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Sample records for modified total body

  1. Medium modified two-body scattering amplitude from proton-nucleus total cross-sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    Recently (R.K. Tripathi, J.W. Wilson, F.A. Cucinotta, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 145 (1998) 277; R.K. Tripathi, F.A. Cucinotta, J.W. Wilson, NASA-TP-1998-208438), we have extracted nucleon-nucleon (N-N) cross-sections in the medium directly from experiment. The in-medium N-N cross-sections form the basic ingredients of several heavy-ion scattering approaches including the coupled-channel approach developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Here, we investigate the ratio of real to imaginary part of the two-body scattering amplitude in the medium. These ratios are used in combination with the in-medium N-N cross-sections to calculate total proton-nucleus cross-sections. The agreement is excellent with the available experimental data. These cross-sections are needed for the radiation risk assessment of space missions. c2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

  3. Total body calcium analysis. [neutron irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewellen, T. K.; Nelp, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    A technique to quantitate total body calcium in humans is developed. Total body neutron irradiation is utilized to produce argon 37. The radio argon, which diffuses into the blood stream and is excreted through the lungs, is recovered from the exhaled breath and counted inside a proportional detector. Emphasis is placed on: (1) measurement of the rate of excretion of radio argon following total body neutron irradiation; (2) the development of the radio argon collection, purification, and counting systems; and (3) development of a patient irradiation facility using a 14 MeV neutron generator. Results and applications are discussed in detail.

  4. Modified total body irradiation as a planned second high-dose therapy with stem cell infusion for patients with bone-based malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Zaucha, Renata E.; Buckner, Dean C.; Barnett, Todd; Holmberg, Leona A.; Gooley, Ted; Hooper, Heather A. P.A.-C.; Maloney, David G.; Appelbaum, Frederick; Bensinger, William I. . E-mail: wbensing@fhcrc.org

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the maximum tolerated dose of hyperfractionated total marrow irradiation (TMI) as a second consolidation after high-dose chemotherapy with autologous or syngeneic blood stem cell transfusion for patients with bone/bone marrow-based malignant disease. Patients and Methods: Fifty-seven patients aged 3-65 years (median, 45 years), including 21 with multiple myeloma, 24 with breast cancer, 10 with sarcoma, and 2 with lymphoma, were treated with 1.5 Gy administered twice daily to a total dose of 12 Gy (n = 27), 13.5 Gy (n = 12), and 15 Gy (n = 18). Median time between the 2 transplants was 105 days (range, 63-162 days). Results: All patients engrafted neutrophils (median, Day 11; range, Day 9-23) and became platelet independent (median, Day 9; range, Day 7-36). There were 5 cases of Grade 3-4 regimen-related pulmonary toxicity, 1 at 12 Gy, and 4 at 15 Gy. Complete responses, partial responses, and stabilizations were achieved in 33%, 26%, and 41% of patients, respectively. Kaplan-Meier estimates of 5-year progression-free survival and overall survival for 56 evaluable patients are 24% and 36%, respectively. Median time of follow-up among survivors was 96 months (range, 77-136 months). Conclusion: Total marrow irradiation as a second myeloablative therapy is feasible. The estimated maximum tolerated dose for TMI in a tandem transplant setting was 13.5 Gy. Because 20% of patients are surviving at 8 years free of disease, further studies of TMI are warranted.

  5. Total body nitrogen analysis. [neutron activation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of two potential in vivo neutron activation methods for determining total and partial body nitrogen in animals and humans are described. A method using the CO-11 in the expired air as a measure of nitrogen content was found to be adequate for small animals such as rats, but inadequate for human measurements due to a slow excretion rate. Studies on the method of measuring the induced N-13 in the body show that with further development, this method should be adequate for measuring muscle mass changes occurring in animals or humans during space flight.

  6. Therapeutic use of fractionated total body and subtotal body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Loeffler, R.K.

    1981-05-01

    Ninety-one patients were treated using fractionated subtotal body (STBI) or total body irradiation (TBI). These patients had generalized lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease, leukemias, myelomas, seminomas, or oat-cell carcinomas. Subtotal body irradiation is delivered to the entire body, except for the skull and extremities. It was expected that a significantly higher radiation dose could be administered with STBI than with TBI. STBI was given when there was a reasonable likelihood that malignancy did not involve the shielded volumes. A five- to ten-fold increase in tolerance for STBI was demonstrated. Many of these patients have had long-term (up to 17 year--.permanent) remissions. There is little or no treatment-induced symptomatology, and no sanctuary sites. STBI and TBI are useful therapeutic modalities for many of these malignancies.

  7. Fractionated total body irradiation for metastatic neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kun, L.E.; Casper, J.T.; Kline, R.W.; Piaskowski, V.D.

    1981-11-01

    Twelve patients over one year old with neuroblastoma (NBL) metastatic to bone and bone marrow entered a study of adjuvant low-dose, fractionated total body irradiation (TBI). Six children who achieved a ''complete clinical response'' following chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide and adriamycin) and surgical resection of the abdominal primary received TBI (10 rad/fraction to totals of 100-120 rad/10-12 fx/12-25 days). Two children received concurrent local irradiation for residual abdominal tumor. The intervals from cessation of chemotherapy to documented progression ranged from 2-16 months, not substatially different from patients receiving similar chemotherapy and surgery without TBI. Three additional children with progressive NBL received similar TBI (80-120 rad/8-12 fx) without objective response.

  8. Total body irradiation in chronic myeloid leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Advani, S.H.; Dinshaw, K.A.; Nair, C.N.; Ramakrishnan, G.

    1983-04-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI), given as 10 rad daily for five days a week for a total dose of 150 rad has been used in an attempt to control the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Thirteen patients with CML received fractionated TBI leading to rapid and good control of WBC count without any adverse reaction. The chronic phase of CML could also be controlled with TBI, even in three patients who were resistant to busulfan. Following TBI, WBC count remained under control for a period of 32 weeks as compared to 40 weeks following vusulfan alone. Repeat TBI was also well tolerated with good response. It appears that TBI is an effective and safe therapy for controlling the chronic phase of CML.

  9. Changes in total body water during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Inners, L. D.; Charles, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Total body water (TBW) changes occurring in humans as a consequence of prolonged exposure to microgravity were measured in five male crewmembers of Space Shuttle missions STS-61C and STS-26. It was found that the inflight mean TBW values were significantly different from the preflight and postflight values, while the preflight TBW values were not significantly different from the postflight values. It was also found that individuals may differ in the rate at which they respond to weightlessness. Of the three crewmen who reported experiencing no symptoms of space motion sickness (SMS), two had not exhibited a decrease of TBW at the time of measurements (24 hrs after launch), while the two crewmen who reported SMS of intermediate severity showed a decrease of several kg by 24 hrs, suggesting that dehydration might be an important factor affecting the rate of TBW decrease.

  10. Aperture modulated, translating bed total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Amjad; Villarreal-Barajas, Jose Eduardo; Dunscombe, Peter; Brown, Derek W.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) techniques aim to deliver a uniform radiation dose to a patient with an irregular body contour and a heterogeneous density distribution to within {+-}10% of the prescribed dose. In the current article, the authors present a novel, aperture modulated, translating bed TBI (AMTBI) technique that produces a high degree of dose uniformity throughout the entire patient. Methods: The radiation beam is dynamically shaped in two dimensions using a multileaf collimator (MLC). The irregular surface compensation algorithm in the Eclipse treatment planning system is used for fluence optimization, which is performed based on penetration depth and internal inhomogeneities. Two optimal fluence maps (AP and PA) are generated and beam apertures are created to deliver these optimal fluences. During treatment, the patient/phantom is translated on a motorized bed close to the floor (source to bed distance: 204.5 cm) under a stationary radiation beam with 0 deg. gantry angle. The bed motion and dynamic beam apertures are synchronized. Results: The AMTBI technique produces a more homogeneous dose distribution than fixed open beam translating bed TBI. In phantom studies, the dose deviation along the midline is reduced from 10% to less than 5% of the prescribed dose in the longitudinal direction. Dose to the lung is reduced by more than 15% compared to the unshielded fixed open beam technique. At the lateral body edges, the dose received from the open beam technique was 20% higher than that prescribed at umbilicus midplane. With AMTBI the dose deviation in this same region is reduced to less than 3% of the prescribed dose. Validation of the technique was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters in a Rando phantom. Agreement between calculation and measurement was better than 3% in all cases. Conclusions: A novel, translating bed, aperture modulated TBI technique that employs dynamically shaped MLC defined beams is shown to improve dose uniformity

  11. Radiobiological speculations on therapeutic total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Vriesendorp, H.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Unexpected total body irradiation (TBI) of human beings, involved in nuclear warfare or in accidents in nuclear reactors can be lethal. In the 1950s, bone marrow transplantation was discovered as a potentially life saving procedure after TBI in the dose range of 5.0 to 12.0 Gy. Since that time, deliberate or therapeutic TBI has been used to condition patients with a lethal bone marrow disorder for bone marrow replacement. The therapeutic ratio of TBI followed by bone marrow transplantation is small. Many potentially lethal complications can occur, such as acute TBI side effects, late TBI side effects or immunological complications of bone marrow transplantation such as graft versus host disease or graft rejection. The benefits of TBI and bone marrow transplantation are that they offer a chance for cure of previously lethal bone marrow disorders. The optimal parameters for TBI remain to be defined. The review discusses the current clinical and experimental animal data, as they relate to the future definition of less toxic TBI procedures with a better therapeutic ratio. Different TBI procedures are required for patients with malignant vs. non-malignant disorders or for patients with histoincompatible vs. histocompatible bone marrow donors.77 references.

  12. A New Total Body Potassium Method to Estimate Total Body Skeletal Muscle Mass in Children12

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ZiMian; Heshka, Stanley; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Chen, Zhao; Silva, Analiza M.; Sardinha, Luis B.; Wang, Jack; Gallager, Dympna; Heymsfield, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    A whole body skeletal muscle [(SM); kg] mass estimation model, based on total body potassium [(TBK); mmol] measured by whole body 40K counting (WBC) was developed (SM = 0.0082·TBK) and validated in adults in a previous study. It is unknown whether the adult TBK SM prediction model is applicable for pediatric use. The aim of this study was to derive and validate a pediatric TBK SM prediction equation. SM measured by MRI was used as the criterion and TBK was measured by WBC. The protocol was completed in 116 healthy children, 66 males and 50 females, 11.7 ± 3.5 y (mean ± SD, range = 5–17 y). A strong linear correlation was observed between TBK and SM (r = 0.984; P < 0.001). The SM:TBK ratio was 0.0071 ± 0.0008 kg/mmol in the children studied, much lower than the corresponding value of 0.0082 kg/mmol in adults. An empirical SM prediction equation was developed using TBK alone: SM = 0.0085·TBK − 2.83, r2 = 0.97, SEE = 1.39 kg. Bland-Altman analysis did not disclose a significant bias in the prediction of SM. When biological factors entered along with TBK in the general linear model, another prediction equation was developed: SM = 5.52 + 0.001·TBK (mmol) + 0.081·weight (kg) − 0.049·height (cm) + 0.00004·TBK · height + race (−0.60 for Caucasian, 0.49 for African-American, and 0 for Hispanic). Because the adult TBK SM prediction model is not applicable for pediatric use, this study provides new empirical TBK SM prediction equations that should prove useful for studies on nutrition, growth, and development in children. PMID:17634275

  13. 2 CFR 200.68 - Modified Total Direct Cost (MTDC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... distribution of indirect costs, and with the approval of the cognizant agency for indirect costs. ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Modified Total Direct Cost (MTDC). 200.68... OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, COST...

  14. Symbiotic bacterium modifies aphid body color.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Tsutomu; Koga, Ryuichi; Horikawa, Mitsuyo; Tsunoda, Tetsuto; Maoka, Takashi; Matsumoto, Shogo; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Fukatsu, Takema

    2010-11-19

    Color variation within populations of the pea aphid influences relative susceptibility to predators and parasites. We have discovered that infection with a facultative endosymbiont of the genus Rickettsiella changes the insects' body color from red to green in natural populations. Approximately 8% of pea aphids collected in Western Europe carried the Rickettsiella infection. The infection increased amounts of blue-green polycyclic quinones, whereas it had less of an effect on yellow-red carotenoid pigments. The effect of the endosymbiont on body color is expected to influence prey-predator interactions, as well as interactions with other endosymbionts. PMID:21097935

  15. Total body potassium in aging humans: A longitudinal study

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, M.A.; Nolph, G.B.; Baker, A.S.; Martin, W.M.; Krause, G. )

    1989-10-01

    Total body potassium (TBK) data calculated from longitudinal measurements over 18 y of 40K by whole-body counting of 564 male and 61 female healthy humans in a 2-pi liquid scintillation counter show little change in females younger than 50 y compared with males of those ages. Males show less TBK from 41 y onward as they age, with most rapid rate of loss between 41 and 60 y. Females have a rapid loss of TBK when they are older than 60 y; the loss is at a greater rate than that of males. Percent total body fat calculated from total body weight and lean body mass (LBM) derived from TBK document greater adiposity in females at all ages except ages 51-60 y when females are similar to males in change in percent fat per year per centimeter.

  16. Acute and delayed toxicities of total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.

    1983-12-01

    Total body irradiation is being used with increasing frequency for the treatment of lymphopoietic malignancies and in preparation for marrow transplantation. Acute toxicities include reversible gastroeneritis, mucositis, myelosuppression alopecia. As the success of treatment improves and more patients become long-term survivors, manifestations of delayed and chronic toxicity become evident. These include impairment of growth and development, gonadal failure and sterility, cataract formation and possibly secondary malignancies. The contribution of total body irradiation to the development of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis is still poorly understood. Some of these changes are reversible or correctable, whereas others are permanent. Nevertheless, until equally effective but less toxic regimens become available, total body irradiation appears to be the treatment of choice to prepare patients with leukemia for marrow transplantation.

  17. Calculation and prescription of dose for total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Galvin, J.M.

    1983-12-01

    The use of large total body fields creates a unique set of problems that stress the accuracy of techniques routinely used for dose calculation. This paper discusses an approach suggested by the Children's Cancer Study Group (CCSG) for both prescribing the total body irradiation (TBI) dose and calculating the beam-on time or meter set needed to deliver it. It is aimed at guaranteeing the accuracy of the calculation, while at the same time ensuring a high degree of compliance for various CCSG protocols using TBI. Data supporting the various CCSG recommendations are presented.

  18. Three-Dimensional Dose Calculation for Total Body Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Akira

    Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) therapy has been a big success in the treatment of leukemia and other haematopoietic diseases 1 . Prior to BMT, total body irradiation (TBI) is given to the patient for the purpose of (1) killing leukemia cells in bone marrow, as well as in the whole body, and (2) producing immuno-suppressive status in the patient so that the donor's marrow cells will be transplanted without rejection. TBI employs a very large field photon beam to irradiate the whole body of the patient. A uniform dose distribution over the entire body is the treatment goal. To prevent the occurrence of a serious side effect (interstitial pneumonia), the lung dose should not exceed a certain level. This novel technique poses various new radiological physics problems. The accurate assessment of dose and dose distribution in the patient is essential. Physical and dosimetric problems associated with TBI are reviewed elsewhere 2,3 .

  19. In vivo determination of body fat by measuring total body carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Kehayias, J.J.; Heymsfield, S.B.; LoMonte, A.F.; Wang, J.; Pierson, R.N. Jr. )

    1991-06-01

    Total body carbon (TBC) is measured in vivo by neutron inelastic scattering. The fast neutrons needed for the irradiation are produced by a miniature deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron generator. Body fat and protein are the main contributors to TBC. Bone ash and carbohydrates contribute less than 3%. Fat is calculated from TBC after the subtraction of the carbon contributions from protein, bone, and glycogen. The technique was applied to 14 normal volunteers (8 females, 6 males) aged 24-94 y who underwent neutron inelastic scattering and neutron activation measurements for body carbon, nitrogen, and calcium. The initial results agree with other techniques. Unlike models that evaluate body fat by subtracting lean body mass from body weight, the TBC technique is not sensitive to assumptions on the composition of lean body; therefore, it is appropriate for studies of adults of any age and health condition.

  20. Techniques for determining total body water using deuterium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Phillip A.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of total body water (TBW) is fundamental to the study of body fluid changes consequent to microgravity exposure or treatment with microgravity countermeasures. Often, the use of radioactive isotopes is prohibited for safety or other reasons. It was selected and implemented for use by some Johnson Space Center (JCS) laboratories, which permitted serial measurements over a 14 day period which was accurate enough to serve as a criterion method for validating new techniques. These requirements resulted in the selection of deuterium oxide dilution as the method of choice for TBW measurement. The development of this technique at JSC is reviewed. The recommended dosage, body fluid sampling techniques, and deuterium assay options are described.

  1. Electronic compensation technique to deliver a total body dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakeman, Tara E.

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) uses large parallel-opposed radiation fields to suppress the patient's immune system and eradicate the residual cancer cells in preparation of recipient for bone marrow transplant. The manual placement of lead compensators has been conventionally used to compensate for the varying thickness throughout the body in large-field TBI. The goal of this study is to pursue utilizing the modern electronic compensation technique to more accurately and efficiently deliver dose to patients in need of TBI. Method: Treatment plans utilizing the electronic compensation to deliver a total body dose were created retrospectively for patients for whom CT data had been previously acquired. Each treatment plan includes two pair of parallel opposed fields. One pair of large fields is used to encompass the majority of the patient's anatomy. The other pair are very small open fields focused only on the thin bottom portion of the patient's anatomy, which requires much less radiation than the rest of the body to reach 100% of the prescribed dose. A desirable fluence pattern was manually painted within each of the larger fields for each patient to provide a more uniform distribution. Results: Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for evaluating the electronic compensation technique. In the electronically compensated plans, the maximum body doses calculated from the DVH were reduced from the conventionally-compensated plans by an average of 15%, indicating a more uniform dose. The mean body doses calculated from the electronically compensated DVH remained comparable to that of the conventionally-compensated plans, indicating an accurate delivery of the prescription dose using electronic compensation. All calculated monitor units were within clinically acceptable limits. Conclusion: Electronic compensation technique for TBI will not increase the beam on time beyond clinically acceptable limits while it can substantially reduce the compensator setup

  2. Therapeutic use of fractionated total body and subtotal body irradiation. [X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Loeffler, R.K.

    1981-05-01

    Ninety-one patients were treated using fractionated subtotal body (STBI) or total body irradiation (TBI). These patients had generalized lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease, leukemias, myelomas, seminomas, or oat-cell carcinomas. Subtotal body irradiation is delivered to the entire body, except for the skull and extremities. It was expected that a significantly higher radiation dose could be administered with STBI than with TBI. A five- to ten-fold increase in tolerance for STBI was demonstrated. Many of these patients have had long-term emissions. There is little or no treatment-induced symptomatology, and no sanctuary sites.

  3. Virtual Reality Body Swapping: A Tool for Modifying the Allocentric Memory of the Body.

    PubMed

    Serino, Silvia; Pedroli, Elisa; Keizer, Anouk; Triberti, Stefano; Dakanalis, Antonios; Pallavicini, Federica; Chirico, Alice; Riva, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    An increasing amount of evidence has shown that embodiment of a virtual body via visuo-tactile stimulation can lead to an altered perception of body and object size. The current study aimed to investigate whether virtual reality (VR) body swapping can be an effective tool for modifying the enduring memory of the body. The experimental sample included 21 female participants who were asked to estimate the width and circumference of different body parts before any kind of stimulation and after two types of body swapping illusions ("synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation" and "asynchronous visuo-tactile stimulation"). Findings revealed that after participants embodied a virtual body with a skinny belly (independently of the type of visuo-tactile stimulation), there was an update of the stored representation of the body: participants reported a decrease in the ratio between estimated and actual body measures for most of the body parts considered. Based on the Allocentric Lock Theory, these findings provide first evidence that VR body swapping is able to induce a change in the memory of the body. This knowledge may be potentially useful for patients suffering from eating and weight disorders. PMID:26506136

  4. A simple dose calculation method for total body photon irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, W.J. Jr.; Galvin, J.M.; D'Angio, G.J.

    1989-07-01

    A simple technique for calculation of the prescribed dose for total body irradiation (TBI) is presented. The technique uses a standard calibration procedure and applies standard correction methods to account for variations in the field size, depth, and treatment distance. Since the scattering volume (the entire body) is smaller than the X ray field for this treatment, the change in output with field size is handled separately from changes due to scatter within the phantom. The latter is shown to be a function of the phantom size (corresponding to the frontal area of the trunk of the body for patient irradiation) rather than the size of the field opening. Dosimetric tests of this technique have been conducted and the errors determined. For these tests, three different phantom sizes were used to represent the upper body sizes of a 2-year old child, an 8-year old, and an adult, and three linear accelerator energies (6, 10, and 15 MV) were included. Calculations were performed using the technique and compared to measurements for the same phantom sizes. Differences of less than 1.3 were found.

  5. [Total body irradiation in France in the past twenty years].

    PubMed

    Hoffstetter, S; Marchal, C; Bordigoni, P

    2003-06-01

    A review of the activity and techniques of total body irradiation (TBI) in France in the last 20 years is presented. In order to have on overall view of the activity and techniques of total body irradiation in France, the group of cancer centre radiation oncologists sent a questionnaire to all the cancer centres or public hospitals radiotherapy departments dealing with this treatment. Thirty-six questionnaires were sent and thirty-one departments answered. Three departments do not offer this treatment. Five departments did not answer. Results, therefore, concern the activity of the 28 departments that agreed to give detailed and clear answers. A total of 10 630 TBIs have been documented, 850 to 900 TBI have been done each year since 1995. Single fraction TBIs are used in only five centres and are being progressively abandoned. For multiple-fraction TBIs, the techniques described here are the ones used in 1999, at the time the questionnaires were sent. A majority (98%) of the teams used linear accelerators. The collected data are synthesised in tables. Nowadays, single fraction TBIs are only indicated in exceptional cases. Most of the TBIs are fractionated in six twice-daily fractions with pulmonary shielding to limit the dose between 6 and 11 Gy depending on departments' protocols and pathologies. PMID:12834771

  6. Body Mass Index and Its Role in Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Shilpa; Agrawal, Pallavi; Singh, Aparna

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate operative and perioperative outcomes in patients undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy according to their body mass index. Method. A retrospective study was performed for patients undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy at a tertiary care center for a period of 4 years. Patients were divided into two groups: obese (BMI > 30 Kg/m2) and nonobese (BMI < 30 Kg/m2). Duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss, successful laparoscopic completion, and intraoperative complications were compared in two groups. Result. A total of 253 patients underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy from January 2010 to December 2013. Out of them, 105 women (41.5%) had a BMI of more than 30 kg/m2. Overall, the mean blood loss was 85.79 ± 54.17 mL; the operative time was 54.17 ± 19.83 min. The surgery was completed laparoscopically in 244 (96.4%) women while laparotomy was done in 4 cases and vaginal suturing and closure of vault were done in 5 cases. Risk of vaginal assistance was higher in obese patients whereas out of the 4 conversions to laparotomy 3 had BMI < 30 kg/m2. The operative time was increased as the BMI of patient increased. Conclusions. Total laparoscopic hysterectomy is a safe and effective procedure for obese patients and can be performed with an efficacy similar to that in nonobese patients.

  7. On designing room sheilding for total-body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Barish, R.J.

    1996-05-01

    When designing shielding for total-body irradiation as an additional modality of treatment in an ordinary radiation therapy room, the extended treatment distance used for these patients greatly increases the workload because of the inverse-square factor. In a seeming contradiction to logic, for a facility with an exterior wall in the path of one lateral primary beam, and a restricted area behind the other primary wall, the overall shielding requirements are lower if the TBI patients are treated with the machine oriented toward the occupied interior. 4 refs.

  8. Total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity and ischemia modified albumin levels in children with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Sayar, Ersin; Özdem, Sebahat; Uzun, Gülbahar; İşlek, Ali; Yılmaz, Aygen; Artan, Reha

    2015-01-01

    In our study, we aimed to investigate ischemia modified albumin (IMA) as an oxidative stress marker, as well as other oxidant and antioxidant markers that have not been evaluated in children with celiac disease. A total of 37 pediatric patients who were diagnosed with celiac disease (CD) and 29 healthy children were enrolled in this prospective study. We evaluated the IMA, total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity, sulfhydryl, and advanced oxidation protein products in all of the subjects. We also compared the levels at the time of the diagnosis, and following a gluten-free diet (GFD) in the children with CD. While the IMA and the other oxidant marker levels were significantly higher in the patient group compared to the control group, the antioxidant marker levels were found to be significantly lower in the patient group, compared to the control group. We also determined that the tissue transglutaminase IgA showed a highly positive correlation, and that the IMA showed a moderately positive correlation with the Marsh-Oberhuber histopathological stage. Additionally, the IMA and other oxidant marker levels were significantly lower, while the antioxidant marker levels were significantly higher after the GFD, compared to the pre-diet period. We detected that oxidative stress played a role in the pathogenesis of CD, and that this could be evaluated using oxidative stress markers, which would regress after the GFD. We also detected that IMA is a marker that shows a correlation with the histopathological stage, and may be used in the diagnosis. PMID:27411418

  9. A new method of body habitus correction for total body potassium measurements.

    PubMed

    O'Hehir, S; Green, S; Beddoe, A H

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes an accurate and time-efficient method for the determination of total body potassium via a combination of measurements in the Birmingham whole body counter and the use of the Monte Carlo n-particle (MCNP) simulation code. In developing this method, MCNP has also been used to derive values for some components of the total measurement uncertainty which are difficult to quantify experimentally. A method is proposed for MCNP-assessed body habitus corrections based on a simple generic anthropomorphic model, scaled for individual height and weight. The use of this model increases patient comfort by reducing the need for comprehensive anthropomorphic measurements. The analysis shows that the total uncertainty in potassium weight determination by this whole body counting methodology for water-filled phantoms with a known amount of potassium is 2.7% (SD). The uncertainty in the method of body habitus correction (applicable also to phantom-based methods) is 1.5% (SD). It is concluded that this new strategy provides a sufficiently accurate model for routine clinical use. PMID:16912380

  10. A new method of body habitus correction for total body potassium measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hehir, S.; Green, S.; Beddoe, A. H.

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes an accurate and time-efficient method for the determination of total body potassium via a combination of measurements in the Birmingham whole body counter and the use of the Monte Carlo n-particle (MCNP) simulation code. In developing this method, MCNP has also been used to derive values for some components of the total measurement uncertainty which are difficult to quantify experimentally. A method is proposed for MCNP-assessed body habitus corrections based on a simple generic anthropomorphic model, scaled for individual height and weight. The use of this model increases patient comfort by reducing the need for comprehensive anthropomorphic measurements. The analysis shows that the total uncertainty in potassium weight determination by this whole body counting methodology for water-filled phantoms with a known amount of potassium is 2.7% (SD). The uncertainty in the method of body habitus correction (applicable also to phantom-based methods) is 1.5% (SD). It is concluded that this new strategy provides a sufficiently accurate model for routine clinical use.

  11. Measuring partial body potassium in the arm versus total body potassium.

    PubMed

    Wielopolski, L; Ramirez, L M; Gallagher, D; Sarkar, S R; Zhu, F; Kaysen, G A; Levin, N W; Heymsfield, S B; Wang, Z M

    2006-09-01

    Skeletal muscle (SM), the body's main structural support, has been implicated in metabolic, physiological, and disease processes in humans. Despite being the largest tissue in the human body, its assessment remains difficult and indirect. However, being metabolically active it contains over 50% of the total body potassium (TBK) pool. We present our preliminary results from a new system for measuring partial body K (PBK) that presently are limited to the arm yet provide a direct and specific measure of the SM. This uniquely specific quantification of the SM mass in the arm, which is shielded from the body during measurement, allows us to simplify the assumptions used in deriving the total SM, thereby possibly improving the modeling of the human body compartments. Preliminary results show that PBK measurements are consistent with those from the TBK previously obtained from the same subjects, thus offering a simpler alternative to computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging used for the same purposes. The PBK system, which can be set up in a physician's office or bedside in a hospital, is completely passive, safe, and inexpensive; it can be used on immobilized patients, children, pregnant women, or other at-risk populations. PMID:16741259

  12. Modified gravity N-body code comparison project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winther, Hans A.; Schmidt, Fabian; Barreira, Alexandre; Arnold, Christian; Bose, Sownak; Llinares, Claudio; Baldi, Marco; Falck, Bridget; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Koyama, Kazuya; Li, Baojiu; Mota, David F.; Puchwein, Ewald; Smith, Robert E.; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2015-12-01

    Self-consistent N-body simulations of modified gravity models are a key ingredient to obtain rigorous constraints on deviations from general relativity using large-scale structure observations. This paper provides the first detailed comparison of the results of different N-body codes for the f (R), Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati and Symmetron models, starting from the same initial conditions. We find that the fractional deviation of the matter power spectrum from Λ cold dark matter agrees to better than 1 per cent up to k ˜ 5-10 h Mpc-1 between the different codes. These codes are thus able to meet the stringent accuracy requirements of upcoming observational surveys. All codes are also in good agreement in their results for the velocity divergence power spectrum, halo abundances and halo profiles. We also test the quasi-static limit, which is employed in most modified gravity N-body codes, for the Symmetron model for which the most significant non-static effects among the models considered are expected. We conclude that this limit is a very good approximation for all of the observables considered here.

  13. Cyclic, low-dose total body irradiation for metastatic neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angio, G.J.; Evans, A.E.

    1983-12-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) can be thought of as a systemic anticancer agent. It therefore might best be given like an adjuvant drug, i.e., in tolerable doses, cyclically. The therapeutic ratio between normal bone marrow stem cells and suitably sensitive cancer cells should be widened by these means. Fourteen children with advanced (Stage IV) neuroblastomas were given 100-150 rad TBI in 50 rad daily fractions along with each three-week cycle of standard triple-agent chemotherapy (vincristine, DTIC, cyclophosphamide). Two patients died of toxicity and one is still undergoing therapy. Four of the remaining 12 survive free of disease for 12+ to 31+ months. The regimen is well tolerated, but prolonged, pronounced bone marrow depression, especially thrombocytopenia, commonly occurs after doses of 300-450 rad.

  14. Total body phosphorus in healthy women and ethnic variations.

    PubMed

    Arunabh, Sonia; Feuerman, Martin; Ma, Ruimei; Aloia, John F

    2002-02-01

    Total body phosphorus (TBP) levels were measured in 90 black and 143 white healthy women to determine ethnic differences. The measurements were performed by in vivo delayed gamma neutron activation (DGNA) analysis at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Mean value of TBP in whites was 10.4% lower as compared with the black women (mean TBP in white women 401.4 +/- 57.5 g v. 447.7 +/- 57.7 g in black women). Both subgroups have a decrease in TBP with age with a rapid phase after the onset of menopause, which corresponds to bone loss. The decrease in TBP is similar in both ethnic groups with black women losing -1.59 g/yr (-0.33%/yr) and white women losing -2.08 g/yr (-0.45%/yr). PMID:11833045

  15. Total body irradiation with a sweeping {sup 60}Cobalt beam

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, S.; El-Khatib, E.

    1995-09-30

    This article describes the physical, technical, and dosimetric aspects of total body irradiation (TBI). The continuous head swivel motion of a standard {sup 60}Cobalt unit has been used to obtain a sweeping beam that encompases the entire length of the patient in TBI. A perspex beam flattener designed to remove the inverse square fall-off in beam intensity along the sweep axis provides a 90% field length of 200 cm in air at a treatment source-to-skin distance of 160 cm. The anterior-posterior parallel pair setup permits accurate placement of customized lead compensators to limit the dose to lungs. Measured beam profiles, dose buildup curves, and percentage depth dose for the technique are presented. With compensators in place, the variation in lung dose is shown to be within {plus_minus}5% of the prescribed tumor dose. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Total body water measurements using resonant cavity perturbation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Darren A.; Robinson, Martin P.

    2004-05-01

    A recent paper proposed a novel technique for determining the total body water (TBW) of patients suffering with abnormal hydration levels, using a resonant cavity perturbation method. Current techniques to measure TBW are limited by resolution and technical constraints. However, this new method involves measuring the dielectric properties of the body, by placing a subject in a large cavity resonator and measuring the subsequent change in its resonant frequency, fres and its Q-factor. Utilizing the relationship that water content correlates to these dielectric properties, it has been shown that the measured response of these parameters enables determination of TBW. Results are presented for a preliminary study using data estimated from anthropometric measurements, where volunteers were asked to lie and stand in an electromagnetic screened room, before and after drinking between 1 and 2 l of water, and in some cases, after voiding the bladder. Notable changes in the parameters were observed; fres showed a negative shift and Q was reduced. Preliminary calibration curves using estimated values of water content have been developed from these results, showing that for each subject the measured resonant frequency is a linear function of TBW. Because the gradients of these calibration curves correlate to the mass-to-height-ratio of the volunteers, it has proved that a system in which TBW can be unequivocally obtained is possible. Measured values of TBW have been determined using this new pilot-technique, and the values obtained correlate well with theoretical values of body water (r = 0.87) and resolution is very good (750 ml). The results obtained are measurable, repeatable and statistically significant. This leads to confidence in the integrity of the proposed technique.

  17. [Clinical results and problems of total-body hyperthermia].

    PubMed

    Maeta, M; Koga, S; Shimizu, N; Hamazoe, R; Murakami, A; Inoue, Y; Ikeda, Y

    1986-04-01

    The clinical results and problems of extracorporeally-induced total-body hyperthermia (TBHT) for recurrent cancer were presented. A total of 105 hyperthermic treatments were performed in 38 patients who had had unsuccessful conventional systemic anticancer chemotherapy. Partial response was observed in 10 of 29 evaluable patients (37%). In analysing the anticancer effects of TBHT according to cancer site, a high efficacy was observed in patients with their main tumor in the lung, liver and lymph nodes. The anticancer effects were most enhanced when TBHT was performed in combination with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) and 5-fluorouracil. In order to augment the anticancer effects of TBHT, the choice of combined agent(s) and administration timing are important. A useful method for determining the thermochemosensitivity of individual cancer cells to agents selected for drug treatment is the human tumor stem cell assay. Further, the usefulness of angiotensin II-induced hypertensive chemotherapy during TBHT for augmenting selective drug delivery to cancer tissues is stressed. PMID:3729457

  18. Normalizing the thermal effects of radiofrequency radiation: body mass versus total body surface area

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The current guideline for exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) was developed through assessment of the biological effects data collected primarily from the rat. The consensus that a lack of hazardous biological effects occurred below a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.0 W/kg led to the proposition of a 0.4 W/kg guideline with a built-in safety factor of 10. This paper demonstrates that if the RFR absorption rate in the rat had been normalized with respect to total body surface area rather than body mass, the exposure guideline would be 2.3 W/m2, which translates to an SAR of approximately 0.06 W/kg for an adult human. It is further shown that a given RFR absorption rate, normalized as a fraction of a species' heat loss per unit of surface area, is independent of body mass over a range of 0.03-100 kg; however, a normalization of the RFR absorption rate to heat loss per unit of body mass is highly dependent on the species' mass. Normalizing the rate of RFR absorption to the surface area of the rat indicates that the current RFR exposure guideline of 0.4 W/kg may be too high.

  19. GFR Normalized to Total Body Water Allows Comparisons across Genders and Body Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Melsom, Toralf; Mathisen, Ulla D.; Jenssen, Trond G.; Solbu, Marit D.; Toft, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    The normalization of GFR to a standardized body-surface area of 1.73 m2 impedes comparison of GFR across individuals of different genders, heights, or weights. Ideally, GFR should be normalized to a parameter that best explains variation in GFR. Here, we measured true GFR by iohexol clearance in a representative sample of 1627 individuals from the general population who did not have diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or kidney disease. We also estimated total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid volume, lean body mass, liver volume, metabolic rate, and body-surface area. We compared two methods of normalizing GFR to these physiologic variables: (1) the conventional method of scaling GFR to each physiologic variable by simple division and (2) a method based on regression of the GFR on each variable. TBW explained a higher proportion of the variation in GFR than the other physiologic variables. GFR adjusted for TBW by the regression method exhibited less dependence on gender, height, and weight compared with the other physiologic variables. Thus, adjusting GFR for TBW by the regression method allows direct comparisons between individuals of different genders, weights, and heights. We propose that regression-based normalization of GFR to a standardized TBW of 40 L should replace the current practice of normalizing GFR to 1.73 m2 of body-surface area. PMID:21784894

  20. Patterns of patient specific dosimetry in total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Akino, Yuichi; McMullen, Kevin P.; Das, Indra J.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) has been used for bone marrow transplant for hematologic and immune deficiency conditions. The goal of TBI is to deliver a homogeneous dose to the entire body, with a generally accepted range of dose uniformity being within {+-}10% of the prescribed dose. The moving table technique for TBI could make dose uniform in whole body by adjusting couch speed. However, it is difficult to accurately estimate the actual dose by calculation and hence in vivo dosimetry (IVD) is routinely performed. Here, the authors present patterns of patient-specific IVD in 161 TBI patients treated at our institution. Methods: Cobalt-60 teletherapy unit (Model C9 Cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, Picker X-ray Corporation) with customized moving bed (SITI Industrial Products, Inc., Fishers, IN) were used for TBI treatment. During treatment, OneDose{sup TM} (Sicel Technology, NC) Metal Oxide-silicon Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor detectors were placed at patient body surface; both entrance and exit side of the beam at patient head, neck, mediastinum, umbilicus, and knee to estimate midplane dose. When large differences (>10%) between the prescribed and measured dose were observed, dose delivery was corrected for subsequent fractions by the adjustment of couch speed and/or bolus placement. Under IRB exempt status, the authors retrospectively analyzed the treatment records of 161 patients who received TBI treatment between 2006 and 2011. Results: Across the entire cohort, the median {+-} SD (range) percent variance between calculated and measured dose for head, neck, mediastinum, umbilicus, and knee was -2.3 {+-} 10.2% (-66.2 to +35.3), 1.1 {+-} 11.5% (-62.2 to +40.3), -1.9 {+-} 9.5% (-66.4 to +46.6), -1.1 {+-} 7.2% (-35.2 to +42.9), and 3.4 {+-} 12.2% (-47.9 to +108.5), respectively. More than half of treatments were within {+-}10% of the prescribed dose for all anatomical regions. For 80% of treatments (10%-90%), dose at the umbilicus was within {+-}10

  1. In vivo dosimetry with silicon diodes in total body irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, F. F.; Amaral, L. L.; Costa, A. M.; Netto, T. G.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work is the characterization and application of silicon diode detectors for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation (TBI) treatments. It was evaluated the diode response with temperature, dose rate, gantry angulations and field size. A maximum response variation of 2.2% was obtained for temperature dependence. The response variation for dose rate and angular was within 1.2%. For field size dependence, the detector response increased with field until reach a saturation region, where no more primary radiation beam contributes for dose. The calibration was performed in a TBI setup. Different lateral thicknesses from one patient were simulated and then the calibration factors were determined by means of maximum depth dose readings. Subsequent to calibration, in vivo dosimetry measurements were performed. The response difference between diode readings and the prescribed dose for all treatments was below 4%. This difference is in agreement as recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), which is ±5%. The present work to test the applicability of a silicon diode dosimetry system for performing in vivo dose measurements in TBI techniques presented good results. These measurements demonstrated the value of diode dosimetry as a treatment verification method and its applicability as a part of a quality assurance program in TBI treatments.

  2. Influence of body mass index in revision total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; Santos, Diego Benone; Chammas, Victor; Arrebola, Lucas Simões; Colombo, Mauricio Lebre; Scalizi, Caetano

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the influence of the body mass index (BMI) on the functional assessment of patients who underwent revision total knee arthroplasty (RTKA). METHODS : Thirty patients who un-derwent RTKA between January 2008 and January 2012 were retrospectively assessed using the WOMAC questionnaire. The patients were divided into three groups according to the BMI ca-tegories defined by the World Health Organization (WHO): Group I with normal BMI (18-24.9 Kg/m2), with eight patients; Group II, overweight (BMI 25-29.9 Kg/m2), with 15 patients, and Group III obesity with BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m2, with seven patients. The post-ope-rative function scores obtained through the WOMAC questionnaire were compared with the BMI of each group. The statistical analysis between BMI and WOMAC scores was performed with the Spe-arman correlation test. RESULTS : The average functional WOMAC score for individuals in Group I was 16.7; in Group II it was 47.7; and in Group III it was 69.9, with a statistically significant differen-ce between groups I, II and III (p< 0.0001). CONCLUSION : Patients with BMI > 25 Kg/m2 had a worse functional evaluation through WOMAC scores when compared to patients with normal BMI after RTKA. Level of Evidence III, Tranversal Retrospective Study. PMID:27057139

  3. Eye shielding for patients treated with total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Reft, C; Rash, C; Dabrowski, J; Roeske, J C; Hallahan, D

    1996-01-01

    The incidence of cataracts in patients who have received total body irradiation (TBI) is about 20% and increases to 40% if the patient is treated for graft-versus-host disease. At our institution, all TBI patients are treated with two lateral opposed 24 MV photon fields. No attempt is usually made to shield the eyes during the TBI treatment because of the amount of lead required to adequately attenuate megavoltage photon beams, the difficulty in properly positioning an eye shield and the possibility of compromising the effectiveness of the treatment. However, we were asked to treat a TBI patient who is a professional pilot, and thus his livelihood is contingent upon maintaining perfect vision. A custom eye shield was constructed out of lead and ionization chamber and film measurements were performed under TBI conditions to determine the thickness and location of the eye block to optimize the competing effects of increased scatter and attenuation from the lead. Phantom data were also obtained for 6 MV irradiation for comparison with 24 MV. In-vivo patient and phantom measurements with thermoluminescent dosimeters showed that with visual positioning of the eye block the dose was reduced from 16 to 20% across the orbits of both eyes. PMID:8807606

  4. Renal dysfunction after total body irradiation: Dose-effect relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Kal, Henk B. . E-mail: H.B.Kal@UMCUtrecht.nl; Kempen-Harteveld, M. Loes van

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: Late complications related to total body irradiation (TBI) as part of the conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have been increasingly noted. We reviewed and compared the results of treatments with various TBI regimens and tried to derive a dose-effect relationship for the endpoint of late renal dysfunction. The aim was to find the tolerance dose for the kidney when TBI is performed. Methods and Materials: A literature search was performed using PubMed for articles reporting late renal dysfunction. For intercomparison, the various TBI regimens were normalized using the linear-quadratic model, and biologically effective doses (BEDs) were calculated. Results: Eleven reports were found describing the frequency of renal dysfunction after TBI. The frequency of renal dysfunction as a function of the BED was obtained. For BED >16 Gy an increase in the frequency of dysfunction was observed. Conclusions: The tolerance BED for kidney tissue undergoing TBI is about 16 Gy. This BED can be realized with highly fractionated TBI (e.g., 6 x 1.7 Gy or 9 x 1.2 Gy at dose rates >5 cGy/min). To prevent late renal dysfunction, the TBI regimens with BED values >16 Gy (almost all found in published reports) should be applied with appropriate shielding of the kidneys.

  5. Verification of total body photon irradiation dosimetry techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, T.H.; Hanson, W.F.; Cates, D.A.

    1988-05-01

    A method of verifying the dosimetry of patients undergoing total body irradiation (TBI) with photon beams having energies from cobalt-60 to 25 MV is presented. A simple set of spot checks at the TBI axis has been used to verify data used for TBI dosimetry. Calculations to verify dose delivered to TBI patients are done in the same manner as those irradiated at standard treatment distances. A simple method of effective field size determination for various anatomical locations in a typical adult is presented. Measurements in an Alderson phantom with thermoluminescent dosimeters and an ion chamber at several anatomical locations indicate that this calculational method can predict the dose along the patient axis to within 4% for /sup 60/Co and 18-MV photon beams, provided the dosimetry data are appropriate (as determined by the spot checks). Results of intercomparisons of TBI beam calibration, off-axis and depth-dose data at various institutions visited by the Radiological Physics Center are also presented.

  6. Disease-modifying therapeutic directions for Lewy-Body dementias

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Kim, Young-Cho; Narayanan, Nandakumar S.

    2015-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second leading cause of dementia following Alzheimer's disease (AD) and accounts for up to 25% of all dementia. DLB is distinct from AD in that it involves extensive neuropsychiatric symptoms as well as motor symptoms, leads to enormous societal costs in terms of direct medical care and is associated with high financial and caregiver costs. Although, there are no disease-modifying therapies for DLB, we review several new therapeutic directions in treating DLB. We discuss progress in strategies to decrease the level of alpha-synuclein, to prevent the cell to cell transmission of misfolded alpha-synuclein, and the potential of brain stimulation in DLB. PMID:26347604

  7. Disease-modifying therapeutic directions for Lewy-Body dementias.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Kim, Young-Cho; Narayanan, Nandakumar S

    2015-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second leading cause of dementia following Alzheimer's disease (AD) and accounts for up to 25% of all dementia. DLB is distinct from AD in that it involves extensive neuropsychiatric symptoms as well as motor symptoms, leads to enormous societal costs in terms of direct medical care and is associated with high financial and caregiver costs. Although, there are no disease-modifying therapies for DLB, we review several new therapeutic directions in treating DLB. We discuss progress in strategies to decrease the level of alpha-synuclein, to prevent the cell to cell transmission of misfolded alpha-synuclein, and the potential of brain stimulation in DLB. PMID:26347604

  8. Evaluation of body composition and nitrogen content of renal patients on chronic dialysis as determined by total body neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Brennan, B.L.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Ellis, K.J.

    1983-07-01

    Total body protein (nitrogen), body cell mass (potassium), fat, and water were measured in 15 renal patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Total body nitrogen was measured by means of prompt ..gamma.. neutron activation analysis; total body water was determined with tritium labeled water; total body potassium was measured by whole body counting. The extracellular water was determined by a technique utilizing the measurement of total body chloride and plasma chloride. When compared with corresponding values of a control group of the same age, sex, and height, the protein content, body cell mass, and total body fat of the MHD patients were within the normal range. The only significant change was an increase in the extracellular water/body cell mass ratio in the male MHD patients compared to the control. The lack of significant difference of the nitrogen values of the MHD patients compared to matched controls suggests that dialysis minimizes any residual effects of uremic toxicity or protein-calorie malnutrition. These findings further suggest that there is a need to reevaluate the traditional anthropometric and biochemical standards of nutritional status for MHD patients. It was concluded that it is particularly important to measure protein stores of MHD patients with low protein intake to ascertain nutritional status. Finally, in vivo measurement of total body nitrogen and potassium for determination of body composition provides a simple, direct, and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of MHD patients.

  9. Total body water and lean body mass estimated by ethanol dilution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Myhre, L. G.; Venters, M. D.; Luft, U. C.

    1977-01-01

    A method for estimating total body water (TBW) using breath analyses of blood ethanol content is described. Regression analysis of ethanol concentration curves permits determination of a theoretical concentration that would have existed if complete equilibration had taken place immediately upon ingestion of the ethanol; the water fraction of normal blood may then be used to calculate TBW. The ethanol dilution method is applied to 35 subjects, and comparison with a tritium dilution method of determining TBW indicates that the correlation between the two procedures is highly significant. Lean body mass and fat fraction were determined by hydrostatic weighing, and these data also prove compatible with results obtained from the ethanol dilution method. In contrast to the radioactive tritium dilution method, the ethanol dilution method can be repeated daily with its applicability ranging from diseased individuals to individuals subjected to thermal stress, strenuous exercise, water immersion, or the weightless conditions of space flights.

  10. Marrow toxicity of fractionated vs. single dose total body irradiation is identical in a canine model

    SciTech Connect

    Storb, R.; Raff, R.F.; Graham, T.; Appelbaum, F.R.; Deeg, H.J.; Schuening, F.G.; Shulman, H.; Pepe, M. )

    1993-03-20

    The authors explored in dogs the marrow toxicity of single dose total body irradiation delivered from two opposing [sup 60]Co sources at a rate of 10 cGy/min and compared results to those seen with total body irradiation administered in 100 cGy fractions with minimum interfraction intervals of 6 hr. Dogs were not given marrow transplants. They found that 200 cGy single dose total body irradiation was sublethal, with 12 of 13 dogs showing hematopoietic recovery and survival. Seven of 21 dogs given 300 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to 6 of 10 dogs given 300 cGy fractionated total body irradiation. One of 28 dogs given 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to none of six given fractionated radiation. With granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) administered from day 0-21 after 400 cGy total body irradiation, most dogs survived with hematological recovery. Because of the almost uniform success with GCSF after 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation, a study of GCSF after 400 cGy fractionated total body irradiation was deemed not to be informative and, thus, not carried out. Additional comparisons between single dose and fractionated total body irradiation were carried out with GCSF administered after 500 and 600 cGy of total body irradiation. As with lower doses of total body irradiation, no significant survival differences were seen between the two modes of total body irradiation, and only 3 of 26 dogs studied survived with complete hematological recovery. Overall, therefore, survival among dogs given single dose total body irradiation was not different from that of dogs given fractionated total body irradiation (p = .67). Similarly, the slopes of the postirradiation declines of granulocyte and platelet counts and the rates of their recovery in surviving dogs given equal total doses of single versus fractionated total body irradiation were indistinguishable. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Measurement of total body potassium in premature infants by means of a whole-body counter

    SciTech Connect

    Spady, D.W.; Filipow, L.J.; Overton, T.R.; Szymanski, W.A.

    1986-09-01

    This paper describes a whole-body counter (WBC) specially designed to measured total body potassium (TBK) infants under 4500 g. The counter is a ''shadow shield'' design and consists of a single 10 cm X 10 cm X 45 cm NaI(Tl) crystal, positioned lengthwise and shielded from environmental background radiation by a minimum of 10 cm of lead. The standard error of counting for a 2000-s counting period is 19.9% for a 1000-g infant and 11.9% for a 2000-g infant. TBK of stillborn pigs, measured by the WBC, agreed to an average of 3% of TBK determined by carcass analysis in the same animals. A total of 118 measurements of TBK have been made in 50 premature infants ranging in weight between 1100 and 3600 g and in age between 2 and 75 days. The observed relationship of TBK with weight is described by the equation: TBK (mEq) = 0.0433Wt (g + 1.57 r = 0.92. Potassium retention per gram weight gain is estimated to be 0.043 mEq. The obtained TBK values agree well with values published by other workers but extend the range of measurement to 1100 g.

  12. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  13. Total body composition by dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mazess, R.B.; Peppler, W.W.; Gibbons, M.

    1984-10-01

    The lean-fat composition (%FATR) of soft tissue and the mineral mass of the skeleton were determined in vivo using dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry (dose under 2 mrem). A rectilinear raster scan was made over the entire body in 18 subjects (14 female, 4 male). Single-photon absorptiometry (125I) measured bone mineral content on the radius. Percentage fat (%FATD) was determined in the same subjects using body density (from underwater weighing with correction for residual lung volume). Lean body mass (LBM) was determined using both %FATR and %FATD. Percentage fat from absorptiometry and from underwater density were correlated (r . 0.87). The deviation of %FATD from %FATR was due to the amount of skeletal mineral as a percentage of the LBM (r . 0.90). Therefore, skeletal variability, even in normal subjects, where mineral ranges only from 4 to 8% of the LBM, essentially precludes use of body density as a composition indicator unless skeletal mass is measured. Anthropometry (fatfolds and weight) predicted %FATR and LBM at least as well as did underwater density. The predictive error of %FATR from fatfolds was 5% while the predictive error in predicting LBM from anthropometry was 2 to 3 kg (3%).

  14. Modification of a standard cobalt-60 unit for total body irradiation at 150 cm SSD

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, V.G.; Herer, A.S.

    1984-06-01

    A cobalt-60 teletherapy unit has been modified to permit total body irradiation (TBI) with a vertical beam in a conventional treatment room. This technique has been implemented at low cost using a few easily made accessories. Removal of the adjustable collimator assembly provides a field 2.3 meters in diameter at 150 cm SSD. A copper flattening filter has been constructed to improve beam uniformity and remove electron contamination. Machine set up time for TBI requires less than 15 minutes and does not affect the routine clinical use of the unit. A dose rate of 32 cGy per minute (midplane) is attainable in a 20 cm thick patient. The dosimetry and technical aspects are presented in this paper.

  15. Clinical aspects of accidents resulting in acute total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    That the management of whole body radiation injury involves: (1) watchful waiting, (2) observation of the hematologic parameters, (3) use of antibiotics, platelet red cell and possibly granulocyte transfusions, (4) administration of hemopoietic molecular regulators of granulopoiesis, and (5) bone marrow transplantation as the last line of defense. The clinical indication for the preceding will not be discussed, since this will be a subject of later speakers in this conference. Certainly, if a radiation casualty is fortunate enough to have an identical twin, a marrow transplant may be lifesaving and certainly can do no harm to the patient, and there is little risk to the donor.

  16. Myeloproliferative disorders in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Urowitz, M.B.; Rider, W.D.

    1985-01-21

    Four patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were treated with total body irradiation administered in two sittings, 300 to 400 rads to each half of the body. All four patients had taken antimetabolites prior to receiving total body irradiation, and two continued to use them after total body irradiation. Two patients had taken alkylating agents before, and one had used them after total body irradiation. All patients showed clinical improvement. However, in two patients myeloproliferative disorders developed: a myelodysplastic preleukemia at 40 months after total body irradiation in one and acute myelogenous leukemia at 25 months in the other. Total body irradiation differs from total nodal irradiation in the total dose of irradiation (300 to 400 rads versus 2,000 to 3,000), and in the duration of the therapy (two sittings versus treatment over several weeks to months). Furthermore, the patients in the total body irradiation study frequently used cytotoxic drugs before and/or after irradiation, whereas in one total nodal irradiation study, azathioprine (2 mg/kg per day or less) was permitted, but no other cytotoxic agents were allowed. Rheumatologists may therefore face a binding decision when deciding to treat a patient with rheumatoid arthritis with either a cytotoxic drug or irradiation.

  17. Fractionated sublethal total body irradiation and donor bone marrow infusion for induction of specific allograft tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, G.E.; Kimler, B.F.; Thomas, J.H.; Watts, L.M.; Kinnaman, M.L.

    1981-03-01

    Fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (FT-lymphoid-I) plus donor bone marrow (BM) can induce tolerance to skin allografts. In the present study, fractionated total body irradiation (FT-body-I) was studied as an alternative to FT-lymphoid-I. FT-body-I produces less pulmonary and gastrointestinal injury than does single exposure total body irradiation, but because of the decreased capacity of lymphoid tissues to recover from the effects of irradiation between fractions, the effect of FT-body-I on lymphoid cells, when delivered within 24 h, is approximately the same as an equivalent single exposure of total body irradiation. Therefore, FT-body-I, like FT-lymphoid-I, has some selectivity for lymphoid tissues and has the advantage that it can be delivered within the time constraints of ex vivo organ preservation.

  18. Modified Kepler's law, escape speed, and two-body problem in modified Newtonian dynamics-like theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongsheng; Li, Baojiu; Bienaymé, Olivier

    2010-11-01

    We derive a simple analytical expression for the two-body force in a subclass of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) theories and make testable predictions in the modification to the two-body orbital period, shape, precession rate, escape speed, etc. We demonstrate the applications of the modified Kepler’s law in the timing of satellite orbits around the Milky Way, and checking the feasibility of MOND in the orbit of the large Magellanic cloud, the M31 galaxy, and the merging bullet clusters. MOND appears to be consistent with satellite orbits although with a tight margin. Our results on two-bodies are also generalized to restricted three-body, many-body problems, rings, and shells.

  19. A Triple Iron Triathlon Leads to a Decrease in Total Body Mass but Not to Dehydration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Oliver, Senn

    2010-01-01

    A loss in total body mass during an ultraendurance performance is usually attributed to dehydration. We identified the changes in total body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and selected markers of hydration status in 31 male nonprofessional ultratriathletes participating in a Triple Iron triathlon involving 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling…

  20. Development and application of an analysis of axisymmetric body effects on helicopter rotor aerodynamics using modified slender body theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, G.; Johnson, W.

    1984-01-01

    A computationally efficient body analysis designed to couple with a comprehensive helicopter analysis is developed in order to calculate the body-induced aerodynamic effects on rotor performance and loads. A modified slender body theory is used as the body model. With the objective of demonstrating the accuracy, efficiency, and application of the method, the analysis at this stage is restricted to axisymmetric bodies at zero angle of attack. By comparing with results from an exact analysis for simple body shapes, it is found that the modified slender body theory provides an accurate potential flow solution for moderately thick bodies, with only a 10%-20% increase in computational effort over that of an isolated rotor analysis. The computational ease of this method provides a means for routine assessment of body-induced effects on a rotor. Results are given for several configurations that typify those being used in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel and in the rotor-body aerodynamic interference tests being conducted at Ames. A rotor-hybrid airship configuration is also analyzed.

  1. Computer program for the computation of total sediment discharge by the modified Einstein procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    Two versions of a computer program to compute total sediment discharge by the modified Einstein procedure are presented. The FORTRAN 77 language version is for use on the PRIME computer, and the BASIC language version is for use on most microcomputers. The program contains built-in limitations and input-output options that closely follow the original modified Einstein procedure. Program documentation and listings of both versions of the program are included. (USGS)

  2. Evaluation of morphological indices and total body electrical conductivity to assess body composition in big brown bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, R.D.; O'Shea, T.J.; Wunder, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bat researchers have used both morphological indices and total body electric conductivity (TOBEC) as proxies for body condition in a variety of studies, but have typically not validated these indices against direct measurement of body composition. We quantified body composition (total carcass lipids) to determine if morphological indices were useful predictors of body condition in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). We also evaluated body composition indirectly by TOBEC using EM-SCAN?? technology. The most important predictors of body composition in multiple regression analysis were body mass-to-forearm ratio (partial r2 = 0.82, P < 0.001) followed by TOBEC measurement (partial r2 = 0.08, P < 0.001) and to a minor extent head length (partial r2 = 0.02, P < 0.05). Morphological condition indices alone may be adequate for some studies because of lower cost and effort. Marking bats with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags affected TOBEC measurements. ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.

  3. The Thoratec system implanted as a modified total artificial heart: the Bad Oeynhausen technique.

    PubMed

    Arusoglu, Latif; Reiss, Nils; Morshuis, Michiel; Schoenbrodt, Michael; Hakim-Meibodi, Kavous; Gummert, Jan

    2010-12-01

    The CardioWest™ total artificial heart (SynCardia Systems, Tuscon, AZ, USA) is the only FDA-approved total artificial heart determined as a bridge to human heart transplantation for patients dying of biventricular heart failure. Implantation provides immediate hemodynamic restoration and clinical stabilization, leading to end-organ recovery and thus eventually allowing cardiac transplantation. Occasionally, implantation of a total artificial heart is not feasible for anatomical reasons. For this patient group, we have developed an alternative technique using the paracorporeal Thoratec biventricular support system (Thoratec, Pleasanton, CA, USA) as a modified total artificial heart. A detailed description of the implantation technique is presented. PMID:21169150

  4. Simplified methods for computing total sediment discharge with the modified Einstein procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colby, Bruce R.; Hubbell, David Wellington

    1961-01-01

    A procedure was presented in 1950 by H. A. Einstein for computing the total discharge of sediment particles of sizes that are in appreciable quantities in the stream bed. This procedure was modified by the U.S. Geological Survey and adapted to computing the total sediment discharge of a stream on the basis of samples of bed sediment, depth-integrated samples of suspended sediment, streamflow measurements, and water temperature. This paper gives simplified methods for computing total sediment discharge by the modified Einstein procedure. Each of four homographs appreciably simplifies a major step in the computations. Within the stated limitations, use of the homographs introduces much less error than is present in either the basic data or the theories on which the computations of total sediment discharge are based. The results are nearly as accurate mathematically as those that could be obtained from the longer and more complex arithmetic and algebraic computations of the Einstein procedure.

  5. Refinements in the Method of Total Body Nitrogen Determination Based on Measurement of Gamma Radiation Following Thermal Neutron Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamen, Yakov

    1992-01-01

    While measurements of Total Body Nitrogen (TBN) based on observation of capture radiation from ^{14}N(n,gamma)^ {15}N have been made for over a decade, the basis on which they were analyzed did not properly account for the effects of body size on the results obtained. This research investigates that dependence and thus removes a significant systematic error which otherwise limits the accuracy attainable to an undesirable level. These studies were carried out using two Monte Carlo codes, MCNP and EGS4, to calculate neutron transport in the body and gamma transport in the detector respectively. The results of each of the calculations were verified by comparison with measurement and proved satisfactory. The detector responses to neutron capture at various portions of the body were determined. These were combined with calculations of the spatial distribution of neutron capture in the body and, by integration, the response to a body of given size was determined. Comparisons of simulation and measurements for several phantoms of different sizes and shapes showed excellent agreement. Simulation studies were made for a very wide range of phantoms and the results used to permit the correction of analyzed data for body size and shape. At the same time, studies were made to guide a modified design of the TBN facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Improvements made in source shielding, material choices, collimator and premoderator sizes and detector shielding have led to improvements in the systematic error previously attainable.

  6. NORMALIZING THE THERMAL EFFECTS OF RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION: BODY MASS VERSUS TOTAL BODY SURFACE AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current guideline for exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) of 0.4 W/kg may have inadvertently been set to high. The guideline is based on the rate of RFR absorption normalized with respect to body mass. Based primarily on data for work stoppage in the rat, the 0.4 W/kg ...

  7. Normalizing the thermal effects of radiofrequency radiation: body mass versus total body surface area

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The current guideline for exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) of 0.4 W/kg may have inadvertently been set too high. The guideline is based on the rate of RFR absorption normalized with respect to body mass. Based primarily on data for work stoppage in the rat, the 0.4 W/kg guideline was calculated by the dividing the 4.0 W/kg dose by a safety factor of 10. However, if the RFR dose in the rat had been normalized with respect to surface area rather than body mass, the exposure guideline would be 2.3 W/sq m which translates, for a 80 kg adult, to an SAR of approximately 0.06 W/kg. Thus, the current RF exposure guideline may be several-fold greater than originally intended.

  8. The Association between Diabetic Retinopathy and Levels of Ischemia-Modified Albumin, Total Thiol, Total Antioxidant Capacity, and Total Oxidative Stress in Serum and Aqueous Humor

    PubMed Central

    Kirboga, Kadir; Ozec, Ayse V.; Kosker, Mustafa; Dursun, Ayhan; Toker, Mustafa I.; Aydin, Huseyin; Erdogan, Haydar; Topalkara, Aysen; Arici, Mustafa K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the oxidant and antioxidant status of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (DRP). Methods. Forty-four patients who had cataract surgery were enrolled in the study. We included 22 patients with DRP in one group and 22 patients in the control group. Samples of aqueous humor and serum were taken from all patients. Serum and aqueous ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), total thiol, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total oxidative stress (TOS) levels were compared in two groups. Results. Median serum IMA levels were 44.80 absorbance units in the DRP group and 40.15 absorbance units in the control group (P = 0.031). Median serum total thiol levels in the DRP group were significantly less than those in the control group (3051.13 and 3910.12, resp., P = 0.004). Mean TOS levels in the serum were 2.93 ± 0.19 in the DRP group and 2.61 ± 0.26 in the control group (P = 0.039). The differences in mean total thiol, TAC, and TOS levels in the aqueous humor and mean TAC levels in the serum were not statistically significant. Conclusion. IMA, total thiol, and TOS levels in the serum might be useful markers in monitoring the risk of DRP development. PMID:25580282

  9. Prediction of body composition by total body electrical conductivity technique is affected by fat reserves of Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Hyánková, L; Szebestová, Z

    2010-11-01

    The effect of fat accumulation on the prediction of in vivo body composition by a total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) technique was evaluated using Japanese quail at 2 life periods (0 to 21 d and 28 to 70 d of age) that differ significantly in the fatness of birds. In total, 119 quail of 14 age categories were weighed and scanned by the TOBEC analyzer, and their carcasses were subjected to chemical analysis. The prediction equations for chemical composition (percentage of water, lipids, and lean tissue) and body masses (weight of body, water, lipids, and lean tissue) were obtained by linear regression analysis. The equations involved the E-value as the independent variable. In both growth phases, a high accuracy of estimation was found for the total body, lean, and water masses (0.85 ≤ R(2) ≤ 0.98), whereas a low accuracy of estimation was observed for percentages of lipids, lean tissue, and water (0.27 ≤ R(2) ≤ 0.64). Most of the variables showed a worse estimation in the late than in the early growth phase; the maximum difference was observed for the lipid mass (R(2) = 0.35 vs. 0.90, respectively). The correlations between analyzed variables and the residual error distributions of regression models demonstrated that the lower power of the models in the late versus early growth phase may be attributed to an enhanced fat accumulation in sexually mature birds. Their high fat reserves considerably decrease body hydration, which negatively influences the estimation of body composition based upon the TOBEC procedure. PMID:20952716

  10. [Estimation of normal body volumes in children by the measurement of total electrical impedance (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Peyramond, D; Tholly, F; Bertoye, A

    1980-03-01

    The theoretical fluid volume of 41 normal children (mean age 8 years 9 months) was estimated from anthropometric data: height, weight, wrist circumference, and body surface. The correlation between this method and the conventional methods of determining total body water using tritiated water or of extracellular fluid volume using stable bromide or bromide 82 is very good. The real fluid volumes have been measured using total body electrical impedance at low frequency (Z5 kHz) and high frequency (Z1 MHz). The correlation of these results with those obtained by anthropometry is very satisfactory (r = 0.89; p < 0,001). PMID:7469697

  11. Investigation into the relationship between body surface area and total body potassium using Monte Carlo and measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, J. A.; Blake-James, M.; Green, S.; Beddoe, A. H.

    2002-03-01

    The use of body surface area (BSA) as a means of indexing chemotherapy doses is widespread even though the value of this practice is uncertain. In principle, the body cell mass (BCM) more closely represents the body's metabolic size and this is investigated here as an alternative to BSA; since 98% of body potassium is intracellular the derivation of total body potassium (TBK) via the measurement of 40K in a whole body counter (WBC) will provide a useful normalizing index for metabolic size, potentially avoiding toxicity and underdosing. The Queen Elizabeth Hospital WBC has been used in this study, initially involving single geometrical phantoms and then combinations of these to simulate human body habitus. Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) codes were constructed to model the phantoms and simulate the measurements made in the WBC. Efficiency corrections were derived by comparing measurement and modelled data for each detector separately. A method of modelling a person in the WBC as a series of ellipsoids was developed. Twenty-four normal males and 24 females were measured for their 40K emissions. Individual MCNP codes were constructed for each volunteer and the results used in conjunction with the measurements to derive TBK, correcting for body habitus effects and detector efficiencies. An estimate of the component of error arising from sources other than counting statistics was included by analysing data from the measurement of phantoms. The total residual errors (expressed as coefficients of variation) for males and females were 10.1% and 8.5% respectively. The measurement components were determined to be 2.4% and 2.5%, implying that the biological components were 9.8% and 8.1% respectively. These results suggest that the use of BSA for indexing chemotherapy doses is likely to give rise to clinically significant under- or overdosing.

  12. Gravity matters: Motion perceptions modified by direction and body position.

    PubMed

    Claassen, Jens; Bardins, Stanislavs; Spiegel, Rainer; Strupp, Michael; Kalla, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Motion coherence thresholds are consistently higher at lower velocities. In this study we analysed the influence of the position and direction of moving objects on their perception and thereby the influence of gravity. This paradigm allows a differentiation to be made between coherent and randomly moving objects in an upright and a reclining position with a horizontal or vertical axis of motion. 18 young healthy participants were examined in this coherent threshold paradigm. Motion coherence thresholds were significantly lower when position and motion were congruent with gravity independent of motion velocity (p=0.024). In the other conditions higher motion coherence thresholds (MCT) were found at lower velocities and vice versa (p<0.001). This result confirms previous studies with higher MCT at lower velocity but is in contrast to studies concerning perception of virtual turns and optokinetic nystagmus, in which differences of perception were due to different directions irrespective of body position, i.e. perception took place in an egocentric reference frame. Since the observed differences occurred in an upright position only, perception of coherent motion in this study is defined by an earth-centered reference frame rather than by an ego-centric frame. PMID:27258411

  13. Total body and exchangeable potassium in chronic airways obstruction: a controversial area?

    PubMed Central

    Boddy, K; Davies, D L; Howie, A D; Madkour, M M; Mahaffy, M E; Pack, A I

    1978-01-01

    Potassium deficiency is an important complication in the treatment of heart disease. However, there is a serious dichotomy in the literature. Severe potassium depletion has been reported in this condition when exchangeable potassium was measured whereas normal levels or marginal depletion were found in measurements of total body potassium. To clarify this situation, simultaneous measurements of total body potassium by whole-body counting, and of exchangeable potassium by isotope dilution using 43K, were made in 10 male subjects with established airways obstruction. Sequential determinations showed that exchangeable potassium increased up to 68 hours after administration, and values obtained at only 24 hours would have been a substantial underestimate. In this group of subjects neither total body nor exchangeable potassium at 48 hours was significantly different from the expected normal value. PMID:417419

  14. Energy absorption, lean body mass, and total body fat changes during 5 weeks of continuous bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, Jean M.; Evans, Harlan; Kuo, Mike C.; Schneider, Victor S.; Leblanc, Adrian D.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the body composition changes due to inactivity was examined together with the question of whether these changes are secondary to changes in energy absorption. Volunteers were 15 healthy males who lived on a metabolic research ward under close staff supervision for 11 weeks. Subjects were ambulatory during the first six weeks and remained in continuous bed rest for the last five weeks of the study. Six male volunteers (age 24-61 years) were selected for body composition measurements. Nine different male volunteers (age 21-50 years) were selected for energy absorption measurements. The volunteers were fed weighed conventional foods on a constant 7-d rotation menu. The average daily caloric content was 2,592 kcal. Comparing the five weeks of continuous bed rest with the previous six weeks of ambulation, it was observed that there was no change in energy absorption or total body weight during bed rest, but a significant decrease in lean body mass and a significant increase in total body fat (p less than 0.05).

  15. Biostability and macrophage-mediated foreign body reaction of silicone-modified polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    Christenson, Elizabeth M; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Hiltner, Anne

    2005-08-01

    In this study, the effect of soft segment chemistry on the phase morphology and in vivo response of commercial-grade poly(ether urethane) (PEU), silicone-modified PEU (PEU-S), poly(carbonate urethane) (PCU), and silicone-modified PCU (PCU-S) elastomers were examined. Silicone-modified polyurethanes were developed to combine the biostability of silicone with the mechanical properties of PEUs. Results from the infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of silicone at the surface of the PEU-S and PCU-S films. Atomic force microscopy phase imaging indicated that the overall two-phase morphology of PEUs, necessary for its thermoplastic elastomeric properties, was not disrupted by the silicone modification. After material characterization, the in vivo foreign body response and biostability of the polyurethanes were studied using a subcutaneous cage implant protocol. The results from the cage implant study indicated that monocytes adhere, differentiate to macrophages which fuse to form foreign body giant cells on all of the polyurethanes. However, the silicone-modified surfaces promoted apoptosis of adherent macrophages at 4 days and high levels of macrophage fusion after 21 days. These results confirm that the surface of a biomaterial may influence the induction of apoptosis of adherent macrophages in vivo and are consistent with previous cell culture studies of these materials. This study validates the use of our standard cell culture protocol to predict in vivo behavior and further supports the hypothesis that interleukin-4 is the primary mediator of macrophage fusion and foreign body giant cell formation in vivo. The impact of these findings on the biostability of polyurethanes is the subject of current investigations. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared analysis of explanted specimens provided evidence of chain scission and crosslinking at the surface of all of the polyurethanes. The silicone modification did not fully inhibit the oxidative

  16. Point drag and total drag of navy struts no. 1 modified

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F; Smith, R H; Hill, G C

    1923-01-01

    This report deals with the results of tests on struts conducted at Washington Navy Yard. Two models of the modified Navy strut, no. 1, were tested in the 8 by 8 foot wind tunnel. The tests were made to determine the total resistance end effect and the pressure distribution at various wind-tunnel speeds with the length of the strut transverse to the current. Only the measurements made at zero pitch and yaw are given in this report.

  17. Total body skeletal muscle mass: estimation by creatine (methyl-d3) dilution in humans

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Ann C.; O'Connor-Semmes, Robin L.; Leonard, Michael S.; Miller, Ram R.; Stimpson, Stephen A.; Turner, Scott M.; Ravussin, Eric; Cefalu, William T.; Hellerstein, Marc K.; Evans, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Current methods for clinical estimation of total body skeletal muscle mass have significant limitations. We tested the hypothesis that creatine (methyl-d3) dilution (D3-creatine) measured by enrichment of urine D3-creatinine reveals total body creatine pool size, providing an accurate estimate of total body skeletal muscle mass. Healthy subjects with different muscle masses [n = 35: 20 men (19–30 yr, 70–84 yr), 15 postmenopausal women (51–62 yr, 70–84 yr)] were housed for 5 days. Optimal tracer dose was explored with single oral doses of 30, 60, or 100 mg D3-creatine given on day 1. Serial plasma samples were collected for D3-creatine pharmacokinetics. All urine was collected through day 5. Creatine and creatinine (deuterated and unlabeled) were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Total body creatine pool size and muscle mass were calculated from D3-creatinine enrichment in urine. Muscle mass was also measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and traditional 24-h urine creatinine. D3-creatine was rapidly absorbed and cleared with variable urinary excretion. Isotopic steady-state of D3-creatinine enrichment in the urine was achieved by 30.7 ± 11.2 h. Mean steady-state enrichment in urine provided muscle mass estimates that correlated well with MRI estimates for all subjects (r = 0.868, P < 0.0001), with less bias compared with lean body mass assessment by DXA, which overestimated muscle mass compared with MRI. The dilution of an oral D3-creatine dose determined by urine D3-creatinine enrichment provides an estimate of total body muscle mass strongly correlated with estimates from serial MRI with less bias than total lean body mass assessment by DXA. PMID:24764133

  18. Total-body digital X-ray in trauma. An experience report on the first operational full body scanner in Europe and its possible role in ATLS.

    PubMed

    Exadaktylos, A K; Benneker, L M; Jeger, V; Martinolli, L; Bonel, H M; Eggli, S; Potgieter, H; Zimmermann, H

    2008-05-01

    When patients enter our emergency room with suspected multiple injuries, Statscan provides a full body anterior and lateral image for initial diagnosis, and then zooms in on specific smaller areas for a more detailed evaluation. In order to examine the possible role of Statscan in the management of multiply injured patients we implemented a modified ATLS((R)) algorithm, where X-ray of C-spine, chest and pelvis have been replaced by single-total a.p./lat. body radiograph. Between 15 October 2006 and 1 February 2007 143 trauma patients (mean ISS 15+/-14 (3-75)) were included. We compared the time in resuscitation room to 650 patients (mean ISS 14+/-14 (3-75)) which were treated between 1 January 2002 and 1 January 2004 according to conventional ATLS protocol. The total-body scanning time was 3.5 min (3-6 min) compared to 25.7 (8-48 min) for conventional X-rays, The total ER time was unchanged 28.7 min (13-58 min) compared to 29.1 min (15-65 min) using conventional plain radiography. In 116/143 patients additional CT scans were necessary. In 98/116 full body trauma CT scans were performed. In 18/116 patients selective CT scans were ordered based on Statscan findings. In 43/143 additional conventional X-rays had to be performed, mainly due to inadequate a.p. views of fractured bones. All radiographs were transmitted over the hospital network (Picture Archiving and Communication System, PACS) for immediate simultaneous viewing at different places. The rapid availability of images for interpretation because of their digital nature and the reduced need for repeat exposures because of faulty radiography are also felt to be strengths. PMID:18321506

  19. Attenuator design for organs at risk in total body irradiation using a translation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lavallee, Marie-Claude; Aubin, Sylviane; Chretien, Mario; Larochelle, Marie; Beaulieu, Luc

    2008-05-15

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is an efficient part of the treatment for malignant hematological diseases. Dynamic TBI techniques provide great advantages (e.g., dose homogeneity, patient comfort) while overcoming treatment room space restrictions. However, with dynamic techniques come additional organs at risk (OAR) protection challenges. In most dynamic TBI techniques, lead attenuators are used to diminish the dose received by the OARs. The purpose of this study was to characterize the dose deposition under various shapes of attenuators in static and dynamic treatments. This characterization allows for the development of a correction method to improve attenuator design in dynamic treatments. The dose deposition under attenuators at different depths in dynamic treatment was compared with the static situation based on two definitions: the coverage areas and the penumbra regions. The coverage area decreases with depth in dynamic treatment while it is stable for the static situation. The penumbra increases with depth in both treatment modes, but the increasing rate is higher in the dynamic situation. Since the attenuator coverage is deficient in the dynamic treatment mode, a correction method was developed to modify the attenuator design in order to improve the OAR protection. The correction method is divided in two steps. The first step is based on the use of elongation charts, which provide appropriate attenuator coverage and acceptable penumbra for a specific depth. The second point is a correction method for the thoracic inclination, which can introduce an orientation problem in both static and dynamic treatments. This two steps correction method is simple to use and personalized to each patient's anatomy. It can easily be adapted to any dynamic TBI techniques.

  20. In vivo Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Facility for Total Body Nitrogen and Cd

    SciTech Connect

    Munive, Marco; Revilla, Angel; Solis, Jose L.

    2007-10-26

    A Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) system has been designed and constructed to measure the total body nitrogen and Cd for in vivo studies. An aqueous solution of KNO{sub 3} was used as phantom for system calibration. The facility has been used to monitor total body nitrogen (TBN) of mice and found that is related to their diet. Some mice swallowed diluted water with Cl{sub 2}Cd, and the presence of Cd was detected in the animals. The minimum Cd concentration that the system can detect was 20 ppm.

  1. Total Body Photography as an Aid to Skin Self-examination: A Patient's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Secker, Lisanne J; Bergman, Wilma; Kukutsch, Nicole A

    2016-03-01

    Skin self-examination can help patients who are at high risk for developing melanoma to become more involved in their own surveillance and treatment. This study examined the use of total body photography as an aid to skin self-examination from the patients' perspective. A total of 179 individuals at high risk for developing melanoma who had undergone total body photography (60.5% response rate) completed a self-reported questionnaire assessing the frequency of skin self-examination, perceived usefulness of total body photography, and a variety of potential demographic, clinical and psychological factors. Only approximately half of the participants indicated skin self-examination as useful and 78.9% preferred clinical skin examination by a specialist. Finding total body photography useful was associated with having received instructions on how to perform skin self-examination, the use of a (hand)mirror, and confidence to detect changing moles. These findings allow us to develop strategies to further improve patients' self-screening behaviours. PMID:26315708

  2. EXPLORER: Changing the molecular imaging paradigm with total-body PET/CT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Simon R.; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Jones, Terry

    2016-04-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is the highest sensitivity technique for human whole-body imaging studies. However, current clinical PET scanners do not make full use of the available signal, as they only permit imaging of a 15-25 cm segment of the body at one time. Given the limited sensitive region, whole-body imaging with clinical PET scanners requires relatively long scan times and subjects the patient to higher than necessary radiation doses. The EXPLORER initiative aims to build a 2-meter axial length PET scanner to allow imaging the entire subject at once, capturing nearly the entire available PET signal. EXPLORER will acquire data with ~40-fold greater sensitivity leading to a six-fold increase in reconstructed signal-to-noise ratio for imaging the total body. Alternatively, total-body images with the EXPLORER scanner will be able to be acquired in ~30 seconds or with ~0.15 mSv injected dose, while maintaining current PET image quality. The superior sensitivity will open many new avenues for biomedical research. Specifically for cancer applications, high sensitivity PET will enable detection of smaller lesions. Additionally, greater sensitivity will allow imaging out to 10 half-lives of positron emitting radiotracers. This will enable 1) metabolic ultra-staging with FDG by extending the uptake and clearance time to 3-5 hours to significantly improve contrast and 2) improved kinetic imaging with short-lived radioisotopes such as C-11, crucial for drug development studies. Frequent imaging studies of the same subject to study disease progression or to track response to therapy will be possible with the low dose capabilities of the EXPLORER scanner. The low dose capabilities will also open up new imaging possibilities in pediatrics and adolescents to better study developmental disorders. This talk will review the basis for developing total-body PET, potential applications, and review progress to date in developing EXPLORER, the first total-body PET scanner.

  3. Total diesel exhaust particulate length measurements using a modified household smoke alarm ionization chamber.

    PubMed

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of various means to combat the negative health effects of ultrafine particles emitted by internal combustion engines, a reliable, low-cost instrument for dynamic measurements of the exhaust emissions of ultrafine particulate matter (PM) is needed. In this study, an ordinary ionization-type building smoke detector was modified to serve as a measuring ionization chamber and utilized for dynamic measurements of PM emissions from diesel engines. When used with diluted exhaust, the readings show an excellent correlation with total particulate length. The instrument worked well with raw and diluted exhaust and with varying emission levels and is well suitable for on-board use. PMID:21387930

  4. Dosimetry of single fraction high dose total body irradiation as measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.C.; Bacza, E.T.; Findley, D.O.; Forell, B.W.

    1983-09-01

    Eighty-five patients with acute myelogenous or acute lymphoblastic leukemia were treated at the Cit of Hope National Medicine Center with chemotherapy, total body irradiation, and bone marrow transplant. The average mid-line dose to these patients was 1002 rad with a uniformity of 8%.

  5. Variation in body weight and total length among families of fingerling white bass after communal rearing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation in body weight and total length among 15 families of Phase I white bass Morone chrysops was evaluated in a communal pond. Family pedigrees were determined a posteriori using microsatellite molecular markers and trait heritabilities (h2) were estimated. Fingerlings averaged 36.7 (+ or - 2...

  6. Post-laryngectomy localization of I-131 at tracheostomy site on a total body scan

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, G.A.; Schulz, E.E.

    1984-07-01

    A post-thyroidectomy, post-I-131-therapy patient had a laryngectomy and neck dissection for recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma. A subsequent I-131 total body scan revealed persistent anterior neck activity, which disappeared upon removal of the tracheostomy tube and dressings.

  7. Total body calcium analysis using the Ca-12(n, alpha) Ar-37 reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewellen, T. K.; Nelp, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    A low dose neutron activation technique was developed to measure total body calcium in vivo. The effort had included development of irradiation and processing facilities and conduction of human studies to determine the accuracy and precision of measurement attainable with the systems.

  8. Metabolic changes in humans following total body irradiation. Report for February 1960-October 1961

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-29

    These studies are designed to obtain new information about the metabolic effects of total body and partial body irradiation so as to have a better understanding of the acute and subacute effects of irradiation in the human. The initial studies are pointed toward the elucidation of biological indicators of radiation effects in humans. The major parameters being investigated at present are urinary amino aciduria and alterations in immunological patterns. Certain other parameters such as creatine and creatinine excretion and hematological effects are also being followed. The long-term program envisions carrying out the various observations at dose levels of 100 rad and gradually increasing the dose to 150, 200, 250 and 300 rad. Eventually doses up to 600 rad are anticipated. Also comparison of effects of radiomimetic drugs with total body radiation will be studied.

  9. Total body nitrogen and total body carbon as indicators of body protein and body lipids in the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae: effects of methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue, and of diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast.

    PubMed

    ul Haq, Ihsan; Mayr, Leopold; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge; Robinson, Alan S; Stauffer, Christian; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca

    2010-12-01

    The application of methoprene, and providing access to diet including hydrolyzed yeast, are treatments known to enhance mating success in the male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), supporting their use in mass rearing protocols for sterile males in the context of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes. The objective of the present laboratory study was to investigate the effect of methoprene application and diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast (protein) on the turnover of body lipids and protein to confirm the feasibility of their application in melon fly SIT mass-rearing programmes. While females had access to a diet that included hydrolyzed yeast (protein), males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (1) topical application of methoprene and access to diet including protein (M+P+); (2) only diet including protein (M-P+); (3) only methoprene (M+P-) and (4) untreated, only sugar-fed, control males (M-P-). Total body carbon (TBC) and total body nitrogen (TBN) of flies were measured at regular intervals from emergence to 35 days of age for each of the different treatments. Nitrogen assimilation and turnover in the flies were measured using stable isotope ((15)N) dilution techniques. Hydrolyzed yeast incorporation into the diet significantly increased male body weight, TBC and TBN as compared to sugar-fed males. Females had significantly higher body weight, TBC and TBN as compared to all males. TBC and TBN showed age-dependent changes, increasing until the age of sexual maturity and decreasing afterwards in both sexes. Methoprene treatment did not significantly affect TBC or TBN. The progressive increase with age of TBC suggests that lipogenesis occurs in adult male B. cucurbitae, as is the case in other tephritids. Stable isotope dilution was shown to be an effective method for determining N uptake in B. cucurbitae. This technique was used to show that sugar-fed males rely solely on larval N reserves and that the N

  10. Effects of Hypergravity and Adrenalectomy on Total Body Bone Mineral Content in Male Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girten, Beverly; Moran, Megan; Baer, Lisa; Pruitt, Sean; O'Brien, Cheryl; Arnaud, Sara; Wade, Charles; Bowley, Susan M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The effects of 14 days of increased gravitational load, and the absence of adrenal stress hormones on total body bone mineral content (BMC) were examined in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Centrifugation at 2 Gs (2G) was used to increase the gravitational load, and bilateral adrenalectomy (ADX) was used to eliminate the production of adrenal stress hormones. Stationary groups at 1 G (1G) and sham operated (SHAM) animals served as controls. Thirty rats (n=6 or 8) made up the four experimental groups (1G SHAM, 1G ADX, 2G SHAM and 2G ADX). BMC was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and activity was determined through biotelemetry. Body mass and food intake were also measured. Multi-factorial analysis of variance (MANCOVA) and Newman Keuls post hoc tests were used to analyze significant effects (p less than 0.05) for the primary variables. Results indicated that BMC decreased significantly with increased G for both the SHAM and ADX groups. The BMC for the 1 G ADX group was also significantly lower than the 1G SHAM group, however the 2G SHAM and ADX groups were not significantly different. There was a significant decrease in body mass with increased G and there was no ADX effect on body mass. When BMC was normalized for body mass changes, there were no significant group differences. Activity level decreased with body mass, and food intake data showed there was significant hypophagia during the first few days of centrifugation. These results suggest that the decrease in total body BMC seen with hypergravity may be based to a large extent on the differences in body mass induced by the 2 G load.

  11. A new total body scanning system for automatic change detection in multiple pigmented skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Korotkov, Konstantin; Quintana, Josep; Puig, Susana; Malvehy, Josep; Garcia, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The detection of newly appearing and changing pigmented skin lesions (PSLs) is essential for timely diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma. Total body skin examination (TBSE) procedures, currently practiced for this purpose, can be extremely time-consuming for patients with numerous lesions. In addition, these procedures are prone to subjectivity when selecting PSLs for baseline image comparison, increasing the risk of missing a developing cancer. To address this issue, we propose a new photogrammetry-based total body scanning system allowing for skin surface image acquisition using cross-polarized light. Equipped with 21 high-resolution cameras and a turntable, this scanner automatically acquires a set of overlapping images, covering 85%-90% of the patient's skin surface. These images are used for the automated mapping of PSLs and their change estimation between explorations. The maps produced relate images of individual lesions with their locations on the patient's body, solving the body-to-image and image-to-image correspondence problem in TBSEs. Currently, the scanner is limited to patients with sparse body hair and, for a complete skin examination, the scalp, palms, soles and inner arms should be photographed manually. The initial tests of the scanner showed that it can be successfully applied for automated mapping and temporal monitoring of multiple lesions: PSLs relevant for follow-up were repeatedly mapped in several explorations. Moreover, during the baseline image comparison, all lesions with artificially induced changes were correctly identified as "evolved." PMID:25222947

  12. Technical modifications in hyperfractionated total body irradiation for T-lymphocyte deplete bone marrow transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, C.A.; Barber-Derus, S.; Murray, K.J.; Casper, J.T.; Ash, R.C.; Gillin, M.T.; Wilson, J.F. )

    1989-08-01

    The Medical College of Wisconsin implemented a major bone marrow transplant (BMT) program in July 1985. The type of transplants to be focused on were allogeneic T-lymphocyte deplete. Total body irradiation (TBI) was initially patterned after the Memorial method. Patients received total body irradiation in a sitting position at a dose rate of 20-25 cGy/minute with 50% attenuation lung blocks used both anterior/posterior and posterior/anterior. Electron boosting was utilized for the ribs beneath the lung blocks. Occasionally, lower extremity boosting was required because of the sitting position. A dose of 14 Gy was chosen since T-lymphocyte deplete bone marrow transplant data suggest the need for higher total doses to consistently obtain engraftment. This dose was given in 3 equal daily fractions over 3 days following conditioning chemotherapy. Six of 11 patients treated in this manner developed lethal pulmonary events. In response to the pulmonary toxicity, partial lung shielding was increased to 60% attenuation. In the next 107 patients receiving this program of total body irradiation there was a reduced incidence of fatal pulmonary events (10 cases of fatal idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis and 12 cases of fatal pulmonary infections) after a median follow-up of 9 months. This was an obvious improvement over the initial group. A significant level of hepato-renal toxicity was also observed with 14 Gy total body irradiation when no liver or kidney blocking was used. Of the first 20 patients treated, three cases of fatal veno-occlusive disease resulted. Subsequently, a 10% attenuation right sided liver block was added. Five of 98 patients treated with this block have developed fatal hepatic dysfunction, (median follow-up of 7.2 months).

  13. Immunologic changes after loco-regional radiotherapy and fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) in mice

    SciTech Connect

    De Ruysscher, D.; Waer, M.; Vandeputte, M.; van der Schueren, E. )

    1989-12-01

    The immunologic effects of fractionated irradiation to both hind limbs and the tail of adult mice were investigated. A dose of 34 Gy given in 17 fractions of 2 Gy, 1 fraction per day, 5 days per week, was delivered with a 60Co source. A significant decrease of the total splenocyte count and of the PHA(phytohemagglutinin)-induced proliferation of T cells was found immediately after irradiation. Both parameters normalized within 30 days after irradiation. Immediately after irradiation, the MLC (mixed lymphocyte culture) was supranormal, dropped to 45% 1 week later, and normalized within 1 month after radiotherapy. The NK (natural killer) activity was significantly decreased only the first week after loco-regional irradiation, while the LAK (lymphokine activated killer) activity was not altered at all. The percentage of goat-anti-mouse+ cells (mainly B lymphocytes) was not changed immediately after loco-regional irradiation, but rose to supranormal values (175% of control level) 3 months after irradiation. A persistent decrease of the percentage and the absolute numbers of the Lyt2+ cells (= CD8+ cells, suppressor/cytotoxic phenotype) was observed up to 3 months after irradiation, while the percentage of L3T4+ cells (= CD4+ cells, helper phenotype) remained normal for the total follow-up. No differences in allogeneic skin graft survival could be demonstrated between irradiated and control animals. The observed immunological effects could not be explained by the scatter irradiation to the whole body as total body irradiation (TBI) administered in a dose and dose rate similar to the scatter dose did not result in persistent immunologic changes. No dose-rate effect could be demonstrated in a low dose fractionated total body irradiation schedule. A total body irradiation similar to the scatter dose in humans did not result in significant immunologic changes.

  14. Colonic Foreign Body Retrieval Using a Modified TAMIS Technique with Standard Instruments and Trocars

    PubMed Central

    Cawich, Shamir O.; Mohammed, Fawwaz; Spence, Richard; Albert, Matthew; Naraynsingh, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Background. Reports of retained colorectal foreign bodies (CFBs) are no longer considered uncommon. We present a case where a retained CFB was retrieved using a modified TAMIS technique using standard instruments and trocars. Case Report. A 52-year-old man presented with a CFB. We report our technique of extraction with standard laparoscopic instruments without specialized access platforms. Conclusions. This modified TAMIS technique is well suited for resource poor environments because it requires no specialized equipment, platforms, or additional skill sets compared to conventional laparoscopy. PMID:25945267

  15. Colonic Foreign Body Retrieval Using a Modified TAMIS Technique with Standard Instruments and Trocars.

    PubMed

    Cawich, Shamir O; Mohammed, Fawwaz; Spence, Richard; Albert, Matthew; Naraynsingh, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Background. Reports of retained colorectal foreign bodies (CFBs) are no longer considered uncommon. We present a case where a retained CFB was retrieved using a modified TAMIS technique using standard instruments and trocars. Case Report. A 52-year-old man presented with a CFB. We report our technique of extraction with standard laparoscopic instruments without specialized access platforms. Conclusions. This modified TAMIS technique is well suited for resource poor environments because it requires no specialized equipment, platforms, or additional skill sets compared to conventional laparoscopy. PMID:25945267

  16. [Evaluation of a complex trace element composition and bioutilization using isotope technics and total body measurement].

    PubMed

    Balogh, L; Kerekes, A; Bodó, K; Körösi, L; Jánoki, G A

    1998-05-24

    Modified mineral and trace element solutions were prepared containing Zn-65, Co-57, Mn-54, Fe-59, Mo-99 and Ni-63 isotopes which were physico-chemically identical to the original solution. Bioutilization examinations were carried out on animals receiving their normal feeding, after p. os application of complex trace element composition (CTEC) namely whole-body retention studies, bioassays, scintigraphic and excretion examinations in altogether 180 Wistar rats, 6 Beagle and 2 mongrel dogs using whole body counter, gamma and beta counters, gamma camera and metabolic cages. Extremely high whole body retention was measured in case of iron (8-30%), high utilizations in case of zinc (4-5%), cobalt (4-6%), molybdenum (3-4%) and manganese (2-4%) and a lower value in case of nickel. Bioassay and scintigraphic evaluations showed marked liver-, kidney-, and muscle and moderated blood uptakes. The way of excretion was mainly (more than 90%) via the faeces in case of zinc, manganese, iron and nickel, although cobalt excreted in 8% and molybdenum in 52% via the urinary tract. Our results show, that isotope technique combined with whole body counting and excretion studies in an available method for trace element bioutilization studies. PMID:9632924

  17. Detection of Foreign Bodies and Bubble Defects in Tire Radiography Images Based on Total Variation and Edge Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Tao; Li, Qing-Ling

    2013-08-01

    We present the analysis and decomposition of tire radiography images by combining the total variation, curvelet transform based image enhancement, and Canny edge detection to detect foreign bodies and bubble defects in tires. Relying on the feature of total variation that images can be decomposed as texture parts and cartoon parts, we decompose the tire radiography image and select the cartoon part for defect detection since the textures are segmented and defect information is retained. The edges of the image are enhanced by modifying the curvelet coefficients before further edge detection operation. Furthermore, a Canny edge detection operator is used to detect the defects in which the eight-neighborhood bilinear interpolation non-maximum suppression method is employed to improve the detection performance. In our experiments, the Sobel operator and state-of-the-art methods such as the LoG operator and Canny edge detection algorithms are employed for comparison, and the experimental results are discussed briefly. The experimental results indicate that foreign bodies and bubbles in tires can be detected and located accurately by our proposed method.

  18. SU-E-T-600: In Vivo Dosimetry for Total Body and Total Marrow Irradiations with Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Niedbala, M; Save, C; Cygler, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) for in-vivo dosimetry of patients undergoing Total Body and Total Marrow Irradiations (TBI and TMI). Methods: TBI treatments of 12 Gy were delivered in 6 BID fractions with the patient on a moving couch under a static 10 MV beam (Synergy, Elekta). TMI treatments of 18 Gy in 9 BID fractions were planned and delivered using a 6 MV TomoTherapy unit (Accuray). To provide a uniform dose to the entire patient length, the treatment was split into 2 adjacent fields junctioned in the thigh region. Our standard clinical practice involves in vivo dosimetry with MOSFETs for each TBI fraction and TLDs for at least one fraction of the TMI treatment for dose verification. In this study we also used OSLDs. Individual calibration coefficients were obtained for the OSLDs based on irradiations in a solid water phantom to the dose of 50 cGy from Elekta Synergy 10 MV (TBI) and 6 MV (TMI) beams. Calibration coefficients were calculated based on the OSLDs readings taken 2 hrs post-irradiation. For in vivo dosimetry OSLDs were placed alongside MOSFETs for TBI patients and in approximately the same locations as the TLDs for TMI patients. OSLDs were read 2 hours post treatment and compared to the MOSFET and TLD results. Results: OSLD measured doses agreed within 5% with MOSFET and TLD results, with the exception of the junction region in the TMI patient due to very high dose gradient and difficulty of precise and reproducible detector placement. Conclusion: OSLDs are useful for in vivo dosimetry of TBI and TMI patients. The quick post-treatment readout is an advantage over TLDs, allowing the results to be obtained between BID fractions, while wireless detectors are advantageous over MOSFETs for treatments involving a moving couch.

  19. Measurement of total body calcium in osteoporotic patients treated with salmon calcitonin

    SciTech Connect

    Zanzi, I.; Thompson, K.; Cohn, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    In the past, the evaluation of therapies for osteoporosis has been limited by the lack of a suitable quantitative end point. The introduction of the technique of in vivo total body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA) has made possible the precise and accurate measurement of total body calcium (TBCa). Since almost 99 percent of TBCa is in the skeleton, TBNAA gives a direct measurement of skeletal mass. Thus, changes in skeletal mass serve as an objective criterion in the evaluation of the efficacy of the therapy in osteoporosis. Studies performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere have reported the use of calcitonin (CT) in the treatment of primary osteoporosis and related conditions in a limited number of patients. The physiological effects of CT as an inhibitor of bone resorption has been the rationale of its use. The results of a randomized, controlled, 2 year therapeutical trial of CT in a group of postmenopausal osteoporotic women are presented in this report.

  20. Influence of nandrolone decanoate on the repopulation of the thymus after total body irradiation of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, J.; Huys, J.; De Scheerder, Y.; Dhont, E.; De Smedt, M.

    1982-10-01

    It has been reported that nandrolone decanoate is helpful in overcoming the neutropenic phase following irradiation. In the present study the influence of nandrolone decanoate on the thymus' cellularity after total body irradiation was investigated. In comparison with a placebo-treated group, mice receiving nandrolone decanoate showed a similar pattern of thymus repopulation, but a significantly lower number of thymocytes over the whole period of treatment was found. Nonirradiated mice also had a significantly lower number of thymocytes when treated with nandrolone decanoate. In addition, the number of circulating leukocytes was also evaluated over a period of 1 month after total body irradiation. On 11 of the 21 days investigated, a significantly higher number of leukocytes was found in the nandrolone decanoate-treated group. We conclude that the action of nandrolone decanoate was not clearly distinct from that of testosterone regarding either granulopoiesis or thymic involution.

  1. Total Body Capacitance for Estimating Human Basal Metabolic Rate in an Egyptian Population

    PubMed Central

    M. Abdel-Mageed, Samir; I. Mohamed, Ehab

    2016-01-01

    Determining basal metabolic rate (BMR) is important for estimating total energy needs in the human being yet, concerns have been raised regarding the suitability of sex-specific equations based on age and weight for its calculation on an individual or population basis. It has been shown that body cell mass (BCM) is the body compartment responsible for BMR. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between total body capacitance (TBC), which is considered as an expression for BCM, and BMR and to develop a formula for calculating BMR in comparison with widely used equations. Fifty healthy nonsmoking male volunteers [mean age (± SD): 24.93 ± 4.15 year and body mass index (BMI): 25.63 ± 3.59 kg/m2] and an equal number of healthy nonsmoking females matched for age and BMI were recruited for the study. TBC and BMR were measured for all participants using octopolar bioelectric impedance analysis and indirect calorimetry techniques, respectively. A significant regressing equation based on the covariates: sex, weight, and TBC for estimating BMR was derived (R=0.96, SEE=48.59 kcal, and P<0.0001), which will be useful for nutritional and health status assessment for both individuals and populations. PMID:27127453

  2. Total Body Capacitance for Estimating Human Basal Metabolic Rate in an Egyptian Population.

    PubMed

    M Abdel-Mageed, Samir; I Mohamed, Ehab

    2016-03-01

    Determining basal metabolic rate (BMR) is important for estimating total energy needs in the human being yet, concerns have been raised regarding the suitability of sex-specific equations based on age and weight for its calculation on an individual or population basis. It has been shown that body cell mass (BCM) is the body compartment responsible for BMR. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between total body capacitance (TBC), which is considered as an expression for BCM, and BMR and to develop a formula for calculating BMR in comparison with widely used equations. Fifty healthy nonsmoking male volunteers [mean age (± SD): 24.93 ± 4.15 year and body mass index (BMI): 25.63 ± 3.59 kg/m(2)] and an equal number of healthy nonsmoking females matched for age and BMI were recruited for the study. TBC and BMR were measured for all participants using octopolar bioelectric impedance analysis and indirect calorimetry techniques, respectively. A significant regressing equation based on the covariates: sex, weight, and TBC for estimating BMR was derived (R=0.96, SEE=48.59 kcal, and P<0.0001), which will be useful for nutritional and health status assessment for both individuals and populations. PMID:27127453

  3. The physiology and biochemistry of total body immobilization in animals: A compendium of research. [bibliographies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorchak, K. J.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Major studies that describe the physiological and biochemical mechanisms which operate during total body restraint (confinement in cages for example) are presented. The metabolism and behavior of various animals used in medical research (dogs, monkeys, rats, fowl) was investigated and wherever possible a detailed annotation for each study is provided under the subheadings: (a) purposes, (b) procedures and methods, (c) results, and (d) conclusions. Selected references are also included.

  4. Measurement of spine and total body mineral by dual-photon absorptiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazess, R. B.; Young, D.

    1983-01-01

    The use of Gd-153 dual-photon absorptiometry at 43 and 100 keV to measure individual-bone and total-body bone minerals is discussed in a survey of recent studies on humans, phantoms, and monkeys. Precision errors of as low as 1 percent have been achieved in vivo, suggesting the use of sequential measurements in studies of immobilization and space-flight effects.

  5. Late effects on gonadal function of cyclophosphamide, total-body irradiation, and marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, J.E.; Buckner, C.D.; Leonard, J.M.; Sullivan, K.M.; Witherspoon, R.P.; Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Thomas, E.D.

    1983-09-01

    One hundred thirty-seven patients had gonadal function evaluated 1-11 years after marrow transplantation. All 15 women less than age 26 and three of nine older than age 26 who were treated with 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide recovered normal gonadotropin levels and menstruation. Five have had five pregnancies resulting in three live births, one spontaneous abortion, and one elective abortion. Three of 38 women who were prepared with 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 920-1200 rad total-body irradiation had normal gonadotropin levels and menstruation. Two had pregnancies resulting in one spontaneous and one elective abortion. Of 31 men prepared with 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, 30 had normal luteinizing hormone levels, 20 had normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and 10 of 15 had spermatogenesis. Four have fathered five normal children. Thirty-six of 41 men prepared with 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 920-1750 rad total-body irradiation had normal luteinizing hormone levels, ten had normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and 2 of 32 studied had spermatogenesis. One has fathered two normal children. It was concluded that cyclophosphamide does not prevent return of normal gonadal function in younger women and in most men. Total-body irradiation prevents return of normal gonadal function in the majority of patients.

  6. Total-Body Irradiation Produces Late Degenerative Joint Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Ian D.; Olson, John; Lindburg, Carl A.; Payne, Valerie; Collins, Boyce; Smith, Thomas L.; Munley, Michael T.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Willey, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Premature musculoskeletal joint failure is a major source of morbidity among childhood cancer survivors. Radiation effects on synovial joint tissues of the skeleton are poorly understood. Our goal was to assess long-term changes in the knee joint from skeletally mature rats that received total-body irradiation while skeletal growth was ongoing. Materials and Methods 14 week-old rats were irradiated with 1, 3 or 7 Gy total-body doses of 18 MV x-rays. At 53 weeks of age, structural and compositional changes in knee joint tissues (articular cartilage, subchondral bone, and trabecular bone) were characterized using 7T MRI, nanocomputed tomography (nanoCT), microcomputed tomography (microCT), and histology. Results T2 relaxation times of the articular cartilage were lower after exposure to all doses. Likewise, calcifications were observed in the articular cartilage. Trabecular bone microarchitecture was compromised in the tibial metaphysis at 7 Gy. Mild to moderate cartilage erosion was scored in the 3 and 7 Gy rats. Conclusions Late degenerative changes in articular cartilage and bone were observed after total body irradiation in adult rats exposed prior to skeletal maturity. 7T MRI, microCT, nanoCT, and histology identified potential prognostic indicators of late radiation-induced joint damage. PMID:24885745

  7. Total Hg and methyl Hg distribution in sediments of selected Louisiana water bodies.

    PubMed

    Delaune, Ronald D; Gambrell, Robert P; Devai, Istvan; Jugsujinda, Aroon; Kongchum, Manoch

    2009-05-01

    Sediment samples (543) collected from selected Louisiana streams and lakes were analyzed for total Hg and methyl Hg content. The average total Hg content among 543 samples was 92.3 +/- 95.1 microg kg(-1). The average methyl Hg content in the samples was 0.68 +/- 0.80 microg kg(-1). Methyl Hg accounted for an average of 0.73% of the total Hg in sediment. Linear regression analysis of total Hg versus methyl Hg content of the sediment showed methyl Hg content was significantly correlated to total Hg content of sediment (P > 0.01, n = 537) and sediment organic matter content. (P > 0.01, n = 536) Methyl Hg was also positively correlated to clay (P > 0.01, n = 537) and inversely correlated to sand content of sediment (P > 0.01, n = 537). Total Hg and methyl Hg content in these sediments was within the normal range reported elsewhere indicating no significant industrial or municipal Hg contamination. A comparison of selected water bodies with fishing advisories showed no relationship to total Hg and methyl Hg in sediment. PMID:19337918

  8. Comparison of two methods of assessing total body water at sea level and increasing high altitude.

    PubMed

    Boos, C J; Holdsworth, D A; Hall, D P; Mellor, A; O'Hara, J; Woods, D R

    2014-11-01

    Fluid retention is a recognized feature of acute mountain sickness. However, accurate assessment of hydration, including the quantification of body water, has traditionally relied on expensive and non-portable equipment limiting its utility in the field setting. We compared the assessment of total body water (TBW) and their relationship to total body weight using two non-invasive methods using the NICas single-frequency bioimpedance analysis (SF-BIA) system and the BodyStat QuadScan 4000 multifrequency BIA system (MF-BIA). TBW measurements were performed at rest at sea level and at high altitude (HA) at 3833 m postexercise and at rest and thereafter at rest at 4450 m and 5129 m on 47 subjects. The average age was 34.5 ± 9.3 years with an age range of 21-54 years (70.2% male). There were strong correlations between TBW assessment with both methods at sea level (r = 0.90; 95% CI 0.78-0.95: P<0.0001) and at HA (r = 0.92; 0.89-0.94: P<0.0001), however, TBW readings were 0.2 l and 1.91 l lower, respectively, with the NICaS. There was a stronger correlation between TBW and body weight with the QuadScan (r = 0.91; P<0.0001) than with the NICaS (r = 0.83; P<0.0001). The overall agreement between the two TBW methods was good, but the 95% confidence intervals around these agreements were relatively wide. We conclude that there was reasonable agreement between the two methods of BIA for TBW, but this agreement was lower at HA. PMID:24797153

  9. Establishment of a mouse model of 70% lethal dose by total-body irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Seung-Hyun; Park, Jong-Hyung; Jeong, Eui-Suk; Choi, Soo-Young; Ham, Seung-Hoon; Park, Jin-Il; Jeon, Hee-Yeon; Kim, Jun-Young; Yoo, Ran-Ji; Lee, Yong-Jin; Woo, Sang-Keun

    2016-01-01

    Whereas increasing concerns about radiation exposure to nuclear disasters or side effects of anticancer radiotherapy, relatively little research for radiation damages or remedy has been done. The purpose of this study was to establish level of LD70/30 (a lethal dose for 70% of mice within 30 days) by total-body γ irradiation (TBI) in a mouse model. For this purpose, at first, 8-week-old male ICR and C57BL/6N mice from A and B companies were received high dose (10, 11, 12 Gy) TBI. After irradiation, the body weight and survival rate were monitored for 30 days consecutively. In next experiment, 5-week-old male ICR and C57BL/6N mice from B company were received same dose irradiation. Results showed that survival rate and body weight change rate in inbred C57BL/6N mice were similar between A and B company. In ICR mice, however, survival rate and body weight change rate were completely different among the companies. Significant difference of survival rate both ICR and C57BL6N mice was not observed in between 5-week-old and 8-week-old groups receiving 10 or 12 Gy TBI. Our results indicate that the strain and age of mice, and even purchasing company (especially outbred), should be matched over experimental groups in TBI experiment. Based on our results, 8-week-old male ICR mice from B company subjected to 12 Gy of TBI showed LD70/30 and suitable as a mouse model for further development of new drug using the ideal total-body irradiation model. PMID:27382380

  10. Serum Creatinine Modifies Associations between Body Mass Index and Mortality and Morbidity in Prevalent Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sakao, Yukitoshi; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Yasuda, Hideo; Hashimoto, Seiji; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu; Kato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Background High body mass index (BMI) is paradoxically associated with better outcomes in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This study aimed to examine whether serum creatinine (Cr), a marker of muscle mass, could modify the association between BMI, and mortality and morbidity in prevalent HD patients. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using a nationwide database from the registry of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy. A total of 119,099 patients were selected (age: 65±12 years; median time on HD: 5.6 years; male: 62%), and we examined the association of basal BMI with mortality and morbidity after a 1-year period. Patients were stratified either by BMI into 4 groups or by serum Cr levels into 3 tertiles. Odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval] was calculated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Higher BMI did not predict a higher 1-year total mortality. However, when we stratified the patients by serum Cr levels, the risk of cardiac death became significantly higher in obese patients with the lowest Cr levels, in both males (OR 2.82 [1.51–5.27], p<0.01) and females (OR 2.00 [1.03–3.90], p<0.05). The risk of new cerebral infarction was also higher in obese male patients within the lowest Cr tertile. In contrast, there was a significantly lower risk of cardiac, cerebrovascular, and infection-related death in non-obese patients with higher levels of Cr. Higher serum Cr was also related to a lower risk of cardiovascular events and hip fracture in non-obese HD patients. Conclusions The obesity paradox was found to be present in HD patients only when obesity was defined by BMI. Decreased serum Cr levels were found to be positively associated with clinical poor outcomes in all BMI groups. Thus, irrespective of BMI, the evaluation of serum Cr levels is important to predict mortality and morbidity in patients receiving regular HD. PMID:26930325

  11. Evaluation of dose homogenization and radiation carcinogenesis risk in total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Oysul, K; Dirican, B; Beyzadeoglu, M; Sürenkok, S; Arpaci, F; Pak, Y

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report on the dose homogeneity in total body irradiated patients undergoing Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT), and carcinogenic risk in surviving patients. Between 1987 and 2001, 105 patients received hyperfractionated (6 fractions in 3 days) 12 Gy Total Body Irradiation (TBI) in our institution with lateral opposed fields. All the patients had measurements with thermoluminiscence dosimetry (TLD100) placed on seven bilateral body sites in vivo, controlled by the randophantom measurements to verify reasonable dose homogeneity achievement. The comorbid effects in the whole TBI conditioning group with at least three months post BMT follow-up were noted and surviving patients who had a minimum 5-year and maximum 14-year follow-up (median 7.8 years) have been evaluated for carcinogenic radiation risk on the basis of tissue weighting factors as defined by ICRP 60. Reasonable dose homogeneity by lateral opposed beam TBI has been obtained in all 105 patients in whom lateral TLD100 measurement means were within +5% of the planned doses. Calculated carcinogenesis risk factor was 11.34% for males and 12.40% for females, and no second-cancer has been detected whilst radiation-induced 5 cataracts and 10 interstitial pneumonia comorbidities were noted. Dose homogenization can be well achieved for hyperfractionated lateral-beam TBI with acceptable comorbidities and estimated second-cancer risk is significant but relatively low compared to the risk from the clinical indications for TBI. PMID:14628091

  12. Total Body Irradiation (TBI) using Helical Tomotherapy in children and young adults undergoing stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Establishing Total Body Irradiation (TBI) using Helical Tomotherapy (HT) to gain better control over dose distribution and homogeneity and to individually spare organs at risk. Because of their limited body length the technique seems especially eligible in juvenile patients. Patients and methods The cohort consisted of 10 patients, 6 female and 4 male, aged 4 - 22 y with acute lymphoblastic- (ALL) or acute myeloic leukemia (AML). All patients presented with high risk disease features. Body length in treatment position ranged from 110–180 cm. Two Gy single dose was applied BID to a total dose of 12 Gy. Dose volume constraint for the PTV was 95% dose coverage for 95% of the volume. The lungs were spared to a mean dose of [less than or equal to] 10 Gy. Patients were positioned in a vac-loc bag in supine position with a 3-point head mask. Results Average D95 to the PTV was 11.7 Gy corresponding to a mean coverage of the PTV of 97.5%. Dmean for the lungs was 9.14 Gy. Grade 3–4 side effects were not observed. Conclusions TBI using HT is feasible and well tolerated. A benefit could be demonstrated with regard to dose distribution and homogeneity and the selective dose-reduction to organs at risk. PMID:23587349

  13. Technical modifications in hyperfractionated total body irradiation for T-lymphocyte deplete bone marrow transplant.

    PubMed

    Lawton, C A; Barber-Derus, S; Murray, K J; Casper, J T; Ash, R C; Gillin, M T; Wilson, J F

    1989-08-01

    The Medical College of Wisconsin implemented a major bone marrow transplant (BMT) program in July 1985. The type of transplants to be focused on were allogeneic T-lymphocyte deplete. Total body irradiation (TBI) was initially patterned after the Memorial method. Patients received total body irradiation in a sitting position at a dose rate of 20-25 cGy/minute with 50% attenuation lung blocks used both anterior/posterior and posterior/anterior. Electron boosting was utilized for the ribs beneath the lung blocks. Occasionally, lower extremity boosting was required because of the sitting position. A dose of 14 Gy was chosen since T-lymphocyte deplete bone marrow transplant data suggest the need for higher total doses to consistently obtain engraftment. This dose was given in 3 equal daily fractions over 3 days following conditioning chemotherapy. Six of 11 patients treated in this manner developed lethal pulmonary events. In response to the pulmonary toxicity, partial lung shielding was increased to 60% attenuation. In the next 107 patients receiving this program of total body irradiation there was a reduced incidence of fatal pulmonary events (10 cases of fatal idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis and 12 cases of fatal pulmonary infections) after a median follow-up of 9 months. This was an obvious improvement over the initial group. A significant level of hepato-renal toxicity was also observed with 14 Gy total body irradiation when no liver or kidney blocking was used. Of the first 20 patients treated, three cases of fatal veno-occlusive disease resulted. Subsequently, a 10% attenuation right sided liver block was added. Five of 98 patients treated with this block have developed fatal hepatic dysfunction, (median follow-up of 7.2 months). This incidence is not statistically different from the initial group but favors the use of the liver block. Some renal toxicity was also detected with the earlier regimen, especially in pediatric patients. Partial kidney blocking has

  14. Association between serum total testosterone and Body Mass Index in middle aged healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Muhammad Omar; Ali Khan, Farooq Munfaet; Arshad, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine correlation of serum total testosterone with body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR) in healthy adult males. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 200 nonsmoker healthy males (aged 30-50 years) university employees. They were selected by convenience sampling technique after a detailed medical history and clinical examination including BMI and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) calculation. Blood sampling was carried out to measure serum total testosterone (TT) using facilities of Chemiluminescence assay (CLIA) technique in Dow Chemical Laboratory. Independent sample T test was used for mean comparisons of BMI and WHR in between low and normal testosterone groups. (Subjects having < 9.7 nmol/L of total testosterone in blood were placed in low testosterone group and subjects having ≥ 9.7 nmol/L of total testosterone in blood were placed in normal testosterone group). Correlation of testosterone with BMI and WHR was analyzed by Pearson Correlation. Results: Mean (± SD) age of the subjects included in this study was 38.7 (± 6.563) years mean (± SD) total testosterone was 15.92 (±6.322)nmol/L. The mean (± SD) BMI, and WHR were 24.95 (±3.828) kg/m2 and 0.946 (±0.0474) respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed in the mean values of BMI and WHR for the two groups of testosterone. Significant inverse correlation of serum total testosterone with BMI(r = -0.311, p = 0.000) was recorded in this study. However testosterone was not significantly correlated with waist/hip ratio.(r = -0.126, p = 0.076) Conclusion: Middle age men working at DUHS who have low level of serum total testosterone are more obese than individuals with normal total testosterone level. PMID:26101490

  15. Inter-Rater Reliability of Total Body Score-A Scale for Quantification of Corpse Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Nawrocka, Marta; Frątczak, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2016-05-01

    The degree of body decomposition can be quantified using Total Body Score (TBS), a scale frequently used in taphonomic or entomological studies of decomposition. Here, the inter-rater reliability of the scale is analyzed. The study was made on 120 laymen, which were trained in the use of the scale. Participants scored decomposition of pig carcasses from photographs. It was found that the scale, when used by different people, gives homogeneous results irrespective of the user qualifications (the Krippendorff's alfa for all participants was 0.818). The study also indicated that carcasses in advanced decomposition receive significantly less accurate scores. Moreover, it was found that scores for cadavers in mosaic decomposition (i.e., representing signs of at least two stages of decomposition) are less accurate. These results demonstrate that the scale may be regarded as inter-rater reliable. Some propositions for refinement of the scale were also discussed. PMID:27093214

  16. Slow drug delivery decreased total body clearance and altered bioavailability of immediate- and controlled-release oxycodone formulations.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Sun, Duxin; Palmisano, Maria; Zhou, Simon

    2016-02-01

    Weibull absorption functions, and release rate-dependent saturable total body clearance well described the diverging oxycodone absorption and elimination kinetics in the literature. It showed no actual drug absorption during the terminal phase, but slower drug clearance caused by slower release/absorption producing the appearance of flip-flop and offered new insight for the development of modified release formulations and clinical use of oxycodone. PMID:26977300

  17. Revisiting Biomarkers of Total-Body and Partial-Body Exposure in a Baboon Model of Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Marco; Denis, Josiane; Grenier, Nancy; Arvers, Philippe; Foucher, Barbara; Desangles, François; Martigne, Patrick; Chaussard, Hervé; Drouet, Michel; Abend, Michael; Hérodin, Francis

    2015-01-01

    In case of a mass casualty radiation event, there is a need to distinguish total-body irradiation (TBI) and partial-body irradiation (PBI) to concentrate overwhelmed medical resources to the individuals that would develop an acute radiation syndrome (ARS) and need hematologic support (i.e., mostly TBI victims). To improve the identification and medical care of TBI versus PBI individuals, reliable biomarkers of exposure could be very useful. To investigate this issue, pairs of baboons (n = 18) were exposed to different situations of TBI and PBI corresponding to an equivalent of either 5 Gy 60Co gamma irradiation (5 Gy TBI; 7.5 Gy left hemibody/2.5 right hemibody TBI; 5.55 Gy 90% PBI; 6.25 Gy 80% PBI; 10 Gy 50% PBI, 15 Gy 30% PBI) or 2.5 Gy (2.5 Gy TBI; 5 Gy 50% PBI). More than fifty parameters were evaluated before and after irradiation at several time points up to 200 days. A partial least square discriminant analysis showed a good distinction of TBI from PBI situations that were equivalent to 5 Gy. Furthermore, all the animals were pooled in two groups, TBI (n = 6) and PBI (n = 12), for comparison using a logistic regression and a non parametric statistical test. Nine plasmatic biochemical markers and most of hematological parameters turned out to discriminate between TBI and PBI animals during the prodromal phase and the manifest illness phase. The most significant biomarkers were aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactico dehydrogenase, urea, Flt3-ligand, iron, C-reactive protein, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the early period, and Flt3-ligand, iron, platelet count, hemoglobin, monocyte count, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the ARS phase. These results suggest that heterogeneity could be distinguished within a range of 2.5 to 5 Gy TBI. PMID:26177207

  18. Thrombotic Microangiopathy In Metastatic Melanoma Patients Treated with Adoptive Cell Therapy and Total Body Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Jennifer; Citrin, Deborah E.; Waldman, Meryl; White, Donald E.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Yang, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Thrombotic microangioapathy (TMA) is a complication that developed in some patients receiving 12 Gy total body irradiation in addition to lymphodepleting preparative chemotherapy prior to infusion of autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) with high-dose aldesleukin (IL-2). This paper describes the incidence, presentation and course of radiation-associated TMA. Methods The data for patients with metastatic melanoma who received ACT with TIL plus aldesleukin following myeloablative chemotherapy and 12 Gy total body irradiation was examined, looking at patient characteristics and the natural history of TMA. Results The median time to presentation was approximately 8 months after completing TBI. The estimated cumulative incidence of TMA was 31.2% (median follow-up of 24 months). Noninvasive criteria for diagnosis included newly elevated creatinine levels, new-onset hypertension, new-onset anemia, microscopic hematuria, thrombocytopenia, low haptoglobin and elevated lactate dehydrogenase values. Once diagnosed, patients were managed with control of their hypertension with multiple agents and supportive red blood cell transfusions. TMA typically stabilized or improved and no patient progressed to dialysis. TMA was associated with a higher probability of an anti-tumor response. Conclusions Thrombotic microangiopathy occurs in approximately a third of patients treated with a lymphodepleting preparative chemotherapy regimen with total body irradiation prior to autologous T-cell therapy. The disease has a variable natural history, however no patient developed end-stage renal failure. Successful management with supportive care and aggressive hypertension control is vital to the safe application of a systemic therapy that has shown curative potential for patients with disseminated melanoma. PMID:24474396

  19. Comparison of total body irradiation vs chlorambucil and prednisone for remission induction of active chronic lymphocytic leukemia: an ECOG study. Part I: total body irradiation-response

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, P.I.; Bennett, J.M.; Begg, C.; Bozdech, M.J.; Silber, R.

    1981-12-01

    Twenty-six evaluable patients were entered into two fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) programs; 11 patients received a course of 150 rad TBI (x 3 if tolerated) and 15 patients received a lower dose course of 50 rad (x 3 if tolerated). Complete remissions (CR) were not produced by either course; however, the higher dose course (Plan I) yielded a partial response (PR) rate of 73%, while the lower dose course yielded a PR of 47%. Although fraction size seemed trivial in both TBI plans, an unexpected high degree of hematologic toxicity was encountered, and was parallel to the response rates: in Plan I 73% of patients experienced severe to life-threatening depression of platelets or granulocytes, whereas in Plan II this rate was 47%. This was of short duration with rapid return of blood counts to normal levels. One death can be attributed to TBI. The chemotherapy arm of the study demonstrated superiority in terms of complete responses. Twenty-three percent of patients treated by cholrambucil and prednisone attained CR, in contrast to 0% of TBI patients. PR for chemotherapy was similar to that obtained with TBI. Chemotherapy also proved superior in terms of overall response rate, number of patients in remission, and in the median duration of response, but not in the median duration of survival. Fractional TBI techniques for active chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) should be interrupted when the platelet count dips below 100,000 and the granulocyte count is lower than 2,000. Future studies should combine TBI radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

  20. Changes in total body calcium and diet of breeding house sparrows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Ankney, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    We collected House Sparrows Passer domesticus around London, Ontario, estimated their total body calcium masses, food habits and egg production to test for the effects of endogenous calcium levels on control of clutch size. Before egg production began, calcium levels increased significantly and remained high through the end of egg laying, and then declined significantly after egg laying. We found no evidence that clutch size was related to endogenous calcium levels. Upon first ovulation, House Sparrows greatly increased consumption of calciferous materials such as snail shells, bird eggshells and calciferous grit. Their diet returned to normal after the final egg was ovulated. Daily calcium intake was sufficient to meet eggshell calcium needs.

  1. Uniformity and standardization of single and opposing cobalt 60 sources for total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, W.C.; Order, S.E.; Thomas, E.D.

    1980-02-01

    The use of total body irradiation (TBI), chemotherapy, and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in the management of relapsing leukemia has been established with dual source cobalt irradiation. In many facilities in order to reproduce the clinical results with single source irradiation, dosimetry must be compared under situations of varying configurations in order to standardize TBI techniques. Once intercomparison is achieved by on site dosimetric evaluation, recommendations are made for patient position, length of exposure in different positions and average thickness and beam data used to calculate absorbed dose. Homogeneity of single and opposing cobalt sources is also compared.

  2. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia following bone marrow transplantation: the relationship with total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, T.J.; Van Dyk, J.; Rider, W.D.

    1981-10-01

    Interstitial pneumonia is a frequent and often fatal complication of allogenic bone marrow transplantation. Thirty to 40 percent of such cases are of unknown etiology and have been labelled as cases of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Idiopathic cases are more commonly associated with the use of total body irradiation; their occurrence appears to be independent of immunosupression or graft versus host disease. Evidence is presented from the literature suggesting that the development of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia is related to the absolute absorbed dose of radiation to lung. The similarity of idiopathic pneumonia to radiation pneumonitis seen in a different clinical setting is described.

  3. The effect of fixative on total length of small-bodied stream fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brinkley, P.D.; Fischer, John R.; Paukert, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis), and green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) were fixed in 5% and 10% formalin and 70% and 95% ethyl alcohol to determine fixative effects on total length (TL). Total length reduced over the first 24h for all species (P<0.0001) but then stabilized. Longnose dace and green sunfish TL reduction was less for 5% formalin than for either 70% or 95% ethanol (both P<0.0001), whereas the fixative solution had no effect on red shiner TL (P=0.347). A greater percentage of change in TL was observed in green sunfish and red shiner than in longnose dace, suggesting that body form (compressiform vs. fusiform) may affect shrinkage rate among adult stream fishes.

  4. Patient-Reported Outcomes Following Total Hip Arthroplasty Stratified by Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Wu, Eddie S; Cherian, Jeffrey J; Jauregui, Julio J; Robinson, Kristin; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    Obese patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty have been shown to have less functional recovery. This study prospectively compared temporal trends in patient-reported outcomes and activity levels between patients with a body mass index (BMI) of less than 30, 30 to 35, and 35 to 40 kg/m(2) after total hip arthroplasty. Patients were evaluated via the Harris Hip Score, Lower Extremity Activity Scale, and Short Form-12 physical and mental components. The results suggest that patients with BMIs of 35 to 40 kg/m(2) might have poorer functional outcomes preoperatively, with function returning more slowly or poor function being sustained and their not reaching other cohorts' levels. Surgeons must counsel these patients regarding functional expectations and the potential for slower functional returns. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e572-e577.]. PMID:27064775

  5. Lymphoid and Myeloid Recovery in Rhesus Macaques Following Total Body X-Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Farese, Ann M; Hankey, Kim G; Cohen, Melanie Veirs; MacVittie, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    Recovery from severe immunosuppression requires hematopoietic stem cell reconstitution and effective thymopoiesis to restore a functional immune cell repertoire. Herein, a model of immune cell reconstitution consequent to potentially lethal doses of irradiation is described, which may be valuable in evaluating potential medical countermeasures. Male rhesus macaques were total body irradiated by exposure to 6.00 Gy 250 kVp x-radiation (midline tissue dose, 0.13 Gy min), resulting in an approximate LD10/60 (n = 5/59). Animals received medical management, and hematopoietic and immune cell recovery was assessed (n ≤ 14) through 370 d post exposure. A subset of animals (n ≤ 8) was examined through 700 d. Myeloid recovery was assessed by neutrophil and platelet-related parameters. Lymphoid recovery was assessed by the absolute lymphocyte count and FACS-based phenotyping of B- and T-cell subsets. Recent thymic emigrants were identified by T cell receptor excision circle quantification. Severe neutropenia, lymphopenia, and thrombocytopenia resolved within 30 d. Total CD3+ cells μL required 60 d to reach values 60% of normal, followed by subsequent slow recovery to approximately normal by 180 d post irradiation. Recovery of CD3+4+ and CD3+8+ cell memory and naïve subsets were markedly different. Memory populations were ≥ 100% of normal by day 60, whereas naïve populations were only 57% normal at 180 d and never fully recovered to baseline post irradiation. Total (CD20+) B cells μL were within normal levels by 77 d post exposure. This animal model elucidates the variable T- and B-cell subset recovery kinetics after a potentially lethal dose of total-body irradiation that are dependent on marrow-derived stem and progenitor cell recovery, peripheral homeostatic expansion, and thymopoiesis. PMID:26425902

  6. Modified Titanium Implant as a Gateway to the Human Body: The Implant Mediated Drug Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Seok; Cho, Joo-Youn; Hwang, Chee Il

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a proposed new implant mediated drug delivery system (IMDDS) in rabbits. The drug delivery system is applied through a modified titanium implant that is configured to be implanted into bone. The implant is hollow and has multiple microholes that can continuously deliver therapeutic agents into the systematic body. To examine the efficacy and feasibility of the IMDDS, we investigated the pharmacokinetic behavior of dexamethasone in plasma after a single dose was delivered via the modified implant placed in the rabbit tibia. After measuring the plasma concentration, the areas under the curve showed that the IMDDS provided a sustained release for a relatively long period. The result suggests that the IMDDS can deliver a sustained release of certain drug components with a high bioavailability. Accordingly, the IMDDS may provide the basis for a novel approach to treating patients with chronic diseases. PMID:25136624

  7. Modified conduction shape factors for isothermal bodies embedded in a semi-infinite medium

    SciTech Connect

    Anteby, I.; Shai, I. . Pearlstone Centre for Aeronautical Engineering Studies)

    1993-03-01

    Numerical finite-element method calculations were performed for isothermal surfaces embedded in a semi-infinite medium with convection boundary conditions. A modified shape factor was defined that combines the conduction heat transfer in the medium and the convection to the environment, with the geometrical characteristics of the problem. Infinite finite elements are used; these form the last layer of elements in the infinite directions. The modified shape factors for a sphere and for a long horizontal cylinder are presented in graphs and correlations, both using nondimensional parameters. The heat flux distribution on the surface of the body and the temperature and heat transfer on the surface of the medium are also presented.

  8. Patient dose analysis in total body irradiation through in vivo dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, K; Kurup, P G G; Murali, V; Muthukumaran, M; Bhuvaneshwari, N; Velmurugan, J

    2012-10-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is a special radiotherapy technique, administered prior to bone marrow transplantation. Due to the complex nature of the treatment setup, in vivo dosimetry for TBI is mandatory to ensure proper delivery of the intended radiation dose throughout the body. Lithium fluoride (LiF) TLD-100 chips are used for the TBI in vivo dosimetry. Results obtained from the in vivo dosimetry of 20 patients are analyzed. Results obtained from forehead, abdomen, pelvis, and mediastinum showed a similar pattern with the average measured dose from 96 to 97% of the prescription dose. Extremities and chest received a dose greater than the prescription dose in many instances (more than 20% of measurements). Homogeneous dose delivery to the whole body is checked by calculating the mean dose with standard deviation for each fraction. Reasons for the difference between prescription dose and measured dose for each site are discussed. Dose homogeneity within ±10% is achieved using our in-house TBI protocol. PMID:23293453

  9. Core body temperature control by total liquid ventilation using a virtual lung temperature sensor.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Mathieu; Micheau, Philippe; Robert, Raymond; Avoine, Olivier; Tissier, Renaud; Germim, Pamela Samanta; Vandamme, Jonathan; Praud, Jean-Paul; Walti, Herve

    2014-12-01

    In total liquid ventilation (TLV), the lungs are filled with a breathable liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC) while a liquid ventilator ensures proper gas exchange by renewal of a tidal volume of oxygenated and temperature-controlled PFC. Given the rapid changes in core body temperature generated by TLV using the lung has a heat exchanger, it is crucial to have accurate and reliable core body temperature monitoring and control. This study presents the design of a virtual lung temperature sensor to control core temperature. In the first step, the virtual sensor, using expired PFC to estimate lung temperature noninvasively, was validated both in vitro and in vivo. The virtual lung temperature was then used to rapidly and automatically control core temperature. Experimentations were performed using the Inolivent-5.0 liquid ventilator with a feedback controller to modulate inspired PFC temperature thereby controlling lung temperature. The in vivo experimental protocol was conducted on seven newborn lambs instrumented with temperature sensors at the femoral artery, pulmonary artery, oesophagus, right ear drum, and rectum. After stabilization in conventional mechanical ventilation, TLV was initiated with fast hypothermia induction, followed by slow posthypothermic rewarming for 1 h, then by fast rewarming to normothermia and finally a second fast hypothermia induction phase. Results showed that the virtual lung temperature was able to provide an accurate estimation of systemic arterial temperature. Results also demonstrate that TLV can precisely control core body temperature and can be favorably compared to extracorporeal circulation in terms of speed. PMID:24960422

  10. Why do total-body decay curves of iodine-labeled proteins begin with a delay

    SciTech Connect

    Regoeczi, E.

    1987-09-01

    The initial delay that occurs in total-body radiation curves reaching their single-exponential slopes was analyzed from 106 experiments involving several mammalian species (guinea pig, mouse, rabbit, and rat) and plasma proteins (alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, antithrombin III, fibrinogen, immunoglobulin G, and transferrin) in 14 different combinations. The time interval (Td) between injection and the intercept of the slope with the full-dose value was adopted as a measure of curve nonideality. The overall mean Td was 6.6 h, but individual values showed a significant correlation to protein half-lives, whereby proteins of unequal metabolic properties exhibited different mean Td values. Targeting protein to the liver abolished delay. Choice of the isotope (/sup 125/I or /sup 131/I) and size of the labeled protein had no influence on the magnitude of delay. Whole-body radiation curves of animals that received (/sup 125/I)iodotyrosines, Na/sup 131/I, or /sup 131/I-polyvinylpyrrolidone exhibited no initial delays. These results do not support the earlier notion that delay is caused by a redistribution of the labeled protein in the body to radiometrically more favorable sites. However, they are compatible with the assumption that delayed passage of a protein dose through the extracellular matrix and/or retarded transfer of proteolytic products from extravascular catabolic sites to plasma may be responsible for the phenomenon.

  11. A new model for estimating total body water from bioelectrical resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siconolfi, S. F.; Kear, K. T.

    1992-01-01

    Estimation of total body water (T) from bioelectrical resistance (R) is commonly done by stepwise regression models with height squared over R, H(exp 2)/R, age, sex, and weight (W). Polynomials of H(exp 2)/R have not been included in these models. We examined the validity of a model with third order polynomials and W. Methods: T was measured with oxygen-18 labled water in 27 subjects. R at 50 kHz was obtained from electrodes placed on the hand and foot while subjects were in the supine position. A stepwise regression equation was developed with 13 subjects (age 31.5 plus or minus 6.2 years, T 38.2 plus or minus 6.6 L, W 65.2 plus or minus 12.0 kg). Correlations, standard error of estimates and mean differences were computed between T and estimated T's from the new (N) model and other models. Evaluations were completed with the remaining 14 subjects (age 32.4 plus or minus 6.3 years, T 40.3 plus or minus 8 L, W 70.2 plus or minus 12.3 kg) and two of its subgroups (high and low) Results: A regression equation was developed from the model. The only significant mean difference was between T and one of the earlier models. Conclusion: Third order polynomials in regression models may increase the accuracy of estimating total body water. Evaluating the model with a larger population is needed.

  12. Engraftment of DLA-nonidentical unrelated canine marrow after high-dose fractionated total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Shulman, H.M.; Weiden, P.L.; Graham, T.C.; Thomas, E.D.

    1982-04-01

    Marrow transplants were carried out between unrelated DLA-nonidentical dogs. Recipients were conditioned for transplantation by total body irradiation (TBI) given eigher as a single dose of 9 Gy (900 rad) or fractionated in three increments of 6 Gy (600 rad) each at intervals of 48 hr. All recipients received marrow, less than or equal to 4 x 10(8) cells/kg, and no buffy coat cells. No immunosuppression was given after grafting. All 10 dogs given single dose total body irradiation failed to show engraftment and died with marrow aplasia and infectious complications (median survival 12 days). In contrast, all 10 dogs given fractionated TBI had sustained engraftment and died with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and infectious complications (median survival 12.5 days). None of the dogs died from radiation-induced gastroenteritis. In conclusion, resistance to DLA-nonidentical unrelated marrow grafts can be abrogated by high-dose TBI. This technique may allow hemopoietic engraftment even after i vitro manipulation of the marrow such as lymphocyte depletion by cell separation or treatment with anti-T cell antisera.

  13. A simplified technique for delivering total body irradiation (TBI) with improved dose homogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Rui; Bernard, Damian; Turian, Julius; Abrams, Ross A.; Sensakovic, William; Fung, Henry C.; Chu, James C. H.

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) with megavoltage photon beams has been accepted as an important component of management for a number of hematologic malignancies, generally as part of bone marrow conditioning regimens. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the authors' TBI technique, which both simplifies the treatment process and improves the treatment quality. Methods: An AP/PA TBI treatment technique to produce uniform dose distributions using sequential collimator reductions during each fraction was implemented, and a sample calculation worksheet is presented. Using this methodology, the dosimetric characteristics of both 6 and 18 MV photon beams, including lung dose under cerrobend blocks was investigated. A method of estimating midplane lung doses based on measured entrance and exit doses was proposed, and the estimated results were compared with measurements. Results: Whole body midplane dose uniformity of {+-}10% was achieved with no more than two collimator-based beam modulations. The proposed model predicted midplane lung doses 5% to 10% higher than the measured doses for 6 and 18 MV beams. The estimated total midplane doses were within {+-}5% of the prescribed midplane dose on average except for the lungs where the doses were 6% to 10% lower than the prescribed dose on average. Conclusions: The proposed TBI technique can achieve dose uniformity within {+-}10%. This technique is easy to implement and does not require complicated dosimetry and/or compensators.

  14. Engraftment of DLA-nonidentical unrelated canine marrow after high-dose fractionated total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Shulman, H.M.; Weiden, P.L.; Graham, T.C.; Thomas, E.D.

    1982-04-01

    Marrow transplants were carried out between unrelated DLA-nonidentical dogs. Recipients were conditioned for transplantation by total body irradiation (TBI) given either as a single dose of 9 Gy (900 rad) or fractionated in three increments of 6 Gy (600 rad) each at intervals of 48 hr. All recipients received marrow, less than or equal to to 4 X 10/sup 8/ cells/kg, and no buffy coat cells. No immunosuppression was given after grafting. All 10 dogs given single-dose total body irradiation failed to show engraftment and died with marrow aplasia and infectious complications (median survival 12 days). In contrast, all 10 dogs given fractionated TBI had sustained engraftment and died with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and infectious complications (median survival 12.5 days). None of the dogs died from radiation-induced gastroenteritis.In conclusion, resistance to DLA-nonidentical unrelated marrow grafts can be abrogated by high-dose TBI. This technique may allow hemopoietic engraftment even after in vitro manipulation of the marrow such as lymphocyte depletion by cell separation or treatment with anti-T cell antisera.

  15. Role of the lung in total body clearance of circulating drugs.

    PubMed

    Roth, R A; Wiersma, D A

    1979-01-01

    Attention in recent years has focused upon the ability of lung to accumulate and/or to metabolise circulating hormones, drugs and other xenobiotic agents. Although often studied in broken cell preparations, such functions must be examined in intact lung before extrapolation to the situation in vivo is possible. The role of lung in total body clearance of xenobiotic agents is often considered to be small, as compared with the liver it usually has much lower concentrations of degradative enzymes and a smaller mass. However, consideration of such factors as organ blood flow or stimulation of drug metabolising enzymes suggests that the contribution of the lung to total body clearance of some drugs is greater than previously recognised. This may explain some of the alterations in drug clearance seen clinically. For example, cigarette smoking may increase the clearance of certain xenobiotic compounds by stimulating pulmonary drug metabolising enzymes. Pulmonary drug disposition may also be altered by conditions affecting cardiac output, such as exercise, hypoxia, and circulatory shock, or those affecting acid-base balance, such as hyperventilation. In addition, pneumotoxicants may affect pulmonary clearance of circulating drugs and xenobiotics. PMID:41661

  16. In vitro mineralization of surface-modified porous polycaprolactone scaffolds in simulated body fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Chengyun; Cheng, Haimei; Zhu, Wenjun; Yin, Zhaoyi; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Huade; Lei, Shumei; Yin, Shiheng; Tan, Guoxin

    2008-11-01

    Porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds were fabricated by combination of porogen-leaching and freeze-drying processes. Ice particulates were used as porogen materials. The porous PCL scaffolds were modified by potassium hydroxide solution with concentration of 1 mol/L at room temperature for 8 h, subsequently biomineralized in simulated body fluid for 2 h and 8 h, respectively. The microstructure and characteristics of the PCL scaffolds were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and EDS. The results showed (1) PCL scaffolds had high degree of connectivity and different pore sizes. (2) Plate-like apatite was observed on the surface of the scaffolds after being immersed into SBF for 8 h.

  17. Exploring the Relationship between Skeletal Mass and Total Body Mass in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Silverstone, Elizabeth; Vincze, Orsolya; McCann, Ria; Jonsson, Carl H. W.; Palmer, Colin; Kaiser, Gary; Dyke, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Total body mass (TBM) is known to be related to a number of different osteological features in vertebrates, including limb element measurements and total skeletal mass. The relationship between skeletal mass and TBM in birds has been suggested as a way of estimating the latter in cases where only the skeleton is known (e.g., fossils). This relationship has thus also been applied to other extinct vertebrates, including the non-avian pterosaurs, while other studies have used additional skeletal correlates found in modern birds to estimate TBM. However, most previous studies have used TBM compiled from the literature rather than from direct measurements, producing values from population averages rather than from individuals. Here, we report a new dataset of 487 extant birds encompassing 79 species that have skeletal mass and TBM recorded at the time of collection or preparation. We combine both historical and new data for analyses with phylogenetic control and find a similar and well-correlated relationship between skeletal mass and TBM. Thus, we confirm that TBM and skeletal mass are accurate proxies for estimating one another. We also look at other factors that may have an effect on avian body mass, including sex, ontogenetic stage, and flight mode. While data are well-correlated in all cases, phylogeny is a major control on TBM in birds strongly suggesting that this relationship is not appropriate for estimating the total mass of taxa outside of crown birds, Neornithes (e.g., non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs). Data also reveal large variability in both bird skeletal and TBM within single species; caution should thus be applied when using published mass to test direct correlations with skeletal mass and bone lengths. PMID:26509531

  18. Uranium and Calcium Isotope Ratio Measurements using the Modified Total Evaporation Method in TIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, S.; Kuehn, H.; Berglund, M.; Hennessy, C.

    2010-12-01

    A new version of the "modified total evaporation" (MTE) method for isotopic analysis by multi-collector thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), with high analytical performance and designed in a more user-friendly and routinely applicable way, is described in detail. It is mainly being used for nuclear safeguards measurements of U and Pu and nuclear metrology, but can readily be applied to other scientific tasks in geochemistry, e.g. for Sr, Nd and Ca, as well. The development of the MTE method was organized in collaboration of several "key nuclear mass spectrometry laboratories", namely the New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL), the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), the Safeguards Analytical Laboratory (now Safeguards Analytical Services, SGAS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), with IRMM taking the leading role. The manufacturer of the TRITON TIMS instrument, Thermo Fisher Scientific, integrated this method into the software of the instrument. The development has now reached its goal to become a user-friendly and routinely useable method for uranium isotope ratio measurements with high precision and accuracy. Due to the use of the “total evaporation” (TE) method the measurement of the "major" uranium isotope ratio 235U/238U is routinely being performed with a precision of 0.01% to 0.02%. The use of a (certified) reference material measured under comparable conditions is emphasized to achieve an accuracy at a level of 0.02% - depending on the stated uncertainty of the certified value of the reference material. In contrast to the total evaporation method (TE), in the MTE method the total evaporation sequence is interrupted on a regular basis to allow for correction for background from peak tailing, internal calibration of a secondary electron multiplier (SEM) detector versus the Faraday cups, and ion source re-focusing. Therefore, the most significant improvement using the

  19. Tumorigenesis in high-dose total body irradiated rhesus monkeys--a life span study.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Carel F; Zurcher, Chris; Broerse, Johan J

    2003-01-01

    In the early sixties, studies have been performed at the TNO-Institutes for Health Research on acute effects of high dose total body irradiation (TBI) with X-rays and fission neutrons in Rhesus monkeys and the protective effect of autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The surviving animals of this study were kept to investigate late radiation effects, ie, tumorigenesis. TBI in combination with chemotherapy, followed by rescue with BMT is increasingly used for the treatment of hematological malignancies and refractory autoimmune disease. The risk of radiation carcinogenesis after this treatment is of growing concern in man. Studies on tumor induction in nonhuman primates are of relevance in this context since the response of this species to radiation does not differ much from that in man. The group of long-term surviving monkeys comprised nine neutron irradiated animals (average total body dose 3A Gy, range 2.3-4.4 Gy) and 20 X-irradiated monkeys (average total body dose 7.1 Gy, range 2.8-8.6 Gy). A number of 21 age-matched nonirradiated Rhesus monkeys served as a control-group. All animals wereregularly screened for the occurrence of tumors. Complete necropsies were performed after natural death or euthanasia. At postirradiation intervals of 4-21 years an appreciable number of malignant tumors was observed. In the neutron irradiated group eight out of nine animals died with 1 or more malignant tumors. In the X-irradiated group this fraction was 10 out of 20. The tumors in the control group, in seven out of 21 animals, appeared at much older age compared with those in the irradiated cohorts. The histogenesis of the malignant tumors was diverse, as was the case for benign tumors. The observed shortening of latency periods and life span, as well as, the increase of mean number of tumors per tumor bearing animal for benign neoplasms parallels the trend observed for malignant tumors. The results of this study were compared to other radiation late effects after

  20. Total-body irradiation and cataract incidence: A randomized comparison of two instantaneous dose rates

    SciTech Connect

    Ozsahin, M.; Belkacemi, Y.; Pene, F.; Dominique, C.; Schwartz, L.H.; Uzal, C.; Lefkopoulos, D.; Gindrey-Vie, B.; Vitu-Loas, L.; Touboul, E. )

    1994-01-15

    To assess the influence of instantaneous total-body irradiation dose rate in hematological malignancies, the authors randomized 157 patients according to different instantaneous dose rates. Patients have undergone a total-body irradiation before bone-marrow transplantation according to two different techniques: Either in one fraction (1000 cGy given to the midplane at the level of L4, and 800 cGy to the lungs) or in six fractions (1200 cGy over 3 consecutive days to the midplane at the level of L4, and 900 cGy to the lungs). Patients were randomized according to two instantaneous dose rates, called LOW and HIGH, in single-dose (6 vs. 15 cGy/min) and fractionated (3 vs. 6 cGy/min) TBI groups; there were 77 cases for the LOW and 80 for the HIGH groups, with 57 patients receiving single-dose (28 LOW, 29 HIGH) and 100 patients receiving fractionated total-body irradiation (49 LOW, 51 HIGH). As of July 1992, 16 of 157 patients developed cataracts after 17 to 46 months, with an estimated incidence of 23% at 5 years. Four of 77 patients in the LOW group, 12 of 80 patients in the HIGH group developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 12% and 34%, respectively. Ten of 57 patients in the single-dose group, and 6 of 100 patients in the fractionated group developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 39% and 13%, respectively. When the subgroups were considered, in the single-dose group, 3 of 28 LOW patients, and 7 of 29 HIGH patients developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 24% and 53%, respectively; in the fractionated group, 1 of 49 LOW patients, and 5 of 51 HIGH patients developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 4% and 22%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of 5-year estimated cataract incidence between the patients receiving steroids and those not. The instantaneous dose rate was the only independent factor influencing the cataractogenesis. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Variants within the SP110 nuclear body protein modify risk of canine degenerative myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Ivansson, Emma L; Megquier, Kate; Kozyrev, Sergey V; Murén, Eva; Körberg, Izabella Baranowska; Swofford, Ross; Koltookian, Michele; Tonomura, Noriko; Zeng, Rong; Kolicheski, Ana L; Hansen, Liz; Katz, Martin L; Johnson, Gayle C; Johnson, Gary S; Coates, Joan R; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2016-05-31

    Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a naturally occurring neurodegenerative disease with similarities to some forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Most dogs that develop DM are homozygous for a common superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1) mutation. However, not all dogs homozygous for this mutation develop disease. We performed a genome-wide association analysis in the Pembroke Welsh Corgi (PWC) breed comparing DM-affected and -unaffected dogs homozygous for the SOD1 mutation. The analysis revealed a modifier locus on canine chromosome 25. A haplotype within the SP110 nuclear body protein (SP110) was present in 40% of affected compared with 4% of unaffected dogs (P = 1.5 × 10(-5)), and was associated with increased probability of developing DM (P = 4.8 × 10(-6)) and earlier onset of disease (P = 1.7 × 10(-5)). SP110 is a nuclear body protein involved in the regulation of gene transcription. Our findings suggest that variations in SP110-mediated gene transcription may underlie, at least in part, the variability in risk for developing DM among PWCs that are homozygous for the disease-related SOD1 mutation. Further studies are warranted to clarify the effect of this modifier across dog breeds. PMID:27185954

  2. Variants within the SP110 nuclear body protein modify risk of canine degenerative myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ivansson, Emma L.; Kozyrev, Sergey V.; Murén, Eva; Körberg, Izabella Baranowska; Swofford, Ross; Koltookian, Michele; Tonomura, Noriko; Zeng, Rong; Kolicheski, Ana L.; Hansen, Liz; Katz, Martin L.; Johnson, Gayle C.; Johnson, Gary S.; Coates, Joan R.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a naturally occurring neurodegenerative disease with similarities to some forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Most dogs that develop DM are homozygous for a common superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1) mutation. However, not all dogs homozygous for this mutation develop disease. We performed a genome-wide association analysis in the Pembroke Welsh Corgi (PWC) breed comparing DM-affected and -unaffected dogs homozygous for the SOD1 mutation. The analysis revealed a modifier locus on canine chromosome 25. A haplotype within the SP110 nuclear body protein (SP110) was present in 40% of affected compared with 4% of unaffected dogs (P = 1.5 × 10−5), and was associated with increased probability of developing DM (P = 4.8 × 10−6) and earlier onset of disease (P = 1.7 × 10−5). SP110 is a nuclear body protein involved in the regulation of gene transcription. Our findings suggest that variations in SP110-mediated gene transcription may underlie, at least in part, the variability in risk for developing DM among PWCs that are homozygous for the disease-related SOD1 mutation. Further studies are warranted to clarify the effect of this modifier across dog breeds. PMID:27185954

  3. Validation of Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy to Measure Total Body Water in Resistance-Trained Males.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Ava; Slater, Gary; Byrne, Nuala; Chaseling, Janet

    2015-10-01

    The three-compartment (3-C) model of physique assessment (fat mass, fat-free mass, water) incorporates total body water (TBW) whereas the two-compartment model (2-C) assumes a TBW of 73.72%. Deuterium dilution (D2O) is the reference method for measuring TBW but is expensive and time consuming. Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS SFB7) estimates TBW instantaneously and claims high precision. Our aim was to compare SFB7 with D2O for estimating TBW in resistance trained males (BMI >25kg/m2). We included TBWBIS estimates in a 3-C model and contrasted this and the 2-C model against the reference 3-C model using TBWD2O. TBW of 29 males (32.4 ± 8.5 years; 183.4 ± 7.2 cm; 92.5 ± 9.9 kg; 27.5 ± 2.6 kg/m2) was measured using SFB7 and D2O. Body density was measured by BODPOD, with body composition calculated using the Siri equation. TBWBIS values were consistent with TBWD2O (SEE = 2.65L; TE = 2.6L) as were %BF values from the 3-C model (BODPOD + TBWBIS) with the 3-C reference model (SEE = 2.20%; TE = 2.20%). For subjects with TBW more than 1% from the assumed 73.72% (n = 16), %BF from the 2-C model differed significantly from the reference 3-C model (Slope 0.6888; Intercept 5.093). The BIS SFB7 measured TBW accurately compared with D2O. The 2C model with an assumed TBW of 73.72% introduces error in the estimation of body composition. We recommend TBW should be measured, either via the traditional D2O method or when resources are limited, with BIS, so that body composition estimates are enhanced. The BIS can be accurately used in 3C equations to better predict TBW and BF% in resistance trained males compared with a 2C model. PMID:26011918

  4. Disturbances in dental development after total body irradiation in bone marrow transplant recipients

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlloef, G.B.; Barr, M.; Bolme, P.; Modeer, T.; Loennqvist, B.R.; Ringden, O.; Heimdahl, A.

    1988-01-01

    The dental status of 16 children who had been treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for serious bone marrow diseases was followed for up to 6 years. Several types of disturbances in dental development were observed in children who had been conditioned with total body irradiation (TBI) at 10 Gy before BMT. Thus, impaired root development that caused short V-shaped roots was found in all patients, a complete failure of root development and premature apical closure were found in five patients, enamel hypoplasia was observed in four patients, and microdontia was observed in three patients conditioned with TBI. Patients younger than 6 years of age at BMT exhibited the most severe and extensive dental aberrations. The TBI at 10 Gy appeared to be the major cause of the disturbances found.

  5. Total body bone mineral density in young children: influence of head bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A; Konrad, P T; Norman, M E; Harcke, H T

    1997-04-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with its short scan time, low radiation dose, and high precision and accuracy have made this technique particularly suitable for measuring total body bone mineral density (TBMD) in children. Other published reports have related TBMD to age in children 2-18 years of age. However, in young normal children aged 2-9 years (51 girls, 43 boys), we found that regression equations for TBMD with age as the predictor did not explain enough of the variance to warrant their use for predicting TBMD (adjusted R2 0.47, females; 0.41, males). Subtotal BMD (TBMD-head BMD) is predicted better by age because of a possibly invalid adult algorithm for head BMD (adjusted R2 0.73, females; 0.71, males). PMID:9101377

  6. Simple technique for fabrication of shielding blocks for total body irradiation at extended treatment distances

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, R.; Binukumar, J. P.; Davis, C. A.; Zahid, A. M.; Rajan, B.

    2009-01-01

    Techniques are being standardized in our department for total body irradiation (TBI) with six MV photons in linear accelerator for preconditioning to bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Individualized shields with low melting point alloy are to be fabricated for shielding critical organs such as lungs, kidneys etc. A method to mount diminished dimension of shields in a tray at 3.75m is designed in the department for a teletreatment distance of four meters with magna field with A simulator image taken with the patient's midplane (MP) at one meter distance is used to mark the dimensions of lung, scaled down by a factor of 3.75/4.0. These lung dimensions are reprinted from the digital simulator image for making the shield. The methodology of the technique using digitized minification in radiography is the first of its kind to be used for shield cutting in magna field radiotherapy. PMID:20098553

  7. Successful pregnancy after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation for acute leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Giri, N; Vowels, M R; Barr, A L; Mameghan, H

    1992-07-01

    We report successful pregnancies in two young women (aged 24 and 20 years) following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia. Conditioning therapy consisted of cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) and total body irradiation (TBI, 12 Gy) in 2 Gy fractions once daily for 6 days or twice daily for 3 days. Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis was with methotrexate alone. Both women were amenorrhoeic after BMT and gonadal testing indicated hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism. Both women had normal pregnancies (2 years and 5 years after BMT) resulting in normal healthy infants. Previously successful pregnancy has been reported after TBI in three women in whom the TBI dose was less than 8 Gy. Our cases illustrate that normal outcome of pregnancy is possible at even higher doses of TBI. PMID:1515886

  8. Cobalt-60 total body irradiation dosimetry at 220 cm source-axis distance

    SciTech Connect

    Glasgow, G.P.; Mill, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    Adults with acute leukemia are treated with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI) followed by autologous marrow transplants. For TBI, patients seated in a stand angled 45/sup 0/ above the floor are treated for about 2 hours at 220 cm source-axis distance (SAD) with sequential right and left lateral 87 cm x 87 cm fields to a 900 rad mid-pelvic dose at about 8 rad/min using a 5000 Ci cobalt unit. Maximum (lateral) to minimum (mid-plane) dose ratios are: hips--1.15, shoulders--1.30, and head--1.05, which is shielded by a compensator filter. Organ doses are small intestine, liver and kidneys--1100 rad, lung--1100 to 1200 rad, and heart--1300 rad. Verification dosimetry reveals the prescribed dose is delivered to within +-5%. Details of the dosimetry of this treatment are presented.

  9. Influence of body composition, muscle strength, diet and physical activity on total body and forearm bone mass in Chinese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Foo, Leng Huat; Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Kun; Ma, Guansheng; Greenfield, Heather; Fraser, David R

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine association between body composition, muscle strength, diet and physical exercise with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area (BA) in 283 Chinese adolescent girls aged 15 years in Beijing, China. Body composition, pubertal stage, physical activity and dietary intakes were assessed using standard validated protocols. Total body and forearm bone, lean body mass (LBM) and fat body mass (FBM) were determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Multivariate linear regression analyses were carried out to examine the predictors of BMC and BA, after controlling for potential confounders. The subjects had a mean age of 15.0 (sd 0.9) years and 99.6 % of them had reached menarche. Multivariate analyses showed that LBM, FBM, handgrip muscle strength and milk intake were significant independent determinants of BMC and BA of the total body and/or forearm sites. LBM was found to be a stronger independent determinant than FBM of BMC and BA, whereas handgrip muscle strength was only found as significant determinant of BMC and BA at the forearm sites than in total body BMC and BA. Further, total physical activity level had a significant positive association with handgrip and LBM. This suggested that greater muscle strength and higher LBM may reflect higher levels of physical activity. Therefore, continuous healthy lifestyle practices such as adequate intake of milk and continuous participation in physical activity should be encouraged throughout adolescence to optimise bone growth during this period. PMID:17640423

  10. Total body phylloquinone and its turnover in human subjects at two levels of vitamin K intake.

    PubMed

    Olson, Robert E; Chao, Jean; Graham, Donna; Bates, Margaret W; Lewis, Jessica H

    2002-06-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the total body phylloquinone and its metabolic turnover in human subjects using a tracer dose of [5-H3]phylloquinone containing 4 MBq/mmol. Seven subjects aged 22 to 49 years were given 0.3 microg isotopic phylloquinone intravenously on a control diet (75 microg phylloquinone/d) and blood, urine and faeces were sampled periodically for 6 d. Five of these subjects were studied a second time after 3-8 weeks on a low-vitamin K diet (8 microg/d). The changes in the radioactivity of plasma phylloquinone with time were analysed by the method of residuals and fitted to a curve composed of two exponential components. The size of the exchangeable body pool was calculated by isotope dilution. Plasma phylloquinone levels fell during vitamin K restriction but the vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors did not change. After injection the first exponential decay curve t1/2 was 1.0 (sd 0.47) h in the subjects on the control diet and 0.49 (sd 0.27) h after vitamin K restriction. On the control diet, the second exponential t1/2 was 27.6 (sd 124) h that did not change on the low-vitamin K diet ( (sd 13.5) h). These results indicate that the turnover time for phylloquinone in human subjects is about 1.5 d. Urinary excretion of 3H-metabolites ranged from 30 % of the administered dose on the control diet to 38 % on the restricted diet and had the same turnover rate as the second component of the plasma decay curves. The exchangeable body pool of phylloquinone declined from about 1.0 microg/kg before restriction to lower values after vitamin K restriction. The faecal excretion of phylloquinone and its metabolites fell from 32 % of the administered dose on the control diet to 13 % on the restricted diet. PMID:12067424

  11. Establishment of Early Endpoints in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    PubMed

    Koch, Amory; Gulani, Jatinder; King, Gregory; Hieber, Kevin; Chappell, Mark; Ossetrova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Acute radiation sickness (ARS) following exposure to ionizing irradiation is characterized by radiation-induced multiorgan dysfunction/failure that refers to progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems, the etiological agent being radiation damage to cells and tissues over time. Radiation sensitivity data on humans and animals has made it possible to describe the signs associated with ARS. A mouse model of total-body irradiation (TBI) has previously been developed that represents the likely scenario of exposure in the human population. Herein, we present the Mouse Intervention Scoring System (MISS) developed at the Veterinary Sciences Department (VSD) of the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) to identify moribund mice and decrease the numbers of mice found dead, which is therefore a more humane refinement to death as the endpoint. Survival rates were compared to changes in body weights and temperatures in the mouse (CD2F1 male) TBI model (6-14 Gy, 60Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min-1), which informed improvements to the Scoring System. Individual tracking of animals via implanted microchips allowed for assessment of criteria based on individuals rather than by group averages. From a total of 132 mice (92 irradiated), 51 mice were euthanized versus only four mice that were found dead (7% of non-survivors). In this case, all four mice were found dead after overnight periods between observations. Weight loss alone was indicative of imminent succumbing to radiation injury, however mice did not always become moribund within 24 hours while having weight loss >30%. Only one survivor had a weight loss of greater than 30%. Temperature significantly dropped only 2-4 days before death/euthanasia in 10 and 14 Gy animals. The score system demonstrates a significant refinement as compared to using subjective assessment of morbidity or death as the endpoint for these survival studies. PMID:27579862

  12. Calibration of a total body potassium monitor with an anthropomorphic phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, R. D.; Allen, B. J.

    1996-11-01

    An anthropomorphic phantom was used to calibrate a supine geometry sodium iodide total body potassium monitor. Correction factors accommodating variability in subject size were empirically determined. Measurements on 12 males of weight 45 - 96 kg, height 161 - 184 cm and 18 females of weight 48 - 89 kg, height 153 - 175 cm, showed that the calibration factor was significantly correlated (r = 0.88, p < 0.0001) to subject , indicating comparable accuracy to -based calibration procedures. Fat-free mass determined from the potassium measurements of 16 subjects correlated significantly with fat-free mass estimated from skinfold thickness (r = 0.98, p < 0.0001), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (r = 0.99, p < 0.0001) and bioimpedance analysis (r = 0.98, p < 0.0001). These data, together with the precision (coefficient of variation, CV = 1.5%) and accuracy (CV = 4.5%) of the system, indicate that this calibration procedure represents a relatively low-cost, non-invasive alternative to -based methods of calibrating total body potassium monitors.

  13. Dosimetric aspects of inverse-planned modulated-arc total-body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Held, Mareike; Kirby, Neil; Morin, Olivier; Pouliot, Jean

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To develop optimal beam parameters and to verify the dosimetric aspects of the recently developed modulated-arc total-body irradiation (MATBI) technique, which delivers an inverse-planned dose to the entire body using gantry rotation. Methods: The patient is positioned prone and supine underneath the gantry at about 2 m source-to-surface distance (SSD). Then, up to 28 beams irradiate the patient from different gantry angles. Based on full-body computed-tomography (CT) images of the patient, the weight of each beam is optimized, using inverse planning, to create a uniform body dose. This study investigates how to best simulate patients and the ideal beam setup parameters, such as field size, number of beams, and beam geometry, for treatment time and dose homogeneity. In addition, three anthropomorphic water phantoms were constructed and utilized to verify the accuracy of dose delivery, with both diode array and ion chamber measurements. Furthermore, to improve the accuracy of the new technique, a beam model is created specifically for the extended-SSD positioning for MATBI. Results: Low dose CT scans can be utilized for dose calculations without affecting the accuracy. The largest field size of 40 Multiplication-Sign 40 cm{sup 2} was found to deliver the most uniform dose in the least amount of time. Moreover, a higher number of beams improves dose homogeneity. The average dose discrepancy between ion chamber measurements and extended-SSD beam model calculations was 1.2%, with the largest discrepancy being 3.2%. This average dose discrepancy was 1.4% with the standard beam model for delivery at isocenter. Conclusions: The optimum beam setup parameters, regarding dose uniformity and treatment duration, are laid out for modulated-arc TBI. In addition, the presented dose measurements show that these treatments can be delivered accurately. These measurements also indicated that a new beam model did not significantly improve the accuracy of dose calculations

  14. Ethnic and Sex Differences in Visceral, Subcutaneous, and Total Body Fat in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, A. E.; Broyles, S. T.; Gupta, A. K.; Katzmarzyk, P. T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study investigated ethnic and sex differences in the distribution of fat during childhood and adolescence. Design and Methods A cross-sectional sample (n=382), aged 5 to 18 years, included African American males (n=84), White males (n=96), African American females (n=118), and White females (n=84). Measures for total body fat (TBF) mass and abdominal adipose tissue (total volume and L4–L5 cross-sectional area) for both subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) depots were assessed by DXA and MRI, respectively. ANCOVAs were used to determine ethnic and sex differences in TBF (adjusted for age) and ethnic and sex differences in SAT and VAT (adjusted for both age and TBF). Results Age-adjusted TBF was greater in African Americans (p=0.017) and females (p<0.0001) compared to Whites and males, respectively. In age- and TBF-adjusted ANCOVAs, no differences were found in the SAT. The VAT volume was, however, greater in Whites (p<0.0001) and males (p<0.0001) compared to African Americans and females, respectively. Similar patterns were observed in SAT and VAT area at L4–L5. Conclusions The demonstrated ethnic and sex differences are important confounders in the prevalence of obesity and in the assignment of disease risk in children and adolescents. PMID:23670982

  15. Comparison of Total Body Irradiation Before and After Chemotherapy in Pretreatment for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Li, De-Zhi; Kong, Pei-Yan; Wang, Xin-Xin; Li, Guang-Hui; Zhou, Yi-Bing; Chen, Zheng-Tang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the best time to carry out total body irradiation (TBI) in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) pretreatment. Methods Retrospective analysis was applied in 88 cases of HSCT using TBI as pretreatment from March 2001 to June 2009 in our hospital. Using 8 MV X-ray, all the patients were irradiated by linear accelerator in 2 consecutive days, with a total dose of 7–11 Gy and an instantaneous dose rate ranging between 4.0 and 5.0 cGy/min. Of the 88 cases, 40 cases were given traditional high-dose chemotherapy before TBI (Group CT/TBI), and 48 cases were given TBI before chemotherapy (Group TBI/CT) instead. Results Eighty-seven cases of transplantation were successful, with no serious complications, including radiation pneumonia. Compared with Group CT/TBI, Group TBI/CT showed similar incidence of complications (p=0.08), similar recent chemotherapy toxicity (p=0.833), and significantly lower recent radiation toxicity (p=0.000). Conclusions TBI in the pretreatment of HSCT is safe and effective. Using TBI before the high-dose chemotherapy can maintain the same pretreatment effect, effectively reduce apparent immediate reaction/discomfort during TBI, reduce preparation workload of radiotherapy, and lower radiation side-effects. Further research is needed to expand its clinical application. PMID:22149642

  16. Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, Chris R.; Horwitz, Mitchell E.; Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly; Folz, Rodney J.; Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

  17. Benefits of online in vivo dosimetry for single-fraction total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, David J.; Warry, Alison J.; Trimble, Rachel E.; Vilarino-Varela, Maria J.; Collis, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    Use of a patient test dose before single-fraction total body irradiation (TBI) allows review of in vivo dosimetry and modification of the main treatment setup. However, use of computed tomography (CT) planning and online in vivo dosimetry may reduce the need for this additional step. Patients were treated using a supine CT-planned extended source-to-surface distance (SSD) technique with lead compensators and bolus. In vivo dosimetry was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and diodes at 10 representative anatomical locations, for both a 0.1-Gy test dose and the treatment dose. In total, 28 patients were treated between April 2007 and July 2013, with changes made in 10 cases (36%) following test dose results. Overall, 98.1% of measured in vivo treatment doses were within 10% of the prescribed dose, compared with 97.0% of test dose readings. Changes made following the test dose could have been applied during the single-fraction treatment itself, assuming that the dose was delivered in subportions and online in vivo dosimetry was available for all clinically important anatomical sites. This alleviates the need for a test dose, saving considerable time and resources.

  18. Fludarabine Allows Dose Reduction for Total Body Irradiation in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kornguth, David G. . E-mail: dkorngut@mdanderson.org; Mahajan, Anita; Woo, Shiao; Chan, Ka Wah; Antolak, John; Ha, Chul S.

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: To examine, in the setting of total body irradiation (TBI) for the preparation of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), whether TBI dose can be reduced without compromising the efficacy of a regimen consisting of fludarabine and radiotherapy; and whether there is any increased risk of pulmonary toxicity due to the radiosensitizing effect of fludarabine. Methods and Materials: A total of 52 pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies received TBI-based conditioning regimens in preparation for allogeneic HSCT. Twenty-three patients received 12 Gy in 4 daily fractions in combination with cyclophosphamide, either alone or with other chemotherapeutic and biologic agents. Twenty-nine patients received 9 Gy in 3 fractions in conjunction with fludarabine and melphalan. Clinical and radiation records were reviewed to determine engraftment, pulmonary toxicity (according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria), transplant-related mortality, recurrence of primary disease, and overall survival. Results: The two groups of patients had comparable pretransplant clinical characteristics. For the 12-Gy and 9-Gy regimens, the engraftment (89% and 93%; p = 0.82), freedom from life-threatening pulmonary events (65% and 79%; p = 0.33), freedom from relapse (60% and 73%; p = 0.24), and overall survival (26% and 47%; p = 0.09) were not statistically different. Conclusions: The addition of fludarabine and melphalan seems to allow the dose of TBI to be lowered to 9 Gy without loss of engraftment or antitumor efficacy.

  19. Benefits of online in vivo dosimetry for single-fraction total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Eaton, David J; Warry, Alison J; Trimble, Rachel E; Vilarino-Varela, Maria J; Collis, Christopher H

    2014-01-01

    Use of a patient test dose before single-fraction total body irradiation (TBI) allows review of in vivo dosimetry and modification of the main treatment setup. However, use of computed tomography (CT) planning and online in vivo dosimetry may reduce the need for this additional step. Patients were treated using a supine CT-planned extended source-to-surface distance (SSD) technique with lead compensators and bolus. In vivo dosimetry was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and diodes at 10 representative anatomical locations, for both a 0.1-Gy test dose and the treatment dose. In total, 28 patients were treated between April 2007 and July 2013, with changes made in 10 cases (36%) following test dose results. Overall, 98.1% of measured in vivo treatment doses were within 10% of the prescribed dose, compared with 97.0% of test dose readings. Changes made following the test dose could have been applied during the single-fraction treatment itself, assuming that the dose was delivered in subportions and online in vivo dosimetry was available for all clinically important anatomical sites. This alleviates the need for a test dose, saving considerable time and resources. PMID:25151596

  20. Body Fatness and Risk for Elevated Blood Pressure, Total Cholesterol, and Serum Lipoprotein Ratios in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Daniel P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines the relationship between body fat percent and risk for elevated blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and serum lipoprotein ratios in 1,230 African-American and 2,090 white 5-18 year olds (1,667 males and 1,653 females). Results support body fatness standards in children and adolescents as cardiovascular risk factors. (SLD)

  1. Body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Kai; Kang, Wei-Ming; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhou, Li; Yu, Jian-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is related to an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer. However, the influences of excess body weight and serum total cholesterol on the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia have not been fully characterized. A case–control study was conducted to explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI), serum total cholesterol level, and the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in Chinese adults. A total of 893 consecutive patients with gastric high-grade dysplasia (537 men and 356 women) and 902 controls (543 men and 359 women) were enrolled from January 2000 to October 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, and a multivariate analysis was conducted. After adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, smoking status, family history of gastric cancer or esophageal cancer, and serum total cholesterol level, a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was significantly related to an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.24–2.81) and women (adjusted OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.44–5.16). The 2 highest BMI categories (27.5–29.9 and ≥30.0) were identified as risk factors for gastric cardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (BMI = 27.5–29.9: adjusted OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.02–3.10; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.27–5.08) and women (BMI = 27.5–29.9: adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.27–6.55; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.36–5.64), whereas only a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was a risk factor for gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.25–3.14) and women (adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.43–5.81). In addition, higher serum total cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.25–2.69) in women. Increased BMI was associated with an increased risk

  2. Aerobic Fitness Does Not Modify the Effect of FTO Variation on Body Composition Traits

    PubMed Central

    Huuskonen, Antti; Lappalainen, Jani; Oksala, Niku; Santtila, Matti; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Atalay, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Poor physical fitness and obesity are risk factors for all cause morbidity and mortality. We aimed to clarify whether common genetic variants of key energy intake determinants in leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), and fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) are associated with aerobic and neuromuscular performance, and whether aerobic fitness can alter the effect of these genotypes on body composition. Methods 846 healthy Finnish males of Caucasian origin were genotyped for FTO (rs8050136), LEP (rs7799039) and LEPR (rs8179183 and rs1137101) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and studied for associations with maximal oxygen consumption, body fat percent, serum leptin levels, waist circumference and maximal force of leg extensor muscles. Results Genotype AA of the FTO SNP rs8050136 associated with higher BMI and greater waist circumference compared to the genotype CC. In general linear model, no significant interaction for FTO genotype-relative VO2max (mL·kg−1·min−1) or FTO genotype-absolute VO2max (L·min−1) on BMI or waist circumference was found. Main effects of aerobic performance on body composition traits were significant (p<0.001). Logistic regression modelling found no significant interaction between aerobic fitness and FTO genotype. LEP SNP rs7799039, LEPR SNPs rs8179183 and rs1137101 did not associate with any of the measured variables, and no significant interactions of LEP or LEPR genotype with aerobic fitness were observed. In addition, none of the studied SNPs associated with aerobic or neuromuscular performance. Conclusions Aerobic fitness may not modify the effect of FTO variation on body composition traits. However, relative aerobic capacity associates with lower BMI and waist circumference regardless of the FTO genotype. FTO, LEP and LEPR genotypes unlikely associate with physical performance. PMID:23284729

  3. INDIVIDUAL TISSUE TO TOTAL BODY-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIPS AND TOTAL, POLAR, AND NON-POLAR LIPIDS IN TISSUES OF HATCHERY LAKE TROUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tissue body weight relaltionships, total lipid, and major lipid subclasses were measured in 20 adult hatchery lake trout to obtain a more in-depth understanding of the major lipid compartments of the "lean" lake trout for use in modeling the disposition of xenobiotics. It is sug...

  4. Total body nitrogen and total body carbon as indicators of body protein and body lipids in the melon fly: Effects of methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue, and of diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of methoprene and dietary protein enhanced mating success and had no effect on survival in male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae). .The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of methoprene and protein on body lipids and protein tu...

  5. One-body potential theory of molecules and solids modified semiempirically for electron correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, N. H.

    2010-10-01

    The study of Cordero, March and Alonso (CMA) for four spherical atoms, Be, Ne, Mg and Ar, semiempirically fine-tunes the Hartree-Fock (HF) ground-state electron density by inserting the experimentally determined ionization potentials. The present Letter, first of all, relates this approach to the very recent work of Bartlett ‘towards an exact correlated orbital theory for electrons’. Both methods relax the requirement of standard DFT that a one-body potential shall generate the exact ground-state density, though both work with high quality approximations. Unlike DFT, the CMA theory uses a modified HF non-local potential. It is finally stressed that this potential generates also an idempotent Dirac density matrix. The CMA approach is thereby demonstrated to relate, albeit approximately, to the DFT exchange-correlation potential.

  6. Evaluation of Field-in-Field Technique for Total Body Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Onal, Cem; Sonmez, Aydan; Arslan, Gungor; Sonmez, Serhat; Efe, Esma; Oymak, Ezgi

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical use of a field-in-field (FIF) technique for total body irradiation (TBI) using a treatment-planning system (TPS) and to verify TPS results with in vivo dose measurements using metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) detectors. Methods and Materials: Clinical and dosimetric data of 10 patients treated with TBI were assessed. Certain radiation parameters were measured using homogenous and regular phantoms at an extended distance of 380 cm, and the results were compared with data from a conventional standard distance of 100 cm. Additionally, dosimetric validation of TPS doses was performed with a Rando phantom using manual calculations. A three-dimensional computed tomography plan was generated involving 18-MV photon beams with a TPS for both open-field and FIF techniques. The midline doses were measured at the head, neck, lung, umbilicus, and pelvis for both open-field and FIF techniques. Results: All patients received planned TBI using the FIF technique with 18-MV photon energies and 2 Gy b.i.d. on 3 consecutive days. The difference in tissue maximum ratios between the extended and conventional distances was <2%. The mean deviation of manual calculations compared with TPS data was +1.6% (range, 0.1-2.4%). A homogenous dose distribution was obtained with 18-MV photon beams using the FIF technique. The mean lung dose for the FIF technique was 79.2% (9.2 Gy; range, 8.8-9.7 Gy) of the prescribed dose. The MOSFET readings and TPS doses in the body were similar (percentage difference range, -0.5% to 2.5%) and slightly higher in the shoulder and lung (percentage difference range, 4.0-5.5%). Conclusion: The FIF technique used for TBI provides homogenous dose distribution and is feasible, simple, and spares time compared with more-complex techniques. The TPS doses were similar to the midline doses obtained from MOSFET readings.

  7. Translating bed total body irradiation lung shielding and dose optimization using asymmetric MLC apertures.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shahbaz; Brown, Derek; Ahmed, Saad B S; Kakakhel, Muhammad B; Muhammad, Wazir; Hussain, Amjad

    2016-01-01

    A revised translating bed total body irradiation (TBI) technique is developed for shielding organs at risk (lungs) to tolerance dose limits, and optimizing dose distribution in three dimensions (3D) using an asymmetrically-adjusted, dynamic multileaf collimator. We present a dosimetric comparison of this technique with a previously developed symmetric MLC-based TBI technique. An anthropomor-phic RANDO phantom is CT scanned with 3 mm slice thickness. Radiological depths (RD) are calculated on individual CT slices along the divergent ray lines. Asymmetric MLC apertures are defined every 9 mm over the phantom length in the craniocaudal direction. Individual asymmetric MLC leaf positions are optimized based on RD values of all slices for uniform dose distributions. Dose calculations are performed in the Eclipse treatment planning system over these optimized MLC apertures. Dose uniformity along midline of the RANDO phantom is within the confidence limit (CL) of 2.1% (with a confidence probability p = 0.065). The issue of over- and underdose at the interfaces that is observed when symmetric MLC apertures are used is reduced from more than ± 4% to less than ± 1.5% with asymmetric MLC apertures. Lungs are shielded by 20%, 30%, and 40% of the prescribed dose by adjusting the MLC apertures. Dose-volume histogram analysis confirms that the revised technique provides effective lung shielding, as well as a homogeneous dose coverage to the whole body. The asymmetric technique also reduces hot and cold spots at lung-tissue interfaces compared to previous symmetric MLC-based TBI technique. MLC-based shielding of OARs eliminates the need to fabricate and setup cumbersome patient-specific physical blocks. PMID:27074477

  8. Insights into bioassessment of marine pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates based on a modified trait hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Henglong; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Guangjian

    2016-06-15

    Based on a modified trait hierarchy of body-size units, the feasibility for bioassessment of water pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates was studied in a semi-enclosed bay, northern China. An annual dataset was collected at five sampling stations within a gradient of heavy metal contaminants. Results showed that: (1) in terms of probability density, the body-size spectra of the ciliates represented significant differences among the five stations; (2) bootstrap average analysis demonstrated a spatial variation in body-size rank patterns in response to pollution stress due to heavy metals; and (3) the average body-size distinctness (Δz(+)) and variation in body-size distinctness (Λz(+)), based on the modified trait hierarchy, revealed a clear departure pattern from the expected body-size spectra in areas with pollutants. These results suggest that the body-size diversity measures based on the modified trait hierarchy of the ciliates may be used as a potential indicator of marine pollution. PMID:27105728

  9. Association between body mass index and risk of total knee replacement, the Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ying-Ying; Allen, John Carson; Noviani, Maria; Ang, Li-Wei; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Data on the association between body mass index (BMI) and risk of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) are sparse for Asian populations who are leaner than Western populations. We evaluated the association between BMI and risk of total knee replacement (TKR) due to severe KOA among Chinese in Singapore. Methods We used data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population based prospective cohort of 63,257 Chinese men and women, aged 45–74 years at enrollment from 1993 to 1998. Information on height, weight, diet and lifestyle factors were obtained via in-person interviews. TKR cases for severe KOA were identified via linkage with the nationwide hospital discharge database through 2011. Cox regression and weighted least squares regression were used in the analysis. Results The mean BMI among cohort participants was 23.1 kg/m2, and more than two-thirds had BMI below 25 kg/m2. A total of 1,649 had TKR attributable to severe KOA. Risk of TKR increased in a strong dose-dependent manner with increasing BMI throughout the 15–32 kg/m2 range and became less clear at BMI > 32 kg/m2. In the BMI range 16–27 kg/m2, there was a 27% increase in TKR risk for each unit increase in BMI (p for trend < 0.001). Compared to BMI 19–20 kg/m2, the risk estimates of TKR were all statistically significant with increasing unit of BMI ≥ 21 kg/m2. Results were similar for men and women. Conclusion Our results provided evidence for a constant mechanical mechanism underlying BMI and KOA initiation and/or progression. PMID:25450848

  10. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Mitigates Hematopoietic Toxicity After Lethal Total Body Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Dunhua; Deoliveira, Divino; Kang, Yubin; Choi, Seung S.; Li, Zhiguo; Chao, Nelson J.; Chen, Benny J.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether and how insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mitigates hematopoietic toxicity after total body irradiation. Methods and Materials: BALB/c mice were irradiated with a lethal dose of radiation (7.5 Gy) and treated with IGF-1 at a dose of 100 μg/dose intravenously once a day for 5 consecutive days starting within 1 hour after exposure. Survival and hematopoietic recovery were monitored. The mechanisms by which IGF-1 promotes hematopoietic recovery were also studied by use of an in vitro culture system. Results: IGF-1 protected 8 of 20 mice (40%) from lethal irradiation, whereas only 2 of 20 mice (10%) in the saline control group survived for more than 100 days after irradiation. A single dose of IGF-1 (500 μg) was as effective as daily dosing for 5 days. Positive effects were noted even when the initiation of treatment was delayed as long as 6 hours after irradiation. In comparison with the saline control group, treatment with IGF-1 significantly accelerated the recovery of both platelets and red blood cells in peripheral blood, total cell numbers, hematopoietic stem cells, and progenitor cells in the bone marrow when measured at day 14 after irradiation. IGF-1 protected both hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from radiation-induced apoptosis and cell death. In addition, IGF-1 was able to facilitate the proliferation and differentiation of nonirradiated and irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells. Conclusions: IGF-1 mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity through protecting hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from apoptosis and enhancing proliferation and differentiation of the surviving hematopoietic progenitor cells.

  11. Emesis as a Screening Diagnostic for Low Dose Rate (LDR) Total Body Radiation Exposure.

    PubMed

    Camarata, Andrew S; Switchenko, Jeffrey M; Demidenko, Eugene; Flood, Ann B; Swartz, Harold M; Ali, Arif N

    2016-04-01

    Current radiation disaster manuals list the time-to-emesis (TE) as the key triage indicator of radiation dose. The data used to support TE recommendations were derived primarily from nearly instantaneous, high dose-rate exposures as part of variable condition accident databases. To date, there has not been a systematic differentiation between triage dose estimates associated with high and low dose rate (LDR) exposures, even though it is likely that after a nuclear detonation or radiologic disaster, many surviving casualties would have received a significant portion of their total exposure from fallout (LDR exposure) rather than from the initial nuclear detonation or criticality event (high dose rate exposure). This commentary discusses the issues surrounding the use of emesis as a screening diagnostic for radiation dose after LDR exposure. As part of this discussion, previously published clinical data on emesis after LDR total body irradiation (TBI) is statistically re-analyzed as an illustration of the complexity of the issue and confounding factors. This previously published data includes 107 patients who underwent TBI up to 10.5 Gy in a single fraction delivered over several hours at 0.02 to 0.04 Gy min. Estimates based on these data for the sensitivity of emesis as a screening diagnostic for the low dose rate radiation exposure range from 57.1% to 76.6%, and the estimates for specificity range from 87.5% to 99.4%. Though the original data contain multiple confounding factors, the evidence regarding sensitivity suggests that emesis appears to be quite poor as a medical screening diagnostic for LDR exposures. PMID:26910032

  12. Foraging and vulnerability traits modify predator-prey body mass allometry: freshwater macroinvertebrates as a case study.

    PubMed

    Klecka, Jan; Boukal, David S

    2013-09-01

    1. Predation is often size selective, but the role of other traits of the prey and predators in their interactions is little known. This hinders our understanding of the causal links between trophic interactions and the structure of animal communities. Better knowledge of trophic traits underlying predator-prey interactions is also needed to improve models attempting to predict food web structure and dynamics from known species traits. 2. We carried out laboratory experiments with common freshwater macroinvertebrate predators (diving beetles, dragonfly and damselfly larvae and water bugs) and their prey to assess how body size and traits related to foraging (microhabitat use, feeding mode and foraging mode) and to prey vulnerability (microhabitat use, activity and escape behaviour) affect predation strength. 3. The underlying predator-prey body mass allometry characterizing mean prey size and total predation pressure was modified by feeding mode of the predators (suctorial or chewing). Suctorial predators fed upon larger prey and had ˜3 times higher mass-specific predation rate than chewing predators of the same size and may thus have stronger effect on prey abundance. 4. Strength of individual trophic links, measured as mortality of the focal prey caused by the focal predator, was determined jointly by the predator and prey body mass and their foraging and vulnerability traits. In addition to the feeding mode, interactions between prey escape behaviour (slow or fast), prey activity (sedentary or active) and predator foraging mode (searching or ambush) strongly affected prey mortality. Searching predators was ineffective in capturing fast-escape prey in comparison with the remaining predator-prey combinations, while ambush predators caused higher mortality than searching predators and the difference was larger in active prey. 5. Our results imply that the inclusion of the commonly available qualitative data on foraging traits of predators and vulnerability traits

  13. SU-E-T-540: Volumetric Modulated Total Body Irradiation Using a Rotational Lazy Susan-Like Immobilization System

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, X; Hrycushko, B; Lee, H; Lamphier, R; Jiang, S; Abdulrahman, R; Timmerman, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Traditional extended SSD total body irradiation (TBI) techniques can be problematic in terms of patient comfort and/or dose uniformity. This work aims to develop a comfortable TBI technique that achieves a uniform dose distribution to the total body while reducing the dose to organs at risk for complications. Methods: To maximize patient comfort, a lazy Susan-like couch top immobilization system which rotates about a pivot point was developed. During CT simulation, a patient is immobilized by a Vac-Lok bag within the body frame. The patient is scanned head-first and then feet-first following 180° rotation of the frame. The two scans are imported into the Pinnacle treatment planning system and concatenated to give a full-body CT dataset. Treatment planning matches multiple isocenter volumetric modulated arc (VMAT) fields of the upper body and multiple isocenter parallel-opposed fields of the lower body. VMAT fields of the torso are optimized to satisfy lung dose constraints while achieving a therapeutic dose to the torso. The multiple isocenter VMAT fields are delivered with an indexed couch, followed by body frame rotation about the pivot point to treat the lower body isocenters. The treatment workflow was simulated with a Rando phantom, and the plan was mapped to a solid water slab phantom for point- and film-dose measurements at multiple locations. Results: The treatment plan of 12Gy over 8 fractions achieved 80.2% coverage of the total body volume within ±10% of the prescription dose. The mean lung dose was 8.1 Gy. All ion chamber measurements were within ±1.7% compared to the calculated point doses. All relative film dosimetry showed at least a 98.0% gamma passing rate using a 3mm/3% passing criteria. Conclusion: The proposed patient comfort-oriented TBI technique provides for a uniform dose distribution within the total body while reducing the dose to the lungs.

  14. The enhanced total body wrap--the new frontier in dressing care for burns.

    PubMed

    Low, O-Wern; Chong, Si Jack; Tan, Bien-Keem

    2013-11-01

    The management of extensive burns with their associated high fluid exudate following burn excision and skin grafting has always posed a challenge in burn wound care. The ideal dressing should protect the wound from physical damage and micro-organisms; be comfortable and durable; allow high humidity at the wound; and be able to allow maximal activity for wound healing without retarding or inhibiting any stage of the process. The dressing technique described in this paper fulfils all the criteria above and at the same time provides an efficient channel to effectively clear the excessive exudate produced while keeping the wounds moist. Advantages conferred include accurate charting of wound exudate; reduced frequency of dressing changes; lower infection rates through prevention of strike-through; and securing and improving the viability of skin grafts. An enhancement to a technique previously described by us through the use of long thin strips of VAC sponges to transmit negative pressure, the enhanced Total Body Wrap aims to provide ideal conditions to promote healing in burns. Using negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), this technique is simple and straightforward enough to be applied in majority of tertiary centres around the world. PMID:23742730

  15. Effects of supralethal total body irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution upon immunologic memory

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, N.; Bachvaroff, R.J.; Sato, T.; Rapaport, F.T.

    1981-03-01

    The transplantation of bone marrow from prospectively selected genotypically and pedigree DLA-identical donors into supralethally irradiated littermate and nonlittermate recipients within the Copperstown beagle colony has regularly resulted in the establishment of long-term chimerism, with no evidence of graft-versus-host disease in the recipients. It has been demonstrated that irradiated recipients exhibit significant decreases in their ability to muster primary immunological responses during the first months after reconstitution with bone marrow. Beyond the documented capacity of preirradiation blood transfusions to interfere with subsequent engraftment of allogeneic marrow, however, there have been no systematic studies of the possible effects of irradiation and bone marrow transplantation upon immunologic memory. The present study was designed in order to assess this question in greater detail, with particular regard to the effects of irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution upon host sensitization to skin allografts. The results indicate that, within the experimental limitations described, the state of sensitivity produced by first set skin allograft rejection is not affected significantly by supralethal total body irradiation and reconstitution of the recipient with allogeneic bone marrow.

  16. Immunoglobulin levels in dogs after total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Halliwell, R.E.; Johnson, P.M.; Fey, T.A.; McDonough, C.M.

    1985-06-01

    The influence of total-body irradiation (TBI) and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation on serum immunoglobulin subclasses was determined in a dog model. Only IgG1 levels decreased after low-dose (+/- 4.5 Gy) TBI, but levels of all immunoglobulin classes fell after high-dose TBI (8.5 GyX1 or 2X6.0 Gy). After autologous bone marrow transplantation IgM levels were the first and IgE levels were the last to return to normal. After successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation prolonged low IgM and IgE levels were found but IgA levels increased rapidly to over 150% of pretreatment values. A comparison of dogs with or without clinical signs or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), revealed no differences in IgM levels. Dogs with GVHD had higher IgA but lower IgE levels. Dogs that rejected their allogeneic bone marrow cells showed significant early rises in IgE and IgA levels in comparison with dogs with GVHD. These results differ from the observations made on Ig levels in human bone marrow transplant patients. No significant differences in phytohemagglutinin stimulation tests were found between dogs with or without GVHD or dogs receiving an autologous transplant for the first four months after TBI and transplantation. An early primary or secondary involvement of humoral immunity in GVHD and graft rejection in dogs is postulated.

  17. Total body irradiation in bone marrow transplantation: the influence of fractionation and delay of marrow infusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lichter, A.S.; Tracy, D.; Lam, W.C.; Order, S.E.

    1980-03-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) after total body irradiation (TBI) and cyclophosphamide is being employed increasingly in the therapy of end stage leukemia. Interstitial pneumonitis (IP) represents a major acute toxicity after allogeneic transplantation. A more rapid reconstitution of lymphoid organs and bone marrow post transplant may result in increased immune competence and hence fewer opportunistic pulmonary infections and IP. By delaying the infusion of marrow to 72 hr after TBI (1250 rad at 7.5 rad/min) instead of the customary 24 hr, we can demonstrate an increase in initial repopulation of thymus, spleen and bone marrow, with syngeneic transplants in Lewis rats. Interstitial pneumonitis may also be caused, in part, by the pulmonary toxicity of large single exposures of TBI. Clinical and laboratory data suggest that fractionated TBI may be less toxic to the lung. When fractionated TBI (625 rad x 2, 7.5 rad/min) is compared to single dose TBI (1250 rad, 7.5 rad/min), and increased initial repopulation of lymphoid organs is observed when fractionated therapy is employed. Delay in marrow infusion and fractionation of TBI exposure may have clinical advantages in patients who receive BMT.

  18. An anti-apoptotic peptide improves survival in lethal total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    McDunn, Jonathan E.; Muenzer, Jared T.; Dunne, Benjamin; Zhou, Anthony; Yuan, Kevin; Hoekzema, Andrew; Hilliard, Carolyn; Chang, Katherine C.; Davis, Christopher G.; McDonough, Jacquelyn; Hunt, Clayton; Grigsby, Perry; Piwnica-Worms, David; Hotchkiss, Richard S.

    2009-05-15

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been used to deliver the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL-derived BH4 peptide to prevent injury-induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Here we demonstrate that the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) from the SV40 large T antigen has favorable properties for BH4 domain delivery to lymphocytes compared to sequences based on the HIV-1 TAT sequence. While both TAT-BH4 and NLS-BH4 protected primary human mononuclear cells from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death, TAT-BH4 caused persistent membrane damage and even cell death at the highest concentrations tested (5-10 {mu}M) and correlated with in vivo toxicity as intravenous administration of TAT-BH4 caused rapid death. The NLS-BH4 peptide has significantly attenuated toxicity compared to TAT-BH4 and we established a dosing regimen of NLS-BH4 that conferred a significant survival advantage in a post-exposure treatment model of LD90 total body irradiation.

  19. Total body irradiation, fludarabine, melphalan, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for advanced pediatric hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Petropoulos, D; Worth, L L; Mullen, C A; Madden, R; Mahajan, A; Choroszy, M; Ha, C S; Champlin, R C; Chan, K W

    2006-03-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of adding 9 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI), in three single daily fractions of 3 Gy, to the reduced intensity regimen of fludarabine 30 mg/m2 i.v. x 4 days and melphalan 140 mg/m2 i.v. x 1 day in advanced pediatric hematologic malignancies. Twenty-two acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), six acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and one non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients were transplanted. Of these, 13 were beyond second remission, and five had prior hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Twenty-one donors were unrelated, of which 19 were from cord blood (CB) units. Three of the eight related donors were genotypically disparate. Oral mucositis and diarrhea were the most common toxicities. Twenty-seven patients achieved neutrophil engraftment (median 16 days), and 23 had platelet engraftment (median 42 days). One patient had primary graft failure. Seven patients died of non-relapse causes in the first 100 days. With a median follow-up of 52 months, seven of 22 ALL, five of six AML, and one of one lymphoma patients are alive and in remission. The regimen of TBI, fludarabine, and melphalan allows the engraftment of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (including mismatched CB). It was fairly well tolerated in pediatric patients, even for second transplants. Its efficacy requires further evaluation. PMID:16435013

  20. Time- and dose-dependent effects of total-body ionizing radiation on muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Shinya; Hisamatsu, Tsubasa; Seko, Daiki; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Li, Tao-Sheng; Ono, Yusuke

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to high levels of genotoxic stress, such as high-dose ionizing radiation, increases both cancer and noncancer risks. However, it remains debatable whether low-dose ionizing radiation reduces cellular function, or rather induces hormetic health benefits. Here, we investigated the effects of total-body γ-ray radiation on muscle stem cells, called satellite cells. Adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to γ-radiation at low- to high-dose rates (low, 2 or 10 mGy/day; moderate, 50 mGy/day; high, 250 mGy/day) for 30 days. No hormetic responses in proliferation, differentiation, or self-renewal of satellite cells were observed in low-dose radiation-exposed mice at the acute phase. However, at the chronic phase, population expansion of satellite cell-derived progeny was slightly decreased in mice exposed to low-dose radiation. Taken together, low-dose ionizing irradiation may suppress satellite cell function, rather than induce hormetic health benefits, in skeletal muscle in adult mice. PMID:25869487

  1. Comparison of total body water estimates from O-18 and bioelectrical response prediction equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Linda H.; Inners, L. Daniel; Stricklin, Marcella D.; Klein, Peter D.; Wong, William W.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1993-01-01

    Identification of an indirect, rapid means to measure total body water (TBW) during space flight may aid in quantifying hydration status and assist in countermeasure development. Bioelectrical response testing and hydrostatic weighing were performed on 27 subjects who ingested O-18, a naturally occurring isotope of oxygen, to measure true TBW. TBW estimates from three bioelectrical response prediction equations and fat-free mass (FFM) were compared to TBW measured from O-18. A repeated measures MANOVA with post-hoc Dunnett's Test indicated a significant (p less than 0.05) difference between TBW estimates from two of the three bioelectrical response prediction equations and O-18. TBW estimates from FFM and the Kushner & Schoeller (1986) equation yielded results that were similar to those given by O-18. Strong correlations existed between each prediction method and O-18; however, standard errors, identified through regression analyses, were higher for the bioelectrical response prediction equations compared to those derived from FFM. These findings suggest (1) the Kushner & Schoeller (1986) equation may provide a valid measure of TBW, (2) other TBW prediction equations need to be identified that have variability similar to that of FFM, and (3) bioelectrical estimates of TBW may prove valuable in quantifying hydration status during space flight.

  2. Oral Interleukin 11 as a Countermeasure to Lethal Total-Body Irradiation in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Alexander F.; Biju, Prabath G.; Lui, Huanli; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Countermeasures against radiation are critically needed. Ideally, these measures would be easy to store, easy to administer and have minimal toxicity. We used oral delivery of interleukin 11 (IL11) in mice exposed to lethal doses of total-body irradiation (TBI). Animals were given IL11 by gavage at various daily doses beginning 24 h after TBI, which continued for 5 days. At a TBI of 9.0 Gy, mice treated with IL11 had a 70% survival at 30 days compared with control group survival of 25% (P = 0.035). At 10.0 Gy, treated animals had 50% survival at 30 days compared with no survivors in the control group. Treated animals had significant improvement in intestinal mucosal surface area and crypt survival. In addition bacterial translocation of coliform bacteria was significantly less in the treated animals. Systemic absorption of IL11 was low in treated animals and effects on the hematopoietic cells were not seen. Serum citrulline levels rebounded significantly faster after irradiation in the IL11 treated animals, indicating quicker recovery of small intestine health. These data suggest that IL11 given orally protects the intestinal mucosa from radiation damage and that this compound is beneficial as a mitigating agent even when started 24 h after radiation exposure. PMID:24219324

  3. Anticarcinogenic effect of tetrachlorodecaoxide after total-body gamma irradiation in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kempf, S.R.; Port, R.E.; Ivankovic, S.

    1994-08-01

    Tetrachlorodecaoxygen (TCDO) therapy of acute radiation syndrome was tested for a possible influence on the development of X-ray-induced malignancies. BD IX rats were exposed to total-body irradiation (TBI, {gamma} rays, 9 or 11 Gy) and received daily intravenous injections of either TCDO or physiological saline solution from days 4 through 11 after TBI. The short-term TCDO therapy reduced the acute death rate markedly, but survival rates after 4 months were similar with and without TCDO. The first malignancy after TBI occurred on day 103, and over the lifetime of the animals the tumor incidence in the group given TBI (11 Gy) without TCDO treatment was 73% vs 20% in animals with short-term TCDO therapy after TBI. In particular, there was a highly significant prevention of radiation-induced leukemia [P (one-sided) < 0.001] by TCDO, and a significantly reduced incidence of malignant epithelial tumors [P (one-sided) < 0.05]. The development of sarcomas was not affected by TCDO. Long-term survival was not enhanced by TCDO due to the occurrence of bronchopneumonial infections about 1 year after TBI. In conclusion, TCDO is not only a potent therapeutic agent in acute radiation syndrome, but it also significantly reduced the carcinogenic risk in rats after exposure to ionizing radiation. 18 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. The fate of cells with chromosome aberrations after total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Carbonell, F.; Ganser, A.; Fliedner, T.M.; Arnold, R.; Kubanek, B.

    1983-03-01

    Cytogenetic studies were done on bone marrow cells and peripheral lymphocytes of four patients (three with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, one with aplastic anemia) at various intervals up to 861 days after total-body X irradiation (TBI) at doses between 4.5 and 10 Gy (450-1000 rad) followed by syngeneic or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Whereas no radiation-induced aberrations could be found in the bone marrow, apart from a transient finding in the patient with the lowest radiation dose, aberrant metaphases were seen in the peripheral lymphocytes of three patients in the range from 2.5 to 46% even at 861 days after the exposure. There were no demonstrable aberrations related to TBI in the only patient developing graft-versus-host disease. The dicentric yield as determined in the aberrant metaphases with 46 centromeres ranged between 3.4 +/- 1.3 and 4.9 +/- 0.4. In one patient it was demonstrated by BUdR-labeling that after 10 Gy (1000 rad) TBI the surviving and heavily damaged lymphocytes can go into cell cycle and reach at least the third mitosis. The percentage of aberrant cells diminished by about 25% at each mitotic division.

  5. Cell survival kinetics in peripheral blood and bone marrow during total body irradiation for marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Shank, B.; Andreeff, M.; Li, D.

    1983-11-01

    Cell survival kinetics in both peripheral blood and in bone marrow have been studied over the time course of hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) for bone marrow transplantation. Our unique TBI regimen allows the study of the in vivo radiation effect uncomplicated by prior cyclophosphamide, since this agent is given after TBI in our cytoreduction scheme. Peripheral blood cell concentrations were monitored with conventional laboratory cell counts and differentials. Absolute bone marrow cell concentrations were monitored by measuring cell concentrations in an aspirate sample and correcting for dilution with blood by a cell cycle kinetic method using cytofluorometry. For lymphocytes in peripheral blood in patients in remission, the effective D/sub 0/ ranged from 373 rad in 10 children less than or equal to 10 y old, to 536 rad in the four patients between 11 to 17 y old, while n = 1.0 in all groups. There was no trend observed according to age. Granulocytes had a much higher effective D/sub 0/, approximately 1000 rad in vivo. Absolute nucleated cell concentration in marrow dropped slowly initially, due to an increased lymphocyte concentration in marrow during a concurrent drop in lymphocyte concentration in peripheral blood, but eventually fell on the last day of TBI ranging from 7 to 44% of the initial marrow nucleated cell concentration. Marrow myeloid elements, however, dropped continuously throughout the course of TBI.

  6. Interstitial pneumonitis following bone marrow transplantation after low dose rate total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, A.; Depledge, M.H.; Powles, R.L.

    1983-07-01

    Idiopathic and infective interstitial pneumonitis (IPn) is a common complication after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in many centers and carries a high mortality. We report here a series of 107 patients with acute leukemia grafted at the Royal Marsden Hospital in which only 11 (10.3%) developed IPn and only 5 died (5%). Only one case of idiopathic IPn was seen. Factors which may account for this low incidence are discussed. Sixty of 107 patients were transplanted in first remission of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and were therefore in good general condition. Lung radiation doses were carefully monitored and doses of 10.5 Gy were not exceeded except in a group of 16 patients in whom a study of escalating doses of TBI (up to 13 Gy) was undertaken. The dose rate used for total body irradiation (TBI) was lower than that used in other centers and as demonstrated elsewhere by ourselves and others, reduction of dose rate to <0.05 Gy/min may be expected to lead to substantial reduction in lung damage. Threshold doses of approximately 8 Gy for IPn have been reported, but within the dose range of 8 to 10.5 Gy we suggest that dose rate may significantly affect the incidence. Data so far available suggest a true improvement in therapeutic ratio for low dose rate single fraction TBI compared with high dose rate.

  7. Cataracts after total body irradiation and marrow transplantation: a sparing effect of dose fractionation

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.; Flournoy, N.; Sullivan, K.M.; Sheehan, K.; Buckner, C.D.; Sanders, J.E.; Storb, R.; Witherspoon, R.P.; Thomas, E.D.

    1984-07-01

    Two hundred seventy-seven patients, who have been followed for 1 to 12 years after marrow transplantation, have been examined for cataract development. In preparation for transplantation, 96 patients with aplastic anemia were conditioned with chemotherapy only, while 181 patients (two with aplastic anemia and 179 with a hematologic malignancy) were conditioned with a regimen of total body irradiation (TBI) and chemotherapy. TBI was delivered from two opposing /sup 60/Co sources at an exposure rate of 4 to 8 cGy/min, either as a single dose of 10 Gy (105 patients) or in fractions (76 patients). To date, 86 patients have developed cataracts. Kaplan-Meier product limit estimates of the incidence of cataracts for patients given chemotherapy only and no TBI, single-dose TBI, and fractionated TBI are 19, 80, 18%, respectively. On the basis of proportional hazards regression analyses, patients given single-dose TBI had a relative risk of developing cataracts that was 4.7-fold higher than in patients given fractionated TBI or chemotherapy only, suggesting a significant sparing effect with use of TBI dose fractionation.

  8. Monte Carlo optimization of total body irradiation in a phantom and patient geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakarova, R.; Müntzing, K.; Krantz, M.; Hedin, E.; Hertzman, S.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this work is to apply a Monte Carlo (MC) accelerator model, validated by experimental data at isocentre distances, to a large-field total body irradiation (TBI) technique and to develop a strategy for individual patient treatment on the basis of MC dose distributions. Calculations are carried out using BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc code packages for a 15 MV Varian accelerator. Acceptable agreement is obtained between MC data and measurements in a large water phantom behind a spoiler at source-skin distances (SSD) = 460 cm as well as in a CIRS® thorax phantom. Dose distributions in patients are studied when simulating bilateral beam delivery at a distance of 480 cm to the patient central sagittal plane. A procedure for individual improvement of the dose uniformity is suggested including the design of compensators in a conventional treatment planning system (TPS) and a subsequent update of the dose distribution. It is demonstrated that the dose uniformity for the simple TBI technique can be considerably improved. The optimization strategy developed is straightforward and suitable for clinics where the TPS available is deficient to calculate 3D dose distributions at extended SSD.

  9. An anti-apoptotic peptide improves survival in lethal total body irradiation

    PubMed Central

    McDunn, Jonathan E.; Muenzer, Jared T.; Dunne, Benjamin; Zhou, Anthony; Yuan, Kevin; Hoekzema, Andrew; Hilliard, Carolyn; Chang, Katherine C.; Davis, Christopher G.; McDonough, Jacquelyn; Hunt, Clayton; Grigsby, Perry; Piwnica-Worms, David; Hotchkiss, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been used to deliver the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL-derived BH4 peptide to prevent injury-induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Here we demonstrate that the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) from the SV40 large T antigen has favorable properties for BH4 domain delivery to lymphocytes compared to sequences based on the HIV-1 TAT sequence. While both TAT-BH4 and NLS-BH4 protected primary human mononuclear cells from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death, TAT-BH4 caused persistent membrane damage and even cell death at the highest concentrations tested (5–10 μM) and correlated with in vivo toxicity as intravenous administration of TAT-BH4 caused rapid death. The NLS-BH4 peptide has significantly attenuated toxicity compared to TAT-BH4 and we established a dosing regimen of NLS-BH4 that conferred a significant survival advantage in a post-exposure treatment model of LD90 total body irradiation. PMID:19303399

  10. Calculation of midplane dose for total body irradiation from entrance and exit dose MOSFET measurements.

    PubMed

    Satory, P R

    2012-03-01

    This work is the development of a MOSFET based surface in vivo dosimetry system for total body irradiation patients treated with bilateral extended SSD beams using PMMA missing tissue compensators adjacent to the patient. An empirical formula to calculate midplane dose from MOSFET measured entrance and exit doses has been derived. The dependency of surface dose on the air-gap between the spoiler and the surface was investigated by suspending a spoiler above a water phantom, and taking percentage depth dose measurements (PDD). Exit and entrances doses were measured with MOSFETs in conjunction with midplane doses measured with an ion chamber. The entrance and exit doses were combined using an exponential attenuation formula to give an estimate of midplane dose and were compared to the midplane ion chamber measurement for a range of phantom thicknesses. Having a maximum PDD at the surface simplifies the prediction of midplane dose, which is achieved by ensuring that the air gap between the compensator and the surface is less than 10 cm. The comparison of estimated midplane dose and measured midplane dose showed no dependence on phantom thickness and an average correction factor of 0.88 was found. If the missing tissue compensators are kept within 10 cm of the patient then MOSFET measurements of entrance and exit dose can predict the midplane dose for the patient. PMID:22298238

  11. Comparisons among Equations Used for Retinol Isotope Dilution in the Assessment of Total Body Stores and Total Liver Reserves.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Bryan M; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2015-05-01

    Vitamin A plays an essential role in animal biology and has negative effects associated with both hypo- and hypervitaminosis A. Many notable interventions are being done globally to eliminate vitamin A deficiency, including supplementation, fortification, and biofortification. At the same time, it is important to monitor vitamin A status in nations where preformed vitamin A intake is high because of consumption of animal source foods (e.g., liver, dairy, eggs), fortified foods (e.g., milk, cereals, oil, sugar, margarine), or vitamin supplements (e.g., one-a-day multivitamins) to ensure the population does not reach hypervitaminosis A. To accurately assess population status and evaluate interventions aimed at improving vitamin A status, accurate assessment methods are needed. The primary storage site of vitamin A is the liver; however, routinely obtaining liver samples from humans is impractical and unethical. Isotope dilution using deuterium- or (13)C-labeled retinol is currently the most sensitive indirect biomarker of vitamin A status across a wide range of liver reserves. The major drawback to its application is the increased technicality in sample analysis and data calculations when compared to less sensitive methodology, such as serum retinol concentrations and dose response tests. Two main equations have emerged for calculating vitamin A body pool size or liver concentrations from isotope dilution data: the "Olson equation" and the "mass balance equation." Different applications of these equations can lead to confusion and lack of consistency if the underlying principles and assumptions used are not clarified. The purpose of this focused review is to describe the evolution of the equations used in retinol stable-isotope work and the assumptions appropriate to different applications of the test. Ultimately, the 2 main equations are shown to be fundamentally the same and differ only in assumptions made for each specific research application. PMID:25809683

  12. Raman imaging spectroscopic characterization of modified poly(dimethylsiloxane) for micro total analysis systems applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos, Richard Piffer Soares; Yoshida, Inez Valeria Pagotto; Breitkreitz, Márcia Cristina; Poppi, Ronei Jesus; Fracassi da Silva, José Alberto

    Methacryloxypropyl-modified poly(dimethylsiloxane) rubbers were obtained from poly(dimethylsiloxane), PDMS, and methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, MPTMS, by polycondensation reactions. The modified rubbers, prepared with 20 and 30% (v/v) of MPTMS, were used as substrates for microchannel fabrication by the CO2 laser ablation technique. Raman imaging spectroscopy was used for the surface characterization, showing the homogeneity of the rubbery material, with uniform distribution of the crosslinking centers. Under the experimental conditions used, damage to the rubber from the CO2 laser radiation used for the channel engraving was not observed. Correlation maps of the surface were obtained in order to spatially evaluate the modification inside and outside the channels. The correlations between the methacryloxypropyl-modified poly(dimethylsiloxane) rubbers and MPTMS (spectral range of 1800-1550 cm-1) and PDMS (spectral range of 820-670 cm-1) precursors were higher than 0.95 and 0.99, respectively. In addition, Raman imaging spectroscopy allows monitoring the topography of the fabricated microchannel.

  13. Urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate spaces and their relationship to total body water during chronic hemodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ericsson, F.; Odar-Cederloef, I.E.; Eriksson, C.G.; Lindgren, S.; Kjellstrand, C.M.

    1988-07-01

    The authors determined total body water (TBW) with tritium in 11 patients on chronic hemodialysis and compared this space to that estimated by 60% of body weight, and removal spaces of urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate (PO4). The latter spaces were determined by dividing the total amount of substance (measured in total dialysate) by pre- minus post-dialysis concentrations. Body water X 0.6 was more than 10% less than the tritium space, and showed a maximal variation of 10 liters, or 24%. The removal space of urea was 80% of the tritium space, but correlated closely with it. The difference between total body water and urea removal space was variable and dependent on fluid excess (edema) in the patients. Creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate removal spaces were highly variable and not correlated to total body water. The authors suggest that actual measured TBW should be used, rather than estimations using BW X 0.6, for V in K X T/V, where K = clearance, T = duration of dialysis, and V = the removal space of urea. Furthermore, one may need to introduce a correction factor for urea removal space over TBW in the equation to allow better quantification of dialysis in edematous patients and during very fast dialyses.

  14. Statistical analysis of dose heterogeneity in circulating blood: Implications for sequential methods of total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Molloy, Janelle A.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: Improvements in delivery techniques for total body irradiation (TBI) using Tomotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy have been proven feasible. Despite the promise of improved dose conformality, the application of these ''sequential'' techniques has been hampered by concerns over dose heterogeneity to circulating blood. The present study was conducted to provide quantitative evidence regarding the potential clinical impact of this heterogeneity. Methods: Blood perfusion was modeled analytically as possessing linear, sinusoidal motion in the craniocaudal dimension. The average perfusion period for human circulation was estimated to be approximately 78 s. Sequential treatment delivery was modeled as a Gaussian-shaped dose cloud with a 10 cm length that traversed a 183 cm patient length at a uniform speed. Total dose to circulating blood voxels was calculated via numerical integration and normalized to 2 Gy per fraction. Dose statistics and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) were calculated for relevant treatment times, radiobiological parameters, blood perfusion rates, and fractionation schemes. The model was then refined to account for random dispersion superimposed onto the underlying periodic blood flow. Finally, a fully stochastic model was developed using binomial and trinomial probability distributions. These models allowed for the analysis of nonlinear sequential treatment modalities and treatment designs that incorporate deliberate organ sparing. Results: The dose received by individual blood voxels exhibited asymmetric behavior that depended on the coherence among the blood velocity, circulation phase, and the spatiotemporal characteristics of the irradiation beam. Heterogeneity increased with the perfusion period and decreased with the treatment time. Notwithstanding, heterogeneity was less than {+-}10% for perfusion periods less than 150 s. The EUD was compromised for radiosensitive cells, long perfusion periods, and short treatment times

  15. Vitamin A-fortified milk increases total body vitamin A stores in Mexican preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Teros, Veronica; Quihui-Cota, Luis; Méndez-Estrada, Rosa O; Grijalva-Haro, Maria I; Esparza-Romero, Julián; Valencia, Mauro E; Green, Michael H; Tang, Guangwen; Pacheco-Moreno, Bertha I; Tortoledo-Ortiz, Orlando; Astiazaran-Garcia, Humberto

    2013-02-01

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency (VAD) continues to be a major nutritional problem in developing countries, including Central America. In Mexico, milk is a well-accepted vehicle for the administration of micronutrients, including VA, to preschoolers. Thus, we conducted a randomized, controlled, clinical trial to investigate the efficacy of daily consumption of 250 mL of VA-fortified milk (which provided 196 retinol equivalents/d) for 3 mo on VA stores in mildly to moderately VAD (serum retinol concentration 0.35-0.7 μmol/L) preschoolers who were not enrolled in a food assistance program. Twenty-seven mildly to moderately VAD children were randomly assigned based on screening measurements to either the intervention (n = 14) or control group (n = 13) (children in the control group did not receive placebo). All children in the control group and 79% (n = 11) of the children in the intervention group completed the study. The total body VA (TBVA) pool size was estimated using the deuterated retinol dilution technique before and after the intervention. After 3 mo, median changes in the serum retinol concentration for the intervention and control groups were 0.13 and -0.21 μmol/L, respectively (P = 0.009). Median changes in the TBVA stores were 0.06 and 0.01 mmol, respectively (P = 0.006) and estimated median changes in the liver VA concentration were 0.09 and 0.01 μmol/g, respectively (P = 0.002). The VA-fortified milk was well accepted among preschoolers and significantly increased TBVA stores, liver VA stores, and serum retinol concentration, indicating that it may be an effective means to ameliorate VAD in young Mexican children. PMID:23256139

  16. Build-up material requirements in clinical dosimetry during total body irradiation treatments

    PubMed Central

    Butson, Martin; Pope, Dane; Haque, Mamoon; Chen, Tom; Song, Guangli; Whitaker, May

    2016-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) treatments are mainly used in a preparative regimen for hematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation. Our standard clinical regimen is a 12 Gy/6 fraction bi-daily technique using 6MV X-rays at a large extended source to surface distance (SSD). This work investigates and quantifies the dose build-up characteristics and thus the requirements for bolus used for in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications. Percentage dose build-up characteristics of photon beams have been investigated at large extended SSDs using ionization chambers and Gafchromic film. Open field measurements at different field sizes and with differing scatter conditions such as the introduction of standard Perspex scattering plates at different distances to the measurement point were made in an effort to determine the required bolus/build-up material required for accurate determination of applied dose. Percentage surface dose values measured for open fields at 300 cm SSD were found to range from 20% up to 65.5% for fields 5 cm × 5 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm, respectively. With the introduction of 1 cm Perspex scattering plates used in TBI treatments, the surface dose values increased up to 83–90% (93–97% at 1 mm depth), depending on the position of the Perspex scattering plate compared to the measurement point. Our work showed that at least 5 mm water equivalent bolus/scatter material should be placed over the EBT3 film for accurate dose assessment for TBI treatments. Results also show that a small but measurable decrease in measured dose occurred with 5 mm water equivalent thick bolus material of areas '3 cm2. As such, we recommend that 3 cm × 3 cm × 5 mm bolus build-up is the smallest size that should be placed over EBT3 Gafchromic film when used for accurate in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications. PMID:27217628

  17. Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity Score System in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    PubMed

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Ney, Patrick H; Condliffe, Donald P; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P

    2016-08-01

    Radiation accidents or terrorist attacks can result in serious consequences for the civilian population and for military personnel responding to such emergencies. The early medical management situation requires quantitative indications for early initiation of cytokine therapy in individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and effective triage tools for first responders in mass-casualty radiological incidents. Previously established animal (Mus musculus, Macaca mulatta) total-body irradiation (γ-exposure) models have evaluated a panel of radiation-responsive proteins that, together with peripheral blood cell counts, create a multiparametic dose-predictive algorithm with a threshold for detection of ~1 Gy from 1 to 7 d after exposure as well as demonstrate the acute radiation syndrome severity score systems created similar to the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims developed by Fliedner and colleagues. The authors present a further demonstration of the acute radiation sickness severity score system in a mouse (CD2F1, males) TBI model (1-14 Gy, Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min) based on multiple biodosimetric endpoints. This includes the acute radiation sickness severity Observational Grading System, survival rate, weight changes, temperature, peripheral blood cell counts and radiation-responsive protein expression profile: Flt-3 ligand, interleukin 6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, thrombopoietin, erythropoietin, and serum amyloid A. Results show that use of the multiple-parameter severity score system facilitates identification of animals requiring enhanced monitoring after irradiation and that proteomics are a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposure, enhancing accuracy and discrimination index for acute radiation sickness response categories and early prediction of outcome. PMID:27356057

  18. Body mass and weight thresholds for increased prosthetic joint infection rates after primary total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lübbeke, Anne; Zingg, Matthieu; Vu, Diemlan; Miozzari, Hermes H; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Uçkay, Ilker; Harbarth, Stephan; Hoffmeyer, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Background and purpose - Obesity increases the risk of deep infection after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our objective was to determine whether there may be body mass index (BMI) and weight thresholds indicating a higher prosthetic joint infection rate. Patients and methods - We included all 9,061 primary hip and knee arthroplasties (mean age 70 years, 61% women) performed between March 1996 and December 2013 where the patient had received intravenous cefuroxime (1.5 g) perioperatively. The main exposures of interest were BMI (5 categories: < 24.9, 25-29.9, 30-34.9, 35-39.9, and ≥ 40) and weight (5 categories: < 60, 60-79, 80-99, 100-119, and ≥ 120 kg). Numbers of TJAs according to BMI categories (lowest to highest) were as follows: 2,956, 3,350, 1,908, 633, and 214, respectively. The main outcome was prosthetic joint infection. The mean follow-up time was 6.5 years (0.5-18 years). Results - 111 prosthetic joint infections were observed: 68 postoperative, 16 hematogenous, and 27 of undetermined cause. Incidence rates were similar in the first 3 BMI categories (< 35), but they were twice as high with BMI 35-39.9 (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-4.3) and 4 times higher with BMI ≥ 40 (adjusted HR = 4.2, 95% CI: 1.8-9.7). Weight ≥ 100 kg was identified as threshold for a significant increase in infection from the early postoperative period onward (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.6). Interpretation - BMI ≥ 35 or weight ≥ 100 kg may serve as a cutoff for higher perioperative dosage of antibiotics. PMID:26731633

  19. Procalcitonin as a predictive biomarker for total body irradiation induced bacterial load and lethality in mice

    PubMed Central

    Biju, Prabath G.; Garg, Sarita; Wang, Wenze; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Fink, Louis M.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Sepsis is the leading cause of mortality in intensive care units. Early detection and intervention are critical to prevent death. The acute radiation syndrome is characterized by damage of the gastrointestinal and hematopoietic systems. Translocation of intestinal microflora combined with immune system compromise may lead to septicemia and death. This work examined the utility of procalcitonin, a clinical sepsis biomarker, in a mouse model of radiation toxicity. C57/BL6 mice were exposed to total body irradiation (TBI). Intestinal mucosal permeability was measured in vivo, and liver bacterial load and plasma levels of procalcitonin (PCT), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) were measured at baseline and 3.5, 7, and 10 days after TBI. The value of early PCT in predicting subsequent lethality was determined by receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis. Four days after TBI a dose-dependent increase in permeability of the intestinal mucosa was observed, while bacterial translocation was present from day 7 onward. There was a high positive correlation between bacterial translocation and all sepsis biomarkers, with PCT exhibiting the strongest correlation. Moreover, plasma PCT levels were elevated already from day 3.5 onwards, whereas, LPS was elevated from day 7 and LBP only 10 days after TBI. ROC analysis revealed that PCT levels measured 3.5 days after TBI predicted lethality at 10 days. These data demonstrate the value of PCT as an early biomarker in radiation-induced bacteremia for mouse studies and suggest that clinical results from other septic conditions may apply to post-radiation septicemia in humans. PMID:22576002

  20. Voxel-Based Dose Reconstruction for Total Body Irradiation With Helical TomoTherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chao Ming; Penagaricano, Jose; Yan Yulong; Moros, Eduardo G.; Corry, Peter; Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have developed a megavoltage CT (MVCT)-based dose reconstruction strategy for total body irradiation (TBI) with helical TomoTherapy (HT) using a deformable registration model to account for the patient's interfraction changes. The proposed technique serves as an efficient tool for delivered dose verification and, potentially, plan adaptation. Methods and Materials: Four patients with acute myelogenous leukemia treated with TBI using HT were selected for this study. The prescription was 12 Gy, 2 Gy/fraction, twice per day, given at least 6 h apart. The original plan achieved coverage of 80% of the clinical target volume (CTV) by the 12 Gy isodose surface. MVCTs were acquired prior to each treatment. Regions of interest were contoured on each MVCT. The dose for each fraction was calculated based on the MVCT using the HT planned adaptive station. B-spline deformable registration was conducted to establish voxel-to-voxel correspondence between the MVCT and the planning CT. The resultant deformation vector was employed to map the reconstructed dose from each fraction to the same point as the plan dose, and a voxel-to-voxel summed dose from all six fractions was obtained. The reconstructed dose distribution and its dosimetric parameters were compared with those of the original treatment plan. Results: While changes in CTV contours occurred in all patients, the reconstructed dose distribution showed that the dose-volume histogram for CTV coverage was close (<1.5%) to that of the original plan. For sensitive structures, the differences between the reconstructed and the planned doses were less than 3.0%. Conclusion: Voxel-based dose reconstruction strategy that takes into account interfraction anatomical changes using MVCTs is a powerful tool for treatment verification of the delivered doses. This proposed technique can also be applied to adaptive TBI therapy using HT.

  1. Development of a Metabolomic Radiation Signature in Urine from Patients Undergoing Total Body Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Laiakis, Evagelia C.; Mak, Tytus D.; Anizan, Sebastien; Amundson, Sally A.; Barker, Christopher A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Brenner, David J.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the threat of radiological terrorism and other radiological incidents has led to the need for development of fast, accurate and noninvasive methods for detection of radiation exposure. The purpose of this study was to extend radiation metabolomic biomarker discovery to humans, as previous studies have focused on mice. Urine was collected from patients undergoing total body irradiation at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at 4–6 h postirradiation (a single dose of 1.25 Gy) and 24 h (three fractions of 1.25 Gy each). Global metabolomic profiling was obtained through analysis with ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Prior to further analyses, each sample was normalized to its respective creatinine level. Statistical analysis was conducted by the nonparametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Fisher’s exact test and markers were validated against pure standards. Seven markers showed distinct differences between pre- and post-exposure samples. Of those, trimethyl-l-lysine and the carnitine conjugates acetylcarnitine, decanoylcarnitine and octanoylcarnitine play an important role in the transportation of fatty acids across mitochondria for subsequent fatty acid β-oxidation. The remaining metabolites, hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid are the final products of the purine catabolism pathway, and high levels of excretion have been associated with increased oxidative stress and radiation induced DNA damage. Further analysis revealed sex differences in the patterns of excretion of the markers, demonstrating that generation of a sex-specific metabolomic signature will be informative and can provide a quick and reliable assessment of individuals in a radiological scenario. This is the first radiation metabolomics study in human urine laying the foundation for the use of metabolomics in biodosimetry and providing confidence in biomarker

  2. Late ophthalmological complications after total body irradiation in non-human primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemer-Tucker, M. M.; Sterk, C. C.; de Wolff-Rouendaal, D.; Lee, A. C.; Lett, J. T.; Cox, A.; Emmanouilidis-van der Spek, K.; Davelaar, J.; Lambooy, A. C.; Mooy, C. M.; Broerse, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the long-term effects of total body irradiation (TBI) on the incidence and time course of ocular complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rhesus monkeys treated with TBI photon doses up to 8.5 Gy and proton doses up to 7.5 Gy were studied at intervals up to 25 years post-irradiation. They were compared with control groups with a similar age distribution. Cataract formation and ocular fundus lesions were scored according to a standardized protocol. Fluorescein angiography and histopathology was performed in selected animals. RESULTS: Cataract formation occurred after a latent period of 3-5 years. Significant cataract induction was observed for photon-doses of 8 and 8.5 Gy and beyond 20 years after proton irradiation. The severity of the lesions represents significant impairment of vision and would require cataract surgery if similar results occurred in human bone marrow transplant patients. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated a normal pattern of retinal vessels in 13 out of 14 animals (93%) from the irradiated group and in eight out of nine animals (89%) from the control group. No additional lesions apart from age-related degenerative changes could be demonstrated. Histological evaluation revealed no radiation-associated vasculopathy. CONCLUSIONS: Radiation alone for doses up to 8.5 Gy of photons does not carry a potential risk for fundus pathology, whereas clinically important cataract induction should be anticipated within 5 years after photon doses of 8.0 and 8.5 Gy and proton doses in excess of 2.5 Gy.

  3. Hyperfractionated total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation. Results in seventy leukemia patients with allogeneic transplants

    SciTech Connect

    Shank, B.; Chu, F.C.H.; Dinsmore, R.; Kapoor, N.; Kirkpatrick, D.; Teitelbaum, H.; Reid, A.; Bonfiglio, P.; Simpson, L.; O'Reilly, R.J.

    1983-11-01

    From May, 1979 to March, 1981, 76 leukemia patients were prepared for bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with a new hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) regimen (1320 cGy in 11 fractions, 3x/day), followed by cyclophosphamide, 60 mg/kg, for two days. Partial lung shielding was done on each treatment, with supplemental electron beam treatments of the chest wall to compensate, and of the testes, a sanctuary site. This regimen was initiated to potentially reduce fatal interstitial pneumonitis as well as decrease leukemic relapse. Overall actuarial survival at 1 year for acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) patients is 63%, while relapse-free survival at 1 year is 53%. On the other hand, for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) patients, there is no significant difference between relapse or remission patients with regard to overall survival or relapse-free survival, when relapse is defined as > 5% blasts in the marrow at the time of cytoreduction. Overall actuarial survival at 1 year for ALL is 61% and relapse-free survival is 45% at 1 year. Fatal interstitial pneumonitis has dropped to 18% compared with 50% in our previous single-dose TBI regimen (1000 cGy), in which the same doses of cyclophosphamide were given prior to TBI. In conclusion, not only has fatal interstitial pneumonitis been reduced by hyperfractionation and partial lung blocking, but there may be a survival advantage in ALL patients in relapse, who have a survival equal to that of remission patients. This may indicate a greater cell kill with the higher dose (1320 cGy) attained with this regimen, in these patients with a higher leukemic cell burden.

  4. Build-up material requirements in clinical dosimetry during total body irradiation treatments.

    PubMed

    Butson, Martin; Pope, Dane; Haque, Mamoon; Chen, Tom; Song, Guangli; Whitaker, May

    2016-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) treatments are mainly used in a preparative regimen for hematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation. Our standard clinical regimen is a 12 Gy/6 fraction bi-daily technique using 6MV X-rays at a large extended source to surface distance (SSD). This work investigates and quantifies the dose build-up characteristics and thus the requirements for bolus used for in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications. Percentage dose build-up characteristics of photon beams have been investigated at large extended SSDs using ionization chambers and Gafchromic film. Open field measurements at different field sizes and with differing scatter conditions such as the introduction of standard Perspex scattering plates at different distances to the measurement point were made in an effort to determine the required bolus/build-up material required for accurate determination of applied dose. Percentage surface dose values measured for open fields at 300 cm SSD were found to range from 20% up to 65.5% for fields 5 cm × 5 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm, respectively. With the introduction of 1 cm Perspex scattering plates used in TBI treatments, the surface dose values increased up to 83-90% (93-97% at 1 mm depth), depending on the position of the Perspex scattering plate compared to the measurement point. Our work showed that at least 5 mm water equivalent bolus/scatter material should be placed over the EBT3 film for accurate dose assessment for TBI treatments. Results also show that a small but measurable decrease in measured dose occurred with 5 mm water equivalent thick bolus material of areas '3 cm(2). As such, we recommend that 3 cm × 3 cm × 5 mm bolus build-up is the smallest size that should be placed over EBT3 Gafchromic film when used for accurate in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications. PMID:27217628

  5. Patient dosimetry for total body irradiation using single-use MOSFET detectors.

    PubMed

    Briere, Tina Marie; Tailor, Ramesh; Tolani, Naresh; Prado, Karl; Lane, Richard; Woo, Shiao; Ha, Chul; Gillin, Michael T; Beddar, A Sam

    2008-01-01

    We studied the usefulness of a new type of solid-state detector, the OneDose single-use MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) dosimeter, for entrance dose measurements for total body irradiation (TBI). The factory calibration factors supplied by the manufacturer are applicable to conventional radiotherapy beam arrangements and therefore may not be expected to be valid for TBI dosimetry because of the large field sizes and extended source-to-axis distances used. OneDose detectors were placed under a 1-cm thick bolus at the head, neck, and umbilicus of 9 patients undergoing TBI procedures. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed beside the detectors. We found that the OneDose readings differed from the TLD readings by 4.6% at the head, 1.7% at the neck, and 3.9% at the umbilicus, with corresponding standard deviations of 3.9%, 2.2%, and 2.7%. For all patient measurements, 95% of the OneDose readings fell within 3.3% +/- 6.0% of the TLD readings. Anthropomorphic phantom measurements showed differences of -0.1% at the neck and -1.2% midway between the phantom's carina and umbilicus. Our results suggest that these detectors could be used for TBI quality assurance monitoring, although TLDs should remain the standard when critical dose measurements are performed. If OneDose detectors are to be used for TBI, the use of more than one at each location is strongly recommended. Because the detectors are designed for single use, they cannot be individually calibrated. However, to obtain institution-specific correction factors for better applicability to TBI dosimetry, measurements of several detectors taken from a particular lot could also be obtained in phantom with the TBI geometry configurations used for patient treatment. PMID:19020482

  6. A system for measuring total body calcium in man using the 40Ca(n, alpha)37 Ar reaction.

    PubMed

    Lewellen, T K; Nelp, W B; Murano, R; Palmer, H E; Hinn, G M

    1979-01-01

    A technique to measure total body calcium using the 40Ca(n, alpha)37 Ar reaction has been developed. The technique is based on collecting 37Ar exhaled in the breath following a 10 mrad uniform total body irradiation by 14 MeV neutrons. The 37Ar in the exhaled breath is extracted by selective absorption and its radioactivity is measured inside a low-background proportional detector. The facilities developed include an activation facility providing a +/-2.7% activation uniformity, a closed circuit rebreathing and gas collection system, and a gas purification and counting system. The technique provides a precision of +/-2.4% as determined by repetitive measurements of human volunteers and has an accuracy for determination of total body calcium in grams of +/-5%. PMID:432261

  7. Thyroglobulin measurement vs iodine 131 total-body scan for follow-up of well-differentiated thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, D.P.; Manni, A. )

    1990-02-01

    Measurement of the serum thyroglobulin level may be more sensitive than total-body scan using sodium iodide 131 for detecting recurrences from well-differentiated thyroid cancer. We have evaluated the merit of these two methods through a retrospective chart review of patients followed up at the Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pa. We found that in 17 (45%) of 38 follow-up visits, the presence of interfering antibodies prevented the measurement of serum thyroglobulin levels. Furthermore, such determination was less sensitive than iodine 131 total-body scan in detecting residual thyroid tissue and/or cancer in the neck area. We concluded that iodine 131 total-body scan is the preferable method of follow-up, particularly when the goal of therapy is complete ablation of thyroid tissue.

  8. Body mass index and colon cancer risk in Chinese people: Menopause as an effect modifier

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lifang; Ji, Bu-Tian; Blair, Aaron; Dai, Qi; Gao, Yu-Tang; Potter, John D.; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2006-01-01

    High body mass index (BMI) has consistently been associated with increased colon cancer risk in men, but not in women. It is hypothesised that menopause-related changes in oestrogen levels play a role in gender-specific risk patterns. Most studies have been conducted in Western countries, where high incidence rates are coupled with a high prevalence of obesity and relatively common use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in post-menopausal women. This study evaluated the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and colon cancer risk in a relatively lean population, comprising 931 cases and 1552 controls, in Shanghai, China, where HRT use was extremely rare among women, during 1990–1993. Among men, colon cancer risk significantly increased with increasing BMI (P-trend = 0.005). Among women, the risk varied with age and menopause status in a similar pattern. Within each menopause stratum, however, the BMI-related risk was similar for those aged under 55 years and those aged 55 years and over, indicating a menopause rather than age effect. Among pre-menopausal women, the odds ratios (ORs) for subjects in the highest versus lowest quintile were 1.9 (95% CI 1.1–4.9) for those under 55 years of age, and 2.2 (95% CI 1.4–8.2) for those aged 55 years and over. Among post-menopausal women, the corresponding ORs were 0.6 (95% CI 0.5–0.91) and 0.7 (95% CI 0.5–0.95), respectively. Our findings suggest that BMI predicts colon cancer risk in both genders. Among women, however, the risk is modified by menopause status, possibly through altered endogenous oestrogen levels. PMID:16321519

  9. A modified mark test for own-body recognition in pig tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina)

    PubMed Central

    Macellini, Sara; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Bonini, Luca; Fogassi, Leonardo; Paukner, Annika

    2013-01-01

    Classic mirror self-recognition mark tests involve familiarizing the subject with its mirror image, surreptitiously applying a mark on the subject’s eyebrow, nose, or ear, and measuring self-directed behaviors towards the mark. For many non-human primate species, however, direct gaze at the face constitutes an aggressive and threatening signal. It is therefore possible that monkeys fail the mark test because they do not closely inspect their faces in a mirror and hence they have no expectations about their physical appearance. In the current study we prevented 2 pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) from seeing their own faces in a mirror and we adopted a modified version of the classic mark test in which monkeys were marked on the chest, a body region to which they normally have direct visual access but that in the current study was visible only via a mirror. Neither monkey tried to touch the mark on its chest, possibly due to a failure to understand the mirror as a reflective surface. To further the monkeys’ understanding of the mirror image, we trained them to reach for food using the mirror as the only source of information. After both monkeys had learned mirror-mediated reaching, we replicated the mark test. In this latter phase of the study, only 1 monkey scratched the red dye on the chest once. The results are consistent with other findings suggesting that monkeys are not capable of passing a mark test, and imply that face and body recognition rely on the same cognitive abilities. PMID:20148344

  10. Monte Carlo efficiency calibration of a neutron generator-based total-body irradiator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing prevalence of obesity world-wide has focused attention on the need for accurate body composition assessments, especially of large subjects. However, many body composition measurement systems are calibrated against a single-sized phantom, often based on the standard Reference Man mode...

  11. Monte carlo efficiency calibration of a neutron generator-based total-body irradiator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing prevalence of obesity world-wide has focused attention on the need for accurate body composition assessments, especially of large subjects. However, many body composition measurement systems are calibrated against a single-sized phantom, often based on the standard Reference Man mode...

  12. Adopting a modified pressure calcimeter with temperature compensation for testing total carbonates in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barouchas, Pantelis; Koulos, Vasilios

    2016-04-01

    The total carbonates content of the soil is an important soil quality indicator highly related with soil carbon sequestration and a tool for understanding biogeochemical processes or liming practices. A portable digital pressure calcimeter with multisensory technology was used in order to test total carbonates in soil samples. The concept of the measurement is based on the simultaneous measurement of pressure and temperature after the sample reaction with hydrochloric acid in a closed vessel and a built-in module for automatic temperature compensation, so that performs measurements with higher accuracy. For these purposes two stages of analysis followed in order to document the precision of the methodology: (i) Total carbonates testing in Sand/CaCO3 mixtures and (ii) Total carbonates testing in soil samples. The instrument has a typical mean error of ± 0.3% calcium carbonates content of the soil sample and a recovery more than 98% comparing to certified inter-laboratory soil samples (proficiency tests) for quality assurance. The methodology adopts portable capabilities with soil moisture correction in situ, providing to the end-user the advantages of automatic analysis, fast testing operation, fast re-samples for analysis and productivity.

  13. Modified total thigh musculocutaneous flap: 'operation of last resort' for massive pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Paul Ting-Yuan; Adams, Brandon Michael; Chunilal, Ashwin

    2014-02-01

    Massive bilateral pressure ulcers of dependent areas may complicate spinal cord injuries. These may be life threatening to patients and challenging for reconstructive surgeons. In massive recurrent ulcers, local tissue is either inadequate or previously exhausted. The total thigh musculocutaneous flap is an operation of last resort; we present a new variation of this procedure and a case of life threatening pressure ulcers with underlying osteomyelitis. A paraplegic patient had recurrent, extensive, bilateral pressure areas with some preserved tissue bridges. The nature of the pressure areas and lack of local options in this patient required modification of previously described total thigh flaps. An extended total thigh flap was partially de-epithelialised to fill the extensive sacral defect and a tunnelled extension was fashioned to cover the contralateral trochanteric defect. The timing of surgery was determined by balancing pre-operative nutritional optimisation against life-threatening drug resistance of infective organisms. The total thigh flap can close massive bilateral pressure ulcers. Modifications are presented which preserve viable local tissue and demonstrate the versatility of this technique. It remains a 'last-resort' salvage procedure. PMID:23806262

  14. Laser spectroscopy for totally non-intrusive detection of oxygen in modified atmosphere food packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocola, L.; Fedel, M.; Poletto, L.; Tondello, G.

    2015-04-01

    A device for measuring the oxygen concentration inside packages in modified atmosphere working in a completely non-intrusive way has been developed and tested. The device uses tunable diode laser spectroscopy in a geometry similar to a short distance LIDAR: A laser beam is sent through the top film of a food package, and the absorption is measured by detecting the light scattered by the bottom of the container or by a portion of the food herein contained. The device can operate completely in a contactless way from the package, and the distances of absorption both outside and inside the package are measured with a triangulation system. The performances of the device have been tested for various types of containers, and absolute values for the oxygen concentration have been compared with standard albeit destructive measurements.

  15. Body mass and weight thresholds for increased prosthetic joint infection rates after primary total joint arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lübbeke, Anne; Zingg, Matthieu; Vu, Diemlan; Miozzari, Hermes H; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Uçkay, Ilker; Harbarth, Stephan; Hoffmeyer, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — Obesity increases the risk of deep infection after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our objective was to determine whether there may be body mass index (BMI) and weight thresholds indicating a higher prosthetic joint infection rate. Patients and methods — We included all 9,061 primary hip and knee arthroplasties (mean age 70 years, 61% women) performed between March 1996 and December 2013 where the patient had received intravenous cefuroxime (1.5 g) perioperatively. The main exposures of interest were BMI (5 categories: < 24.9, 25–29.9, 30–34.9, 35–39.9, and ≥ 40) and weight (5 categories: < 60, 60–79, 80–99, 100–119, and ≥ 120 kg). Numbers of TJAs according to BMI categories (lowest to highest) were as follows: 2,956, 3,350, 1,908, 633, and 214, respectively. The main outcome was prosthetic joint infection. The mean follow-up time was 6.5 years (0.5–18 years). Results — 111 prosthetic joint infections were observed: 68 postoperative, 16 hematogenous, and 27 of undetermined cause. Incidence rates were similar in the first 3 BMI categories (< 35), but they were twice as high with BMI 35–39.9 (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1–4.3) and 4 times higher with BMI ≥ 40 (adjusted HR = 4.2, 95% CI: 1.8–9.7). Weight ≥ 100 kg was identified as threshold for a significant increase in infection from the early postoperative period onward (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3–3.6). Interpretation — BMI ≥ 35 or weight ≥ 100 kg may serve as a cutoff for higher perioperative dosage of antibiotics. PMID:26731633

  16. Differential effect of L3T4+ cells on recovery from total-body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pantel, K.; Nakeff, A. )

    1990-09-01

    We have examined the importance of L3T4+ (murine equivalent to CD4+) cells for hematopoietic regulation in vivo in unperturbed mice and mice recovering from total-body irradiation (TBI) using a cytotoxic monoclonal antibody (MoAb) raised with the GK 1.5 hybridoma. Ablating L3T4+ cells in normal (unperturbed) B6D2F1 mice substantially decreased the S-phase fraction (determined by in vivo hydroxyurea suicide) of erythroid progenitor cells (erythroid colony-forming units, CFU-E) as compared to the pretreatment level (10% +/- 14.1% (day 3 following depletion) vs 79.8% +/- 15.9%, respectively) with a corresponding decrease in the marrow content of CFU-E at this time to approximately 1% of the pretreatment value. Although the S-phase fraction of CFU-GM was decreased to 2.2% +/- 3.1% 3 days after L3T4+ cell ablation from the 21.3% +/- 8.3% pretreatment value, CFU-GM cellularity showed little change over the 3 days following anti-L3T4 treatment. Anti-L3T4 MoAb treatment had little or no effect on either the S-phase fraction or the marrow content of hematopoietic stem cells (spleen colony-forming units, CFU-S) committed to myeloerythroid differentiation. Ablating L3T4+ cells prior to a single dose of 2 Gy TBI resulted in significantly reduced marrow contents of CFU-S on day 3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) on day 6 following TBI, with little or no effect on the corresponding recovery of CFU-E. The present findings provide the first in vivo evidence that L3T4+ cells are involved in: (1) maintaining the proliferative activity of CFU-E and CFU-GM in unperturbed mice and (2) supporting the restoration of CFU-S and CFU-GM following TBI-induced myelosuppression.

  17. A study analysis of cable-body systems totally immersed in a fluid stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaurier, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    A general stability analysis of a cable-body system immersed in a fluid stream is presented. The analytical portion of this analysis treats the system as being essentially a cable problem, with the body dynamics giving the end conditions. The mathematical form of the analysis consists of partial differential wave equations, with the end and auxiliary conditions being determined from the body equations of motion. The equations uncouple to give a lateral problem and a longitudinal problem as in first order airplane dynamics. A series of tests on a tethered wind tunnel model provide a comparison of the theory with experiment.

  18. A modified ninhydrin micro-assay for determination of total cyanogens in plants.

    PubMed

    Surleva, Andriana; Drochioiu, Gabi

    2013-12-01

    Indirect quantification of total cyanogenic compounds (cyanogens) in plants was studied using a novel ninhydrin-based spectrophotometric micromethod. The ninhydrin-cyanide system obeys Beer's law in the range from 20 μg L(-1) to 800 μg L(-1) CN(-) with molar absorptivity ε=1.4×10(5) L mol(-1)cm(-1). Recovery at 100 μg L(-1) CN(-) was 100.5±0.1% and LOD and LOQ were 8 and 22 μg L(-1), respectively. The conditions for ninhydrin reagent preparation were discussed. The extraction and separation solutions, extraction and incubation time, and solvent volume were also investigated for maximum recovery of total cyanogens. 0.1% NaHCO3 was used as an extraction solvent for cyanide formed after enzymatic hydrolysis of cyanogens. The procedure was suitable for samples containing more than 90 mg CN(-)/100 g sample. When cyanogen concentrations were lower, the resulted cyanide was separated by microdiffusion in a Conway cell. Water was used as a hydrolysis medium and a donor solvent, while 2% Na2CO3 as an absorbing solution. Total cyanogen content in plum and almond kernels, as well as apple and flax seeds was determined. PMID:23871025

  19. Does Pet-Keeping Modify the Association of Delivery Mode with Offspring Body Size?

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Levin, Albert M.; Lynch, Susan V.; Ownby, Dennis R.; Rundle, Andrew G.; Woodcroft, Kimberley J.; Zoratti, Edward M.; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Caesarean-section (CS) delivery increases risk of childhood obesity, and is associated with a distinct early-life gut microbiome, which may contribute to obesity. Household pets may alter human gut microbiome composition. We examined if pet-keeping modified the association of CS with obesity at age 2 years in 639 Wayne County Health, Environment, Allergy and Asthma Longitudinal Study (WHEALS) birth cohort participants. Methods Pet-keeping was defined as having a dog or cat (indoors ≥1 hour/day) at child age 2 years. We used logistic regression to test for an interaction between CS and pet-keeping with obesity (BMI≥95th percentile) at age 2 years, adjusted for maternal obesity. Results A total of 328 (51.3%) children were male; 367 (57.4%) were African American; 228 (35.7%) were born by CS; and 55 (8.6%) were obese. After adjusting for maternal obesity, CS-born children had a non-significant (P=0.25) but elevated 1.4 (95% CI: 0.8, 2.5) higher odds of obesity compared to those born vaginally. There was evidence of effect modification between current pet-keeping and delivery mode with obesity at age 2 years (interaction P=0.054). Compared to children born vaginally without a pet currently in the home, children born via CS without a pet currently in the home had a statistically significant (P=0.043) higher odds (odds ratio=2.00; 95% CI: 1.02, 3.93) of being obese at age 2 years. Conclusions Pets modified the CS-BMI relationship; whether the underlying mechanism is through effects on environmental or gut microbiome requires specific investigation. PMID:25427878

  20. Does pet-keeping modify the association of delivery mode with offspring body size?

    PubMed

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Levin, Albert M; Lynch, Susan V; Ownby, Dennis R; Rundle, Andrew G; Woodcroft, Kimberley J; Zoratti, Edward M; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2015-06-01

    Caesarean-section (CS) delivery increases risk of childhood obesity, and is associated with a distinct early-life gut microbiome, which may contribute to obesity. Household pets may alter human gut microbiome composition. We examined if pet-keeping modified the association of CS with obesity at age 2 years in 639 Wayne County Health, Environment, Allergy and Asthma Longitudinal Study birth cohort participants. Pet-keeping was defined as having a dog or cat (indoors ≥1 h/day) at child age 2 years. We used logistic regression to test for an interaction between CS and pet-keeping with obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) at age 2 years, adjusted for maternal obesity. A total of 328 (51.3 %) children were male; 367 (57.4 %) were African American; 228 (35.7 %) were born by CS; and 55 (8.6 %) were obese. After adjusting for maternal obesity, CS-born children had a non-significant (P = 0.25) but elevated 1.4 (95 % CI 0.8, 2.5) higher odds of obesity compared to those born vaginally. There was evidence of effect modification between current pet-keeping and delivery mode with obesity at age 2 years (interaction P = 0.054). Compared to children born vaginally without a pet currently in the home, children born via CS without a pet currently in the home had a statistically significant (P = 0.043) higher odds (odds ratio 2.00; 95 % CI 1.02, 3.93) of being obese at age 2 years. Pets modified the CS-BMI relationship; whether the underlying mechanism is through effects on environmental or gut microbiome requires specific investigation. PMID:25427878

  1. Maintained total body water content and serum sodium concentrations despite body mass loss in female ultra-runners drinking ad libitum during a 100 km race.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Senn, Oliver; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Joleska, Irena; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We investigated in 11 female ultra-runners during a 100 km ultra-run, the association between fluid intake and prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in a cross-sectional study. Athletes drank ad libitum and recorded their fluid intake. They competed at 8.0 (1.0) km/h and finished within 762 (91) min. Fluid intake was 4.1 (1.3) L during the race, equal to 0.3 (0.1) L/h. Body mass decreased by 1.5 kg (p< 0.01); pre race body mass was related to speed in the race (r = -0.78, p< 0.05); and change (Delta) in body mass was not associated with speed in the race. Change in body mass was positively (r = 0.70; p< 0.05), and Delta urinary specific gravity negatively (r = -0.67; p< 0.05), correlated to Delta percent total body water. Changes in body mass were not related to fluid intake during the race. Fluid intake was not correlated to running speed and showed no association with either Delta percent total body water nor Delta [Na] in plasma. Fluid intake showed no relationship with both Delta haematocrit and Delta plasma volume. No exercise-associated hyponatremia occurred. Female ultra- runners consuming fluids ad libitum during the race experienced no fluid overload, and ad libitum drinking protects against exercise-associated hyponatremia. The reported higher incidence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in women is not really a gender effect but due to women being more prone to overdrink. PMID:20199991

  2. Postoperative changes in the tensor fascia lata muscle after using the modified anterolateral approach for total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Unis, Douglas B; Hawkins, Evan J; Alapatt, Michael F; Benitez, Carlos L

    2013-04-01

    The modified Watson-Jones approach to the hip has been described as a minimally invasive approach with the potential for fewer postoperative complications than the traditional approach. Because the approach relies on an intermuscular rather than an internervous plane, there is potential for injury to the superior gluteal nerve. The aim of this study was to evaluate incidence of tensor fascia lata (TFL) denervation in patients undergoing this approach. Twenty-six patients underwent total hip arthroplasty (THA) using a modified anterolateral approach. Postoperative MRIs were analyzed for signs of muscle denervation including atrophy, hypertrophy and fat replacement. At a median follow-up of 9.3months, 74% of patients exhibited either atrophy or hypertrophy of the TFL and 42% exhibited fat replacement on MRI. PMID:23253300

  3. In-vivo assessment of total body protein in rats by prompt-γ neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatelatos, Ion E.; Boozer, Carol N.; Ma, Ruimei; Yasumura, Seiichi

    1997-02-01

    A prompt-(gamma) neutron activation analysis facility for in vivo determination of total body protein (TBP) in rats has been designed. TBP is determined in vivo by assessment of total body nitrogen. The facility is based on a 252Cf radionuclide neutron source within a heavy water moderator assembly and two NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. The in vivo precision of the technique, as estimated by three repeated measurements of 15 rats is 6 percent, for a radiation dose equivalent of 60 mSv. The radiation dose per measurement is sufficiently low to enable serial measurements on the same animal. MCNP-4A Monte Carlo transport code was utilized to calculate thermal neutron flux correction factors to account for differences in size and shape of the rats and calibration phantoms. Good agrement was observed in comparing body nitrogen assessment by prompt-(gamma) neutron activation and chemical carcass analysis.

  4. Calibration of the Brookhaven National Laboratory delayed gamma neutron activation facility to measure total body calcium.

    PubMed

    Ma, R; Stamatelatos, I E; Yasumura, S

    2000-05-01

    Differences in body size and shape can cause large variances in the in vivo results of neutron activation analysis. To introduce corrections for body size for the delayed gamma neutron activation facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, "reference man"-sized and "reference woman"-sized phantoms were constructed. Simulation results using the Monte Carlo Neutron and Photon Transport code also provided correction factors for people of different sizes. For individuals with a body mass index (BMI = weight (kg)/height (m)2) between 20 and 30, no correction was required. At BMIs greater than 30, the effects of neutron attenuation were significant and a correction factor of CF = -0.0192 x BMI + 1.5635 can be applied. PMID:10865727

  5. Total Brain Death and the Integration of the Body Required of a Human Being.

    PubMed

    Lee, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    I develop and refine an argument for the total brain death criterion of death previously advanced by Germain Grisez and me: A human being is essentially a rational animal, and so must have a radical capacity for rational operations. For rational animals, conscious sensation is a pre-requisite for rational operation. But total brain death results in the loss of the radical capacity for conscious sensation, and so also for rational operations. Hence, total brain death constitutes a substantial change-the ceasing to be of the human being. Objections are considered, including the objection that total brain death need not result in the loss of capacity for sensation, and that damage to the brain less than total brain death can result in loss of capacity for rational operations. PMID:27097647

  6. Application of a modified DOAS method for total ozone retrieval from GOME data at high polar latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coldewey-Egbers, M.; Weber, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Burrows, J. P.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1995, the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on board the second European Remote Sensing satellite provides information about spatial distribution and temporal variation of total ozone. Current operational data products are generated using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. Various validation exercises indicate shortcomings in the current retrieval using the standard DOAS approach. Especially under ozone hole conditions at high polar latitudes GOME tends to overestimate total ozone as compared to ground-based measurements. In this study, we introduce a modified DOAS method for ozone retrieval from GOME which fits directly the vertical columns rather than slant columns. We present preliminary results which demonstrate the advantage of the new approach. It will be shown that not only the differences to ground-based data are reduced but also the fit residuals are improved in comparison with the operational retrieval.

  7. Total-body calcium estimated by delayed gamma neutron activation analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Aloia, J F; Ma, R; Vaswani, A; Feuerman, M

    1999-01-01

    Total body calcium (TBCa) in 270 black and white women age 21-79 years was measured concurrently by delayed gamma neutron activation analysis (DGNA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The mean value for TBCa calculated from DXA was 933 g compared with 730 g for DGNA. By regression, TBCa(DXA(g)) = 1.35 x TBCa(DGNA(g)) -54 (r = 0. 90, r(2) = 81.4%, SEE = 66.9 g). This remarkable difference of 203 g suggests that one or both these methods is not accurate. Adjustment of the regression of DXA versus DGNA for body mass index or trunk thickness explained 8.5-10% of the variability between methods. The unadjusted slope for the DXA values regressed against the DGNA values was 1.35, indicating significant discordance between the methods. There is greater agreement between the two DGNA facilities (Brookhaven National Laboratory and Baylor College of Medicine) and between the various DXA instruments. Either DGNA underestimates TBCa or DXA overestimates total-body bone mineral content. Resolution of these disparate results may possibly be achieved by concurrent measurement of whole human cadavers of different sizes with chemical determination of the calcium content of the ash. In the interim, cross-calibration equations between DGNA and standardized values for DXA for total-body bone mineral content may be used, which will permit reporting of consistent values for TBCa from the two technologies. PMID:10663353

  8. Vertical split fracture of the vertebral body following total disc replacement using ProDisc: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Shim, Chan Shik; Lee, Seungcheol; Maeng, Dae Hyun; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2005-10-01

    As ProDisc has a tall keel on the plates, it has the potential to cause a vertical fracture of the vertebral body. However, to our knowledge, there is no previously reported case of a vertical split fracture of the vertebral body after ProDisc disc arthroplasty that was attributed to the keel design of the ProDisc. We report two cases of vertical split fracture of the vertebral body after total disc replacement (TDR) with ProDisc and discuss the issue of the height of the keel of the prosthesis. Even though there was no serious clinical consequence as a result of the fracture in our cases, except the fact that the patients were dissatisfied with the surgery at 3-month follow-up because of the prolonged back pain, the potential of the fracture to cause other serious complications such as hematoma, device migration, or surgical failure cannot be ignored. The keel design of the ProDisc has the disadvantage that it can cause a vertebral body fracture in some patients. Therefore, care should be exercised not to fracture the vertebral body when TDR is done with the ProDisc, especially in a patient with small vertebral body height or when it is done at multiple levels. PMID:16189463

  9. [Effects of classes in "creative movement and pantomime" and "badminton" on total-body coordination in older dyslexic boys].

    PubMed

    Schneider, F J

    1984-11-01

    Reported previously from a U.S. empirical study of 7th grade high-school students (102 male and 84 female) where statistically significant results had been found relative to total body coordination and body image (Schneider, 1978), the effectiveness of a series of classes in "creative movement and pantomime" was verified in a 7.5-week longitudinal study of 7th grade male students (N = 20) attending remedial education at a special school for dyslexic students in Massachusetts, U.S.A. It has been possible to demonstrate that these classes had achieved statistically significant improvements in overall body coordination of Ss, measured with the body coordination test KTK - Körper-Koordinationstest für Kinder (Schilling, Kiphart, 1974). Findings obtained from the control group (N = 20) who, during that same period, had been taught, and practising, "Badminton" in the regular sports classes, elicited the same specific, statistically significant gains in overall body coordination. These improvements are considered attributable to the additional, specific stimuli for development provided to the dyslexic students by "creative movement and pantomime" classes and the racket sport "Badminton" alike. The findings support the thesis that delayed formation of hemispheric linkage is present in dyslexic persons, and that specific movement programmes provide developmental stimuli that influence overall body coordination. PMID:6515105

  10. Inhibition of HDAC6 modifies tau inclusion body formation and impairs autophagic clearance.

    PubMed

    Leyk, Janina; Goldbaum, Olaf; Noack, Monika; Richter-Landsberg, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    Proteinaceous inclusions in nerve cells and glia are a defining neuropathological hallmark in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Their occurrence may be related to malfunctions of the proteolytic degradation systems. In cultured oligodendrocytes, proteasomal inhibition leads to protein aggregate formation resembling coiled bodies, which are characteristic for PSP and CBD. Large protein aggregates are excluded from the proteasome and can only be degraded by autophagy, a lysosomal pathway. Autophagy is a highly selective process, which requires a variety of receptor proteins for ubiquitinated proteins, such as p62 and histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6). HDAC6 is mainly localized in the cytoplasm, and alpha-tubulin is its major substrate. HDAC6 is considered as a sensor of proteasomal stress; it is involved in the autophagosomal pathway and can mediate the retrograde transport of ubiquitinated proteins along the microtubules. As we have shown recently, HDAC6 is present in oligodendrocytes and its inhibition leads to morphological alterations, microtubule bundling, modulation of acetylation, and phosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether HDAC6 is involved in protein aggregate formation in oligodendrocytes and whether its inhibition modifies the consequences of MG-132-induced inhibition of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). The data show that HDAC6 and acetylated tau are recruited to protein aggregates after proteasomal inhibition. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC6 by the selective inhibitor tubastatin A (TST) and its small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated downregulation alters the assembly of MG-132-induced compact protein aggregates. After TST treatment, they appear more diffusely dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. This is not a protective means but promotes the onset

  11. The relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content and bone marrow adipose tissue in early-pubertal girls

    PubMed Central

    L Newton, Anna; J Hanks, Lynae; Davis, Michelle; Casazza, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of the physiologic relevance of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) during growth may promote understanding of the bone-fat axis and confluence with metabolic factors. The objective of this pilot investigation was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content (BMC) and femoral BMAT during childhood and underlying metabolic determinants and (2) to determine if the relationships differ by race. Participants included white and non-Hispanic black girls (n=59) ages 4–10 years. Femoral BMAT volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, BMC and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Metabolic parameters were assessed in the fasted state. Total fat and BMC were positively associated with BMAT; however, simultaneous inclusion of BMC and body fat in the statistical model attenuated the association between BMC and BMAT. Differences in BMAT volume were observed, non-Hispanic black girls exhibiting marginally greater BMAT at age eight (P=0.05) and white girls exhibiting greater BMAT at age ten (P<0.001). Metabolic parameters conferred differential impact by race, such that, a positive association for BMAT and leptin (P=0.02) and adiponectin (P=0.002) in white girls while BMAT and insulin were inversely related in non-Hispanic black girls (P=0.008). Our findings revealed a positive relationship between BMAT, body fat and BMC, although body fat, respective to leptin, contributed partly to the relationship between BMAT and BMC. Despite large differences in total fat between non-Hispanic black and white, the relationship between BMAT and BMC was similar to white girls. However, this relationship appeared to be impacted through different mechanisms according to race. PMID:23951544

  12. Estimating percentage total body fat and determining subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution with a new noninvasive optical device LIPOMETER.

    PubMed

    Möller, Reinhard; Tafeit, Erwin; Smolle, Karl Heinz; Pieber, Thomas R.; Ipsiroglu, Osman; Duesse, Martina; Huemer, Christian; Sudi, Karl; Reibnegger, Gilbert

    2000-03-01

    A newly developed optical device was applied to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness of 20 healthy women and 18 healthy men at specified body sites. These measurements were used to derive equations to estimate percentage total body fat (TBF%). Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) was employed as a reference method; caliper techniques and measurements of absorbances of infrared light in fat versus lean tissue were also compared. The LIPOMETER results show good agreement with TOBEC data (r = 0.96). The technique allows the precise determination of the distribution of SAT thickness at specified body sites. The method also permits the construction of profiles of SAT thicknesses, e.g., the profiles are significantly different between women and men. Based on the normal profiles of healthy subjects, patients with proven type-2 diabetes mellitus were also evaluated. The patients showed significantly different profiles. By linear discriminant analysis, classification functions were extracted with good predictive accuracy classification of subjects according to the presence or absence of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The data suggest that measurement of SAT thickness might aid in the diagnosis and/or classification of metabolic disorders. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:221-230, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11534019

  13. Surgical Excision of Carotid Body Tumor Through Modified Approach-A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Prabakaran, Sureshkannan; Subburayulu, Anand Shankar; Ravikumar, P T

    2016-06-01

    Paragangliomas arising from the carotid body in the carotid bifurcation are termed as carotid body tumors. They are usually slow growing and asymptomatic. Considering the anatomical location, invasion or pressure on the adjacent vascular and neural tissues, the importance of early diagnosis and management is critical. In this article a case of carotid body tumor excised through transverse neck skin crease incision is presented along with literature review on the diagnosis, grading and different surgical approaches. PMID:27298550

  14. Inability of donor total body irradiation to prolong survival of vascularized bone allografts: Experimental study in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez del Pino, J.; Benito, M.; Randolph, M.A.; Weiland, A.J. )

    1990-07-01

    At the present time, the toxic side effects of recipient immunosuppression cannot be justified for human non-vital organ transplantation. Total body irradiation has proven effective in ablating various bone-marrow-derived and endothelial immunocompetent cellular populations, which are responsible for immune rejection against donor tissues. Irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy was given to donor rats six days prior to heterotopic transplantation of vascularized bone allografts to host animals. Another group of recipient rats also received a short-term (sixth to fourteenth day after grafting), low dose of cyclosporine. Total body irradiation was able merely to delay rejection of grafts across a strong histocompatibility barrier for one to two weeks, when compared to nonirradiated allografts. The combination of donor irradiation plus cyclosporine did not delay the immune response, and the rejection score was similar to that observed for control allografts. Consequently, allograft viability was quickly impaired, leading to irreversible bone damage. This study suggest that 10 Gy of donor total body irradiation delivered six days prior to grafting cannot circumvent the immune rejection in a vascularized allograft of bone across a strong histocompatibility barrier.

  15. Improving the Precision of Our Ecosystem Calipers: A Modified Morphometric Technique for Estimating Marine Mammal Mass and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Shero, Michelle R.; Pearson, Linnea E.; Costa, Daniel P.; Burns, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Mass and body composition are indices of overall animal health and energetic balance and are often used as indicators of resource availability in the environment. This study used morphometric models and isotopic dilution techniques, two commonly used methods in the marine mammal field, to assess body composition of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, N = 111). Findings indicated that traditional morphometric models that use a series of circular, truncated cones to calculate marine mammal blubber volume and mass overestimated the animal’s measured body mass by 26.9±1.5% SE. However, we developed a new morphometric model that uses elliptical truncated cones, and estimates mass with only −2.8±1.7% error (N = 10). Because this elliptical truncated cone model can estimate body mass without the need for additional correction factors, it has the potential to be a broadly applicable method in marine mammal species. While using elliptical truncated cones yielded significantly smaller blubber mass estimates than circular cones (10.2±0.8% difference; or 3.5±0.3% total body mass), both truncated cone models significantly underestimated total body lipid content as compared to isotopic dilution results, suggesting that animals have substantial internal lipid stores (N = 76). Multiple linear regressions were used to determine the minimum number of morphometric measurements needed to reliably estimate animal mass and body composition so that future animal handling times could be reduced. Reduced models estimated body mass and lipid mass with reasonable accuracy using fewer than five morphometric measurements (root-mean-square-error: 4.91% for body mass, 10.90% for lipid mass, and 10.43% for % lipid). This indicates that when test datasets are available to create calibration coefficients, regression models also offer a way to improve body mass and condition estimates in situations where animal handling times must be short and efficient. PMID:24614685

  16. Improving the precision of our ecosystem calipers: a modified morphometric technique for estimating marine mammal mass and body composition.

    PubMed

    Shero, Michelle R; Pearson, Linnea E; Costa, Daniel P; Burns, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Mass and body composition are indices of overall animal health and energetic balance and are often used as indicators of resource availability in the environment. This study used morphometric models and isotopic dilution techniques, two commonly used methods in the marine mammal field, to assess body composition of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, N = 111). Findings indicated that traditional morphometric models that use a series of circular, truncated cones to calculate marine mammal blubber volume and mass overestimated the animal's measured body mass by 26.9±1.5% SE. However, we developed a new morphometric model that uses elliptical truncated cones, and estimates mass with only -2.8±1.7% error (N = 10). Because this elliptical truncated cone model can estimate body mass without the need for additional correction factors, it has the potential to be a broadly applicable method in marine mammal species. While using elliptical truncated cones yielded significantly smaller blubber mass estimates than circular cones (10.2±0.8% difference; or 3.5±0.3% total body mass), both truncated cone models significantly underestimated total body lipid content as compared to isotopic dilution results, suggesting that animals have substantial internal lipid stores (N = 76). Multiple linear regressions were used to determine the minimum number of morphometric measurements needed to reliably estimate animal mass and body composition so that future animal handling times could be reduced. Reduced models estimated body mass and lipid mass with reasonable accuracy using fewer than five morphometric measurements (root-mean-square-error: 4.91% for body mass, 10.90% for lipid mass, and 10.43% for % lipid). This indicates that when test datasets are available to create calibration coefficients, regression models also offer a way to improve body mass and condition estimates in situations where animal handling times must be short and efficient. PMID:24614685

  17. An amperometric bienzymatic cholesterol biosensor based on functionalized graphene modified electrode and its electrocatalytic activity towards total cholesterol determination.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, Revanasiddappa; Shivappa Suresh, Gurukar; Melo, Jose Savio; D'Souza, Stanislaus F; Venkatesha, Thimmappa Venkatarangaiah

    2012-09-15

    Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and cholesterol esterase (ChEt) have been covalently immobilized onto functionalized graphene (FG) modified graphite electrode. Enzymes modified electrodes were characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). FG accelerates the electron transfer from electrode surface to the immobilized ChOx, achieving the direct electrochemistry of ChOx. A well defined redox peak was observed, corresponding to the direct electron transfer of the FAD/FADH(2) of ChOx. The electron transfer coefficient (α) and electron transfer rate constant (K(s)) were calculated and their values are found to be 0.31 and 0.78 s(-1), respectively. For the free cholesterol determination, ChOx-FG/Gr electrode exhibits a sensitive response from 50 to 350 μM (R=-0.9972) with a detection limit of 5 μM. For total cholesterol determination, co-immobilization of ChEt and ChOx on modified electrode, i.e. (ChEt/ChOx)-FG/Gr electrode showed linear range from 50 to 300 μM (R=-0.9982) with a detection limit of 15 μM. Some common interferents like glucose, ascorbic acid and uric acid did not cause any interference, due to the use of a low operating potential. The FG/Gr electrode exhibits good electrocatalytic activity towards hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). A wide linear response to H(2)O(2) ranging from 0.5 to 7 mM (R=-0.9967) with a sensitivity of 443.25 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) has been obtained. PMID:22967556

  18. Multifactorial analysis of human blood cell responses to clinical total body irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuhas, J. M.; Stokes, T. R.; Lushbaugh, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    Multiple regression analysis techniques are used to study the effects of therapeutic radiation exposure, number of fractions, and time on such quantal responses as tumor control and skin injury. The potential of these methods for the analysis of human blood cell responses is demonstrated and estimates are given of the effects of total amount of exposure and time of protraction in determining the minimum white blood cell concentration observed after exposure of patients from four disease groups.

  19. Attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy of oxidized polymer-modified bitumens.

    PubMed

    Yut, Iliya; Zofka, Adam

    2011-07-01

    Oxidative age hardening of bitumen results in increasing fatigue susceptibility of bituminous mixtures, thus reducing the service life of asphalt pavements. Polymer additives to bitumen have been shown to improve its viscoelastic properties and, in some cases, reduce the level of bitumen hardening. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy enables evaluation of oxidation levels in bitumen by measuring the concentration of oxygen-containing chemical functionalities. This paper summarizes the results of the investigation of oxidative age hardening of polymer-modified bitumens (PMB) caused by accelerated aging in laboratory conditions. The PMB samples are prepared with different concentrations of styrene-butadiene-based co-polymers. Next, the PMB samples are aged using standard procedures that employ air blowing at 163 °C for 85 min followed by conditioning the samples at 100 °C and 2.1 MPa pressure for 20 to 48 hours. The resultant changes in their chemical composition are evaluated by portable attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectrometer. Measurements of ketone, sulfoxide, and hydroxyl content in PMB samples indicated similar oxidation pathways to those of non-modified bitumens. In addition, no evidence of polymer degradation due to accelerated aging of PMB was found in this study. PMID:21740638

  20. Anticipation of Body-Scaled Action Is Modified in Anorexia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guardia, Dewi; Lafargue, Gilles; Thomas, Pierre; Dodin, Vincent; Cottencin, Olivier; Luyat, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa frequently believe they are larger than they really are. The precise nature of this bias is not known: is it a false belief related to the patient's aesthetic and emotional attitudes towards her body? Or could it also reflect abnormal processing of the representation of the body in action? We tested this latter…

  1. Modifying the Body: Canadian Men's Perspectives on Appearance and Cosmetic Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciardelli, Rosemary; White, Philip

    2011-01-01

    In postmodern scholarship there has been a temporal shift to thinking of the body as malleable rather than fixed, which has opened space for the remaking of the self via the remaking of the body (Featherstone, 1991; Giddens, 1991). Among men, this process is thought to interact with shifting understandings of masculinity. In this study, 14…

  2. Lymphoscintigraphy in cutaneous melanoma: a total body atlas of sentinel node mapping.

    PubMed

    Intenzo, Charles M; Kim, Sung M; Patel, Jayant I; Lin, Henry C; Kairys, John C

    2002-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy of malignant melanoma has been a reliable method of identifying regional lymph nodes at risk for metastases and is now considered part of the standard of care in patients with melanoma. The status of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) is predictive of the metastatic status of the corresponding regional lymph node group. Lymphatic channel mapping allows identification of the SLN, thereby making selective lymph node sampling possible. Consequently, SLN identification with lymphoscintigraphy results in both less extensive surgery and more efficient pathologic examination of the lymph node specimens. Therefore, it is imperative that radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians know which radiopharmaceuticals to use, recognize different lymphatic drainage patterns from various primary tumor sites throughout the body, use proper imaging techniques, and recognize potential pitfalls in image interpretation. PMID:12006683

  3. Assessment of contribution of other users to own total whole-body RF absorption in train environment.

    PubMed

    Plets, David; Joseph, Wout; Aerts, Sam; Vermeeren, Günter; Varsier, Nadège; Wiart, Joe; Martens, Luc

    2015-12-01

    For the first time, the contribution of radio-frequent radiation originating from other people's devices to total own whole-body absorption is assessed in a simulation study. Absorption in a train environment due to base station's downlink is compared with absorption due to uplink (UL) of the user's own mobile device and absorption due to the UL of 0, 1, 5, or 15 other nearby active users. In a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) macro cell connection scenario, UL of 15 other users can cause up to 19% of total absorption when calling yourself and up to 100% when not calling yourself. In a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) femtocell connection scenario, UL of 15 other users contributes to total absorption of a non-calling user for no more than 1.5%. For five other users in the train besides the considered person, median total whole-body Specific Absorption Rate is reduced by a factor of about 400000 when deploying a UMTS femtocell base station instead of relying on the GSM macrocell. PMID:26511787

  4. Comparison of automated and manual purification of total RNA for mRNA-based identification of body fluids.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Tomoko; Kitayama, Tetsushi; Watanabe, Ken; Sakurada, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Silica column-based RNA purification procedures have widespread use in mRNA profiling for body fluid identification in forensic samples. Also, automated RNA purification systems employing magnetic bead technology have recently become available. In this preliminary study, to ascertain which RNA purification technology is more suitable for the identification of body fluids by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), comparative analyses of the yield and quality of total RNA were performed between automated purification using an EZ1 Advanced Instrument and manual purification using an RNeasy Mini Kit. The yield and size distribution of total RNA were compared by gene expression analysis of two different sized fragments of the β-actin gene. In addition, the relative amounts of several target genes were compared between the purification methods, and the integrity of total RNA was determined by chip-based electrophoresis. The results of this study suggest that RNeasy can purify higher-quality RNA as compared with automated purification using EZ1. The sensitivity of the RT-PCR analysis, however, was higher in the EZ1-purified samples, likely due to the relative efficiency of EZ1 in extracting short-length RNA from degraded samples. We also show that the quantification of relative levels of body fluid-specific genes could be influenced by the purification procedure. Our results indicate that although use of high-quality RNA is generally required for reproducible results in gene expression analysis, the forensic relevance of short RNA fragments in highly degraded samples cannot be ruled out. Furthermore, our results suggest that automated purification procedures as well as silica column-based manual purification procedures can be used for mRNA-based body fluid identification in forensic samples. PMID:25270217

  5. A model of end-expiratory lung impedance dependency on total extracellular body water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchomel, J.; Sobota, V.

    2013-04-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an attractive method for clinical monitoring of patients during mechanical ventilation. This study evaluates lung impedance measurements using Dräger PulmoVista 500 EIT system on an animal model. Mechanically ventilated model was created. Vital signs were monitored as well as mechanical ventilation parameters. Extracellular fluid balance and blood volume were handled as follows: 30-40% of total blood volume were removed and returned back, 0.5 to 1 litre of Ringer's solution was injected afterwards. The quantity of injected fluids was recorded for each animal. During this process thoracic electrical impedance measurement was performed. Recorded data from PulmoVista 500 EIT system were analysed using the official Dräger EIT Data Analysis Tool. The dependency of end-expiratory lung impedance on the change of fluid balance was observed. The relation between end-expiratory (minimum impedance value) frames and changes of fluid balance is shown. Preliminary results strongly support the expectation that electrical impedance of thorax can be affected by total extracellular fluid change.

  6. Body composition of adult cystic fibrosis patients and control subjects as determined by densitometry, bioelectrical impedance, total-body electrical conductivity, skinfold measurements, and deuterium oxide dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, M.J.; Keim, N.L.; Brown, D.L. )

    1990-08-01

    This study contrasts body compositions (by six methods) of eight cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects with those of eight control subjects matched for age, height, and sex. CF subjects weighed 84% as much as control subjects. Densitometry and two bioelectrical impedance-analysis methods suggested that reduced CF weights were due to less lean tissue (10.7, 9.5, and 10.4 kg). Total-body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) and skinfold-thickness measurements indicated that CF subjects were leaner than control subjects and had less fat (5.4 and 3.6 kg) and less lean (5.2 and 7 kg) tissue. D2O dilution showed a pattern similar to TOBEC (8.3 kg less lean, 2.7 kg less fat tissue). Densitometry estimates of fat (mass and percent) were not correlated (r less than 0.74, p greater than 0.05) with any other method for CF subjects but were correlated with all other methods for control subjects. CF subjects contained less fat and lean tissue than did control subjects. Densitometry by underwater weighing is unsuitable for assessing body composition of CF patients.

  7. Vertebral body split fracture after a single-level cervical total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Tu, Tsung-Hsi; Wu, Jau-Ching; Fay, Li-Yu; Ko, Chin-Chu; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Cheng, Henrich

    2012-03-01

    Cervical total disc replacement (TDR) is a viable option for the surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease. This 67-year-old nonsmoking male patient underwent single-level ProDisc-C cervical TDR at C5-6 without any intraoperative problem. His radicular pain improved and he had no neck pain immediately after the operation. However, on postoperative Day 3, a radiograph demonstrated a vertical split fracture of the C-5 vertebra. This fracture was managed conservatively, and 2 years postoperatively a follow-up CT scan demonstrated stable device position and fusion of the fracture. Although the linear fracture caused no neurological symptoms or device migration, the authors advocate prudence in selection and installation of keel-design prostheses, even in a single-level cervical TDR scenario. PMID:22176434

  8. A novel method of studying total body water content using a resonant cavity: experiments and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Martin P.; Clegg, Janet; Stone, Darren A.

    2003-01-01

    A novel electromagnetic method of obtaining total body water is proposed, in which the water content is obtained from the dielectric properties as measured by a resonant perturbation technique. A screened room acts as a radio-frequency cavity, in our case resonating at 59 MHz, a frequency at which both real and imaginary parts of the complex permittivity of tissues are correlated to their moisture content. The presence of a human subject in the room leads to both a negative shift in the room's resonant frequency and a reduction in its Q-factor. We simulated the room and the body using the transmission line matrix (TLM) method, a computational electromagnetic code which models the problem in the time domain. Experiment and numerical model showed good agreement for two orientations of the subject. The sensitivity of the technique was investigated by measuring the response before and after the subject drank a small quantity of water, less than 2% of body mass. The resulting change in the resonant frequency was significant, and was also predicted by the numerical model. The proposed technique for studying body composition is simple, non-invasive and employs non-ionizing radio waves at low power.

  9. Inhaled /sup 147/Pm and/or total-body gamma radiation: Early mortality and morbidity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Filipy, R.E.; Lauhala, K.E.; McGee, D.R.; Cannon, W.C.; Buschbom, R.L.; Decker, J.R.; Kuffel, E.G.; Park, J.F.; Ragan, H.A.; Yaniv, S.S.; Scott, B.R.

    1989-05-01

    Rats were given doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation and/or lung burdens of /sup 147/Pm (in fused aluminosilicate particles) within lethal ranges in an experiment to determine and compare morbidity and mortality responses for the radiation insults within 1 year after exposure. Radiation-induced morbidity was assessed by measuring changes in body weights, hematologic parameters, and pulmonary-function parameters. Acute mortality and morbidity from inhaled promethium were caused primarily by radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis that occurred more than 53 days after exposure. Acute mortality and morbidity from total-body gamma irradiation occurred within 30 days of exposure and resulted from the bone-marrow radiation syndrome. Gamma radiation caused transient morbidity, reflected by immediately depressed blood cell levels and by reduced body weight gain in animals that survived the acute gamma radiation syndrome. Inhaled promethium caused a loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function, but its only effect on blood cell levels was lymphocytopenia. Combined gamma irradiation and promethium lung burdens were synergistic, in that animals receiving both radiation insults had higher morbidity and mortality rates than would be predicted based on the effect of either kind of radiation alone. Promethium lung burdens enhanced the effect of gamma radiation in rats within the first 30 days of exposure, and gamma radiation enhanced the later effect of promethium lung burdens. 70 refs., 68 figs., 21 tabs.

  10. Total Body Irradiation in the "Hematopoietic" Dose Range Induces Substantial Intestinal Injury in Non-Human Primates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junru; Shao, Lijian; Hendrickson, Howard P; Liu, Liya; Chang, Jianhui; Luo, Yi; Seng, John; Pouliot, Mylene; Authier, Simon; Zhou, Daohong; Allaben, William; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The non-human primate has been a useful model for studies of human acute radiation syndrome (ARS). However, to date structural changes in various parts of the intestine after total body irradiation (TBI) have not been systematically studied in this model. Here we report on our current study of TBI-induced intestinal structural injury in the non-human primate after doses typically associated with hematopoietic ARS. Twenty-four non-human primates were divided into three groups: sham-irradiated control group; and total body cobalt-60 (60Co) 6.7 Gy gamma-irradiated group; and total body 60Co 7.4 Gy gamma-irradiated group. After animals were euthanized at day 4, 7 and 12 postirradiation, sections of small intestine (duodenum, proximal jejunum, distal jejunum and ileum) were collected and fixed in 10% formalin. The intestinal mucosal surface length, villus height and crypt depths were assessed by computer-assisted image analysis. Plasma citrulline levels were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Total bone marrow cells were counted and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow were analyzed by flow cytometer. Histopathologically, all segments exhibited conspicuous disappearance of plicae circulares and prominent atrophy of crypts and villi. Intestinal mucosal surface length was significantly decreased in all intestinal segments on day 4, 7 and 12 after irradiation (P < 0.02-P < 0.001). Villus height was significantly reduced in all segments on day 4 and 7 (P = 0.02-0.005), whereas it had recovered by day 12 (P > 0.05). Crypt depth was also significantly reduced in all segments on day 4, 7 and 12 after irradiation (P < 0.04-P < 0.001). Plasma citrulline levels were dramatically reduced after irradiation, consistent with intestinal mucosal injury. Both 6.7 and 7.4 Gy TBI reduced total number of bone marrow cells. And further analysis showed that the number and function of CD45(+)CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitors in bone