constitutes an example of the implementation of the dynamical system concept and provides models of cognitive processes (15). The state of activity of the network is represented in its state space and the time evolution of this state is a trajectory in this space. After a period of time those networks settle on an equilibrium (a kind of attractor). The strength of connections between neurons define the number and relations between those attractors. The attractors of the network are usually interpreted as "mental representations". When an initial condition is imposed to the network, the evolution towards an attractor is considered as a model of information processing (27). This information processing is not defined in a symbolic manner but is a result of the interaction between distributed elements. Several properties of dynamical models can be used to define a way where the symbolic properties emerge from physical and dynamical properties (28) and thus they can be candidates for the definition of the emergence of mental properties on the basis of neuronal dynamics (42). Nevertheless, mental properties can also be considered as the result of an

  10. Precision Higgs Physics, Effective Field Theory, and Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, Brian Quinn

    The recent discovery of the Higgs boson calls for detailed studies of its properties. As precision measurements are indirect probes of new physics, the appropriate theoretical framework is effective field theory. In the first part of this thesis, we present a practical three-step procedure of using the Standard Model effective field theory (SM EFT) to connect ultraviolet (UV) models of new physics with weak scale precision observables. With this procedure, one can interpret precision measurements as constraints on the UV model concerned. We give a detailed explanation for calculating the effective action up to one-loop order in a manifestly gauge covariant fashion. The covariant derivative expansion dramatically simplifies the process of matching a UV model with the SM EFT, and also makes available a universal formalism that is easy to use for a variety of UV models. A few general aspects of renormalization group running effects and choosing operator bases are discussed. Finally, we provide mapping results between the bosonic sector of the SM EFT and a complete set of precision electroweak and Higgs observables to which present and near future experiments are sensitive. With a detailed understanding of how to use the SM EFT, we then turn to applications and study in detail two well-motivated test cases. The first is singlet scalar field that enables the first-order electroweak phase transition for baryogenesis; the second example is due to scalar tops in the MSSM. We find both Higgs and electroweak measurements are sensitive probes of these cases. The second part of this thesis centers around dark matter, and consists of two studies. In the first, we examine the effects of relic dark matter annihilations on big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The magnitude of these effects scale simply with the dark matter mass and annihilation cross-section, which we derive. Estimates based on these scaling behaviors indicate that BBN severely constrains hadronic and radiative dark