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Sample records for modified cam-clay model

  1. The modified cam clay model for constrained compression of human morsellised bone: effects of porosity on the mechanical behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lunde, Knut B; Skallerud, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    Morsellised cortico-cancellous bone (MCB) is often used in revision surgery for filling skeletal defects. The MCB porosity is found to influence the degree of bone ingrowth. Thus expressing a material model in terms of porosity may be attractive from a clinical point of view. We analysed the moisture content and performed constrained compression testing of human impacted and unimpacted MCB, in order to determine material parameters for the common constitutive soil model: modified cam clay. The model seemed to be suitable for the unimpacted pellets with a logarithmic bulk modulus kappa=0.059+/-0.0019 and a logarithmic hardening constant lambda=0.36+/-0.014. This model, relating the specific volume (and porosity) to the logarithm of stress, may be suited to find the best compromise of stiffness and porosity for MCB. PMID:19627806

  2. Modify the JACCHIA model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Existing Jacchia were converted from the UNIVAC 1108 to the SSL REEDA computer system and the overall program capabilities were enhanced. The Jacchia Models and the associated data bases reside on a REEDA System dedicated "JACCHIA" disc pack. The Jacchia programs, their operation, and the outputs generated outputs are described.

  3. Model selection for modified gravity.

    PubMed

    Kitching, T D; Simpson, F; Heavens, A F; Taylor, A N

    2011-12-28

    In this article, we review model selection predictions for modified gravity scenarios as an explanation for the observed acceleration of the expansion history of the Universe. We present analytical procedures for calculating expected Bayesian evidence values in two cases: (i) that modified gravity is a simple parametrized extension of general relativity (GR; two nested models), such that a Bayes' factor can be calculated, and (ii) that we have a class of non-nested models where a rank-ordering of evidence values is required. We show that, in the case of a minimal modified gravity parametrization, we can expect large area photometric and spectroscopic surveys, using three-dimensional cosmic shear and baryonic acoustic oscillations, to 'decisively' distinguish modified gravity models over GR (or vice versa), with odds of ≫1:100. It is apparent that the potential discovery space for modified gravity models is large, even in a simple extension to gravity models, where Newton's constant G is allowed to vary as a function of time and length scale. On the time and length scales where dark energy dominates, it is only through large-scale cosmological experiments that we can hope to understand the nature of gravity. PMID:22084296

  4. Coupled Hydro-Mechanical Constitutive Model for Vegetated Soils: Validation and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switala, Barbara Maria; Veenhof, Rick; Wu, Wei; Askarinejad, Amin

    2016-04-01

    It is well known, that presence of vegetation influences stability of the slope. However, the quantitative assessment of this contribution remains challenging. It is essential to develop a numerical model, which combines mechanical root reinforcement and root water uptake, and allows modelling rainfall induced landslides of vegetated slopes. Therefore a novel constitutive formulation is proposed, which is based on the modified Cam-clay model for unsaturated soils. Mechanical root reinforcement is modelled introducing a new constitutive parameter, which governs the evolution of the Cam-clay failure surface with the degree of root reinforcement. Evapotranspiration is modelled in terms of the root water uptake, defined as a sink term in the water flow continuity equation. The original concept is extended for different shapes of the root architecture in three dimensions, and combined with the mechanical model. The model is implemented in the research finite element code Comes-Geo, and in the commercial software Abaqus. The formulation is tested, performing a series of numerical examples, which allow validation of the concept. The direct shear test and the triaxial test are modelled in order to test the performance of the mechanical part of the model. In order to validate the hydrological part of the constitutive formulation, evapotranspiration from the vegetated box is simulated and compared with the experimental results. Obtained numerical results exhibit a good agreement with the experimental data. The implemented model is capable of reproducing results of basic geotechnical laboratory tests. Moreover, the constitutive formulation can be used to model rainfall induced landslides of vegetated slopes, taking into account the most important factors influencing the slope stability (root reinforcement and evapotranspiration).

  5. Cosmological models of modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, Jolyon Keith

    The recent discovery of dark energy has prompted an investigation of ways in which the accelerated expansion of the universe can be realized. In this dissertation, we present two separate projects related to dark energy. The first project analyzes a class of braneworld models in which multiple branes float in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter bulk, while the second investigates a class of dark energy models from an effective field theory perspective. Investigations of models including extra dimensions have led to modifications of gravity involving a number of interesting features. In particular, the Randall-Sundrum model is well-known for achieving an amelioration of the hierarchy problem. However, the basic model relies on Minkowski branes and is subject to solar system constraints in the absence of a radion stabilization mechanism. We present a method by which a four-dimensional low-energy description can be obtained for braneworld scenarios, allowing for a number of generalizations to the original models. This method is applied to orbifolded and uncompactified N-brane models, deriving an effective four-dimensional action. The parameter space of this theory is constrained using observational evidence, and it is found that the generalizations do not weaken solar system constraints on the original model. Furthermore, we find that general N-brane systems are qualitatively similar to the two-brane case, and do not naturally lead to a viable dark energy model. We next investigate dark energy models using effective field theory techniques. We describe dark energy through a quintessence field, employing a derivative expansion. To the accuracy of the model, we find transformations to write the description in a form involving no higher-order derivatives in the equations of motion. We use a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson construction to motivate the theory, and find the regime of validity and scaling of the operators using this. The regime of validity is restricted to a

  6. Observational bounds on modified gravity models

    SciTech Connect

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukherjee, Pia; Wang Yun

    2008-01-15

    Modified gravity provides a possible explanation for the currently observed cosmic acceleration. In this paper, we study general classes of modified gravity models. The Einstein-Hilbert action is modified by using general functions of the Ricci and the Gauss-Bonnet scalars, both in the metric and in the Palatini formalisms. We do not use an explicit form for the functions, but a general form with a valid Taylor expansion up to second order about redshift zero in the Riemann-scalars. The coefficients of this expansion are then reconstructed via the cosmic expansion history measured using current cosmological observations. These are the quantities of interest for theoretical considerations relating to ghosts and instabilities. We find that current data provide interesting constraints on the coefficients. The next-generation dark energy surveys should shrink the allowed parameter space for modified gravity models quite dramatically.

  7. Genetically modified pig models for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Holm, Ida E; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Luo, Yonglun

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease has become one of the most challenging health issues in ageing humans. One approach to combat this is to generate genetically modified animal models of neurodegenerative disorders for studying pathogenesis, prognosis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Owing to the genetic, anatomic, physiologic, pathologic, and neurologic similarities between pigs and humans, genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders have been attractive large animal models to bridge the gap of preclinical investigations between rodents and humans. In this review, we provide a neuroanatomical overview in pigs and summarize and discuss the generation of genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's diseases, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, and ataxia-telangiectasia. We also highlight how non-invasive bioimaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET), computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and behavioural testing have been applied to characterize neurodegenerative pig models. We further propose a multiplex genome editing and preterm recloning (MAP) approach by using the rapid growth of the ground-breaking precision genome editing technology CRISPR/Cas9 and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). With this approach, we hope to shorten the temporal requirement in generating multiple transgenic pigs, increase the survival rate of founder pigs, and generate genetically modified pigs that will more closely resemble the disease-causing mutations and recapitulate pathological features of human conditions. PMID:26446984

  8. Einstein spaces modeling nonminimal modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizalde, Emilio; Vacaru, Sergiu I.

    2015-06-01

    Off-diagonal vacuum and nonvacuum configurations in the Einstein gravity can mimic physical effects of modified gravitational theories of f( R, T, R μν T μν ) type. To prove this statement, exact and approximate solutions are constructed in the paper, which encode certain models of covariant Hořava-type gravity with dynamical Lorentz symmetry breaking. The corresponding FLRW cosmological dynamics with possible nonholonomic deformations and the reconstruction procedure of certain actions closely related with the standard ΛCDM universe are studied. Off-diagonal generalizations of de Sitter universes are constructed which are generated through nonlinear gravitational polarization of fundamental physical constants and which model interactions with nonconstant exotic fluids and effective matter. The problem of possible matter instability for such off-diagonal deformations in (modified) gravity theories is briefly discussed.

  9. Modified Nonlinear Model of Arcsin-Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglov, S. I.

    2016-07-01

    A new modified model of nonlinear arcsin-electrodynamics with two parameters is proposed and analyzed. We obtain the corrections to the Coulomb law. The effect of vacuum birefringence takes place when the external constant magnetic field is present. We calculate indices of refraction for two perpendicular polarizations of electromagnetic waves and estimate bounds on the parameter γ from the BMV and PVLAS experiments. It is shown that the electric field of a point-like charge is finite at the origin. We calculate the finite static electric energy of point-like particles and demonstrate that the electron mass can have the pure electromagnetic nature. The symmetrical Belinfante energy-momentum tensor and dilatation current are found. We show that the dilatation symmetry and dual symmetry are broken in the model suggested. We have investigated the gauge covariant quantization of the nonlinear electrodynamics fields as well as the gauge fixing approach based on Dirac's brackets.

  10. Coupled Electro-Thermo-Mechanical Finite Element Modeling of the Spark Plasma Sintering Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwertz, Maxime; Katz, Aurélien; Sorrel, Emmanuel; Lemonnier, Sébastien; Barraud, Elodie; Carradò, Adele; d'Astorg, Sophie; Leriche, Anne; Nardin, Michel; Vallat, Marie-France; Kosior, Francis

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with the development of a novel and predictive finite element method (FEM) model coupling electrical, thermal, and mechanical time-dependent contributions for simulating the behavior of a powdery material submitted to a spark plasma sintering (SPS) treatment by using COMSOL Multiphysics® software. The original approach of this work lies in the use of the modified Cam-Clay model to solve the mechanical phenomenon occurring during a SPS sintering treatment. As the powder properties and behaviors are different from the final sintered material and display a nonlinear dependence as a function of temperature and pressure, the model includes the description of the sample densification. In this way, numerical and experimental results obtained on conductive model material (aluminum) such as temperature, stress distributions, and shrinkage, were directly compared. This FEM model demonstrated the ability to predict the powder behavior during temperature-controlled experiments precisely, as they are typically performed in the SPS technique. This approach exhibits a remarkable level of interest because it takes into account the nature of the material and also the specific characteristics of the powder studied.

  11. Implementation of Bounding Surface Model into ABAQUS and Its Application to Wellbore Stability Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Al-Muntasheri, G.; Abousleiman, Y. N.

    2014-12-01

    The critical state concept based bounding surface model is one of the most widely used elastoplastic constitutive models for geomaterials, attributed mainly to its essential feature of allowing plastic deformation to occur for stress points within the bounding surface and thus the capability to represent the realistic non-recoverable behaviour of soils and rocks observed under the cyclic loading. This paper develops an implicit integration algorithm for the bounding surface model, using the standard return mapping approach (elastic predictor-plastic corrector), to obtain the updated stresses for the given strain increments. The formulation of the constitutive integration requires the derivation of a supplementary differential equation to describe the evolution of a key variable, i.e., the ratio between the image stress and the current stress quantities. It is essentially an extension of the integration scheme presented in an earlier work used for the simple bounding surface version of modified Cam Clay associated with a substantially simplified hardening rule. The integration algorithm for the bounding surface model is implemented into the finite element analysis commercial program, ABAQUS, through the material interface of UMAT (user defined material subroutine), and then used for the analysis of wellbore stability problem. The predictions from the ABAQUS simulations are generally in excellent agreement with the available analytical solutions, thus demonstrating the accuracy and robustness of the proposed integration scheme.

  12. Some general remarks on hyperplasticity modelling and its extension to partially saturated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Xiaoqin; Wong, Henry; Fabbri, Antonin; Bui, Tuan Anh; Limam, Ali

    2016-06-01

    The essential ideas and equations of classic plasticity and hyperplasticity are successively recalled and compared, in order to highlight their differences and complementarities. The former is based on the mathematical framework proposed by Hill (The mathematical theory of plasticity. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1950), whereas the latter is founded on the orthogonality hypothesis of Ziegler (An introduction to thermomechanics. Elsevier, North-Holland, 1983). The main drawback of classic plasticity is the possibility of violating the second principle of thermodynamics, while the relative ease to conjecture the yield function in order to approach experimental results is its main advantage. By opposition, the a priori satisfaction of thermodynamic principles constitutes the chief advantage of hyperplasticity theory. Noteworthy is also the fact that this latter approach allows a finer energy partition; in particular, the existence of frozen energy emerges as a natural consequence from its theoretical formulation. On the other hand, the relative difficulty to conjecture an efficient dissipation function to produce accurate predictions is its main drawback. The two theories are thus better viewed as two complementary approaches. Following this comparative study, a methodology to extend the hyperplasticity approach initially developed for dry or saturated materials to the case of partially saturated materials, accounting for interface energies and suction effects, is developed. A particular example based on the yield function of modified Cam-Clay model is then presented. It is shown that the approach developed leads to a model consistent with other existing works.

  13. The modified ASEP as a model of ideal gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, D.; Sossinsky, A.

    2015-01-01

    A modified version of the ASEP model is interpreted as a two-dimensional model of ideal gas. Its properties are studied by simulating its behavior in different situations, using an animation program designed for that purpose.

  14. New Soft Rock Pillar Strength Formula Derived Through Parametric FEA Using a Critical State Plasticity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastiello, Giuseppe; Federico, Francesco; Screpanti, Silvio

    2015-09-01

    Many abandoned room and pillar mines have been excavated not far from the surface of large areas of important European cities. In Rome, these excavations took place at shallow depths (3-15 m below the ground surface) in weak pyroclastic soft rocks. Many of these cavities have collapsed; others appear to be in a stable condition, although an appreciable percentage of their structural components (pillars, roofs, etc.) have shown increasing signs of distress from both the morphological and mechanical points of view. In this study, the stress-strain behaviour of soft rock pillars sustaining systems of cavities under vertical loads was numerically simulated, starting from the in situ initial conditions due to excavation of the cavities. The mechanical behaviour of the constituent material of the pillar was modelled according to the Modified Cam-Clay constitutive law (elasto-plastic with strain hardening). The influence of the pillar geometry (cross-section area, shape, and height) and mechanical parameters of the soft rock on the ultimate compressive strength of the pillar as a whole was parametrically investigated first. Based on the numerical results, an original relationship for pillar strength assessment was developed. Finally, the estimated pillar strengths according to the proposed formula and well-known formulations in the literature were compared.

  15. Cosmological constraints on the modified entropic force model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hao

    2010-08-01

    Very recently, Verlinde considered a theory in which space is emergent through a holographic scenario, and proposed that gravity can be explained as an entropic force caused by changes in the information associated with the positions of material bodies. Then, motivated by the Debye model in thermodynamics which is very successful in very low temperatures, Gao modified the entropic force scenario. The modified entropic force (MEF) model is in fact a modified gravity model, and the universe can be accelerated without dark energy. In the present work, we consider the cosmological constraints on the MEF model, and successfully constrain the model parameters to a narrow range. We also discuss many other issues of the MEF model. In particular, we clearly reveal the implicit root to accelerate the universe in the MEF model.

  16. Cosmology of generalized modified gravity models

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Sean M.; Duvvuri, Vikram; De Felice, Antonio; Easson, Damien A.; Trodden, Mark; Turner, Michael S.

    2005-03-15

    We consider general curvature-invariant modifications of the Einstein-Hilbert action that become important only in regions of extremely low space-time curvature. We investigate the far future evolution of the Universe in such models, examining the possibilities for cosmic acceleration and other ultimate destinies. The models generically possess de Sitter space as an unstable solution and exhibit an interesting set of attractor solutions which, in some cases, provide alternatives to dark energy models.

  17. A new approach to modified gravity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Sayan K.; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Sen, Anjan A.

    2011-11-01

    We investigate f ( R)-gravity models performing the ADM-slicing of standard General Relativity. We extract the static, spherically-symmetric vacuum solutions in the general case, which correspond to either Schwarzschild de-Sitter or Schwarzschild anti-de-Sitter ones. Additionally, we study the cosmological evolution of a homogeneous and isotropic universe, which is governed by an algebraic and not a differential equation. We show that the universe admits solutions corresponding to acceleration at late cosmological epochs, without the need of fine-tuning the model-parameters or the initial conditions.

  18. Modified Invasion Percolation Models for Multiphase Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Karpyn, Zuleima

    2015-01-31

    This project extends current understanding and modeling capabilities of pore-scale multiphase flow physics in porous media. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography imaging experiments are used to investigate structural and surface properties of the medium that influence immiscible displacement. Using experimental and computational tools, we investigate the impact of wetting characteristics, as well as radial and axial loading conditions, on the development of percolation pathways, residual phase trapping and fluid-fluid interfacial areas.

  19. Modified Kneser-Ney Smoothing of n-Gram Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Frankie

    2000-01-01

    This report examines a series of tests that were performed on variations of the modified Kneser Ney smoothing model outlined in a study by Chen and Goodman. We explore several different ways of choosing and setting the discounting parameters, as well as the exclusion of singleton contexts at various levels of the model.

  20. Theoretical modelling of epigenetically modified DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Alexandra Teresa Pires; Gouveia, Maria Leonor; Raju Kanna, Charan; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S; Platts, Jamie; Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

    2015-01-01

    We report herein a set of calculations designed to examine the effects of epigenetic modifications on the structure of DNA. The incorporation of methyl, hydroxymethyl, formyl and carboxy substituents at the 5-position of cytosine is shown to hardly affect the geometry of CG base pairs, but to result in rather larger changes to hydrogen-bond and stacking binding energies, as predicted by dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT) methods. The same modifications within double-stranded GCG and ACA trimers exhibit rather larger structural effects, when including the sugar-phosphate backbone as well as sodium counterions and implicit aqueous solvation. In particular, changes are observed in the buckle and propeller angles within base pairs and the slide and roll values of base pair steps, but these leave the overall helical shape of DNA essentially intact. The structures so obtained are useful as a benchmark of faster methods, including molecular mechanics (MM) and hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. We show that previously developed MM parameters satisfactorily reproduce the trimer structures, as do QM/MM calculations which treat bases with dispersion-corrected DFT and the sugar-phosphate backbone with AMBER. The latter are improved by inclusion of all six bases in the QM region, since a truncated model including only the central CG base pair in the QM region is considerably further from the DFT structure. This QM/MM method is then applied to a set of double-stranded DNA heptamers derived from a recent X-ray crystallographic study, whose size puts a DFT study beyond our current computational resources. These data show that still larger structural changes are observed than in base pairs or trimers, leading us to conclude that it is important to model epigenetic modifications within realistic molecular contexts. PMID:26448859

  1. Accurate method of modeling cluster scaling relations in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jian-hua; Li, Baojiu

    2016-06-01

    We propose a new method to model cluster scaling relations in modified gravity. Using a suite of nonradiative hydrodynamical simulations, we show that the scaling relations of accumulated gas quantities, such as the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (Compton-y parameter) and the x-ray Compton-y parameter, can be accurately predicted using the known results in the Λ CDM model with a precision of ˜3 % . This method provides a reliable way to analyze the gas physics in modified gravity using the less demanding and much more efficient pure cold dark matter simulations. Our results therefore have important theoretical and practical implications in constraining gravity using cluster surveys.

  2. Structure formation in a nonlocally modified gravity model

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sohyun; Dodelson, Scott

    2013-01-01

    We study a nonlocally modified gravity model proposed by Deser and Woodard which gives an explanation for current cosmic acceleration. By deriving and solving the equations governing the evolution of the structure in the Universe, we show that this model predicts a pattern of growth that differs from standard general relativity (+dark energy) at the 10-30% level. These differences will be easily probed by the next generation of galaxy surveys, so the model should be tested shortly.

  3. Knot solitons in a modified Ginzburg-Landau model

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeykkae, Juha; Palmu, Joonatan

    2011-05-15

    We study a modified version of the Ginzburg-Landau model suggested by Ward and show that Hopfions exist in it as stable static solutions, for values of the Hopf invariant up to at least 7. We also find that their properties closely follow those of their counterparts in the Faddeev-Skyrme model. Finally, we lend support to Babaev's conjecture that longer core lengths yield more stable solitons and propose a possible mechanism for constructing Hopfions in pure Ginzburg-Landau model.

  4. Anterior EEG Asymmetry and the Modifier Model of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnette, Courtney P.; Henderson, Heather A.; Inge, Anne Pradella; Zahka, Nicole E.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Mundy, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in the expression of autism complicate research on the nature and treatment of this disorder. In the Modifier Model of Autism (Mundy et al. 2007), we proposed that individual differences in autism may result not only from syndrome specific causal processes, but also from variability in generic, non-syndrome specific…

  5. Frequency behaviour of the modified Jiles Atherton model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwastek, Krzysztof

    2008-07-01

    In the paper the behaviour of the recently modified Jiles-Atherton model of hysteresis under a distorted magnetization pattern is examined. The modification is aimed at improving the modelling of reversible processes. The equation for anhysteretic model is replaced from Langevin function to the more general Brillouin function. The structure of model equation is similar to that of the product Preisach model. The dynamic effects are taken into account in the description by the introduction of the lagged response with respect to the input.

  6. A Modified Theoretical Model of Intrinsic Hardness of Crystalline Solids

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Fu-Zhi; Zhou, Yanchun

    2016-01-01

    Super-hard materials have been extensively investigated due to their practical importance in numerous industrial applications. To stimulate the design and exploration of new super-hard materials, microscopic models that elucidate the fundamental factors controlling hardness are desirable. The present work modified the theoretical model of intrinsic hardness proposed by Gao. In the modification, we emphasize the critical role of appropriately decomposing a crystal to pseudo-binary crystals, which should be carried out based on the valence electron population of each bond. After modification, the model becomes self-consistent and predicts well the hardness values of many crystals, including crystals composed of complex chemical bonds. The modified model provides fundamental insights into the nature of hardness, which can facilitate the quest for intrinsic super-hard materials. PMID:27604165

  7. A Modified Theoretical Model of Intrinsic Hardness of Crystalline Solids.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fu-Zhi; Zhou, Yanchun

    2016-01-01

    Super-hard materials have been extensively investigated due to their practical importance in numerous industrial applications. To stimulate the design and exploration of new super-hard materials, microscopic models that elucidate the fundamental factors controlling hardness are desirable. The present work modified the theoretical model of intrinsic hardness proposed by Gao. In the modification, we emphasize the critical role of appropriately decomposing a crystal to pseudo-binary crystals, which should be carried out based on the valence electron population of each bond. After modification, the model becomes self-consistent and predicts well the hardness values of many crystals, including crystals composed of complex chemical bonds. The modified model provides fundamental insights into the nature of hardness, which can facilitate the quest for intrinsic super-hard materials. PMID:27604165

  8. Priority classification of patients according to a modified 'Norwegian model'.

    PubMed

    van Assendelft, A H

    1996-01-01

    A priority classification was evaluated according to a modified 'Norwegian model.' Many diseases do not belong to any specific priority category based only on the diagnosis. The classification also depends on the condition's type, site, and phase as well as the patient's age and overall condition. Savings cannot be achieved by the model used because 89% of the patients belonged to the priority categories I-III, the care of which can be classified as necessary. PMID:8707510

  9. Rapid simulation rescaling from standard to modified gravity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, A. J.; Peacock, J. A.; Lombriser, L.; Li, B.

    2015-10-01

    We develop and test an algorithm to rescale a simulated dark-matter particle distribution or halo catalogue from a standard gravity model to that of a modified gravity model. This method is based on that of Angulo & White but with some additional ingredients to account for (i) scale-dependent growth of linear density perturbations and (ii) screening mechanisms that are generic features of viable modified gravity models. We attempt to keep the method as general as possible, so that it may plausibly be applied to a wide range of modified theories, although tests against simulations are restricted to a subclass of f (R) models at this stage. We show that rescaling allows the power spectrum of matter to be reproduced at the ˜3 per cent level in both real and redshift space up to k = 0.1h Mpc-1 if we change the box size and alter the particle displacement field; this limit can be extended to k = 1h Mpc-1 if we additionally alter halo internal structure. We simultaneously develop an algorithm that can be applied directly to a halo catalogue, in which case the halo mass function and clustering can be reproduced at the ˜5 per cent level. Finally, we investigate the clustering of halo particle distributions, generated from rescaled halo catalogues, and find that a similar accuracy can be reached.

  10. Modelling Amperometric Biosensors Based on Chemically Modified Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Baronas, Romas; Kulys, Juozas

    2008-01-01

    The response of an amperometric biosensor based on a chemically modified electrode was modelled numerically. A mathematical model of the biosensor is based on a system of non-linear reaction-diffusion equations. The modelling biosensor comprises two compartments: an enzyme layer and an outer diffusion layer. In order to define the main governing parameters the corresponding dimensionless mathematical model was derived. The digital simulation was carried out using the finite difference technique. The adequacy of the model was evaluated using analytical solutions known for very specific cases of the model parameters. By changing model parameters the output results were numerically analyzed at transition and steady state conditions. The influence of the substrate and mediator concentrations as well as of the thicknesses of the enzyme and diffusion layers on the biosensor response was investigated. Calculations showed complex kinetics of the biosensor response, especially when the biosensor acts under a mixed limitation of the diffusion and the enzyme interaction with the substrate.

  11. The Modified Semidirect Onlay Technique With Articulated Elastic Model.

    PubMed

    Papazoglou, Efstratios; Diamantopoulou, Sofia

    2015-12-01

    The modified semidirect onlay technique with articulated elastic model involves the fabrication of a stone model that is quickly mounted on an articulator and it includes an elastic part that enables the fabrication of a restoration with proper occlusal anatomy. The technique overcomes the disadvantages of the direct technique such as polymerization shrinkage stress and difficulty in achieving proper contours and, compared to the indirect technique, treatment is completed in a single appointment, without laboratory cost. The novelty of the technique is that, since the restoration is fabricated on an articulated model it eliminates time for occlusal adjustments. PMID:26767243

  12. Classifying linearly shielded modified gravity models in effective field theory.

    PubMed

    Lombriser, Lucas; Taylor, Andy

    2015-01-23

    We study the model space generated by the time-dependent operator coefficients in the effective field theory of the cosmological background evolution and perturbations of modified gravity and dark energy models. We identify three classes of modified gravity models that reduce to Newtonian gravity on the small scales of linear theory. These general classes contain enough freedom to simultaneously admit a matching of the concordance model background expansion history. In particular, there exists a large model space that mimics the concordance model on all linear quasistatic subhorizon scales as well as in the background evolution. Such models also exist when restricting the theory space to operators introduced in Horndeski scalar-tensor gravity. We emphasize that whereas the partially shielded scenarios might be of interest to study in connection with tensions between large and small scale data, with conventional cosmological probes, the ability to distinguish the fully shielded scenarios from the concordance model on near-horizon scales will remain limited by cosmic variance. Novel tests of the large-scale structure remedying this deficiency and accounting for the full covariant nature of the alternative gravitational theories, however, might yield further insights on gravity in this regime. PMID:25658988

  13. Testing model independent modified gravity with future large scale surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Daniel B.; Contaldi, Carlo R. E-mail: c.contaldi@ic.ac.uk

    2011-12-01

    Model-independent parametrisations of modified gravity have attracted a lot of attention over the past few years and numerous combinations of experiments and observables have been suggested to constrain the parameters used in these models. Galaxy clusters have been mentioned, but not looked at as extensively in the literature as some other probes. Here we look at adding galaxy clusters into the mix of observables and examine how they could improve the constraints on the modified gravity parameters. In particular, we forecast the constraints from combining Planck satellite Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) measurements and Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) cluster catalogue with a DES-like Weak Lensing (WL) survey. We find that cluster counts significantly improve the constraints over those derived using CMB and WL. We then look at surveys further into the future, to see how much better it may be feasible to make the constraints.

  14. Guided crowd dynamics via modified social force model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Dong, Hairong; Wang, Qianling; Chen, Yao; Hu, Xiaoming

    2014-10-01

    Pedestrian dynamics is of great theoretical significance for strategy design of emergency evacuation. Modification of pedestrian dynamics based on the social force model is presented to better reflect pedestrians' behavioral characteristics in emergency. Specifically, the modified model can be used for guided crowd dynamics in large-scale public places such as subway stations and stadiums. This guided crowd model is validated by explicitly comparing its density-speed and density-flow diagrams with fundamental diagrams. Some social phenomena such as gathering, balance and conflicts are clearly observed in simulation, which further illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed modeling method. Also, time delay for pedestrians with time-dependent desired velocities is observed and explained using the established model in this paper. Furthermore, this guided crowd model is applied to the simulation system of Beijing South Railway Station for predictive evacuation experiments.

  15. Bouc-Wen hysteresis model identification using Modified Firefly Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Mohammad Asif; Sikder, Urmita

    2015-12-01

    The parameters of Bouc-Wen hysteresis model are identified using a Modified Firefly Algorithm. The proposed algorithm uses dynamic process control parameters to improve its performance. The algorithm is used to find the model parameter values that results in the least amount of error between a set of given data points and points obtained from the Bouc-Wen model. The performance of the algorithm is compared with the performance of conventional Firefly Algorithm, Genetic Algorithm and Differential Evolution algorithm in terms of convergence rate and accuracy. Compared to the other three optimization algorithms, the proposed algorithm is found to have good convergence rate with high degree of accuracy in identifying Bouc-Wen model parameters. Finally, the proposed method is used to find the Bouc-Wen model parameters from experimental data. The obtained model is found to be in good agreement with measured data.

  16. Attractive Casimir effect in an infrared modified gluon bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Oxman, L.E.; Amaral, R.L.P.G.

    2005-12-15

    In this work, we are motivated by previous attempts to derive the vacuum contribution to the bag energy in terms of familiar Casimir energy calculations for spherical geometries. A simple infrared modified model is introduced which allows studying the effects of the analytic structure as well as the geometry in a clear manner. In this context, we show that if a class of infrared vanishing effective gluon propagators is considered, then the renormalized vacuum energy for a spherical bag is attractive, as required by the bag model to adjust hadron spectroscopy.

  17. A discrete model of a modified Burgers' partial differential equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, R. E.; Shoosmith, J. N.

    1990-01-01

    A new finite-difference scheme is constructed for a modified Burger's equation. Three special cases of the equation are considered, and the 'exact' difference schemes for the space- and time-independent forms of the equation are presented, along with the diffusion-free case of Burger's equation modeled by a difference equation. The desired difference scheme is then obtained by imposing on any difference model of the initial equation the requirement that, in the appropriate limits, its difference scheme must reduce the results of the obtained equations.

  18. Erosion Modeling Analysis For Modified DWPF SME Tank

    SciTech Connect

    LEE, SI

    2004-05-03

    In support of an erosion evaluation for the modified cooling coil guide and its supporting structure in the DWPF SME vessel, a computational model was developed to identify potential sites of high erosion using the same methodology established by previous work. The erosion mechanism identified in the previous work was applied to the evaluation of high erosion locations representative of the actual flow process in the modified coil guide of the SME vessel, abrasive erosion which occurs by high wall shear of viscous liquid. The results show that primary locations of the highest erosion due to the abrasive wall erosion are at the leading edge of the guide, external surface of the insert plate, the tank floor next to the insert plate of the coil guide support, and the upstream lead-in plate. The present modeling results show a good comparison between the original and the modified cases in terms of high erosion sites, as well as the degree of erosion and the calculated shear stress. Wall she ar of the tank floor is reduced by about 30 per cent because of the new coil support plate. Calculations for the impeller speed lower than 103 rpm in the SME showed similar erosion patterns but significantly reduced wall shear stresses and reduced overall erosion. Comparisons of the 103 rpm results with SME measurements indicated that no significant erosion of the tank floor in the SME is to be expected. Thus, it is recommended that the agitator speed of SME does not exceed 103 rpm.

  19. The 'X model': a modified version of the competition theory.

    PubMed

    Scott, O C; Révész, L; Edgren, M

    1993-10-01

    In 1985, Edgren et al. proposed a modified version of the competition theory to explain the interaction of sensitizers and protectors with target molecules damaged by radiation, which was designated the 'X' model. This model incorporates concepts which have been considered previously, namely that a type of radiation damage exists which cannot be chemically repaired, and that cells may contain a naturally occurring sensitizer. The model leads to testable predictions, such as, e.g. the crossing of 'K curves' when the level of protection is varied. It can only be applied to the immediate effects of radiation, i.e. before enzymatic reactions play a part. The present paper is a summary of work carried out since 1985 to test the predictions of the 'X' model and an exposition of the related algebra. PMID:7901298

  20. Magnetic reversals in a modified shell model for magnetohydrodynamics turbulence.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Giuseppina; Carbone, Vincenzo

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the paper is the study of dynamo action using a simple nonlinear model in the framework of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The nonlinear behavior of the system is described by using a shell model for velocity field and magnetic field fluctuations, modified for the magnetic field at the largest scale by a term describing a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. Turbulent fluctuations generate a dynamical situation where the large-scale magnetic field jumps between two states which represent the opposite polarities of the magnetic field. Despite its simplicity, the model has the capability to describe a long time series of reversals from which we infer results about the statistics of persistence times and scaling laws of cancellations between opposite polarities for different magnetic diffusivity coefficients. These properties of the model are compared with real paleomagnetic data, thus revealing the origin of long-range correlations in the process. PMID:20866731

  1. Magnetic reversals in a modified shell model for magnetohydrodynamics turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigro, Giuseppina; Carbone, Vincenzo

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the paper is the study of dynamo action using a simple nonlinear model in the framework of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The nonlinear behavior of the system is described by using a shell model for velocity field and magnetic field fluctuations, modified for the magnetic field at the largest scale by a term describing a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. Turbulent fluctuations generate a dynamical situation where the large-scale magnetic field jumps between two states which represent the opposite polarities of the magnetic field. Despite its simplicity, the model has the capability to describe a long time series of reversals from which we infer results about the statistics of persistence times and scaling laws of cancellations between opposite polarities for different magnetic diffusivity coefficients. These properties of the model are compared with real paleomagnetic data, thus revealing the origin of long-range correlations in the process.

  2. Computing model independent perturbations in dark energy and modified gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Battye, Richard A.; Pearson, Jonathan A. E-mail: jonathan.pearson@durham.ac.uk

    2014-03-01

    We present a methodology for computing model independent perturbations in dark energy and modified gravity. This is done from the Lagrangian for perturbations, by showing how field content, symmetries, and physical principles are often sufficient ingredients for closing the set of perturbed fluid equations. The fluid equations close once ''equations of state for perturbations'' are identified: these are linear combinations of fluid and metric perturbations which construct gauge invariant entropy and anisotropic stress perturbations for broad classes of theories. Our main results are the proof of the equation of state for perturbations presented in a previous paper, and the development of the required calculational tools.

  3. Vacuum structure for scalar cosmological perturbations in modified gravity models

    SciTech Connect

    Felice, Antonio De; Suyama, Teruaki E-mail: teruaki.suyama@uclouvain.be

    2009-06-01

    We have found for the general class of Modified Gravity Models f(R, G) a new instability which can arise in vacuum for the scalar modes of the cosmological perturbations if the background is not de Sitter. In particular, the short-wavelength modes, if stable, in general have a group velocity which depends linearly in k, the wave number. Therefore these modes will be in general superluminal. We have also discussed the condition for which in general these scalar modes will be ghost-like. There is a subclass of these models, defined out of properties of the function f(R, G) and to which the f(R) and f(G) models belong, which however do not have this feature.

  4. General cloud cover modifier for clear sky solar radiation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Daryl R.

    2007-09-01

    Worldwide lack of comprehensive measured solar radiation resource data for solar system design is well known. Several simple clear sky solar radiation models for computing hourly direct, diffuse and global hemispherical solar radiation have been developed over the past 25 years. The simple model of Richard Bird, Iqbal's parameterization C, and Gueymard's REST model are popular for estimating maximum hourly solar resources. We describe a simple polynomial in cloud cover (octa) modifier for these models that produces realistic time series of hourly solar radiation data representative of naturally occurring solar radiation conditions under all sky conditions. Surface cloud cover observations (Integrated Surface Hourly Data) from the National Climatic Data Center are the only additional (hourly) input data to model total hemispherical solar radiation under all sky conditions. Performance was evaluated using three years of hourly solar radiation data from 31 sites in the 1961-1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base. Mean bias errors range from - 10% to -20%, and are clear sky model dependant. Root mean square error of about 40%, are also dependent upon the particular model used and the uncertainty in the specific clear sky model inputs and lack of information on cloud type and spatial distributions.

  5. Conceptual model for assessment of inhalation exposure: defining modifying factors.

    PubMed

    Tielemans, Erik; Schneider, Thomas; Goede, Henk; Tischer, Martin; Warren, Nick; Kromhout, Hans; Van Tongeren, Martie; Van Hemmen, Joop; Cherrie, John W

    2008-10-01

    The present paper proposes a source-receptor model to schematically describe inhalation exposure to help understand the complex processes leading to inhalation of hazardous substances. The model considers a stepwise transfer of a contaminant from the source to the receptor. The conceptual model is constructed using three components, i.e. (i) the source, (ii) various transmission compartments and (iii) the receptor, and describes the contaminant's emission and its pattern of transport. Based on this conceptual model, a list of nine mutually independent principal modifying factors (MFs) is proposed: activity emission potential, substance emission potential, localized control, separation, segregation, dilution, worker behavior, surface contamination and respiratory protection. These MFs describe the exposure process at a high level of abstraction so that the model can be generically applicable. A list of exposure determinants underlying each of these principal MFs is proposed to describe the exposure process at a more detailed level. The presented conceptual model is developed in conjunction with an activity taxonomy as described in a separate paper. The proposed conceptual model and MFs should be seen as 'building blocks' for development of higher tier exposure models. PMID:18787181

  6. Implementation of the Barcelona Basic Model into TOUGH-FLAC for simulations of the geomechanical behavior of unsaturated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, J.; Ijiri, Y.; Yamamoto, H.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents the implementation of the Barcelona Basic Model (BBM) into the TOUGH-FLAC simulator analyzing the geomechanical behavior of unsaturated soils. We implemented the BBM into TOUGH-FLAC by (1) extending an existing FLAC{sup 3D} module for the Modified Cam-Clay (MCC) model in FLAC{sup 3D} and (2) adding computational routines for suction-dependent strain and net stress (i.e., total stress minus gas pressure) for unsaturated soils. We implemented a thermo-elasto-plastic version of the BBM, wherein the soil strength depends on both suction and temperature. The implementation of the BBM into TOUGH-FLAC was verified and tested against several published numerical model simulations and laboratory experiments involving the coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) behavior of unsaturated soils. The simulation tests included modeling the mechanical behavior of bentonite-sand mixtures, which are being considered as back-fill and buffer materials for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. We also tested and demonstrated the use of the BBM and TOUGH-FLAC for a problem involving the coupled THM processes within a bentonite-backfilled nuclear waste emplacement tunnel. The simulation results indicated complex geomechanical behavior of the bentonite backfill, including a nonuniform distribution of buffer porosity and density that could not be captured in an alternative, simplified, linear-elastic swelling model. As a result of the work presented in this paper, TOUGH-FLAC with BBM is now fully operational and ready to be applied to problems associated with nuclear waste disposal in bentonite-backfilled tunnels, as well as other scientific and engineering problems related to the mechanical behavior of unsaturated soils.

  7. Modified two-dimensional computational model for electrostrictive graft elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Changjie; Wang, Youqi; Su, Ji

    2004-07-01

    A modified two-dimensional computational model is developed to calculate the electromechanical properties of the electrostrictive graft elastomer. The electrostrictive graft elastomer, recently developed by NASA, is a type of electro-active polymer. In a previous paper, the authors calculated electrostrictive graft elastomer electromechanical properties using a 2-D atomic force field. For this 2-D polymer structure, a much higher electric field was required to produce strain compared with that required in experiments. Two reasons could explain the higher electric field strength: (1) Polymer chain movement is restricted to a 2-D plane rather than to a 3-D plane. Out-plane dihedral torsional angle change would thus not be modeled. For this reason, 2-D polymer chains are less flexible than actual 3-D polymer chains. (2) Boundary effect of the computational model. In the original model, a unit cell consisting of a single graft unit was developed to simulate the deformation of the electrostrictive graft elastomer. The boundary of the unit cell would restrict the rotation of the graft unit. In this paper, a modified 2-D computational model is established to overcome the above problems. Firstly, three-dimensional deformations, induced by both bending angle and dihedral torsional angle changes, are projected onto a two-dimensional plane. Using both theoretical and numerical analyses, the projected 2-D equilibrium bending angle is shown to have the same value as the 3-D equilibrium bending angle. The 2-D equivalent bending stiffness is derived using a series model based upon the fact that both bending and dihedral torsion produce configuration change. The equivalent stiffness is justified by the characteristics of the polymer chain and end-to-end distance. Secondly, a self-consistent scheme is developed to eliminate the boundary effect. Eight images of the unit cell are created peripherally, with the original unit cell in the center. Thus the boundary can only affect the

  8. Underwater striling engine design with modified one-dimensional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daijin; Qin, Kan; Luo, Kai

    2015-09-01

    Stirling engines are regarded as an efficient and promising power system for underwater devices. Currently, many researches on one-dimensional model is used to evaluate thermodynamic performance of Stirling engine, but in which there are still some aspects which cannot be modeled with proper mathematical models such as mechanical loss or auxiliary power. In this paper, a four-cylinder double-acting Stirling engine for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) is discussed. And a one-dimensional model incorporated with empirical equations of mechanical loss and auxiliary power obtained from experiments is derived while referring to the Stirling engine computer model of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The P-40 Stirling engine with sufficient testing results from NASA is utilized to validate the accuracy of this one-dimensional model. It shows that the maximum error of output power of theoretical analysis results is less than 18% over testing results, and the maximum error of input power is no more than 9%. Finally, a Stirling engine for UUVs is designed with Schmidt analysis method and the modified one-dimensional model, and the results indicate this designed engine is capable of showing desired output power.

  9. Underwater striling engine design with modified one-dimensional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daijin; Qin, Kan; Luo, Kai

    2015-05-01

    Stirling engines are regarded as an efficient and promising power system for underwater devices. Currently, many researches on one-dimensional model is used to evaluate thermodynamic performance of Stirling engine, but in which there are still some aspects which cannot be modeled with proper mathematical models such as mechanical loss or auxiliary power. In this paper, a four-cylinder double-acting Stirling engine for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) is discussed. And a one-dimensional model incorporated with empirical equations of mechanical loss and auxiliary power obtained from experiments is derived while referring to the Stirling engine computer model of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The P-40 Stirling engine with sufficient testing results from NASA is utilized to validate the accuracy of this one-dimensional model. It shows that the maximum error of output power of theoretical analysis results is less than 18% over testing results, and the maximum error of input power is no more than 9%. Finally, a Stirling engine for UUVs is designed with Schmidt analysis method and the modified one-dimensional model, and the results indicate this designed engine is capable of showing desired output power.

  10. Modified gravity, the Cascading DGP model and its critical tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbisà, Fulvio

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the presence of instabilities in the Cascading DGP model. We start by discussing the problem of the cosmological late time acceleration, and we introduce the modified gravity approach. We then focus on brane induced gravity models and in particular on the Cascading DGP model. We consider configurations of the latter model where the source term is given simply by vacuum energy (pure tension), and we study perturbations at first order around these configurations. We perform a four-dimensional scalar-vector-tensor decomposition of the perturbations, and show that, regarding the scalar sector, the dynamics in a suitable limit can be described by a master equation. This master equation contains an energy scale (critical tension) which is related in a lion-trivial way to the parameters of the model. We give a geometrical interpretation of why this scale emerges, and explain its relevance for the presence of ghost instabilities in the theory. We comment on the difference between our result, and the one present in the literature, and stress its importance regarding the phenomenological viability of the model. We finally provide a numerical check which confirms the validity of our analysis.

  11. A modified two-lane traffic model considering drivers' personality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H. B.; Zhang, N. X.; Wu, W. J.

    2015-06-01

    Based on the two-lane traffic model proposed by Chowdhury et al., a modified traffic model (R-STCA model, for short) is presented, in which the new symmetric lane changing rules are introduced by considering driving behavioral difference and dynamic headway. After the numerical simulation, a broad scattering of simulated points is exhibited in the moderate density region on the flow-density plane. The synchronized flow phase accompanied with the wide moving jam phase is reproduced. The spatial-temporal profiles indicate that the vehicles move according to the R-STCA model can change lane more easily and more realistically. Then vehicles are convenient to get rid of the slow vehicles that turn into plugs ahead, and hence the capacity increases. Furthermore the phenomenon of the high speed car-following is discovered by using the R-STCA model, which has been already observed in the traffic measured data. All these results indicate that the presented model is reasonable and more realistic.

  12. Modified Chaplygin gas inspired inflationary model in braneworld scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawad, Abdul; Rani, Shamaila; Mohsaneen, Sidra

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the modified Chaplygin gas inspired inflationary regime in the brane-world framework in the presence of standard and tachyon scalar fields. We consider the intermediate inflationary scenario and construct the slow-roll parameters, e-folding numbers, spectral index, scalar and tensor power spectra, tensor to scalar ratio for both scalar field models. We develop the ns - N and r - N planes and concluded that ns˜eq96^{+0.5}_{-0.5} and r≤0.0016 for N˜eq60^{+5}_{-5} in both cases of scalar field models as well as for all values of m. These constraints are consistent with observational data such as WMAP7, WMAP9 and Planck data.

  13. Thermodynamical Aspects of Modified Holographic Dark Energy Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Yi

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the unified first law and the generalized second law in a modified holographic dark energy model. The thermodynamical analysis on the apparent horizon can work and the corresponding entropy formula is extracted from the systematic algorithm. The entropy correction term depends on the extra-dimension number of the brane as expected, but the interplay between the correction term and the extra dimensions is more complicated. With the unified first law of thermodynamics well-founded, the generalized second law of thermodynamics is discussed and it is found that the second law can be violated in certain circumstances. Particularly, if the number of the extra dimensions is larger than one, the generalized law of thermodynamics is always satisfied; otherwise, the validity of the second law can only be guaranteed with the Hubble radius greatly smaller than the crossover scale rc of the 5-dimensional DGP model.

  14. Testing Modified Gravity Models using Gravitational Waves Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahya, Emre

    2016-07-01

    Rotation curves of spiral galaxies and weak lensing as well as CMBR Power Spectrum point towards a need for different kind of matter in the universe that is not interacting electromagnetically. Alternatively one can explain rotation curves by modifying Newton's Laws which is called MOND. Relativistic versions of MOND work surprisingly good in producing structure and the community started taking these models seriously. We would like to offer a test which can test the validity of these class of models where one would get non-coincident arrival for gravitational waves and photons. We will explain why one should get a time lag between these two massless particles in the context of these so-called Dark Matter Emulators. And give an order of magnitude estimate for Shapiro delay for object which are very far away as well as more accurate ones for sources in Milky-way.

  15. Ultralocal models of modified gravity without kinetic term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brax, Philippe; Rizzo, Luca Alberto; Valageas, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    We present a class of modified-gravity theories which we call ultralocal models. We add a scalar field, with negligible kinetic terms, to the Einstein-Hilbert action. We also introduce a conformal coupling to matter. This gives rise to a new screening mechanism which is not entirely due to the nonlinearity of the scalar-field potential or the coupling function but to the absence of the kinetic term. As a result this removes any fifth force between isolated objects in vacuum. It turns out that these models are similar to chameleon-type theories with a large mass when considered outside the Compton wavelength but differ on shorter scales. The predictions of these models only depend on a single free function, as the potential and the coupling function are degenerate, with an amplitude given by a parameter α ≲10-6 , whose magnitude springs from requiring a small modification of Newton's potential astrophysically and cosmologically. This singles out a redshift zα˜α-1 /3≳100 where the fifth force is the greatest. The cosmological background follows the Λ cold dark matter (Λ CDM ) history within a 10-6 accuracy, while cosmological perturbations are significantly enhanced (or damped) on small scales, k ≳2 h Mpc-1 at z =0 . The spherical collapse and the halo mass function are modified in the same manner. We find that the modifications of gravity are greater for galactic or subgalactic structures. We also present a thermodynamic analysis of the nonlinear and inhomogeneous fifth-force regime where we find that the Universe is not made more inhomogeneous before zα when the fifth force dominates, and does not lead to the existence of clumped matter on extra small scales inside halos for large masses while this possibility exists for masses M ≲1 011M⊙ where the phenomenology of ultralocal models would be most different from Λ CDM .

  16. Osseointegration of biochemically modified implants in an osteoporosis rodent model.

    PubMed

    Stadlinger, B; Korn, P; Tödtmann, N; Eckelt, U; Range, U; Bürki, A; Ferguson, S J; Kramer, I; Kautz, A; Schnabelrauch, M; Kneissel, M; Schlottig, F

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of implant surface modifications on osseointegration in an osteoporotic rodent model. Sandblasted, acid-etched titanium implants were either used directly (control) or were further modified by surface conditioning with NaOH or by coating with one of the following active agents: collagen/chondroitin sulphate, simvastatin, or zoledronic acid. Control and modified implants were inserted into the proximal tibia of aged ovariectomised (OVX) osteoporotic rats (n = 32/group). In addition, aged oestrogen competent animals received either control or NaOH conditioned implants. Animals were sacrificed 2 and 4 weeks post-implantation. The excised tibiae were utilised for biomechanical and morphometric readouts (n = 8/group/readout). Biomechanical testing revealed at both time points dramatically reduced osseointegration in the tibia of oestrogen deprived osteoporotic animals compared to intact controls irrespective of NaOH exposure. Consistently, histomorphometric and microCT analyses demonstrated diminished bone-implant contact (BIC), peri-implant bone area (BA), bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV) and bone-mineral density (BMD) in OVX animals. Surface coating with collagen/chondroitin sulphate had no detectable impact on osseointegration. Interestingly, statin coating resulted in a transient increase in BIC 2 weeks post-implantation; which, however, did not correspond to improvement of biomechanical readouts. Local exposure to zoledronic acid increased BIC, BA, BV/TV and BMD at 4 weeks. Yet this translated only into a non-significant improvement of biomechanical properties. In conclusion, this study presents a rodent model mimicking severely osteoporotic bone. Contrary to the other bioactive agents, locally released zoledronic acid had a positive impact on osseointegration albeit to a lesser extent than reported in less challenging models. PMID:23832686

  17. Reconstruction of modified gravity with perfect fluid cosmological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, C. P.; Singh, Vijay

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we present the cosmological viability of reconstruction of an alternative gravitational theory, namely, the modified gravity, where is the Ricci scalar curvature and the trace of stress energy momentum tensor. A functional form of is chosen for the reconstruction in perfect fluid flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model. The gravitational field equations contain two fluid sources, one is perfect fluid and other is due to modified gravity which is to be considered as an exotic fluid. This allows us for derivation and analysis of a set of new cosmological solutions for gravity by considering these two fluids as a non-interacting. Two known forms of scale factor (de Sitter and power-law) are considered for the explicit and successful reconstruction. The equation of state parameter (EoS) of exotic matter and the effective EoS parameter have been discussed. In de Sitter solution we find that the fluid behaves as phantom dark energy when the usual matter (perfect fluid) shows the behavior between decelerated phase to accelerated phase. In the absence of usual matter it behaves as a cosmological constant. In case of power -law cosmology two different cases are discussed and analyzed the behavior of different phases of the universe accordingly through the equation of state and density parameters.

  18. Evaluating and modifying Johanson's rolling model to improve its predictability.

    PubMed

    Bi, Mingda; Alvarez-Nunez, Fernando; Alvarez, Francisco

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate if Johanson's rolling theory can correctly predict the maximum roll surface pressure during the roll compaction. Three model pharmaceutical formulations were roller compacted using the Gerteis Mini Pactor at multiple combinations of roll forces and roll gaps. The resultant ribbon density at each combination of roll force and roll gap was measured and the corresponding maximum roll surface pressure was predicted using Johanson's rolling model. The measured ribbon density and predicted maximum roll surface pressure from roller compactor was compared with the measured wafer density and maximum axial stress from die compression. The results indicate that predicted maximum roll surface pressure from roller compactor is higher than the axial stress from die compression to manufacture same density ribbons. The root cause of overprediction of maximum roll surface pressure from Johanson's model was found and corrected. The modified model offers reasonably accurate prediction of maximum roll surface pressure for all roller compaction experiments conducted in this study. PMID:24840775

  19. Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity models with bouncing behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escofet, Anna; Elizalde, Emilio

    2016-06-01

    The following issue is addressed: How the addition of a Gauss-Bonnet term (generically coming from most fundamental theories, as string and M theories), to a viable model, can change the specific properties, and even the physical nature, of the corresponding cosmological solutions? Specifically, brand new original dark energy models are obtained in this way with quite interesting properties, which exhibit, in a unified fashion, the three distinguished possible cosmological phases corresponding to phantom matter, quintessence and ordinary matter, respectively. A model, in which the equation of state (EoS) parameter, w, is a function of time, is seen to lead either to a singularity of the Big Rip kind or to a bouncing solution which evolves into a de Sitter universe with w = ‑1. Moreover, new Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity models with bouncing behavior in the early stages of the universe evolution are obtained and tested for the validity and stability of the corresponding solutions. They allow for a remarkably natural, unified description of a bouncing behavior at early times and accelerated expansion at present.

  20. Vector field models of modified gravity and the dark sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuntz, J.; Zlosnik, T. G.; Bourliot, F.; Ferreira, P. G.; Starkman, G. D.

    2010-05-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of cosmological constraints on the class of vector field formulations of modified gravity called generalized Einstein-aether models. Using linear perturbation theory we generate cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure spectra for general parameters of the theory, and then constrain them in various ways. We investigate two parameter regimes: a dark matter candidate where the vector field sources structure formation, and a dark energy candidate where it causes late-time acceleration. We find that the dark matter candidate does not fit the data, and identify five physical problems that can restrict this and other theories of dark matter. The dark energy candidate does fit the data, and we constrain its fundamental parameters; most notably we find that the theory’s kinetic index parameter nae can differ significantly from its ΛCDM value.

  1. Vector field models of modified gravity and the dark sector

    SciTech Connect

    Zuntz, J.; Ferreira, P. G.; Zlosnik, T. G; Bourliot, F.; Starkman, G. D.

    2010-05-15

    We present a comprehensive investigation of cosmological constraints on the class of vector field formulations of modified gravity called generalized Einstein-aether models. Using linear perturbation theory we generate cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure spectra for general parameters of the theory, and then constrain them in various ways. We investigate two parameter regimes: a dark matter candidate where the vector field sources structure formation, and a dark energy candidate where it causes late-time acceleration. We find that the dark matter candidate does not fit the data, and identify five physical problems that can restrict this and other theories of dark matter. The dark energy candidate does fit the data, and we constrain its fundamental parameters; most notably we find that the theory's kinetic index parameter n{sub ae} can differ significantly from its {Lambda}CDM value.

  2. Geographically Isolated Wetlands and Catchment Hydrology: A Modified Model Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenson, G.; Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.; D'Amico, E.

    2014-12-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), typically defined as depressional wetlands surrounded by uplands, support an array of hydrological and ecological processes. However, key research questions concerning the hydrological connectivity of GIWs and their impacts on downgradient surface waters remain unanswered. This is particularly important for regulation and management of these systems. For example, in the past decade United States Supreme Court decisions suggest that GIWs can be afforded protection if significant connectivity exists between these waters and traditional navigable waters. Here we developed a simulation procedure to quantify the effects of various spatial distributions of GIWs across the landscape on the downgradient hydrograph using a refined version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a catchment-scale hydrological simulation model. We modified the SWAT FORTRAN source code and employed an alternative hydrologic response unit (HRU) definition to facilitate an improved representation of GIW hydrologic processes and connectivity relationships to other surface waters, and to quantify their downgradient hydrological effects. We applied the modified SWAT model to an ~ 202 km2 catchment in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, USA, exhibiting a substantial population of mapped GIWs. Results from our series of GIW distribution scenarios suggest that: (1) Our representation of GIWs within SWAT conforms to field-based characterizations of regional GIWs in most respects; (2) GIWs exhibit substantial seasonally-dependent effects upon downgradient base flow; (3) GIWs mitigate peak flows, particularly following high rainfall events; and (4) The presence of GIWs on the landscape impacts the catchment water balance (e.g., by increasing groundwater outflows). Our outcomes support the hypothesis that GIWs have an important catchment-scale effect on downgradient streamflow.

  3. Holistic versus monomeric strategies for hydrological modelling of modified hydrosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalbantis, I.; Efstratiadis, A.; Rozos, E.; Kopsiafti, M.; Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2010-10-01

    The modelling of modified basins that are inadequately measured constitutes a challenge for hydrological science. Often, models for such systems are detailed and hydraulics-based for only one part of the system while for other parts oversimplified models or rough assumptions are used. This is typically a bottom-up approach, which seeks to exploit knowledge of hydrological processes at the micro-scale at some components of the system. Also, it is a monomeric approach in two ways: first, essential interactions among system components may be poorly represented or even omitted; second, differences in the level of detail of process representation can lead to uncontrolled errors. Additionally, the calibration procedure merely accounts for the reproduction of the observed responses using typical fitting criteria. The paper aims to raise some critical issues, regarding the entire modelling approach for such hydrosystems. For this, two alternative modelling strategies are examined that reflect two modelling approaches or philosophies: a dominant bottom-up approach, which is also monomeric and very often, based on output information and a top-down and holistic approach based on generalized information. Critical options are examined, which codify the differences between the two strategies: the representation of surface, groundwater and water management processes, the schematization and parameterization concepts and the parameter estimation methodology. The first strategy is based on stand-alone models for surface and groundwater processes and for water management, which are employed sequentially. For each model, a different (detailed or coarse) parameterization is used, which is dictated by the hydrosystem schematization. The second strategy involves model integration for all processes, parsimonious parameterization and hybrid manual-automatic parameter optimization based on multiple objectives. A test case is examined in a hydrosystem in Greece with high complexities, such

  4. Using Modeling to Design new Rheology Modifiers for Paints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, Valeriy

    2013-03-01

    Since their invention in 1970-s, hydrophobically ethoxylated urethanes (HEUR) have been actively used as rheology modifiers for paints. Thermodynamic and rheological behavior of HEUR molecules in aqueous solutions is now very well understood and is based on the concept of transient network (TN), where the association of hydrophobic groups into networks of flower micelles causes viscosity to increase dramatically as function of polymer concentration. The behavior of complex mixtures containing water, HEUR, and latex (``binder'') particles, however, is understood less well, even though it has utmost importance in the paint formulation design. In this talk, we discuss how the adsorption of HEUR chains onto latex particles results in formation of complex viscoelastic networks with temporary bridges between particles. We then utilize Self-Consistent Field Theory (SCFT) model to compute effective adsorption isotherms (thickener-on-latex) and develop a rheological theory describing steady-shear viscosity of such mixtures. The model is able to qualitatively describe many important features of the water/latex/HEUR mixtures, such as strong shear thinning. The proposed approach could potentially lead to the design of new HEUR structures with improved rheological performance. This work was supported by Dow Chemical Company

  5. Automated optic disk boundary detection by modified active contour model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Chutatape, Opas; Chew, Paul

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents a novel deformable-model-based algorithm for fully automated detection of optic disk boundary in fundus images. The proposed method improves and extends the original snake (deforming-only technique) in two aspects: clustering and smoothing update. The contour points are first self-separated into edge-point group or uncertain-point group by clustering after each deformation, and these contour points are then updated by different criteria based on different groups. The updating process combines both the local and global information of the contour to achieve the balance of contour stability and accuracy. The modifications make the proposed algorithm more accurate and robust to blood vessel occlusions, noises, ill-defined edges and fuzzy contour shapes. The comparative results show that the proposed method can estimate the disk boundaries of 100 test images closer to the groundtruth, as measured by mean distance to closest point (MDCP) <3 pixels, with the better success rate when compared to those obtained by gradient vector flow snake (GVF-snake) and modified active shape models (ASM). PMID:17355059

  6. Onset of simple liquid behaviour in modified water models

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Saurav; Chakravarty, Charusita

    2014-04-28

    The transition to simple liquid behaviour is studied in a set of modified hybrid water models where the potential energy contribution of the Lennard-Jones dispersion-repulsion contribution is progressively enhanced relative to the electrostatic contribution. Characteristics of simple liquid behaviour that indicate the extent to which a given system can be mapped onto an inverse power law fluid are examined, including configurational energy-virial correlations, functional form of temperature dependence of the excess entropy along isochores, and thermodynamic and excess entropy scaling of diffusivities. As the Lennard-Jones contribution to the potential energy function increases, the strength of the configurational energy-virial correlations increases. The Rosenfeld-Tarazona temperature dependence of the excess entropy is found to hold for the range of state points studied here for all the hybrid models, regardless of the degree of correlating character. Thermodynamic scaling is found to hold for weakly polar fluids with a moderate degree of energy-virial correlations. Rosenfeld-scaling of transport properties is found not to be necessarily linked with the strength of energy-virial correlations but may hold for systems with poor thermodynamic scaling if diffusivities and excess entropies show correlated departures from the isomorph-invariant behaviour characteristic of approximate inverse power law fluids. The state-point dependence of the configurational energy-virial correlation coefficient and the implications for thermodynamic and excess entropy scalings are considered.

  7. Modified Uterine Allotransplantation and Immunosuppression Procedure in the Sheep Model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hong; Zhao, Guang-Yue; Zhang, Geng; Lu, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Yan-Hong; Ma, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Hai-Xia; Liang, Sheng-Ru; Yang, Fang; Chen, Bi-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop an orthotopic, allogeneic, uterine transplantation technique and an effective immunosuppressive protocol in the sheep model. Methods In this pilot study, 10 sexually mature ewes were subjected to laparotomy and total abdominal hysterectomy with oophorectomy to procure uterus allografts. The cold ischemic time was 60 min. End-to-end vascular anastomosis was performed using continuous, non-interlocking sutures. Complete tissue reperfusion was achieved in all animals within 30 s after the vascular re-anastomosis, without any evidence of arterial or venous thrombosis. The immunosuppressive protocol consisted of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and methylprednisolone tablets. Graft viability was assessed by transrectal ultrasonography and second-look laparotomy at 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. Results Viable uterine tissue and vascular patency were observed on transrectal ultrasonography and second-look laparotomy. Histological analysis of the graft tissue (performed in one ewe) revealed normal tissue architecture with a very subtle inflammatory reaction but no edema or stasis. Conclusion We have developed a modified procedure that allowed us to successfully perform orthotopic, allogeneic, uterine transplantation in sheep, whose uterine and vascular anatomy (apart from the bicornuate uterus) is similar to the human anatomy, making the ovine model excellent for human uterine transplant research. PMID:24278415

  8. Pattern formation through spatial interactions in a modified Daisyworld model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Tommaso; Primavera, Leonardo; Lepreti, Fabio; Vecchio, Antonio; Carbone, Vincenzo

    2015-04-01

    The Daisyworld model is based on a hypothetical planet, like the Earth, which receives the radiant energy coming from a Sun-like star, and populated by two kinds of identical plants differing by their colour: white daisies reflecting light and black daisies absorbing light. The interactions and feedbacks between the collective biota of the planet and the incoming radiation form a self-regulating system where the conditions for life are maintained. We investigate a modified version of the Daisyworld model where a spatial dependency on latitude is introduced, and both a variable heat diffusivity along latitude and a simple greenhouse model are included. We show that the spatial interactions between the variables of the system can generate some equilibrium patterns which can locally stabilize the coexistence of the two vegetation types. The feedback on albedo is able to generate new equilibrium solutions which can efficiently self-regulate the planet climate, even for values of the solar luminosity relatively far from the current Earth conditions. The extension to spatial Daisyworld gives room to the possibility of inhomogeneous solar forcing in a curved planet, with explicit differences between poles and equator and the direct use of the heat diffusion equation. As a first approach, to describe a spherical planet, we consider the temperature T(θ,t) and the surface coverage as depending only on time and on latitude θ (-90° ≤ θ ≤ 90°). A second step is the introduction of the greenhouse effect in the model, the process by which outgoing infrared radiation is partly screened by greenhouse gases. This effect can be described by relaxing the black-body radiation hypothesis and by introducing a grayness function g(T) in the heat equation. As a third step, we consider a latitude dependence of the Earth's conductivity, χ = χ(θ). Considering these terms, using spherical coordinates and symmetry with respect to θ, the modified Daisyworld equations reduce to the

  9. Antitumor Properties of Modified Detonation Nanodiamonds and Sorbed Doxorubicin on the Model of Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Medvedeva, N N; Zhukov, E L; Inzhevatkin, E V; Bezzabotnov, V E

    2016-01-01

    We studied antitumor properties of modified detonation nanodiamonds loaded with doxorubicin on in vivo model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. The type of tumor development and morphological characteristics of the liver, kidneys, and spleen were evaluated in experimental animals. Modified nanodiamonds injected intraperitoneally produced no antitumor effect on Ehrlich carcinoma. However, doxorubicin did not lose antitumor activity after sorption on modified nanodiamonds. PMID:26742746

  10. Modeling of a Modified Rocha Slot Test in welded tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Blanford, M.L.; Zimmerman, R.M.

    1987-12-31

    The design of nuclear waste repositories in hard rock underground requires an understanding of how the jointed rock mass responds to the various loads introduced. The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) is conducting a series of field tests in G-Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site to characterize the behavior of welded tuff. In particular, one of the ways its modulus of deformation is being measured in situ is by means of a slot loaded by a pressurized flatjack. This is called the Modified Rocha Slot Test, after Manuel Rocha who pioneered investigations using this type of test. Numerical calculations were undertaken using the stress-wave dynamic finite difference code STEALTH. Using dynamic relaxation, the code is able to follow the quasi-static loading curve quite closely, so that the path-dependent aspects of the solution are captured economically. The material model (CAVS) represents an elastic-plastic rock matrix with evenly-spaced joints in three mutually perpendicular planes. The joints have nonlinear normal compliance, shear cohesion, and shear strength that depend on the slip history. Slip-induced dilation of the joints is also taken into consideration. Results of the calculations are presented which illustrate the stresses, deformations, and joint slippages resulting from the application of pressure loading in the slot. The stress field is remarkably sensitive to joint orientation and cohension, but rather insensitive to the normal compliance. The effect of a confining in situ stress field is also examined.

  11. Aftershocks and Omori's law in a modified Carlson-Langer model with nonlinear viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Okamura, Kazuki

    2015-05-01

    A modified Carlson-Langer model for earthquakes is proposed, which includes nonlinear viscoelasticity. Several aftershocks are generated after the main shock owing to the damping of the additional viscoelastic force. Both the Gutenberg-Richter law and Omori's law are reproduced in a numerical simulation of the modified Carlson-Langer model on a critical percolation cluster of a square lattice.

  12. Minor hysteresis loops model based on exponential parameters scaling of the modified Jiles-Atherton model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamimid, M.; Mimoune, S. M.; Feliachi, M.

    2012-07-01

    In this present work, the minor hysteresis loops model based on parameters scaling of the modified Jiles-Atherton model is evaluated by using judicious expressions. These expressions give the minor hysteresis loops parameters as a function of the major hysteresis loop ones. They have exponential form and are obtained by parameters identification using the stochastic optimization method “simulated annealing”. The main parameters influencing the data fitting are three parameters, the pinning parameter k, the mean filed parameter α and the parameter which characterizes the shape of anhysteretic magnetization curve a. To validate this model, calculated minor hysteresis loops are compared with measured ones and good agreements are obtained.

  13. A modified fractional Zener model to describe the behaviour of a carbon fibre reinforced polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, M. Fernanda P.; Ribeiro, C.

    2013-10-01

    In this work a modified conventional Fractional Zener Model is deduced and applied to estimate the viscoelastic constitutive parameters of a Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer. The accuracy of this modified model was studied against conventional Fractional Zener model and Fractional Maxwell model, considering experimental data in the frequency domain. The set of parameters was found by solving a nonlinear constrained least square problem based on the variation of the storage and loss moduli with frequency.

  14. Reduced-order model based feedback control of the modified Hasegawa-Wakatani model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goumiri, I. R.; Rowley, C. W.; Ma, Z.; Gates, D. A.; Krommes, J. A.; Parker, J. B.

    2013-04-01

    In this work, the development of model-based feedback control that stabilizes an unstable equilibrium is obtained for the Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani (MHW) equations, a classic model in plasma turbulence. First, a balanced truncation (a model reduction technique that has proven successful in flow control design problems) is applied to obtain a low dimensional model of the linearized MHW equation. Then, a model-based feedback controller is designed for the reduced order model using linear quadratic regulators. Finally, a linear quadratic Gaussian controller which is more resistant to disturbances is deduced. The controller is applied on the non-reduced, nonlinear MHW equations to stabilize the equilibrium and suppress the transition to drift-wave induced turbulence.

  15. Reduced-order model based feedback control of the modified Hasegawa-Wakatani model

    SciTech Connect

    Goumiri, I. R.; Rowley, C. W.; Ma, Z.; Gates, D. A.; Krommes, J. A.; Parker, J. B.

    2013-04-15

    In this work, the development of model-based feedback control that stabilizes an unstable equilibrium is obtained for the Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani (MHW) equations, a classic model in plasma turbulence. First, a balanced truncation (a model reduction technique that has proven successful in flow control design problems) is applied to obtain a low dimensional model of the linearized MHW equation. Then, a model-based feedback controller is designed for the reduced order model using linear quadratic regulators. Finally, a linear quadratic Gaussian controller which is more resistant to disturbances is deduced. The controller is applied on the non-reduced, nonlinear MHW equations to stabilize the equilibrium and suppress the transition to drift-wave induced turbulence.

  16. Modified Jiles-Atherton model and parameters identification using false position method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamimid, M.; Feliachi, M.; Mimoune, S. M.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, a modified Jiles-Atherton model is proposed. This model uses a physical meaning by introducing the magnetization M instead of the irreversible magnetization M irr in the effective magnetic field H e-magnetic field H relationship. The false position method is coupled to the iterative algorithm to identify the Jiles-Atherton parameters for both classical and modified Jiles-Atherton model. These parameters are evaluated by the resolution of three nonlinear equations obtained from three conditions. The validity of the modified model is done by comparing the obtained hysteresis loops to the experimental ones.

  17. Employing a Modified Diffuser Momentum Model to Simulate Ventilation of the Orion CEV (DRAFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straus, John; Ball, Tyler; OHara, William; Barido, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to model the flow field in the Orion CEV cabin. The CFD model employs a momentum model used to account for the effect of supply grilles on the supply flow. The momentum model is modified to account for non-uniform velocity profiles at the approach of the supply grille. The modified momentum model is validated against a detailed vane-resolved model before inclusion into the Orion CEV cabin model. Results for this comparison, as well as that of a single ventilation configuration are presented.

  18. A Modified Theta Projection Model for Creep Behavior of Metals and Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manish; Singh, I. V.; Mishra, B. K.; Ahmad, S.; Venugopal Rao, A.; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a modified theta projection model is proposed for the constitutive modeling of creep behavior of metals and alloys. In the conventional theta projection model, strain hardening exponent is a function of time and theta, whereas in the modified theta projection model, the exponent is taken as a function of time, theta, and applied stress. The results obtained by the modified theta projection model for Al 2124 T851 alloy at constant uniaxial tensile stress are compared with the experimental results and with the predictions of the conventional theta projection method. The creep behavior of Al 7075 T651 alloy is also predicted using modified and conventional theta projection model and compared with the available experimental data. It is observed that the modified theta projection model captures the creep behavior more accurately as compared to the conventional theta projection model. The modified theta projection model can be used to predict the creep strain of pure metals and class M alloys (similar creep behavior to pure metals) for intermediate range of stress and temperature.

  19. Principle and validation of modified hysteretic models for magnetorheological dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xian-Xu; Chen, Peng; Qian, Li-Jun

    2015-08-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) dampers, semi-active actuators for vibration and shock control systems, have attracted increasing attention during the past two decades. However, it is difficult to establish a precise mathematical model for the MR dampers and their control systems due to their intrinsic strong nonlinear hysteretic behavior. A phenomenological model based on the Bouc-Wen model can be used to effectively describe the nonlinear hysteretic behavior of the MR dampers, but the structure of the phenomenological model is complex and the Bouc-Wen model is functionally redundant. In this paper, based on the phenomenological model, (1) a normalized phenomenological model is derived through incorporating a ‘normalization’ concept, and (2) a restructured model, also incorporating the ‘normalization’ concept, is proposed and realized. In order to demonstrate this, a multi-islands genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to identify the parameters of the restructured model, the normalized phenomenological model, and the phenomenological model. The performance of the three models for describing and predicting the damping force characteristics of the MR dampers are compared and analyzed using the identified parameters. The research results indicate that, as compared with the phenomenological model and the normalized phenomenological model, (1) the restructured model can not only effectively decrease the number of the model parameters and reduce the complexity of the model, but can also describe the nonlinear hysteretic behavior of MR dampers more accurately, and (2) the meanings of several model parameters of the restructured model are clearer and the initial ranges of the model parameters are more explicit, which is of significance for parameter identification.

  20. The modified Black-Scholes model via constant elasticity of variance for stock options valuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edeki, S. O.; Owoloko, E. A.; Ugbebor, O. O.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the classical Black-Scholes option pricing model is visited. We present a modified version of the Black-Scholes model via the application of the constant elasticity of variance model (CEVM); in this case, the volatility of the stock price is shown to be a non-constant function unlike the assumption of the classical Black-Scholes model.

  1. USE OF MODELING APPROACHES TO UNDERSTAND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANTS ON PLANT COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Model development is of interest to ecologists, regulators and developers, since it may assist theoretical understanding, decision making in experimental design, product development and risk assessment. In order to predict the potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) plants...

  2. Modified Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for hydrodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorek, Shaul; Borisov, Vyacheslav

    2012-04-01

    We present the modified Eulerian-Lagrangian (MEL) formulation, based on non-divergent forms of partial differential balance equations, for simulating transport of extensive quantities in a porous medium. Hydrodynamic derivatives are written in terms of modified velocities for particles propagating phase and component quantities along their respective paths. The particles physically interpreted velocities also address the heterogeneity of the matrix and fluid properties. The MEL formulation is also implemented to parabolic Partial Differential Equations (PDE's) as these are shown to be interchangeable with equivalent PDE's having hyperbolic - parabolic characteristics, without violating the same physical concepts. We prove that the MEL schemes provide a convergent and monotone approximation also to PDE's with discontinuous coefficients. An extension to the Peclet number is presented that also accounts for advective dominant PDE's with no reference to the fluid velocity or even when this velocity is not introduced. In Sorek et al. [27], a mathematical analysis for a linear system of coupled PDE's and an example of nonlinear PDE's, proved that the finite difference MEL, unlike an Eulerian scheme, guaranties the absence of spurious oscillations. Currently, we present notions of monotone interpolation associated with the MEL particle tracking procedure and prove the convergence of the MEL schemes to the original balance equation also for discontinuous coefficients on the basis of difference schemes approximating PDE's. We provide numerical examples, also with highly random fields of permeabilities and/or dispersivities, suggesting that the MEL scheme produces resolutions that are more consistent with the physical phenomenon in comparison to the Eulerian and the Eulerian-Lagrangian (EL) schemes.

  3. Anisotropic stress and stability in modified gravity models

    SciTech Connect

    Saltas, Ippocratis D.; Kunz, Martin

    2011-03-15

    The existence of anisotropic stress of a purely geometrical origin seems to be a characteristic of higher order gravity models, and has been suggested as a probe to test these models observationally, for example, in weak lensing experiments. In this paper, we seek to find a class of higher order gravity models of f(R,G) type that would give us a zero anisotropic stress and study the consequences for the viability of the actual model. For the special case of a de Sitter background, we identify a subclass of models with the desired property. We also find a direct link between anisotropic stress and the stability of the model as well as the presence of extra degrees of freedom, which seems to be a general feature of higher order gravity models. Particularly, setting the anisotropic stress equal to zero for a de Sitter background leads to a singularity that makes it impossible to reach the de Sitter evolution.

  4. A-Priori Tuning of Modified Magnussen Combustion Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, A. T.

    2016-01-01

    In the application of CFD to turbulent reacting flows, one of the main limitations to predictive accuracy is the chemistry model. Using a full or skeletal kinetics model may provide good predictive ability, however, at considerable computational cost. Adding the ability to account for the interaction between turbulence and chemistry improves the overall fidelity of a simulation but adds to this cost. An alternative is the use of simple models, such as the Magnussen model, which has negligible computational overhead, but lacks general predictive ability except for cases that can be tuned to the flow being solved. In this paper, a technique will be described that allows the tuning of the Magnussen model for an arbitrary fuel and flow geometry without the need to have experimental data for that particular case. The tuning is based on comparing the results of the Magnussen model and full finite-rate chemistry when applied to perfectly and partially stirred reactor simulations. In addition, a modification to the Magnussen model is proposed that allows the upper kinetic limit for the reaction rate to be set, giving better physical agreement with full kinetic mechanisms. This procedure allows a simple reacting model to be used in a predictive manner, and affords significant savings in computational costs for simulations.

  5. The Learner-Centered Instructional Design Model: A Modified Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melsom, Duane Allan

    2010-01-01

    The learner-centered instructional design model redefines the standard linear instructional design model to form a circular model where the learner's needs are the first item considered in the development of instruction. The purpose of this modified Delphi study was to have a panel of experts in the instructional design field review the…

  6. Modelling magnetic properties of MnZn ferrites with the modified Jiles-Atherton description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwastek, K.

    2010-01-01

    Consideration of temperature and anisotropy effects in hysteresis modelling allows for tailoring the operation point of magnetic circuits. The recently modified Jiles-Atherton model has been extended to describe the hysteresis loops in MnZn ferrites for two temperatures below the Curie point. Anisotropy is modelled by a proper choice of the value of the quantum number J in the Brillouin function.

  7. Modified Finch and Skea stellar model compatible with observational data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, D. M.; Thomas, V. O.; Sharma, R.

    2015-04-01

    We present a new class of solutions to the Einstein's field equations corresponding to a static spherically symmetric anisotropic system by generalizing the ansatz of Finch and Skea [Class. Quantum Grav. 6:467, 1989] for the gravitational potential g rr . The anisotropic stellar model previously studied by Sharma and Ratanpal [Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 13:1350074, 2013] is a sub-class of the solutions provided here. Based on physical requirements, regularity conditions and stability, we prescribe bounds on the model parameters. By systematically fixing values of the model parameters within the prescribed bound, we demonstrate that our model is compatible with the observed masses and radii of a wide variety of compact stars like 4U 1820-30, PSR J1903+327, 4U 1608-52, Vela X-1, PSR J1614-2230, SAX J1808.4-3658 and Her X-1.

  8. Spherical collapse and cluster counts in modified gravity models

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, Matthew C.; Stabenau, Hans F.; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2009-04-15

    Modifications to the gravitational potential affect the nonlinear gravitational evolution of large scale structures in the Universe. To illustrate some generic features of such changes, we study the evolution of spherically symmetric perturbations when the modification is of Yukawa type; this is nontrivial, because we should not and do not assume that Birkhoff's theorem applies. We then show how to estimate the abundance of virialized objects in such models. Comparison with numerical simulations shows reasonable agreement: When normalized to have the same fluctuations at early times, weaker large scale gravity produces fewer massive halos. However, the opposite can be true for models that are normalized to have the same linear theory power spectrum today, so the abundance of rich clusters potentially places interesting constraints on such models. Our analysis also indicates that the formation histories and abundances of sufficiently low mass objects are unchanged from standard gravity. This explains why simulations have found that the nonlinear power spectrum at large k is unaffected by such modifications to the gravitational potential. In addition, the most massive objects in models with normalized cosmic microwave background and weaker gravity are expected to be similar to the high-redshift progenitors of the most massive objects in models with stronger gravity. Thus, the difference between the cluster and field galaxy populations is expected to be larger in models with stronger large scale gravity.

  9. Modified version of the combined model of photonucleon reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ishkhanov, B. S.; Orlin, V. N.

    2015-07-15

    A refined version of the combined photonucleon-reaction model is described. This version makes it possible to take into account the effect of structural features of the doorway dipole state on photonucleon reactions in the energy range of E{sub γ} ≤ 30 MeV. In relation to the previous version of the model, the treatment of isospin effects at the preequilibrium and evaporation reaction stages is refined; in addition, the description of the semidirect effect caused by nucleon emission from the doorway dipole state is improved. The model in question is used to study photonucleon reactions on the isotopes {sup 35-56}Ca and {sup 102-134}Sn in the energy range indicated above.

  10. Modified 'Joyce model' of opioid dependence/withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Raffa, Robert B; Tallarida, Ronald J

    2006-12-01

    By comprehensive and detailed measurement of the time course of withdrawal signs in rats, Joyce et al. (J. Theo. Biol. 240:531-537, 2006) recently provided a creative quantitative model of the onset of drug dependence based on the requirement of protein synthesis. Because the initial model fit the data imperfectly over the full time course, those authors postulated that additional features would be needed. We report excellent fit of the data (R(2)=0.96) by adding: (1) a transient early phase, and (2) a delay in the buildup of protein. PMID:17045985

  11. Geographically isolated wetlands and watershed hydrology: A modified model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenson, Grey R.; Golden, Heather E.; Lane, Charles R.; D'Amico, Ellen

    2015-10-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) are defined as wetlands that are completely surrounded by uplands. While GIWs are therefore spatially isolated, field-based studies have observed a continuum of hydrologic connections between these systems and other surface waters. Yet few studies have quantified the watershed-scale aggregate effects of GIWs on downstream hydrology. Further, existing modeling approaches to evaluate GIW effects at a watershed scale have utilized conceptual or spatially disaggregated wetland representations. Working towards wetland model representations that use spatially explicit approaches may improve current scientific understanding concerning GIW effects on the downstream hydrograph. The objective of this study was to quantify the watershed-scale aggregate effects of GIWs on downstream hydrology while emphasizing a spatially explicit representation of GIWs and GIW connectivity relationships. We constructed a hydrologic model for a ∼202 km2 watershed in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, USA, a watershed with a substantial population of GIWs, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We applied a novel representation of GIWs within the model, facilitated by an alternative hydrologic response unit (HRU) definition and modifications to the SWAT source code that extended the model's "pothole" representation. We then executed a series of scenarios to assess the downstream hydrologic effect of various distributions of GIWs within the watershed. Results suggest that: (1) GIWs have seasonally dependent effects on baseflow; (2) GIWs mitigate peak flows; and (3) The presence of GIWs on the landscape impacts the watershed water balance. This work demonstrates a means of GIW simulation with improved spatial detail while showing that GIWs, in-aggregate, have a substantial effect on downstream hydrology in the studied watershed.

  12. A modified NaSch model with density-dependent randomization for traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H. B.; Ge, H. X.; Dong, L. Y.; Dai, S. Q.

    2007-05-01

    Based on the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) model of traffic flow, a modified cellular automaton (CA) traffic model with the density-dependent randomization (abbreviated as the DDR model) is proposed to simulate traffic flow. The fundamental diagram obtained by simulation shows the ability of this modified NaSch model to capture the essential features of traffic flow, e.g., synchronized flow, metastable state, hysteresis and phase separation at higher densities. Comparisons are made between this DDR model and the NaSch model, also between this DDR model and the VDR model. And the underlying mechanism is analyzed. All these results indicate that the presented model is reasonable and more realistic.

  13. Multilevel systems biology modeling characterized the atheroprotective efficiencies of modified dairy fats in a hamster model.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jean-Charles; Berton, Amélie; Ginies, Christian; Bott, Romain; Scheercousse, Pierre; Saddi, Alessandra; Gripois, Daniel; Landrier, Jean-François; Dalemans, Daniel; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Delplanque, Bernadette

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the atheroprotective efficiency of modified dairy fats in hyperlipidemic hamsters. A systems biology approach was implemented to reveal and quantify the dietary fat-related components of the disease. Three modified dairy fats (40% energy) were prepared from regular butter by mixing with a plant oil mixture, by removing cholesterol alone, or by removing cholesterol in combination with reducing saturated fatty acids. A plant oil mixture and a regular butter were used as control diets. The atherosclerosis severity (aortic cholesteryl-ester level) was higher in the regular butter-fed hamsters than in the other four groups (P < 0.05). Eighty-seven of the 1,666 variables measured from multiplatform analysis were found to be strongly associated with the disease. When aggregated into 10 biological clusters combined into a multivariate predictive equation, these 87 variables explained 81% of the disease variability. The biological cluster "regulation of lipid transport and metabolism" appeared central to atherogenic development relative to diets. The "vitamin E metabolism" cluster was the main driver of atheroprotection with the best performing transformed dairy fat. Under conditions that promote atherosclerosis, the impact of dairy fats on atherogenesis could be greatly ameliorated by technological modifications. Our modeling approach allowed for identifying and quantifying the contribution of complex factors to atherogenic development in each dietary setup. PMID:26071539

  14. Justification of sexual reproduction by modified Penna model of ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sá Martins, J. S.; Stauffer, D.

    2001-05-01

    We generalize the standard Penna bit-string model of biological ageing by assuming that each deleterious mutation diminishes the survival probability in every time interval by a small percentage. This effect is added to the usual lethal but age-dependent effect of the same mutation. We then find strong advantages or disadvantages of sexual reproduction (with males and females) compared to asexual cloning, depending on parameters.

  15. The analysis of MHD blood flows through porous arteries using a locally modified homogenous nanofluids model.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh, Pooria

    2016-05-12

    In this paper, magneto-hydrodynamic blood flows through porous arteries are numerically simulated using a locally modified homogenous nanofluids model. Blood is taken into account as the third-grade non-Newtonian fluid containing nanoparticles. In the modified nanofluids model, the viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity of the solid-liquid mixture (nanofluids) which are commonly utilized as an effective value, are locally combined with the prevalent single-phase model. The modified governing equations are solved numerically using Newton's method and a block tridiagonal matrix solver. The results are compared to the prevalent nanofluids single-phase model. In addition, the efficacies of important physical parameters such as pressure gradient, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, magnetic-field parameter, porosity parameter, and etc. on temperature, velocity and nanoparticles concentration profiles are examined. PMID:27175464

  16. 2015 Guidelines for Establishing Genetically Modified Rat Models for Cardiovascular Research

    PubMed Central

    Flister, Michael J.; Prokop, Jeremy W.; Lazar, Jozef; Shimoyama, Mary; Dwinell, Melinda; Geurts, Aron

    2015-01-01

    The rat has long been a key physiological model for cardiovascular research; most of the inbred strains having been previously selected for susceptibility or resistance to various cardiovascular diseases (CVD). These CVD rat models offer a physiologically relevant background on which candidates of human CVD can be tested in a more clinically translatable experimental setting. However, a diverse toolbox for genetically modifying the rat genome to test molecular mechanisms has only recently become available. Here, we provide a high-level description of several strategies for developing genetically modified rat models of CVD. PMID:25920443

  17. An empirical modified fatigue damage model for impacted GFRP laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naderi, S.; Hassan, M. A.; Bushroa, A. R.

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the residual strength of GFRP laminates following a low-velocity impact event under cyclic loading. The residual strength is calculated using a linear fatigue damage model. According to an investigation into the effect of low-velocity impact on the fatigue behavior of laminates, it seems laminate fatigue life decreases after impact. By normalizing the fatigue stress against undamaged static strength, the Fatigue Damage parameter “FD” is presented with a linear relationship as its slope which is a linear function of the initial impact energy; meanwhile, the constants were attained from experimental data. FD is implemented into a plane-stress continuum damage mechanics based model for GFRP composite laminates, in order to predict damage threshold in composite structures. An S-N curve is implemented to indicate the fatigue behavior for 2 mm thickness encompassing both undamaged and impacted samples. A decline in lifespan is evident when the impact energy level increases. Finally, the FD is intended to capture the unique GFRP composite characteristics.

  18. Codeswitching and Generative Grammar: A Critique of the MLF Model and Some Remarks on "Modified Minimalism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacSwan, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an empirical and theoretical critique of the Matrix Language Frame (MLF) model (Myers-Scotton, 1993; Myers-Scotton and Jake, 2001), and includes a response to Jake, Myers-Scotton and Gross's (2002) (JMSG) critique of MacSwan (1999, 2000) and reactions to their revision of the MLF model as a "modified minimalist approach." The…

  19. Existence of Periodic Solutions for a Modified Growth Solow Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabião, Fátima; Borges, Maria João

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we analyze the dynamic of the Solow growth model with a Cobb-Douglas production function. For this purpose, we consider that the labour growth rate, L'(t)/L(t), is a T-periodic function, for a fixed positive real number T. We obtain the closed form solutions for the fundamental Solow equation with the new description of L(t). Using notions of the qualitative theory of ordinary differential equations and nonlinear functional analysis, we prove that there exists one T-periodic solution for the Solow equation. From the economic point of view this is a new result which allows a more realistic interpretation of the stylized facts.

  20. Breather-like structures in modified sine-Gordon models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, L. A.; Zakrzewski, Wojtek J.

    2016-05-01

    We report analytical and numerical results on breather-like field configurations in a theory which is a deformation of the integrable sine-Gordon model in (1  +  1) dimensions. The main motivation of our study is to test the ideas behind the recently proposed concept of quasi-integrability, which emerged from the observation that some field theories possess an infinite number of quantities which are asymptotically conserved in the scattering of solitons, and periodic in time in the case of breather-like configurations. Even though the mechanism responsible for such phenomena is not well understood yet, it is clear that special properties of the solutions under a space-time parity transformation play a crucial role. The numerical results of the present paper give support for the ideas on quasi-integrability, as it is found that extremely long-lived breather configurations satisfy these parity properties. We also report on a mechanism, particular to the theory studied here, that favours the existence of long lived breathers even in cases of significant deformations of the sine-Gordon potential. We also find numerically that our breather-like configurations decay through the gradual increase of their frequency of oscillations.

  1. Supports and modified nano-particles for designing model catalysts.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, C P; Dostert, K-H; Hollerer, M; Stiehler, C; Calaza, F; Schauermann, S; Shaikhutdinov, S; Sterrer, M; Freund, H-J

    2016-07-01

    In order to design catalytic materials, we need to understand the essential causes for material properties resulting from its composite nature. In this paper we discuss two, at first sight, diverse aspects: (a) the effect of the oxide-metal interface on metal nanoparticle properties and (b) the consequences of metal particle modification after activation on the selectivity of hydrogenation reactions. However, these two aspects are intimately linked. The metal nanoparticle's electronic structure changes at the interface as a catalyst is brought to different reaction temperatures due to morphological modifications in the metal and, as we will discuss, these changes in the chemistry lead to changes in the reaction path. As the morphology of the particle varies, facets of different orientations and sizes are exposed, which may lead to a change in the surface chemistry as well. We use two specific reactions to address these issues in some detail. To the best of our knowledge, the present paper reports the first observations of this kind for well-defined model systems. The changes in the electronic structure of Au nanoparticles due to their size and interaction with a supporting oxide are revealed as a function of temperature using CO2 activation as a probe. The presence of spectator species (oxopropyl), formed during an activation step of acrolein hydrogenation, strongly controls the selectivity of the reaction towards hydrogenation of the unsaturated C[double bond, length as m-dash]O bond vs. the C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bond on Pd(111) when compared with oxide-supported Pd nanoparticles. PMID:27064816

  2. Comparison of Nonlinear Model Results Using Modified Recorded and Synthetic Ground Motions

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Spears; J. Kevin Wilkins

    2011-11-01

    A study has been performed that compares results of nonlinear model runs using two sets of earthquake ground motion time histories that have been modified to fit the same design response spectra. The time histories include applicable modified recorded earthquake ground motion time histories and synthetic ground motion time histories. The modified recorded earthquake ground motion time histories are modified from time history records that are selected based on consistent magnitude and distance. The synthetic ground motion time histories are generated using appropriate Fourier amplitude spectrums, Arias intensity, and drift correction. All of the time history modification is performed using the same algorithm to fit the design response spectra. The study provides data to demonstrate that properly managed synthetic ground motion time histories are reasonable for use in nonlinear seismic analysis.

  3. Cellular and molecular modifier pathways in tauopathies: the big picture from screening invertebrate models.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Shabab B; Dräger, Nina M; Rasse, Tobias M; Voigt, Aaron; Jahn, Thomas R

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal tau accumulations were observed and documented in post-mortem brains of patients affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) long before the identification of mutations in the Microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene, encoding the tau protein, in a different neurodegenerative disease called Frontotemporal dementia and Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). The discovery of mutations in the MAPT gene associated with FTDP-17 highlighted that dysfunctions in tau alone are sufficient to cause neurodegeneration. Invertebrate models have been diligently utilized in investigating tauopathies, contributing to the understanding of cellular and molecular pathways involved in disease etiology. An important discovery came with the demonstration that over-expression of human tau in Drosophila leads to premature mortality and neuronal dysfunction including neurodegeneration, recapitulating some key neuropathological features of the human disease. The simplicity of handling invertebrate models combined with the availability of a diverse range of experimental resources make these models, in particular Drosophila a powerful invertebrate screening tool. Consequently, several large-scale screens have been performed using Drosophila, to identify modifiers of tau toxicity. The screens have revealed not only common cellular and molecular pathways, but in some instances the same modifier has been independently identified in two or more screens suggesting a possible role for these modifiers in regulating tau toxicity. The purpose of this review is to discuss the genetic modifier screens on tauopathies performed in Drosophila and C. elegans models, and to highlight the common cellular and molecular pathways that have emerged from these studies. Here, we summarize results of tau toxicity screens providing mechanistic insights into pathological alterations in tauopathies. Key pathways or modifiers that have been identified are associated with a broad range of processes

  4. Using Modified J-A model in MMM detection at elastic stress stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, MingXiu; Xu, MinQiang; Li, JianWei; Xing, HaiYan

    2012-06-01

    In order to propel the development of metal magnetic memory (MMM) technique in fatigue damage detection, a modified Jiles-Atherton (J-A) model is constructed to describe MMM mechanism in elastic stress stage. The MMM phenomenon is discussed from the view of energy minimum theory and equivalent magnetic field theory, the modified J-A model is constructed based on the energy balance in the process of magnetisation and the idea of J-A model, and the new model is used to simulate magnetomechanical effect by Matlab and compare with experimental results. It is shown that the forming process of MMM field is cyclic magnetisation in the range of equivalent magnetic field and the MMM field moves irreversibly towards a local equilibrium state ? . ? is the intermediate state with some pinning before M reaches the anhysteretic magnetisation state ? . The ? curve is a loop around the ? curve, and it changes with ? , H and the type of stress cycle. The modified J-A model that is suited for MMM detection is constructed by replacing ? in J-A model with ? and changing some parameters, and it can describe magnetisation features in tension, release processes better and explain the changes in the sign of ? that have been observed in experiments more reasonably. The modified J-A model can simulate the process of MMM field to become steady and the MMM field variation at fatigue process theoretically by changing model parameters, which is confirmed by experimental results. The results of theoretical research, simulation analysis and experiment verification all indicate that the modified J-A model can be used to describe MMM mechanism in elastic stress stage and analyse MMM field changes at fatigue process.

  5. Odor emission rate estimation of indoor industrial sources using a modified inverse modeling method.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Wang, Tingting; Sattayatewa, Chakkrid; Venkatesan, Dhesikan; Noll, Kenneth E; Pagilla, Krishna R; Moschandreas, Demetrios J

    2011-08-01

    Odor emission rates are commonly measured in the laboratory or occasionally estimated with inverse modeling techniques. A modified inverse modeling approach is used to estimate source emission rates inside of a postdigestion centrifuge building of a water reclamation plant. Conventionally, inverse modeling methods divide an indoor environment in zones on the basis of structural design and estimate source emission rates using models that assume homogeneous distribution of agent concentrations within a zone and experimentally determined link functions to simulate airflows among zones. The modified approach segregates zones as a function of agent distribution rather than building design and identifies near and far fields. Near-field agent concentrations do not satisfy the assumption of homogeneous odor concentrations; far-field concentrations satisfy this assumption and are the only ones used to estimate emission rates. The predictive ability of the modified inverse modeling approach was validated with measured emission rate values; the difference between corresponding estimated and measured odor emission rates is not statistically significant. Similarly, the difference between measured and estimated hydrogen sulfide emission rates is also not statistically significant. The modified inverse modeling approach is easy to perform because it uses odor and odorant field measurements instead of complex chamber emission rate measurements. PMID:21874959

  6. Minor loops modelling with a modified Jiles-Atherton model and comparison with the Preisach model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benabou, A.; Leite, J. V.; Clénet, S.; Simão, C.; Sadowski, N.

    When modelling electrical devices, one has to estimate quite accurately the iron losses for the sake of efficiency. The use of non-sinusoidal electrical sources increases the harmonic content in electrical systems and, consequently, increases significantly the magnetic losses in devices feed by these sources. The harmonic content adds non-centred minor hysteresis loops over the classical major one. The numerical tool used for the material modelling must be able to represent the magnetic behaviour in such conditions. Then, the use of a hysteresis model is the more suited solution, but the chosen model has to take into account correctly the minor loops. The Jiles-Atherton hysteresis model is one of the most employed, due its well-known properties, but it is not able to represent closed minor loops. In this work, we propose a simple approach based on experimental observations and empirical considerations, to improve the representation of minor loops in this model by keeping its simplicity of use and implementation in a FE calculation code. Differently to other approaches found in the literature, the previous knowledge of the magnetic field evolution is not needed. A comparison between measured and calculated curves, as well with the Preisach model, is performed to validate the model.

  7. Hydrophobic solvation of Gay-Berne particles in modified water models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head-Gordon, Teresa; Lynden-Bell, Ruth M.

    2008-03-01

    The solvation of large hydrophobic solutes, modeled as repulsive and attractive Gay-Berne oblate ellipsoids, is characterized in several modified water liquids using the SPC/E model as the reference water fluid. We find that small amounts of attraction between the Gay-Berne particle and any model fluid result in wetting of the hydrophobic surface. However, significant differences are found among the modified and SPC/E water models and the critical distances in which they dewet the hydrophobic surfaces of pairs of repulsive Gay-Berne particles. We find that the dewetting trends for repulsive Gay-Berne particles in the various model liquids correlate directly with their surface tensions, the widths of the interfaces they form, and the openness of their network structure. The largest critical separations are found in liquids with the smallest surface tensions and the broadest interfaces as measured by the Egelstaff-Widom length.

  8. Hydrophobic solvation of Gay-Berne particles in modified water models.

    PubMed

    Head-Gordon, Teresa; Lynden-Bell, Ruth M

    2008-03-14

    The solvation of large hydrophobic solutes, modeled as repulsive and attractive Gay-Berne oblate ellipsoids, is characterized in several modified water liquids using the SPC/E model as the reference water fluid. We find that small amounts of attraction between the Gay-Berne particle and any model fluid result in wetting of the hydrophobic surface. However, significant differences are found among the modified and SPC/E water models and the critical distances in which they dewet the hydrophobic surfaces of pairs of repulsive Gay-Berne particles. We find that the dewetting trends for repulsive Gay-Berne particles in the various model liquids correlate directly with their surface tensions, the widths of the interfaces they form, and the openness of their network structure. The largest critical separations are found in liquids with the smallest surface tensions and the broadest interfaces as measured by the Egelstaff-Widom length. PMID:18345905

  9. Genetically modified mouse models for the study of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Perumal; Mahesh Kumar, M Jerald; Venkatesan, Ramasamy; Majundar, Subeer S; Juyal, Ramesh C

    2012-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. NAFLD represents a large spectrum of diseases ranging from (1) fatty liver (hepatic steatosis); (2) steatosis with inflammation and necrosis; to (3) cirrhosis. The animal models to study NAFLD/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are extremely useful, as there are still many events to be elucidated in the pathology of NASH. The study of the established animal models has provided many clues in the pathogenesis of steatosis and steatohepatitis, but these remain incompletely understood. The different mouse models can be classified in two large groups. The first one includes genetically modified (transgenic or knockout) mice that spontaneously develop liver disease, and the second one includes mice that acquire the disease after dietary or pharmacological manipulation. Although the molecular mechanism leading to the development of hepatic steatosis in the pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex, genetically modified animal models may be a key for the treatment of NAFLD. Ideal animal models for NASH should closely resemble the pathological characteristics observed in humans. To date, no single animal model has encompassed the full spectrum of human disease progression, but they can imitate particular characteristics of human disease. Therefore, it is important that the researchers choose the appropriate animal model. This review discusses various genetically modified animal models developed and used in research on NAFLD. PMID:22468076

  10. Modified two-fluid model of conductivity for superconducting surface resistance calculation. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, D.S.

    1993-05-01

    The traditional two-fluid model of superconducting conductivity was modified to make it accurate, while remaining fast, for designing and simulating microwave devices. The modification reflects the BCS coherence effects in the conductivity of a superconductor, and is incorporated through the ratio of normal to superconducting electrons. This modified ratio is a simple analytical expression which depends on frequency, temperature and material parameters. This modified two-fluid model allows accurate and rapid calculation of the microwave surface impedance of a superconductor in the clean and dirty limits and in the weak- and strong-coupled regimes. The model compares well with surface resistance data for Nb and provides insight into Nb3Sn and Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta). Numerical calculations with the modified two-fluid model are an order of magnitude faster than the quasi-classical program by Zimmermann (1), and two to five orders of magnitude faster than Halbritter's BCS program (2) for surface resistance.

  11. Rigorous Self-organised Criticality in the Modified Bak-Sneppen Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meester, Ronald; Sarkar, Anish

    2012-11-01

    We prove that a modified version of the Bak-Sneppen model obeys power law behaviour for avalanche duration and size. We do this through a coupling with a suitable branching process which is known to have power law behaviour at criticality.

  12. Numerical Modeling of Permafrost Dynamics Using Modified CoLM with Optimal Parameterization for Snow Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xinling; Zhang, Zhihua; Moore, John

    2014-05-01

    Most land surface models (LSMs) do not perform well in representing permafrost dynamics and snow properties. Due to the complex permafrost distribution characteristics and the differenncesbetween vegetation coverage types and snow-covered land, the LSMs simulations are even worse. In this study, we modified the permafrost scheme in the Common Land Model (CoLM) to improve its capability of simulating permafrost processes and snow density process. We adopted a new frozen soil parameterization scheme, the present version of CoLM includes permafrost layers down to 3.4 meters in ten different thicknesses. Based on literature and temperature gradient measurements, we extended the soil column to 25 soil layers and bottom depth to 15.4 m. Moreover, we revise the original snow cover fraction parameterization of CoLM according to specific snow cover characteristics including the effects of wind compaction on snow density in treeless regions. We have compared and validated the modified model against in situ soil temperatures from 431 Russian observation stations between 1973 and 2006. The modified model produces more accurate surface temperature simulation results. The modified CoLM provides a useful tool for understanding and predicting the fate of permafrost under a warming climate.

  13. On the Prediction of Separation Bubbles Using a Modified Chen-Thyson Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platzer, Max F.; Ekaterinaris, John A.; Chandrasekhara, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    The prediction of separation bubbles on NACA 65-213 and NACA 0012 using a modified Chen-Thyson transition model is presented. The contents include: 1) Background; 2) Analysis of NACA 65-213 separation bubble using cebeci's viscous-inviscid interaction method; 3) Analysis of NACA 0012 separation bubble using navier-stokes method; and 4) Comparison with experiment.

  14. A modified Fresnel scattering model for the parameterization of Fresnel returns, part 2.3A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, K. S.; Ecklund, W. L.; Balsley, B. B.

    1984-01-01

    A modified Fresnel scatter model is presented and the revised model is compared with observations from the Poker Flat, Alaska, radar, the SOUSY radar and the Jimcamarca radar. The modifications to the original model have been made to better account for the pulse width dependence and height dependence of backscattered power observed at vertical incidence at lower VHF. Vertical profiles of backscattered power calculated using the revised model and routine radiosonde data show good agreement with observed backscattered power profiles. Relative comparisons of backscattered power using climatological data for the model agree fairly well with observed backscattered power profiles from Poker Flat, Jicamarca, and SOUSY.

  15. Accurate halo-model matter power spectra with dark energy, massive neutrinos and modified gravitational forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, A. J.; Heymans, C.; Lombriser, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Steele, O. I.; Winther, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    We present an accurate non-linear matter power spectrum prediction scheme for a variety of extensions to the standard cosmological paradigm, which uses the tuned halo model previously developed in Mead et al. We consider dark energy models that are both minimally and non-minimally coupled, massive neutrinos and modified gravitational forces with chameleon and Vainshtein screening mechanisms. In all cases, we compare halo-model power spectra to measurements from high-resolution simulations. We show that the tuned halo-model method can predict the non-linear matter power spectrum measured from simulations of parametrized w(a) dark energy models at the few per cent level for k < 10 h Mpc-1, and we present theoretically motivated extensions to cover non-minimally coupled scalar fields, massive neutrinos and Vainshtein screened modified gravity models that result in few per cent accurate power spectra for k < 10 h Mpc-1. For chameleon screened models, we achieve only 10 per cent accuracy for the same range of scales. Finally, we use our halo model to investigate degeneracies between different extensions to the standard cosmological model, finding that the impact of baryonic feedback on the non-linear matter power spectrum can be considered independently of modified gravity or massive neutrino extensions. In contrast, considering the impact of modified gravity and massive neutrinos independently results in biased estimates of power at the level of 5 per cent at scales k > 0.5 h Mpc-1. An updated version of our publicly available HMCODE can be found at https://github.com/alexander-mead/hmcode.

  16. Hydrocode Simulation with Modified Johnson-Cook Model and Experimental Analysis of Explosively Formed Projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, G.; Hameed, A.; Hetherington, J. G.; Barton, P. C.; Malik, A. Q.

    2013-04-01

    The formation of mild steel (MS) and copper (Cu) explosively formed projectiles (EFPs) was simulated in AUTODYN using both the Johnson-Cook (JC) and modified Johnson-Cook (JCM) constitutive models. The JC model was modified by increasing the hardening constant by 10%. The previously established semi-empirical equations for diameter, length, velocity, and depth of penetration were used to verify the design of the EFP. The length-to-diameter (L/D) ratio of the warhead used in the simulation varied between 1 < L/D < 2. To avoid projectile distortion or breakup for large standoff applications, the design of the EFP warhead was modified to obtain a lower L/D ratio. Simulations from the JC model underestimated the EFP diameter, resulting in an unrealistically elongated projectile. This shortcoming was resolved by employing the JCM model, giving good agreement with the experimental results. The projectile velocity and hole characteristics in 10-mm-thick aluminum target plates were studied for both models. The semi-empirical equations and the JC model overestimated the projectile velocity, whereas the JCM model underestimated the velocity slightly when compared to the experimental results. The depths of penetration calculated by the semi-empirical equations in the aluminum (Al) target plate were 55 and 52 mm for Cu and MS EFPs, respectively.

  17. Analysis of the Temperature Characteristics in Polycrystalline Si Solar Cells Using Modified Equivalent Circuit Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Kensuke; Sakitani, Nobuhiro; Kurobe, Ken-ichi; Yamamoto, Yukie; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Fuyuki, Takashi

    2003-12-01

    We have evaluated the influence of grain boundaries on the temperature dependence of cell performance using a modified 2-diode equivalent circuit model. In this model, microscopic inhomogeneity of resistivity at or near grain boundaries can be taken into consideration. The calculated results by the modified 2-diode model agreed well with the measured current-voltage curves, and the validity of the fitting parameters in this model was discussed. One of the fitting parameters, r is defined as the ratio of the recombination area, in which the recombination of minority carriers is pronounced. At 20°C, r of the polycrystalline Si cell was larger than that of the single-crystalline Si cell. However, the difference in r between them became negligible at temperatures above 80°C. These dependences were explained by considering the behavior of the free carriers in the recombination centers.

  18. A modified multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for convection-diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rongzong; Wu, Huiying

    2014-10-01

    A modified lattice Boltzmann model with multiple relaxation times (MRT) for the convection-diffusion equation (CDE) is proposed. By modifying the relaxation matrix, as well as choosing the corresponding equilibrium distribution function properly, the present model can recover the CDE with anisotropic diffusion coefficient with no deviation term even when the velocity vector varies generally with space or time through the Chapman-Enskog analysis. This model is firstly validated by simulating the diffusion of a Gaussian hill, which demonstrates it can handle the anisotropic diffusion problem correctly. Then it is adopted to calculate the longitudinal dispersion coefficient of the Taylo-Aris dispersion. Numerical results show that the present model can further reduce the numerical error under the condition of non-zero velocity vector, especially when the dimensionless relaxation time is relatively large.

  19. Modified graphical autocatalytic set model of combustion process in circulating fluidized bed boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Nurul Syazwani; Bakar, Sumarni Abu; Ismail, Razidah

    2014-07-01

    Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler (CFB) is a device for generating steam by burning fossil fuels in a furnace operating under a special hydrodynamic condition. Autocatalytic Set has provided a graphical model of chemical reactions that occurred during combustion process in CFB. Eight important chemical substances known as species were represented as nodes and catalytic relationships between nodes are represented by the edges in the graph. In this paper, the model is extended and modified by considering other relevant chemical reactions that also exist during the process. Catalytic relationship among the species in the model is discussed. The result reveals that the modified model is able to gives more explanation of the relationship among the species during the process at initial time t.

  20. Anisotropic modified holographic Ricci dark energy cosmological model with hybrid expansion law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kanika; Sultana, Tazmin

    2015-11-01

    Here in this paper we present a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type-II metric filled with dark matter and anisotropic modified holographic Ricci dark energy. To solve the Einstein's field equations we have taken the hybrid expansion law (HEL) which exhibits a cosmic transition of the universe from decelerating to accelerating phase. We have investigated the physical and geometrical properties of the model. It is observed that the anisotropy of the universe and that of the modified holographic Ricci dark energy tends to zero at later times and the universe becomes homogeneous, isotropic and flat. We have also studied the cosmic jerk parameter.

  1. E2/M1 ratio of the N to Delta transition in a modified Skyrme model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, Anthony Randolph

    1997-08-01

    I use a chiral effective Lagrangian to find the E2/M1 ratio. This ratio is a measure of the deformation of the nucleon. The Lagrangian is a modified Skyrme model (1). Its construction is guided by chiral symmetry and the symmetries of QCD, which dictates the addition of the Wess-Zumino term. The current is quantized using collective coordinates (2). I find the ratio to be - .118%, which is smaller than most other models.

  2. Groundwater vulnerability assessment in agricultural areas using a modified DRASTIC model.

    PubMed

    Sadat-Noori, Mahmood; Ebrahimi, Kumars

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater contamination is a major concern for groundwater resource managers worldwide. We evaluated groundwater pollution potential by producing a vulnerability map of an aquifer using a modified Depth to water, Net recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone, and Hydraulic conductivity (DRASTIC) model within a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. The proposed modification which incorporated the use of statistical techniques optimizes the rating function of the DRASTIC model parameters, to obtain a more accurate vulnerability map. The new rates were computed using the relationships between the parameters and point data chloride concentrations in groundwater. The model was applied on Saveh-Nobaran plain in central Iran, and results showed that the coefficient of determination (R (2)) between the point data and the relevant vulnerability map increased significantly from 0.52 to 0.78 after modification. As compared to the original DRASTIC model, the modified version produced better vulnerability zonation. Additionally, single-parameter and parameter removal sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the relative importance of each DRASTIC parameter. The results from both analyses revealed that the vadose zone is the most sensitive parameter influencing the variability of the aquifers' vulnerability index. Based on the results, for non-point source pollution in agricultural areas, using the modified DRASTIC model is efficient compared to the original model. The proposed method can be effective for future groundwater assessment and plain-land management where agricultural activities are dominant. PMID:26650205

  3. Modified Holographic Ricci Dark Energy Model and Statefinder Diagnosis in Flat Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Titus K.; Suresh, Jishnu; Divakaran, Divya

    2013-07-01

    Evolution of the universe with modified holographic Ricci dark energy model is considered. Dependency of the equation of state parameter and deceleration parameter on the redshift and model parameters are obtained. It is shown that the density evolution of both the nonrelativistic matter and dark energy are same until recent times. The evolutionary trajectories of the model for different model parameters are obtained in the statefinder planes, r - s and r - q planes. The present statefinder parameters are obtained for different model parameter values, using that the model is differentiated from other standard models like the ΛCDM model. We have also shown that the evolutionary trajectories are depending on the model parameters, and at past times the dark energy is behaving like cold dark matter, with equation of state equal to zero.

  4. Statefinder diagnosis for holographic dark energy models in modified f(R,T) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, C. P.; Kumar, Pankaj

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we consider the non-viscous and viscous holographic dark energy models in modified f(R,T) gravity in which the infra-red cutoff is set by the Hubble horizon. We find power-law and exponential form of scale factor for non-viscous and viscous models, respectively. It is shown that the Hubble horizon as an infra-red cut-off is suitable for both the models to explain the recent accelerated expansion. In non-viscous model, we find that there is no phase transition. However, viscous model explains the phase transition from decelerated phase to accelerated phase. The cosmological parameters like deceleration parameter and statefinder parameters are discussed to analyze the dynamics of evolution of the Universe for both the models. The trajectories for viscous model are plotted in r-s and r-q planes to discriminate our model with the existing dark energy models which show the quintessence like behavior.

  5. Metabolism of modified mycotoxins studied through in vitro and in vivo models: an overview.

    PubMed

    Boevre, Marthe De; Graniczkowska, Kinga; Saeger, Sarah De

    2015-02-17

    Mycotoxins are toxic, secondary metabolites produced by fungi. They occur in a wide variety of food and feed commodities, and are of major public health concern because they are the most hazardous of all food and feed contaminants in terms of chronic toxicity. In the past decades, it has become clear that in mycotoxin-contaminated commodities, many structurally related compounds generated by plant metabolism, fungi or food processing coexist with their free mycotoxins, defined as modified mycotoxins. These modified xenobiotics might endanger animal and human health as they are possibly hydrolysed into their free toxins in the digestive tract of mammals, and may consequently contribute to an unexpected high toxicity. As modified toxins represent an emerging issue, it is not a surprise that for most toxicological tests data are scarce to non-existent. Therefore, there is a need to elucidate the disposition and kinetics of both free and modified mycotoxins in mammals to correctly interpret occurrence data and biomonitoring results. This review emphasizes the current knowledge on the metabolism of modified mycotoxins using in vitro and in vivo models. PMID:25542142

  6. Incomplete fusion studies near Coulomb barrier: a modified sum rule model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhujang, Bhushan; Das, Pragya; Singh, R. P.; Tripathi, R.; Tomar, B. S.

    2013-03-01

    The excitation functions of the evaporation residues, produced via complete fusion and incomplete fusion reactions of 11B + 122Sn, were measured for the projectile energy of around 6 MeV/A by the off-line gamma spectrometry. The cross sections have been compared with the statistical model code Projected Angular Momentum Coupled Evaporation (PACE4). The original sum rule model underestimated the ICF cross sections. We therefore made modification in the model mainly to incorporate the energy dependence in the definition of critical angular momentum. Using this modified sum rule model, we found a significant improvement in the results.

  7. Modeling the grazing effect on dry grassland carbon cycling with modified Biome-BGC grazing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Geping; Han, Qifei; Li, Chaofan; Yang, Liao

    2014-05-01

    Identifying the factors that determine the carbon source/sink strength of ecosystems is important for reducing uncertainty in the global carbon cycle. Arid grassland ecosystems are a widely distributed biome type in Xinjiang, Northwest China, covering approximately one-fourth the country's land surface. These grasslands are the habitat for many endemic and rare plant and animal species and are also used as pastoral land for livestock. Using the modified Biome-BGC grazing model, we modeled carbon dynamics in Xinjiang for grasslands that varied in grazing intensity. In general, this regional simulation estimated that the grassland ecosystems in Xinjiang acted as a net carbon source, with a value of 0.38 Pg C over the period 1979-2007. There were significant effects of grazing on carbon dynamics. An over-compensatory effect in net primary productivity (NPP) and vegetation carbon (C) stock was observed when grazing intensity was lower than 0.40 head/ha. Grazing resulted in a net carbon source of 23.45 g C m-2 yr-1, which equaled 0.37 Pg in Xinjiang in the last 29 years. In general, grazing decreased vegetation C stock, while an increasing trend was observed with low grazing intensity. The soil C increased significantly (17%) with long-term grazing, while the soil C stock exhibited a steady trend without grazing. These findings have implications for grassland ecosystem management as it relates to carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation, e.g., removal of grazing should be considered in strategies that aim to increase terrestrial carbon sequestrations at local and regional scales. One of the greatest limitations in quantifying the effects of herbivores on carbon cycling is identifying the grazing systems and intensities within a given region. We hope our study emphasizes the need for large-scale assessments of how grazing impacts carbon cycling. Most terrestrial ecosystems in Xinjiang have been affected by disturbances to a greater or lesser extent in the past

  8. Facilitating political decisions using species distribution models to assess restoration measures in heavily modified estuaries.

    PubMed

    Heuner, Maike; Weber, Arnd; Schröder, Uwe; Kleinschmit, Birgit; Schröder, Boris

    2016-09-15

    The European Water Framework Directive requires a good ecological potential for heavily modified water bodies. This standard has not been reached for most large estuaries by 2015. Management plans for estuaries fall short in linking implementations between restoration measures and underlying spatial analyses. The distribution of emergent macrophytes - as an indicator of habitat quality - is here used to assess the ecological potential. Emergent macrophytes are capable of settling on gentle tidal flats where hydrodynamic stress is comparatively low. Analyzing their habitats based on spatial data, we set up species distribution models with 'elevation relative to mean high water', 'mean bank slope', and 'length of bottom friction' from shallow water up to the vegetation belt as key predictors representing hydrodynamic stress. Effects of restoration scenarios on habitats were assessed applying these models. Our findings endorse species distribution models as crucial spatial planning tools for implementing restoration measures in modified estuaries. PMID:27339739

  9. A modified GM-estimation for robust fitting of mixture regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booppasiri, Slun; Srisodaphol, Wuttichai

    2015-02-01

    In the mixture regression models, the regression parameters are estimated by maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) via EM algorithm. Generally, maximum likelihood estimation is sensitive to outliers and heavy tailed error distribution. The robust method, M-estimation can handle outliers existing on dependent variable only for estimating regression coefficients in regression models. Moreover, GM-estimation can handle outliers existing on dependent variable and independent variables. In this study, the modified GM-estimations for estimating the regression coefficients in the mixture regression models are proposed. A Monte Carlo simulation is used to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed methods. The results show that the proposed modified GM-estimations approximate to MLE when there are no outliers and the error is normally distributed. Furthermore, our proposed methods are more efficient than the MLE, when there are leverage points.

  10. The sensitivity of carbon turnover in the Community Land Model to modified assumptions about soil processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foereid, B.; Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N.; Paterson, E.; Lehmann, J.

    2014-06-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is the largest store of organic carbon (C) in the biosphere, but the turnover of SOM is still incompletely understood and not well described in global C cycle models. Here we use the Community Land Model (CLM) and compare the output for soil organic C stocks (SOC) to estimates from a global data set. We also modify the assumptions about SOC turnover in two ways: (1) we assume distinct temperature sensitivities of SOC pools with different turnover time and (2) we assume a priming effect, such that the decomposition rate of native SOC increases in response to a supply of fresh organic matter. The standard model predicted the global distribution of SOC reasonably well in most areas, but it failed to predict the very high stocks of SOC at high latitudes. It also predicted too much SOC in areas with high plant productivity, such as tropical rainforests and some midlatitude areas. Total SOC at equilibrium was reduced by a small amount (<1% globally) when we assume that the temperature sensitivity of SOC decomposition is dependent on the turnover rate of the component pools. Including a priming effect reduced total global SOC more (6.6% globally) and led to decreased SOC in areas with high plant input (tropical and temperate forests), which were also the areas where the unmodified model overpredicted SOC (by about 40%). The model was then run with climate change prediction until 2100 for the standard and modified versions. Future simulations showed that differences between the standard and modified versions were maintained in a future with climate change (4-6 and 23-47 Pg difference in soil carbon between standard simulation and the modified simulation with temperature sensitivity and priming respectively). Although the relative changes are small, they are likely to be larger in a fully coupled simulation, and thus warrant future work.

  11. 47 CFR 76.1905 - Petitions to modify encoding rules for new services within defined business models.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petitions to modify encoding rules for new... Rules § 76.1905 Petitions to modify encoding rules for new services within defined business models. (a... a defined business model, other than unencrypted broadcast television, the encoding of a new...

  12. Modified kinetic-hydraulic UASB reactor model for treatment of wastewater containing biodegradable organic substrates.

    PubMed

    El-Seddik, Mostafa M; Galal, Mona M; Radwan, A G; Abdel-Halim, Hisham S

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses a modified kinetic-hydraulic model for up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor aimed to treat wastewater of biodegradable organic substrates as acetic acid based on Van der Meer model incorporated with biological granules inclusion. This dynamic model illustrates the biomass kinetic reaction rate for both direct and indirect growth of microorganisms coupled with the amount of biogas produced by methanogenic bacteria in bed and blanket zones of reactor. Moreover, the pH value required for substrate degradation at the peak specific growth rate of bacteria is discussed for Andrews' kinetics. The sensitivity analyses of biomass concentration with respect to fraction of volume of reactor occupied by granules and up-flow velocity are also demonstrated. Furthermore, the modified mass balance equations of reactor are applied during steady state using Newton Raphson technique to obtain a suitable degree of freedom for the modified model matching with the measured results of UASB Sanhour wastewater treatment plant in Fayoum, Egypt. PMID:27054727

  13. Linewidth Extraction From the THz Absorption Spectra Using a Modified Lorentz Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Su, Haixia; Zhang, Han; Lan, Jinhui

    2013-10-01

    Identification of specific materials is one of the most promising THz applications. It is commonly achieved by comparing the experimental peak central frequencies of the transmission or absorption spectra with a database for known materials while neglecting the linewidths. However, due to the restriction of the signal-to-noise ratio, only a narrow band, extending from several hundred GHz to several THz, can be used. It is difficult to distinguish two materials from each other if their peaks' central frequencies are similar. In this paper, we present a modified Lorentz model by taking the scattering effect into account. The modified Lorentz model can be used for the extraction of reliable absorption peak parameters, i.e. the central frequency and linewidth. On comparison with our experiments, we observed that the parameters extracted using the modified Lorentz model in glutamine samples of different concentrations exhibited a better agreement than those obtained using the traditional model. Therefore, the utilization of the narrow THz band to identify materials can be improved by comparing both the central frequency and linewidth obtained from this method.

  14. Modified phase-field-crystal model for solid-liquid phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Can; Wang, Jincheng; Wang, Zhijun; Li, Junjie; Guo, Yaolin; Tang, Sai

    2015-07-01

    A modified phase-field-crystal (PFC) model is proposed to describe solid-liquid phase transitions by reconstructing the correlation function. The effects of fitting parameters of our modified PFC model on the bcc-liquid phase diagram, numerical stability, and solid-liquid interface properties during planar interface growth are examined carefully. The results indicate that the increase of the correlation function peak width at k =km will enhance the stability of the ordered phase, while the increase of peak height at k =0 will narrow the two-phase coexistence region. The third-order term in the free-energy function and the short wave-length of the correlation function have significant influences on the numerical stability of the PFC model. During planar interface growth, the increase of peak width at k =km will decrease the interface width and the velocity coefficient C , but increase the anisotropy of C and the interface free energy. Finally, the feasibility of the modified phase-field-crystal model is demonstrated with a numerical example of three-dimensional dendritic growth of a body-centered-cubic structure.

  15. Modified phase-field-crystal model for solid-liquid phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Can; Wang, Jincheng; Wang, Zhijun; Li, Junjie; Guo, Yaolin; Tang, Sai

    2015-07-01

    A modified phase-field-crystal (PFC) model is proposed to describe solid-liquid phase transitions by reconstructing the correlation function. The effects of fitting parameters of our modified PFC model on the bcc-liquid phase diagram, numerical stability, and solid-liquid interface properties during planar interface growth are examined carefully. The results indicate that the increase of the correlation function peak width at k=k(m) will enhance the stability of the ordered phase, while the increase of peak height at k=0 will narrow the two-phase coexistence region. The third-order term in the free-energy function and the short wave-length of the correlation function have significant influences on the numerical stability of the PFC model. During planar interface growth, the increase of peak width at k=k(m) will decrease the interface width and the velocity coefficient C, but increase the anisotropy of C and the interface free energy. Finally, the feasibility of the modified phase-field-crystal model is demonstrated with a numerical example of three-dimensional dendritic growth of a body-centered-cubic structure. PMID:26274309

  16. Bernoulli Euler beam model based on a modified couple stress theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. K.; Gao, X.-L.

    2006-11-01

    A new model for the bending of a Bernoulli-Euler beam is developed using a modified couple stress theory. A variational formulation based on the principle of minimum total potential energy is employed. The new model contains an internal material length scale parameter and can capture the size effect, unlike the classical Bernoulli-Euler beam model. The former reduces to the latter in the absence of the material length scale parameter. As a direct application of the new model, a cantilever beam problem is solved. It is found that the bending rigidity of the cantilever beam predicted by the newly developed model is larger than that predicted by the classical beam model. The difference between the deflections predicted by the two models is very significant when the beam thickness is small, but is diminishing with the increase of the beam thickness. A comparison shows that the predicted size effect agrees fairly well with that observed experimentally.

  17. A Modified Particle Swarm Optimization Technique for Finding Optimal Designs for Mixture Models.

    PubMed

    Wong, Weng Kee; Chen, Ray-Bing; Huang, Chien-Chih; Wang, Weichung

    2015-01-01

    Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a meta-heuristic algorithm that has been shown to be successful in solving a wide variety of real and complicated optimization problems in engineering and computer science. This paper introduces a projection based PSO technique, named ProjPSO, to efficiently find different types of optimal designs, or nearly optimal designs, for mixture models with and without constraints on the components, and also for related models, like the log contrast models. We also compare the modified PSO performance with Fedorov's algorithm, a popular algorithm used to generate optimal designs, Cocktail algorithm, and the recent algorithm proposed by [1]. PMID:26091237

  18. A Modified Particle Swarm Optimization Technique for Finding Optimal Designs for Mixture Models

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Weng Kee; Chen, Ray-Bing; Huang, Chien-Chih; Wang, Weichung

    2015-01-01

    Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a meta-heuristic algorithm that has been shown to be successful in solving a wide variety of real and complicated optimization problems in engineering and computer science. This paper introduces a projection based PSO technique, named ProjPSO, to efficiently find different types of optimal designs, or nearly optimal designs, for mixture models with and without constraints on the components, and also for related models, like the log contrast models. We also compare the modified PSO performance with Fedorov's algorithm, a popular algorithm used to generate optimal designs, Cocktail algorithm, and the recent algorithm proposed by [1]. PMID:26091237

  19. Interface-modified random circuit breaker network model applicable to both bipolar and unipolar resistance switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. B.; Lee, J. S.; Chang, S. H.; Yoo, H. K.; Kang, B. S.; Kahng, B.; Lee, M.-J.; Kim, C. J.; Noh, T. W.

    2011-01-01

    We observed reversible-type changes between bipolar (BRS) and unipolar resistance switching (URS) in one Pt/SrTiOx/Pt capacitor. To explain both BRS and URS in a unified scheme, we introduce the "interface-modified random circuit breaker network model," in which the bulk medium is represented by a percolating network of circuit breakers. To consider interface effects in BRS, we introduce circuit breakers to investigate resistance states near the interface. This percolation model explains the reversible-type changes in terms of connectivity changes in the circuit breakers and provides insights into many experimental observations of BRS which are under debate by earlier theoretical models.

  20. Reduced-order-model based feedback control of the Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goumiri, Imene; Rowley, Clarence; Ma, Zhanhua; Gates, David; Parker, Jeffrey; Krommes, John

    2012-10-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the development of model-based feedback control for stabilization of an unstable equilibrium obtained in the Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani (MHW) equations, a classic model in plasma turbulence. First, a balanced truncation is applied; a model reduction technique that has been proved successful in flow control design problems, to obtain a low dimensional model of the linearized MHW equation. A model-based feedback controller is then designed for the reduced order model using linear quadratic regulators (LQR) then a linear quadratic gaussian (LQG) control. The controllers are then applied on the original linearized and nonlinear MHW equations to stabilize the equilibrium and suppress the transition to drift-wave induced turbulences.

  1. Instrument forward model of the modified Sagnac interferometer for atmospheric wind measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yuanhe; Qin, Lin; Gao, Haiyang; Zhu, Ci; Wang, Dingyi

    2011-06-01

    The instrument forward model of the modified super-wide-Sagnac imaging interferometer based on liquid crystals on Silicon (MSASII-LCoS) is developed as an integrated code package with Matlab language to simulate the images of satellite observations. There are five sub-models in the forward model including radiation model of O(1S), orbit attitude, filter, interferometer and array detector. The principle of each sub-model is described separately and then the overall forward model equation is derived. The four simulation images are obtained. Based on the integrated signal level for the daytime observations, the apparent measurement error of wind is less than 3 m/s and the signal noise ratio (SNR) is greater than 194 with a binning of 2 × 25 pixels at the tangent height range of 70-190 km.

  2. Suppression of B function strongly supports the modified ABCE model in Tricyrtis sp. (Liliaceae).

    PubMed

    Otani, Masahiro; Sharifi, Ahmad; Kubota, Shosei; Oizumi, Kanako; Uetake, Fumi; Hirai, Masayo; Hoshino, Yoichiro; Kanno, Akira; Nakano, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    B class MADS-box genes play important roles in petal and stamen development. Some monocotyledonous species, including liliaceous ones, produce flowers with petaloid tepals in whorls 1 and 2. A modified ABCE model has been proposed to explain the molecular mechanism of development of two-layered petaloid tepals. However, direct evidence for this modified ABCE model has not been reported to date. To clarify the molecular mechanism determining the organ identity of two-layered petaloid tepals, we used chimeric repressor gene-silencing technology (CRES-T) to examine the suppression of B function in the liliaceous ornamental Tricyrtis sp. Transgenic plants with suppressed B class genes produced sepaloid tepals in whorls 1 and 2 instead of the petaloid tepals as expected. In addition, the stamens of transgenic plants converted into pistil-like organs with ovule- and stigma-like structures. This report is the first to describe the successful suppression of B function in monocotyledonous species with two-layered petaloid tepals, and the results strongly support the modified ABCE model. PMID:27079267

  3. Improved simulation of precipitation in the tropics using a modified BMJ scheme in the WRF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, R. M.; Zhang, T.; Yong, K.-T.

    2015-09-01

    The successful modelling of the observed precipitation, a very important variable for a wide range of climate applications, continues to be one of the major challenges that climate scientists face today. When the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to dynamically downscale the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) over the Indo-Pacific region, with analysis (grid-point) nudging, it is found that the cumulus scheme used, Betts-Miller-Janjić (BMJ), produces excessive rainfall suggesting that it has to be modified for this region. Experimentation has shown that the cumulus precipitation is not very sensitive to changes in the cloud efficiency but varies greatly in response to modifications of the temperature and humidity reference profiles. A new version of the scheme, denoted "modified BMJ" scheme, where the humidity reference profile is more moist, was developed. In tropical belt simulations it was found to give a better estimate of the observed precipitation as given by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 data set than the default BMJ scheme for the whole tropics and both monsoon seasons. In fact, in some regions the model even outperforms CFSR. The advantage of modifying the BMJ scheme to produce better rainfall estimates lies in the final dynamical consistency of the rainfall with other dynamical and thermodynamical variables of the atmosphere.

  4. Suppression of B function strongly supports the modified ABCE model in Tricyrtis sp. (Liliaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Masahiro; Sharifi, Ahmad; Kubota, Shosei; Oizumi, Kanako; Uetake, Fumi; Hirai, Masayo; Hoshino, Yoichiro; Kanno, Akira; Nakano, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    B class MADS-box genes play important roles in petal and stamen development. Some monocotyledonous species, including liliaceous ones, produce flowers with petaloid tepals in whorls 1 and 2. A modified ABCE model has been proposed to explain the molecular mechanism of development of two-layered petaloid tepals. However, direct evidence for this modified ABCE model has not been reported to date. To clarify the molecular mechanism determining the organ identity of two-layered petaloid tepals, we used chimeric repressor gene-silencing technology (CRES-T) to examine the suppression of B function in the liliaceous ornamental Tricyrtis sp. Transgenic plants with suppressed B class genes produced sepaloid tepals in whorls 1 and 2 instead of the petaloid tepals as expected. In addition, the stamens of transgenic plants converted into pistil-like organs with ovule- and stigma-like structures. This report is the first to describe the successful suppression of B function in monocotyledonous species with two-layered petaloid tepals, and the results strongly support the modified ABCE model. PMID:27079267

  5. Modified optimal control pilot model for computer-aided design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Schmidt, David K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical development of a modified optimal control pilot model based upon the optimal control model (OCM) of the human operator developed by Kleinman, Baron, and Levison. This model is input compatible with the OCM and retains other key aspects of the OCM, such as a linear quadratic solution for the pilot gains with inclusion of control rate in the cost function, a Kalman estimator, and the ability to account for attention allocation and perception threshold effects. An algorithm designed for each implementation in current dynamic systems analysis and design software is presented. Example results based upon the analysis of a tracking task using three basic dynamic systems are compared with measured results and with similar analyses performed with the OCM and two previously proposed simplified optimal pilot models. The pilot frequency responses and error statistics obtained with this modified optimal control model are shown to compare more favorably to the measured experimental results than the other previously proposed simplified models evaluated.

  6. Development of modified cable models to simulate accurate neuronal active behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In large network and single three-dimensional (3-D) neuron simulations, high computing speed dictates using reduced cable models to simulate neuronal firing behaviors. However, these models are unwarranted under active conditions and lack accurate representation of dendritic active conductances that greatly shape neuronal firing. Here, realistic 3-D (R3D) models (which contain full anatomical details of dendrites) of spinal motoneurons were systematically compared with their reduced single unbranched cable (SUC, which reduces the dendrites to a single electrically equivalent cable) counterpart under passive and active conditions. The SUC models matched the R3D model's passive properties but failed to match key active properties, especially active behaviors originating from dendrites. For instance, persistent inward currents (PIC) hysteresis, frequency-current (FI) relationship secondary range slope, firing hysteresis, plateau potential partial deactivation, staircase currents, synaptic current transfer ratio, and regional FI relationships were not accurately reproduced by the SUC models. The dendritic morphology oversimplification and lack of dendritic active conductances spatial segregation in the SUC models caused significant underestimation of those behaviors. Next, SUC models were modified by adding key branching features in an attempt to restore their active behaviors. The addition of primary dendritic branching only partially restored some active behaviors, whereas the addition of secondary dendritic branching restored most behaviors. Importantly, the proposed modified models successfully replicated the active properties without sacrificing model simplicity, making them attractive candidates for running R3D single neuron and network simulations with accurate firing behaviors. The present results indicate that using reduced models to examine PIC behaviors in spinal motoneurons is unwarranted. PMID:25277743

  7. Isgur-Wise function within a modified heavy-light chiral quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Eeg, Jan O.; Kumericki, Kresimir

    2010-04-01

    We consider the Isgur-Wise function {xi}({omega}) within a new modified version of a heavy-light chiral quark model. While early versions of such models gave an absolute value of the slope that was too small, namely {xi}{sup '}(1){approx_equal}-0.4 to -0.3, we show how extended version(s) may lead to values around -1, in better agreement with recent measurements. This is obtained by introducing a new mass parameter in the heavy-quark propagator. We also shortly comment on the consequences for the decay modes B{yields}DD.

  8. Levitation force on a permanent magnet over a superconducting plane: Modified critical-state model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Z.J.

    1997-08-01

    The authors consider a model system of a permanent magnet above a semi-infinite superconductor. They introduce a modified critical-state model, and carry out derivations of the levitation force acting on the magnet. A key feature of the modification allows the current density to be less than the critical value. The theoretical results show an exponential relationship between the force and the distance. Analytical expressions are developed for permanent magnets in the form of a point dipole, a tip of a magnetic force microscope, and a cylindrical magnet. In the latter case, the exponential relationship has been observed in numerous experiments but without previous interpretation.

  9. Modified finite-element model for application to terrain-induced mesoscale flows

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.L.; Leone, J.M. Jr.; Gresho, P.M.

    1982-11-01

    Terrain-induced mesoscale flows are localized atmospheric motions generated primarily by surface inhomogeneities such as differential heating and irregular terrain. Well-known examples of such flows are sea-and-land breeze circulations, mountain-valley flows, urban heat island circulations and mountain lee waves. A numerical model capable of capturing the details of these frequently complicated flow patterns must often contain a realistic and rather accurate representation of the relevant terrain. Over the last decade, mesoscale models have been developed in which various approaches were used to incorporate variable terrain. In this study, a somewhat unique approach, based on a modified finite element procedure, was used to solve the nonhydrostatic planetary boundary layer equations. The nonhydrostatic and finite element features of the model are particularly advantageous for modeling flows over complex topography. The numerical aspects of the model, the parameterizations currently used, and a few preliminary results are presented.

  10. Evaluation of minor hysteresis loops using Langevin transforms in modified inverse Jiles-Atherton model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamimid, M.; Mimoune, S. M.; Feliachi, M.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we present a Langevin transforms model which evaluates accurately minor hysteresis loops for the modified inverse Jiles-Atherton model by using appropriate expressions in order to improve minor hysteresis loops characteristics. The parameters of minor hysteresis loops are then related to the parameters of the major hysteresis loop according to each level of maximal induction by using Langevin transforms expressions. The stochastic optimization method “simulated annealing” is used for the determination of the Langevin transforms coefficients. This model needs only two experimental tests to generate all hysteresis loops. The validity of the Langevin transforms model is justified by comparison of calculated minor hysteresis loops to measured ones and good agreements are obtained with better results than the exponential transforms model (Hamimid et al., 2011 [4]).

  11. A Modified Nonlinear Damage Accumulation Model for Fatigue Life Prediction Considering Load Interaction Effects

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hong-Zhong; Yuan, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Many structures are subjected to variable amplitude loading in engineering practice. The foundation of fatigue life prediction under variable amplitude loading is how to deal with the fatigue damage accumulation. A nonlinear fatigue damage accumulation model to consider the effects of load sequences was proposed in earlier literature, but the model cannot consider the load interaction effects, and sometimes it makes a major error. A modified nonlinear damage accumulation model is proposed in this paper to account for the load interaction effects. Experimental data of two metallic materials are used to validate the proposed model. The agreement between the model prediction and experimental data is observed, and the predictions by proposed model are more possibly in accordance with experimental data than that by primary model and Miner's rule. Comparison between the predicted cumulative damage by the proposed model and an existing model shows that the proposed model predictions can meet the accuracy requirement of the engineering project and it can be used to predict the fatigue life of welded aluminum alloy joint of Electric Multiple Units (EMU); meanwhile, the accuracy of approximation can be obtained from the proposed model though more simple computing process and less material parameters calling for extensive testing than the existing model. PMID:24574866

  12. Modified pressure loss model for T-junctions of engine exhaust manifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenhui; Lu, Xiaolu; Cui, Yi; Deng, Kangyao

    2014-11-01

    The T-junction model of engine exhaust manifolds significantly influences the simulation precision of the pressure wave and mass flow rate in the intake and exhaust manifolds of diesel engines. Current studies have focused on constant pressure models, constant static pressure models and pressure loss models. However, low model precision is a common disadvantage when simulating engine exhaust manifolds, particularly for turbocharged systems. To study the performance of junction flow, a cold wind tunnel experiment with high velocities at the junction of a diesel exhaust manifold is performed, and the variation in the pressure loss in the T-junction under different flow conditions is obtained. Despite the trend of the calculated total pressure loss coefficient, which is obtained by using the original pressure loss model and is the same as that obtained from the experimental results, large differences exist between the calculated and experimental values. Furthermore, the deviation becomes larger as the flow velocity increases. By improving the Vazsonyi formula considering the flow velocity and introducing the distribution function, a modified pressure loss model is established, which is suitable for a higher velocity range. Then, the new model is adopted to solve one-dimensional, unsteady flow in a D6114 turbocharged diesel engine. The calculated values are compared with the measured data, and the result shows that the simulation accuracy of the pressure wave before the turbine is improved by 4.3% with the modified pressure loss model because gas compressibility is considered when the flow velocities are high. The research results provide valuable information for further junction flow research, particularly the correction of the boundary condition in one-dimensional simulation models.

  13. Pressure Calculation in a Compressor Cylinder by a Modified New Helmholtz Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MA, Y.-C.; MIN, O.-K.

    2001-06-01

    Pressure pulsation has a critical importance in the design of refrigerant compressor since it affects the performance by increasing over-compression loss, and it acts as a noise and vibration source. For the numerical analysis of pressure pulsation, quasi-steady flow equation has been used because of its easy manipulation derived from the pressure difference. By considering the dynamic effects of fluid, a new Helmholtz resonator model was also proposed on the basis of the continuity and the momentum equations, which consists of necks and cavities in flow manifolds.In this paper, a modified new Helmholtz resonator is introduced to include the gas inertia effect due to the volume decrease in the cavity. Comparisons between this modified new Helmholtz calculations and experimental results show that it is necessary to include the gas inertia effect in predicting pressure over-shooting phenomena at an instant of valve opening state and this modified new Helmholtz model can describe the over-compression phenomena in the compressor cylinder, a phenomenon which hinders a noise source identification of compressor.

  14. Tnni3k Modifies Disease Progression in Murine Models of Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Ferrin C.; Tang, Hao; Marks, Odessa A.; Hadnott, Tracy N.; Chu, Pei-Lun; Mao, Lan; Rockman, Howard A.; Marchuk, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    The Calsequestrin (Csq) transgenic mouse model of cardiomyopathy exhibits wide variation in phenotypic progression dependent on genetic background. Seven heart failure modifier (Hrtfm) loci modify disease progression and outcome. Here we report Tnni3k (cardiac Troponin I-interacting kinase) as the gene underlying Hrtfm2. Strains with the more susceptible phenotype exhibit high transcript levels while less susceptible strains show dramatically reduced transcript levels. This decrease is caused by an intronic SNP in low-transcript strains that activates a cryptic splice site leading to a frameshifted transcript, followed by nonsense-mediated decay of message and an absence of detectable protein. A transgenic animal overexpressing human TNNI3K alone exhibits no cardiac phenotype. However, TNNI3K/Csq double transgenics display severely impaired systolic function and reduced survival, indicating that TNNI3K expression modifies disease progression. TNNI3K expression also accelerates disease progression in a pressure-overload model of heart failure. These combined data demonstrate that Tnni3k plays a critical role in the modulation of different forms of heart disease, and this protein may provide a novel target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:19763165

  15. Measurement and Modeling of Respiration Rate of Tomato (Cultivar Roma) for Modified Atmosphere Storage.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Palani; Moitra, Ranabir; Mukherjee, Souti

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the respiration rate of tomato at 10, 20 and 30 °C using closed respiration system. Oxygen depletion and carbon dioxide accumulation in the system containing tomato was monitored. Respiration rate was found to decrease with increasing CO2 and decreasing O2 concentration. Michaelis-Menten type model based on enzyme kinetics was evaluated using experimental data generated for predicting the respiration rate. The model parameters that obtained from the respiration rate at different O2 and CO2 concentration levels were used to fit the model against the storage temperatures. The fitting was fair (R2 = 0.923 to 0.970) when the respiration rate was expressed as O2 concentation. Since inhibition constant for CO2 concentration tended towards negetive, the model was modified as a function of O2 concentration only. The modified model was fitted to the experimental data and showed good agreement (R2 = 0.998) with experimentally estimated respiration rate. PMID:26078087

  16. Modified Young's modulus of microcrystalline cellulose tablets and the directed continuum percolation model.

    PubMed

    Kuentz, M; Leuenberger, H

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the modified Young's modulus of microcrystalline cellulose tablets at comparatively low relative densities, based on concepts of percolation theory. Tablets were prepared and tested using a Zwick 1478 universal testing instrument. For statistical evaluation a new method is introduced for power laws, which exhibits highly correlated model parameters. According to our results the model Leuenberger, Leu is consistent with an Effective Medium Approximation which exhibits an exponent equal to one far away from the percolation threshold. In addition, the results show that it is essential to evaluate the elastic behavior of tablets close to the percolation threshold. For the different types of MCC a critical exponent q = 3.95 +/- 0.14 was obtained. This result is very essential, as it is in good agreement with the theoretically expected value of 3.9 from an elastic network (central force model). The proposed model describes the modified Young's modulus better than former model equations taking into account the relative density. Thus, the process during uniaxial compaction can be imagined as a directed continuum percolation and the relative density of compacts can be identified as a space-occupation probability density phi yielding reasonable percolation thresholds. PMID:9532596

  17. Active Aeroelastic Wing Aerodynamic Model Development and Validation for a Modified F/A-18A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Diebler, Corey G.

    2005-01-01

    A new aerodynamic model has been developed and validated for a modified F/A-18A used for the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) research program. The goal of the program was to demonstrate the advantages of using the inherent flexibility of an aircraft to enhance its performance. The research aircraft was an F/A-18A with wings modified to reduce stiffness and a new control system to increase control authority. There have been two flight phases. Data gathered from the first flight phase were used to create the new aerodynamic model. A maximum-likelihood output-error parameter estimation technique was used to obtain stability and control derivatives. The derivatives were incorporated into the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F-18 simulation, validated, and used to develop new AAW control laws. The second phase of flights was used to evaluate the handling qualities of the AAW aircraft and the control law design process, and to further test the accuracy of the new model. The flight test envelope covered Mach numbers between 0.85 and 1.30 and dynamic pressures from 600 to 1250 pound-force per square foot. The results presented in this report demonstrate that a thorough parameter identification analysis can be used to improve upon models that were developed using other means. This report describes the parameter estimation technique used, details the validation techniques, discusses differences between previously existing F/A-18 models, and presents results from the second phase of research flights.

  18. Fluid-structure interaction modeling of clusters of spacecraft parachutes with modified geometric porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Boben, Joseph; Kostov, Nikolay; Boswell, Cody; Buscher, Austin

    2013-12-01

    To increase aerodynamic performance, the geometric porosity of a ringsail spacecraft parachute canopy is sometimes increased, beyond the "rings" and "sails" with hundreds of "ring gaps" and "sail slits." This creates extra computational challenges for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) modeling of clusters of such parachutes, beyond those created by the lightness of the canopy structure, geometric complexities of hundreds of gaps and slits, and the contact between the parachutes of the cluster. In FSI computation of parachutes with such "modified geometric porosity," the flow through the "windows" created by the removal of the panels and the wider gaps created by the removal of the sails cannot be accurately modeled with the Homogenized Modeling of Geometric Porosity (HMGP), which was introduced to deal with the hundreds of gaps and slits. The flow needs to be actually resolved. All these computational challenges need to be addressed simultaneously in FSI modeling of clusters of spacecraft parachutes with modified geometric porosity. The core numerical technology is the Stabilized Space-Time FSI (SSTFSI) technique, and the contact between the parachutes is handled with the Surface-Edge-Node Contact Tracking (SENCT) technique. In the computations reported here, in addition to the SSTFSI and SENCT techniques and HMGP, we use the special techniques we have developed for removing the numerical spinning component of the parachute motion and for restoring the mesh integrity without a remesh. We present results for 2- and 3-parachute clusters with two different payload models.

  19. Fluid{Structure Interaction Modeling of Modified-Porosity Parachutes and Parachute Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boben, Joseph J.

    To increase aerodynamic performance, the geometric porosity of a ringsail spacecraft parachute canopy is sometimes increased, beyond the "rings" and "sails" with hundreds of "ring gaps" and "sail slits." This creates extra computational challenges for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) modeling of clusters of such parachutes, beyond those created by the lightness of the canopy structure, geometric complexities of hundreds of gaps and slits, and the contact between the parachutes of the cluster. In FSI computation of parachutes with such "modified geometric porosity," the ow through the "windows" created by the removal of the panels and the wider gaps created by the removal of the sails cannot be accurately modeled with the Homogenized Modeling of Geometric Porosity (HMGP), which was introduced to deal with the hundreds of gaps and slits. The ow needs to be actually resolved. All these computational challenges need to be addressed simultaneously in FSI modeling of clusters of spacecraft parachutes with modified geometric porosity. The core numerical technology is the Stabilized Space-Time FSI (SSTFSI) technique, and the contact between the parachutes is handled with the Surface-Edge-Node Contact Tracking (SENCT) technique. In the computations reported here, in addition to the SSTFSI and SENCT techniques and HMGP, we use the special techniques we have developed for removing the numerical spinning component of the parachute motion and for restoring the mesh integrity without a remesh. We present results for 2- and 3-parachute clusters with two different payload models. We also present the FSI computations we carried out for a single, subscale modified-porosity parachute.

  20. Self-modifying systems: a model for the constructive origin of information.

    PubMed

    Kampis, G

    1996-01-01

    The mechanisms of information processing in Turning machines and biological systems are examined from the point of view of physical sets of variables. Computation is characterized as a process, the realization of which involves a bounded set of interactions and a pre-definable set of variables in real systems. Using ideas from process philosophy, the ability of natural systems to transcend these computational modes is discussed. A class of systems, called self-modifying systems, that utilize persistent shifts in their defining interactions and variable composition is introduced. Various other ideas that lead to similarly non-computational or semi-computational scenarios (as in the case of distributed code systems) are referenced. As applications, computer models of emergent phenomena using randomly growing interaction sets as well as theoretical issues that range from the meaning of simulation to the problem of information gain in self-modifying systems are discussed. PMID:8734518

  1. A modified resistance equation for modeling underwater spark discharge with salinity and high pressure conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Pengfei; Roy, Subrata

    2014-05-07

    This work investigates the performance of underwater spark discharge relating to bubble growth and decay under high pressure and with salinity conditions by introducing a modified form of the resistance equation. Here, we study salinity influence on circuit parameters by fitting the experimental data for which gap resistance is much larger in conductive water than in dielectric water. Accordingly, the resistance equation is modified by considering the influence of both plasma and its surrounding liquid. Thermal radiation effect of the bubble is also studied by comparing two different radiation models. Numerical results predict a larger bubble pressure for saline water but a reduced size and a smaller bubble cycle at a greater water depth. Such study may be useful in many saltwater applications, including that for deep sea conditions.

  2. The Modified Rayleigh-Benard Convection Problem and its Application to Permafrost Methane Emission Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudakov, Ivan; Vakulenko, Sergey

    2015-11-01

    The original Rayleigh-Benard convection is a standard example of the system where the critical transitions occur with changing of a control parameter. We will discuss the modified Rayleigh-Benard convection problem which includes the radiative effects as well as the specific gas sources on a surface. Such formulation of this problem leads to identification a new kind of nonlinear phenomenon, besides the well-known Benard cells. Modeling of methane emissions from permafrost into the atmosphere drives to difficult problems, involving the Navier-Stokes equations. Taking into account the modified Rayleigh-Benard convection problem, we will discuss a new approach which makes the problem of a climate catastrophe in the result of a greenhouse effect more tractable and allows us to describe catastrophic transitions in the atmosphere induced by permafrost greenhouse gas sources.

  3. A self-modifying cellular automaton model of historical urbanization in the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, K.C.; Hoppen, S.; Gaydos, L.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe a cellular automaton (CA) simulation model developed to predict urban growth as part of a project for estimating the regional and broader impact of urbanization on the San Francisco Bay area's climate. The rules of the model are more complex than those of a typical CA and involve the use of multiple data sources, including topography, road networks, and existing settlement distributions, and their modification over time. In addition, the control parameters of the model are allowed to self-modify: that is, the CA adapts itself to the circumstances it generates, in particular, during periods of rapid growth or stagnation. In addition, the model was written to allow the accumulation of probabilistic estimates based on Monte Carlo methods. Calibration of the model has been accomplished by the use of historical maps to compare model predictions of urbanization, based solely upon the distribution in year 1900, with observed data for years 1940, 1954, 1962, 1974, and 1990. The complexity of this model has made calibration a particularly demanding step. Lessons learned about the methods, measures, and strategies developed to calibrate the model may be of use in other environmental modeling contexts. With the calibration complete, the model is being used to generate a set of future scenarios for the San Francisco Bay area along with their probabilities based on the Monte Carlo version of the model. Animated dynamic mapping of the simulations will be used to allow visualization of the impact of future urban growth.

  4. Modeling of dynamic hysteresis for grain-oriented laminations using a viscosity-based modified dynamic Jiles-Atherton model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghel, A. P. S.; Shekhawat, S. K.; Kulkarni, S. V.; Samajdar, I.

    2014-09-01

    Grain-oriented (GO) materials exhibit arbitrary frequency-loss behaviors and anomalies in dynamic hysteresis loop shapes. Significant attempts have been made in the literature to approximate dynamic hysteresis loops using the dynamic Jiles-Atherton (JA) model based Bertotti's approach. Such a model is inefficient in accurate loss computation over a wide range of frequencies and in predictions of correct loop shapes. Moreover, the original static JA model also needs to be improved for accurate prediction of highly steep, gooseneck, and narrow-waist static loops of GO materials. An alternative approach based on magnetic viscosity provides flexibilities to handle indefinite frequency dependence of the losses and to control the anomalous loop shapes. This paper proposes a viscosity-based dynamic JA model which gives accurate prediction of dynamic loops of GO materials. A modified static JA model which considers crystalline and textured structures of GO materials is used to predict static hysteresis loops. The dynamic losses are included in the modified model using the field separation approach. The proposed model is validated using experimental measurements. The computed and measured dynamic loops are in close agreement in the frequency range of 1-200 Hz.

  5. Emergence of long memory in stock volatility from a modified Mike-Farmer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Gao-Feng; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2009-05-01

    The Mike-Farmer (MF) model was constructed empirically based on the continuous double auction mechanism in an order-driven market, which can successfully reproduce the cubic law of returns and the diffusive behavior of stock prices at the transaction level. However, the volatility (defined by absolute return) in the MF model does not show sound long memory. We propose a modified version of the MF model by including a new ingredient, that is, long memory in the aggressiveness (quantified by the relative prices) of incoming orders, which is an important stylized fact identified by analyzing the order flows of 23 liquid Chinese stocks. Long memory emerges in the volatility synthesized from the modified MF model with the DFA scaling exponent close to 0.76, and the cubic law of returns and the diffusive behavior of prices are also produced at the same time. We also find that the long memory of order signs has no impact on the long memory property of volatility, and the memory effect of order aggressiveness has little impact on the diffusiveness of stock prices.

  6. Noncontact evaluation of surface-modified materials by a model-assisted hysteresis measurement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, C. C. H.

    2010-05-01

    This paper reports on a model-assisted magnetic hysteresis measurement method for noncontact characterization of surface-modified materials whose magnetic properties vary with depth. The technique involves measuring hysteresis loops from a test sample using a surface sensor probe in close proximity to the sample without any direct contact with it. The sensor outputs were simulated based on an extended magnetic hysteresis model to describe the magnetic hysteresis of the sample and its influence on the magnetic reluctance of the magnetic circuit. The technique was applied to characterize a series of surface hardened Fe-C samples with hardening depths ranging from 1.09 to 5.68 mm. The hysteresis behavior of the samples was modeled using a parametrized function to describe the depth profile of domain wall pinning strength. The midpoints of the inverted pinning strength profiles were found to agree with those of the measured hardness profiles, demonstrating the potential of the model-assisted technique for quantitative evaluation of surface-modified magnetic materials.

  7. V cosmological models in f (R, T) modified gravity with Λ (T) by using generation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Nasr; Pradhan, Anirudh; Fekry, M.; Alamri, Sultan Z.

    2016-06-01

    A new class of cosmological models in f (R, T) modified theories of gravity proposed by Harko et al. (2011), where the gravitational Lagrangian is given by an arbitrary function of Ricci scalar R and the trace of the stress-energy tensor T, has been investigated for a specific choice of f (R, T) =f1 (R) +f2 (T) by generation of new solutions. Motivated by recent work of Pradhan et al. (2015) we have revisited the recent work of Ahmed and Pradhan (2014) by using a generation technique, it is shown that f (R, T) modified field equations are solvable for any arbitrary cosmic scale function. A class of new solutions for particular forms of cosmic scale functions have been investigated. In the present study we consider the cosmological constant Λ as a function of the trace of the stress energy-momentum-tensor, and dub such a model " Λ (T) gravity" where we specified a certain form of Λ (T) . Such models may exhibit better equability with the cosmological observations. The cosmological constant Λ is found to be a positive decreasing function of time which is supported by results from recent supernovae Ia observations. Expressions for Hubble's parameter in terms of redshift, luminosity distance redshift, distance modulus redshift and jerk parameter are derived and their significances are described in detail. The physical and geometric properties of the cosmological models are also discussed.

  8. A modified procedure for mixture-model clustering of regional geochemical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, Karl J.; Smith, David B.; Horton, John D.

    2014-01-01

    A modified procedure is proposed for mixture-model clustering of regional-scale geochemical data. The key modification is the robust principal component transformation of the isometric log-ratio transforms of the element concentrations. This principal component transformation and the associated dimension reduction are applied before the data are clustered. The principal advantage of this modification is that it significantly improves the stability of the clustering. The principal disadvantage is that it requires subjective selection of the number of clusters and the number of principal components. To evaluate the efficacy of this modified procedure, it is applied to soil geochemical data that comprise 959 samples from the state of Colorado (USA) for which the concentrations of 44 elements are measured. The distributions of element concentrations that are derived from the mixture model and from the field samples are similar, indicating that the mixture model is a suitable representation of the transformed geochemical data. Each cluster and the associated distributions of the element concentrations are related to specific geologic and anthropogenic features. In this way, mixture model clustering facilitates interpretation of the regional geochemical data.

  9. A modified dynamic evolving neural-fuzzy approach to modeling customer satisfaction for affective design.

    PubMed

    Kwong, C K; Fung, K Y; Jiang, Huimin; Chan, K Y; Siu, Kin Wai Michael

    2013-01-01

    Affective design is an important aspect of product development to achieve a competitive edge in the marketplace. A neural-fuzzy network approach has been attempted recently to model customer satisfaction for affective design and it has been proved to be an effective one to deal with the fuzziness and non-linearity of the modeling as well as generate explicit customer satisfaction models. However, such an approach to modeling customer satisfaction has two limitations. First, it is not suitable for the modeling problems which involve a large number of inputs. Second, it cannot adapt to new data sets, given that its structure is fixed once it has been developed. In this paper, a modified dynamic evolving neural-fuzzy approach is proposed to address the above mentioned limitations. A case study on the affective design of mobile phones was conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Validation tests were conducted and the test results indicated that: (1) the conventional Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) failed to run due to a large number of inputs; (2) the proposed dynamic neural-fuzzy model outperforms the subtractive clustering-based ANFIS model and fuzzy c-means clustering-based ANFIS model in terms of their modeling accuracy and computational effort. PMID:24385884

  10. A Modified Dynamic Evolving Neural-Fuzzy Approach to Modeling Customer Satisfaction for Affective Design

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, C. K.; Fung, K. Y.; Jiang, Huimin; Chan, K. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Affective design is an important aspect of product development to achieve a competitive edge in the marketplace. A neural-fuzzy network approach has been attempted recently to model customer satisfaction for affective design and it has been proved to be an effective one to deal with the fuzziness and non-linearity of the modeling as well as generate explicit customer satisfaction models. However, such an approach to modeling customer satisfaction has two limitations. First, it is not suitable for the modeling problems which involve a large number of inputs. Second, it cannot adapt to new data sets, given that its structure is fixed once it has been developed. In this paper, a modified dynamic evolving neural-fuzzy approach is proposed to address the above mentioned limitations. A case study on the affective design of mobile phones was conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Validation tests were conducted and the test results indicated that: (1) the conventional Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) failed to run due to a large number of inputs; (2) the proposed dynamic neural-fuzzy model outperforms the subtractive clustering-based ANFIS model and fuzzy c-means clustering-based ANFIS model in terms of their modeling accuracy and computational effort. PMID:24385884

  11. Modified virtual internal bond model for concrete subjected to dynamic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Mayuri

    Concrete is often used as a primary material to build protective structures. There is a wide range of research work being performed to simulate the behavior of reinforced concrete under impact and blast loading. This behavior is studied from both material and structural points of view. The research study presented in this thesis focuses on material aspects of modeling. LS-DYNARTM is an effective software for modeling and finite element analysis of structural members. It allows the user to define the material through commercially available or user-defined constitutive material models. Each material model has a distinct set of parameters to define a material which is further assigned to elements and used for simulations. This research study presents a user defined material model called Modified Concrete Virtual Internal Bond Model (MC-VIB). The basic constitutive model of VIB assumes the body as a collection of randomly oriented material points interconnected by a network of internal bonds. The model was modified by several researchers for different purposes. This research presents the MC-VIB for concrete under dynamic loading and studies its implementation into LS-DYNARTM. The modifications include incorporation of shear behavior and accounting for the difference in behavior of concrete in tension and compression. This project includes the calibration of the model based on stress-strain behavior of single element and cylinder model of concrete. The parameters are based on concrete with a uniaxial compressive strength of 27.6 MPa (4 ksi). These numerical curves are compared to those obtained from conventionally used material models for concrete and standard curves obtained by accepted equations to check the accuracy of prediction. The material model available in LS-DYNARTM requires a number of input parameters to define concrete behavior. These properties are normally derived from actual tests performed on the concrete under consideration. Often the properties are

  12. Numerical and analytical tests of quasi-integrability in modified sine-Gordon models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, L. A.; Zakrzewski, Wojtek J.

    2014-01-01

    Following our attempts to define quasi-integrability in which we related this concept to a particular symmetry of the two-soliton function we check this condition in three classes of modified sine-Gordon models in (1 + 1) dimensions. We find that the numerical results seen in various scatterings of two solitons and in the time evolution of breather-like structures support our ideas about the symmetry of the field configurations and its effects on the anomalies of the conservation laws of the charges.

  13. Non-flat pilgrim dark energy FRW models in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Shamaila; Jawad, Abdul; Salako, Ines G.; Azhar, Nadeem

    2016-09-01

    We study the cosmic acceleration in dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity in the frame-work of non-flat FRW universe. The pilgrim dark energy (with future event and apparent horizons) interacted with cold dark matter is being considered in this work. We investigate the cosmological parameters (equation of state, deceleration) and planes (state-finders, ω_{θ}-ω_{θ}^' }) in the present scenario. It is interesting to mention here that the obtained results of various cosmological parameters are consistent with various observational schemes. The validity of generalized second law of thermodynamics for present dark energy models is also being analyzed.

  14. The PPP model of alternant cyclic polyenes with modified boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Bendazzoli, G.L.; Evangelisti, S.

    1995-08-15

    The extension of the PPP Hamiltonian for alternant cyclic polyenes to noninteger values of the pseudomomentum by imposing modified boundary conditions is discussed in detail. It is shown that a computer program for periodic boundary conditions can be easily adapted to the new boundary conditions. Full CI computations are carried out for some low-lying states of the PPP model of alternant cyclic polyenes (CH){sub N} (N even) at half-filling. The energy values obtained by using periodic (Bloch) and antiperiodic (Moebius) orbitals are used to perform energy extrapolations for N {yields} {infinity}. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. A Modified BFGS Formula Using a Trust Region Model for Nonsmooth Convex Minimizations

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zengru; Yuan, Gonglin; Sheng, Zhou; Liu, Wenjie; Wang, Xiaoliang; Duan, Xiabin

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a modified BFGS formula using a trust region model for solving nonsmooth convex minimizations by using the Moreau-Yosida regularization (smoothing) approach and a new secant equation with a BFGS update formula. Our algorithm uses the function value information and gradient value information to compute the Hessian. The Hessian matrix is updated by the BFGS formula rather than using second-order information of the function, thus decreasing the workload and time involved in the computation. Under suitable conditions, the algorithm converges globally to an optimal solution. Numerical results show that this algorithm can successfully solve nonsmooth unconstrained convex problems. PMID:26501775

  16. Ecological risk assessment of genetically modified crops based on cellular automata modeling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Wang, Zhi-Rui; Yang, De-Li; Yang, Qing; Yan, Jun; He, Ming-Feng

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of ecological risk in genetically modified (GM) biological systems is critically important for decision-making and public acceptance. Cellular automata (CA) provide a potential modeling and simulation framework for representing relationships and interspecies interactions both temporally and spatially. In this paper, a simple subsystem contains only four species: crop, target pest, non-target pest and enemy insect, and a three layer arrangement of LxL stochastic cellular automata with a periodic boundary were established. The simulation of this simplified system showed abundant and sufficient complexity in population assembly and densities, suggesting a prospective application in ecological risk assessment of GM crops. PMID:19477260

  17. Modified Hawking temperature and entropic force: A prescription in FRW model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Saugata; Saha, Subhajit; Chakraborty, Subenoy

    2015-03-01

    The idea of Verlinde that gravity is an entropic force caused by information changes associated with the positions of material bodies, is used in the present work for the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) model of the Universe. Using modified Hawking temperature, the Friedmann equations are derived on any horizon. For the validity of the first law of thermodynamics (i.e. Clausius relation) it is found that there is modification of Bekenstein entropy on the horizon. However, using equipartition law of energy, Bekenstein entropy is recovered.

  18. Inferring the spatial variation of the wedge strength based on a modified critical taper model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C.; Liu, H.; Hsieh, Y.; Dong, J.

    2013-12-01

    Critical taper wedge theory has been widely applied to evaluate the strength of the detachment fault and the wedge by measuring taper angle. Traditional taper model, which incorporated constant cohesion and friction angle, fails to explain the lateral variation of the taper angle. A modified critical taper model adopting nonlinear Hoek-Brown failure criterion is proposed accordingly. The fold-and-thrust belt of central Taiwan was studied. Based on the field works and laboratory tests, the geological strength index (GSI) and the uniaxial compressive strength were obtained and the wedge strength can be estimated accordingly. The GSI values from investigation are decreased from the west to the east along the cross section due to the wedge strength heterogeneity. The uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock varies from the age of formation and lithology. The estimated wedge strength exhibits a strong spatial variation. The strength of the detachment fault was derived from rotary shear tests using fault gouge materials under different velocities and normal stresses. General speaking, the steady-state friction coefficient are about 0.29-0.46 when the shear velocity less than 0.1 m/s. The friction coefficient is not sensitive to the normal stress. Consequently, the lateral variation of the taper angle, which calculated by modified critical taper model, is mainly dominated by the wedge strength heterogeneity and the thickening of the wedge from the west to the east.

  19. Modeling gravity-driven fingering in rough-walled fractures using modified percolation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.J.

    1992-12-31

    Pore scale invasion percolation theory is modified for imbibition of.wetting fluids into fractures. The effects of gravity, local aperture field geometry, and local in-plane air/water interfacial curvatureare included in the calculation of aperture filling potential which controls wetted structure growth within the fracture. The inclusion of gravity yields fingers oriented in the direction of the gravitational gradient. These fingers widen and tend to meander and branch more as the gravitational gradient decreases. In-plane interfacial curvature also greatly affects the wetted structure in both horizontal and nonhorizontal fractures causing the formation of macroscopic wetting fronts. The modified percolation model is used to simulate imbibition into an analogue rough-walled fracture where both fingering and horizontal imbibition experiments were previously conducted. Comparison of numerical and experimental results showed reasonably good agreement. This process oriented physical and numerical modeling is-a necessary step toward including gravity-driven fingering in models of flow and transport through unsaturated, fractured rock.

  20. Modified biokinetic model for uranium from analysis of acute exposure to UF6.

    PubMed

    Fisher, D R; Kathren, R L; Swint, M J

    1991-03-01

    Urinalysis measurements from 31 workers acutely exposed to uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and its hydrolysis product UO2F2 (during the 1986 Gore, Oklahoma UF6-release accident) were used to develop a modified recycling biokinetic model for soluble U compounds. The model is expressed as a five-compartment exponential equation: yu(t) = 0.086e-2.77t + 0.0048e-0.116t + 0.00069e-0.0267t + 0.00017 e-0.00231t + 2.5 x 10(-6) e-0.000187t, where yu(t) is the fractional daily urinary excretion and t is the time after intake, in days. The excretion constants of the five exponential compartments correspond to residence half-times of 0.25, 6, 26, 300, and 3,700 d in the lungs, kidneys, other soft tissues, and in two bone volume compartments, respectively. The modified recycling model was used to estimate intake amounts, the resulting committed effective dose equivalent, maximum kidney concentrations, and dose equivalent to bone surfaces, kidneys, and lungs. PMID:1995506

  1. Modified Heisenberg model for the zig-zag structure in multiferroic RMn2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahoosh, Safa Golrokh; Wesselinowa, Julia M.; Trimper, Steffen

    2015-08-01

    The class of RMn2O5 (R = Ho, Tb, Y, Eu) compounds offers multiferroic properties where the refined magnetic zig-zag order breaks the inversion symmetry. Varying the temperature, the system undergoes a magnetic and a subsequent ferroelectric phase transition where the ferroelectricity is magnetically induced. We propose a modified anisotropic Heisenberg model that can be used as a tractable analytical model studying the properties of those antiferromagnetic zig-zag spin chains. Based on a finite temperature Green's function method, it is shown that the polarization is induced solely by different exchange couplings of the two different Mn4+ and Mn3+ magnetic ions. We calculate the excitation energy of the spin system for finite temperatures, which for its part determines the temperature dependent magnetization and polarization. The ferroelectric phase transition is manifested as a kink in the excitation energy. The variation of the polarization by an external magnetic field depends strongly on the direction of that field. Whereas, the polarization in b-direction increases with an external magnetic field as well in b-direction it can be switched for strong fields in a-direction. The results based on that modified Heisenberg model are in qualitative agreement with experimental data.

  2. Intelligent modified internal model control for speed control of nonlinear uncertain heavy duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Anil Kumar; Gaur, Prerna

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to control the speed of heavy duty vehicle (HDV) through angular position of throttle valve. Modified internal model control (IMC) schemes with fuzzy supervisor as an adaptive tuning are proposed to control the speed of HDV. Internal model (IM) plays a key role in design of various IMC structures with robust and adaptive features. The motivation to design an IM is to produce nearly stable performance as of the system itself. Clustering algorithm and Hankel approximation based model order reduction techniques are used for the design of suitable IM. The time domain performance specifications such as overshoot, settling time, rise time and integral error performance indices such as the integral of the absolute error and the integral of the square of error are taken into consideration for performance analysis of HDV for various uncertainties. PMID:25563057

  3. Path Loss Prediction Over the Lunar Surface Utilizing a Modified Longley-Rice Irregular Terrain Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foore, Larry; Ida, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    This study introduces the use of a modified Longley-Rice irregular terrain model and digital elevation data representative of an analogue lunar site for the prediction of RF path loss over the lunar surface. The results are validated by theoretical models and past Apollo studies. The model is used to approximate the path loss deviation from theoretical attenuation over a reflecting sphere. Analysis of the simulation results provides statistics on the fade depths for frequencies of interest, and correspondingly a method for determining the maximum range of communications for various coverage confidence intervals. Communication system engineers and mission planners are provided a link margin and path loss policy for communication frequencies of interest.

  4. Ghrelin and eating behavior: evidence and insights from genetically-modified mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Aki; Zigman, Jeffrey M.; Perelló, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide hormone, produced by endocrine cells of the stomach, which acts in the brain to increase food intake and body weight. Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying ghrelin's effects on eating behaviors has been greatly improved by the generation and study of several genetically manipulated mouse models. These models include mice overexpressing ghrelin and also mice with genetic deletion of ghrelin, the ghrelin receptor [the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)] or the enzyme that post-translationally modifies ghrelin [ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT)]. In addition, a GHSR-null mouse model in which GHSR transcription is globally blocked but can be cell-specifically reactivated in a Cre recombinase-mediated fashion has been generated. Here, we summarize findings obtained with these genetically manipulated mice, with the aim to highlight the significance of the ghrelin system in the regulation of both homeostatic and hedonic eating, including that occurring in the setting of chronic psychosocial stress. PMID:23882175

  5. Modeling the Mixture of IRT and Pattern Responses by a Modified HYBRID Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto, Kentaro; Everson, Howard T.

    This study demonstrates the utility of a HYBRID psychometric model, which incorporates both item response theoretic and latent class models, for detecting test speededness. The model isolates where in a sequence of test items examinee response patterns shift from one providing reasonable estimates of ability to those best characterized by a random…

  6. Holistic versus monomeric strategies for hydrological modelling of human-modified hydrosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalbantis, I.; Efstratiadis, A.; Rozos, E.; Kopsiafti, M.; Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2011-03-01

    The modelling of human-modified basins that are inadequately measured constitutes a challenge for hydrological science. Often, models for such systems are detailed and hydraulics-based for only one part of the system while for other parts oversimplified models or rough assumptions are used. This is typically a bottom-up approach, which seeks to exploit knowledge of hydrological processes at the micro-scale at some components of the system. Also, it is a monomeric approach in two ways: first, essential interactions among system components may be poorly represented or even omitted; second, differences in the level of detail of process representation can lead to uncontrolled errors. Additionally, the calibration procedure merely accounts for the reproduction of the observed responses using typical fitting criteria. The paper aims to raise some critical issues, regarding the entire modelling approach for such hydrosystems. For this, two alternative modelling strategies are examined that reflect two modelling approaches or philosophies: a dominant bottom-up approach, which is also monomeric and, very often, based on output information, and a top-down and holistic approach based on generalized information. Critical options are examined, which codify the differences between the two strategies: the representation of surface, groundwater and water management processes, the schematization and parameterization concepts and the parameter estimation methodology. The first strategy is based on stand-alone models for surface and groundwater processes and for water management, which are employed sequentially. For each model, a different (detailed or coarse) parameterization is used, which is dictated by the hydrosystem schematization. The second strategy involves model integration for all processes, parsimonious parameterization and hybrid manual-automatic parameter optimization based on multiple objectives. A test case is examined in a hydrosystem in Greece with high complexities

  7. A modified holographic dark energy model with infrared infinite extra dimension(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yungui; Li, Tianjun

    2010-01-01

    We propose a modified holographic dark energy (MHDE) model with the Hubble scale as the infrared (IR) cutoff. Introducing the infinite extra dimension(s) at very large distance scale, we consider the black hole mass in higher dimensions as the ultraviolet cutoff. Thus, we can probe the effects of the IR infinite extra dimension(s). As a concrete example, we consider the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) model and its generalization. We find that the DGP model is dual to the MHDE model in five dimensions, and the ΛCDM model is dual to the MHDE model in six dimensions. Fitting the MHDE model to the observational data, we obtain that Ωm0=0.269-0.027+0.030, Ωk0=0.003-0.012+0.011, and the number of the spatial dimensions is N=4.78-0.44+0.68. The best fit value of N implies that there might exist two IR infinite extra dimensions.

  8. Interaction study between maltose-modified PPI dendrimers and lipidic model membranes.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Dominika; Appelhans, Dietmar; Signorelli, Marco; Wiesner, Brigitte; Fessas, Dimitrios; Scheler, Ulrich; Voit, Brigitte; Maly, Jan

    2015-07-01

    The influence of maltose-modified poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers on dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) or dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine/dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPC/DMPG) (3%) liposomes was studied. Fourth generation (G4) PPI dendrimers with primary amino surface groups were partially (open shell glycodendrimers - OS) or completely (dense shell glycodendrimers - DS) modified with maltose residues. As a model membrane, two types of 100nm diameter liposomes were used to observe differences in the interactions between neutral DMPC and negatively charged DMPC/DMPG bilayers. Interactions were studied using fluorescence spectroscopy to evaluate the membrane fluidity of both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts of the lipid bilayer and using differential scanning calorimetry to investigate thermodynamic parameter changes. Pulsed-filed gradient NMR experiments were carried out to evaluate common diffusion coefficient of DMPG and DS PPI in D2O when using below critical micelle concentration of DMPG. Both OS and DS PPI G4 dendrimers show interactions with liposomes. Neutral DS dendrimers exhibit stronger changes in membrane fluidity compared to OS dendrimers. The bilayer structure seems more rigid in the case of anionic DMPC/DMPG liposomes in comparison to pure and neutral DMPC liposomes. Generally, interactions of dendrimers with anionic DMPC/DMPG and neutral DMPC liposomes were at the same level. Higher concentrations of positively charged OS dendrimers induced the aggregation process with negatively charged liposomes. For all types of experiments, the presence of NaCl decreased the strength of the interactions between glycodendrimers and liposomes. Based on NMR diffusion experiments we suggest that apart from electrostatic interactions for OS PPI hydrogen bonds play a major role in maltose-modified PPI dendrimer interactions with anionic and neutral model membranes where a contact surface is needed for undergoing multiple H-bond interactions between

  9. Neutron star structure in an in-medium modified chiral soliton model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakhshiev, U. T.

    2015-10-01

    We study the internal structure of a static and spherically symmetric neutron star in the framework of an in-medium modified chiral soliton model. The Equations of State describing an infinite and asymmetric nuclear matter are obtained introducing the density dependent functions into the low energy free space Lagrangian of the model starting from the phenomenology of pionic atoms. The parametrizations of density dependent functions are related to the properties of isospin asymmetric nuclear systems at saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter ρ0 ≃ 0.16 fm-3. Our results, corresponding to the compressibility of symmetric nuclear matter in the range 250 MeV ≤K0 ≤ 270 MeV and the slop parameter value of symmetry energy in the range 30 MeV ≤LS ≤ 50 MeV, are consistent with the results from other approaches and with the experimental indications. Using the modified Equations of State, near the saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter ρ0, the extrapolations to the high density and highly isospin asymmetric regions have been performed. The calculations showed that the properties of ∼ 1.4M⊙ and ∼ 2M⊙ neutron stars can be well reproduced in the framework of present approach.

  10. Preparation and characterization of physically modified glass beads used as model carriers in dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Zellnitz, Sarah; Redlinger-Pohn, Jakob Dominik; Kappl, Michael; Schroettner, Hartmuth; Urbanetz, Nora Anne

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this work is the physical modification and characterization of the surface topography of glass beads used as model carriers in dry powder inhalers (DPIs). By surface modification the contact area between drug and carrier and thereby interparticle forces may be modified. Thus the performance of DPIs that relies on interparticle interactions may be improved. Glass beads were chosen as model carriers because various prospects of physical surface modification may be applied without affecting other factors also impacting interparticle interactions like particle size and shape. To generate rough surfaces glass beads were processed mechanically by friction and impaction in a ball mill with different grinding materials that were smaller and harder with respect to the glass beads. By varying the grinding time (4 h, 8 h) and by using different grinding media (tungsten carbide, quartz) surfaces with different shades of roughness were generated. Depending on the hardness of the grinding material and the grinding time the surface roughness was more or less pronounced. Surface roughness parameters and specific surface area were determined via several complementary techniques in order to get an enhanced understanding of the impact of the modifying procedure on the surface properties of the glass beads. PMID:23470233

  11. A modified full velocity difference model with the consideration of velocity deviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jie; Shi, Zhong-Ke

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a modified full velocity difference model (FVDM) based on car-following theory is proposed with the consideration of velocity deviation which represents the inexact judgement of velocity. The stability condition is obtained by the use of linear stability analysis. It is shown that the stability of traffic flow varies with the deviation extent of velocity. The Burgers, Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and modified K-dV (MKdV) equations are derived to describe the triangular shock waves, soliton waves and kink-antikink waves in the stable, metastable and unstable region, respectively. The numerical simulations show a good agreement with the analytical results, such as density wave, hysteresis loop, acceleration, deceleration and so on. The results show that traffic congestion can be suppressed by taking the positive effect of velocity deviation into account. By taking the positive effect of high estimate of velocity into account, the unrealistic high deceleration and negative velocity which occur in FVDM will be eliminated in the proposed model.

  12. The concept of quasi-integrability for modified non-linear Schrödinger models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, L. A.; Luchini, G.; Zakrzewski, Wojtek J.

    2012-09-01

    We consider modifications of the nonlinear Schrödinger model (NLS) to look at the recently introduced concept of quasi-integrability. We show that such models possess an infinite number of quasi-conserved charges which present intriguing properties in relation to very specific space-time parity transformations. For the case of two-soliton solutions where the fields are eigenstates of this parity, those charges are asymptotically conserved in the scattering process of the solitons. Even though the charges vary in time their values in the far past and the far future are the same. Such results are obtained through analytical and numerical methods, and employ adaptations of algebraic techniques used in integrable field theories. Our findings may have important consequences on the applications of these models in several areas of non-linear science. We make a detailed numerical study of the modified NLS potential of the form V ~ (| ψ|2)2+ ɛ , with ɛ being a perturbation parameter. We perform numerical simulations of the scattering of solitons for this model and find a good agreement with the results predicted by the analytical considerations. Our paper shows that the quasi-integrability concepts recently proposed in the context of modifications of the sine-Gordon model remain valid for perturbations of the NLS model.

  13. A modified capacitance model of RF MEMS shunt switch incorporating fringing field effects of perforated beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Koushik; Kumar, Mithlesh; Agarwal, Saurabh; Baishya, Srimanta

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the approach to accurately model the capacitance of non-uniform meander based RF MEMS shunt switch with perforated structure. Here the general analytical model of capacitance is proposed for both up state and down state condition of the switch. The model also accounts for fringing capacitance due to beam thickness and etched holes on the beam. Calculated results are validated with the simulated results of full 3D FEM solver Coventorware in both the conditions of the switch. Variation of Up-state and Down-state capacitances with different dielectric thicknesses and voltages are plotted and error of analytical value is estimated and analyzed. Three benchmark models of parallel plate capacitance are modified for MEMS switch operation and their results are compared with the proposed model. Percentage contribution of fringing capacitance in up-state and down-state is approx. 25% and 2%, respectively, of the total capacitance. The model shows good accuracy with the mean error of -4.45% in up-state and -5.78% in down-state condition for a wide range of parameter variations and -2.13% for ligament efficiency of μ = 0.3.

  14. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Triaxially Braided Composites Utilizing a Modified Subcell Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cater, Christopher; Xiao, Xinran; Goldberg, Robert K.; Kohlman, Lee W.

    2015-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical approach was performed for characterizing and modeling triaxially braided composites with a modified subcell modeling strategy. Tensile coupon tests were conducted on a [0deg/60deg/-60deg] braided composite at angles [0deg, 30deg, 45deg, 60deg and 90deg] relative to the axial tow of the braid. It was found that measured coupon strength varied significantly with the angle of the applied load and each coupon direction exhibited unique final failures. The subcell modeling approach implemented into the finite element software LS-DYNA was used to simulate the various tensile coupon test angles. The modeling approach was successful in predicting both the coupon strength and reported failure mode for the 0deg, 30deg and 60deg loading directions. The model over-predicted the strength in the 90deg direction; however, the experimental results show a strong influence of free edge effects on damage initiation and failure. In the absence of these local free edge effects, the subcell modeling approach showed promise as a viable and computationally efficient analysis tool for triaxially braided composite structures. Future work will focus on validation of the approach for predicting the impact response of the braided composite against flat panel impact tests.

  15. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Triaxially Braided Composites Utilizing a Modified Subcell Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cater, Christopher; Xiao, Xinran; Goldberg, Robert K.; Kohlman, Lee W.

    2015-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical approach was performed for characterizing and modeling triaxially braided composites with a modified subcell modeling strategy. Tensile coupon tests were conducted on a [0deg/60deg/-60deg] braided composite at angles of 0deg, 30deg, 45deg, 60deg and 90deg relative to the axial tow of the braid. It was found that measured coupon strength varied significantly with the angle of the applied load and each coupon direction exhibited unique final failures. The subcell modeling approach implemented into the finite element software LS-DYNA was used to simulate the various tensile coupon test angles. The modeling approach was successful in predicting both the coupon strength and reported failure mode for the 0deg, 30deg and 60deg loading directions. The model over-predicted the strength in the 90deg direction; however, the experimental results show a strong influence of free edge effects on damage initiation and failure. In the absence of these local free edge effects, the subcell modeling approach showed promise as a viable and computationally efficient analysis tool for triaxially braided composite structures. Future work will focus on validation of the approach for predicting the impact response of the braided composite against flat panel impact tests.

  16. Modified energy cascade model adapted for a multicrop Lunar greenhouse prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscheri, G.; Kacira, M.; Patterson, L.; Giacomelli, G.; Sadler, P.; Furfaro, R.; Lobascio, C.; Lamantea, M.; Grizzaffi, L.

    2012-10-01

    Models are required to accurately predict mass and energy balances in a bioregenerative life support system. A modified energy cascade model was used to predict outputs of a multi-crop (tomatoes, potatoes, lettuce and strawberries) Lunar greenhouse prototype. The model performance was evaluated against measured data obtained from several system closure experiments. The model predictions corresponded well to those obtained from experimental measurements for the overall system closure test period (five months), especially for biomass produced (0.7% underestimated), water consumption (0.3% overestimated) and condensate production (0.5% overestimated). However, the model was less accurate when the results were compared with data obtained from a shorter experimental time period, with 31%, 48% and 51% error for biomass uptake, water consumption, and condensate production, respectively, which were obtained under more complex crop production patterns (e.g. tall tomato plants covering part of the lettuce production zones). These results, together with a model sensitivity analysis highlighted the necessity of periodic characterization of the environmental parameters (e.g. light levels, air leakage) in the Lunar greenhouse.

  17. Modified Hyperspheres Algorithm to Trace Homotopy Curves of Nonlinear Circuits Composed by Piecewise Linear Modelled Devices

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Leal, H.; Jimenez-Fernandez, V. M.; Benhammouda, B.; Filobello-Nino, U.; Sarmiento-Reyes, A.; Ramirez-Pinero, A.; Marin-Hernandez, A.; Huerta-Chua, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a homotopy continuation method (HCM) for finding multiple operating points of nonlinear circuits composed of devices modelled by using piecewise linear (PWL) representations. We propose an adaptation of the modified spheres path tracking algorithm to trace the homotopy trajectories of PWL circuits. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, four nonlinear circuits composed of piecewise linear modelled devices are analysed to determine their multiple operating points. The results show that HCM can find multiple solutions within a single homotopy trajectory. Furthermore, we take advantage of the fact that homotopy trajectories are PWL curves meant to replace the multidimensional interpolation and fine tuning stages of the path tracking algorithm with a simple and highly accurate procedure based on the parametric straight line equation. PMID:25184157

  18. Matter density perturbations in modified gravity models with arbitrary coupling between matter and geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Nesseris, Savvas

    2009-02-15

    We consider theories with an arbitrary coupling between matter and gravity and obtain the perturbation equation of matter on subhorizon scales. Also, we derive the effective gravitational constant G{sub eff} and two parameters {sigma} and {eta}, which along with the perturbation equation of the matter density are useful to constrain the theory from growth factor and weak lensing observations. Finally, we use a completely solvable toy model which exhibits nontrivial phenomenology to investigate specific features of the theory. We obtain the analytic solution of the modified Friedmann equation for the scale factor a in terms of time t and use the age of the oldest star clusters and the primordial nucleosynthesis bounds in order to constrain the parameters of our toy model.

  19. Modified hyperspheres algorithm to trace homotopy curves of nonlinear circuits composed by piecewise linear modelled devices.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Leal, H; Jimenez-Fernandez, V M; Benhammouda, B; Filobello-Nino, U; Sarmiento-Reyes, A; Ramirez-Pinero, A; Marin-Hernandez, A; Huerta-Chua, J

    2014-01-01

    We present a homotopy continuation method (HCM) for finding multiple operating points of nonlinear circuits composed of devices modelled by using piecewise linear (PWL) representations. We propose an adaptation of the modified spheres path tracking algorithm to trace the homotopy trajectories of PWL circuits. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, four nonlinear circuits composed of piecewise linear modelled devices are analysed to determine their multiple operating points. The results show that HCM can find multiple solutions within a single homotopy trajectory. Furthermore, we take advantage of the fact that homotopy trajectories are PWL curves meant to replace the multidimensional interpolation and fine tuning stages of the path tracking algorithm with a simple and highly accurate procedure based on the parametric straight line equation. PMID:25184157

  20. Spatial interactions in a modified Daisyworld model: Heat diffusivity and greenhouse effects.

    PubMed

    Alberti, T; Primavera, L; Vecchio, A; Lepreti, F; Carbone, V

    2015-11-01

    In this work we investigate a modified version of the Daisyworld model, originally introduced by Lovelock and Watson to describe in a simple way the interactions between an Earth-like planet, its biosphere, and the incoming solar radiation. Here a spatial dependency on latitude is included, and both a variable heat diffusivity along latitudes and a simple greenhouse effect description are introduced in the model. We show that the spatial interactions between the variables of the system can locally stabilize the coexistence of the two vegetation types. The feedback on albedo is able to generate equilibrium solutions which can efficiently self-regulate the planet climate, even for values of the solar luminosity relatively far from the current Earth conditions. PMID:26651733

  1. A two-field modified Lagrangian formulation for robust simulations of extrinsic cohesive zone models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazes, F.; Coret, M.; Combescure, A.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the robust implementation of a cohesive zone model based on extrinsic cohesive laws (i.e. laws involving an infinite initial stiffness). To this end, a two-field Lagrangian weak formulation in which cohesive tractions are chosen as the field variables along the crack's path is presented. Unfortunately, this formulation cannot model the infinite compliance of the broken elements accurately, and no simple criterion can be defined to determine the loading-unloading change of state at the integration points of the cohesive elements. Therefore, a modified Lagrangian formulation using a fictitious cohesive traction instead of the classical cohesive traction as the field variable is proposed. Thanks to this change of variable, the cohesive law becomes an increasing function of the equivalent displacement jump, which eliminates the problems mentioned previously. The ability of the proposed formulations to simulate fracture accurately and without field oscillations is investigated through three numerical test examples.

  2. Spatial interactions in a modified Daisyworld model: Heat diffusivity and greenhouse effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, T.; Primavera, L.; Vecchio, A.; Lepreti, F.; Carbone, V.

    2015-11-01

    In this work we investigate a modified version of the Daisyworld model, originally introduced by Lovelock and Watson to describe in a simple way the interactions between an Earth-like planet, its biosphere, and the incoming solar radiation. Here a spatial dependency on latitude is included, and both a variable heat diffusivity along latitudes and a simple greenhouse effect description are introduced in the model. We show that the spatial interactions between the variables of the system can locally stabilize the coexistence of the two vegetation types. The feedback on albedo is able to generate equilibrium solutions which can efficiently self-regulate the planet climate, even for values of the solar luminosity relatively far from the current Earth conditions.

  3. Stochastic model reduction using a modified Hill-type kinetic rate law.

    PubMed

    Smadbeck, Patrick; Kaznessis, Yiannis

    2012-12-21

    In the present work, we address a major challenge facing the modeling of biochemical reaction networks: when using stochastic simulations, the computational load and number of unknown parameters may dramatically increase with system size and complexity. A proposed solution to this challenge is the reduction of models by utilizing nonlinear reaction rate laws in place of a complex multi-reaction mechanism. This type of model reduction in stochastic systems often fails when applied outside of the context in which it was initially conceived. We hypothesize that the use of nonlinear rate laws fails because a single reaction is inherently Poisson distributed and cannot match higher order statistics. In this study we explore the use of Hill-type rate laws as an approximation for gene regulation, specifically transcription repression. We matched output data for several simple gene networks to determine Hill-type parameters. We show that the models exhibit inaccuracies when placed into a simple feedback repression model. By adding an additional abstract reaction to the models we account for second-order statistics. This split Hill rate law matches higher order statistics and demonstrates that the new model is able to more accurately describe the mean protein output. Finally, the modified Hill model is shown to be modular and models retain accuracy when placed into a larger multi-gene network. The work as presented may be used in gene regulatory or cell-signaling networks, where multiple binding events can be captured by Hill kinetics. The added benefit of the proposed split-Hill kinetics is the improved accuracy in modeling stochastic effects. We demonstrate these benefits with a few specific reaction network examples. PMID:23267473

  4. Evaluation of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Formation and Diversity in a Modified Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, X.; Shao, P.; Song, X.

    2010-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem formation and diversity have great impact on the stability and frangibility of ecosystem. It is important that Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) can capture these essential properties so that they can correctly simulate the succession and transition of terrestrial ecosystem in company with the global climate change. Previous studies have shown that DGVMs can roughly reproduce the spatial distributions of different vegetation types as well as the dependence of the vegetation distribution on climate conditions, however, the capability of DGVMs to reproduce the global vegetation distribution and ecosystem formation has not been fully evaluated. This study is based on our modified DGVM coupled with the Community Land Model (CLM-DGVM). The modified CLM-DGVM can simulate 12 plant functional types (PFTs) besides the bare soil. It allows two or more PFTs coexisting in a grid cell, in contrast to the DGVMs which tend to generate the ecosystem with single dominant plant functional type and hence lose the functional diversity of ecosystem. Our results show that the density distributions of fractional coverage (DDFC) of three vegetation categories (e.g., forest, grassland, and shrubland) and PFTs are different with the observation. In particular, the model overestimates the DDFC over regions with tree coverage larger than 70%, but underestimates the DDFC over regions with tree coverage less than 40%. Furthermore, the functional diversity of PFTs in each gridcell is generally lower than that in the observation. Sensitivity tests show that substantial changes in the terrestrial ecosystem usually occur within the areas where two or more PFTs coexist with comparable fractions, i.e., and the functional diversity is high. These results imply that current CLM-DGVM may not be able to appropriately produce the averaged amplitude and spatial pattern of the transition in global ecosystem. Therefore, we suggest that extensive studies are required to improve

  5. 47 CFR 76.1905 - Petitions to modify encoding rules for new services within defined business models.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... services within defined business models. 76.1905 Section 76.1905 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Rules § 76.1905 Petitions to modify encoding rules for new services within defined business models. (a) The encoding rules for defined business models in § 76.1904 reflect the conventional methods...

  6. 47 CFR 76.1905 - Petitions to modify encoding rules for new services within defined business models.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... services within defined business models. 76.1905 Section 76.1905 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Rules § 76.1905 Petitions to modify encoding rules for new services within defined business models. (a) The encoding rules for defined business models in § 76.1904 reflect the conventional methods...

  7. 47 CFR 76.1905 - Petitions to modify encoding rules for new services within defined business models.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... services within defined business models. 76.1905 Section 76.1905 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Rules § 76.1905 Petitions to modify encoding rules for new services within defined business models. (a) The encoding rules for defined business models in § 76.1904 reflect the conventional methods...

  8. 47 CFR 76.1905 - Petitions to modify encoding rules for new services within defined business models.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... services within defined business models. 76.1905 Section 76.1905 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Rules § 76.1905 Petitions to modify encoding rules for new services within defined business models. (a) The encoding rules for defined business models in § 76.1904 reflect the conventional methods...

  9. Reduced-Order Model Based Feedback Control For Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani Model

    SciTech Connect

    Goumiri, I. R.; Rowley, C. W.; Ma, Z.; Gates, D. A.; Krommes, J. A.; Parker, J. B.

    2013-01-28

    In this work, the development of model-based feedback control that stabilizes an unstable equilibrium is obtained for the Modi ed Hasegawa-Wakatani (MHW) equations, a classic model in plasma turbulence. First, a balanced truncation (a model reduction technique that has proven successful in ow control design problems) is applied to obtain a low dimensional model of the linearized MHW equation. Then a modelbased feedback controller is designed for the reduced order model using linear quadratic regulators (LQR). Finally, a linear quadratic gaussian (LQG) controller, which is more resistant to disturbances is deduced. The controller is applied on the non-reduced, nonlinear MHW equations to stabilize the equilibrium and suppress the transition to drift-wave induced turbulence.

  10. Mapping genetic modifiers of survival in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Alison R.; Hawkins, Nicole A.; McCollom, Clint E.; Kearney, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting approximately 1% of the population. Mutations in voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for several monogenic epilepsy syndromes. More than 800 mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel SCN1A have been reported in patients with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus and Dravet syndrome. Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in SCN1A result in Dravet syndrome, a severe infant-onset epileptic encephalopathy characterized by intractable seizures, developmental delays and increased mortality. A common feature of monogenic epilepsies is variable expressivity among individuals with the same mutation, suggesting that genetic modifiers may influence clinical severity. Mice with heterozygous deletion of Scn1a (Scn1a+/−) model a number of Dravet syndrome features, including spontaneous seizures and premature lethality. Phenotype severity in Scn1a+/− mice is strongly dependent on strain background. On the 129S6/SvEvTac strain Scn1a+/− mice exhibit no overt phenotype, while on the (C57BL/6J × 129S6/SvEvTac)F1 strain Scn1a+/− mice exhibit spontaneous seizures and early lethality. To systematically identify loci that influence premature lethality in Scn1a+/− mice, we performed genome scans on reciprocal backcrosses. QTL mapping revealed modifier loci on mouse chromosomes 5, 7, 8 and 11. RNA-seq analysis of strain-dependent gene expression, regulation and coding sequence variation provided a list of potential functional candidate genes at each locus. Identification of modifier genes that influence survival in Scn1a+/− mice will improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of Dravet syndrome and may suggest novel therapeutic strategies for improved treatment of human patients. PMID:24152123

  11. A Modified Mixing Length Turbulence Model for Zero and Adverse Pressure Gradients. M.S. Thesis - Akron Univ., 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, Julianne M.; Leonard, B. P.

    1994-01-01

    The modified mixing length (MML) turbulence model was installed in the Proteus Navier-Stokes code, then modified to make it applicable to a wider range of flows typical of aerospace propulsion applications. The modifications are based on experimental data for three flat-plate flows having zero, mild adverse, and strong adverse pressure gradients. Three transonic diffuser test cases were run with the new version of the model in order to evaluate its performance. All results are compared with experimental data and show improvements over calculations made using the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model, the standard algebraic model in Proteus.

  12. Modified jet noise source model for twin-jet shielding analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, C. H.; Kim, C.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical method to estimate the influence that a jet of heated flow has on the noise emission from a parallel jet is presented. The shielding jet is modelled as a cylinder of constant cross-section in which the flow speed and temperature are uniform throughout. The jet noise emission is modelled by a point source with directivity imposed. The directivity term consists of: a self-noise term, a shear-noise term, and a convection factor. The self- and shear-noise terms each contain a basic directivity factor multiplying a spectral shape function. The various components are evaluated based on comparison with isothermal jet radiation experimental data. The modified source term is incorporated into the jet shielding model and compared to heated twin jet shielding data. The estimated spectra agree well except further downstream of the nozzle where peak of the noise spectrum estimated by the model lies approximately one octave below the experimental peak. The noise reduction estimated by the model agrees favorably with experiment in the near downstream region. This discrepancy is explained in terms of the shielding mechanism which is dominant far downstream.

  13. Genome editing revolutionize the creation of genetically modified pigs for modeling human diseases.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jing; Huang, Jiaojiao; Zhao, Jianguo

    2016-09-01

    Pigs have anatomical, physiological and genomic characteristics that make them highly suitable for modeling human diseases. Genetically modified (GM) pig models of human diseases are critical for studying pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention. The emergence of nuclease-mediated genome editing technology has been successfully employed for engineering of the pig genome, which has revolutionize the creation of GM pig models with highly complex pathophysiologies and comorbidities. In this review, we summarize the progress of recently developed genome editing technologies, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9), which enable highly efficient and precise introduction of genome modifications into pigs, and tailored disease models that have been generated in various disciplines via genome editing technology. We also summarize the GM pig models that have been generated by conventional transgenic strategies. Additionally, perspectives regarding the application of GM pigs in biomedical research are discussed. PMID:27432159

  14. Modeling evapotranspiration in Arctic coastal plain ecosystems using a modified BIOME-BGC model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, Ryan; Hope, Allen; Kwon, Hyojung; Harazono, Yoshinobu; Mano, Masayoshi; Oechel, Walter

    2006-06-01

    Modeling evapotranspiration (ET) in Arctic coastal plain ecosystems is challenging owing to the unique conditions present in this environment, including permafrost, nonvascular vegetation, and a large standing dead vegetation component. In this study the ecosystem process model, BIOME-BGC, was adapted to represent these unique conditions in Arctic ecosystems by including a new water storage and evaporation routine that accounts for nonvascular vegetation and the effects of permafrost, adding ground heat flux as an input, and representing ground shading by dead vegetation. The new Arctic version and the original BIOME-BGC models are compared to observed ET from two eddy flux towers in Barrow, Alaska over four summer seasons (1999-2002). The two towers are located less than 1 km apart, yet represent contrasting moisture conditions. One is located in a drained thaw lake, marsh area, while the other is located in a drier, upland area characterized by mesic tundra. Results indicate that the original BIOME-BGC model substantially underestimated ET, while the Arctic version slightly overestimated ET at both sites. The new Arctic model version worked particularly well at the wet tower because the model was able to capture energy limitations better than water limitations. Errors in the simulation of snowmelt date led to errors in the ET estimates at both sites. Finally, the substantial differences in soil moisture led to substantially different ET rates between the sites that were difficult to simulate and indicates that soil moisture heterogeneity is a strong controller on ET in these ecosystems.

  15. Genetically modified plants and food hypersensitivity diseases: usage and implications of experimental models for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Vanessa E; Hogan, Simon P

    2006-08-01

    The recent advances in biotechnology in the plant industry have led to increasing crop production and yield that in turn has increased the usage of genetically modified (GM) food in the human food chain. The usage of GM foods for human consumption has raised a number of fundamental questions including the ability of GM foods to elicit potentially harmful immunological responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. To assess the safety of foods derived from GM plants including allergenic potential, the US FDA, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO), and the EU have developed approaches for evaluation assessment. One assessment approach that has been a very active area of research and debate is the development and usage of animal models to assess the potential allergenicity of GM foods. A number of specific animal models employing rodents, pigs, and dogs have been developed for allergenicity assessment. However, validation of these models is needed and consideration of the criteria for an appropriate animal model for the assessment of allergenicity in GM plants is required. We have recently employed a BALB/c mouse model to assess the potential allergenicity of GM plants. We have been able to demonstrate that this model is able to detect differences in antigenicity and identify aspects of protein post-translational modifications that can alter antigenicity. Furthermore, this model has also enabled us to examine the usage of GM plants as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of allergic diseases. This review discusses the current approaches to assess the allergenic potential of GM food and particularly focusing on the usage of animal models to determine the potential allergenicity of GM foods and gives an overview of our recent findings and implications of these studies. PMID:16364445

  16. Modeling mechanical properties of core-shell rubber-modified epoxies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Xiao, K.; Ye, L.; Mai, Y.W.; Wang, C.H.; Rose, L.R.F.

    2000-01-24

    Experiments have been carried out to quantify the effects of rubber content and strain rate on the elastic and plastic deformation behavior of core-shell rubber-modified epoxies. Both the Young's modulus and the yield stress were found to be slightly dependent on strain rate, but very sensitive to the volume fraction of rubber particles. Finite element analyses have also been performed to determine the influences of rubber content on the bulk elasticity modulus and the yield stress. By comparing with experimental results, it is found that the Young's modulus of rubber-toughened epoxies can be accurately estimated using the Mori-Tanaka method, provided that the volume fraction of rubber particles is appropriately evaluated. A yield function is provided that the volume fraction of rubber particles is appropriately evaluated. A yield function is proposed to quantify the effects of hydrostatic stress on the plastic yielding behaviors of rubber-modified epoxies. Agreement with experimental results is good. Also, a visco-plastic model is developed to simulate the strain-rate-dependent stress-strain relations.

  17. A modified DRASTIC model for Siting Confined Animal Feeding Operations in Williams County, Ohio, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomezdelcampo, Enrique; Dickerson, J. Ryan

    2008-10-01

    Three of DRASTIC’s parameters (Depth to Water, Soil Media, and Topography) were modified and another parameter was added (land use/land cover) to the model to determine the potential impact on groundwater from Confined Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO) manure lagoon settings and manure application as fertilizer. Williams County is a mostly agricultural county located in northwest Ohio, USA. It currently has three CAFOs, all dairy, with the possibility of the construction of a multi-million chicken egg CAFO in the near future. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was utilized to modify the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR) DRASTIC map for the county to fully assess the county-wide pollution potential of CAFOs. The CAFO DRASTIC map indicates that almost half of Williams County has elevated groundwater pollution potential. The rest of the county, primarily the southeast corner, has lower CAFO groundwater pollution potential. Future CAFO development within the county should focus on the southeastern portion of the county where the groundwater table is deeper, and the aquifer is composed of shale substrate with low hydraulic conductivity. The CAFO DRASTIC results are intended to be used as a screening tool and are not to replace site-specific hydrogeologic investigations.

  18. Insight into the mechanism of coffee melanoidin formation using modified "in bean" models.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Fernando M; Cruz, Ana C S; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2012-09-01

    To study the mechanism of coffee melanoidin formation, green coffee beans were prepared by (1) removal of the hot water extractable components (WECoffee); (2) direct incorporation of sucrose (SucCoffee); and (3) direct incorporation of type II arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPCoffee). As a control of sucrose and AGP incorporation, lyophilized green coffee beans were also immersed in water (control). The original coffee and the four modified "in bean" coffee models were roasted and their chemical characteristics compared. The formation of material not identified as carbohydrates or protein, usually referred to as "unknown material" and related to melanoidins, and the development of the brown color during coffee roasting have distinct origins. Therefore, a new parameter for coffee melanoidin evaluation, named the "melanoidin browning index" (MBI), was introduced to handle simultaneously the two concepts. Sucrose is important for the formation of colored structures but not to the formation of "unknown material". Type II AGPs also increase the brown color of the melanoidins, but did not increase the amount of "unknown material". The green coffee hot water extractable components are essential for coffee melanoidin formation during roasting. The cell wall material was able to generate a large amount of "unknown material". The galactomannans modified by the roasting and the melanoidin populations enriched in galactomannans accounted for 47% of the high molecular weight brown color material, showing that these polysaccharides are very relevant for coffee melanoidin formation. PMID:22880950

  19. Equivalent off-diagonal cosmological models and ekpyrotic scenarios in -modified, massive, and einstein gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacaru, Sergiu I.

    2015-04-01

    We reinvestigate how generic off-diagonal cosmological solutions depending, in general, on all spacetime coordinates can be constructed in massive and -modified gravity using the anholonomic frame deformation method. New classes of locally anisotropic and (in-) homogeneous cosmological metrics are constructed with open and closed spatial geometries. By resorting to such solutions, we show that they describe the late time acceleration due to effective cosmological terms induced by nonlinear off-diagonal interactions, possible modifications of the gravitational action and graviton mass. The cosmological metrics and related Stückelberg fields are constructed in explicit form up to nonholonomic frame transforms of the Friedmann-Lamaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) coordinates. The solutions include matter, graviton mass, and other effective sources modeling nonlinear gravitational and matter field interactions with polarization of physical constants and deformations of metrics, which may explain dark energy and dark matter effects. However, we argue that it is not always necessary to modify gravity if we consider the effective generalized Einstein equations with nontrivial vacuum and/or non-minimal coupling with matter. Indeed, we state certain conditions when such configurations mimic interesting solutions in general relativity and modifications, for instance, when we can extract the general Painlevé-Gullstrand and FLRW metrics. In a more general context, we elaborate on a reconstruction procedure for off-diagonal cosmological solutions which describe cyclic and ekpyrotic universes. Finally, open issues and further perspectives are discussed.

  20. A Modified Verhoeff-Van Gieson Elastin Histochemical Stain to Enable Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Model Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Percival, K.R.; Radi, Z.A.

    2016-01-01

    Optimal histochemical staining is critical to ensure excellent quality stained sections to enable light microscopic and histomorphometric image analysis. Verhoeff-van Gieson is the most widely used histochemical stain for the visualization of vascular elastic fibers. However, it is notoriously difficult to differentiate fine elastic fibers of small vasculature to enable histomorphometric image analysis, especially in organs such as the lung. A tissue fixation procedure of 10% neutral buffered formalin with subsequent fixation in 70% ethanol further compounds the problem of small vessel staining and identification. Therefore, a modified Verhoeff’s elastin stain was developed as a reliable method to optimally highlight the internal and external elastic laminae of small arteries (50-100 µm external diameter) and intra-acinar vessels (10-50 µm external diameter) in 3 µm thick lung tissue sections from models of pulmonary arterial hypertension. This modified Verhoeff’s elastin stain demonstrated well-defined staining of fine elastic fibers of pulmonary blood vessels enabling subsequent histomorphometric image analysis of vessel wall thickness in small arteries and intra-acinar vessels. In conclusion, modification of the standard Verhoeff-van Gieson histochemical stain is needed to visualize small caliber vessels’ elastic fibers especially in tissues fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin followed by additional fixation in 70% ethanol. PMID:26972717

  1. Model-based process development for the purification of a modified human growth hormone using multimodal chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sejergaard, Lars; Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Krarup, Janus Kristian; Hagel, Anne Birgitte Bagge; Cramer, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates how the multimodal Capto adhere resin can be used in concert with calcium chloride or arginine hydrochloride as mobile phase modifiers to create a highly selective purification process for a modified human growth hormone. Importantly, these processes are shown to result in significant clearance of product related aggregates and host cell proteins. Furthermore, the steric mass action model is shown to be capable of accurately describing the chromatographic process and the aggregate removal. Finally, justification of the selected operating ranges is evaluated using the model together with Latin hypercube sampling. The results in this article establish the utility of multimodal chromatography when used with appropriate mobile phase modifiers for the downstream bioprocessing of a modified human growth hormone and offer new approaches for bioprocess verification. PMID:24799458

  2. Simulation of emotional contagion using modified SIR model: A cellular automaton approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Libi; Song, Weiguo; Lv, Wei; Lo, Siuming

    2014-07-01

    Emotion plays an important role in the decision-making of individuals in some emergency situations. The contagion of emotion may induce either normal or abnormal consolidated crowd behavior. This paper aims to simulate the dynamics of emotional contagion among crowds by modifying the epidemiological SIR model to a cellular automaton approach. This new cellular automaton model, entitled the “CA-SIRS model”, captures the dynamic process ‘susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible', which is based on SIRS contagion in epidemiological theory. Moreover, in this new model, the process is integrated with individual movement. The simulation results of this model show that multiple waves and dynamical stability around a mean value will appear during emotion spreading. It was found that the proportion of initial infected individuals had little influence on the final stable proportion of infected population in a given system, and that infection frequency increased with an increase in the average crowd density. Our results further suggest that individual movement accelerates the spread speed of emotion and increases the stable proportion of infected population. Furthermore, decreasing the duration of an infection and the probability of reinfection can markedly reduce the number of infected individuals. It is hoped that this study will be helpful in crowd management and evacuation organization.

  3. Shared changes in gene expression in frontal cortex of four genetically modified mouse models of depression.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, D; Juhasz, G; Aso, E; Chase, D; del Rio, J; Fabre, V; Hamon, M; Lanfumey, L; Lesch, K-P; Maldonado, R; Serra, M-A; Sharp, T; Tordera, R; Toro, C; Deakin, J F W

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify whether genetic manipulation of four systems implicated in the pathogenesis of depression converge on shared molecular processes underpinning depression-like behaviour in mice. Altered 5HT function was modelled using the 5-HT transporter knock out mouse, impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function using an antisense-induced knock down mouse, disrupted glutamate function using a heterozygous KO of the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 gene, and impaired cannabinoid signalling using the cannabinoid 1 receptor KO mouse. All 4 four genetically modified mice were previously shown to show exaggerated helpless behaviour compared to wild-type controls and variable degrees of anxiety and anhedonic behaviour. mRNA was extracted from frontal cortex and hybridised to Illumina microarrays. Combined contrast analysis was used to identify genes showing different patterns of up- and down-regulation across the 4 models. 1823 genes were differentially regulated. They were over-represented in gene ontology categories of metabolism, protein handling and synapse. In each model compared to wild-type mice of the same genetic background, a number of genes showed increased expression changes of >10%, other genes showed decreases in each model. Most of the genes showed mixed effects. Several previous array findings were replicated. The results point to cellular stress and changes in post-synaptic remodelling as final common mechanisms of depression and resilience. PMID:21030216

  4. Assessment of urinary tract biomaterial encrustation using a modified Robbins device continuous flow model.

    PubMed

    Tunney, M M; Keane, P F; Gorman, S P

    1997-01-01

    Encrustation of biomaterials employed in the urinary tract remains a major problem resulting in obstruction or blockage of catheters and stents. Therefore, resistance to encrustation is a desirable feature of biomaterials employed in such devices. The novel assessment of biomaterial encrustation employing a continuous flow model based on a modified Robbins device is described. Artificial urine was used in conjunction with 5% CO2 to simulate the physiological environment within the upper urinary tract. The widely used urinary device biomaterials, silicone and polyurethane, were investigated in the model for hydroxyapatite and struvite encrustation. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and atomic absorption spectroscopy all showed that silicone was less prone to encrustation than polyurethane and that hydroxyapatite deposition was predominant on both surfaces. The model has the advantage that a large number of biomaterials may be investigated simultaneously because several Robbins devices may be placed in parallel. The model is recommended for comparative evaluation of biomaterial candidates for use in urinary tract devices. PMID:9178735

  5. Estimating the daily course of Konza Prairie latent Heat fluxes using a modified Tergra model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Allen S.

    1992-11-01

    The Tergra model simulates the daily course of water and energy flows through the soil-plantatmosphere system and was intended for use with remotely sensed data. In its original form, the model is not well suited to estimating spatial patterns of latent heat flux (λE) in the Konza Prairie since the determination of canopy resistance requires knowledge of vegetation height, and the defined relationship between leaf water potential and rc is specific to C3 plants. The canopy resistance component of Tergra was replaced by a routine that includes the calculation of minimum canopy resistance (rcm) from the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and stress adjustment factors for leaf water potential and vapor pressure deficit to determine actual canopy resistance (rc). The relationship between rc and leaf water potential is defined for both C3 and C4 plants, and total λE is obtained from the sum of the proportional contributions from these two vegetation classes. The modified Tergra model (Tergra-2) was tested using input and flux data collected at four First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) sites during three periods characterized by different soil moisture conditions. Tergra-2 was found to be a good simulator of λE and in most cases gave substantially better results than those obtained using the original model. The greatest inaccuracy using Tergra-2 occurred under extremely dry soil moisture conditions, whereas absolute errors for both models tended to increase around solar noon. Leaf water potential was the dominant stress factor affecting modeled rc. It was concluded that vapor pressure deficit and leaf water potential should not be regarded as completely independent factors affecting rc. A brief comparison of modeled and observed canopy temperatures is presented and discussed.

  6. Kinetics of hydrolysis of PET powder in nitric acid by a modified shrinking-core model

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Okayama, Nobuchika; Okuwaki, Akitsugu

    1998-02-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) powder from waste bottles was degraded at atmospheric pressure in 7--13 M nitric acid at 70--100 C for 72 h, to clarify the mechanism of a feed stock recycling process. Terephthalic acid (TPA) and ethylene glycol (EG) were produced by the acid-catalyzed heterogeneous hydrolysis of PET in nitric acid, and the resulting EG was simultaneously oxidized to oxalic acid. The kinetics of the hydrolysis of PET in nitric acid could be explained by a modified shrinking core model of chemical reaction control, in which the effective surface area is proportional to the degree of unreacted PET, affected by the deposition of the product TPA. The apparent rate constant was inversely proportional to particle size and to the concentration of the nitric acid. The activation energy of the reaction was 101.3 kJ/mol.

  7. Shallow subsurface storm flow in a forested headwater catchment: Observations and modeling using a modified TOPMODEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Todd M.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Hornberger, George M.; Clapp, Roger B.

    2000-09-01

    Transient, perched water tables in the shallow subsurface are observed at the South Fork Brokenback Run catchment in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. Crest piezometers installed along a hillslope transect show that the development of saturated conditions in the upper 1.5 m of the subsurface is controlled by total precipitation and antecedent conditions, not precipitation intensity, although soil heterogeneities strongly influence local response. The macroporous subsurface storm flow zone provides a hydrological pathway for rapid runoff generation apart from the underlying groundwater zone, a conceptualization supported by the two-storage system exhibited by hydrograph recession analysis. A modified version of TOPMODEL is used to simulate the observed catchment dynamics. In this model, generalized topographic index theory is applied to the subsurface storm flow zone to account for logarithmic storm flow recessions, indicative of linearly decreasing transmissivity with depth. Vertical drainage to the groundwater zone is required, and both subsurface reservoirs are considered to contribute to surface saturation.

  8. A modified complex modal testing technique for a rotating tire with a flexible ring model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongsuh; Wang, Semyung; Pluymers, Bert; Desmet, Wim; Kindt, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Natural frequencies, mode shapes and modal damping values are the most important parameters to describe the noise and vibration behavior of a mechanical system. For rotating machinery, however, the directivity of the propagation wave of each mode should also be taken into account. For rotating systems, this directivity can be determined by complex modal testing. In this paper, a rolling tire is represented as a flexible ring model. The limitation of application of the complex modal testing which requires two directional measurements at a certain point, which is difficult to measure in practice, has been overcome through a modified complex modal testing which requires only one directional measurements at any two points. The technique is described in detail and applied to both a numerical example and to an experimental data set of a real rotating tire.

  9. Shallow subsurface storm flow in a forested headwater catchment: Observations and modeling using a modified TOPMODEL

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scanlon, T.M.; Raffensperger, J.P.; Hornberger, G.M.; Clapp, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    Transient, perched water tables in the shallow subsurface are observed at the South Fork Brokenback Run catchment in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. Crest piezometers installed along a hillslope transect show that the development of saturated conditions in the upper 1.5 m of the subsurface is controlled by total precipitation and antecedent conditions, not precipitation intensity, although soil heterogeneities strongly influence local response. The macroporous subsurface storm flow zone provides a hydrological pathway for rapid runoff generation apart from the underlying groundwater zone, a conceptualization supported by the two-storage system exhibited by hydrograph recession analysis. A modified version of TOPMODEL is used to simulate the observed catchment dynamics. In this model, generalized topographic index theory is applied to the subsurface storm flow zone to account for logarithmic storm flow recessions, indicative of linearly decreasing transmissivity with depth. Vertical drainage to the groundwater zone is required, and both subsurface reservoirs are considered to contribute to surface saturation.

  10. Computer modeling of the mineralogy of the Martian surface, as modified by aqueous alteration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Bourcier, W. L.; Gooding, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    Mineralogical constraints can be placed on the Martian surface by assuming chemical equilibria among the surface rocks, atmosphere and hypothesized percolating groundwater. A study was made of possible Martian surface mineralogy, as modified by the action of aqueous alteration, using the EQ3/6 computer codes. These codes calculate gas fugacities, aqueous speciation, ionic strength, pH, Eh and concentration and degree of mineral saturation for complex aqueous systems. Thus, these codes are also able to consider mineralogical solid solutions. These codes are able to predict the likely alteration phases which will occur as the result of weathering on the Martian surface. Knowledge of the stability conditions of these phases will then assist in the definition of the specifications for the sample canister of the proposed Martian sample return mission. The model and its results are discussed.

  11. Modelling of laser welding of flat parts using the modifying nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepanov, A. N.; Shapeev, V. P.

    2013-06-01

    A mathematical model is formulated to describe thermophysical processes at laser welding of metal plates for the case when the modifying nanoparticles of refractory compounds have been introduced in the weld pool (the nanopowder seed cultrure fermenters — NSCF). Specially prepared nanoparticles of refractory compounds serve the crystallization centers that is they are in fact the exogenous primers, on the surface of which the individual clusters are grouped. Owing to this, one can control the process of the crystallization of the alloy and the formation of its structure and, consequently, the joint weld properties. As an example, we present the results of computing the butt welding of two plates of aluminum alloy and steel. Computed and experimental data are compared.

  12. Modifying supervisory practices to improve subunit safety: a leadership-based intervention model.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Dov

    2002-02-01

    This article presents a leadership-based intervention model designed to modify supervisory monitoring and rewarding of subordinates' safety performance. Line supervisors received weekly feedback based on repeated episodic interviews with subordinates conceming the cumulative frequency of their safety-oriented interactions. This information identified the priority of safety over competing goals such as speed or schedules. Section managers received the same information and used it to communicate (high) safety priority. They also were trained to conduct episodic interviews to provide intermittent feedback after intervention, tuming safety priority into an explicit performance goal. Safety-oriented interaction increased significantly in the experimental groups but remained unchanged in the control groups. This change in safety-oriented interaction was accompanied by significant (and stable) changes in minor-injury rate, earplug use, and safety climate scores during the postintervention period. PMID:11916209

  13. A new modified animal model of myosin-induced experimental autoimmune myositis enhanced by defibrase

    PubMed Central

    Wen-Jing, Luo; Hong-Hua, Li; Xiang-Hui, Lu; Jie-Xiao, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the effect of defibrase (a proteolytic enzyme extraction of Agkistrodon halys venom) on experimental autoimmune myositis (EAM) in guinea pigs and explored the option of using a modified pig model of EAM to enhance the study of this disease. Material and methods Guinea pigs were divided into 3 groups: group A (control group) was immunized with complete Freund adjuvant (CFA), then received 6 injections of saline weekly; group B (EAM group) was immunized with partially purified rabbit myosin emulsified with CFA, then received an injection of saline; group C (EAM + defibrase group) was immunized with purified rabbit myosin emulsified with CFA, then received an injection of defibrase. The animals were observed for their general health condition and the body weight was measured daily. Plasma levels of fibrinogen and creatine kinase (CK) were determined. Muscle tissues were examined histologically. Results After immunizations for 6 weeks, incidence of EAM in groups A, B and C was 0 (0/7), 83.3% (10/12) and 100% (15/15), respectively. Guinea pigs with EAM presented angeitis symptoms of muscle weakness. Histological analysis revealed a significant difference. Muscles with EAM had scattered or diffuse inflammatory manifestations, which are also common pathological features of human idiopathic polymyositis (IPM). Defibrase-treated animals displayed extensive inflammation and fiber necrosis compared with the EAM group (histological score: 2.80 ±1.15 vs. 1.88 ±1.32, p < 0.05). Severity of inflammation of group B was mainly mild to moderate; 16.7% (2/12) of animals developed severe inflammation. Incidence of severe inflammation with a score up to 4 in group C was 40% (6/15). Conclusions Defibrase can exacerbate myosin-induced EAM; thus a new modified model was generated. PMID:26788090

  14. 3D modeling method for computer animate based on modified weak structured light method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Pan, Ming; Zhang, Xiangwei

    2010-11-01

    A simple and affordable 3D scanner is designed in this paper. Three-dimensional digital models are playing an increasingly important role in many fields, such as computer animate, industrial design, artistic design and heritage conservation. For many complex shapes, optical measurement systems are indispensable to acquiring the 3D information. In the field of computer animate, such an optical measurement device is too expensive to be widely adopted, and on the other hand, the precision is not as critical a factor in that situation. In this paper, a new cheap 3D measurement system is implemented based on modified weak structured light, using only a video camera, a light source and a straight stick rotating on a fixed axis. For an ordinary weak structured light configuration, one or two reference planes are required, and the shadows on these planes must be tracked in the scanning process, which destroy the convenience of this method. In the modified system, reference planes are unnecessary, and size range of the scanned objects is expanded widely. A new calibration procedure is also realized for the proposed method, and points cloud is obtained by analyzing the shadow strips on the object. A two-stage ICP algorithm is used to merge the points cloud from different viewpoints to get a full description of the object, and after a series of operations, a NURBS surface model is generated in the end. A complex toy bear is used to verify the efficiency of the method, and errors range from 0.7783mm to 1.4326mm comparing with the ground truth measurement.

  15. A Modified Controlled Cortical Impact Technique to Model Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Mechanics in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, YungChia; Mao, Haojie; Yang, King H.; Abel, Ted; Meaney, David F.

    2014-01-01

    For the past 25 years, controlled cortical impact (CCI) has been a useful tool in traumatic brain injury (TBI) research, creating injury patterns that includes primary contusion, neuronal loss, and traumatic axonal damage. However, when CCI was first developed, very little was known on the underlying biomechanics of mild TBI. This paper uses information generated from recent computational models of mild TBI in humans to alter CCI and better reflect the biomechanical conditions of mild TBI. Using a finite element model of CCI in the mouse, we adjusted three primary features of CCI: the speed of the impact to achieve strain rates within the range associated with mild TBI, the shape, and material of the impounder to minimize strain concentrations in the brain, and the impact depth to control the peak deformation that occurred in the cortex and hippocampus. For these modified cortical impact conditions, we observed peak strains and strain rates throughout the brain were significantly reduced and consistent with estimated strains and strain rates observed in human mild TBI. We saw breakdown of the blood–brain barrier but no primary hemorrhage. Moreover, neuronal degeneration, axonal injury, and both astrocytic and microglia reactivity were observed up to 8 days after injury. Significant deficits in rotarod performance appeared early after injury, but we observed no impairment in spatial object recognition or contextual fear conditioning response 5 and 8 days after injury, respectively. Together, these data show that simulating the biomechanical conditions of mild TBI with a modified cortical impact technique produces regions of cellular reactivity and neuronal loss that coincide with only a transient behavioral impairment. PMID:24994996

  16. A Modified Johnson-Cook Model for Advanced High-Strength Steels Over a Wide Range of Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingdong, Zhang; Qiang, Cao; Xiaofeng, Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) is widely used in automotive industry. In order to investigate the mechanical behaviors of AHSS over a wide range of temperatures, quasi-static tensile experiments were conducted at the temperatures from 298 to 1073 K on a Gleeble-3500 thermo-simulation machine. The results show that flow behaviors are affected by testing temperature significantly. In order to describe the flow features of AHSS, the Johnson-Cook (JC) model is employed. By introducing polynomial functions to consider the effects of temperature on hardening behavior, the JC model is modified and used to predict flow behavior of AHSS at different experimental conditions. The accuracy of the modified JC model is verified and the predicted flow stress is in good agreement with experimental results, which confirms that the modified JC model can give an accurate and precise estimate over a wide range of temperatures.

  17. Bulk-friction modeling of afterslip and the modified Omori law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wennerberg, L.; Sharp, R.V.

    1997-01-01

    Afterslip data from the Superstition Hills fault in southern California, a creep event on the same fault, the modified Omori law, and cumulative moments from aftershocks of the 1957 Aleutian Islands earthquake all indicate that the original formulation by Dieterich (1981) [Constitutive properties of faults with simulated gouge. AGU, Geophys. Monogr. 24, 103-120] for friction evolution is more appropriate for systems far from instability than the commonly used approximation developed by Ruina (1983) [Slip instability and state variable friction laws. J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10359-10370] to study instability. The mathematical framework we use to test the friction models is a one-dimensional, massless spring-slider under the simplifying assumption, proposed by Scholz (1990) [The Mechanics of Earthquakes and Faulting. Cambridge University Press] and used by Marone et al. (1991) [On the mechanics of earthquake afterslip. J. Geophys. Res., 96: 8441-8452], that the state variable takes on its velocity-dependent steady-state value throughout motion in response to a step in stress. This assumption removes explicit state-variable dependence from the model, obviating the need to consider state-variable evolution equations. Anti-derivatives of the modified Omori law fit our data very well and are very good approximate solutions to our model equations. A plausible friction model with Omori-law solutions used by Wesson (1988) [Dynamics of fault creep. J. Geophys. Res. 93, 8929-8951] to model fault creep and generalized by Rice (1983) [Constitutive relations for fault slip and earthquake instabilities. Pure Appl. Geophys. 121, 443-475] to a rate-and-state-variable friction model yields exactly Omori's law with exponents greater than 1, but yields unstable solutions for Omori exponents less than 1. We estimate from the Dieterich formulation the dimensionless parameter a* which is equal to the product of the nominal coefficient of friction and the more commonly reported friction

  18. Bulk-friction modeling of afterslip and the modified Omori law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wennerberg, Leif; Sharp, Robert V.

    1997-08-01

    Afterslip data from the Superstition Hills fault in southern California, a creep event on the same fault, the modified Omori law, and cumulative moments from aftershocks of the 1957 Aleutian Islands earthquake all indicate that the original formulation by Dieterich (1981) [Constitutive properties of faults with simulated gouge. AGU, Geophys. Monogr. 24, 103-120] for friction evolution is more appropriate for systems far from instability than the commonly used approximation developed by Ruina (1983) [Slip instability and state variable friction laws. J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10359-10370] to study instability. The mathematical framework we use to test the friction models is a one-dimensional, massless spring-slider under the simplifying assumption, proposed by Scholz (1990) [The Mechanics of Earthquakes and Faulting. Cambridge University Press] and used by Marone et al. (1991) [On the mechanics of earthquake afterslip. J. Geophys. Res., 96: 8441-8452], that the state variable takes on its velocity-dependent steady-state value throughout motion in response to a step in stress. This assumption removes explicit state-variable dependence from the model, obviating the need to consider state-variable evolution equations. Anti-derivatives of the modified Omori law fit our data very well and are very good approximate solutions to our model equations. A plausible friction model with Omori-law solutions used by Wesson (1988) [Dynamics of fault creep. J. Geophys. Res. 93, 8929-8951] to model fault creep and generalized by Rice (1983) [Constitutive relations for fault slip and earthquake instabilities. Pure Appl. Geophys. 121, 443-475] to a rate-and-state variable friction model yields exactly Omori's law with exponents greater than 1, but yields unstable solutions for Omori exponents less than 1. We estimate from the Dieterich formulation the dimensionless parameter a∗ which is equal to the product of the nominal coefficient of friction and the more commonly reported friction

  19. A Hierarchy of Snowmelt Models for Canadian Prairies: Temperature-Index, Modified Temperature Index and Energy-Balance Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, T. Y.

    2009-04-01

    Three semi-distributed snowmelt models were developed and applied to the Paddle River Basin (PRB) in the Canadian Prairies: (1) A physics-based, energy balance model (SDSM-EBM) that considers vertical energy exchange processes in open and forested areas, and snowmelt processes that include liquid and ice phases separately; (2) A modified temperature index model (SDSM-MTI) that uses both near surface soil temperature (Tg) and air temperature (Ta), and (3) A standard temperature index (SDSM-TI) method using Ta only. Other than the "regulatory" effects of beaver dams that affected the validation results on simulated runoff, both SDSM-MTI and SDSM-EBM simulated reasonably accurate snowmelt runoff, snow water equivalent and snow depth. For the PRB, where snowpack is shallow to moderately deep, and winter is relatively severe, the advantage of using both Ta and Tg is partly attributed to Tg showing a stronger correlation with solar radiation than Ta during the spring snowmelt season, and partly to the onset of major snowmelt which usually happens when Tg approaches 0oC. After re-setting model parameters so that SDSM-MTI degenerated to SDSM-TI (effect of Tg is completely removed), the model performance worsened, even after re-calibrating the melt factors using Ta alone. It seems that if reliable Tg data are available, they should be utilized to model the snowmelt processes in a Prairie environment particularly if the temperature-index approach is adopted.

  20. Modified conceptual model for compensated root water uptake - A simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Andre

    2016-03-01

    Modeling root water uptake within the macroscopic approach is usually done by introducing a sink term in the Richards equation. This sink term represents potential water uptake reduced by a so-called stress reduction factor accounting for stress due to high suctions, oxygen deficit or salinity. Since stress in some parts of the soil can be compensated by enhanced water uptake in less stressed parts, several compensation models have been suggested. One of them is the empirical model of Jarvis, which is often applied due to its mathematical elegance and simplicity. However, it has been discussed that under certain conditions and assumptions this model might predict too high transpiration rates, which are not in agreement with the assumed stress reduction function. The aim of this paper is (i) to analyze these inconsistencies and (ii) to introduce a simple constraint for transpiration in a way as if the complete water would be taken form the location with highest uptake rate in the uncompensated case. Transpiration from 50 cm deep soils with hydraulic functions representing different textures, ranging from a clay loam to a coarse sand, was simulated with the original and the modified model using HYDRUS-1D. Root distribution was assumed to be uniform or linearly decreasing with depth. In case of the fine textured soils and uniform root density, the original model predicted transpiration equal to potential transpiration even when the complete root domain was already heavily stressed if the maximum enhancement factor for uptake was 2. These results are not in agreement with the original meaning of the stress reduction function. The modification eliminates the inconsistencies by limiting transpiration to a maximum value based on the highest uncompensated uptake rate in the root zone. It does neither increase the mathematical complexity nor require any additional parameters.

  1. A modified binary tree codification of drainage networks to support complex hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tiejian; Wang, Guangqian; Chen, Ji

    2010-11-01

    A new codification method (named a modified binary tree codification method) is developed for coding drainage networks. To express the inner topological structure of a drainage basin, it is necessary to delineate and code digital drainage networks from digital elevation model datasets. In this study, the established software TOPAZ is used to delineate river reaches, and the new codification method is applied, which is based on the application of binary-tree structures and hierarchical zones. A coded drainage network can then be stored in a relational database management system to achieve efficient manipulation of data items for topological operations. The utility of the new codification method is demonstrated by an example applied to the Digital Yellow River Model. The drainage network of the Middle Yellow River in northern China has been coded and the hydrological and soil erosion processes of its sub-basin, the Chabagou River basin, are simulated. Because more details of the drainage network can be efficiently and effectively described, the new codification method can support complex hydrological models and extract more information from hydrological simulations than ever before.

  2. A Modified Rabbit Ulna Defect Model for Evaluating Periosteal Substitutes in Bone Engineering: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    El Backly, Rania M.; Chiapale, Danilo; Muraglia, Anita; Tromba, Giuliana; Ottonello, Chiara; Santolini, Federico; Cancedda, Ranieri; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena

    2014-01-01

    The present work defines a modified critical size rabbit ulna defect model for bone regeneration in which a non-resorbable barrier membrane was used to separate the radius from the ulna to create a valid model for evaluation of tissue-engineered periosteal substitutes. Eight rabbits divided into two groups were used. Critical defects (15 mm) were made in the ulna completely eliminating periosteum. For group I, defects were filled with a nanohydroxyapatite poly(ester urethane) scaffold soaked in PBS and left as such (group Ia) or wrapped with a tissue-engineered periosteal substitute (group Ib). For group II, an expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) (GORE-TEX®) membrane was inserted around the radius then the defects received either scaffold alone (group IIa) or scaffold wrapped with periosteal substitute (group IIb). Animals were euthanized after 12–16 weeks, and bone regeneration was evaluated by radiography, computed microtomography (μCT), and histology. In the first group, we observed formation of radio-ulnar synostosis irrespective of the treatment. This was completely eliminated upon placement of the e-PTFE (GORE-TEX®) membrane in the second group of animals. In conclusion, modification of the model using a non-resorbable e-PTFE membrane to isolate the ulna from the radius was a valuable addition allowing for objective evaluation of the tissue-engineered periosteal substitute. PMID:25610828

  3. Organic Pollutant Penetration through Fruit Polyester Skin: A Modified Three-compartment Diffusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yungui; Li, Qingqing; Chen, Baoliang

    2016-01-01

    The surface of plants is covered by a continuous but heterogeneous cuticular membrane (CM). Serving as the first protective barrier, the uptake and transport behavior of organic pollutants at this interface continue to engage the research efforts of environmental chemist. To date, the contributions of cuticular components as a defense against the organic pollutants penetration remain unresolved. In this study, the unsteady-state penetration characteristics of phenanthrene (PHE) through isolated fruit CM was investigated. PHE penetration was differentiated by three cuticular compartments: epicuticular waxes (EW), cuticle proper (CP) and cuticular layer (CL). The driving force for PHE penetration was ascribed to the sharp concentration gradient built up endogenously by cuticular compartments with different lipophilic affinities. A modified penetration model was established and verified in terms of its general suitability for the hydrophobic chemicals and CMs of various plant species (apple, tomato and potato). The new three-compartment model demonstrates much higher accuracy in characterizing the uptake and transport behavior of semivolatile chemicals with fewer limitations in terms of environmental conditions and complexity (e.g., coexisting contaminants and temperature). This model could contribute to a more comprehensive understanding on the role of polymeric lipids in the organic pollutant sorption and transport into plants. PMID:27009902

  4. Organic Pollutant Penetration through Fruit Polyester Skin: A Modified Three-compartment Diffusion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yungui; Li, Qingqing; Chen, Baoliang

    2016-03-01

    The surface of plants is covered by a continuous but heterogeneous cuticular membrane (CM). Serving as the first protective barrier, the uptake and transport behavior of organic pollutants at this interface continue to engage the research efforts of environmental chemist. To date, the contributions of cuticular components as a defense against the organic pollutants penetration remain unresolved. In this study, the unsteady-state penetration characteristics of phenanthrene (PHE) through isolated fruit CM was investigated. PHE penetration was differentiated by three cuticular compartments: epicuticular waxes (EW), cuticle proper (CP) and cuticular layer (CL). The driving force for PHE penetration was ascribed to the sharp concentration gradient built up endogenously by cuticular compartments with different lipophilic affinities. A modified penetration model was established and verified in terms of its general suitability for the hydrophobic chemicals and CMs of various plant species (apple, tomato and potato). The new three-compartment model demonstrates much higher accuracy in characterizing the uptake and transport behavior of semivolatile chemicals with fewer limitations in terms of environmental conditions and complexity (e.g., coexisting contaminants and temperature). This model could contribute to a more comprehensive understanding on the role of polymeric lipids in the organic pollutant sorption and transport into plants.

  5. A modified rabbit ulna defect model for evaluating periosteal substitutes in bone engineering: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    El Backly, Rania M; Chiapale, Danilo; Muraglia, Anita; Tromba, Giuliana; Ottonello, Chiara; Santolini, Federico; Cancedda, Ranieri; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena

    2014-01-01

    The present work defines a modified critical size rabbit ulna defect model for bone regeneration in which a non-resorbable barrier membrane was used to separate the radius from the ulna to create a valid model for evaluation of tissue-engineered periosteal substitutes. Eight rabbits divided into two groups were used. Critical defects (15 mm) were made in the ulna completely eliminating periosteum. For group I, defects were filled with a nanohydroxyapatite poly(ester urethane) scaffold soaked in PBS and left as such (group Ia) or wrapped with a tissue-engineered periosteal substitute (group Ib). For group II, an expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) (GORE-TEX(®)) membrane was inserted around the radius then the defects received either scaffold alone (group IIa) or scaffold wrapped with periosteal substitute (group IIb). Animals were euthanized after 12-16 weeks, and bone regeneration was evaluated by radiography, computed microtomography (μCT), and histology. In the first group, we observed formation of radio-ulnar synostosis irrespective of the treatment. This was completely eliminated upon placement of the e-PTFE (GORE-TEX(®)) membrane in the second group of animals. In conclusion, modification of the model using a non-resorbable e-PTFE membrane to isolate the ulna from the radius was a valuable addition allowing for objective evaluation of the tissue-engineered periosteal substitute. PMID:25610828

  6. Numerical solution of the Penna model of biological aging with age-modified mutation rate.

    PubMed

    Magdoń-Maksymowicz, M S; Maksymowicz, A Z

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we present results of numerical calculation of the Penna bit-string model of biological aging, modified for the case of a -dependent mutation rate m(a), where a is the parent's age. The mutation rate m(a) is the probability per bit of an extra bad mutation introduced in offspring inherited genome. We assume that m(a) increases with age a. As compared with the reference case of the standard Penna model based on a constant mutation rate m , the dynamics of the population growth shows distinct changes in age distribution of the population. Here we concentrate on mortality q(a), a fraction of items eliminated from the population when we go from age (a) to (a+1) in simulated transition from time (t) to next time (t+1). The experimentally observed q(a) dependence essentially follows the Gompertz exponential law for a above the minimum reproduction age. Deviation from the Gompertz law is however observed for the very old items, close to the maximal age. This effect may also result from an increase in mutation rate m with age a discussed in this paper. The numerical calculations are based on analytical solution of the Penna model, presented in a series of papers by Coe et al. [J. B. Coe, Y. Mao, and M. E. Cates, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 288103 (2002)]. Results of the numerical calculations are supported by the data obtained from computer simulation based on the solution by Coe et al. PMID:19658536

  7. Real-time robot path planning based on a modified pulse-coupled neural network model.

    PubMed

    Qu, Hong; Yang, Simon X; Willms, Allan R; Yi, Zhang

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents a modified pulse-coupled neural network (MPCNN) model for real-time collision-free path planning of mobile robots in nonstationary environments. The proposed neural network for robots is topologically organized with only local lateral connections among neurons. It works in dynamic environments and requires no prior knowledge of target or barrier movements. The target neuron fires first, and then the firing event spreads out, through the lateral connections among the neurons, like the propagation of a wave. Obstacles have no connections to their neighbors. Each neuron records its parent, that is, the neighbor that caused it to fire. The real-time optimal path is then the sequence of parents from the robot to the target. In a static case where the barriers and targets are stationary, this paper proves that the generated wave in the network spreads outward with travel times proportional to the linking strength among neurons. Thus, the generated path is always the global shortest path from the robot to the target. In addition, each neuron in the proposed model can propagate a firing event to its neighboring neuron without any comparing computations. The proposed model is applied to generate collision-free paths for a mobile robot to solve a maze-type problem, to circumvent concave U-shaped obstacles, and to track a moving target in an environment with varying obstacles. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach is demonstrated through simulation and comparison studies. PMID:19775961

  8. Using Modified Contour Deformable Model to Quantitatively Estimate Ultrasound Parameters for Osteoporosis Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yung-Fu; Du, Yi-Chun; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Chen, Tainsong

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease, which is characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility. Finding an effective method for prevention and early diagnosis of the disease is very important. Several parameters, including broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS), and stiffness index (STI), have been used to measure the characteristics of bone tissues. In this paper, we proposed a method, namely modified contour deformable model (MCDM), bases on the active contour model (ACM) and active shape model (ASM) for automatically detecting the calcaneus contour from quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parametric images. The results show that the difference between the contours detected by the MCDM and the true boundary for the phantom is less than one pixel. By comparing the phantom ROIs, significant relationship was found between contour mean and bone mineral density (BMD) with R=0.99. The influence of selecting different ROI diameters (12, 14, 16 and 18 mm) and different region-selecting methods, including fixed region (ROI fix ), automatic circular region (ROI cir ) and calcaneal contour region (ROI anat ), were evaluated for testing human subjects. Measurements with large ROI diameters, especially using fixed region, result in high position errors (10-45%). The precision errors of the measured ultrasonic parameters for ROI anat are smaller than ROI fix and ROI cir . In conclusion, ROI anat provides more accurate measurement of ultrasonic parameters for the evaluation of osteoporosis and is useful for clinical application.

  9. Organic Pollutant Penetration through Fruit Polyester Skin: A Modified Three-compartment Diffusion Model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yungui; Li, Qingqing; Chen, Baoliang

    2016-01-01

    The surface of plants is covered by a continuous but heterogeneous cuticular membrane (CM). Serving as the first protective barrier, the uptake and transport behavior of organic pollutants at this interface continue to engage the research efforts of environmental chemist. To date, the contributions of cuticular components as a defense against the organic pollutants penetration remain unresolved. In this study, the unsteady-state penetration characteristics of phenanthrene (PHE) through isolated fruit CM was investigated. PHE penetration was differentiated by three cuticular compartments: epicuticular waxes (EW), cuticle proper (CP) and cuticular layer (CL). The driving force for PHE penetration was ascribed to the sharp concentration gradient built up endogenously by cuticular compartments with different lipophilic affinities. A modified penetration model was established and verified in terms of its general suitability for the hydrophobic chemicals and CMs of various plant species (apple, tomato and potato). The new three-compartment model demonstrates much higher accuracy in characterizing the uptake and transport behavior of semivolatile chemicals with fewer limitations in terms of environmental conditions and complexity (e.g., coexisting contaminants and temperature). This model could contribute to a more comprehensive understanding on the role of polymeric lipids in the organic pollutant sorption and transport into plants. PMID:27009902

  10. [Eco-value level classification model of forest ecosystem based on modified projection pursuit technique].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengzhen; Hong, Wei; Hong, Tao

    2006-03-01

    To optimize the projection function and direction of projection pursuit technique, predigest its realization process, and overcome the shortcomings in long time calculation and in the difficulty of optimizing projection direction and computer programming, this paper presented a modified simplex method (MSM), and based on it, brought forward the eco-value level classification model (EVLCM) of forest ecosystem, which could integrate the multidimensional classification index into one-dimensional projection value, with high projection value denoting high ecosystem services value. Examples of forest ecosystem could be reasonably classified by the new model according to their projection value, suggesting that EVLCM driven directly by samples data of forest ecosystem was simple and feasible, applicable, and maneuverable. The calculating time and value of projection function were 34% and 143% of those with the traditional projection pursuit technique, respectively. This model could be applied extensively to classify and estimate all kinds of non-linear and multidimensional data in ecology, biology, and regional sustainable development. PMID:16724723