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Sample records for modifier rotigaptide zp123

  1. Electrophysiological effect of rotigaptide in rabbits with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Li, Haitao; Xia, Wenfang; Yu, Shengbo; Huang, Congxin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Rotigaptide is a new anti-arrhythmic peptide, which has recently been found to increase junctional conductance and prevent ischemia-induced ventricular tachycardia. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects and mechanisms of rotigaptide on the vulnerability to ventricular arrhythmias in rabbits with heart failure (HF). Material and methods Chronic volume-pressure overload was used to induce HF. After rotigaptide infusion, an electrophysiological study was performed to record monophasic action potential (MAP), determine the effective refractory period (ERP) and ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT), and assess the susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmia. Finally, real-time PCR was used to detect the changes of connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA expression. Results HF rabbits exhibited significant down-regulation of Cx43 mRNA, increase of effective refractory period (ERP) and decrease of VFT (p < 0.05, respectively). These changes resulted in an increase of vulnerability to ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT/VF). Rotigaptide administration shortened ERP (113.3 ±8.6 ms vs. 131.7 ±12.5 ms, p < 0.05), restored VFT (15.0 ±2.0 V vs. 6.3 ±1.4 V, p < 0.05), and decreased the vulnerability to VT/VF. However, short-term rotigaptide treatment had no significant effect on MAP duration (MAP duration at 90% repolarization: 169.3 ±6.0 ms vs. 172.7 ±6.2 ms, p > 0.05) or connexin 43 mRNA expression (p > 0.05). Conclusions Rotigaptide decreases the ERP, elevates VFT, and reduces the vulnerability to ventricular arrhythmias without changing Cx43 expression in rabbits with HF. It may be a promising antiarrhythmic drug for preventing ventricular arrhythmia in HF. PMID:24904675

  2. Modified cyanobacteria

    DOEpatents

    Vermaas, Willem F J.

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed is a modified photoautotrophic bacterium comprising genes of interest that are modified in terms of their expression and/or coding region sequence, wherein modification of the genes of interest increases production of a desired product in the bacterium relative to the amount of the desired product production in a photoautotrophic bacterium that is not modified with respect to the genes of interest.

  3. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects. Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response by increasing the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction, increasing the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response, augmenting the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response, decreasing the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells, or increasing the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  4. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  5. Modified blank ammunition injuries.

    PubMed

    Ogunc, Gokhan I; Ozer, M Tahir; Coskun, Kagan; Uzar, Ali Ihsan

    2009-12-15

    Blank firing weapons are designed only for discharging blank ammunition cartridges. Because they are cost-effective, are easily accessible and can be modified to live firearms plus their unclear legal situation in Turkish Law makes them very popular in Turkey. 2004 through 2008, a total of 1115 modified blank weapons were seized in Turkey. Blank firing weapons are easily modified by owners, making them suitable for discharging live firearm ammunition or modified blank ammunitions. Two common methods are used for modification of blank weapons. After the modification, these weapons can discharge the live ammunition. However, due to compositional durability problems with these types of weapons; the main trend is to use the modified blank ammunitions rather than live firearm ammunition fired from modified blank firing weapons. In this study, two types of modified blank weapons and two types of modified blank cartridges were tested on three different target models. Each of the models' shooting side was coated with 1.3+/-2 mm thickness chrome tanned cowhide as a skin simulant. The first model was only coated with skin simulant. The second model was coated with skin simulant and 100% cotton police shirt. The third model was coated with skin simulant and jean denim. After the literature evaluation four high risky anatomic locations (the neck area; the eyes; the thorax area and inguinal area) were pointed out for the steel and lead projectiles are discharged from the modified blank weapons especially in close range (0-50 cm). The target models were designed for these anatomic locations. For the target models six Transparent Ballistic Candle blocks (TCB) were prepared and divided into two test groups. The first group tests were performed with lead projectiles and second group with steel projectile. The shortest penetration depth (lead projectile: 4.358 cm; steel projectile 8.032 cm) was recorded in the skin simulant and jean denim coated block for both groups. In both groups

  6. Aminoglycoside Modifying Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Maria S.; Tolmasky, Marcelo E.

    2010-01-01

    Aminoglycosides have been an essential component of the armamentarium in the treatment of life-threatening infections. Unfortunately, their efficacy has been reduced by the surge and dissemination of resistance. In some cases the levels of resistance reached the point that rendered them virtually useless. Among many known mechanisms of resistance to aminoglycosides, enzymatic modification is the most prevalent in the clinical setting. Aminoglycoside modifying enzymes catalyze the modification at different −OH or −NH2 groups of the 2-deoxystreptamine nucleus or the sugar moieties and can be nucleotidyltranferases, phosphotransferases, or acetyltransferases. The number of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes identified to date as well as the genetic environments where the coding genes are located is impressive and there is virtually no bacteria that is unable to support enzymatic resistance to aminoglycosides. Aside from the development of new aminoglycosides refractory to as many as possible modifying enzymes there are currently two main strategies being pursued to overcome the action of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes. Their successful development would extend the useful life of existing antibiotics that have proven effective in the treatment of infections. These strategies consist of the development of inhibitors of the enzymatic action or of the expression of the modifying enzymes. PMID:20833577

  7. Modified Embedded Atom Method

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-08-01

    Interatomic force and energy calculation subroutine to be used with the molecular dynamics simulation code LAMMPS (Ref a.). The code evaluated the total energy and atomic forces (energy gradient) according to a cubic spline-based variant (Ref b.) of the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) with a additional Stillinger-Weber (SW) contribution.

  8. Modified Faraday cup

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1996-01-01

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees form 0.degree. to 360.degree. and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-din-tensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment.

  9. Modified Faraday cup

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, J.W.; Teruya, A.T.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-09-10

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams is disclosed. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees from 0{degree} to 360{degree} and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment. 12 figs.

  10. Genetically modified bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Sagona, Antonia P; Grigonyte, Aurelija M; MacDonald, Paul R; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2016-04-18

    Phages or bacteriophages, viruses that infect and replicate inside bacteria, are the most abundant microorganisms on earth. The realization that antibiotic resistance poses a substantial risk to the world's health and global economy is revitalizing phage therapy as a potential solution. The increasing ease by which phage genomes can be modified, owing to the influx of new technologies, has led to an expansion of their natural capabilities, and a reduced dependence on phage isolation from environmental sources. This review will discuss the way synthetic biology has accelerated the construction of genetically modified phages and will describe the wide range of their applications. It will further provide insight into the societal and economic benefits that derive from the use of recombinant phages in various sectors, from health to biodetection, biocontrol and the food industry. PMID:26906932

  11. Modified entropic force

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Changjun

    2010-04-15

    The theory of statistical thermodynamics tells us the equipartition law of energy does not hold in the limit of very low temperatures. It is found the Debye model is very successful in explaining the experimental results for most of the solid objects. Motivated by this fact, we modify the entropic force formula which is proposed very recently. Since the Unruh temperature is proportional to the strength of the gravitational field, so the modified entropic force formula is an extension of the Newtonian gravity to the weak field. On the contrary, general relativity extends Newtonian gravity to the strong field case. Corresponding to Debye temperature, there exists a Debye acceleration g{sub D}. It is found the Debye acceleration is g{sub D}=10{sup -15} N kg{sup -1}. This acceleration is very much smaller than the gravitational acceleration 10{sup -4} N kg{sup -1} which is felt by Neptune and the gravitational acceleration 10{sup -10} N kg{sup -1} felt by the Sun. Therefore, the modified entropic force can be very well approximated by the Newtonian gravity in the Solar System and in the Galaxy. With this Debye acceleration, we find the current cosmic speeding up can be explained without invoking any kind of dark energy.

  12. Histone Modifiers in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Idan; Poręba, Elżbieta; Kamieniarz, Kinga; Schneider, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Covalent modifications of histones can regulate all DNA-dependent processes. In the last few years, it has become more and more evident that histone modifications are key players in the regulation of chromatin states and dynamics as well as in gene expression. Therefore, histone modifications and the enzymatic machineries that set them are crucial regulators that can control cellular proliferation, differentiation, plasticity, and malignancy processes. This review discusses the biology and biochemistry of covalent histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) and evaluates the dual role of their modifiers in cancer: as oncogenes that can initiate and amplify tumorigenesis or as tumor suppressors. PMID:21941619

  13. Confidentiality: a modified value.

    PubMed Central

    Emson, H E

    1988-01-01

    In its original expression as a medical value confidentiality may have been absolute; this concept has become eroded by patient consent, legal actions and change in the climate of public opinion. In particular requirements arising out of legal statutes and common law judgements have greatly modified the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship in societies deriving their law from English origins. Despite this, confidentiality remains a value which the physician must strive to preserve. He cannot however do this without considering its effect upon possible innocent third parties. PMID:3392723

  14. Surface modified aerogel monoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas (Inventor); Johnston, James C. (Inventor); Kuczmarski, Maria A. (Inventor); Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    This invention comprises reinforced aerogel monoliths such as silica aerogels having a polymer coating on its outer geometric surface boundary, and to the method of preparing said aerogel monoliths. The polymer coatings on the aerogel monoliths are derived from polymer precursors selected from the group consisting of isocyanates as a precursor, precursors of epoxies, and precursors of polyimides. The coated aerogel monoliths can be modified further by encapsulating the aerogel with the polymer precursor reinforced with fibers such as carbon or glass fibers to obtain mechanically reinforced composite encapsulated aerogel monoliths.

  15. Modifying Radiation Damage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwanghee; McBride, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation leaves a fairly characteristic footprint in biological materials, but this is rapidly all but obliterated by the canonical biological responses to the radiation damage. The innate immune recognition systems that sense “danger” through direct radiation damage and through associated collateral damage set in motion a chain of events that, in a tissue compromised by radiation, often unwittingly result in oscillating waves of molecular and cellular responses as tissues attempt to heal. Understanding “nature’s whispers” that inform on these processes will lead to novel forms of intervention targeted more precisely towards modifying them in an appropriate and timely fashion so as to improve the healing process and prevent or mitigate the development of acute and late effects of normal tissue radiation damage, whether it be accidental, as a result of a terrorist incident, or of therapeutic treatment of cancer. Here we attempt to discuss some of the non-free radical scavenging mechanisms that modify radiation responses and comment on where we see them within a conceptual framework of an evolving radiation-induced lesion. PMID:20583981

  16. Modified clay sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Fogler, H. Scott; Srinivasan, Keeran R.

    1990-01-01

    A novel modified clay sorbent and method of treating industrial effluents to remove trace pollutants, such as dioxins, biphenyls, and polyaromatics such as benzo(a)pyrene and pentachlorophenol. The novel clay sorbent has a composite structure in which the interlayer space of an expandable clay, such as smectite, is filled with polyvalent or multivalent inorganic cations which forces weaker surfactant cations to locate on the surface of the clay in such an orientation that the resulting composite is hydrophilic in nature. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-hydroxy aluminum-montmorillonite. In certain embodiments, a non-expanding clay, such as kaolinite, is used and surfactant cations are necessarily located on an external surface of the clay. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-kaolinite.

  17. Chemically modified polypyrrole

    SciTech Connect

    Inagaki, T.; Skotheim, T.A.; Lee, H.S.; Okamoto, Y.; Samuelson, L.; Tripathy, S.

    1988-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) films have been systematically modified with electroactive groups in the ..beta..-position to design electrode materials with specific electrochemical and surface active properties. Electrochemical copolymerization of pyrrole and 3-(6-ferrocenyl,6-hydroxyhexyl)pyrrole (P-6-Fc) yields a ferrocene functionalized polypyrrole with a controlled amount to ferrocene functionalization. And also, copolymers of pyrrole and 3-(4-(2,5- dimethoxyphenyl)butyl)pyrrole (P-MP) can be made by electrochemical polymerization and converted to the copolymers containing pH dependent electroactive hydroquinone moieties. Derivatized pyrroles have also been incorporated into Langmuir-Blodgett film structures. The surface pressure-area isotherms of 3-(13-ferrocenyl,13-hydroxytridecy)pyrrole (P-13-Fc) and the mixed monolayer of P-13-Fc and 3-n-hexadecylpyrrole (HDP) are shown. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Modified Composite Materials Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicus, D. L. (Compiler)

    1978-01-01

    The reduction or elimination of the hazard which results from accidental release of graphite fibers from composite materials was studied at a workshop. At the workshop, groups were organized to consider six topics: epoxy modifications, epoxy replacement, fiber modifications, fiber coatings and new fibers, hybrids, and fiber release testing. Because of the time required to develop a new material and acquire a design data base, most of the workers concluded that a modified composite material would require about four to five years of development and testing before it could be applied to aircraft structures. The hybrid working group considered that some hybrid composites which reduce the risk of accidental fiber release might be put into service over the near term. The fiber release testing working group recommended a coordinated effort to define a suitable laboratory test.

  19. [The modified Lapidus arthrodesis].

    PubMed

    Trnka, H-J; Hofstätter, S

    2005-08-01

    For the correction of hallux valgus, as one of the most common deformities of the lower limbs, a modified Lapidus arthrodesis is applied at the base of the hallux. After using a lateral tissue technique with medial capsular reefing, a general arthrodesis of the tarsometatarsal 1 joint is carried out. An unstable hallux is the indication for a classic Lapidus arthrodesis. Before determination of the indication, an exact clinical x-ray examination should be made in the dorsoplanar position as well as laterally standing. Complications associated with the Lapidus arthrodesis are postoperative metatarsalgia and pseudoarthrosis. Advantages of this technique are, for example, a high correction potential and better healing, although the surgical technique and post-operative care are more time consuming than for other methods. PMID:16028050

  20. On a modified electrodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, H.R.

    2012-01-01

    A modification of electrodynamics is proposed, motivated by previously unremarked paradoxes that can occur in the standard formulation. It is shown by specific examples that gauge transformations exist that radically alter the nature of a problem, even while maintaining the values of many measurable quantities. In one example, a system with energy conservation is transformed to a system where energy is not conserved. The second example possesses a ponderomotive potential in one gauge, but this important measurable quantity does not appear in the gauge-transformed system. A resolution of the paradoxes comes from noting that the change in total action arising from the interaction term in the Lagrangian density cannot always be neglected, contrary to the usual assumption. The problem arises from the information lost by employing an adiabatic cutoff of the field. This is not necessary. Its replacement by a requirement that the total action should not change with a gauge transformation amounts to a supplementary condition for gauge invariance that can be employed to preserve the physical character of the problem. It is shown that the adiabatic cutoff procedure can also be eliminated in the construction of quantum transition amplitudes, thus retaining consistency between the way in which asymptotic conditions are applied in electrodynamics and in quantum mechanics. The ‘gauge-invariant electrodynamics’ of Schwinger is shown to depend on an ansatz equivalent to the condition found here for maintenance of the ponderomotive potential in a gauge transformation. Among the altered viewpoints required by the modified electrodynamics, in addition to the rejection of the adiabatic cutoff, is the recognition that the electric and magnetic fields do not completely determine a physical problem, and that the electromagnetic potentials supply additional information that is required for completeness of electrodynamics. PMID:23105173

  1. Nominal Modifiers in Mandarin Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, John Y.

    In the surface structure of Chinese nominal modifiers (quantifiers, determiners, adjectives, measure phrase, relative clause, etc.) may occur either before or after a modified noun. In most of the transformational studies of Chinese syntax (e.g. Cheng 1966; Hashimoto 1966; Mei 1972; Tai 1973; Teng 1974), it has been assumed that such NP's have the…

  2. Modifiers and Perceived Stress Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Margaret W.

    1986-01-01

    The Modifiers and Perceived Stress Scale measures stressful life events by number and amount of perceived stresses and provides scores for variables such as anticipation of events, responsibility for events, and amount of social support from family and friends in coping with each event that modify the way stress is perceived. (Author)

  3. Modified Nanodiamonds for Detoxification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Natalie Marie

    essential for interacting with charged molecules, like OTA. Furthermore, the increased ZPs lead to improved colloidal stabilities over a wide range of pH, which is important for their interaction in the GI tract. While the dyes and OTA illustrated primarily electrostatic adsorption mechanisms, neutrally charged AfB1's adsorption was predominantly based upon the aggregate size of the ND substrate. In addition to mycotoxins, fluorescent dyes, including propidium iodide, pyranine and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), were initially utilized during methodological development. Fluorescent dye investigations helped assesses the adsorption mechanisms of NDs and demonstrated the significance of electrostatic interactions. Beyond electrostatic adsorption mechanisms, surface functional groups were also responsible for the amount of dye adsorbed, as was also true in OTA adsorption. Therefore, surface characterization was carried out for several ND samples by FTIR, TOF-SIMS and TDMS analysis. Final results of our studies show that our modified NDs perform better than yeast cells walls and other NDs but comparable to activated charcoal in the adsorption of AfB1, and outperform clay minerals in OTA studies. Moreover, it was demonstrated that adsorption can be maintained in a wide range of pH, thereby, increasing the possibility of NDs use in mycotoxins enterosorbent applications.

  4. The Effects of Pre Modified Input, Interactionally Modified Input, and Modified Output on EFL Learners' Comprehension of New Vocabularies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maleki, Zinat; Pazhakh, AbdolReza

    2012-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to investigate the effects of premodified input, interactionally modified input and modified output on 80 EFL learners' comprehension of new words. The subjects were randomly assigned into four groups of pre modified input, interactionally modified input, modified output and unmodified (control) groups. Each group…

  5. Modified polymers for gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeller, F. H.; Christensen, W.; Mayer, L.

    1979-01-01

    Polymeric materials are modified to serve as stationary phase in chromatographic columns used for separation of atmospheric gases. Materials simplify and improve separation of atmospheric gases in terms of time, quantity of material needed, and sharpness of separation.

  6. MS Disease-Modifying Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contents Injectable treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Oral treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Intravenous infusion treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Managing side effects of disease- modifying ... or subcutaneous), oral and intravenous (into the vein) infusion. INJECTABLE TREATMENTS Treatment (chemical name) Manufacturer Avonex ® (interferon ...

  7. Topology of modified helical gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, J.; Handschuh, R. F.; Coy, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The topology of several types of modified surfaces of helical gears is proposed. The modified surfaces allow absorption of a linear or almost linear function of transmission errors. These errors are caused by gear misalignment and an improvement of the contact of gear tooth surfaces. Principles and corresponding programs for computer aided simulation of meshing and contact of gears have been developed. The results of this investigation are illustrated with numerical examples.

  8. Modified acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Lindgvist, Ylva; Schneider, Gunter

    1998-01-06

    Disclosed is a methods for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity.

  9. Modified Acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Lindqvist, Ylva; Schneider, Gunter

    1999-03-30

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity.

  10. Model selection for modified gravity.

    PubMed

    Kitching, T D; Simpson, F; Heavens, A F; Taylor, A N

    2011-12-28

    In this article, we review model selection predictions for modified gravity scenarios as an explanation for the observed acceleration of the expansion history of the Universe. We present analytical procedures for calculating expected Bayesian evidence values in two cases: (i) that modified gravity is a simple parametrized extension of general relativity (GR; two nested models), such that a Bayes' factor can be calculated, and (ii) that we have a class of non-nested models where a rank-ordering of evidence values is required. We show that, in the case of a minimal modified gravity parametrization, we can expect large area photometric and spectroscopic surveys, using three-dimensional cosmic shear and baryonic acoustic oscillations, to 'decisively' distinguish modified gravity models over GR (or vice versa), with odds of ≫1:100. It is apparent that the potential discovery space for modified gravity models is large, even in a simple extension to gravity models, where Newton's constant G is allowed to vary as a function of time and length scale. On the time and length scales where dark energy dominates, it is only through large-scale cosmological experiments that we can hope to understand the nature of gravity. PMID:22084296

  11. Stellar oscillations in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakstein, Jeremy

    2013-12-01

    Starting from the equations of modified gravity hydrodynamics, we derive the equations of motion governing linear, adiabatic, radial perturbations of stars in scalar-tensor theories. There are two new features: first, the eigenvalue equation for the period of stellar oscillations is modified such that the eigenfrequencies are always larger than predicted by general relativity. Second, the general relativity condition for stellar instability is altered so that the adiabatic index can fall below 4/3 before unstable modes appear. Stars are more stable in modified gravity theories. Specializing to the case of chameleonlike theories, we investigate these effects numerically using both polytropic Lane-Emden stars and models coming from modified gravity stellar structure simulations. We find that the change in the oscillation period of Cepheid star models can be as large as 30% for order-one matter couplings and the change in the inferred distance using the period-luminosity relation can be up to three times larger than if one had only considered the modified equilibrium structure. We discuss the implications of these results for recent and upcoming astrophysical tests and estimate that previous methods can produce new constraints such that the modifications are screened in regions of Newtonian potential of O(10-8).

  12. A modified submental orotracheal intubation

    PubMed Central

    Savitha, Keelara Shivalingaiah; Kujur, Abha Rani; Vikram, M. S.; Joseph, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    In patients with concomitant occurrence of maxillofacial and basilar skull fractures, open reduction and internal fixation is the treatment. It requires intermittent intra operative dental occlusion which precludes oral or nasal intubation. In such cases submental intubation (SMI) is a recognized technique in practice. We describe a modified technique for smooth exteriorization of the endotracheal tube (ETT) during SMI. As the SMI technique is unusual for the performer, emphasis is laid on the applied aspects to minimize probable complications during the procedure. With the modified technique we performed SMI uneventfully on five patients PMID:26957708

  13. Synthesis of chemically modified DNA.

    PubMed

    Shivalingam, Arun; Brown, Tom

    2016-06-15

    Naturally occurring DNA is encoded by the four nucleobases adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine. Yet minor chemical modifications to these bases, such as methylation, can significantly alter DNA function, and more drastic changes, such as replacement with unnatural base pairs, could expand its function. In order to realize the full potential of DNA in therapeutic and synthetic biology applications, our ability to 'write' long modified DNA in a controlled manner must be improved. This review highlights methods currently used for the synthesis of moderately long chemically modified nucleic acids (up to 1000 bp), their limitations and areas for future expansion. PMID:27284032

  14. Modified Acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Lindqvist, Y.; Schneider, G.

    1999-03-30

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity. 2 figs.

  15. Modified acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Lindgvist, Y.; Schneider, G.

    1998-01-06

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity. 1 fig.

  16. A modified submental orotracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Savitha, Keelara Shivalingaiah; Kujur, Abha Rani; Vikram, M S; Joseph, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    In patients with concomitant occurrence of maxillofacial and basilar skull fractures, open reduction and internal fixation is the treatment. It requires intermittent intra operative dental occlusion which precludes oral or nasal intubation. In such cases submental intubation (SMI) is a recognized technique in practice. We describe a modified technique for smooth exteriorization of the endotracheal tube (ETT) during SMI. As the SMI technique is unusual for the performer, emphasis is laid on the applied aspects to minimize probable complications during the procedure. With the modified technique we performed SMI uneventfully on five patients. PMID:26957708

  17. Cosmological hints of modified gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The recent measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies made by the Planck satellite have provided impressive confirmation of the Λ CDM cosmological model. However interesting hints of slight deviations from Λ CDM have been found, including a 95% C.L. preference for a "modified gravity" (MG) structure formation scenario. In this paper we confirm the preference for a modified gravity scenario from Planck 2015 data, find that modified gravity solves the so-called Alens anomaly in the CMB angular spectrum, and constrains the amplitude of matter density fluctuations to σ8=0.81 5-0.048+0.032 , in better agreement with weak lensing constraints. Moreover, we find a lower value for the reionization optical depth of τ =0.059 ±0.020 (to be compared with the value of τ =0.079 ±0.017 obtained in the standard scenario), more consistent with recent optical and UV data. We check the stability of this result by considering possible degeneracies with other parameters, including the neutrino effective number, the running of the spectral index and the amount of primordial helium. The indication for modified gravity is still present at about 95% C.L., and could become more significant if lower values of τ were to be further confirmed by future cosmological and astrophysical data. When the CMB lensing likelihood is included in the analysis the statistical significance for MG simply vanishes, indicating also the possibility of a systematic effect for this MG signal.

  18. Modified immunotherapy for alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Yoshimasu, Takashi; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-07-01

    Squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) is a commonly used contact sensitizer in immunotherapy for alopecia areata (AA). Severe contact dermatitis is induced by the currently high recommended sensitization dose of 1%-2% SADBE, often decreasing patient compliance. We assessed a modified immunotherapy for AA using SADBE at a starting concentration of 0.01% without sensitization. After one or two weeks of initial 0.01% SADBE application, the concentration of SADBE was increased gradually to 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% until the patients felt itching or erythema at the AA lesion site. The modified immunotherapy showed a response rate of 69.4% (25/36), equivalent to conventional immunotherapy using SADBE starting at 1%-2% sensitization. Furthermore, we investigated the combination therapy of SADBE and multiple courses of steroid pulses for AA. The response rate for combination therapy was 73.7% (28/38); however, the group receiving combination therapy showed a significant prevalence of severe AA compared with the group receiving modified immunotherapy only. We reviewed the efficacy and safety of modified immunotherapy without initial sensitization and combination therapy with immunotherapy and multiple courses of pulses for AA. PMID:26932732

  19. Modifying muscular dystrophy through TGFβ

    PubMed Central

    Ceco, Ermelinda; McNally, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Muscular dystrophy arises from ongoing muscle degeneration and insufficient regeneration. This imbalance leads to loss of muscle with replacement by scar or fibrosis resulting in muscle weakness and, eventually, loss of muscle function. Human muscular dystrophy is characterized by a wide range of disease severity, even when the same genetic mutation is present. This variability implies that other factors, both genetic and environmental, modify the disease outcome. There has been an ongoing effort to define the genetic and molecular bases that influence muscular dystrophy onset and progression. Modifier genes for muscle disease have been identified through candidate gene approaches as well as genomewide surveys. Multiple lines of experimental evidence have now converged on the TGFβ pathway as a modifier for muscular dystrophy. TGFβ signaling is upregulated in dystrophic muscle as a result of a destabilized plasma membrane and/or altered extracellular matrix. Given the important biological role of the TGFβ pathway, and its role beyond muscle homeostasis, we review modifier genes that alter the TGFβ pathway and approaches to modulate TGFβ activity to ameliorate muscle disease. PMID:23551962

  20. Reduced modified Chaplygin gas cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianbo; Geng, Danhua; Xu, Lixin; Wu, Yabo; Liu, Molin

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we study cosmologies containing the reduced modified Chaplygin gas (RMCG) fluid which is reduced from the modified Chaplygin gas p = Aρ - Bρ -α for the value of α = -1 /2. In this special case, dark cosmological models can be realized for different values of model parameter A. We investigate the viabilities of these dark cosmological models by discussing the evolutions of cosmological quantities and using the currently available cosmic observations. It is shown that the special RMCG model ( A = 0 or A = 1) which unifies the dark matter and dark energy should be abandoned. For A = 1 /3, RMCG which unifies the dark energy and dark radiation is the favorite model according to the objective Akaike information criteria. In the case of A < 0, RMCG can achieve the features of the dynamical quintessence and phantom models, where the evolution of the universe is not sensitive to the variation of model parameters.

  1. Comment on Modified Stokes Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D.M.; Utku, C.

    2009-01-01

    It is common practice in passive microwave remote sensing (microwave radiometry) to express observables as temperatures and in the case of polarimetric radiometry to use what are called "Modified Stokes Parameters in Brightness Temperature" to describe the scene. However, definitions with slightly different normalization (with and without division by bandwidth) have appeared in the literature. The purpose of this manuscript is to present an analysis to clarify the meaning of terms in the definition and resolve the question of the proper normalization.

  2. Disulfiram as a radiation modifier

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.D.; Maners, A.W.; Salari, H.; Baker, M.; Walker, E.M. Jr.

    1986-11-01

    The radiation modifying effect and toxicity of tetraethylthiuram disulfide (disulfiram) have been studied. Disulfiram (DSM) inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase, dopamine-beta-oxygenase, microsomal mixed-function oxidases and cytochrome P-450 enzymes. It is widely used for aversion therapy in alcoholism. Disulfiram also inhibits tumor formation by several known carcinogens. A biphasic toxicity pattern of DSM is reported in the L-929 mouse fibroblast culture system. Disulfiram is 100 percent toxic at 2 X 10(-7) M (0.05 micrograms per ml), 23 percent toxic at 3 X 10(-7) M (0.1 microgram per ml), and 100 percent toxic again at 3.4 X 10(-6) M (1.0 microgram per ml). The pattern is similar to the biphasic toxicity pattern of DMS's major metabolite, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DTC). Reports of both radiation protection and radiation enhancement by DTC exist. Previously, a radioprotective effect by 2 X 10(-6) M DTC (dose modifying factor = 1.26) has been demonstrated in the L-929 cell system. To date, no radiation modifying properties of DSM have been reported. Our investigation of DSM as a radiation modifier at 3 X 10(-7) M (0.1 microgram per ml) did not show significant improvement in survival of irradiated cells treated with DSM relative to the irradiated control group, as determined by absence of a difference in the Do of the two groups. Considering DSM's close structural relationship to DTC, it is possible that DSM may exhibit a radioprotective effect when applied in a different concentration than what was used in our research.

  3. Modified muscle sparing posterolateral thoracotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Ashour, M

    1990-01-01

    A modified posterolateral thoracotomy is described that combines the advantages of complete muscle sparing through a thoracolumbar fascial slide with excellent exposure. The technique is easy to perform. The procedure was associated with relatively little postoperative pain, coughing was effective, and early ambulation was achieved. Experience with this approach in the first 49 patients suggests that it offers an attractive alternative to the standard muscle cutting posterolateral thoracotomy approach for elective procedures. PMID:2281426

  4. Estimating the Modified Allan Variance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, Charles

    1995-01-01

    The third-difference approach to modified Allan variance (MVAR) leads to a tractable formula for a measure of MVAR estimator confidence, the equivalent degrees of freedom (edf), in the presence of power-law phase noise. The effect of estimation stride on edf is tabulated. A simple approximation for edf is given, and its errors are tabulated. A theorem allowing conservative estimates of edf in the presence of compound noise processes is given.

  5. Polyurethane biocidal polymeric surface modifiers.

    PubMed

    Makal, Umit; Wood, Lynn; Ohman, Dennis E; Wynne, Kenneth J

    2006-03-01

    Polyurethanes (PUs) with soft blocks containing semifluorinated (-CH2OCH2CF3) and 5,5-dimethylhydantoin pendant groups were prepared and employed (2 wt%) as biocidal polymeric surface modifiers (PSMs) for a conventional PU coating comprised of an isophorone diisocyanate/1,4-butanediol-derived hard block (50%) and poly(tetramethylene oxide) soft block. Surface enrichment of the PSM was verified by dynamic contact angle measurements. The PSM modified PU was activated by converting near-surface amide groups to chloramide with 3wt% hypochlorite. The conversion of near-surface amide to chloramide is reflected in somewhat increased hydrophobic character for the antimicrobial chloramide functionalized surfaces. Biocidal activity against both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli) bacteria was demonstrated by using a modified version of American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC-100) test. By changing the PSM concentration it was found that only 1.6 wt% PSM (0.66 wt% biocide, 5,5-dimethylhydantoin) in a conventional PU affected complete kill of P. aeruginosa in 15 min by using this biocidal testing protocol. PMID:16181672

  6. Inter-Rater Reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Modified Ashworth Scale in Assessing Poststroke Elbow Flexor Spasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Taciser; Goksel Karatepe, Altinay; Gunaydin, Rezzan; Koc, Aysegul; Altundal Ercan, Ulku

    2011-01-01

    The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) is commonly used in clinical practice for grading spasticity. However, it was modified recently by omitting grade "1+" of the MAS and redefining grade "2". The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-rater reliability of MAS and modified MAS (MMAS) for the assessment of poststroke elbow flexor spasticity.…

  7. Cosmological tests of modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard Λ CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.

  8. Crystallization modifiers in lipid systems.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan; Masuchi, Monise Helen; Miyasaki, Eriksen Koji; Domingues, Maria Aliciane Fontenele; Stroppa, Valter Luís Zuliani; de Oliveira, Glazieli Marangoni; Kieckbusch, Theo Guenter

    2015-07-01

    Crystallization of fats is a determinant physical event affecting the structure and properties of fat-based products. The stability of these processed foods is regulated by changes in the physical state of fats and alterations in their crystallization behavior. Problems like polymorphic transitions, oil migration, fat bloom development, slow crystallization and formation of crystalline aggregates stand out. The change of the crystallization behavior of lipid systems has been a strategic issue for the processing of foods, aiming at taylor made products, reducing costs, improving quality, and increasing the applicability and stability of different industrial fats. In this connection, advances in understanding the complex mechanisms that govern fat crystallization led to the development of strategies in order to modulate the conventional processes of fat structuration, based on the use of crystallization modifiers. Different components have been evaluated, such as specific triacyglycerols, partial glycerides (monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols), free fatty acids, phospholipids and emulsifiers. The knowledge and expertise on the influence of these specific additives or minor lipids on the crystallization behavior of fat systems represents a focus of current interest for the industrial processing of oils and fats. This article presents a comprehensive review on the use of crystallization modifiers in lipid systems, especially for palm oil, cocoa butter and general purpose fats, highlighting: i) the removal, addition or fractionation of minor lipids in fat bases; ii) the use of nucleating agents to modify the crystallization process; iii) control of crystallization in lipid bases by using emulsifiers. The addition of these components into lipid systems is discussed in relation to the phenomena of nucleation, crystal growth, morphology, thermal behavior and polymorphism, with the intention of providing the reader with a complete panorama of the associated mechanisms

  9. Cosmological tests of modified gravity.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard [Formula: see text]CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years. PMID:27007681

  10. Observational tests of modified gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Bhuvnesh; Zhang Pengjie

    2008-09-15

    Modifications of general relativity provide an alternative explanation to dark energy for the observed acceleration of the Universe. Modified gravity theories have richer observational consequences for large-scale structures than conventional dark energy models, in that different observables are not described by a single growth factor even in the linear regime. We examine the relationships between perturbations in the metric potentials, density and velocity fields, and discuss strategies for measuring them using gravitational lensing, galaxy cluster abundances, galaxy clustering/dynamics, and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. We show how a broad class of gravity theories can be tested by combining these probes. A robust way to interpret observations is by constraining two key functions: the ratio of the two metric potentials, and the ratio of the gravitational 'constant' in the Poisson equation to Newton's constant. We also discuss quasilinear effects that carry signatures of gravity, such as through induced three-point correlations. Clustering of dark energy can mimic features of modified gravity theories and thus confuse the search for distinct signatures of such theories. It can produce pressure perturbations and anisotropic stresses, which break the equality between the two metric potentials even in general relativity. With these two extra degrees of freedom, can a clustered dark energy model mimic modified gravity models in all observational tests? We show with specific examples that observational constraints on both the metric potentials and density perturbations can in principle distinguish modifications of gravity from dark energy models. We compare our result with other recent studies that have slightly different assumptions (and apparently contradictory conclusions)

  11. Modified QKLOOK program, change 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-07-01

    Recently, the four QKLOOK programs, in the earlier reports, were extensively modified. The modification were made to increase the usefulness and ease of use of the QKLOOK model. The changes made (1) increase the user's control of the PK/H functions used in QKLOOK, (2) allow the user to select true or incremental vulnerable areas, and (3) brought the programs in line with the FORTRAN 77 standards. All the changes are thoroughly documented. The program VAMERGE, which re-formats the QKLOOK output into a form usable by the ASALT program, has been documented and is also included in this change.

  12. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    PubMed Central

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

  13. Ionene modified small polymeric beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Linear ionene polyquaternary cationic polymeric segments are bonded by means of the Menshutkin reaction (quaternization) to biocompatible, extremely small, porous particles containing halide or tertiary amine sites which are centers for attachment of the segments. The modified beads in the form of emulsions or suspensions offer a large, positively-charged surface area capable of irreversibly binding polyanions such as heparin, DNA, RNA or bile acids to remove them from solution or of reversibly binding monoanions such as penicillin, pesticides, sex attractants and the like for slow release from the suspension.

  14. Metabolomics of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

  15. Adhesives from modified soy protein

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Susan; Wang, Donghai; Zhong, Zhikai; Yang, Guang

    2008-08-26

    The, present invention provides useful adhesive compositions having similar adhesive properties to conventional UF and PPF resins. The compositions generally include a protein portion and modifying ingredient portion selected from the group consisting of carboxyl-containing compounds, aldehyde-containing compounds, epoxy group-containing compounds, and mixtures thereof. The composition is preferably prepared at a pH level at or near the isoelectric point of the protein. In other preferred forms, the adhesive composition includes a protein portion and a carboxyl-containing group portion.

  16. Estimating the Modified Allan Variance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, Charles

    1995-01-01

    A paper at the 1992 FCS showed how to express the modified Allan variance (mvar) in terms of the third difference of the cumulative sum of time residuals. Although this reformulated definition was presented merely as a computational trick for simplifying the calculation of mvar estimates, it has since turned out to be a powerful theoretical tool for deriving the statistical quality of those estimates in terms of their equivalent degrees of freedom (edf), defined for an estimator V by edf V = 2(EV)2/(var V). Confidence intervals for mvar can then be constructed from levels of the appropriate 2 distribution.

  17. The Modifier Effect and Property Mutability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, James A.; Passanisi, Alessia; Jonsson, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    The modifier effect is the reduction in perceived likelihood of a generic property sentence, when the head noun is modified. We investigated the prediction that the modifier effect would be stronger for mutable than for central properties, without finding evidence for this predicted interaction over the course of five experiments. However…

  18. Modified sonourethrography assists urethral catheterization.

    PubMed

    Minagawa, Tomonori; Suzuki, Toshiro; Domen, Takahisa; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Masakuni; Hirakata, Shiro; Nagai, Takashi; Nakazawa, Masaki; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Ishizuka, Osamu

    2016-07-01

    Sonourethrography (SUG) is an infrequently used modality to observe the male urethra. We modified SUG to examine the reasons for difficulty in urethral catheterization and to determine a safe approach to resolve these problems. Following retrograde urethral jelly injection, modified SUG (mSUG) was performed in male patients with difficulty in urethral catheterization. mSUG was performed using transcutaneous ultrasonography in patients for whom the catheter became lodged in the penile urethra. In other patients, mSUG was performed using transrectal ultrasonography. We divided the causes of difficult indwelling urethral catheterization into physiological and pathological conditions. With regard to physiological conditions, the urethral catheter became stuck in the bulbous portion, membranous urethra, and prostatic urethra. mSUG distinguished the problematic part of the urethra in real time, and it assisted in overcoming the problem. With regard to pathological conditions, urethral stricture after trauma or surgery was clearly demonstrated in the penile and prostatic portions of the urethra. As with physiological conditions, mSUG images assisted in navigating the catheter through the problematic pathological areas or demonstrated the need to abandon the catheterization. mSUG can visualize the male urethra clearly during urethral catheterization and provide real-time assistance with the procedure. PMID:26847624

  19. Modified Bootstrap Sensitometry In Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    1981-04-01

    A new modified bootstrap approach to sensitometry is presented which provides H and D curves that show almost exact agreement with those obtained using conventional methods. Two bootstrap techniques are described; both involve a combination of inverse-square and stepped-wedge modulation of the radiation field and provide intensity-scale sensitometric curves as appropriate for medical radiography. H and D curves obtained with these modified techniques are compared with those obtained for screen-film combinations using inverse-square sensitometry as well as with those obtained for direct x-ray film using time-scale sensitometry. The stepped wedge of the Wisconsin X-Ray Test Cassette was used in the bootstrap approach since it provides sufficient exposure latitude to encompass the useful density range of medical x-ray film. This approach makes radiographic sensitometry quick and convenient, allowing accurate characteristic curves to be obtained for any screen-film cassette using standard diagnostic x-ray equipment.

  20. Genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-09-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that directly affects more than 1 in 10,000 persons in Western societies but, as a family disorder with a long, costly, debilitating course, it has an indirect impact on a far greater proportion of the population. Although some palliative treatments are used, no effective treatment exists for preventing clinical onset of the disorder or for delaying its inevitable progression toward premature death, approximately 15 years after diagnosis. Huntington's disease involves a movement disorder characterized by chorea, as well as a variety of psychiatric disturbances and intellectual decline, with a gradual loss of independence. A dire need exists for effective HD therapies to alleviate the suffering and costs to the individual, family, and health care system. In past decades, genetics, the study of DNA sequence variation and its consequences, provided the tools to map the HD gene to chromosome 4 and ultimately to identify its mutation as an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the coding sequence of a large protein, dubbed huntingtin. Now, advances in genetic technology offer an unbiased route to the identification of genetic factors that are disease-modifying agents in human patients. Such genetic modifiers are expected to highlight processes capable of altering the course of HD and therefore to provide new, human-validated targets for traditional drug development, with the goal of developing rational treatments to delay or prevent onset of HD clinical signs. PMID:25154728

  1. Stroke prevention: modifying risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Romero, José Rafael; Morris, Jane; Pikula, Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Risk factor modification remains as the principal aspect of care for stroke prevention. Understanding of risk factors has advanced and several options are now available to treat modifiable risk factors. However, effective treatment remains a challenging task in clinical practice. Prevention begins with awareness of risk factors by patients and clinicians. Risk factor assessment along with overall stroke risk estimation should be part of evaluation of patients with stroke, and used with careful clinical judgment. In this review we discuss the impact of modifiable traditional vascular risk factors on ischemic stroke, interventions for stroke prevention, and evidence for early treatment of risk factors where available as well as areas of research progress. Emphasis should be paid in education of patients, the community and medical personnel. Future research in the field of genetic determinants of vascular risk factors and stroke will increase our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of cerebrovascular disease and likely result in development of new therapies and individualized programs for stroke prevention. PMID:19124428

  2. Investigation of modified asphalt concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimich, Vita

    2016-01-01

    Currently the problem of improving the asphalt quality is very urgent. It is used primarily as topcoats exposed to the greatest relative to the other layers of the road, dynamic load - impact and shear. The number of cars on the road, the speed of their movement, as well as the traffic intensity increase day by day. We have to upgrade motor roads, which entails a huge cost. World experience shows that the issue is urgent not only in Russia, but also in many countries in Europe, USA and Asia. Thus, the subject of research is the resistance of asphalt concrete to water and its influence on the strength of the material at different temperatures, and resistance of pavement to deformation. It is appropriate to search for new modifiers for asphaltic binder and mineral additives for asphalt mix to form in complex the skeleton of the future asphalt concrete, resistant to atmospheric condensation, soil characteristics of the road construction area, as well as the growing road transport load. The important task of the work is searching special modifying additives for bitumen binder and asphalt mixture as a whole, which will improve the quality of highways, increasing the period between repairs. The methods described in the normative-technical documentation were used for the research. The conducted research allowed reducing the frequency of road maintenance for 7 years, increasing it from 17 to 25 years.

  3. The Modified Embedded Atom Method

    SciTech Connect

    Baskes, M.I.

    1994-08-01

    Recent modifications have been made to generalize the Embedded Atom Method (EAM) to describe bonding in diverse materials. By including angular dependence of the electron density in an empirical way, the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) has been able to reproduce the basic energetic and structural properties of 45 elements. This method is ideally suited for examining the interfacial behavior of dissimilar materials. This paper explains in detail the derivation of the method, shows how the parameters of the MEAM are determined directly from experiment or first principles calculations, and examines the quality of the reproduction of the database. Materials with fcc, bcc, hcp, and diamond cubic crystal structure are discussed. A few simple examples of the application of the MEAM to surfaces and interfaces are presented. Calculations of pullout of a SiC fiber in a diamond matrix as a function of applied stress show non-uniform deformation of the fiber.

  4. Chern-Simons Modified Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstratiou, P.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation will be based on my, undergraduate, thesis at Aristotle University of Thessoliniki with the same subject, supervised by Professor Demetrios Papadopoulos. I will first present the general mathematical formulation of the Chern-Simons (CS) modified gravity, which is split in a dynamical and a non-dynamical context, and the different physical theories which suggest this modification. Then proceed by examing the possibility that the CS theory shares solutions with General Relativity in both contexts. In the non-dynamical context I will present a new, undocumented solution as well as all the other possible solutions found to date. I will conclude by arguing that General Relativity and CS Theory share any solutions in the dynamical context.

  5. SELMA: Selection with Modified Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Temme, J. Sebastian; Krauss, Isaac J.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro selection of nucleic acid aptamers, coined SELEX, has led to the discovery of novel therapeutics and aided in the structural and mechanistic understanding of many ligand-biomolecule interactions. A related method, selection with modified aptamers (SELMA), enables selection of DNA aptamers containing bases with a large modification that cannot undergo PCR. A key application of this method is the evolution of aptamers containing carbohydrate modifications. Carbohydrate-binding proteins normally require several copies of the carbohydrate moiety for strong recognition. Whereas it may be difficult to rationally design synthetic scaffolds that cluster glycans in the optimal spacing and orientation for target recognition, SELMA furnishes glycoaptamers with highly optimized glycan clustering, achieving low-nanomolar recognition. Although numerous applications can be envisioned, the protocols and discussions in this article describe procedures involved in applying SELMA to the discovery glycoDNAs that bind to the HIV broadly neutralizing antibody 2G12. PMID:26344234

  6. Modified gravity and dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cembranos, Jose A. R.

    2016-05-01

    The fundamental nature of Dark Matter (DM) has not been established. Indeed, beyond its gravitational effects, DM remains undetected by present experiments. In this situation, it is reasonable to wonder if other alternatives can effectively explain the observations usually associated with the existence of DM. The modification of the gravitational interaction has been studied in this context from many different approaches. However, the large amount of different astrophysical evidences makes difficult to think that modified gravity can account for all these observations. On the other hand, if such a modification introduces new degrees of freedom, they may work as DM candidates. We will summarize the phenomenology of these gravitational DM candidates by analyzing minimal models.

  7. SUMMARY OF 2009 RHEOLOGY MODIFIER PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E.

    2009-12-08

    The overall objective of the EM-31 Rheological Modifiers and Wetting Agents program is to utilize commercially available rheology modifiers to increase the solids fraction of radioactive sludge based waste streams, resulting in an increase in throughput and decreasing the overall processing time. The program first investigates the impact of rheology modifiers on slurry simulants and then utilizes the most effective rheology modifiers on radioactive slurries. The work presented in this document covers the initial investigation of rheology modifier testing with simulants. This task is supported by both the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The SRNL EM-31 task, for this year, was to investigate the use of rheology modifiers on simulant Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feeds. The task is to determine, based on the impact of the rheology modifier, if there are rheology modifiers that could reduce the water content of the slurry going to the DWPF melter, hence increasing the melt rate by decreasing the water loading. The rheology modifier in essence would allow a higher solids content slurry to have the same type of rheology or pumpability of a lower solids slurry. The modifiers selected in this report were determined based on previous modifiers used in high level waste melter feed simulants, on-going testing performed by counterparts at PNNL, and experiences gain through use of modifiers in other Department of Energy (DOE) processes such as grout processing. There were 12 rheology modifiers selected for testing, covering both organic and inorganic types and they were tested at four different concentrations for a given melter feed. Five different DWPF melter feeds were available and there was adequate material in one of the melter feeds to increase the solids concentration, resulting in a total of six simulants for testing. The mass of melter feed available in each simulant was not adequate for

  8. Lactone modified viscosity modifiers useful in oleaginous compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, A.; Lundberg, R.D.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a lactone modified reaction product useful as a viscosity index improver additive for lubricating oil compositions. It comprises: the reaction produce of: oil soluble ethylene copolymer comprising within the range of about 15 to 90 wt.% ethylene and about 10 to 85 wt.% of one or more C{sub 3} to C{sub 28} alpha-olefin, having a number average molecular weight within a range of about 15,000 to 500,000 and grafted with ethylenically unsaturated C{sub 4}--C{sub 10} monocarboxylic acid or anhydride or C{sub 4}--C{sub 0} dicarboxylic acid or anhydride wherein the carboxylic acid groups or anhydride groups are located on vicinal carbon atoms; amine selected from the group consisting of amines having at least two primary amine groups and amines having at least one primary amine group and at least one secondary amine group; long chain hydrocarbyl substituted succinic anhydride or acid having 25 to 400 carbon atoms; and lactone.

  9. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.; Pater, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    High char yield epoxy using novel bisimide amines (BIA's) as curing agents with a state of the art epoxy resin was developed. Stoichiometric quantities of the epoxy resin and the BIA's were studied to determine the cure cycle required for preparation of resin specimens. The bisimide cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). The physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these novel resins were determined. The levels of moisture absorption exhibited by the bisimide amine cured expoxies (IME's) were considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies. The strain-to-failure of the control resin system was improved 25% by replacement of DDS with 6F-DDS. Each BIA containing resin exhibited twice the char yield of the control resin MY 720/DDS. Graphite fiber reinforced control (C) and IME resins were fabricated and characterized. Two of the composite systems showed superior properties compared to the other Celion 6000/IME composite systems and state of the art graphite epoxy systems. The two systems exhibited excellent wet shear and flexural strengths and moduli at 300 and 350 F.

  10. Wave propagation in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroos, Jan Ø.; Llinares, Claudio; Mota, David F.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the propagation of scalar waves induced by matter sources in the context of scalar-tensor theories of gravity which include screening mechanisms for the scalar degree of freedom. The usual approach when studying these theories in the nonlinear regime of cosmological perturbations is based on the assumption that scalar waves travel at the speed of light. Within general relativity this approximation is valid and leads to no loss of accuracy in the estimation of observables. We find, however, that mass terms and nonlinearities in the equations of motion lead to propagation and dispersion velocities significantly different from the speed of light. As the group velocity is the one associated with the propagation of signals, a reduction of its value has direct impact on the behavior and dynamics of nonlinear structures within modified gravity theories with screening. For instance, the internal dynamics of galaxies and satellites submerged in large dark matter halos could be affected by the fact that the group velocity is smaller than the speed of light. It is therefore important, within such a framework, to take into account the fact that different parts of a galaxy will see changes in the environment at different times. A full nonstatic analysis may be necessary under those conditions.

  11. Traceability of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Henk J M; van Rie, Jean-Paul P F; Kok, Esther J

    2002-01-01

    EU regulations stipulate the labeling of food products containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) unless the GMO content is due to adventitious and unintended 'contamination' and not exceeding the 1% level at ingredient basis. In addition, member states have to ensure full traceability at all stages of the placing on the market of GMOs. Both requirements ensure consumers 'right to know', facilitate enforcement of regulatory requirements and are of importance for environmental monitoring and postmarket surveillance. Besides administrative procedures, such as used in quality certification systems, the significance of adequate molecular methods becomes more and more apparent. During the last decade a considerable number of molecular methods have been developed and validated that enable the detection, identification and quantification of GMO impurities. Most of them rely on the PCR technology and can only detect one specific stretch of DNA. It can, however, be anticipated that in the near future the situation will become more complex. The number of GMO varieties, including 'stacked-gene' varieties, which will enter the European Market will increase and it is likely that these varieties will harbor more variable constructs. New tools will be necessary to keep up with these developments. One of the most promising techniques is microarray analysis. This technique enables the screening for a large number of different GMOs within a single experiment. PMID:11963810

  12. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are described. State-of-the-art epoxides MY720 and DER383 were used, and four bismide amines were evaluated. These were the BIA's derived from the 6F anhydride (4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) bis(phthalic anhydride) and the diamines 3,3'-diaminodiphynyl sulfone, 4,4'-oxygianiline, 4,4'-methylene dianiline, and 1,12-dodecane diamine. A key intermediate, designated 6F anhydride, is required for the synthesis of the bisimide amines. Reaction parameters to synthesize a precursor to the 6F anhydride (6FHC) in high yields were investigated. The catalyst trifluoromethane sulfonic acid was studied. Although small scale runs yielded the 6FHC in 50 percent yield, efforts to ranslate these results to a larger scale synthesis gave the 6FHC in only 9 percent yield. Results show that the concept of using bisimide amine as curing agents to improve the toughness properties of epoxies is valid.

  13. Genetically modified organisms and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Diamand, E

    1999-12-01

    The genetic modification of organisms for food use has raised serious concern about the potential for adverse effects on the environment, ecosystems and on the health of humans and animals. As a relatively new technology, its impacts remain uncertain but could range from disturbances to the genetic functioning of individual organisms to a reduction in the biodiversity of farmland. As a result, the question of how to monitor for potential impacts is beset with problems. The fact that genetic modification can be used on a range of organisms for a variety of purposes means that those developing monitoring systems will need to be as imaginative as those developing GMOs. In the case of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for food use, concern has focussed on the transfer of genes to other organisms, the potential for effects on non-target organisms, or on the health of humans and animals, and the likelihood of adverse effects on wildlife due to changes in farming practice. As with other new and unfamiliar technologies, genetic modification is also plagued by the problem of uncertainty. Novel genes are inserted randomly into the genome of the host organisms, and this leads to the possibility of unexpected effects. Unanticipated environmental disasters, such as the concentration of persistent organic pollutants in ecosystems at high latitudes, have highlighted the need for monitoring despite the obvious difficulties inherent in monitoring for unexpected effects. PMID:11529177

  14. Genetically modified myths and realities.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Wayne

    2010-11-30

    Myths abound when it comes to GE crops. At their worst, myths play an active role in discouraging the use of GE to solve problems that afflict humankind, such as malnutrition and birth defects. Of all the various myths, two have been particularly important in preventing the use of GE maize in its areas of origin. The first is that transgenic maize will contaminate and destroy land races, thus destroying biodiversity and its associated cultural traditions. This myth totally ignores the fact that the gene flow that has taken place between maize and its progenitor, between the land races, and between land races and modern hybrids, has not led to any dire consequences. The second myth is that crops are natural and have not been modified by humans, or if they have, that plant breeding does not alter DNA. This myth ignores the fact that for the most part, it is impossible to alter the appearance of crops without changing the DNA. In fact, DNA movement within the crop genome is normal and its movement leads to double-strand DNA repair, with results like those found around transgene insertion sites. In addition, plants have ways to create novel genes. These changes help plants adapt to evolution and to human selection. The net result is that changes similar to what happens during the production of engineered plants takes place anyway in plant genomes. PMID:20609417

  15. Nonderivative modified gravity: a classification

    SciTech Connect

    Comelli, D.; Nesti, F.; Pilo, L. E-mail: fabrizio.nesti@irb.hr

    2014-11-01

    We analyze the theories of gravity modified by a generic nonderivative potential built from the metric, under the minimal requirement of unbroken spatial rotations. Using the canonical analysis, we classify the potentials V according to the number of degrees of freedom (DoF) that propagate at the nonperturbative level. We then compare the nonperturbative results with the perturbative DoF propagating around Minkowski and FRW backgrounds. A generic V implies 6 propagating DoF at the non-perturbative level, with a ghost on Minkowski background. There exist potentials which propagate 5 DoF, as already studied in previous works. Here, no V with unbroken rotational invariance admitting 4 DoF is found. Theories with 3 DoF turn out to be strongly coupled on Minkowski background. Finally, potentials with only the 2 DoF of a massive graviton exist. Their effect on cosmology is simply equivalent to a cosmological constant. Potentials with 2 or 5 DoF and explicit time dependence appear to be a further viable possibility.

  16. Modifiers of mutant huntingtin aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Teuling, Eva; Bourgonje, Annika; Veenje, Sven; Thijssen, Karen; de Boer, Jelle; van der Velde, Joeri; Swertz, Morris; Nollen, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Protein aggregation is a common hallmark of a number of age-related neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and polyglutamine-expansion disorders such as Huntington’s disease, but how aggregation-prone proteins lead to pathology is not known. Using a genome-wide RNAi screen in a C. elegans-model for polyglutamine aggregation, we previously identified 186 genes that suppress aggregation. Using an RNAi screen for human orthologs of these genes, we here present 26 human genes that suppress aggregation of mutant huntingtin in a human cell line. Among these are genes that have not been previously linked to mutant huntingtin aggregation. They include those encoding eukaryotic translation initiation, elongation and translation factors, and genes that have been previously associated with other neurodegenerative diseases, like the ATP-ase family gene 3-like 2 (AFG3L2) and ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 1 (UBA1). Unravelling the role of these genes will broaden our understanding of the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease. PMID:21915392

  17. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy (IME) resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are presented. State of the art epoxy resin, MY720, was used. Three aromatic bisimide amines and one aromatic aliphatic BIA were evaluated. BIA's derived from 6F anhydride (3,3 prime 4,4 prime-(hexafluoro isopropyl idene) bis (phthalic anhydride) and diamines, 3,3 prime-diam nodiphenyl sulfone (3,3 prime-DDS), 4,4 prime-diamino diphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS), 1.12-dodecane diamine (1,12-DDA) were used. BIA's were abbreviated 6F-3,3 prime-DDS, 6F-4,4 prime-DDS, 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime DDS, and 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA corresponding to 6F anhydride and diamines mentioned. Epoxy resin and BIA's (MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA and a 50:50 mixture of a BIA and parent diamine, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA/3,3 prime-DDS were studied to determine effect of structure and composition. Effect of the addition of two commercial epoxies, glyamine 200 and glyamine 100 on the properties of several formulations was evaluated. Bisimide amine cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). Physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these resins were determined. Moisture absorption in boiling water exhibited by several of the IME's was considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies (from 3.2% for the control and state of the art to 2.0 wt% moisture absorption). Char yields are increased from 20% for control and state of the art epoxies to 40% for IME resins. Relative toughness characteristics of IME resins were measured by 10 deg off axis tensile tests of Celion 6000/IME composites. Results show that IME's containing 6F-3,3 prime-DDS or 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA improved the "toughness" characteristics of composites by about 35% (tensile strength), about 35% (intralaminar shear

  18. X-0557 modified Steven tests.

    SciTech Connect

    Idar, D. J.; Mang, J. T.; Straight, J. W.; Schafstall, P.; Pacheco, A. H.; Osborn, M. A.; Coulter, W. L.; DeLuca, R. A.; Chavez, Peter J., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Low-velocity mechanical impact leading to unintentional reaction is of concern in accident scenarios involving the handling, transport, and storage of high explosives (HE). Various experimental techniques, from small- to large-scale, have been used to investigate the potential conditions leading to a high explosive violent reaction (HEVR) for pristine as well as aged materials. PBX 9501, one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) HE formulations, is routinely evaluated for potential aging mechanisms that may influence performance and or safety criteria. Ultimately, the data derived from the aging analyses will be used to further advance 3-D finite element analysis predictive capability with improved bulk constitutive HE models for the assessment of HE response to mechanical insult. The Modified Steven test geometry was used to investigate the mechanical loading behavior and response of baseline and virtually-aged PBX 9501 lots. The PBX 9501 binder system is composed of nitroplasticized Estane 5703{trademark}, a polyester polyurethane copolymer. The nitroplasticizer (NP) can migrate out of the PBX 9501 as a function of time, resulting in increased brittle behavior and response. To mimic extreme NP depletion four lots of X-0557 were formulated with reduced NP concentrations for comparison to the baseline PBX 9501. Changes to the mechanical behavior response of the PBXs as a function of plasticizer loss may eventually affect the response of the HE to low amplitude impact. The threshold velocity to reaction, and energy release for the different lots are reported, compared and evaluated for trends as a function of NP weight percent.

  19. Modified aspirated internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.E.

    1993-06-01

    An internal combustion engine is described, comprising: an engine block; at least one cylinder; at least one piston, each piston being reciprocally movable in the cylinder; a head connected with the engine block so as to form a combustion chamber above each piston; aspiration means for providing gas entry into and gas exit from the combustion chamber of each cylinder; valves for controlling gas entry and exit; ignition for initiating and timing combustion in each combustion chamber; a crankshaft rotatably mounted to the engine block, the crankshaft having at least one crank arm; connecting rod between each piston and the crank arm for translating reciprocation of each piston into rotation of each crankshaft; mounting means for rotatably mounting crankshaft to the engine block, the mounting means at each mounting location comprising: a crankshaft journal located on the crankshaft, the crankshaft journal having a crankshaft cross-section and an off-set portion, the off-set portion having a maximum which is equal to a predetermined off-set, the maximum off-set being located on a predetermined side of the crankshaft, the off-set portion smoothly decreasing from the maximum to a minimum from each side of the maximum, the minimum being equal to a zero off-set, the minimum off-set being located on the crankshaft opposite maximum off-set; and an engine block bearing connected with the engine block, wherein the crankshaft rotates in relation to the engine block about an eccentric centerline passing axially through the crankshaft journal cross-section, the eccentric centerline being displaced from a true centerline passing axially through said crankshaft cross-section by a distance equal to one-half the off-set, wherein the crank arm has a predetermined radial length centered on the eccentric centerline, and wherein the modified crankshaft has at least one output shaft portion axially aligned with the eccentric centerline.

  20. Modified LaRC(TM)-IA Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, Terry L.; Chang, Alice C.; Hou, Tan H.; Working, Dennis C.

    1994-01-01

    Modified versions of thermoplastic polyimide LaRC(TM)-IA incorporate various amounts of additional, rigid moieties into backbones of LaRC(TM)-IA molecules. Modified versions more resistant to solvents and exhibit higher glass-transition temperatures, yet retain melt-flow processability of unmodified LaRC(TM)-IA.

  1. Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1999 we proposed a Modified Food Guide Pyramid for 70+ Adults. It has been extensively used in a variety of settings and formats to highlight the unique dietary challenges of older adults. We now propose a Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults in a format consistent with the MyPyramid graphic. I...

  2. Effects of modified gravity in galactic clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Murli; Krishna Yadav, Bal

    2016-07-01

    We discuss the distinct effects of the modified gravity, especially f(R) gravity in structure formation. The small redshift as well as high redshift epochs are studied with a potential set of diagnostics distinguishing between the standard general relativistic and the modified gravity. These diagnostics are further put to test against the observations obtained in clustering surveys.

  3. Detection of Genetically Modified Food: Has Your Food Been Genetically Modified?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandner, Diana L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits and risks of genetically-modified foods and describes methods for genetically modifying food. Presents a laboratory experiment using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect foreign DNA in genetically-modified food. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)

  4. Modified gravity as dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicki, Ignacy

    2007-08-01

    We study the effects of introducing modifications to general relativity ("GR") at large scales as an alternative to exotic forms of matter required to replicate the observed cosmic acceleration. We survey the effects on cosmology and solar-system tests of Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati ("DGP") gravity, f ( R ) he changes to the background expansion history of the universe, these modifications have substantial impact on structure formation and its observable predictions. For DGP, we develop a scaling approximation for the behaviour of perturbations off the brane, for which the predicted integrated Sachs-Wolf ("ISW") effect is much stronger than observed, requiring new physics at around horizon scale to bring it into agreement with data. We develop a test based on cross-correlating galaxies and the ISW effect which is independent of the initial power spectrum for perturbations and is a smoking-gun test for DGP gravity. For f ( R ) models, we find that, for the expansion history to resemble that of Lambda-CDM, it is required that the second derivative of f with respect to R be non-negative. We then find the conditions on f ( R ) which allow this subset of models to pass solar-system tests. Provided that gravity behave like GR in the galaxy, these constraints are weak. However, for a model to allow large deviations from GR in the cosmology, the galactic halo must differ significantly from that predicted by structure evolution in GR. We then discuss the effect that these models have on structure formation, and find that even in the most conservative of models, percent-level deviations in the matter power spectrum will exist and should be detectable in the future. Finally, for MSG, we investigate the cosmology of a theory of gravity with a modified constraint structure. The acceleration era can be replicated in these models; however, linear perturbations become unstable as the universe begins to accelerate. Once the perturbations become non-linear, the model reverts to GR

  5. Modified Fittings Enhance Industrial Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is not only home to one of the largest buildings in the world - the massive Vehicle Assembly Building - it also hosts a number of one-of-a-kind facilities. The more than 30-mile-long campus has witnessed every launch from the Space Shuttle Launch Pad, as well as many homecomings at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Just as important, the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) has seen each element of the International Space Station (ISS) that passes through Kennedy before it goes into orbit. The SSPF is where ISS components are checked, tested, and adjusted before being packed into the Space Shuttle for transport. In an environment like the SSPF - spanning 457,000 square feet of processing areas, operational control rooms, laboratories, logistics areas, and office space - large workstands and equipment used to support the processing of ISS components need to be moved around the facility. One of the devices employed for this task is an air pallet. An air pallet moves on cushions of air instead of wheels. Compressed air inflates the cushions underneath the pallet and is then expelled through exhaust holes. This forms a thin film of air between the cushions and the floor, lifting the platform off the floor and making it easy to move the heavy workstands, equipment, and ISS components. Concerned with the safety of the connections on the pressurized air hoses used for the air pallets, engineers at Kennedy modified an existing commercial cam and groove fitting to control the air supply hose in the event of an accidental release of a pressurized hose. This modification prevented the hose from detaching and, propelled by compressed air, striking workers or equipment. "At the time, these were not available on commercial coupling halves, so NASA made a modification and then put them into use. If a worker were to accidentally try to remove a pressurized hose from the pallet, it no longer rapidly separated, and it safely relieved the pressure," says Paul

  6. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Ronald Lee (Inventor); Luebben, Silvia DeVito (Inventor); Myers, Andrew William (Inventor); Smith, Bryan Matthew (Inventor); Elliott, Brian John (Inventor); Kreutzer, Cory (Inventor); Wilson, Carolina (Inventor); Meiser, Manfred (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  7. A modified siphon sampler for shallow water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Timothy H.

    2008-01-01

    A modified siphon sampler (or 'single-stage sampler') was developed to sample shallow water at closely spaced vertical intervals. The modified design uses horizontal rather than vertical sample bottles. Previous siphon samplers are limited to water about 20 centimeters (cm) or more in depth; the modified design can sample water 10 cm deep. Several mounting options were used to deploy the modified siphon sampler in shallow bedrock streams of Middle Tennessee, while minimizing alteration of the stream bed. Sampling characteristics and limitations of the modified design are similar to those of the original design. Testing showed that the modified sampler collects unbiased samples of suspended silt and clay. Similarity of the intake to the original siphon sampler suggests that the modified sampler would probably take downward-biased samples of suspended sand. Like other siphon samplers, it does not sample isokinetically, and the efficiency of sand sampling can be expected to change with flow velocity. The sampler needs to be located in the main flow of the stream, and is subject to damage from rapid flow and floating debris. Water traps were added to the air vents to detect the flow of water through the sampler, which can cause a strong upward bias in sampled suspended-sediment concentration. Water did flow through the sampler, in some cases even when the top of the air vent remained above water. Air vents need to be extended well above maximum water level to prevent flow through the sampler.

  8. A modified surgical procedure for concealed penis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Gong; Liu, Bianjiang; Guan, Zhaolong; Huang, Yuan; Qin, Chao; Song, Ninghong; Wang, Zengjun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We described a modified surgical procedure for repairing a concealed penis and compared the efficacy and feasibility of modified repair with traditional repair. Methods: From March 2003 to December 2012, 96 patients with a concealed penis were recruited to undergo penile repair at our centre. Modified repair and traditional repair were performed respectively on 46 and 50 cases. We compared operative time, intraoperative blood loss, cosmetic result of operative scars, postoperative penile retraction, and complications. Results: All operations were completed successfully without serious complications. The mean operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and cosmetic result of the operative scar between the two surgical methods were similar. However, the postoperative penile retraction rate in patients undergoing modified repair decreased significantly than in the traditional repair. Conclusions: Our modified surgical procedure is effective and feasible for a concealed penis. Although extra procedures were needed for the modified repair, the operative time, intraoperative blood loss and cosmetic result of operative scar between the two procedures were similar. Compared with traditional repair, modified repair has better clinical outcomes. PMID:26664507

  9. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Ronald Lee; Luebben, Silvia DeVito; Myers, Andrew William; Smith, Bryan Matthew; Elliott, Brian John; Kreutzer, Cory; Wilson, Carolina; Meiser, Manfred

    2007-07-17

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  10. Organically Modified Silicas on Metal Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Organically modified silica coatings were prepared on metal nanowires using a variety of silicon alkoxides with different functional groups (i.e., carboxyl groups, polyethylene oxide, cyano, dihydroimidazole, and hexyl linkers). Organically modified silicas were deposited onto the surface of 6-μm-long, ∼300-nm-wide, cylindrical metal nanowires in suspension by the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon alkoxides. Syntheses were performed at several ratios of tetraethoxysilane to an organically modified silicon alkoxide to incorporate desired functional groups into thin organosilica shells on the nanowires. These coatings were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. All of the organically modified silicas prepared here were sufficiently porous to allow the removal of the metal nanowire cores by acid etching to form organically modified silica nanotubes. Additional functionality provided to the modified silicas as compared to unmodified silica prepared using only tetraethoxysilane precursors was demonstrated by chromate adsorption on imidazole-containing silicas and resistance to protein adsorption on polyethyleneoxide-containing silicas. Organically modified silica coatings on nanowires and other nano- and microparticles have potential application in fields such as biosensing or nanoscale therapeutics due to the enhanced properties of the silica coatings, for example, the prevention of biofouling. PMID:20715881

  11. Chemically modified graphite for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Greinke, R.A.; Lewis, I.C.

    1998-05-26

    This invention relates to chemically modified graphite particles: (a) that are useful in alkali metal-containing electrode of a electrochemical cell comprising: (1) the electrode, (2) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent which solvent tends to decompose when the electrochemical cell is in use, and an electrically conductive salt of an alkali metal, and (3) a counter electrode; and (b) that are chemically modified with fluorine, chlorine, iodine or phosphorus to reduce such decomposition. This invention also relates to electrodes comprising such chemically modified graphite and a binder and to electrochemical cells containing such electrodes. 3 figs.

  12. Chemically modified graphite for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Greinke, Ronald Alfred; Lewis, Irwin Charles

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to chemically modified graphite particles: (a) that are useful in alkali metal-containing electrode of a electrochemical cell comprising: (i) the electrode, (ii) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent which solvent tends to decompose when the electrochemical cell is in use, and an electrically conductive salt of an alkali metal, and (iii) a counterelectrode; and (b) that are chemically modified with fluorine, chlorine, iodine or phosphorus to reduce such decomposition. This invention also relates to electrodes comprising such chemically modified graphite and a binder and to electrochemical cells containing such electrodes.

  13. Review Of Rheology Modifiers For Hanford Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Pareizs, J. M.

    2013-09-30

    As part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)'s strategic development scope for the Department of Energy - Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste feed acceptance and product qualification scope, the SRNL has been requested to recommend candidate rheology modifiers to be evaluated to adjust slurry properties in the Hanford Tank Farm. SRNL has performed extensive testing of rheology modifiers for use with Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulated melter feed - a high undissolved solids (UDS) mixture of simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm sludge, nitric and formic acids, and glass frit. A much smaller set of evaluations with Hanford simulated waste have also been completed. This report summarizes past work and recommends modifiers for further evaluation with Hanford simulated wastes followed by verification with actual waste samples. Based on the review of available data, a few compounds/systems appear to hold the most promise. For all types of evaluated simulated wastes (caustic Handford tank waste and DWPF processing samples with pH ranging from slightly acidic to slightly caustic), polyacrylic acid had positive impacts on rheology. Citric acid also showed improvement in yield stress on a wide variety of samples. It is recommended that both polyacrylic acid and citric acid be further evaluated as rheology modifiers for Hanford waste. These materials are weak organic acids with the following potential issues: The acidic nature of the modifiers may impact waste pH, if added in very large doses. If pH is significantly reduced by the modifier addition, dissolution of UDS and increased corrosion of tanks, piping, pumps, and other process equipment could occur. Smaller shifts in pH could reduce aluminum solubility, which would be expected to increase the yield stress of the sludge. Therefore, it is expected that use of an acidic modifier would be limited to concentrations that do not

  14. Characterization of Polyethylene Glycol Modified Hemoglobins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Gil; Barr, James; Morgan, Wayne; Ma, Li

    2011-03-01

    Polyethylene glycol modified hemoglobins (PEGHbs) was characterized by liquid chromatography and fluorescence methods. We prepared four samples of two different molecular weight PEG, 5KDa and 20KDa, modified bovine and human hemoglobin. We studied the oxygen affinities, stabilities, and peroxidase activities of PEGHbs. We have related oxygen affinities with different degrees of modifications. The data showed that the modification on the beta subunits was less stable than that of the alpha subunits on the human Hb based samples especially. We also compared peroxidase activities among different modified PEGHbs.

  15. Modifying Course Materials for International Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hites, Jeanne M.; Fisher, Walter W.

    1984-01-01

    The method for modifying existing training courses for international students that is described includes conducting audience and needs analysis; matching audience needs to existing course objectives; and material modification. Specific modifications helpful in redesigning course materials are discussed. (MBR)

  16. Application of modified complex Tremblay operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esa, Zainab; Kilicman, Adem; Ibrahim, Rabha W.; Ismail, Mat Rofa; Husain, Sharifah Kartini Said

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new fractional integral operator defined by modified fractional derivative Tremblay operator of analytic functions and show that the univalence of this integral operator is preserved under certain sufficient conditions in complex domain

  17. Active containment systems incorporating modified pillared clays

    SciTech Connect

    Lundie, P. |; McLeod, N.

    1997-12-31

    The application of treatment technologies in active containment systems provides a more advanced and effective method for the remediation of contaminated sites. These treatment technologies can be applied in permeable reactive walls and/or funnel and gate systems. The application of modified pillared clays in active containment systems provides a mechanism for producing permeable reactive walls with versatile properties. These pillared clays are suitably modified to incorporate reactive intercalatants capable of reacting with both a broad range of organic pollutants of varying molecular size, polarity and reactivity. Heavy metals can be removed from contaminated water by conventional ion-exchange and other reactive processes within the clay structure. Complex contamination problems can be addressed by the application of more than one modified clay on a site specific basis. This paper briefly describes the active containment system and the structure/chemistry of the modified pillared clay technology, illustrating potential applications of the in-situ treatment process for contaminated site remediation.

  18. Compatibilizer for crumb rubber modified asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Labib, M.E.; Memon, G.M.; Chollar, B.H.

    1996-12-31

    The United States of America discards more than 300 million tires each year, and out of that a large fraction of the tires is dumped into stock piles. This large quantity of tires creates an environmental problem. The use of scrap tires is limited. There is a usage potential in such fields as fuel for combustion and Crumb Rubber-Modified Asphalt binder (CRMA). The use of crumb rubber in modifying asphalt is not a new technique; it is been used since early 1960 by pavement engineers. Crumb rubber is a composite of different blends of natural and synthetic rubber (natural rubber, processing oils, polybutadiene, polystyrene butadiene, and filler). Prior research had concluded that the performance of crumb rubber modified asphalt is asphalt dependent. In some cases it improves the Theological properties and in some cases it degrades the properties of modified asphalt.

  19. Observational bounds on modified gravity models

    SciTech Connect

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukherjee, Pia; Wang Yun

    2008-01-15

    Modified gravity provides a possible explanation for the currently observed cosmic acceleration. In this paper, we study general classes of modified gravity models. The Einstein-Hilbert action is modified by using general functions of the Ricci and the Gauss-Bonnet scalars, both in the metric and in the Palatini formalisms. We do not use an explicit form for the functions, but a general form with a valid Taylor expansion up to second order about redshift zero in the Riemann-scalars. The coefficients of this expansion are then reconstructed via the cosmic expansion history measured using current cosmological observations. These are the quantities of interest for theoretical considerations relating to ghosts and instabilities. We find that current data provide interesting constraints on the coefficients. The next-generation dark energy surveys should shrink the allowed parameter space for modified gravity models quite dramatically.

  20. A flame-resistant modified polystyrene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karle, D. W.; Kratze, R. H.; Pacioren, K. L.

    1975-01-01

    Several modified polystyrenes have been developed that are self-extinguishing in air. Information is included in report that also describes molding and fabrication properties, toxicology, and thermal behavior of the polymers.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are prepared from refined beef fat; butterfat...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are...

  5. The modified mucus method in India.

    PubMed

    Dorairaj, K

    1991-12-01

    The modified mucus method-Prajanan Jagriti (fertility awakening) is intended to serve the cultural needs of illiterate and semilliterate women. Over 10 months, 3003 women in northern India were taught the modified mucus method. There were a total of 42 pregnancies in 24,702 cycles for a Pearl index of 2.04. High effectiveness is attributed to the support that was provided to clients by the instructor. PMID:1755473

  6. The modified atkins diet in refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suvasini; Jain, Puneet

    2014-01-01

    The modified Atkins diet is a less restrictive variation of the ketogenic diet. This diet is started on an outpatient basis without a fast, allows unlimited protein and fat, and does not restrict calories or fluids. Recent studies have shown good efficacy and tolerability of this diet in refractory epilepsy. In this review, we discuss the use of the modified Atkins diet in refractory epilepsy. PMID:24627806

  7. Matter stability in modified teleparallel gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behboodi, A.; Akhshabi, S.; Nozari, K.

    2012-11-01

    We study the matter stability in modified teleparallel gravity or f(T) theories. We show that there is no Dolgov-Kawasaki instability in these types of modified teleparallel gravity theories. This gives for the f(T) theories a great advantage over their f(R) counterparts because from the stability point of view there isn't any limit on the form of functions that can be chosen.

  8. Modified locking thread form for fastener

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roopnarine, (Inventor); Vranish, John D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A threaded fastener has a standard part with a standard thread form characterized by thread walls with a standard included angle, and a modified part complementary to the standard part having a modified thread form characterized by thread walls which are symmetrically inclined with a modified included angle that is different from the standard included angle of the standard part's thread walls, such that the threads of one part make pre-loaded edge contact with the thread walls of the other part. The thread form of the modified part can have an included angle that is greater, less, or compound as compared to the included angle of the standard part. The standard part may be a bolt and the modified part a nut, or vice versa. The modified thread form holds securely even under large vibrational forces, it permits bi-directional use of standard mating threads, is impervious to the build up of tolerances and can be manufactured with a wider range of tolerances without loss of functionality, and distributes loading stresses (per thread) in a manner that decreases the possibility of single thread failure.

  9. DNA polymerase having modified nucleotide binding site for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, S.; Richardson, C.

    1997-03-25

    A modified gene encoding a modified DNA polymerase is disclosed. The modified polymerase incorporates dideoxynucleotides at least 20-fold better compared to the corresponding deoxynucleotides as compared with the corresponding naturally-occurring DNA polymerase. 6 figs.

  10. 33 CFR 20.609 - Motions to quash or modify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... motion with notice to the party requesting the subpoena, ask the ALJ to quash or modify the subpoena. (b... time fixed by the ALJ, ask the ALJ to quash or modify it. (d) The ALJ may quash or modify the...

  11. DNA polymerase having modified nucleotide binding site for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Modified gene encoding a modified DNA polymerase wherein the modified polymerase incorporates dideoxynucleotides at least 20-fold better compared to the corresponding deoxynucleotides as compared with the corresponding naturally-occurring DNA polymerase.

  12. Debye Entropic Force and Modified Newtonian Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Chang, Zhe

    2011-04-01

    Verlinde has suggested that the gravity has an entropic origin, and a gravitational system could be regarded as a thermodynamical system. It is well-known that the equipartition law of energy is invalid at very low temperature. Therefore, entropic force should be modified while the temperature of the holographic screen is very low. It is shown that the modified entropic force is proportional to the square of the acceleration, while the temperature of the holographic screen is much lower than the Debye temperature TD. The modified entropic force returns to the Newton's law of gravitation while the temperature of the holographic screen is much higher than the Debye temperature. The modified entropic force is connected with modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). The constant a0 involved in MOND is linear in the Debye frequency ωD, which can be regarded as the largest frequency of the bits in screen. We find that there do have a strong connection between MOND and cosmology in the framework of Verlinde's entropic force, if the holographic screen is taken to be bound of the Universe. The Debye frequency is linear in the Hubble constant H0.

  13. Modified seasonal factors in exponential smoothing

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, J.S. . Wharton School of Finance and Commerce); Hwang, Ho-Ling ); Bandy, J. )

    1990-09-01

    Current practice uses statistical tests to determine whether seasonal factors should be applied in a given forecasting situation. Research suggests that an optimal policy might lie somewhere between using full seasonal factors and using no seasonal factors on series. This research proposes and tests use of a modified seasonality factor. Modified seasonal factors reduce the emphasis on the seasonal adjustments when forecasts are made. The adjustments account for errors in the estimation of the factors and for possible changes in the factors over the forecast horizon. An analysis of data from US Navy personnel inventories was conducted to test the use of a modified seasonality factor. Modified seasonal factors led to improved accuracy for predictions of inventories by paygrade using quarterly data from the Navy Personnel Research and Development Center (NPRDC). Under certain selections of factors, the mean absolute percent error (MAPE) was reduced by 4.4%. No gain was obtained, however, for the inventories by length of service. It is expected, but not shown here, that the modified seasonal factors will only be of value for series where the estimated seasonal factors show a substantial variation across the year. 3 refs., 6 tabs.

  14. Error Analysis of Modified Langevin Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redon, Stephane; Stoltz, Gabriel; Trstanova, Zofia

    2016-06-01

    We consider Langevin dynamics associated with a modified kinetic energy vanishing for small momenta. This allows us to freeze slow particles, and hence avoid the re-computation of inter-particle forces, which leads to computational gains. On the other hand, the statistical error may increase since there are a priori more correlations in time. The aim of this work is first to prove the ergodicity of the modified Langevin dynamics (which fails to be hypoelliptic), and next to analyze how the asymptotic variance on ergodic averages depends on the parameters of the modified kinetic energy. Numerical results illustrate the approach, both for low-dimensional systems where we resort to a Galerkin approximation of the generator, and for more realistic systems using Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. Black hole thermodynamics in MOdified Gravity (MOG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mureika, Jonas R.; Moffat, John W.; Faizal, Mir

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the thermodynamical properties of black holes in a modified theory of gravity, which was initially proposed to obtain correct dynamics of galaxies and galaxy clusters without dark matter. The thermodynamics of non-rotating and rotating black hole solutions resembles similar solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with the electric charge being replaced by a new mass dependent gravitational charge Q =√{ αGN } M. This new mass dependent charge modifies the effective Newtonian constant from GN to G =GN (1 + α), and this in turn critically affects the thermodynamics of the black holes. We also investigate the thermodynamics of regular solutions, and explore the limiting case when no horizons forms. So, it is possible that the modified gravity can lead to the absence of black hole horizons in our universe. Finally, we analyze corrections to the thermodynamics of a non-rotating black hole and obtain the usual logarithmic correction term.

  16. Genetically Modified Foods and Consumer Perspective.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Flavio; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified food is able to oppose the world's hunger and preserve the environment, even if the patents in this matter are symptomatic of several doubts. And also, transgenic consumption causes problems and skepticism among consumers in several European countries, but above all in Italy, where there is a strong opposition over recent years. So, the present study conducted a research to study the consumption of genetically modified food products by Italian young generation. This research presented the following purposes: firstly, to analyze genetically modified products' consumption among a particular category of consumers; secondly, to implement a quantitative model to understand behaviour about this particular kind of consumption and identify the factors that determine their purchase. The proposed model shows that transgenic consumption is especially linked to knowledge and impact on environment and mankind's health. PMID:25827570

  17. [Genetically modified food and allergies - an update].

    PubMed

    Niemann, Birgit; Pöting, Annette; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-07-01

    Approval by the European Commission is mandatory for placing genetically modified plants as food or feed on the market in member states of the European Union (EU). The approval is preceded by a safety assessment based on the guidance of the European Food Safety Authority EFSA. The assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified plants and their newly expressed proteins is an integral part of this assessment process. Guidance documents for the assessment of allergenicity are currently under revision. For this purpose, an expert workshop was conducted in Brussels on June 17, 2015. There, methodological improvements for the assessment of coeliac disease-causing properties of proteins, as well as the use of complex models for in vitro digestion of proteins were discussed. Using such techniques a refinement of the current, proven system of allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants can be achieved. PMID:27240596

  18. Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    The development of silicon modified resins for graphite fiber laminates which will prevent the dispersal of graphite fibers when the composites are burned is discussed. Eighty-five silicone modified resins were synthesized and evaluated including unsaturated polyesters, thermosetting methacrylates, epoxies, polyimides, and phenolics. Neat resins were judged in terms of Si content, homogeneity, hardness, Char formation, and thermal stability. Char formation was estimated by thermogravimetry to 1,000 C in air and in N2. Thermal stability was evaluated by isothermal weight loss measurements for 200 hrs in air at three temperatures. Four silicone modified epoxies were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 25 to 50%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 140 kpsi and a modulus of 10 Mpsi. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 5.3 kpsi.

  19. A fast route to modified gravitational growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Tessa; Ferreira, Pedro; Skordis, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    The growth rate of the large-scale structure of the Universe has been advocated as the observable par excellence for testing gravity on cosmological scales. By considering linear-order deviations from general relativity, we show that corrections to the growth rate, f, can be expressed as an integral over a "source" term, weighted by a theory-independent "response kernel." This leads to an efficient and accurate "plug-and-play" expression for generating growth rates in alternative gravity theories, bypassing lengthy theory-specific computations. We use this approach to explicitly show that f is sensitive to a degenerate combination of modified expansion and modified clustering effects. Hence the growth rate, when used in isolation, is not a straightforward diagnostic of modified gravity.

  20. Error Analysis of Modified Langevin Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redon, Stephane; Stoltz, Gabriel; Trstanova, Zofia

    2016-08-01

    We consider Langevin dynamics associated with a modified kinetic energy vanishing for small momenta. This allows us to freeze slow particles, and hence avoid the re-computation of inter-particle forces, which leads to computational gains. On the other hand, the statistical error may increase since there are a priori more correlations in time. The aim of this work is first to prove the ergodicity of the modified Langevin dynamics (which fails to be hypoelliptic), and next to analyze how the asymptotic variance on ergodic averages depends on the parameters of the modified kinetic energy. Numerical results illustrate the approach, both for low-dimensional systems where we resort to a Galerkin approximation of the generator, and for more realistic systems using Monte Carlo simulations.

  1. Plants having modified response to ethylene

    DOEpatents

    Meyerowitz, Elliot M.; Chang, Caren; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    1998-01-01

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype.

  2. Plants having modified response to ethylene

    DOEpatents

    Meyerowitz, E.M.; Chang, C.; Bleecker, A.B.

    1997-11-18

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype. 31 figs.

  3. Plants having modified response to ethylene

    DOEpatents

    Meyerowitz, Elliott M.; Chang, Caren; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    1997-01-01

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype.

  4. Plants having modified response to ethylene

    DOEpatents

    Meyerowitz, E.M.; Chang, C.; Bleecker, A.B.

    1998-10-20

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype. 67 figs.

  5. Modified Kriging: evaluation, modification, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, C.A.; Myers, S.C.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes modifications to a technique developed by Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) to predict general corrections (traveltime, etc.) for a geographic grid only sparsely covered by calibration points (Hipp and Young, 1997). SNL has worked to create a modified version of linear prediction (kriging) based on the idea of blending the surface back to zero at some distance from the points or, in other words, by damping the solution through the damping of the input data points. LLNL has been working with SNL to evaluate Modified Kriging. This report documents our evaluation of the technique and our resulting recommendations to SNL.

  6. Modified octupoles for damping coherent instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cornacchia, M. . Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.); Corbett, W.J. ); Halbach, K. )

    1991-05-01

    The introduction tune spread in circular e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} accelerators with modified octupoles to reduce the loss of dynamic aperture is discussed. The new magnet design features an octupole of field component on-axis and a tapered field structure off-axis to minimize loss of dynamic aperture. Tracking studies show that the modified octupoles can produce the desired tune spread in SPEAR without compromising confinement of the beam. The technique for designing such magnets is presented, together with an example of magnets that give the required field distribution. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Gene modified cell transplantation for vascular regeneration.

    PubMed

    Murasawa, Satoshi; Asahara, Takayuki

    2007-02-01

    Cell Transplantation is one of the powerful tools to ameliorate the capillary flow in ischemic condition. EPC (Endothelial Progenitor Cell) was identified in adult peripheral blood and thought to be a suitable candidate for cell transplantation. Also, gene therapy is already promising choice for enhancing angiogenic property. The combination of cell transplantation and gene therapy should be more effective way to regenerate vasculature in ischemic region. Recently, several research reports have come out regarding gene modified cell transplantation. We will mainly focus on the background of EPC, and then gene modified EPC findings in this review. PMID:17305524

  8. Modified Benes networks for photonic switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jiun-Shjou; Huang, Yang-Tung

    2001-10-01

    The Benes network has two major advantages: one is that it has the lowest system insertion loss and the other is that it needs the fewest switches and drivers. However, lower signal- to-noise ratio (SNR) is its major disadvantage. The generally modified dilated Benes (GMDB) network has been proposed to obtain a higher SNR, but this network needs much more drivers. In this presentation, the modified Benes network is proposed to obtain a higher SNR with the same number of drivers as Benes network.

  9. Modified Coaxial Probe Feeds for Layered Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.; Dobbins, Justin A.; Lin, Greg Y.

    2006-01-01

    In a modified configuration of a coaxial probe feed for a layered printed-circuit antenna (e.g., a microstrip antenna), the outer conductor of the coaxial cable extends through the thickness of at least one dielectric layer and is connected to both the ground-plane conductor and a radiator-plane conductor. This modified configuration simplifies the incorporation of such radio-frequency integrated circuits as power dividers, filters, and low-noise amplifiers. It also simplifies the design and fabrication of stacked antennas with aperture feeds.

  10. Polysaccharide-modified synthetic polymeric biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Aaron D; Kiick, Kristi L

    2010-01-01

    This review presents an overview of polysaccharide-conjugated synthetic polymers and their use in tissue-engineered scaffolds and drug-delivery applications. This topic will be divided into four categories: (1) polymeric materials modified with non-mammalian polysaccharides such as alginate, chitin, and dextran; (2) polymers modified with mammalian polysaccharides such as hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and heparin; (3) multi-polysaccharide-derivatized polymer conjugate systems; and (4) polymers containing polysaccharide-mimetic molecules. Each section will discuss relevant conjugation techniques, analysis, and the impact of these materials as micelles, particles, or hydrogels used in in-vitro and in-vivo biomaterial applications. PMID:20091875

  11. Coprecal: materials accounting in the modified process

    SciTech Connect

    Dayem, H.A.; Kern, E.A.; Shipley, J.P.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of an advanced materials accounting system for a uranium-plutonium nitrate-to-oxide coconversion facility based on the General Electric Coprecal process as modified by Savannah River Laboratory and Plant and DuPont Engineering. The modifications include adding small aliquot tanks to feed the process and reconfiguring the calciner filter systems. Diversion detection sensitivities for the modified Coprecal process are somewhat better than the original Coprecal design, but they are still significantly worse than a same-sized conversion facility based on the oxalate (III) precipitation process.

  12. Polysaccharide-Modified Synthetic Polymeric Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Aaron D.; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2010-01-01

    This review presents an overview of polysaccharide-conjugated synthetic polymers and their use in tissue-engineered scaffolds and drug-delivery applications. This topic will be divided into four categories: (1) polymeric materials modified with non-mammalian polysaccharides such as alginate, chitin, and dextran; (2) polymers modified with mammalian polysaccharides such as hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and heparin; (3) multi-polysaccharide-derivatized polymer conjugate systems; and (4) polymers containing polysaccharide-mimetic molecules. Each section will discuss relevant conjugation techniques, analysis, and the impact of these materials as micelles, particles, or hydrogels used in in-vitro and in-vivo biomaterial applications. PMID:20091875

  13. Genetic Modifiers of Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Martin H.; Sebastiani, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is associated with unusual clinical heterogeneity for a Mendelian disorder. Fetal hemoglobin concentration and coincident ∝ thalassemia, both which directly affect the sickle erythrocyte, are the major modulators of the phenotype of disease. Understanding the genetics underlying the heritable subphenotypes of sickle cell anemia would be prognostically useful, could inform personalized therapeutics, and might help the discovery of new “druggable” pathophysiologic targets. Genotype-phenotype association studies have been used to identify novel genetic modifiers. In the future, whole genome sequencing with its promise of discovering hitherto unsuspected variants could add to our understanding of the genetic modifiers of this disease. PMID:22641398

  14. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette

    SciTech Connect

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E

    2013-09-10

    Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

  15. A Modifiable Approach To Expert Systems Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanborn, James C.

    1987-05-01

    Rule based expert systems programmers experience similar difficulties in developing and maintaining large application programs: rules become instantiated when they shouldn't the execution order of rules is undesirably nondeterministic, or worse, simply incorrect; and modifications to program behavior are difficult or unwieldy. All of these problems arise from the control strategies used by the development language, their implementation, and the programmers control over (and awareness of) them. This paper explores the impact of rule based program control on overall program modifiability. We present a language designed with efficiency, modifiability, and ease of use in mind. Throughout, we discuss traditional control strategies, improvements made through our research, and directions for further study.

  16. Thermodynamic properties of modified gravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamba, Kazuharu

    2016-06-01

    We review thermodynamic properties of modified gravity theories, such as F(R) gravity and f(T) gravity, where R is the scalar curvature and T is the torsion scalar in teleparallelism. In particular, we explore the equivalence between the equations of motion for modified gravity theories and the Clausius relation in thermodynamics. In addition, thermodynamics of the cosmological apparent horizon is investigated in f(T) gravity. We show both equilibrium and nonequilibrium descriptions of thermodynamics. It is demonstrated that the second law of thermodynamics in the universe can be met, when the temperature of the outside of the apparent horizon is equivalent to that of the inside of it.

  17. Magnetically modified microalgae and their applications.

    PubMed

    Safarik, Ivo; Prochazkova, Gita; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Branyik, Tomas

    2016-10-01

    The majority of algal cells can interact with a wide range of nano- and microparticles. Upon interaction the modified cells usually maintain their viability and the presence of foreign material on their surfaces or in protoplasm can provide additional functionalities. Magnetic modification and labeling of microalgal biomass ensures a wide spectrum of biotechnological, bioanalytical and environmental applications. Different aspects of microalgal cell magnetic modification are covered in the review, followed by successful applications of magnetic algae. Modified cells can be employed during their harvesting and removal, applied in toxicity microscreening devices and also as efficient adsorbents of different types of xenobiotics. PMID:26154466

  18. 21 CFR 178.3520 - Industrial starch-modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Industrial starch-modified. 178.3520 Section 178... § 178.3520 Industrial starch-modified. Industrial starch-modified may be safely used as a component of..., transporting, or holding food, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Industrial starch-modified...

  19. Laser Gyro Temperature Compensation Using Modified RBFNN

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jicheng; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Weiquan; Chen, Shuai

    2014-01-01

    To overcome the effect of temperature on laser gyro zero bias and to stabilize the laser gyro output, this study proposes a modified radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) based on a Kohonen network and an orthogonal least squares (OLS) algorithm. The modified method, which combines the pattern classification capability of the Kohonen network and the optimal choice capacity of OLS, avoids the random selection of RBFNN centers and improves the compensation accuracy of the RBFNN. It can quickly and accurately identify the effect of temperature on laser gyro zero bias. A number of comparable identification and compensation tests on a variety of temperature-changing situations are completed using the multiple linear regression (MLR), RBFNN and modified RBFNN methods. The test results based on several sets of gyro output in constant and changing temperature conditions demonstrate that the proposed method is able to overcome the effect of randomly selected RBFNN centers. The running time of the method is about 60 s shorter than that of traditional RBFNN under the same test conditions, which suggests that the calculations are reduced. Meanwhile, the compensated gyro output accuracy using the modified method is about 7.0 × 10−4 °/h; comparatively, the traditional RBFNN is about 9.0 × 10−4 °/h and the MLR is about 1.4 × 10−3 °/h. PMID:25302814

  20. Modified Video Course Methodology for Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Stephen B.

    In recent years, colleges have made extensive efforts to provide distance learning opportunities for adult students. At Southwest Texas State University, a required course in the Occupational Education program has been delivered in a modified video format. The video was made of an actual class being taught in a production studio. The main…

  1. Evolving targets for lipid-modifying therapy

    PubMed Central

    Do, Rose Q; Nicholls, Stephen J; Schwartz, Gregory G

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis are integrally connected to the concentration and function of lipoproteins in various classes. This review examines existing and emerging approaches to modify low-density lipoprotein and lipoprotein (a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and high-density lipoproteins, emphasizing approaches that have progressed to clinical evaluation. Targeting of nuclear receptors and phospholipases is also discussed. PMID:25172365

  2. Generalization of a Modified Food Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Leann Lipps

    1981-01-01

    Assesses preschool children's preferences for eight snack foods and tests procedures to modify preferences for certain foods by having children sort foods according to self-determined categories. Enhanced preferences for target foods generalized to other foods in the same category only for children using semantic sorting categories. (Author/DB)

  3. Genetically Modified Plants: Public and Scientific Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The potential of genetically modified plants to meet the requirements of growing population is not being recognized at present. This is a consequence of concerns raised by the public and the critics about their applications and release into the environment. These include effect on human health and environment, biosafety, world trade monopolies, trustworthiness of public institutions, integrity of regulatory agencies, loss of individual choice, and ethics as well as skepticism about the real potential of the genetically modified plants, and so on. Such concerns are enormous and prevalent even today. However, it should be acknowledged that most of them are not specific for genetically modified plants, and the public should not forget that the conventionally bred plants consumed by them are also associated with similar risks where no information about the gene(s) transfer is available. Moreover, most of the concerns are hypothetical and lack scientific background. Though a few concerns are still to be disproved, it is viewed that, with proper management, these genetically modified plants have immense potential for the betterment of mankind. In the present paper, an overview of the raised concerns and wherever possible reasons assigned to explain their intensity or unsuitability are reviewed. PMID:25937981

  4. Zirconium modified nickel-copper alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improved material for use in a catalytic reactor which reduces nitrogen oxide from internal combustion engines is in the form of a zirconium-modified, precipitation-strengthened nickel-copper alloy. This material has a nominal composition of Ni-30 Cu-0.2 Zr and is characterized by improved high temperature mechanical properties.

  5. Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Six silicone modified resins were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 6-63%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 1,220 MPa and a modulus of 105 GPa. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 72 MPa.

  6. MATCON MODIFIED ASPHALT COVER CONTAINMENT SYSTEM DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to make improvements to conventional paving asphalt to make it more suitable for containment applications, Wilder Construction Co. of Everett, WA offers MatCon, a polymer modified asphalt system comprised of proprietary binder, when coupled with a selected aggregate type...

  7. Modified triglyceride oil through reactions with phenyltriazolinedione

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthesis of a modified triglyceride oil was achieved through the reactions with 4-phenyl-1,2-4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD). 1H NMR was used for structure determination and to monitor the reactions. Several reaction products were produced, and their relative yields depended on the stoichiometry ...

  8. Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

    2005-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

  9. Genetically modified pig models for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Holm, Ida E; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Luo, Yonglun

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease has become one of the most challenging health issues in ageing humans. One approach to combat this is to generate genetically modified animal models of neurodegenerative disorders for studying pathogenesis, prognosis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Owing to the genetic, anatomic, physiologic, pathologic, and neurologic similarities between pigs and humans, genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders have been attractive large animal models to bridge the gap of preclinical investigations between rodents and humans. In this review, we provide a neuroanatomical overview in pigs and summarize and discuss the generation of genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's diseases, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, and ataxia-telangiectasia. We also highlight how non-invasive bioimaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET), computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and behavioural testing have been applied to characterize neurodegenerative pig models. We further propose a multiplex genome editing and preterm recloning (MAP) approach by using the rapid growth of the ground-breaking precision genome editing technology CRISPR/Cas9 and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). With this approach, we hope to shorten the temporal requirement in generating multiple transgenic pigs, increase the survival rate of founder pigs, and generate genetically modified pigs that will more closely resemble the disease-causing mutations and recapitulate pathological features of human conditions. PMID:26446984

  10. 77 FR 58592 - Modified Norway Post Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ...The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to include a modified Norway Post Agreement within an existing competitive product. The modification includes an 18-month extension of the original agreement's term. This notice addresses procedural aspects of the...

  11. Modified Antifreeze Liquids for Use on Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, R. O.

    1983-01-01

    Report presents results of evaluation of two antifreeze liquids, dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol and five viscosity modifiers: gelatin, gum tragacanth, starch, agarose powder and citrus pectin. Purpose of evaluation to find best way of dealing with frost formation on Space Shuttle.

  12. [Genetically modified food--unnecessary controversy?].

    PubMed

    Tchórz, Michał; Radoniewicz-Chagowska, Anna; Lewandowska-Stanek, Hanna; Szponar, Elzbieta; Szponar, Jarosław

    2012-01-01

    Fast development of genetic engineering and biotechnology allows use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) more and more in different branches of science and economy. Every year we can see an increase of food amount produced with the use of modification of genetic material. In our supermarkets we can find brand new types of plants, products including genetically modified ingredients or meat from animals fed with food containing GMO. This article presents general information about genetically modified organisms, it also explains the range of genetic manipulation, use of newly developed products and current field area for GMO in the world. Based on scientific data the article presents benefits from development of biotechnology in reference to modified food. It also presents the voice of skeptics who are extremely concerned about the impact of those organisms on human health and natural environment. Problems that appear or can appear as a result of an increase of GMO are very important not only from a toxicologist's or a doctor's point of view but first of all from the point of view of ordinary consumers--all of us. PMID:23243917

  13. Solving Differential Equations Using Modified Picard Iteration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, W. A.

    2010-01-01

    Many classes of differential equations are shown to be open to solution through a method involving a combination of a direct integration approach with suitably modified Picard iterative procedures. The classes of differential equations considered include typical initial value, boundary value and eigenvalue problems arising in physics and…

  14. 27 CFR 24.21 - Modified forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Authorities § 24.21 Modified... in a net increase in cost to the Government or hinder the effective administration of this part... compliance with the procedures, conditions, and limitations specified in the approval of the application....

  15. Monitoring Transport Across Modified Nanoporous Alumina Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Penumetcha, Sai S.; Kona, Ravikanth; Hardin, Jonathan L.; Molder, Andrew L.; Steinle, Erich D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the use of several characterization methods to examine alumina nanotubule membranes that have been modified with specific silanes. The function of these silanes is to alter the transport properties through the membrane by changing the local environment inside the alumina nanotube. The presence of alkyl groups, either long (C18) or short and branched (isopropyl) hydrocarbon chains, on these silanes significantly decreases the rate of transport of permeant molecules through membranes containing alumina nanotubes as monitored via absorbance spectroscopy. The presence of an ionic surfactant can alter the polarity of these modified nanotubes, which correlates to an increased transport of ions. Fluorescent spectroscopy is also utilized to enhance the sensitivity of detecting these permeant molecules. Confirmation of the alkylsilane attachment to the alumina membrane is achieved with traditional infrared spectroscopy, which can also examine the lifetime of the modified membrane. The physical parameters of these silane-modified porous alumina membranes are studied via scanning electron microscopy. The alumina nanotubes are not physically closed off or capped by the silanes that are attached to the alumina surfaces.

  16. Modified borohydrides for reversible hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Au, Ming

    2005-08-29

    In attempt to develop lithium borohydrides as the reversible hydrogen storage materials with the high capacity, the feasibility to reduce dehydrogenation temperature of the lithium borohydride and moderate rehydrogenation condition has been explored. The commercial available lithium borohydride has been modified by ball milling with metal oxides and metal chlorides as the additives. The modified lithium borohydrides release 9 wt% hydrogen starting from 473K. The dehydrided modified lithium borohydrides absorb 7-9 wt% hydrogen at 873K and 7 MPa. The additive modification reduces dehydriding temperature from 673K to 473K and moderates rehydrogenation conditions to 923K and 15 MPa. XRD and SEM analysis discovered the formation of the intermediate compound TiB{sub 2} that may plays the key role in change the reaction path resulting the lower dehydriding temperature and reversibility. The reversible hydrogen storage capacity of the oxide modified lithium borohydrides decreases gradually during hydriding-dehydriding cycling due to the lost of the boron during dehydrogenation. But, it can be prevented by selecting the suitable additive, forming intermediate boron compounds and changing the reaction path. The additives reduce dehydriding temperature and improve the reversibility, it also reduces the hydrogen storage capacity. The best compromise can be reached by optimization of the additive loading and introducing new process other than ball milling.

  17. Modified lithium borohydrides for reversible hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Au, Ming; Jurgensen, Arthur

    2006-04-01

    In an attempt to develop lithium borohydrides as reversible hydrogen storage materials with high hydrogen storage capacities, the feasibility of reducing the dehydrogenation temperature of the lithium borohydride and moderating rehydrogenation conditions was explored. The lithium borohydride was modified by ball milling with metal oxides and metal chlorides as additives. The modified lithium borohydrides released 9 wt % hydrogen starting from 473 K. The dehydrided modified lithium borohydrides absorbed 7-9 wt % hydrogen at 873 K and 7 MPa. The modification with additives reduced the dehydriding starting temperature from 673 to 473 K and moderated the rehydrogenation conditions from 923 K/15 MPa to 873 K/7 MPa. XRD and SEM analysis revealed the formation of an intermediate compound that might play a key role in changing the reaction path, resulting in the lower dehydriding temperature and reversibility. The reversible hydrogen storage capacity of the oxide-modified lithium borohydrides decreased gradually during hydriding/dehydriding cycling. One of the possible reasons for this effect might be the loss of boron during dehydrogenation, but this can be prevented by changing the dehydriding path using appropriate additives. The additives reduced the dehydriding temperature and improved the reversibility, but they also reduced the hydrogen storage capacity. The best compromise can be reached by selecting appropriate additives, optimizing the additive loading, and using new synthesis processes other than ball milling. PMID:16571023

  18. How Landscape Plants Modify the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Sylvia; Wise, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    Presents three experiments that provide examples of how plants modify their surroundings and create microenvironments. Examples demonstrate (1) how types of ground cover influence water quality; (2) how plants can create a thermal microenvironment; and (3) how plants can serve as barriers to wind. (MDH)

  19. A Modified Impress Method for Beginning Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Russell W., Jr.

    A modified impress approach to teaching reading has been successfully used in a program involving first grade students. The program was multisensory and included aural, oral, visual, and kinesthetic learning experiences gained through listening, group discussions, dramatic play, art activities, audience reading, and recorded oral reading. These…

  20. A linear combination of modified Bessel functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shitzer, A.; Chato, J. C.

    1971-01-01

    A linear combination of modified Bessel functions is defined, discussed briefly, and tabulated. This combination was found to recur in the analysis of various heat transfer problems and in the analysis of the thermal behavior of living tissue when modeled by cylindrical shells.

  1. [Genetically modified organisms--problems and legislation].

    PubMed

    Drobník, J

    2002-03-01

    Genetically modified organisms are defined by law as entities capable of replication and/or transmission of hereditary material that had been altered by the insertion or removal of a DNA fragment. By the EU legal regulation as well as by the Czech law, such organisms are considered risky whereas other products of breeding, though obtained by, e.g., induced mutagenesis, are claimed as safe. Organisms transferred from other ecosystems are also considered safe. The Czech law on the use of genetically modified organisms is based on registers of users and organisms for specific use. Application for the registration that is valid as an approval should be submitted to the Ministry of Environment. The applicant is obliged to present the risk assessment of the particular use of genetically modified organisms. Genetically modified organisms are connected with certain risk to ecology, however health risks are brought about almost exclusively by microorganisms. Modified organisms used for food production are thoroughly tested for substantial equivalency with standard crops and with respect to health parameters of the protein(s) newly introduced due to genetic modification. Detail tests as well as their cost are close to the testing of new drugs. European as well as Czech rules for food labelling are motivated by the psychology of consumers rather than by health impact. They result to absurdities but do not meet the task of public psychology. This is why the EU authorities are looking for measures to change the present situation that other wise would bring Europe well behind the developed countries. PMID:12046253

  2. Cobalt Phthalocyanine Modified Electrodes Utilised in Electroanalysis: Nano-Structured Modified Electrodes vs. Bulk Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Christopher W.; Pillay, Jeseelan; Metters, Jonathan P.; Banks, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) compounds have been reported to provide electrocatalytic performances towards a substantial number of analytes. In these configurations, electrodes are typically constructed via drop casting the CoPC onto a supporting electrode substrate, while in other cases the CoPC complex is incorporated within the ink of a screen-printed sensor, providing a one-shot economical and disposable electrode configuration. In this paper we critically compare CoPC modified electrodes prepared by drop casting CoPC nanoparticles (nano-CoPC) onto a range of carbon based electrode substrates with that of CoPC bulk modified screen-printed electrodes in the sensing of the model analytes l-ascorbic acid, oxygen and hydrazine. It is found that no “electrocatalysis” is observed towards l-ascorbic acid using either of these CoPC modified electrode configurations and that the bare underlying carbon electrode is the origin of the obtained voltammetric signal, which gives rise to useful electroanalytical signatures, providing new insights into literature reports where “electrocatalysis” has been reported with no clear control experiments undertaken. On the other hand true electrocatalysis is observed towards hydrazine, where no such voltammetric features are witnessed on the bare underlying electrode substrate. PMID:25414969

  3. Lubrication of modified perfluoropolyether on magnetic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, H.; Hisamichi, Y.; Kamei, T.

    1996-03-01

    The effect of the polar group of perfluoropolyether (PFPE) on the friction of metal evaporated (ME) tape is presented in this paper. The newly synthesized amine salt has a better frictional characteristic than other conventional polar groups in 100 reciprocating motions and even shows a coefficient of 0.21, which becomes over 0.3 for the PFPE, and the difference is enhanced with surface smoothness. Stick-slip motion was not observed even for the smooth surface for the modified PFPE tape. The relation between the surface energy and friction is complicated, but the amine salt being tightly anchored to the rubbing surface covers uniformly which leads to better lubricity. Moreover, the modified PFPE are dissolved in alcohol and hexane, which makes practical use convenient without any environmental problems.

  4. Chemical and semisynthesis of modified histones.

    PubMed

    Maity, Suman Kumar; Jbara, Muhammad; Brik, Ashraf

    2016-05-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones play critical roles in the epigenetic regulation of eukaryotic genome by directly altering the biophysical properties of chromatin or by recruiting effector proteins. The large number of PTMs and the inherent complexity in their population and signaling processes make it highly challenging to understand epigenetics-related processes. To address these challenges, accesses to homogeneously modified histones are obligatory. Over the last decade, synthetic protein chemists have been devising novel synthetic tools and applying state-of-the-art chemoselective ligation strategies to prepare precious materials useful in answering fundamental questions in this area. In this short review, we cover some of the recent breakthroughs in these directions in particular the synthesis and semi-synthesis of modified histones and their use to unravel the mysteries of epigenetics. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26778211

  5. Summary: the modified nucleosides of RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Limbach, P A; Crain, P F; McCloskey, J A

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive listing is made of posttranscriptionally modified nucleosides from RNA reported in the literature through mid-1994. Included are chemical structures, common names, symbols, Chemical Abstracts registry numbers (for ribonucleoside and corresponding base), Chemical Abstracts Index Name, phylogenetic sources, and initial literature citations for structural characterization or occurrence, and for chemical synthesis. The listing is categorized by type of RNA: tRNA, rRNA, mRNA, snRNA, and other RNAs. A total of 93 different modified nucleosides have been reported in RNA, with the largest number and greatest structural diversity in tRNA, 79; and 28 in rRNA, 12 in mRNA, 11 in snRNA and 3 in other small RNAs. PMID:7518580

  6. Einstein spaces modeling nonminimal modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizalde, Emilio; Vacaru, Sergiu I.

    2015-06-01

    Off-diagonal vacuum and nonvacuum configurations in the Einstein gravity can mimic physical effects of modified gravitational theories of f( R, T, R μν T μν ) type. To prove this statement, exact and approximate solutions are constructed in the paper, which encode certain models of covariant Hořava-type gravity with dynamical Lorentz symmetry breaking. The corresponding FLRW cosmological dynamics with possible nonholonomic deformations and the reconstruction procedure of certain actions closely related with the standard ΛCDM universe are studied. Off-diagonal generalizations of de Sitter universes are constructed which are generated through nonlinear gravitational polarization of fundamental physical constants and which model interactions with nonconstant exotic fluids and effective matter. The problem of possible matter instability for such off-diagonal deformations in (modified) gravity theories is briefly discussed.

  7. Further capacitive imaging experiments using modified probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiaokang; Li, Zhen; Yan, An; Li, Wei; Chen, Guoming; Hutchins, David A.

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, capacitive imaging (CI) is growing in popularity within the NDE communities, as it has the potential to test materials and structures for defects that are not easily tested by other techniques. In previous work, The CI technique has been successfully used on a various types of materials, including concrete, glass/carbon fibre composite, steel, etc. In such CI experiments, the probes are normally with symmetric or concentric electrodes etched onto PCBs. In addition to these conventional coplanar PCB probes, modified geometries can be made and they can lead to different applications. A brief overview of these modified probes, including high resolution surface imaging probe, combined CI/eddy current probe, and CI probe using an oscilloscope probe as the sensing electrode, is presented in this work. The potential applications brought by these probes are also discussed.

  8. Production of modified starches by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Il-Jun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Bae, Chun-Ho; Lee, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Chung, Cha-Kwon

    1999-04-01

    As a new processing method for the production of modified starch, gamma irradiation and four kinds of inorganic peroxides were applied to commercial corn starch. The addition of inorganic peroxides without gamma irradiation or gamma irradiation without the addition of inorganic peroxides effectively decreased initial viscosity, but did not sufficiently keep viscosity stable. The combination of adding ammonium persulfate (APS) and gamma irradiation showed the lowest initial viscosity and the best stability out of the tested four kinds of inorganic peroxides. Among the tested mixing methods of APS, soaking was found to be more effective than dry blending or spraying. Therefore, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with sufficient viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added APS to starch.

  9. Are genetically modified plants useful and safe?

    PubMed

    Weil, Jacques-Henry

    2005-01-01

    So far, plants have been genetically modified essentially to achieve resistance to herbicides, or to pathogens (mainly insects, or viruses), but resistance to abiotic stresses (such as cold, heat, drought, or salt) is also being studied. Genetically modified (GM) plants with improved nutritional qualities have more recently been developed, such as plants containing higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6) in their oil (to prevent cardio-vascular diseases), or containing beta-carotene as in the golden rice (to prevent vitamin A deficiency). Possible risks for human health (such as the production of allergenic proteins), or for the environment (such as the appearance of superweeds as a result from gene flow), should be carefully studied, and a science-based assessment of benefits vs. risks should be made on a case by case basis, both for GM plants and for plants obtained by conventional breeding methods. PMID:16036615

  10. WELLFOCUS PPT: Modifying positive psychotherapy for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Riches, Simon; Schrank, Beate; Rashid, Tayyab; Slade, Mike

    2016-03-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) is an established psychological intervention initially validated with people experiencing symptoms of depression. PPT is a positive psychology intervention, an academic discipline that has developed somewhat separately from psychotherapy and focuses on amplifying well-being rather than ameliorating deficit. The processes targeted in PPT (e.g., strengths, forgiveness, gratitude, savoring) are not emphasized in traditional psychotherapy approaches to psychosis. The goal in modifying PPT is to develop a new clinical approach to helping people experiencing psychosis. An evidence-based theoretical framework was therefore used to modify 14-session standard PPT into a manualized intervention, called WELLFOCUS PPT, which aims to improve well-being for people with psychosis. Informed by a systematic review and qualitative research, modification was undertaken in 4 stages: qualitative study, expert consultation, manualization, and stake-holder review. The resulting WELLFOCUS PPT is a theory-based 11-session manualized group therapy. PMID:25961372

  11. Genetically modified animals and pharmacological research.

    PubMed

    Wells, Dominic J

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews the use of genetically modified animals and the increasingly detailed knowledge of the genomes of the domestic species. The different approaches to genetic modification are outlined as are the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques in different species. Genetically modified mice have been fundamental in understanding gene function and in generating affordable models of human disease although these are not without their drawbacks. Transgenic farm animals have been developed for nutritionally enhanced food, disease resistance and xenografting. Transgenic rabbits, goats, sheep and cows have been developed as living bioreactors producing potentially high value biopharmaceuticals, commonly referred to as "pharming". Domestic animals are also important as a target as well as for testing genetic-based therapies for both inherited and acquired disease. This latter field may be the most important of all, in the future development of novel therapies. PMID:20204589

  12. Organically modified clay removes oil from water

    SciTech Connect

    Alther, G.R.

    1995-12-31

    When bentonite or other clays and zeolites are modified with quaternary amines, they become organophilic. Such modified bentonites are used to remove mechanically emulsified oil and grease, and other sparingly soluble organics. If the organoclay is granulated, it is placed into a liquid phase carbon filter vessel to remove FOG`s and chlorinated hydrocarbons. In this application the clay is mixed with anthrazite to prevent early plugging of the filter by oil or grease droplets. In batch systems a powered organoclay is employed. Types of oil found in water can include fats, lubricants, cutting fluids, heavy hydrocarbons such as tars, grease, crude oil, diesel oils; and light hydrocarbons such as kerosene, jet fuel, and gasoline.

  13. Lower incisor retraction with a modified corticotomy.

    PubMed

    Germeç, Derya; Giray, Bahadir; Kocadereli, Ilken; Enacar, Ayhan

    2006-09-01

    This case report demonstrates the orthodontic treatment facilitated with a new conservative corticotomy technique to shorten the treatment time during lower incisor retraction. The patient was a 22-year-old woman with protrusive profile, severe anterior crowding, an anterior crossbite, and Class III dental relationship. Orthodontic treatment consisted of the extraction of four first premolars with maximum anchorage. A modified corticotomy technique, in which the lingual vertical and subapical horizontal cuts were eliminated, was combined with orthodontic therapy for the retraction of the lower anterior teeth. Corticotomy-facilitated orthodontics dramatically reduced the treatment time without any adverse effects on the periodontium and the vitality of the teeth. The main advantages of this modified corticotomy technique were the elimination of the lingual cuts and flap, the reduction of surgery time, and minimum discomfort to the patient. At the end of active orthodontic therapy, balanced occlusion and facial esthetics were achieved. PMID:17029527

  14. [Genetically modified food--great unknown].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, G; Wiackowski, S K

    2012-08-01

    Genetically modified food (GMF) creates evident threat to consumers' health. In spite of assurances of biotechnologists, DNA of transgenic plants is instable, so, synthesis of foreign, allergenic proteins is possible. Due to high trypsin inhibitor content the GMF is digested much more slowly what, alike Bt toxin presence, increases probability of alimentary canal diseases. Next threats are bound to the presence of fitoestrogens and residues of Roundup pesticide, that can diminish reproductiveness; and even lead to cancerogenic transformation through disturbance of human hormonal metabolism. In spite of food producers and distributors assurances that food made of GMF raw materials is marked, de facto consumers have no choice. Moreover, along the food law products containing less than 0.9% of GMF protein are not included into genetically modified food. PMID:23009001

  15. Influence of Prepackaged Polymer-Modified Mortar as a Modifier on Strength of Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saand, Abdullah; Ismail, Mohammad; Radin Sumadi, Salihuddin

    This study introduce a new trend of utilising Prepackaged Polymer-Modified Mortar (PPMM) as a modifier to ordinary concrete for producing Polymer-Modified Concrete (PMC). The experimental study articulates the strength development of proposed polymer-modified concrete. A range of quantities of PPMM, as 5 to 50%, were mixed with ordinary concrete of 30 N mmG2 characteristic strength to produce polymer-modified concrete and to evaluate for compressive strength, tensile strength, density and workability. The material behaviour in terms of compressive strength and tensile strength, together with density and slump was investigated by casting and testing cubes of 100 mm size, cylinders 100 mm dia and 200 mm height. This Preliminary study shows that compressive strength and tensile strength is improved significantly by inclusion of various quantities as percentages of PPMM to ordinary concrete and curing regime as specified by JIS. PPMM dosages of 5 to 20% resulted considerably higher compressive and tensile strength than that of ordinary concrete, on the other hand further increase in percentage of PPMM gave less strengths. Results demonstrated more prominent percentage increase in tensile strength than compressive strength of produced polymer-modified concrete. Polymer-mod fied concrete mixes with all percentage dosages of PPMM were found cohesive and workable.

  16. The cosmology of asymmetric brane modified gravity

    SciTech Connect

    O'Callaghan, Eimear; Gregory, Ruth; Pourtsidou, Alkistis E-mail: ppxap1@nottingham.ac.uk

    2009-09-01

    We consider the asymmetric branes model of modified gravity, which can produce late time acceleration of the universe and compare the cosmology of this model to the standard ΛCDM model and to the DGP braneworld model. We show how the asymmetric cosmology at relevant physical scales can be regarded as a one-parameter extension of the DGP model, and investigate the effect of this additional parameter on the expansion history of the universe.

  17. Modified, Packaged Tortillas Have Long Shelf Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourland, Charles; Glaus-Late, Kimberly

    1995-01-01

    Tortillas made from modified recipe and sealed in low-pressure nitrogen in foil pouches in effort to increase their shelf life at room temperature. Preliminary tests show that shelf life of these tortillas at least five months; in contrast, commercial tortillas last only few days. Part of water in recipe replaced with glycerin. Particularly necessary to avoid Clostridium botulinum, which grows in anaerobic environments and produces deadly toxin that causes botulism.

  18. Disease Modifying Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Williams, U. E.; Oparah, S. K.; Philip-Ephraim, E. E.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammatory demyelination and axonal degeneration. It is the commonest cause of permanent disability in young adults. Environmental and genetic factors have been suggested in its etiology. Currently available disease modifying drugs are only effective in controlling inflammation but not prevention of neurodegeneration or accumulation of disability. Search for an effective neuroprotective therapy is at the forefront of multiple sclerosis research. PMID:27355035

  19. Mercier criterion modified by kinetic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbluth, M.N.; Porcelli, F.

    1996-12-31

    The ideal MHD Mercier criterion for the stability of localized interchange modes is easily violated by modest pressure gradients in the central region of a Tokamak plasma where the magnetic winding index q drops below unity. However, kinetic effects can substantially modify this criterion, allowing for stable peaked pressure profiles. In this paper, we discuss the modifications to the Mercier criterion brought about by the fusion alpha particles and by the thermal trapped ions in the collisionless Kruskal-Oberman limit.

  20. Rotationally shearing interferometer employing modified Dove prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paez, Gonzalo; Strojnik, Marija; Moreno, Ivan

    2003-12-01

    We describe the rotationally shearing interferometer (RSI) employing modified Dove prisms, designed with a widened aperture to increase throughput and with larger base angles to minimize the wave-front tilt introduced due to manufacturing errors. Experimental results obtained with the RSI ascertain the feasibility of the design. This work demonstrates that the rotationally shearing interferometry may be used to perform some functions of the traditional astronomical instruments.

  1. Modified Youngswick procedure for hallux limitus.

    PubMed

    Radovic, Philip; Yadav-Shah, Ekta; Choe, Ki

    2007-01-01

    Multiple surgical procedures have been described for the correction of hallux limitus deformity. We describe a new modification of the Youngswick procedure for the surgical treatment of hallux limitus. Other procedures for hallux limitus correction are also discussed. This modified Youngswick procedure will provide a new approach to treating hallux limitus secondary to metatarsus primus elevatus when shortening of the first metatarsal is not indicated. PMID:17901350

  2. Modified Spot Welder Solders Flat Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haehner, Carl L.

    1992-01-01

    Soldering device, essentially modified spot welder, melts high-melting-temperature solders without damaging plastic insulation on flat electrical cables. Solder preform rests on exposed conductor of cable, under connector pin. Electrodes press pin/preform/conductor sandwich together and supply pulse of current to melt preform, bonding pin to conductor. Anvil acts as support and heat sink. Device used to solder flexible ribbon cables to subminiature pin connectors.

  3. Engineering sulfotransferases to modify heparan sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ding; Moon, Andrea F.; Song, Danyin; Pedersen, Lars C.; Liu, Jian

    2008-03-19

    The biosynthesis of heparan sulfate (HS) involves an array of specialized sulfotransferases. Here, we present a study aimed at engineering the substrate specificity of different HS 3-O-sulfotransferase isoforms. Based on the crystal structures, we identified a pair of amino acid residues responsible for selecting the substrates. Mutations of these residues altered the substrate specificities. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of tailoring the specificity of sulfotransferases to modify HS with desired functions.

  4. Chemically modified electrodes and related solution studies

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report briefly discusses work done in the following areas of chemically modified electrodes: Spectroscopic studies of the modes of interactions of pyridine containing ligands with metal surfaces; attempted synthesis of gem-dihalide containing polymers for attachment of Mo{sub 2}S{sub 4} clusters; Synthesis of oxo-ruthenium dimer complexes as catalysts for H{sub 2} oxidation; and, studies of porphyrin based polymers which catalyze the oxidation (oxygenation) of olefins and benzylic carbons. (JDL)

  5. Biodegradation potential of a modified natural product

    SciTech Connect

    Sajjad, W.

    1996-12-31

    Biodegradation potential of a modified natural product for treating petroleum contaminated soils was investigated along with some commercially available microbial cultures in three different scales from a laboratory to pilot to case studies. The modified natural product is lignocellulosic in nature and proprietary product of a company in Iowa. The production process of this product involves mechanical size reduction, blending/coating, and aerobic digestion of hay, corn cob residue, straw or crop residue in presence of poultry manure. The degradation kinetics of the petroleum products in the contaminated soils were measured both directly and indirectly. Residual petroleum products in different soils (treated and untreated) at various time periods were quantified by gas chromatographic (GC) analysis on extracted samples. The indirect assessment of the kinetics of biological activity involved the measurement of CO{sub 2} evolved from flasks (250 ml capacity) containing contaminated soil (about 50 ml) with various treatments. The results indicated that the biodegradation kinetics of petroleum products in the contaminated soils were significantly improved by treatment with this modified natural product. In most cases tested, this product performed significantly better than the available commercial bacterial cultures for biological removal of petroleum products from contaminated soils. This study also demonstrated the significance of temperature and moisture content in biodegradation kinetics.

  6. Rheological Modifier Testing with DWPF Process Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL, STONE

    2004-02-01

    Rheological modification agents were tested on simulated SRAT and SME products to determine if a suitable agent could be found for the DWPF process slurries. The agents tested were dispersants that lower the rheological properties of slurries by preventing agglomerization. Dolapix CE64, an ethylene glycol, and Disperse-Ayd W28, a polyacrylate, were the most effective dispersants tested. Further evaluation and testing should be performed on Dolapix CE64 and Disperse-Ayd W28 to determine if implementation is possible in DWPF. The initial phase of future work will include optimization of the rheology modifier by the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) and development of a maximum concentration limit for the rheology modifiers. IIT has been commissioned to evaluate the properties of these chemicals to determine if the chemical makeup can be optimized to enhance the properties of these modifiers. An initial concentration limit based upon the DWPF flammability limit and other constraints should be calculated to determine the potential downstream impacts.

  7. Plasma-Modified Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrabee, Thomas; Prokes, Sharka

    2015-09-01

    PEALD is known to grow thin films with differing properties from those grown purely via chemical reactions, or thermal ALD processes. However, material properties are still limited when compared to films grown by other deposition techniques. We have used non-growth plasma steps in each ALD cycle to modify properties, in a technique we refer to as plasma-modified ALD. To study how non-growth plasma steps modify properties, we have grown metal oxides with various plasma processing steps from CCPs of Ar, O2, N2, and H2 gases at relatively high pressures of 1-2 mbar. A grid is used to screen ion bombardment of the samples within a commercial Beneq TFS-200 reactor, making this plasma configuration indirect, but not remote. Several properties show significant differences between the films grown with and without these additional steps. These altered properties include crystalline orientation as indicated by XRD, plasmon resonances, photoluminescence, electron paramagnetic resonance, optical dispersion, mobilities, carrier concentrations, and resistivities. Selected plasma-initiated modifications to ALD-grown oxides of zinc, vanadium, and hafnium, and their anticipated applications in novel materials systems will be presented. NRC Postdoc at the Naval Research Laboratory.

  8. Simplification of the modified Gallyas method

    PubMed Central

    Kuninaka, Nobuo; Kawaguchi, Minato; Ogawa, Masaru; Sato, Ayako; Arima, Kunimasa; Murayama, Shigeo; Saito, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    The Gallyas method is a silver impregnation technique that is essential in the field of neuropathology because of its high sensitivity for the detection of argentophilic inclusion bodies in the central nervous system. In Japan, the Gallyas method has improved and is widely used as the “modified Gallyas method”. However, this method is not popularly used in general pathology laboratories because of the need for special reagents, several staining processes, and skilled techniques. The objective of the current study was to provide a simplified Gallyas method. We omitted the lanthanum nitrate step from the staining process and verified the adequacy in comparison with the original method as well as immunohistochemistry, using specimens from patients of Alzheimer's disease, argyrophilic grain disease, multiple system atrophy, Pick's disease, and Lewy body disease. The simplified method provided good staining to all the structures in archival tissues, compared with the modified Gallyas method in a significantly shorter staining time. The lanthanum nitrate step can be omitted from the modified Gallyas method, resulting in reduction in the number of reagents required and shortening of the staining time. PMID:25178396

  9. Organic intercalation of structure modified vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nian; Wu, Limei; Liao, Libing; Lv, Guocheng

    2015-11-01

    The experiment used cationic surfactants of different chain lengths to intercalate structure modified vermiculites. The influences of structure modification, chain length and dosage of surfactants on the intercalation behavior of vermiculites were studied, and intercalation mechanism and features of interlayer chemical reactions were discussed. Results indicate that structure modified vermiculites with different layer charge have different intercalation behavior. The basal spacing of the organic intercalated modified vermiculite is the largest when acid concentration used in structure modification is 0.003 mol/L, and increases with increasing the chain length and dosage of the organics. Molecular dynamics simulation verifies that interlayer organics align almost parallel to structure layer of vermiculite, with alkyl chain stretching to the middle of interlayer space. -N(+) groups of the three surfactants locate above the leached [SiO4], which has stronger interaction with interlayer organic cations. Electrostatic force is the main interaction force between interlayer organics and structure layer of vermiculite, and then is Van der Waals force, no chemical bond formed. PMID:26196709

  10. Theoretical priors on modified growth parametrisations

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Yong-Seon; Hollenstein, Lukas; Caldera-Cabral, Gabriela; Koyama, Kazuya E-mail: Lukas.Hollenstein@unige.ch E-mail: Kazuya.Koyama@port.ac.uk

    2010-04-01

    Next generation surveys will observe the large-scale structure of the Universe with unprecedented accuracy. This will enable us to test the relationships between matter over-densities, the curvature perturbation and the Newtonian potential. Any large-distance modification of gravity or exotic nature of dark energy modifies these relationships as compared to those predicted in the standard smooth dark energy model based on General Relativity. In linear theory of structure growth such modifications are often parameterised by virtue of two functions of space and time that enter the relation of the curvature perturbation to, first, the matter over- density, and second, the Newtonian potential. We investigate the predictions for these functions in Brans-Dicke theory, clustering dark energy models and interacting dark energy models. We find that each theory has a distinct path in the parameter space of modified growth. Understanding these theoretical priors on the parameterisations of modified growth is essential to reveal the nature of cosmic acceleration with the help of upcoming observations of structure formation.

  11. Modified osteomyocutaneous iliac crest flaps transplantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Song, Dajiang; Li, Jinsong; Xu, Jian; Lv, Hongbin

    2015-04-01

    The paper aims to improve the operative technique of osteomyocutaneous iliac crest flap harvesting, further minimise morbidity of donor site, and improve the effect of recipient site reconstruction. From March 2005 to March 2011, 55 cases of osteomyocutaneous iliac crest flap harvested by different methods were performed to reconstruct the defects of the extremities. Twenty-nine cases were reconstructed with a traditional deep circumflex iliac artery osteomusculocutaneous flap. Twenty-six cases were repaired with modified osteomyocutaneous iliac crest flaps. In 29 cases with a traditional DCIA osteomusculocutaneous flap, two cases showed the injured lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. Flapnecrosis was significant in two cases. Arterial compromise occurred in one case 5 days after operation completion and led to flap failure. Three flaps developed postoperative venous congestion, but only one flap received re-exploration. In the other two cases, some stitches were removed for decompression. All three flaps survived. In two cases, marginal flap necrosis occurred, but no secondary skin grafting was required. In 26 cases with modified flap transplantation, one case showed the injured lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. All flaps survived totally. Osseous integration was achieved in all 55 cases in 3 ∼ 9 months after operation. The modified osteomyocutaneous iliac crest flap technique enhances flap safety, provides the additional advantages of reducing donor-site morbidity, and improves the recipient-site contour. PMID:25001367

  12. Characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, L.C.; Ishida, Takanobu.

    1991-12-01

    The characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces has been accomplished through the use of four major electrochemical techniques. These were chronoamperometry, chronopotentiommetry, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. A systematic study on the under-potential deposition of several transition metals has been performed. The most interesting of these were: Ag, Cu, Cd, and Pb. It was determined, by subjecting the platinum electrode surface to a single potential scan between {minus}0.24 and +1.25 V{sub SCE} while stirring the solution, that the electrocatalytic activity would be regenerated. As a consequence of this study, a much simpler method for producing ultra high purity water from acidic permanganate has been developed. This method results in water that surpasses the water produced by pyrocatalytic distillation. It has also been seen that the wettability of polycrystalline platinum surfaces is greatly dependent on the quantity of oxide present. Oxide-free platinum is hydrophobic and gives a contact angle in the range of 55 to 62 degrees. We have also modified polycrystalline platinum surface with the electrically conducting polymer poly-{rho}-phenylene. This polymer is very stable in dilute sulfuric acid solutions, even under applied oxidative potentials. It is also highly resistant to electrochemical hydrogenation. The wettability of the polymer modified platinum surface is severely dependent on the choice of supporting electrolyte chosen for the electrochemical polymerization. Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate produces a film that is as hydrophobic as Teflon, whereas tetraethylammonium perchlorate produces a film that is more hydrophilic than oxide-free platinum.

  13. Influence of concentration modifier on the structure and functional properties of aluminum oxyhydroxide modified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiyan, L. N.; Gryaznova, E. N.; Galanov, S. I.; Sidorova, O. I.

    2016-02-01

    Studying the properties of nanomaterials is an important task, but nanomaterials with desired properties is a promising direction. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of the value of the concentration of the modifier (ions Mn2+) on the structural and functional properties of modified aluminum oxyhydroxide. In this paper, using methods such as the X-ray diffraction studies, differential thermal analysis, electron microscopy, chromatography. The paper found that increasing the concentration of the modifier result in significant changes in the morphology, the appearance of metallic aluminum, which is well seen on X-ray data samples. The influence of thermal effects on a modified aluminum oxyhydroxide argon. Set the phase transition temperatures in the synthesized samples. It is shown that with increasing sodeozhaniya manganese in the composition of the synthesized samples decreases the value of specific surface area. Study of the functional properties showed that the synthesized material has catalytic properties in the oxidation of methane. It is shown that the effective sample is a sample with a manganese content of 2.7 wt. %. By XRD results calcined in air samples modified aluminum oxyhydroxide was shown that only in the sample with a manganese content of 2.7 wt. % MnAl2O4 phase is formed, which is catalytically active phase.

  14. Testing modified gravity with cosmic shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnois-Déraps, J.; Munshi, D.; Valageas, P.; van Waerbeke, L.; Brax, P.; Coles, P.; Rizzo, L.

    2015-12-01

    We use the cosmic shear data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey to place constraints on f(R) and Generalized Dilaton models of modified gravity. This is highly complementary to other probes since the constraints mainly come from the non-linear scales: maximal deviations with respects to the General Relativity (GR) + Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) scenario occurs at k ˜ 1 h Mpc-1. At these scales, it becomes necessary to account for known degeneracies with baryon feedback and massive neutrinos, hence we place constraints jointly on these three physical effects. To achieve this, we formulate these modified gravity theories within a common tomographic parametrization, we compute their impact on the clustering properties relative to a GR universe, and propagate the observed modifications into the weak lensing ξ± quantity. Confronted against the cosmic shear data, we reject the f(R) \\lbrace |f_{R_0}| = 10^{-4}, n = 1\\rbrace model with more than 99.9 per cent confidence interval (CI) when assuming a ΛCDM dark matter only model. In the presence of baryonic feedback processes and massive neutrinos with total mass up to 0.2 eV, the model is disfavoured with at least 94 per cent CI in all different combinations studied. Constraints on the \\lbrace |f_{R_0}| = 10^{-4}, n = 2\\rbrace model are weaker, but nevertheless disfavoured with at least 89 per cent CI. We identify several specific combinations of neutrino mass, baryon feedback and f(R) or Dilaton gravity models that are excluded by the current cosmic shear data. Notably, universes with three massless neutrinos and no baryon feedback are strongly disfavoured in all modified gravity scenarios studied. These results indicate that competitive constraints may be achieved with future cosmic shear data.

  15. Methylglyoxal can modify GAPDH activity and structure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyon Jae; Howell, Scott K; Sanford, Rebecca J; Beisswenger, Paul J

    2005-06-01

    The activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) can play an important role in regulating multiple upstream pathways relating to the development of diabetic complications. GAPDH can be modified by a number of metabolic factors, including oxidative and glycation products. To study the effect of glycation on GAPDH we have measured GAPDH structure and activity after exposure of the enzyme to the potent alpha dicarbonyl sugar methylglyoxal (MG). Rabbit GAPDH was incubated with 10-1000 microM MG for 96 hours, and enzyme activity was measured at intervals by a spectrophotometric assay. Isoelectric focusing of purified and cellular GAPDH was performed with a PROTEAN IEF system and the bands visualized by Western blotting. The mass of glycated and native GAPDH was determined by MALDI with a Applied Biosystems Voyager System 6235. GAPDH activity (at 96 h) was decreased by 20% with 1.0 micromolar MG and showed progressively greater suppression of activity with increasing concentrations up to 1 mM, where activity was decreased by 97%. Reduction in GAPDH activity was rapidly decreasing by 69.2% by two hours with 1 mM MG. IEF showed an isoelectric point (IEP) of 8.5 for native GAPDH, while measurable changes were seen with modification by MG levels of 1 mM (IEP 7.5) and 50 microM (IEP 8.0). With MALDI, GAPDH mass increased from 36.012 kDa to 37.071 after exposure to 50 microM MG and to 40.625 following 1 mM MG. This indicates addition of 12.75 and 55.6 MG residues, respectively, to GAPDH. GAPDH can be modified by methylglyoxal intracellular concentrations close to those previously observed in vivo, with measurable changes in isoelectric point and mass. These modifications can lead to decreased enzyme activity, suggesting that conditions associated with elevated intracellular MG could modify GAPDH activity in vivo. PMID:16037232

  16. Genetically Modified Foods and Social Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M.

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm. PMID:23408723

  17. Genetically modified foods and social concerns.

    PubMed

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M

    2011-07-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm. PMID:23408723

  18. "Disease modifying nutricals" for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Katja; Barthelmes, Julia; Stolz, Leonie; Beyer, Susanne; Diehl, Olaf; Tegeder, Irmgard

    2015-04-01

    The association between vitamin D and multiple sclerosis has (re)-opened new interest in nutrition and natural compounds in the prevention and treatment of this neuroinflammatory disease. The dietary amount and type of fat, probiotics and biologicals, salmon proteoglycans, phytoestrogens and protease inhibitor of soy, sodium chloride and trace elements, and fat soluble vitamins including D, A and E were all considered as disease-modifying nutraceuticals. Studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice suggest that poly-unsaturated fatty acids and their 'inflammation-resolving' metabolites and the gut microflora may reduce auto-aggressive immune cells and reduce progression or risk of relapse, and infection with whipworm eggs may positively change the gut-brain communication. Encouraged by the recent interest in multiple sclerosis-nutrition nature's pharmacy has been searched for novel compounds with anti-inflammatory, immune-modifying and antioxidative properties, the most interesting being the scorpion toxins that inhibit specific potassium channels of T cells and antioxidative compounds including the green tea flavonoid epigallocatechin-3-gallate, curcumin and the mustard oil glycoside from e.g. broccoli and sulforaphane. They mostly also inhibit pro-inflammatory signaling through NF-κB or toll-like receptors and stabilize the blood brain barrier. Disease modifying functions may also complement analgesic and anti-spastic effects of cannabis, its constituents, and of 'endocannabinoid enhancing' drugs or nutricals like inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase. Nutricals will not solve multiple sclerosis therapeutic challenges but possibly support pharmacological interventions or unearth novel structures. PMID:25435020

  19. Modified Sigmund sputtering theory: isotopic puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. L.; Zhang, L.

    2005-05-01

    The theory of anisotropic sputtering proposed by Zhang [Z.L. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 71 026101 (2005).] and [Z.L. Zhang and L. Zhang, Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids 159(5) 301 (2004).] has been generalized to sputtering of isotopic mixtures. The present theory (modified Sigmund theory) has been shown to fit numerous simulations and experimental measurements, including energy and angular distribution of sputtered atoms. In particular, the theory has successfully solved the isotope puzzle of sputtering induced by low energy and heavy ion bombardment.

  20. Development of modified FT (MFT) process

    SciTech Connect

    Jinglai Zhou; Zhixin Zhang; Wenjie Shen

    1995-12-31

    Two-Stage Modified FT (MFT) process has been developed for producing high-octane gasoline from coal-based syngas. The main R&D are focused on the development of catalysts and technologies process. Duration tests were finished in the single-tube reactor, pilot plant (100T/Y), and industrial demonstration plant (2000T/Y). A series of satisfactory results has been obtained in terms of operating reliability of equipments, performance of catalysts, purification of coal - based syngas, optimum operating conditions, properties of gasoline and economics etc. Further scaling - up commercial plant is being considered.

  1. A modified sulfate process to lunar oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    A modified sulfate process which produces oxygen from iron oxide-bearing minerals in lunar soil is under development. Reaction rates of ilmenite in varying strength sulfuric acid have been determined. Quantitative conversion of ilmenite to ferrous sulfate was observed over a range of temperatures and concentrations. Data has also been developed on the calcination of by-product sulfates. System engineering for overall operability and simplicity has begun, suggesting that a process separating the digestion and sulfate dissolution steps may offer an optimum process.

  2. Modified Iterative Extended Hueckel. 1: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronowitz, S.

    1980-01-01

    Iterative Extended Huekel is modified by inclusion of explicit effective internuclear and electronic interactions. The one electron energies are shown to obey a variational principle because of the form of the effective electronic interactions. The modifications permit mimicking of aspects of valence bond theory with the additional feature that the energies associated with valence bond type structures are explicitly calculated. In turn, a hybrid molecular, orbital valence, bond scheme is introduced which incorporates variant total molecular electronic density distributions similar to the way that Iterative Extended Hueckel incorporates atoms.

  3. [Genetically modified organisms (GMO): toxicological aspects].

    PubMed

    Ludwicki, J K

    1998-01-01

    The genetically modified organisms (GMO) are one of the major public concerns partially due to the activity of the non-governmental organizations which believe that public opinion must be duly informed on what leaves the laboratories and enters the environment or is proposed as food. This article discusses some major toxicological and nutritional aspects of GMO designed as food for humans. The range of current use of GMOs, potential hazards for humans, safety assessment, allergenic concerns, and some aspects of the use of marker genes are discussed in regard to human safety. The need for relevant regulations is stressed. PMID:9930018

  4. Aptamer-modified nanoparticles as biosensors.

    PubMed

    Lönne, Maren; Zhu, Guohong; Stahl, Frank; Walter, Johanna-Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Aptamers are short oligonucleotides that are capable of selectively binding to their corresponding target. Therefore, they can be thought of as a nucleic acid-based alternative to antibodies and can substitute for their amino acid-based counterparts in analytical applications, including as receptors in biosensors. Here they offer several advantages because their nucleic acid nature and their binding via an induced fit mechanism enable novel sensing strategies. In this article, the utilization of aptamers as novel bio-receptors in combination with nanoparticles as transducer elements is reviewed. In addition to these analytical applications, the medical relevance of aptamer-modified nanoparticles is described. PMID:23824145

  5. Modified Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation of Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm and a computer program that implements the algorithm that performs recursive hierarchical segmentation (RHSEG) of data have been developed. While the current implementation is for two-dimensional data having spatial characteristics (e.g., image, spectral, or spectral-image data), the generalized algorithm also applies to three-dimensional or higher dimensional data and also to data with no spatial characteristics. The algorithm and software are modified versions of a prior RHSEG algorithm and software, the outputs of which often contain processing-window artifacts including, for example, spurious segmentation-image regions along the boundaries of processing-window edges.

  6. The modified norwegian method of biceps tenodesis.

    PubMed

    Foad, Abdullah; Faruqui, Sami; Hanna, Courtney C

    2014-02-01

    This technical note describes a method of biceps tenodesis called the Modified Norwegian Method that is an all-arthroscopic, intra-articular, bony biceps tenodesis that uses a suture shuttle passer through an anterosuperolateral portal. It allows for easy passage of suture through the long head of the biceps tendon while one is viewing through the posterior portal. We believe this method to be a very reasonable and simple method of biceps tenodesis that has complication rates similar to those described for subpectoral and other methods of fixation. PMID:24843845

  7. Crystallization of modified hydroxyapatite on titanium implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Izmailov, R. R.; Ghyngazov, S. A.; Zaits, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    Carbonated-hydroxyapatite (CHA) and Si-hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) precipitation have been synthesized from the model bioliquid solutions (synovial fluid and SBF). It is found that all the samples synthesized from the model solutions are single-phase and represent hydroxyapatite. The crystallization of the modified hydroxyapatite on alloys of different composition, roughness and subjected to different treatment techniques was investigated. Irradiation of the titanium substrates with the deposited biomimetic coating can facilitate further growth of the crystal and regeneration of the surface.

  8. 40 CFR 721.10119 - Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10119 Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (PMN P-05-673) is subject to reporting under this...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10119 - Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10119 Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (PMN P-05-673) is subject to reporting under this...

  10. 9 CFR 77.11 - Modified accredited States or zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.11 Modified accredited States or zones. (a) The following are modified... test requirements contained in the “Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication” (January... reclassified as accreditation preparatory. (d) If tuberculosis is diagnosed within a modified accredited...

  11. 9 CFR 77.11 - Modified accredited States or zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.11 Modified accredited States or zones. (a) The following are modified... the “Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication” (January 22, 1999, edition), which is...) If tuberculosis is diagnosed within a modified accredited State or zone in an animal not...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9499 - Modified silicone resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified silicone resin. 721.9499... Substances § 721.9499 Modified silicone resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified silicone resin (PMN P-96-1649)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10120 - Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Siloxane modified alumina... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10120 Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (PMN P-05-687) is subject to reporting under this...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10119 - Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10119 Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (PMN P-05-673) is subject to reporting under this...

  20. 15 CFR 325.10 - Modifying or revoking a certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modifying or revoking a certificate... CERTIFICATES OF REVIEW § 325.10 Modifying or revoking a certificate. (a) Action subject to modification or revocation. The Secretary shall revoke a certificate, in whole or in part, or modify it, as the Secretary...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10128 - Modified imidazole (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified imidazole (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10128 Modified imidazole (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified imidazole (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10128 - Modified imidazole (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified imidazole (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10128 Modified imidazole (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified imidazole (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10128 - Modified imidazole (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified imidazole (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10128 Modified imidazole (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified imidazole (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10128 - Modified imidazole (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified imidazole (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10128 Modified imidazole (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified imidazole (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10128 - Modified imidazole (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified imidazole (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10128 Modified imidazole (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified imidazole (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6493 - Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amidoamine modified polyethylene... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6493 Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic). (a) Chemical... as an amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (PMN P-99-0645) is subject to reporting under...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6493 - Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amidoamine modified polyethylene... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6493 Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic). (a) Chemical... as an amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (PMN P-99-0645) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6493 - Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amidoamine modified polyethylene... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6493 Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic). (a) Chemical... as an amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (PMN P-99-0645) is subject to reporting under...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface of articles intended for use in contact...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6493 - Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amidoamine modified polyethylene... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6493 Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic). (a) Chemical... as an amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (PMN P-99-0645) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6493 - Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amidoamine modified polyethylene... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6493 Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic). (a) Chemical... as an amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (PMN P-99-0645) is subject to reporting under...

  16. Cell targeted gene delivery system based on modified pectin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus pectin modified with various amine groups have been studied for its potential as a novel non-viral gene delivery carrier. The modified cationic pectin was able to condense DNA and mediate transfection in a cell type specific manner. The modified pectin seems to be a promising carrier, attra...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  19. 48 CFR 9903.304 - Concurrent full and modified coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... may compel the use of cost accounting practices that are not required under modified coverage. Under these circumstances the cost accounting practices applicable to contracts subject to modified coverage... modified coverage. 9903.304 Section 9903.304 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10120 - Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Siloxane modified alumina... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10120 Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (PMN P-05-687) is subject to reporting under this...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10120 - Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Siloxane modified alumina... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10120 Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (PMN P-05-687) is subject to reporting under this...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10528 - Modified fluorinated acrylates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified fluorinated acrylates... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10528 Modified fluorinated acrylates (generic). (a) Chemical substances... modified fluorinated acrylates (PMNs P-12-30, P-12-31, and P-12-32) are subject to reporting under...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10528 - Modified fluorinated acrylates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified fluorinated acrylates... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10528 Modified fluorinated acrylates (generic). (a) Chemical substances... modified fluorinated acrylates (PMNs P-12-30, P-12-31, and P-12-32) are subject to reporting under...

  4. 7 CFR 3560.628 - Establishing and modifying rental charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing and modifying rental charges. 3560.628 Section 3560.628 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... § 3560.628 Establishing and modifying rental charges. If it becomes necessary to establish or modify...

  5. 7 CFR 3560.628 - Establishing and modifying rental charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishing and modifying rental charges. 3560.628 Section 3560.628 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... § 3560.628 Establishing and modifying rental charges. If it becomes necessary to establish or modify...

  6. 7 CFR 3560.628 - Establishing and modifying rental charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishing and modifying rental charges. 3560.628 Section 3560.628 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... § 3560.628 Establishing and modifying rental charges. If it becomes necessary to establish or modify...

  7. 7 CFR 3560.628 - Establishing and modifying rental charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishing and modifying rental charges. 3560.628 Section 3560.628 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... § 3560.628 Establishing and modifying rental charges. If it becomes necessary to establish or modify...

  8. 7 CFR 3560.628 - Establishing and modifying rental charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishing and modifying rental charges. 3560.628 Section 3560.628 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... § 3560.628 Establishing and modifying rental charges. If it becomes necessary to establish or modify...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified phenolic resin...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN...

  17. A New Grid Bar Design for a Modified Cylinder Cleaner

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grid bars having a chisel shape and sharp cutting edge were designed and installed in a modified cylinder cleaner. The modified cleaner’s seed cotton and lint cleaning performances were evaluated in two tests. Results indicated that seed-cotton cleaning efficiency of the modified cylinder cleaner ...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10119 - Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10119 Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (PMN P-05-673) is subject to reporting under this...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10119 - Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10119 Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (PMN P-05-673) is subject to reporting under this...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  1. Laparoscopic Pyloromyotomy: A Modified Simple Technique

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Mohammed Omer; Omran, Yasser Al; Al-Hindi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background: A modified laparoscopic pyloromyotomy (LP) technique may provide an alternative to treating infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) by improving operative timing with reduction of postoperative complication rates, compared with a three-port trocar system. Methods: Thirty-three infants were treated with IHPS at a single-centre between January 2002 and December 2011. The local surgical incision to the pylorus was performed according to Ramstedt’s pyloromyotomy; but with a two-port trocar system (umbilical and right lower abdominal crease ports), following a controlled stab wound into the epigastric region and a 3mm incision to allow introduction of ophthalmic knife. With the aid of atraumatic forceps and camera guidance, the ophthalmic knife was used to carefully incise the seromuscular layer, which allows improved manual tactile sensation compared to ergonomic laparoscopic spreaders. A Benson pyloric spreader was then used to further separate the pyloric muscle layer to complete the procedure. Results: In all 33 infants treated, LP was safely performed with no evidence of duodenal or mucosal perforation with complete pyloromyotomy achieved in each case. The postoperative course was rather uneventful apart from an umbilical wound infection. Conclusion: This modified approach is simple, safe and allows improved operative timing, whilst increasing surgeon’s confidence by tactile sensation. PMID:26793595

  2. Fibroblasts adhesion on ion beam modified polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švorčík, V.; Tomášová, P.; Dvořánková, B.; Hnatowicz, V.; Ochsner, R.; Ryssel, H.

    2004-02-01

    Polyethylene (PE) was irradiated with 15 keV O +, P + and Ar + ions to the fluences from 3 × 10 12 to 1 × 10 15 cm -2. The changes of surface structure and polarity and oxygen concentration were examined on pristine and as-irradiated PE. The in vitro adhesion of rat 3T3 fibroblasts on the modified PE was evaluated 24 h after inoculation. Degradation of PE is manifested by the creation of conjugated double bonds and oxidation of the PE main chain. It was proved that the implanted P atoms are chemically bound onto degraded polymer chain. Wettability of the polymer surface is affected by the structure and composition of the modified surface layer. In comparison with pristine PE (i) higher cell adhesion is observed on implanted PE and (ii) the cells cultivated on implanted PE are larger and their adherence is significantly more homogeneous. The enhancement of 3T3 cells adhesion is highest and smallest for PE implanted with O + and Ar + ions, respectively. Highest cell adhesion was observed on PE implanted to the fluence of 1 × 10 13 cm -2 regardless of the ion specie. It was shown that the cell adhesion is related to the wettability of the PE surface and that there exists an optimal wettability with respect to the cell adhesion.

  3. Chemically modified primers for improved multiplex PCR

    PubMed Central

    Shum, Jonathan; Paul, Natasha

    2009-01-01

    Multiplexed PCR, the amplification of multiple targets in a single reaction, presents a new set of challenges that further complicate more traditional PCR set-ups. These complications include a greater probability for non-specific amplicon formation and for imbalanced amplification of different targets, each of which can compromise quantification and detection of multiple targets. Despite these difficulties, multiplex PCR is frequently used in such applications as pathogen detection, RNA quantification, mutation analysis and now, next generation DNA sequencing. Herein, we investigate the utility of primers with one or two thermolabile 4-oxo-1-pentyl phosphotriester modifications in improving multiplex PCR performance. Initial endpoint and real-time analyses reveal a decrease in off-target amplification and subsequent increase in amplicon yield. Furthermore, the use of modified primers in multiplex set-ups revealed a greater limit of detection and more uniform amplification of each target as compared to unmodified primers. Overall, the thermolabile modified primers present a novel and exciting avenue in improving multiplex PCR performance. PMID:19258004

  4. Modified Actions for Gravity: Theory and Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiriou, Thomas P.

    2007-10-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of gravitational theories which can be seen as modifications or generalisations of General Relativity. The motivation for considering such theories, stemming from Cosmology, High Energy Physics and Astrophysics is thoroughly discussed (cosmological problems, dark energy and dark matter problems, the lack of success so far in obtaining a successful formulation for Quantum Gravity). The basic principles which a gravitational theory should follow, and their geometrical interpretation, are analysed in a broad perspective which highlights the basic assumptions of General Relativity and suggests possible modifications which might be made. A number of such possible modifications are presented, focusing on certain specific classes of theories: scalar-tensor theories, metric f(R) theories, Palatini f(R) theories, metric-affine f(R) theories and Gauss--Bonnet theories. The characteristics of these theories are fully explored and attention is payed to issues of dynamical equivalence between them. Also, cosmological phenomenology within the realm of each of the theories is discussed and it is shown that they can potentially address the well-known cosmological problems. A number of viability criteria are presented: cosmological observations, Solar System tests, stability criteria, existence of exact solutions for common vacuum or matter configurations etc. Finally, future perspectives in the field of modified gravity are discussed and the possibility for going beyond a trial-and-error approach to modified gravity is explored.

  5. Boron modified molybdenum silicide and products

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, M.K.; Akinc, M.

    1999-02-02

    A boron-modified molybdenum silicide material is disclosed having the composition comprising about 80 to about 90 weight % Mo, about 10 to about 20 weight % Si, and about 0.1 to about 2 weight % B and a multiphase microstructure including Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} phase as at least one microstructural component effective to impart good high temperature creep resistance. The boron-modified molybdenum silicide material is fabricated into such products as electrical components, such as resistors and interconnects, that exhibit oxidation resistance to withstand high temperatures in service in air as a result of electrical power dissipation, electrical resistance heating elements that can withstand high temperatures in service in air and other oxygen-bearing atmospheres and can span greater distances than MoSi{sub 2} heating elements due to improved creep resistance, and high temperature structural members and other fabricated components that can withstand high temperatures in service in air or other oxygen-bearing atmospheres while retaining creep resistance associated with Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} for structural integrity. 7 figs.

  6. Boron modified molybdenum silicide and products

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Mitchell K.; Akinc, Mufit

    1999-02-02

    A boron-modified molybdenum silicide material having the composition comprising about 80 to about 90 weight % Mo, about 10 to about 20 weight % Si, and about 0.1 to about 2 weight % B and a multiphase microstructure including Mo.sub.5 Si.sub.3 phase as at least one microstructural component effective to impart good high temperature creep resistance. The boron-modified molybdenum silicide material is fabricated into such products as electrical components, such as resistors and interconnects, that exhibit oxidation resistance to withstand high temperatures in service in air as a result of electrical power dissipation, electrical resistance heating elements that can withstand high temperatures in service in air and other oxygen-bearing atmospheres and can span greater distances than MoSi.sub.2 heating elements due to improved creep resistance, and high temperature structural members and other fabricated components that can withstand high temperatures in service in air or other oxygen-bearing atmospheres while retaining creep resistance associated with Mo.sub.5 Si.sub.3 for structural integrity.

  7. Processes Modifying Cratered Terrains on Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. M.; Howard, A. D.; White, O. L.; Umurhan, O. M.; Schenk, P.; Beyer, R. A.; McKinnon, W. B.; Singer, K. N.; Spencer, J. R.; Stern, A.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Young, L. A.; Ennico Smith, K.; Olkin, C.

    2015-12-01

    The July encounter with Pluto by the New Horizons spacecraft permitted imaging of its cratered terrains with scales as high as ~100 m/pixel, and in stereo. In the initial download of images, acquired at 2.2 km/pixel, widely distributed impact craters up to 260 km diameter are seen in the near-encounter hemisphere. Many of the craters appear to be significantly degraded or infilled. Some craters appear partially destroyed, perhaps by erosion such as associated with the retreat of scarps. Bright ice-rich deposits highlight some crater rims and/or floors. While the cratered terrains identified in the initial downloaded images are generally seen on high-to-intermediate albedo surfaces, the dark equatorial terrain informally known as Cthulhu Regio is also densely cratered. We will explore the range of possible processes that might have operated (or still be operating) to modify the landscape from that of an ancient pristinely cratered state to the present terrains revealed in New Horizons images. The sequence, intensity, and type of processes that have modified ancient landscapes are, among other things, the record of climate and volatile evolution throughout much of the Pluto's existence. The deciphering of this record will be discussed.

  8. Processes Modifying Cratered Terrains on Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Howard, Alan D.; White, Oliver L.; Umurhan, Orkan M.; Schenk, Paul M.; Beyer, Ross A.; McKinnon, William B.; Singer, Kelsi N.; Spencer, John; Stern, S. A.; Weaver, H. A.; Young, Leslie A.; Ennico, Kimberly; Olkin, Cathy B.

    2015-11-01

    The July encounter with Pluto by the New Horizons spacecraft permitted imaging of its cratered terrains with scales as high as ~100 m/pixel, and in stereo. In the initial download of images, acquired at 2.2 km/pixel, widely distributed impact craters up to 260 km diameter are seen in the near-encounter hemisphere. Many of the craters appear to be significantly degraded or infilled. Some craters appear partially destroyed, perhaps by erosion such as associated with the retreat of scarps. Bright ice-rich deposits highlight some crater rims and/or floors. While the cratered terrains identified in the initial downloaded images are generally seen on high-to-intermediate albedo surfaces, the dark equatorial terrain informally known as Cthulhu Regio is also densely cratered. We will explore the range of possible processes that might have operated (or still be operating) to modify the landscape from that of an ancient pristinely cratered state to the present terrains revealed in New Horizons images. The sequence, intensity, and type of processes that have modified ancient landscapes are, among other things, the record of climate and volatile evolution throughout much of the Pluto’s existence. The deciphering of this record will be discussed. This work was supported by NASA's New Horizons project.

  9. Organically modified clay removes oil from water

    SciTech Connect

    Alther, G.R.

    1995-12-31

    When bentonite or other clays and zeolite are modified with quaternary amines, they become organophilic. Such modified bentonites are used to remove mechanically emulsified oil and grease, and other sparingly soluble organics. Types of oil found in water can include fats, lubricants, cutting fluids, heavy hydrocarbons such as tars, grease, crude oil, diesel oils; and light hydrocarbons such as kerosene, jet fuel, and gasoline. If the organoclay is granulated, it is placed into a liquid phase carbon filter vessel to remove FOGs (Free Oil and Grease) and chlorinated hydrocarbons. In this application the clay is mixed with anthrazite to prevent early plugging of the filter by oil or grease droplets. In batch systems a powdered organoclay is employed. Organoclay removes mechanically emulsified oil and grease at 5--7 times the rate of activated carbon, or 50% of its dry weight. Oil and grease and other large sparingly soluble chlorinated hydrocarbons and NOMs (Natural Organic Matter) blind the pores of activated carbon (and ion-exchange resins), reducing its effectiveness significantly. It is therefore economically advantageous for the end user to prepolish the water before it enters carbon vessels. Operating costs can often be reduced by 50% or more.

  10. Adakites from collision-modified lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haschke, M.; Ben-Avraham, Z.

    2005-08-01

    Adakitic melts from Papua New Guinea (PNG) show adakitic geochemical characteristics, yet their geodynamic context is unclear. Modern adakites are associated with hot-slab melting and/or remelting of orogenic mafic underplate at convergent margins. Rift-propagation over collision-modified lithosphere may explain the PNG adakite enigma, as PNG was influenced by rapid creation and subduction of oceanic microplates since Mesozoic times. In a new (rift) tectonic regime, decompressional rift melts encountered and melted remnant mafic eclogite and/or garnet-amphibolite slab fragments in arc collisional-modified mantle, and partially equilibrated with metasomatized mantle. Alternatively, hot-slab melting in a proposed newborn subduction zone along the Trobriand Trough could generate adakitic melts, but recent seismic P-wave tomographic models lack evidence for subducting oceanic lithosphere in the adakite melt region; however they do show deep subduction zone remnants as a number of high P-wave anomalies at lithospheric depths, which supports our proposed scenario.

  11. Genetically Modified (GM) Foods and Ethical Eating.

    PubMed

    Dizon, Francis; Costa, Sarah; Rock, Cheryl; Harris, Amanda; Husk, Cierra; Mei, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    The ability to manipulate and customize the genetic code of living organisms has brought forth the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and consumption of genetically modified (GM) foods. The potential for GM foods to improve the efficiency of food production, increase customer satisfaction, and provide potential health benefits has contributed to the rapid incorporation of GM foods into the American diet. However, GM foods and GMOs are also a topic of ethical debate. The use of GM foods and GM technology is surrounded by ethical concerns and situational judgment, and should ideally adhere to the ethical standards placed upon food and nutrition professionals, such as: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and autonomy. The future of GM foods involves many aspects and trends, including enhanced nutritional value in foods, strict labeling laws, and potential beneficial economic conditions in developing nations. This paper briefly reviews the origin and background of GM foods, while delving thoroughly into 3 areas: (1) GMO labeling, (2) ethical concerns, and (3) health and industry applications. This paper also examines the relationship between the various applications of GM foods and their corresponding ethical issues. Ethical concerns were evaluated in the context of the code of ethics developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) that govern the work of food and nutrition professionals. Overall, there is a need to stay vigilant about the many ethical implications of producing and consuming GM foods and GMOs. PMID:26709962

  12. Observable physical modes of modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojjati, Alireza; Pogosian, Levon; Silvestri, Alessandra; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2014-04-01

    At linear order in cosmological perturbations, departures from the growth in the cosmological standard model can be quantified in terms of two functions of redshift z and Fourier number k. Previous studies have performed principal component forecasts for several choices of these two functions based on expected capabilities of upcoming large structure surveys. It is typically found that there will be many well-constrained degrees of freedom. However, not all and probably most of these degrees of freedom were physical if the parametrization had allowed for an arbitrary k dependence. In this paper, we restrict the k dependence to that allowed in local theories of gravity under the quasistatic approximation, i.e. ratios of polynomials in k, and identify the best constrained features in the (z ,k) dependence of the commonly considered functions μ and γ as measured by a Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)-like weak lensing survey. We estimate the uncertainty in the measurements of the eigenmodes of modified growth. We find that imposing the theoretical prior on k dependence reduces the number of degrees of freedom and the covariance between parameters. On the other hand, imaging surveys like LSST are not as sensitive to the z dependence as they are to the k dependence of the modified growth functions. This trade-off provides us with, more or less, the same number of well-constrained eigenmodes (with respect to our prior) as found before, but now these modes are physical.

  13. Numerical simulations of Modified Newtonian Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candlish, G. N.; Smith, R.; Fellhauer, M.

    2016-05-01

    The ΛCDM standard cosmological model is strongly supported by multiple lines of evidence, particularly from observations at large scales such as the CMB and large scale structure. There are some indications, however, of problems at smaller scales. An alternative to the CDM approach is to modify the gravitational force, as exemplified by the MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) idea. While evidence suggests MOND cannot account for dynamics at all scales without dark matter, it has been successful at galactic scales. Due to the complexity of the theory, however, most tests of MOND have extended no further than using a simple scaling relation to determine rotation curves or velocity dispersions. Therefore, to test the concept more thoroughly we require numerical simulations. We discuss the development and testing of a new N-body solver, using two distinct formulations of MOND, that is incorporated into the RAMSES code. The theory of MOND as a modification of Newtonian gravity is briefly summarised. We then show how it is implemented in the code, providing an example of an idealised test case and future applications.

  14. Photothermal effects of immunologically modified carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griswold, Ryan T.; Henderson, Brock; Goddard, Jessica; Tan, Yongqiang; Hode, Tomas; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2013-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes have a great potential in the biomedical applications. To use carbon nanotubes in the treatment of cancer, we synthesized an immunologically modified single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) using a novel immunomodifier, glycated chitosan (GC), as an effective surfactant for SWNT. This new composition SWNT-GC was stable due to the strong non-covalent binding between SWNT and GC. The structure of SWNT-GC is presented in this report. The photothermal effect of SWNT-GC was investigated under irradiation of a near-infrared laser. SWNT-GC retained the optical properties of SWNT and the immunological properties of GC. Specifically, the SWNT-GC could selectively absorb a 980-nm light and induce desirable thermal effects in tissue culture and in animals. It could also induce tumor cell destruction, controlled by the laser settings and the doses of SWNT and GC. Laser+SWNT-GC treatment could also induce strong expression of heat shock proteins on the surface of tumor cells. This immunologically modified carbon nanotube could be used for selective photothermal interactions in noninvasive tumor treatment.

  15. Modified Friedmann equations from Debye entropic gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheykhi, A.; Teimoori, Z.

    2012-05-01

    A remarkable new idea on the origin of gravity was recently proposed by Verlinde who claimed that the laws of gravitation are no longer fundamental, but rather emerge naturally as an entropic force. In Verlinde derivation, the equipartition law of energy on the holographic screen plays a crucial role. However, the equipartition law of energy fails at the very low temperature. Therefore, the formalism of the entropic force should be modified while the temperature of the holographic screen is very low. Considering the Debye entropic gravity and following the strategy of Verlinde, we derive the modified Newton's law of gravitation and the corresponding Friedmann equations which are valid in all range of temperature. In the limit of strong gravitational field, i.e. high temperature compared to Debye temperature, T » T D , one recovers the standard Newton's law and Friedmann equations. We also generalize our study to the entropy corrected area law and derive the dynamical cosmological equations for all range of temperature. Some limits of the obtained results are also studied.

  16. Disease-modifying drugs in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, Laura; Scarpini, Elio; Galimberti, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia. The early stages of AD are characterized by short-term memory loss. Once the disease progresses, patients experience difficulties in sense of direction, oral communication, calculation, ability to learn, and cognitive thinking. The median duration of the disease is 10 years. The pathology is characterized by deposition of amyloid beta peptide (so-called senile plaques) and tau protein in the form of neurofibrillary tangles. Currently, two classes of drugs are licensed by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of AD, ie, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for mild to moderate AD, and memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, for moderate and severe AD. Treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or memantine aims at slowing progression and controlling symptoms, whereas drugs under development are intended to modify the pathologic steps leading to AD. Herein, we review the clinical features, pharmacologic properties, and cost-effectiveness of the available acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, and focus on disease-modifying drugs aiming to interfere with the amyloid beta peptide, including vaccination, passive immunization, and tau deposition. PMID:24353405

  17. Disease-modifying strategies for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Lorraine V; Kalia, Suneil K; Lang, Anthony E

    2015-09-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an increasingly prevalent and progressively disabling neurodegenerative disease. The impact of PD on patients and their families as well as its burden on health care systems could be substantially reduced by disease-modifying therapies that slow the rate of neurodegeneration or stop the disease process. Multiple agents have been studied in clinical trials designed to assess disease modification in PD, but all have failed. Over the last 3 years, clinical trials investigating the potential of adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV)-neuturin, coenzyme Q10, creatine, pramipexole, and pioglitazone reported negative findings or futility. Despite these disappointments, progress has been made by expanding our understanding of molecular pathways involved in PD to reveal new targets, and by developing novel animal models of PD for preclinical studies. Currently, at least eight ongoing clinical trials are testing the promise of isradipine, caffeine, nicotine, glutathione, AAV2-glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), as well as active and passive immunization against α-synuclein (α-Syn). In this review, we summarize the clinical trials of disease-modifying therapies for PD that were published since 2013 as well as clinical trials currently in progress. We also discuss promising approaches and ongoing challenges in this area of PD research. PMID:26208210

  18. Processes Modifying Cratered Terrains on Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The July encounter with Pluto by the New Horizons spacecraft permitted imaging of its cratered terrains with scales as high as approximately 100 m/pixel, and in stereo. In the initial download of images, acquired at 2.2 km/pixel, widely distributed impact craters up to 260 km diameter are seen in the near-encounter hemisphere. Many of the craters appear to be significantly degraded or infilled. Some craters appear partially destroyed, perhaps by erosion such as associated with the retreat of scarps. Bright ice-rich deposits highlight some crater rims and/or floors. While the cratered terrains identified in the initial downloaded images are generally seen on high-to-intermediate albedo surfaces, the dark equatorial terrain informally known as Cthulhu Regio is also densely cratered. We will explore the range of possible processes that might have operated (or still be operating) to modify the landscape from that of an ancient pristinely cratered state to the present terrains revealed in New Horizons images. The sequence, intensity, and type of processes that have modified ancient landscapes are, among other things, the record of climate and volatile evolution throughout much of the Pluto's existence. The deciphering of this record will be discussed. This work was supported by NASA's New Horizons project.

  19. MODIFIED GRAVITY SPINS UP GALACTIC HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jounghun; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Li, Baojiu; Koyama, Kazuya

    2013-01-20

    We investigate the effect of modified gravity on the specific angular momentum of galactic halos by analyzing the halo catalogs at z = 0 from high-resolution N-body simulations for a f(R) gravity model that meets the solar-system constraint. It is shown that the galactic halos in the f(R) gravity model tend to acquire significantly higher specific angular momentum than those in the standard {Lambda}CDM model. The largest difference in the specific angular momentum distribution between these two models occurs for the case of isolated galactic halos with mass less than 10{sup 11} h {sup -1} M {sub Sun }, which are likely least shielded by the chameleon screening mechanism. As the specific angular momentum of galactic halos is rather insensitive to other cosmological parameters, it can in principle be an independent discriminator of modified gravity. We speculate a possibility of using the relative abundance of low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs) as a test of general relativity given that the formation of the LSBGs occurs in fast spinning dark halos.

  20. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Novick, Scott; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-01-15

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  1. MATERNAL EFFECTS IN ADVANCED HYBRIDS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of fitness traits potentially impacted by gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to compatible relatives is of interest in risk assessments for GM crops. Reciprocal crosses were made between GM canola, Brassica napus cv. RaideRR that expresses CP4 EPSPS fo...

  2. Position of modifying groups on starch chains of octenylsuccinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starches with degree of substitution of 0.018 (OS-S-L) and 0.092 (OS-S-H) were prepared from granular native waxy maize starch in an aqueous slurry system. The substitution distribution of OS groups was investigated by enzyme hydrolysis followed by chromatogr...

  3. Modified Interior Distance Functions (Theory and Methods)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polyak, Roman A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we introduced and developed the theory of Modified Interior Distance Functions (MIDF's). The MIDF is a Classical Lagrangian (CL) for a constrained optimization problem which is equivalent to the initial one and can be obtained from the latter by monotone transformation both the objective function and constraints. In contrast to the Interior Distance Functions (IDF's), which played a fundamental role in Interior Point Methods (IPM's), the MIDF's are defined on an extended feasible set and along with center, have two extra tools, which control the computational process: the barrier parameter and the vector of Lagrange multipliers. The extra tools allow to attach to the MEDF's very important properties of Augmented Lagrangeans. One can consider the MIDFs as Interior Augmented Lagrangeans. It makes MIDF's similar in spirit to Modified Barrier Functions (MBF's), although there is a fundamental difference between them both in theory and methods. Based on MIDF's theory, Modified Center Methods (MCM's) have been developed and analyzed. The MCM's find an unconstrained minimizer in primal space and update the Lagrange multipliers, while both the center and the barrier parameter can be fixed or updated at each step. The MCM's convergence was investigated, and their rate of convergence was estimated. The extension of the feasible set and the special role of the Lagrange multipliers allow to develop MCM's, which produce, in case of nondegenerate constrained optimization, a primal and dual sequences that converge to the primal-dual solutions with linear rate, even when both the center and the barrier parameter are fixed. Moreover, every Lagrange multipliers update shrinks the distance to the primal dual solution by a factor 0 less than gamma less than 1 which can be made as small as one wants by choosing a fixed interior point as a 'center' and a fixed but large enough barrier parameter. The numericai realization of MCM leads to the Newton MCM (NMCM). The

  4. Chemically modified flexible strips as electrochemical biosensors.

    PubMed

    Thota, Raju; Ganesh, V

    2014-09-21

    A flexible and disposable strip sensor for non-enzymatic glucose detection is demonstrated in this work. The strips are prepared by using chemical modification processes followed by a simple electroless deposition of copper. Essentially, polyester overhead projector (OHP) transparent films are modified with a monolayer of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and polyaniline (PANI) conducting polymer. Later, nanostructured copper is deposited onto this modified film. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies are used for the structural, morphological and crystallinity characterization of the modified films. Electrochemical techniques, namely cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA), are employed for the non-enzymatic detection of glucose. These studies clearly reveal the formation of homogeneous, close-packed spherical Cu particles converged into uniform film that exhibits a good catalytic activity towards the oxidation of glucose. The Cu/PANI/APTMS/OHP sensor displays a remarkable enhancement in the oxidation current density, a very high sensitivity value of 2.8456 mA cm(-2) per mM, and a linear concentration range from 100 μM to 6.5 mM associated with glucose detection. Detection limit is estimated to be 5 μM and the response time of the sensor is determined to be less than 5 s. For comparison, similar studies are performed without PANI, namely Cu/APTMS/OHP films for glucose detection. In this case, a sensitivity value of 2.4457 mA cm(-2) per mM and a linear concentration range of 100 μM-3 mM are estimated. The higher performance characteristics observed in the case of Cu/PANI/APTMS/OHP are attributed to the synergistic effects of the conducting polymer acting as an electron facilitator and the nanostructured Cu films. These disposable, flexible and low-cost strip sensors have also been applied to the detection of glucose in clinical blood serum samples and the results obtained agree very well with the actual glucose

  5. Modified Thoracoscopic Hepatectomy For Segment VIII

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongyu; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Peng, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although previous studies have reported the use of total thoracoscopic hepatectomy (TH) for malignant liver tumors, it is technically impossible to perform intraoperative ultrasonography (IUSO) to exclude intrahepatic metastasis for the whole liver via a thoracic approach. Therefore, total TH may be inappropriate for these patients. We here report the first case of modified TH for a malignant liver tumor in China. The patient was a 26-year-old man with a 10-year HBV infection. Preoperative CT showed a 1.2 cm × 0.9 cm mass located in segment VIII. His alpha-fetal protein level was 444 ng/mL. Child–Pugh was Grade (A, 6), whereas an ICG-15 test yielded 2.7%. HCC was diagnosed preoperatively. The indications for TH were difficult tumor location, HCC, and a young patient with good resilience. The modified TH included 2 steps: (1) the patient was placed in a supine position. IUSO was used to locate the tumor in segment VIII and determine that intrahepatic metastasis had not occurred. The hepatoduodenal ligament was hanged over using a Pringle maneuver; (2) patient was then placed in the left-lateral position with single-lung ventilation. Three trocars were placed into the right thoracic cavity. The intra-thoracic space was observed using a regular 10-mm rigid scope. The diaphragm was transected and retracted. IUSO was used again to confirm the tumor location. Under the Pringle maneuver (once every 10 min), the superficial portion of the liver was transected by ultrasonic shears, whereas the deeper tissue was transected by LigaSure. Bipolar was used for hemostasis. The specimen was put into a retrieval bag and removed from the abdominal trocar. The diaphragm was repaired by running suturing. The operation time was 260 minutes and estimated blood loss was 30 mL. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 5 with normal liver function. No complications arose. Total TH may be inappropriate for malignant liver tumors due to the limitation of IUSO

  6. Tulip, a Modified Munsell Color Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Uri

    1990-03-01

    The "Tulip" is a modified Munsell Color Space in which equal hue spacing is converted to variable hue spacing, reflecting the differential sensitivity to hue as a function of value, for a fixed chroma. Number of discernible hues, when plotted on a hue-value plane, results in the proposed tulip shape, with curved lines delineating the boundaries between hues. By means of a signal detection experiment, the tulip for yellow-green and for blue is determined. It is shown that more distinct hues of yellow-green are discernible at a high value than at low value. Conversely, for blue, more distinct hues are discernible at low value than at high value.

  7. Surface modified amorphous ribbon based magnetoimpedance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Kurlyandskaya, Galina V; Fal Miyar, Vanessa

    2007-04-15

    Magnetoimpedance (MI) changes due to surface modification of the sensitive element caused by human urine, were studied with the aim of creating a robust biosensor working on a principle of electrochemical magnetoimpedance spectroscopy. A biosensor prototype with an as-quenched amorphous ribbon sensitive element was designed and calibrated for a frequency range of 0.5-10 MHz at a current intensity of 60 mA. Measurements as a function of the exposure time were made both in a regime where chemical surface modification and MI measurements were separated as well as in a regime where they were done simultaneously. The MI variation was explained by the change of the surface magnetic anisotropy. It was shown that the magnetoimpedance effect can be successfully employed as a new option to probe the electric features of the Fe(5)Co(70)Si(15)B(10) amorphous ribbon magnetic electrode surface modified by human urine. PMID:16914305

  8. Astrophysical black holes in screened modified gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul; Muir, Jessica; Gregory, Ruth E-mail: r.a.w.gregory@durham.ac.uk E-mail: jlmuir@umich.edu

    2014-08-01

    Chameleon, environmentally dependent dilaton, and symmetron gravity are three models of modified gravity in which the effects of the additional scalar degree of freedom are screened in dense environments. They have been extensively studied in laboratory, cosmological, and astrophysical contexts. In this paper, we present a preliminary investigation into whether additional constraints can be provided by studying these scalar fields around black holes. By looking at the properties of a static, spherically symmetric black hole, we find that the presence of a non-uniform matter distribution induces a non-constant scalar profile in chameleon and dilaton, but not necessarily symmetron gravity. An order of magnitude estimate shows that the effects of these profiles on in-falling test particles will be sub-leading compared to gravitational waves and hence observationally challenging to detect.

  9. Modified methods of stellar magnetic field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholtygin, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The standard methods of the magnetic field measurement, based on an analysis of the relation between the Stokes V-parameter and the first derivative of the total line profile intensity, were modified by applying a linear integral operator \\hat{L} to both sides of this relation. As the operator \\hat{L}, the operator of the wavelet transform with DOG-wavelets is used. The key advantage of the proposed method is an effective suppression of the noise contribution to the line profile and the Stokes parameter V. The efficiency of the method has been studied using model line profiles with various noise contributions. To test the proposed method, the spectropolarimetric observations of the A0 star α2 CVn, the Of?p star HD 148937, and the A0 supergiant HD 92207 were used. The longitudinal magnetic field strengths calculated by our method appeared to be in good agreement with those determined by other methods.

  10. mbb_emcee: Modified Blackbody MCMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Mbb_emcee fits modified blackbodies to photometry data using an affine invariant MCMC. It has large number of options which, for example, allow computation of the IR luminosity or dustmass as part of the fit. Carrying out a fit produces a HDF5 output file containing the results, which can either be read directly, or read back into a mbb_results object for analysis. Upper and lower limits can be imposed as well as Gaussian priors on the model parameters. These additions are useful for analyzing poorly constrained data. In addition to standard Python packages scipy, numpy, and cython, mbb_emcee requires emcee (ascl:1303.002), Astropy (ascl:1304.002), h5py, and for unit tests, nose.

  11. Modified kernel-based nonlinear feature extraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.; Perkins, S. J.; Theiler, J. P.; Ahalt, S.

    2002-01-01

    Feature Extraction (FE) techniques are widely used in many applications to pre-process data in order to reduce the complexity of subsequent processes. A group of Kernel-based nonlinear FE ( H E ) algorithms has attracted much attention due to their high performance. However, a serious limitation that is inherent in these algorithms -- the maximal number of features extracted by them is limited by the number of classes involved -- dramatically degrades their flexibility. Here we propose a modified version of those KFE algorithms (MKFE), This algorithm is developed from a special form of scatter-matrix, whose rank is not determined by the number of classes involved, and thus breaks the inherent limitation in those KFE algorithms. Experimental results suggest that MKFE algorithm is .especially useful when the training set is small.

  12. Nonsingular Attitude Filtering Using Modified Rodrigues Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2009-10-01

    A method to estimate the general rigid body attitude using a minimal modified Rodrigues parameters (MRP) coordinate set is presented. The singularity avoidance technique is based on the stereographic projection properties of the MRP set, and makes use of a simple mapping relationship between MRP representations. Previous work has used the MRP duality to avoid singular attitude descriptions but has ignored the associated covariance transformation. This article presents a mapping to transform the state covariance matrix between these two representations as the attitude description is mapped between the two possible MRP sets. Second-order covariance transformations suitable for divided difference filtering are also provided. The MRP filter formulation based on extended Kalman filtering and divided difference filtering is compared with a standard multiplicative quaternion Kalman filter in an example problem.

  13. Modified mixture of experts for diabetes diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ubeyli, Elif Derya

    2009-08-01

    Diagnosis tasks are among the most interesting activities in which to implement intelligent systems. The major objective of the paper is to be a guide for the readers, who want to develop an automated decision support system for detection of diabetics and subjects having risk factors of diabetes. The purpose was to determine an optimum classification scheme with high diagnostic accuracy for this problem. Several different classification algorithms were tested and their performances in detection of diabetics were compared. The performance of the classification algorithms was illustrated on the Pima Indians diabetes data set. The present research demonstrated that the modified mixture of experts (MME) achieved diagnostic accuracies which were higher than that of the other automated diagnostic systems. PMID:19697696

  14. Zolpidem modified-release in insomnia.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Cynthia; Neill, Jason; Breden, Ericka

    2007-01-01

    Zolpidem modified-release (MR) is the first hypnotic agent to be marketed in an extended-release formulation. Zolpidem MR is a two-layered, biphasic release tablet indicated for the management of induction of sleep and sleep maintenance. The pharmacokinetics of the drug are similar to those of immediate-release zolpidem. Two double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trials demonstrated efficacy in adults and elderly patients treated with zolpidem MR for 3 weeks without significant impairment in next-day psychomotor functioning. The most common adverse effects with zolpidem MR were dizziness, somnolence, and headache. A starting dose of zolpidem MR 12.5 mg is recommended for adults and 6.25 mg for elderly patients. PMID:19300582

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Modified Phenylethynyl Imides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Chang, A. C.

    1998-01-01

    As an ongoing effort to develop structural adhesives for high-performance aerospace applications, recent work has focused on phenylethynyl terminated imide (PETI) oligomers. The work reported herein involves the synthesis and characterization of a series of phenylethynyl containing oligomers designated LARC(TM) MPEI (modified phenylethynyl imide). These oligomers presumably contain mixtures of linear, branched and star-shaped molecules. The fully imidized polymers exhibited minimum melt viscosities as low as 600 poise at 335 C, significantly lower than equivalent molecular weight linear materials. Ti/Ti lap shear specimens processed at 288 C under 15 psi showed tensile shear strengths as high as approx. 6000 psi and 5200 psi at ambient temperature and 177 C respectively. The chemistry and properties of these new MPEIs are presented and compared with an optimized linear PETI, LARC(TM)PETI-5.

  16. Modified Gravity and the origin of inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, J. W.; Toth, V. T.

    2009-05-01

    Modified gravity theory is known to violate Birkhoff's theorem. We explore a key consequence of this violation, the effect of distant matter in the Universe on the motion of test particles. We find that when a particle is accelerated, a force is experienced that is proportional to the particle's mass and acceleration and acts in the direction opposite to that of the acceleration. We identify this force with inertia. At very low accelerations, our inertial law deviates slightly from that of Newton, yielding a testable prediction that may be verified with relatively simple experiments. Our conclusions apply to all gravity theories that reduce to a Yukawa-like force in the weak-field approximation.

  17. Modified mandated choice for organ procurement.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, P; Draper, H

    2003-06-01

    Presumed consent to organ donation looks increasingly unlikely to be a palatable option for increasing organ procurement in the UK following the publication of the report into events at Alder Hey and elsewhere. Yet, given that the alternative to increasing the number of cadaveric organs available is either to accept a greater number of live donations, or accept that people will continue to die for the want of an organ, public policy makers remain obliged to consider other means of increasing the procurement rate. In this paper, we meet the main objections to mandated choice (namely that it undermines autonomy and that mandated donation is preferable). We have modified the traditional approach to mandated choice to take into account the force of the objection that mandated donation is preferable, by accepting that people can and do make bad decisions about organ donation and proposing that all accompanying public education and information about cadaveric donation should be directed in favour of donation. PMID:12796435

  18. Detecting modified gravity in the stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakstein, Jeremy; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Vikram, Vinu

    2014-07-01

    Modified theories of gravity have received a renewed interest due to their ability to account for the cosmic acceleration. In order to satisfy the solar system tests of gravity, these theories need to include a screening mechanism that hides the modifications on small scales. One popular and well-studied theory is chameleon gravity. Our own galaxy is necessarily screened, but less dense dwarf galaxies may be unscreened and their constituent stars can exhibit novel features. In particular, unscreened stars are brighter, hotter and more ephemeral than screened stars in our own galaxy. They also pulsate with a shorter period. In this paper, we exploit these new features to constrain chameleon gravity to level three orders of magnitude lower the previous measurements. These constraints are currently the strongest in the literature.

  19. Spectroscopic characterization of genetically modified flax fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymińska, L.; Gągor, A.; Hanuza, J.; Kulma, A.; Preisner, M.; Żuk, M.; Szatkowski, M.; Szopa, J.

    2014-09-01

    The principal goal of this paper is an analysis of flax fiber composition. Natural and genetically modified flax fibers derived from transgenic flax have been analyzed. Development of genetic engineering enables to improve the quality of fibers. Three transgenic plant lines with different modifications were generated based on fibrous flax plants as the origin. These are plants with: silenced cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) gene; overexpression of polygalacturonase (PGI); and expression of three genes construct containing β-ketothiolase (phb A), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phb B), and poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid synthase (phb C). Flax fibers have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of the IR bands have been used for estimation of the chemical content of the normal and transgenic flaxes. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from chemical analysis of flax fibers. X-ray studies have been used to characterize the changes of the crystalline structure of the flax cellulose fibers.

  20. Modified essay question (MEQ) paper: perestroika.

    PubMed

    Lockie, C; McAleer, S; Mulholland, H; Neighbour, R; Tombleson, P

    1990-11-01

    Traditionally the modified essay question (MEQ) paper has attempted to test problem solving and decision making based on an on-going family saga using seven or eight questions to be answered in 90 minutes. Candidates' scripts are double marked by two College examiners. This format imposes constraints on the range of questions asked and results in contrived scenarios. It is possible to be 'coached' for this and double marking is expensive in examiner time. Recent studies show that validity and reliability are improved by increasing the number and range of questions in a 'surgery type' paper. Single marking has been instituted and the MEQ paper will in future consist of 10 or more questions to be answered in 2 hours. Examiners' marking performance is monitored by senior examiners. Technical and statistical considerations are discussed, as are implications for candidates and course organizers. PMID:1670201

  1. Dilaton cosmology and the modified uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Barun

    2011-09-01

    Very recently Ali et al. (2009) proposed a new generalized uncertainty principle (with a linear term in Plank length which is consistent with doubly special relativity and string theory. The classical and quantum effects of this generalized uncertainty principle (termed as modified uncertainty principle or MUP) are investigated on the phase space of a dilatonic cosmological model with an exponential dilaton potential in a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background. Interestingly, as a consequence of MUP, we found that it is possible to get a late time acceleration for this model. For the quantum mechanical description in both commutative and MUP framework, we found the analytical solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the early universe and compare our results. We have used an approximation method in the case of MUP.

  2. Modified mesh-connected parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, D.A. )

    1988-10-01

    The mesh-connected parallel computer is an important parallel processing organization that has been used in the past for the design of supercomputing systems. In this paper, the authors explore modifications of a mesh-connected parallel computer for the purpose of increasing the efficiency of executing important application programs. These modifications are made by adding one or more global mesh structures to the processing array. They show how our modifications allow asymptotic improvements in the efficiency of executing computations having low to medium interprocessor communication requirements (e.g., tree computations, prefix computations, finding the connected components of a graph). For computations with high interprocessor communication requirements such as sorting, they show that they offer no speedup. They also compare the modified mesh-connected parallel computer to other similar organizations including the pyramid, the X-tree, and the mesh-of-trees.

  3. Scrotal reconstruction with modified pudendal thigh flaps.

    PubMed

    Mopuri, Nabil; O'Connor, Edmund Fitzgerald; Iwuagwu, Fortune C

    2016-02-01

    Scrotal skin loss can occur following trauma, Fournier's gangrene, post tumour excision, burns, etc. There are many techniques described in the literature including residual scrotal skin mobilization, skin grafts, pedicled and free flaps. The management is complex and challenging shown by the multiplicity of flaps and techniques described in the literature. We used a modified pudendal thigh flap to reconstruct scrotal defects in five patients. This study describes the vascularity of the flap, technique of elevation and the inset of the flap. The elevation and particularly the insetting make it different from other flaps raised on this vascular network for scrotal reconstruction. This pedicled flap is robust, reliable, resilient and produces a neo-scrotum that looks natural in appearance, offers good-quality skin cover and cushion to the testes as well as protective sensation. PMID:26774357

  4. Fatty acid production in genetically modified cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyao; Sheng, Jie; Curtiss III, Roy

    2011-01-01

    To avoid costly biomass recovery in photosynthetic microbial biofuel production, we genetically modified cyanobacteria to produce and secrete fatty acids. Starting with introducing an acyl–acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene, we made six successive generations of genetic modifications of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 wild type (SD100). The fatty acid secretion yield was increased to 197 ± 14 mg/L of culture in one improved strain at a cell density of 1.0 × 109 cells/mL by adding codon-optimized thioesterase genes and weakening polar cell wall layers. Although these strains exhibited damaged cell membranes at low cell densities, they grew more rapidly at high cell densities in late exponential and stationary phase and exhibited less cell damage than cells in wild-type cultures. Our results suggest that fatty acid secreting cyanobacteria are a promising technology for renewable biofuel production. PMID:21482809

  5. Promise and issues of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2013-05-01

    The growing area of genetically modified (GM) crops has substantially expanded since they were first commercialized in 1996. Correspondingly, the adoption of GM crops has brought huge economic and environmental benefits. All these achievements have been primarily supported by two simple traits of herbicide tolerance and insect resistance in the past 17 years. However, this situation will change soon. Recently, the advance of new products, technologies and safety assessment approaches has provided new opportunities for development of GM crops. In this review, we focus on the developmental trend in various aspects of GM crops including new products, technical innovation and risk assessment approaches, as well as potential challenges that GM crops are currently encountering. PMID:23571013

  6. Olefins from methanol by modified zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Inui, T.; Takegami, Y.

    1982-11-01

    Compares the effects of modified catalysts (ZSM-34 and ZSM-5 class zeolites) on methanol conversion to olefins (MTO) with regard to olefin selectivity and cost. Presents tables with prices of olefins in the US and Japan; comparison of methanol-cracking with naphtha cracking; methanol conversion data for Type-1, Type-II and reference catalysts; hydrocarbon distribution from MTO processes; and speculative economics for MTO processes of Concept-1 and 2. Diagrams the proposed MTO process scheme. Scanning electron micrographs of the zeolite catalysts are shown. Graphs indicate the change of ethylene prices in the US since 1978 and forecast ethylene prices in several countries. Concludes that the prices of ethylene for both MTO processes examined compare favorably with products of conventional processes.

  7. Modified Nonlinear Model of Arcsin-Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglov, S. I.

    2016-07-01

    A new modified model of nonlinear arcsin-electrodynamics with two parameters is proposed and analyzed. We obtain the corrections to the Coulomb law. The effect of vacuum birefringence takes place when the external constant magnetic field is present. We calculate indices of refraction for two perpendicular polarizations of electromagnetic waves and estimate bounds on the parameter γ from the BMV and PVLAS experiments. It is shown that the electric field of a point-like charge is finite at the origin. We calculate the finite static electric energy of point-like particles and demonstrate that the electron mass can have the pure electromagnetic nature. The symmetrical Belinfante energy-momentum tensor and dilatation current are found. We show that the dilatation symmetry and dual symmetry are broken in the model suggested. We have investigated the gauge covariant quantization of the nonlinear electrodynamics fields as well as the gauge fixing approach based on Dirac's brackets.

  8. Pentobarbital anesthesia modifies pulmonary vasoregulation after hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, B B; Nyhan, D P; Goll, H M; Clougherty, P W; Fehr, D M; Murray, P A

    1988-09-01

    Our objectives were 1) to investigate the extent to which the pulmonary vascular response to increasing cardiac index after a period of hypotension and hypoperfusion (defined as reperfusion) measured in conscious dogs is altered during pentobarbital sodium anesthesia, and 2) to determine whether pentobarbital anesthesia modifies autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation of the pulmonary circulation during reperfusion. Base-line and reperfusion pulmonary vascular pressure-cardiac index (P/Q) plots were generated by stepwise inflation and deflation, respectively, of an inferior vena caval occluder to vary Q in conscious and pentobarbital-anesthetized (30 mg/kg iv) dogs. During pentobarbital anesthesia, controlled ventilation (without positive end-expiratory pressure) allowed matching of systemic arterial and mixed venous blood gases to conscious values. Marked pulmonary vasoconstriction (P less than 0.01) was observed during reperfusion in pentobarbital-anesthetized but not in conscious dogs. Both sympathetic alpha-adrenergic receptor block and total ANS ganglionic block attenuated, but did not abolish, the pulmonary vasoconstriction during reperfusion in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. Neither sympathetic beta-adrenergic receptor block nor cholinergic receptor block enhanced the magnitude of the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to reperfusion during pentobarbital anesthesia. Thus, in contrast to the conscious state, the pulmonary vascular response to reperfusion is characterized by active, non-flow-dependent pulmonary vasoconstriction during pentobarbital anesthesia. This response is primarily, but not exclusively, mediated by sympathetic alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction and is not offset by either sympathetic beta-adrenergic or cholinergic vasodilation. These results indicate, that, compared with the conscious state, pentobarbital anesthesia modifies pulmonary vasoregulation, during reperfusion following hypotension and hypoperfusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250

  9. Modified Pechini synthesis of tricalcium aluminate powder

    SciTech Connect

    Voicu, Georgeta Ghitulica, Cristina Daniela; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2012-11-15

    Tricalcium aluminate (Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6}-C{sub 3}A) was obtained by a modified Pechini synthesis in order to eliminate successive thermal treatments and intermediate grinding usually performed between the two sintering steps and in order to reduce the sintering temperature. Our results indicated that pure C{sub 3}A was obtained, by a single step thermal treatment at 1300 Degree-Sign C for 4 h and 1350 Degree-Sign C for 1 h. The synthesis was confirmed by XRD, FT-IR and free lime analyses. The morphology of synthesised C{sub 3}A was assessed by electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, HRTEM) and it was observed a high tendency of the particles to form aggregates and the individual particles seem to be single crystals. The bioactivity was assessed by specimen soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days; the hydrate (i.e. 3CaO Bullet-Operator Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Bullet-Operator 6H{sub 2}O formed at the C{sub 3}A surface), can act as nucleation centers for the resulted phosphate phases. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A modified Pechini synthesis was used for obtained of tricalcium aluminate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C{sub 3}A was obtained at 1300 Degree-Sign C/4 h and 1350 Degree-Sign C/1 h. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Were eliminated successive thermal treatments and intermediate grinding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology of synthesised C{sub 3}A was assessed by electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Was observed a high tendency of the particles to form aggregates.

  10. Modified Mesoporous Silica for Efficient Siloxane Capture.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Tahereh; Jiang, Ting; Zhong, Wei; Khakpash, Nasser; Deljoo, Bahareh; Aindow, Mark; Singh, Prabhakar; Suib, Steven L

    2016-03-15

    In this study, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) was removed by using a novel modified solid adsorbent of mesoporous silica. The adsorbent was synthesized using inverse micelles with some modifications in the synthesis process (temperature of gelation) and in the post treatment conditions (calcination temperature and heating rate) with a concomitant improvement of D4 uptake. This is the first report on regulating the textural properties of the mesoporous silica material UCT-14 to develop an active silica adsorbent. These adjustments resulted in an increase of the silica surface area from 391 to 798 m(2)·g(-1), which leads to a high capacity (686 mg·g(-1)) of D4-capture for the silica synthesized at 80 °C, calcined at 450 °C with the heating rate of 100 °C·min(-1) (Si-Syn80). This adsorbent showed comparable adsorption performance with the widely used commercial silica gel under dry and humid condition. Recyclability tests on the commercial silica gel and mesoporous silica synthesized at 120 °C and calcined at 450 °C with a heating rate of 100 °C·min(-1) (called Si-Syn120 or Si-450 or Si-100 °C·min(-1)) indicated that the Si-Syn120 (capacity drop 10%) is more efficient than silica gel (capacity drop 15%) after three cycles. Although, the presence of moisture (25%) in the nitrogen gas stream led to capacity reduction in both Si-Syn120 and commercial silica gel, the modified UCT-14 shows slightly better resistance to humid condition. PMID:26890152

  11. Strength of modified carbon-graphite composites

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotina, K.S.; Shchugorev, V.N.

    1995-01-01

    Composite materials are being more and more widely used in the nontraditional power generation fields, particularly in powerplants using the ecologically clean energy sources (solar, wind, and tidal plants). The less expensive composites are preferred. Requirements of a functional nature are usually imposed on the composites: high (or low) thermal conductivity and high electroconductive (or electroinsulative) properties. At the same time, many powerplant components act as load-carrying structures and require analysis of their mechnical reliability and service life. Because of the considerable intrinsic mass (for large structures) and the wind, snow, and wave loads with long periods of operation, the mechnical analysis is a critical part of the design process. Various modification techniques are used to obtain materials with the required combination of mechanical, thermophysical, and electrical properties on the basis of the inexpensive composites. These techniques include modification of the properties of the binders by selecting the curing technique and introducing additives to the binder, and also the use of composites containing a quite high percentage of modifiers - metallic powders, ferromagnetics, ferroelectrics, and so on. The authors have studied the influence of the modifiers on the mechanical properties of the carbon-graphite composites that are created on the basis of powdered carbon-graphites and phenolformaldehyde resins. Such composites are already used in the heat engineering field. The carbon-graphite materials are obtained from a mixture of pulverized coke and coal tar with subsequent pressing into rod or blocks, which are sintered at 1200{degrees}C in air-free furnaces.

  12. Modified electrodes based on lipidic cubic phases.

    PubMed

    Bilewicz, Renata; Rowiński, Paweł; Rogalska, Ewa

    2005-04-01

    The lipidic cubic phase can be characterized as a curved bilayer forming a three-dimensional, crystallographical, well-ordered structure that is interwoven by aqueous channels. It provides a stable, well-organized environment in which diffusion of both water-soluble and lipid-soluble compounds can take place. Cubic phases based on monoacylglycerols form readily and attract our interest due to their ability to incorporate and stabilize proteins. Their lyotropic and thermotropic phase behaviour has been thoroughly investigated. At hydration over 20%, lipidic cubic phases Ia3d and Pn3m are formed. The latter is stable in the presence of excess water, which is important when the cubic phase is considered as an electrode-modifying material. Due to high viscosity, the cubic phases can be simply smeared over solid substrates such as electrodes and used to host enzymes and synthetic catalysts, leading to new types of catalytically active modified electrodes as shown for the determination of cholesterol, CO(2), or oxygen. The efficiency of transport of small hydrophilic molecules within the film can be determined by voltametry using two types of electrodes: a normal-size electrode working in the linear diffusion regime, and an ultramicroelectrode working under spherical diffusion conditions. This allows determining both the concentration and diffusion coefficient of the electrochemically active probe in the cubic phase. The monoolein-based cubic phase matrices are useful for immobilizing enzymes on the electrode surface (e.g., laccases from Trametes sp. and Rhus vernicifera were employed for monitoring dioxygen). The electronic contact between the electrode and the enzyme was maintained using suitable electroactive probes. PMID:15833697

  13. Biostability and biocompatibility of modified polyurethane elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christenson, Elizabeth Marie

    Several strategies have been employed to increase the biostability of medical grade polyurethanes while maintaining the desirable properties of current poly(ether urethanes). It was hypothesized that polyurethane surface chemistry controls biodegradation/biostability that can lead to ultimate failure/success of these materials in clinical applications. Chemical modification or replacement of the susceptible soft segment was evaluated as a design strategy to increase the biostability of medical grade polyurethanes. The effect of soft segment chemistry on the phase morphology, mechanical properties and in vivo response of commercial polyurethanes were compared. Poly(ether urethane) (PEU), silicone-modified poly(ether urethane) (PEU-S), poly(carbonate urethane) (PCU) and silicone-modified poly(carbonate urethane) (PCU-S) elastomers were investigated. AFM phase imaging indicated that the overall two-phase morphology of poly(ether urethanes), necessary for its thermoplastic elastomeric properties, was not disrupted by changing the soft segment chemistry. All of the polyurethanes exhibited thermoplastic elastomeric behavior similar to that of the poly(ether urethane). Following material characterization, the biocompatibility of the polyurethane elastomers was evaluated using a subcutaneous cage implant protocol. All of the polyurethanes tested retained the excellent biocompatibility typical of poly(ether urethane) elastomers. Overall, the candidate polyurethanes were concluded to be suitable replacements of current poly(ether urethane) elastomers in medical applications. The results from the cage implant study and cell culture experiments indicated that monocytes adhere, differentiate and fuse to form foreign body giant cells (FBGCs) on all of the polyurethane specimens. It is now generally accepted that the reactive oxygen species released by these adherent macrophages and FBGCs initiate PEU biodegradation. ATR-FTIR analysis of explanted samples provided evidence of

  14. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced. PMID:22551150

  15. Modified Dovetail-Plasty in Scar Revision

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Suk Joon; Yang, Jihoon; Kim, Seon Gyu; Jung, Sung Won; Koh, Sung Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Scar revision is one of the fundamental techniques in the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery. Local flaps, such as a Z-plasty, W-plasty, or geometric broken-line closure, have been used for scar revision. Camouflaging a scar during scar revision for marginal scars from skin grafts and flaps, trapdoor scars, and linear scars is difficult. We describe our experience with the use of modified dovetail-plasty for scar revision in these difficult areas. Our study group consisted of 28 cases among 22 patients (9 males and 13 females) with a mean age of 33.6 years (range, 6–61 years). The conspicuous scars were located on the face (50%) and extremities (50%). The authors designed Y-shaped incision lines to relax the skin tension lines on one side of the excision line and trapezoid incision lines on the other side. There were 16 follow-up operations performed over 6 months after the initial operation among a total of 22 patients. There were scar depressions (2 patients) and a hypertrophic scar (1 patient) at the interval area between the dovetail flaps. A diffuse hypertrophic scar occurred in 1 patient with a dorsal foot scar. The overall success rates of the procedure as assessed by the surgeons were as follows: excellent (75%), good (12.4%), fair (6.3%), and poor (6.3%). This new local flap can achieve an inconspicuous scar using a blurred scar line and reducing tension. The authors recommend a modified dovetail-plasty for the revision of trapdoor scars and scars under excessive tension. PMID:24577307

  16. Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Alice H; Rasmussen, Helen; Yu, Winifred W; Epstein, Susanna R; Russell, Robert M

    2008-01-01

    In 1999 we proposed a Modified Food Guide Pyramid for adults aged 70+ y. It has been extensively used in a variety of settings and formats to highlight the unique dietary challenges of older adults. We now propose a Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults in a format consistent with the MyPyramid graphic. It is not intended to substitute for MyPyramid, which is a multifunctional Internet-based program allowing for the calculation of individualized food-based dietary guidance and providing supplemental information on food choices and preparation. Pedagogic issues related to computer availability, Web access, and Internet literacy of older adults suggests a graphic version of MyPyramid is needed. Emphasized are whole grains and variety within the grains group; variety and nutrient density, with specific emphasis on different forms particularly suited to older adults' needs (e.g. frozen) in the vegetables and fruits groups; low-fat and non-fat forms of dairy products including reduced lactose alternatives in the milk group; low saturated fat and trans fat choices in the oils group; and low saturated fat and vegetable choices in the meat and beans group. Underlying themes stress nutrient- and fiber-rich foods within each group and food sources of nutrients rather than supplements. Fluid and physical activity icons serve as the foundation of MyPyramid for Older Adults. A flag to maintain an awareness of the potential need to consider supplemental forms of calcium, and vitamins D and B-12 is placed at the top of the pyramid. Discussed are newer concerns about potential overnutrition in the current food landscape available to older adults. PMID:18156396

  17. Modified Miccoli's thyroid surgery for thyroid diseases

    PubMed Central

    YU, HUI; GE, XIN; PAN, WEIKANG; WANG, HUAIJIE; HUANG, QIANG; DONG, YU; GAO, YA; YU, JIANJUN

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT), originally described by Miccoli, is considered to be the most widely practiced and easily reproducible procedure for selected patients with benign and/or malignant thyroid nodules. Modified techniques based on MIVAT, namely modified Miccoli's thyroid surgery (MMTS), were developed based on MIVAT. This study aimed to evaluate the preliminary results of MMTS compared with those of MIVAT. The enrolling criteria included a benign nodule <3.5 cm in diameter, a malignant tumor <2 cm, no previous neck surgery and no evidence of any suspected lymph node metastasis or local invasion. Unilateral lobectomy was considered for benign lesions and the additional dissection of central compartment (level VI) lymph nodes was applied for malignant disease. The modified techniques included carefully selecting the operative incision, expanding the operative space, embedding a drainage tube in situ and delicately suturing every layer inwards and crosswise, as well as measuring cervical motion. In addition to the comparison of surgical outcomes between MMTS and MIVAT, other surgical parameters, including operative time, blood loss, postoperative drainage, cosmetic satisfaction, peak angle of cervical rotation, length of hospitalization and complications, were retrospectively analyzed. A consecutive series of 70 patients, including 54 cases of benign and 16 cases of malignant disease, initially underwent MIVAT between April, 2008 and May, 2012, while 127 patients, including 98 benign and 29 malignant cases, subsequently underwent MMTS between September, 2011 and October, 2014. Patients who received MMTS exhibited significantly less blood loss (20.3±11.3 vs. 32.3±12.6 ml, P<0.01), lower volume of postoperative drainage (42.77±15.2 vs. 50.48±23.2 ml, P<0.01) and higher cosmetic satisfaction (94.6±3.5 vs. 88.9±2.7%, P<0.01), but a longer operative time (102±36 vs. 50.48±23.2 min, P<0.01) when compared with MIVAT. In addition, a

  18. Nature of the chemical reaction for furfural modified asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Memon, G.M.; Chollar, B.H.

    1994-12-31

    Three of the most serious problems of asphalt pavements today are rutting, cracking, and susceptibility to moisture damage (stripping). Asphalt manufacturers have been mixing asphalts with polymers to produce polymer-modified asphalts with improved rheological properties. However, the costs for these improved polymer-modified asphalts are almost double that of regular asphalts. FHWA researchers have found that asphalt modified by the chemical, furfural (which is prepared by simple elimination reaction of aldopentoses obtained from oat hulls), exhibited better stripping properties and was less temperature susceptible than the virgin asphalt while costing less than polymer-modified asphalts. This paper discusses the possible structure of the furfural-modified asphalt, data for the virgin and furfural-modified asphalts and their Corbett fractions, data from a model reaction between phenol and furfural, and a possible explanation of this structure based on these data.

  19. Modifier Genes and the Plasticity of Genetic Networks in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Bruce A.; Yu, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    Modifier genes are an integral part of the genetic landscape in both humans and experimental organisms, but have been less well explored in mammals than other systems. A growing number of modifier genes in mouse models of disease nonetheless illustrate the potential for novel findings, while new technical advances promise many more to come. Modifier genes in mouse models include induced mutations and spontaneous or wild-derived variations captured in inbred strains. Identification of modifiers among wild-derived variants in particular should detect disease modifiers that have been shaped by selection and might therefore be compatible with high fitness and function. Here we review selected examples and argue that modifier genes derived from natural variation may provide a bias for nodes in genetic networks that have greater intrinsic plasticity and whose therapeutic manipulation may therefore be more resilient to side effects than conventional targets. PMID:22511884

  20. MAUP: Modifiable Areal Unit Problem in raster GIS datasets. Raster pixels as modifiable areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyn, Usery E.

    2001-01-01

    The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP) is a well-studied aspect of geographic phenomena. It is usually associated with socio-economic data collected by census enumeration units. This problem also applies directly to geographic data in raster formats, including both GIS categorical data layers and remotely sensed images. The author briefly provides a foundation for examining the component parts of the MAUP in remotely sensed raster data.

  1. Theoretical electronic structure of structurally modified graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Marc David

    Graphene has emerged as a promising replacement for silicon in next-generation electronics and optoelectronic devices. If graphene is to be used in semiconductor devices, however, it must acquire an electronic band gap. Numerous approaches have been proposed to control the band gap of graphene, including the periodic patterning of defects. However, the mechanism for band gap opening and the associated physics in graphene patterned with defects remain unclear. Using both analytic theory and first-principles calculations, we show that periodic patterning of defects on graphene can open a large and tunable band gap, induce strong absorption peaks at optical wavelengths, and host a giant band gap quantum spin Hall phase. First, a geometric rule is analytically derived for the arrangements of defects that open a band gap in graphene, with one ninth of all possible patterns opening a band gap. Next, we perform ab-initio density functional calculations to compare the effects of structural vacancies, hexagonal BN dopants, and passivants on the electronic structure of graphene. Qualitatively, these three types of structural defects behave the same, with only slight differences in their resulting band structures. By adjusting the shape of structural defects, we show how to move the Dirac cones in reciprocal space in accordance with the tight-binding model for the anisotropic honeycomb lattice, while the fundamental mechanism for band gap opening remains the same. To quantitatively predict the band gap and optical properties of these materials, we employ many-body perturbation theory with Green's functions (GW/Bethe-Salpeter equation) to directly include electron-electron and electron-hole interactions. Structurally modified graphene shows a strong renormalization of the fundamental band gap over single particle descriptions, and a strong electron-hole interaction as indicated by strong exciton binding energies (> 0.5 eV). Finally, we show that structurally modified graphene

  2. Modifying Silicates for Better Dispersion in Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Sandi

    2005-01-01

    An improved chemical modification has been developed to enhance the dispersion of layered silicate particles in the formulation of a polymer/silicate nanocomposite material. The modification involves, among other things, the co-exchange of an alkyl ammonium ion and a monoprotonated diamine with interlayer cations of the silicate. The net overall effects of the improved chemical modification are to improve processability of the nanocomposite and maximize the benefits of dispersing the silicate particles into the polymer. Some background discussion is necessary to give meaning to a description of this development. Polymer/silicate nanocomposites are also denoted polymer/clay composites because the silicate particles in them are typically derived from clay particles. Particles of clay comprise layers of silicate platelets separated by gaps called "galleries." The platelet thickness is 1 nm. The length varies from 30 nm to 1 m, depending on the silicate. In order to fully realize the benefits of polymer/silicate nanocomposites, it is necessary to ensure that the platelets become dispersed in the polymer matrices. Proper dispersion can impart physical and chemical properties that make nanocomposites attractive for a variety of applications. In order to achieve nanometer-level dispersion of a layered silicate into a polymer matrix, it is typically necessary to modify the interlayer silicate surfaces by attaching organic functional groups. This modification can be achieved easily by ion exchange between the interlayer metal cations found naturally in the silicate and protonated organic cations - typically protonated amines. Long-chain alkyl ammonium ions are commonly chosen as the ion-exchange materials because they effectively lower the surface energies of the silicates and ease the incorporation of organic monomers or polymers into the silicate galleries. This completes the background discussion. In the present improved modification of the interlayer silicate surfaces

  3. Bone Glue Modified Asphalt: A Step towards Energy Conservation and Environment Friendly Modified Asphalts

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Hashim Raza; Gallo, August A.

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt has been modified for the past several decades using various additives, including synthetic polymers. Polymer modification improves structural and engineering characteristics of the binder, which is a result of improvement in rheological characteristics of binder as well as its adhesion capability with the aggregate. Such enhancement inevitably enhances the performance characteristics of hot mix asphalts (HMA) such as fatigue life, resistance to rutting, and thermal cracking. Even though polymer-modified HMA is popular in North America and European countries, its use is still limited in developing countries of Southeast Asia due to high costs associated with its manufacturing, processing, and energy consumption. In this study, a new kind of asphalt modifier derived from animal wastes, such as bones, hides, and flesh commonly known as Bone Glue, is studied. This biomaterial which is a by-product of food and cattle industries is cheap, conveniently available, and produced locally in developing countries. The results of the research study showed that the bone glue can easily be mixed with asphalt without significantly altering the asphalt binder's viscosity and mixing and compaction temperatures of HMA. Additionally, improvements in complex shear modulus for a range of temperatures were also determined and it was found that complex shear modulus was improved by bone glue modification. PMID:27437456

  4. Method of modifying a volume mesh using sheet extraction

    DOEpatents

    Borden, Michael J.; Shepherd, Jason F.

    2007-02-20

    A method and machine-readable medium provide a technique to modify a hexahedral finite element volume mesh using dual generation and sheet extraction. After generating a dual of a volume stack (mesh), a predetermined algorithm may be followed to modify the volume mesh of hexahedral elements. The predetermined algorithm may include the steps of determining a sheet of hexahedral mesh elements, generating nodes for merging, and merging the nodes to delete the sheet of hexahedral mesh elements and modify the volume mesh.

  5. Effects of preparation process on performance of rubber modified asphalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hanbing; Luo, Guobao; Wang, Xianqiang; Jiao, Yubo

    2015-06-01

    The rational utilization of waste rubber tire is essential for the environmental protection. Utilizing rubber particles to modify asphalt can not only improve asphalt performance, but also help the recycling of waste materials. Considering the effect of different preparation process parameters on the performance of rubber modified asphalt, this paper analyzes the effects of the shear temperature, shear time and shear rate on the performance of rubber modified asphalt, and provided a reference for its preparation.

  6. System configured for applying multiple modifying agents to a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Propp, W. Alan; Argyle, Mark D.; Janikowski, Stuart K.; Fox, Robert V.; Toth, William J.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Allen, Charles A.; Miller, David L.

    2003-11-25

    The present invention is related to the modifying of substrates with multiple modifying agents in a single continuous system. At least two processing chambers are configured for modifying the substrate in a continuous feed system. The processing chambers can be substantially isolated from one another by interstitial seals. Additionally, the two processing chambers can be substantially isolated from the surrounding atmosphere by end seals. Optionally, expansion chambers can be used to separate the seals from the processing chambers.

  7. System Configured For Applying Multiple Modifying Agents To A Substrate.

    DOEpatents

    Propp, W. Alan; Argyle, Mark D.; Janikowski, Stuart K.; Fox, Robert V.; Toth, William J.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Allen, Charles A.; Miller, David L.

    2005-11-08

    The present invention is related to the modifying of substrates with multiple modifying agents in a single continuous system. At least two processing chambers are configured for modifying the substrate in a continuous feed system. The processing chambers can be substantially isolated from one another by interstitial seals. Additionally, the two processing chambers can be substantially isolated from the surrounding atmosphere by end seals. Optionally, expansion chambers can be used to separate the seals from the processing chambers.

  8. Method of modifying a volume mesh using sheet insertion

    DOEpatents

    Borden, Michael J.; Shepherd, Jason F.

    2006-08-29

    A method and machine-readable medium provide a technique to modify a hexahedral finite element volume mesh using dual generation and sheet insertion. After generating a dual of a volume stack (mesh), a predetermined algorithm may be followed to modify (refine) the volume mesh of hexahedral elements. The predetermined algorithm may include the steps of locating a sheet of hexahedral mesh elements, determining a plurality of hexahedral elements within the sheet to refine, shrinking the plurality of elements, and inserting a new sheet of hexahedral elements adjacently to modify the volume mesh. Additionally, another predetermined algorithm using mesh cutting may be followed to modify a volume mesh.

  9. Thermodynamics of the variable modified Chaplygin gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, D.; Chatterjee, S.

    2016-05-01

    A cosmological model with a new variant of Chaplygin gas obeying an equation of state(EoS), P = Aρ ‑ B/ρα where B= B0an is investigated in the context of its thermodynamical behaviour. Here B0 and n are constants and a is the scale factor. We show that the equation of state of this `Variable Modified Chaplygin gas' (VMCG) can describe the current accelerated expansion of the universe. Following standard thermodynamical criteria we mainly discuss the classical thermodynamical stability of the model and find that the new parameter, n introduced in VMCG plays a crucial role in determining the stability considerations and should always be negative. We further observe that although the earlier model of Lu explains many of the current observational findings of different probes it fails the desirable tests of thermodynamical stability. We also note that for 0n < our model points to a phantom type of expansion which, however, is found to be compatible with current SNe Ia observations and CMB anisotropy measurements. Further the third law of thermodynamics is obeyed in our case. Our model is very general in the sense that many of earlier works in this field may be obtained as a special case of our solution. An interesting point to note is that the model also apparently suggests a smooth transition from the big bang to the big rip in its whole evaluation process.

  10. Genetically modified plants and human health

    PubMed Central

    Key, Suzie; Ma, Julian K-C; Drake, Pascal MW

    2008-01-01

    Summary Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a large amount of media attention in recent years and continue to do so. Despite this, the general public remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually is or what advantages and disadvantages the technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the range of applications for which they can be used. From the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of concern have emerged, namely risk to the environment and risk to human health. As GM plants are gradually being introduced into the European Union there is likely to be increasing public concern regarding potential health issues. Although it is now commonplace for the press to adopt ‘health campaigns’, the information they publish is often unreliable and unrepresentative of the available scientific evidence. We consider it important that the medical profession should be aware of the state of the art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a concerned patient, be in a position to provide an informed opinion. This review will examine how GM plants may impact on human health both directly – through applications targeted at nutrition and enhancement of recombinant medicine production – but also indirectly, through potential effects on the environment. Finally, it will examine the most important opposition currently facing the worldwide adoption of this technology: public opinion. PMID:18515776

  11. Stroke Prevention: Managing Modifiable Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Di Legge, Silvia; Koch, Giacomo; Diomedi, Marina; Stanzione, Paolo; Sallustio, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are indicated in stroke prevention because they also promote vascular health. Effective secondary-prevention strategies for selected patients include carotid revascularization for high-grade carotid stenosis and vitamin K antagonist treatment for atrial fibrillation. The results of recent clinical trials investigating new anticoagulants (factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors) clearly indicate alternative strategies in stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation. This paper describes the current landscape and developments in stroke prevention with special reference to medical treatment in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. PMID:23213626

  12. Modified carbon nanotubes: from nanomedicine to nanotoxicology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottini, Massimo; Bottini, Nunzio

    2012-09-01

    Nanomedicine is the science of fabricating smart devices able to diagnose and treat diseases more efficiently than conventional medicine while minimizing costs, complexity and adverse effects. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are receiving considerable attention for biomedical applications due to their extraordinary properties. In particular, their chemical nature and high aspect ratio (ratio between the length and the diameter) make them ideal carriers to achieve delivery of high doses of therapeutic and imaging cargo to a specific site of interest. A major obstacle to the use of pristine (unmodified) CNTs in biological systems is their complete aqueous insolubility and low biocompatibility and toxicity profiles. To endow CNTs with solubility in a biological milieu, several non-covalent and covalent modification methods have been explored. Suitably modified CNTs have shown increased solubility under physiological conditions, improved biocompatibility profiles and lack of toxicity after injection in living animals. Additionally, after being loaded with cargo (small molecules, proteins, peptides or nucleic acids) they have been successfully evaluated as pharmaceutical, therapeutic and diagnostic tools.

  13. MODIFIED EQUIPARTITION CALCULATION FOR SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Arbutina, B.; Urosevic, D.; Andjelic, M. M.; Pavlovic, M. Z.; Vukotic, B.

    2012-02-10

    Determination of the magnetic field strength in the interstellar medium is one of the more complex tasks of contemporary astrophysics. We can only estimate the order of magnitude of the magnetic field strength by using a few very limited methods. Besides the Zeeman effect and Faraday rotation, the equipartition or minimum-energy calculation is a widespread method for estimating magnetic field strength and energy contained in the magnetic field and cosmic-ray particles by using only the radio synchrotron emission. Despite its approximate character, it remains a useful tool, especially when there are no other data about the magnetic field in a source. In this paper, we give a modified calculation that we think is more appropriate for estimating magnetic field strengths and energetics in supernova remnants (SNRs). We present calculated estimates of the magnetic field strengths for all Galactic SNRs for which the necessary observational data are available. The Web application for calculation of the magnetic field strengths of SNRs is available at http://poincare.matf.bg.ac.rs/{approx}arbo/eqp/.

  14. Modified Beamformers for Coherent Source Region Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Sekihara, Kensuke; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2011-01-01

    Many tomographic source localization algorithms used in biomagnetic imaging assume, explicitly or sometimes implicitly, that the source activity at different brain locations are either independent or that the correlation structure between sources is known. Among these algorithms is a class of adaptive spatial filters known as beamformers, which have superior spatiotemporal resolution abilities. The performance of beamformers is robust to weakly coherent sources. However, these algorithms are extremely sensitive to the presence of strongly coherent sources. A frequent mode of failure in beamformers occurs with reconstruction of auditory evoked fields (AEFs), in which bilateral auditory cortices are highly coherent in their activation. Here, we present a novel beamformer that suppresses activation from regions with interfering coherent sources. First, a volume containing the interfering sources is defined. The lead field matrix for this volume is computed and reduced into a few significant columns using singular value decomposition (SVD). A vector beamformer is then constructed by rejecting the contribution of sources in the suppression region while allowing for source reconstruction at other specified regions. Performance of this algorithm was first validated with simulated data. Subsequent tests of this modified beamformer were performed on bilateral AEF data. An unmodified vector beamformer using whole head coverage misplaces the source medially. After defining a suppression region containing the temporal cortex on one side, the described method consistently results in clear focal activations at expected regions of the contralateral superior temporal plane. PMID:16830939

  15. Modified kinetics of enzymes interacting with nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Sebastián. A.; Breger, Joyce C.; Malanoski, Anthony; Claussen, Jonathan C.; Walper, Scott A.; Ancona, Mario G.; Brown, Carl W.; Stewart, Michael H.; Oh, Eunkeu; Susumu, Kimihiro; Medintz, Igor L.

    2015-08-01

    Enzymes are important players in multiple applications, be it bioremediation, biosynthesis, or as reporters. The business of catalysis and inhibition of enzymes is a multibillion dollar industry and understanding the kinetics of commercial enzymes can have a large impact on how these systems are optimized. Recent advances in nanotechnology have opened up the field of nanoparticle (NP) and enzyme conjugates and two principal architectures for NP conjugate systems have been developed. In the first example the enzyme is bound to the NP in a persistent manner, here we find that key factors such as directed enzyme conjugation allow for enhanced kinetics. Through controlled comparative experiments we begin to tease out specific mechanisms that may account for the enhancement. The second system is based on dynamic interactions of the enzymes with the NP. The enzyme substrate is bound to the NP and the enzyme is free in solution. Here again we find that there are many variables , such as substrate positioning and NP selection, that modify the kinetics.

  16. Modified localized attack on complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Gaogao; Du, Ruijin; Hao, Huifang; Tian, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Since a shell structure contains a wealth of information, it is not only very important for understanding the transport properties of the network, but also essential to identify influential spreaders in complex networks. Nodes within each shell can be classified into two categories: protected nodes and unprotected nodes. In this paper, we propose a generalization of the localized attack, modified localized attack, which means that when a randomly chosen node (root node) is under attack, protected nodes will not be removed, but unprotected nodes in the nearest shells will fail. We numerically and analytically study the system robustness under this attack by taking an Erdös-Rényi (ER) network, a regular random (RR) network and a scale-free (SF) network as examples. Moreover, a fraction of nodes belonging to giant component S and a critical threshold q c , where S approaches to zero, are given. The result implies that increasing connection density has been found to be useful to significantly improve network robustness.

  17. Antitumor activity of chemical modified natural compounds.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, M M

    1991-01-01

    Search of new activity substances starting from chemotherapeutic agents, continuously appears in international literature. Perhaps this search has been done more frequently in the field of antitumor chemotherapy on account of the unsuccess in saving advanced stage patients. The new point in this matter during the last decade was computer aid in planning more rational drugs. In near future "the accessibility of super computers and emergence of computer net systems, will open new avenues to rational drug design" (Portoghese, P. S., J. Med. Chem. 1989, 32, 1). Unknown pharmacological active compounds synthetized by plants can be found even without this electronic devices, as traditional medicine has pointed out in many countries, and give rise to a new drug. These compounds used as found in nature or after chemical modifications have produced successful experimental medicaments as FAA, "flavone acetic acid" with good results as inhibitors of slow growing animal tumors currently in preclinical evaluation for human treatment. In this lecture some international contributions in the field of chemical modified compounds as antineoplastic drugs will be examined, particularly those done by Brazilian researches. PMID:1842015

  18. Equilibrium thermodynamics in modified gravitational theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Geng, Chao-Qiang; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2010-04-01

    We show that it is possible to obtain a picture of equilibrium thermodynamics on the apparent horizon in the expanding cosmological background for a wide class of modified gravity theories with the Lagrangian density f(R,ϕ,X), where R is the Ricci scalar and X is the kinetic energy of a scalar field ϕ. This comes from a suitable definition of an energy-momentum tensor of the “dark” component that respects to a local energy conservation in the Jordan frame. In this framework the horizon entropy S corresponding to equilibrium thermodynamics is equal to a quarter of the horizon area A in units of gravitational constant G, as in Einstein gravity. For a flat cosmological background with a decreasing Hubble parameter, S globally increases with time, as it happens for viable f(R) inflation and dark energy models. We also show that the equilibrium description in terms of the horizon entropy S is convenient because it takes into account the contribution of both the horizon entropy S' in non-equilibrium thermodynamics and an entropy production term.

  19. Seasonality Modifies Methylation Profiles in Healthy People

    PubMed Central

    Ricceri, Fulvio; Trevisan, Morena; Fiano, Valentina; Grasso, Chiara; Fasanelli, Francesca; Scoccianti, Chiara; De Marco, Laura; Tos, Anna Gillio; Vineis, Paolo; Sacerdote, Carlotta

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is a well-characterized epigenetic modification that plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression. There is growing evidence on the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in disease onset, including cancer. Environmental factors seem to induce changes in DNA methylation affecting human health. However, little is known about basal methylation levels in healthy people and about the correlation between environmental factors and different methylation profiles. We investigated the effect of seasonality on basal methylation by testing methylation levels in the long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) and in two cancer-related genes (RASSF1A and MGMT) of 88 healthy male heavy smokers involved in an Italian randomized study; at enrolment the subjects donated a blood sample collected in different months. Methylation analyses were performed by pyrosequencing. Mean methylation percentage was higher in spring and summer for the LINE1, RASSF1A and MGMT genes (68.26%, 2.35%, and 9.52% respectively) compared with autumn and winter (67.43%, 2.17%, and 8.60% respectively). In particular, LINE-1 was significantly hypomethylated (p = 0.04 or 0.05 depending on the CpG island involved) in autumn and winter compared with spring and summer. Seasonality seems to be a modifier of methylation levels and this observation should be taken into account in future analyses. PMID:25210735

  20. Heat shrinkage of electron beam modified EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Sujit K.; Chaki, T. K.; Tikku, V. K.; Pradhan, N. K.; Bhowmick, A. K.

    1997-10-01

    Heat shrinkage of electron beam modified ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) has been investigated over a range of times, temperatures, stretching, irradiation doses and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) levels. The irradiated (radiation dose 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%) and stretched (100% elongation) sample shrinks to a maximum level when kept at 453K temperature for 60 s. The heat shrinkage of samples irradiated with radiation doses of 20, 50, 100 and 150 kGy increases sharply with increasing stretching in the initial stage. Amnesia rating decreases with increasing radiation dose and TMPTMA level as well as gel content. The high radiation dose and TMPTMA level lower the heat shrinkage due to the chain scission. The effect of temperature at which extension is carried out on heat shrinkage is marginal. The irradiated (radiation dose 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%) EVA tubes of different dimensions expanded in a laboratory grade tube expander show similar behaviour at 453K and 60 s. The X-ray and DSC studies reveal that the crystallinity increases on stretching due to orientation of chains and it decreases to a considerable extent on heat shrinking. The theoretical and experimental values of heat shrinkage for tubes and rectangular strips are in good accord, when the radiation dose is 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%.

  1. Modified Coronal Index of the Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukáč, B.; Rybanský, M.

    2010-05-01

    The original coronal index of the solar activity (CI) has been constructed on the basis of ground-based measurements of the intensities of the coronal line of 530.3 nm (Rybanský in Bull. Astron. Inst. Czechoslov., 28, 367, 1975; Rybanský et al. in J. Geophys. Res., 110, A08106, 2005). In this paper, CI is compared with the EUV measurements on the CELIAS/SEM equipment based on the same idea as the original idea of the coronal index. The correlation is very good for the period 1996 - 2005 ( r=0.94 for daily values). The principal result of this paper is the introduction of the modified coronal index (MCI) which in all uses and contexts can replace the existing CI index. Daily MCI values extend over a time period of six solar activity cycles. Future MCI measurements will be derived from more reliable measurements made by space-based observatories that are not influenced by the weather. MCI measurements are and will continue to be archived at the web site of the Slovak Central Observatory in Hurbanovo ( http://www.suh.sk/obs/vysl/MCI.htm ).

  2. Rheology of latex-modified grouts

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.

    1997-12-01

    The pumpability and ability of cementitious grouts to penetrate voids and cracks is strongly dependent on the rheological behavior of the grout. This is important in diverse grouting applications including ground treatment, repair of concrete, reduction of rock or soil permeability, environmental remediation, prestressing concrete, rock anchors, sealing radioactive waste repositories, and well completion. The rheology of grouts containing latex was investigated. The two latex additives used were carboxylated styrene-butadiene and acrylic. The influences of superplasticizer, fly ash, and blast furnace slag on the rheology of latex-modified grouts were addressed. Shear stress-shear rate curves were determined for a variety of mix proportions. The time-dependent behavior of selected grouts was also studied. It was determined that the yield stress and apparent viscosity are influenced by latex content and that the grouts are shear thinning at low water/cement ratios. Latex imparts stability and thixotropy in grouts. Partial replacement of cement with either fly ash or slag diminishes the effect of latex on rheology.

  3. Genetically modified crops and food security.

    PubMed

    Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy. PMID:23755155

  4. Human-modified ecosystems and future evolution

    PubMed Central

    Western, David

    2001-01-01

    Our global impact is finally receiving the scientific attention it deserves. The outcome will largely determine the future course of evolution. Human-modified ecosystems are shaped by our activities and their side effects. They share a common set of traits including simplified food webs, landscape homogenization, and high nutrient and energy inputs. Ecosystem simplification is the ecological hallmark of humanity and the reason for our evolutionary success. However, the side effects of our profligacy and poor resource practices are now so pervasive as to threaten our future no less than that of biological diversity itself. This article looks at human impact on ecosystems and the consequences for evolution. It concludes that future evolution will be shaped by our awareness of the global threats, our willingness to take action, and our ability to do so. Our ability is presently hampered by several factors, including the poor state of ecosystem and planetary knowledge, ignorance of human impact, lack of guidelines for sustainability, and a paucity of good policies, practices, and incentives for adopting those guidelines in daily life. Conservation philosophy, science, and practice must be framed against the reality of human-dominated ecosystems, rather than the separation of humanity and nature underlying the modern conservation movement. The steps scientists can take to imbed science in conservation and conservation in the societal process affecting the future of ecosystems and human well-being are discussed. PMID:11344294

  5. Adhesion of colloidal particles on modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Volodymyr; Papastavrou, Georg

    2012-12-01

    The adhesion between colloidal silica particles and modified electrodes has been studied by direct force measurements with the colloidal probe technique based on the atomic force microscope (AFM). The combination of potentiostatic control of gold electrodes and chemical modification of their surface with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) allows for the decoupling of forces due to the electrical double layers and functional groups at the solid/liquid interface. Adhesion on such electrodes can be tuned over a large range using the externally applied potential and the aqueous solution's ionic strength. By utilizing cantilevers with a high force constant, it is possible to separate the various contributions to adhesion in an unambiguous manner. These contributions comprise diffuse-layer overlap, van der Waals forces, solvent exclusion, and electrocapillarity. A quantitative description of the observed adhesion forces is obtained by taking into account the surface roughness of the silica particle. The main component of the adhesion forces originates from the overlap of the electrical double layers, which is tuned by the external potential. By contrast, effects due to electrocapillarity are of only minor importance. Based on our quantitative analysis, a new approach is proposed that allows tuning of the adhesion force as a function of the externally applied potential. We expect this approach to have important applications for the design of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), the development of electrochemical sensors, and the application of micro- and nanomanipulation. PMID:23072548

  6. Modified betatron accelerator studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T.P.; Godfrey, B.B.

    1984-12-01

    This final report describes work carried out on the equilibrium and stability properties of circular accelerators. A rigid-disk beam model in which the fields are treated exactly is used to study linear instabilities. This approach has uncovered an important inductive effect which at high toroidal mode numbers leads to either stability or to a hybrid instability. A corresponding effect has been found in electron-layer geometry. The new theory also shows that moving the equilibrium position toward the inner wall can stabilize low mode numbers. With the aid of IVORY code simulation results it is shown that the transverse motion of beam partilces is a key factor in determining beam stability. The upper bound on particle circulation frequency spread is shown to be a function only of the beam major and minor radii. This leads to upper bounds on stable currents in the modified betatron. Numerical results on stability in the stellatron and reversing-solenoidal-lens betatrons are presented. In addition, the sensitivity of equilibrium particle orbits in the stellatron to initial conditions is calculated.

  7. Modified sparse regularization for electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenru; Wang, Huaxiang; Xue, Qian; Cui, Ziqiang; Sun, Benyuan; Wang, Qi

    2016-03-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) aims to estimate the electrical properties at the interior of an object from current-voltage measurements on its boundary. It has been widely investigated due to its advantages of low cost, non-radiation, non-invasiveness, and high speed. Image reconstruction of EIT is a nonlinear and ill-posed inverse problem. Therefore, regularization techniques like Tikhonov regularization are used to solve the inverse problem. A sparse regularization based on L1 norm exhibits superiority in preserving boundary information at sharp changes or discontinuous areas in the image. However, the limitation of sparse regularization lies in the time consumption for solving the problem. In order to further improve the calculation speed of sparse regularization, a modified method based on separable approximation algorithm is proposed by using adaptive step-size and preconditioning technique. Both simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in improving the image quality and real-time performance in the presence of different noise intensities and conductivity contrasts. PMID:27036798

  8. [Modern disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs].

    PubMed

    Müller-Ladner, U; Richter, K; Tarner, I H

    2015-03-01

    The term modern disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) includes not only the constantly growing family of DMARDs for chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases but also the repositioning of established drugs in updated and novel algorithms of the different entities. The usual precursor for these developments is rheumatoid arthritis for which completely revised and updated guidelines have been published not only in Germany but also on the European level. In addition, label extensions to existing drugs have been granted for connective tissue diseases and vasculitides, e.g. anti-CD20 antibodies for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides and belimumab for systemic lupus erythematosus. Moreover, several novel drugs, especially of the biologics class, have been either introduced in clinical rheumatology or are close to being licensed and include ustekinumab for psoriatic arthritis, granulocyte growth inhibitors and janus kinase inhibitors for rheumatoid arthritis and atacicept for systemic lupus erythematosus. With the termination of the patent for several biologics, a new momentum also took place: the approval of the so-called biosimilars which has already initiated intensive discussions not only with respect to "similar" effects and side effects but also with respect to their potential impact on economical aspects. PMID:25700648

  9. Conformal cylindrically symmetric spacetimes in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türkog˜lu, Murat Metehan; Dog˜ru, Melis Ulu

    2015-11-01

    We investigate cylindrically symmetric spacetimes in the context of f(R) gravity. We firstly attain conformal symmetry of the cylindrically symmetric spacetime. We obtain solutions to use features of the conformal symmetry, field equations and their solutions for cylindrically symmetric spacetime filled with various cosmic matters such as vacuum state, perfect fluid, anisotropic fluid, massive scalar field and their combinations. With the vacuum state solutions, we show that source of the spacetime curvature is considered as Casimir effect. Casimir force for given spacetime is found using Wald’s axiomatic analysis. We expose that the Casimir force for Boulware, Hartle-Hawking and Unruh vacuum states could have attractive, repulsive and ineffective features. In the perfect fluid state, we show that matter form of the perfect fluid in given spacetime must only be dark energy. Also, we offer that potential of massive and massless scalar field are developed as an exact solution from the modified field equations. All solutions of field equations for vacuum case, perfect fluid and scalar field give a special f(R) function convenient to Λ-CDM model. In addition to these solutions, we introduce conformal cylindrical symmetric solutions in the cases of different f(R) models. Finally, geometrical and physical results of the solutions are discussed.

  10. Modifier coordination and phosphate glass networks

    SciTech Connect

    Brow, R.; Click, C.A.; Alam, T.M.

    1999-11-30

    The addition of up to approximately 16 mole% Cs{sub 2}O to vitreous P{sub 2}O{sub 5} reduces the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) by 150 K, whereas further additions up to 50 mole% produce little additional change in T{sub g}. {sup 31}P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra indicate that the phosphate network is progressively dipolymerized over the entire range of compositions. The property trend is explained by a transition in the Cs{sup +} coordination environment, from isolated Cs-polyhedra below {approximately}16 mole% Cs{sub 2}O to a corner-sharing Cs-polyhedral sub-structure in the glasses with greater Cs{sub 2}O contents. This modifier transition does not occur in Al-phosphate glasses. {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra indicate that the average Al coordination number decreases with increasing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content to avoid the formation of Al-O-Al bonds in these binary phosphate glasses.

  11. Psoriatic arthritis treatment: biological response modifiers.

    PubMed

    Mease, P J; Antoni, C E

    2005-03-01

    In recent years there has been a surge of interest in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders as a result of the development and application of targeted biological therapies. The elucidation of the overlapping cellular and cytokine immunopathology of such diverse conditions as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn's disease, and psoriasis points to specific targets for bioengineered proteins or small molecules. Similar to clinical trials in RA, trials in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) have shown excellent clinical results with the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blockers, etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab in a variety of domains including the joints, quality of life, function, and slowing of disease progress as evidenced radiologically. In addition, these agents have shown benefit in domains more unique to PsA, such as the skin lesions of psoriasis, enthesitis, and dactylitis, pointing out the similar pathogenesis of the disease in the skin, the tendons, and the synovial membrane. This therapy has been generally safe and well tolerated in clinical trials of PsA. Other logical candidates for targeted therapy in development include other anti-TNF agents, costimulatory blockade agents that affect T cell function, blockers of other cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1, 6, 12, 15, or 18, and B cell modulatory medicines. Also, it will be useful to learn more about the effects of combining traditional disease modifying drugs and the newer biologicals. PMID:15708944

  12. Bayesian analysis of the modified Omori law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holschneider, M.; Narteau, C.; Shebalin, P.; Peng, Z.; Schorlemmer, D.

    2012-06-01

    In order to examine variations in aftershock decay rate, we propose a Bayesian framework to estimate the {K, c, p}-values of the modified Omori law (MOL), λ(t) = K(c + t)-p. The Bayesian setting allows not only to produce a point estimator of these three parameters but also to assess their uncertainties and posterior dependencies with respect to the observed aftershock sequences. Using a new parametrization of the MOL, we identify the trade-off between the c and p-value estimates and discuss its dependence on the number of aftershocks. Then, we analyze the influence of the catalog completeness interval [tstart, tstop] on the various estimates. To test this Bayesian approach on natural aftershock sequences, we use two independent and non-overlapping aftershock catalogs of the same earthquakes in Japan. Taking into account the posterior uncertainties, we show that both the handpicked (short times) and the instrumental (long times) catalogs predict the same ranges of parameter values. We therefore conclude that the same MOL may be valid over short and long times.

  13. Accretion stream mapping with `genetically modified fireflies'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridge, C. M.; Hakala, Pasi; Cropper, Mark; Ramsay, Gavin

    2004-07-01

    We apply an eclipse mapping technique using `genetically modified fireflies' to the eclipse light curves of HU Aqr and EP Dra. The technique makes as few assumptions as possible about the location of accretion stream material, allowing the emission to be located anywhere within the Roche lobe of the white dwarf. We model two consecutive eclipses in the UBVRC band for HU Aqr, and four consecutive `white'-light eclipses for EP Dra, to determine the changing brightness distribution of stream material. We find firefly distributions which are consistent with accretion through a curtain of material in both HU Aqr and EP Dra, and show that the previously assumed two-part ballistic and magnetic trajectory is a good approximation for polars. Model fits to the colour-band data of HU Aqr indicate that the material confined to the magnetic field lines is brightest, and most of the emission originates from close to the white dwarf. There is evidence for emission from close to a calculated ballistic stream in both HU Aqr and EP Dra. We propose that a change in the stream density causes a change in the location of the bright material in the accretion stream in EP Dra.

  14. Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis. PMID:24860575

  15. The Hydra small ubiquitin-like modifier.

    PubMed

    Khan, Umair; Mehere, Prajwalini; Deivasigamani, Senthilkumar; Ratnaparkhi, Girish S

    2013-09-01

    SUMO is a protein posttranslational modifier. SUMO cycle components are believed to be conserved in all eukaryotes. Proteomic analyses have lead to the identification a wealth of SUMO targets that are involved in almost every cellular function in eukaryotes. In this article, we describe the characterization of SUMO Cycle components in Hydra, a Cnidarian with an ability to regenerate body parts. In cells, the translated SUMO polypeptide cannot conjugate to a substrate protein unless the C-terminal tail is cleaved, exposing the di-Glycine motif. This critical task is done by SUMO proteases that in addition to SUMO maturation are also involved in deconjugating SUMO from its substrate. We describe the identification, bioinformatics analysis, cloning, and biochemical characterization of Hydra SUMO cycle components, with a focus on SUMO and SUMO proteases. We demonstrate that the ability of SUMO proteases to process immature SUMO is conserved from Hydra to flies. A transgenic Hydra, expressing a SUMO-GFP fusion protein under a constitutive actin promoter, is generated in an attempt to monitor the SUMO Cycle in vivo as also to purify and identify SUMO targets in Hydra. PMID:23780789

  16. Genetically Modified Organisms and Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis. PMID:24860575

  17. Optics Program Modified for Multithreaded Parallel Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, John; Bedding, Dave; Basinger, Scott

    2006-01-01

    A powerful high-performance computer program for simulating and analyzing adaptive and controlled optical systems has been developed by modifying the serial version of the Modeling and Analysis for Controlled Optical Systems (MACOS) program to impart capabilities for multithreaded parallel processing on computing systems ranging from supercomputers down to Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP) personal computers. The modifications included the incorporation of OpenMP, a portable and widely supported application interface software, that can be used to explicitly add multithreaded parallelism to an application program under a shared-memory programming model. OpenMP was applied to parallelize ray-tracing calculations, one of the major computing components in MACOS. Multithreading is also used in the diffraction propagation of light in MACOS based on pthreads [POSIX Thread, (where "POSIX" signifies a portable operating system for UNIX)]. In tests of the parallelized version of MACOS, the speedup in ray-tracing calculations was found to be linear, or proportional to the number of processors, while the speedup in diffraction calculations ranged from 50 to 60 percent, depending on the type and number of processors. The parallelized version of MACOS is portable, and, to the user, its interface is basically the same as that of the original serial version of MACOS.

  18. Energy projection and modified Laughlin states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fremling, M.; Fulsebakke, J.; Moran, N.; Slingerland, J. K.

    2016-06-01

    We develop a method to efficiently calculate trial wave functions for quantum Hall systems which involve projection onto the lowest Landau level. The method essentially replaces the lowest Landau level projection by projection onto the M lowest eigenstates of a suitably chosen Hamiltonian acting within the lowest Landau level. The resulting "energy projection" is a controlled approximation to the exact lowest Landau level projection which improves with increasing M . It allows us to study the projected trial wave functions for system sizes close to the maximal sizes that can be reached by exact diagonalization and can be straightforwardly applied in any geometry. As a first application and test case, we study a class of trial wave functions first proposed by Girvin and Jach [Girvin and Jach, Phys. Rev. B 29, 5617 (1984), 10.1103/PhysRevB.29.5617], which are modifications of the Laughlin states involving a single real parameter. While these modified Laughlin states probably represent the same universality class exemplified by the Laughlin wave functions, we show by extensive numerical work for systems on the sphere and torus that they provide a significant improvement of the variational energy, overlap with the exact wave function and properties of the entanglement spectrum.

  19. Density perturbations in general modified gravitational theories

    SciTech Connect

    De Felice, Antonio; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2010-07-15

    We derive the equations of linear cosmological perturbations for the general Lagrangian density f(R,{phi},X)/2+L{sub c}, where R is a Ricci scalar, {phi} is a scalar field, and X=-{partial_derivative}{sup {mu}{phi}{partial_derivative}}{sub {mu}{phi}/}2 is a field kinetic energy. We take into account a nonlinear self-interaction term L{sub c}={xi}({phi}) {open_square}{phi}({partial_derivative}{sup {mu}{phi}{partial_derivative}}{sub {mu}{phi}}) recently studied in the context of ''Galileon'' cosmology, which keeps the field equations at second order. Taking into account a scalar-field mass explicitly, the equations of matter density perturbations and gravitational potentials are obtained under a quasistatic approximation on subhorizon scales. We also derive conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities associated with propagation speeds. Our analysis includes most of modified gravity models of dark energy proposed in literature; and thus it is convenient to test the viability of such models from both theoretical and observational points of view.

  20. Genetically modified bacteriophages in applied microbiology.

    PubMed

    Bárdy, P; Pantůček, R; Benešík, M; Doškař, J

    2016-09-01

    Bacteriophages represent a simple viral model of basic research with many possibilities for practical application. Due to their ability to infect and kill bacteria, their potential in the treatment of bacterial infection has been examined since their discovery. With advances in molecular biology and gene engineering, the phage application spectrum has been expanded to various medical and biotechnological fields. The construction of bacteriophages with an extended host range or longer viability in the mammalian bloodstream enhances their potential as an alternative to conventional antibiotic treatment. Insertion of active depolymerase genes to their genomes can enforce the biofilm disposal. They can also be engineered to transfer various compounds to the eukaryotic organisms and the bacterial culture, applicable for the vaccine, drug or gene delivery. Phage recombinant lytic enzymes can be applied as enzybiotics in medicine as well as in biotechnology for pathogen detection or programmed cell death in bacterial expression strains. Besides, modified bacteriophages with high specificity can be applied as bioprobes in detection tools to estimate the presence of pathogens in food industry, or utilized in the control of food-borne pathogens as part of the constructed phage-based biosorbents. PMID:27321680

  1. Modified large number theory with constant G

    SciTech Connect

    Recami, E.

    1983-03-01

    The inspiring ''numerology'' uncovered by Dirac, Eddington, Weyl, et al. can be explained and derived when it is slightly modified so to connect the ''gravitational world'' (cosmos) with the ''strong world'' (hadron), rather than with the electromagnetic one. The aim of this note is to show the following. In the present approach to the ''Large Number Theory,'' cosmos and hadrons are considered to be (finite) similar systems, so that the ratio R-bar/r-bar of the cosmos typical length R-bar to the hadron typical length r-bar is constant in time (for instance, if both cosmos and hadrons undergo an expansion/contraction cycle: according to the ''cyclical big-bang'' hypothesis: then R-bar and r-bar can be chosen to be the maximum radii, or the average radii). As a consequence, then gravitational constant G results to be independent of time. The present note is based on work done in collaboration with P.Caldirola, G. D. Maccarrone, and M. Pavsic.

  2. Food restriction modifies ultrastructure of hippocampal synapses.

    PubMed

    Babits, Réka; Szőke, Balázs; Sótonyi, Péter; Rácz, Bence

    2016-04-01

    Consumption of high-energy diets may compromise health and may also impair cognition; these impairments have been linked to tasks that require hippocampal function. Conversely, food restriction has been shown to improve certain aspects of hippocampal function, including spatial memory and memory persistence. These diet-dependent functional changes raise the possibility that the synaptic structure underlying hippocampal function is also affected. To examine how short-term food restriction (FR) alters the synaptic structure of the hippocampus, we used quantitative electron microscopy to analyze the organization of neuropil in the CA1 stratum radiatum of the hippocampus in young rats, consequent to reduced food. While four weeks of FR did not modify the density, size, or shape of postsynaptic spines, the synapses established by these spines were altered, displaying increased mean length, and more frequent perforations of postsynaptic densities. That the number of perforated synapses (believed to be an indicator of synaptic enhancement) increased, and that the CA1 spine population had on average significantly longer PSDs suggests that synaptic efficacy of axospinous synapses also increased in the CA1. Taken together, our ultrastructural data reveal previously unrecognized structural changes at hippocampal synapses as a function of food restriction, supporting a link between metabolic balance and synaptic plasticity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26386363

  3. Modified betatron for ion beam fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Rostoker, N.; Fisher, A.

    1986-01-01

    An intense neutralized ion beam can be injected and trapped in magnetic mirror or tokamak geometry. The details of the process involve beam polarization so that the beam crosses the fringing fields without deflection and draining the polarization when the beam reaches the plasma. Equilibrium requires that a large betatron field be added in tokamak geometry. In mirror geometry a toroidal field must be added by means of a current along the mirror axis. In either case, the geometry becomes that of the modified betatron which has been studied experimentally and theoretically in recent years. We consider beams of d and t ions with a mean energy of 500 kev and a temperature of about 50 kev. The plasma may be a proton plasma with cold ions. It is only necessary for beam trapping or to carry currents. The ion energy for slowing down is initially 500 kev and thermonuclear reactions depend only on the beam temperature of 50 kev which changes very slowly. This new configuration for magnetic confinement fusion leads to an energy gain of 10--20 for d-t reactions whereas previous studies of beam target interaction predicted a maximum energy gain of 3--4. The high beam energy available with pulsed ion diode technology is also essential for advanced fuels. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Collision Integrals for a Modified Stockmayer Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Itean, Engene C.; Glueck, Alan R.; Svehla, Roger A.

    1961-01-01

    Collision integrals were calculated for the modified Stockmayer potential E(r) = 4 epsilon [(sigma/r)(exp 12) - (sigma/r)(exp 6) - delta(sigma/r)(exp 3)], which may be applied to polar molecules. It was assumed that the colliding molecules maintain their same relative orientation during the encounter. Calculations of the integrals were made for a large reduced temperature range and for a range of delta from 0 to 10. The results agree with other work on non-polar interactions (delta = 0). However for polar interactions the only previously published calculations have been found to be in error and do not agree with this work. Assuming that the molecules interact as alined dipoles of maximum attraction, values for sigma, epsilon, and delta were determined for various polar molecules by a least squares fit of experimental viscosity data. Satisfactory results were obtained for slightly polar molecules, but not for more highly polar molecules such as NH3 or H2O. Therefore, it appears that the assumed model of molecules interacting at all times as alined dipoles of maximum attraction is not satisfactory for estimating trans- port properties of polar molecules.

  5. Genetically modified plants for law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.

    2002-08-01

    Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the unique ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light when excited by blue or UV light. In addition, my group and collaborators have developed methods to detect GFP in plants by contact instruments and at a standoff. There are several law enforcement applications for this technology. One involves using tagging and perhaps modifying drug plants genetically. In one instance, we could tag them for destruction. In another, we could adulterate them directly. Another application is one that falls into the chemical terrorism and bioterrorism countermeasures category. We are developing plants to sense toxins and whole organisms covertly. Plants are well adapted to monitor large geographic areas; biosurveillance. Some examples of research being performed focus on plants with plant pathogen inducible promoters fused to GFP for disease sensing, and algae biosensors for chemicals.

  6. Fungal endophytes: modifiers of plant disease.

    PubMed

    Busby, Posy E; Ridout, Mary; Newcombe, George

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have demonstrated that non-pathogenic fungi within plant microbiomes, i.e., endophytes ("endo" = within, "phyte" = plant), can significantly modify the expression of host plant disease. The rapid pace of advancement in endophyte ecology warrants a pause to synthesize our understanding of endophyte disease modification and to discuss future research directions. We reviewed recent literature on fungal endophyte disease modification, and here report on several emergent themes: (1) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease span the full spectrum from pathogen antagonism to pathogen facilitation, with pathogen antagonism most commonly reported. (2) Agricultural plant pathosystems are the focus of research on endophyte disease modification. (3) A taxonomically diverse group of fungal endophytes can influence plant disease severity. And (4) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease severity are context-dependent. Our review highlights the importance of fungal endophytes for plant disease across a broad range of plant pathosystems, yet simultaneously reveals that complexity within plant microbiomes presents a significant challenge to disentangling the biotic environmental factors affecting plant disease severity. Manipulative studies integrating eco-evolutionary approaches with emerging molecular tools will be poised to elucidate the functional importance of endophytes in natural plant pathosystems that are fundamental to biodiversity and conservation. PMID:26646287

  7. Zinc recycling through the modified Zincex process

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, G.; Martin, D.; Lombera, C.

    1995-12-31

    A basic technology coping with a wide range of secondary zinc sources has been developed. The process combines an electrowinning stage, a solvent-extraction unit and a leaching procedure. The acidity generated in zinc electrowinning, transferred by the organic solvent to the aqueous raffinate, is reused to leach the zinc secondary materials. The basic process recovering zinc is described in detail. The route recovering other valuable metals such as copper, cadmium and lead associated with zinc is also described. This nonferrous metals recovery route is advisable for either ecological and/or economical reasons. Main results of an experimental program aiming at the demonstration of the suitability of the process for several feed materials are summarized. Waelz oxides, galvanizing ashes and EAFD coming from different sources were tested in laboratory and continuous pilot plant campaigns. High zinc recovery, low reagents and utilities consumption, and effluents meeting environmental regulation were confirmed. The paper also includes the main results of a feasibility study of an industrial ``base case``. A mixed raw material and Spanish EAFD and 20,000 ta of zinc ingots production were chosen. The SGH zinc recovery from secondary raw material by means of the clean, safe and profitable Modified Zincex Process has been demonstrated. This reliable technology is ready for industrial application.

  8. Polyphosphate: A Conserved Modifier of Amyloidogenic Processes.

    PubMed

    Cremers, Claudia M; Knoefler, Daniela; Gates, Stephanie; Martin, Nicholas; Dahl, Jan-Ulrik; Lempart, Justine; Xie, Lihan; Chapman, Matthew R; Galvan, Veronica; Southworth, Daniel R; Jakob, Ursula

    2016-09-01

    Polyphosphate (polyP), a several billion-year-old biopolymer, is produced in every cell, tissue, and organism studied. Structurally extremely simple, polyP consists of long chains of covalently linked inorganic phosphate groups. We report here the surprising discovery that polyP shows a remarkable efficacy in accelerating amyloid fibril formation. We found that polyP serves as an effective nucleation source for various different amyloid proteins, ranging from bacterial CsgA to human α-synuclein, Aβ1-40/42, and Tau. polyP-associated α-synuclein fibrils show distinct differences in seeding behavior, morphology, and fibril stability compared with fibrils formed in the absence of polyP. In vivo, the amyloid-stimulating and fibril-stabilizing effects of polyP have wide-reaching consequences, increasing the rate of biofilm formation in pathogenic bacteria and mitigating amyloid toxicity in differentiated neuroblastoma cells and C. elegans strains that serve as models for human folding diseases. These results suggest that we have discovered a conserved cytoprotective modifier of amyloidogenic processes. PMID:27570072

  9. Testing Modified Gravity with Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghi, Hosein; Amiri, Vahid

    2016-08-01

    The observed velocity dispersion of the classical dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies of the Milky Way (MW) requires the Newtonian stellar mass-to-light (M★/L) ratios in the range of about 10 to more than 100 solar units, that are well outside the acceptable limit predicted by stellar population synthesis (SPS) models. Using Jeans analysis, we calculate the line-of-sight velocity dispersion (σ _ph {los}) of stars in eight MW dSphs in the context of the Modified Gravity (MOG) theory of Moffat, assuming a constant M★/L ratio without invoking the exotic cold dark matter. First, we use the weak field approximation of MOG and assume the two parameters α and μ of the theory to be constant as has already been inferred from fitting to the observed rotational data of the THINGS catalog of galaxies. We find that the derived M★/L ratios for almost all dSphs are too large to be explained by the stellar population values. In order to fit the line-of-sight velocity dispersions of the dSph with reasonable M★/L values we must vary α and μ on a case by case basis. A common pair of values cannot be found for all dSphs. Comparing with the values found from rotation curve fitting, it appears that μ correlates strongly with galaxy luminosity, shedding doubt on it as a universal constant.

  10. The Protein-Sparing Modified Fast Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bakhach, Marwan; Shah, Vaishal; Harwood, Tara; Lappe, Sara; Bhesania, Natalie; Mansoor, Sana; Alkhouri, Naim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The protein-sparing modified fast (PSMF) is a rigorous way of rapidly losing a large amount of weight. Although adult studies have shown the PSMF to be effective, data in adolescents are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of the PSMF in severely obese adolescents. Methods: 12 subjects who were evaluated in the Obesity Management Program at the Cleveland Clinic from 2011 to 2014 were included. The subjects were initiated on the PSMF after failing other conventional methods of weight loss. Once the goal weight was achieved, subjects were transitioned to the refeeding phase for weight maintenance. Results: Follow-up was scheduled at 3-month (11 patients) and 6-month (6 patients) intervals. At the 6-month follow-up visit, the average weight loss was 11.19 kg (95% confidence interval = -5.4, -27.8, P = .028), with average of 9.8% from baseline. Fifty percent of subjects had >5% weight loss and 20% had >10% weight loss. Four patients were lost to the follow-up (40%). An improvement was noted in total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein. Due to a small sample size these results were not statistically significant. Side effects reported by subjects were mild dehydration due to nausea (2 patients), decreased energy (1 patient), and transient labile mood (1 patient). No life-threatening side effects were reported. Conclusion: Our results show that the PSMF diet can be used as an effective and safe method in the outpatient setting for rapid weight loss in adolescents with severe obesity. PMID:27335996

  11. Genetically modified crops: Brazilian law and overview.

    PubMed

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; dos Santos, O J A P; Alves, D P; Brasileiro, B P; Peternelli, L A

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the first genetically modified (GM) crop was released in 1998, and it is estimated that 84, 78, and 50% of crop areas containing soybean, corn, and cotton, respectively, were transgenic in 2012. This intense and rapid adoption rate confirms that the choice to use technology has been the main factor in developing national agriculture. Thus, this review focuses on understanding these dynamics in the context of farmers, trade relations, and legislation. To accomplish this goal, a survey was conducted using the database of the National Cultivar Registry and the National Service for Plant Variety Protection of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply [Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA)] between 1998 and October 13, 2013. To date, 36 events have been released: five for soybeans, 18 for corn, 12 for cotton, and one for beans. From these events, 1395 cultivars have been developed and registered: 582 for soybean, 783 for corn and 30 for cotton. Monsanto owns 73.05% of the technologies used to develop these cultivars, while the Dow AgroScience - DuPont partnership and Syngenta have 16.34 and 4.37% ownership, respectively. Thus, the provision of transgenic seeds by these companies is an oligopoly supported by legislation. Moreover, there has been a rapid replacement of conventional crops by GM crops, whose technologies belong almost exclusively to four multinational companies, with the major ownership by Monsanto. These results reflect a warning to the government of the increased dependence on multinational corporations for key agricultural commodities. PMID:25061747

  12. 40 CFR 721.10073 - Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10073 Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylamide (PMN P-05-536) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  13. 9 CFR 77.26 - Modified accredited States or zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.26 Modified accredited States or zones. (a) States listed in paragraph (b) of... contained in the “Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication” (January 22, 1999, edition... preparatory. (e) If tuberculosis is diagnosed within a modified accredited State or zone in an animal...

  14. 9 CFR 77.11 - Modified accredited States or zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.11 Modified accredited States or zones. (a) The following are modified...—Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication” (January 22, 1999, edition), which is incorporated by reference at § 77... States or zones and its being reclassified as accreditation preparatory. (d) If tuberculosis is...

  15. 9 CFR 77.11 - Modified accredited States or zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.11 Modified accredited States or zones. (a) The following are modified...—Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication” (January 22, 1999, edition), which is incorporated by reference at § 77... States or zones and its being reclassified as accreditation preparatory. (d) If tuberculosis is...

  16. 9 CFR 77.26 - Modified accredited States or zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.26 Modified accredited States or zones. (a) States listed in paragraph (b) of... contained in the “Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication” (January 22, 1999, edition... preparatory. (e) If tuberculosis is diagnosed within a modified accredited State or zone in an animal...

  17. 9 CFR 77.26 - Modified accredited States or zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.26 Modified accredited States or zones. (a) States listed in paragraph (b) of... contained in the “Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication” (January 22, 1999, edition... preparatory. (e) If tuberculosis is diagnosed within a modified accredited State or zone in an animal...

  18. 9 CFR 77.26 - Modified accredited States or zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.26 Modified accredited States or zones. (a) States listed in paragraph (b) of... contained in the “Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication” (January 22, 1999, edition... preparatory. (e) If tuberculosis is diagnosed within a modified accredited State or zone in an animal...

  19. 9 CFR 77.26 - Modified accredited States or zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.26 Modified accredited States or zones. (a) States listed in paragraph (b) of... contained in the “Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication” (January 22, 1999, edition... preparatory. (e) If tuberculosis is diagnosed within a modified accredited State or zone in an animal...

  20. 9 CFR 77.11 - Modified accredited States or zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.11 Modified accredited States or zones. (a) The following are modified...—Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication” (January 22, 1999, edition), which is incorporated by reference at § 77... States or zones and its being reclassified as accreditation preparatory. (d) If tuberculosis is...

  1. 46 CFR 52.20-25 - Setting (modifies PFT-46).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 52.01-1) except as noted otherwise in this section. (b) The foundations... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Setting (modifies PFT-46). 52.20-25 Section 52.20-25... Requirements for Firetube Boilers § 52.20-25 Setting (modifies PFT-46). (a) The method of supporting...

  2. 46 CFR 54.01-35 - Corrosion (modifies UG- 25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Corrosion (modifies UG- 25). 54.01-35 Section 54.01-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-35 Corrosion (modifies UG- 25). (a) Vessels or portions of vessels subject to corrosion shall be as required by UG-25...

  3. Speech Compensation for Time-Scale-Modified Auditory Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogane, Rintaro; Honda, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine speech compensation in response to time-scale-modified auditory feedback during the transition of the semivowel for a target utterance of /ija/. Method: Each utterance session consisted of 10 control trials in the normal feedback condition followed by 20 perturbed trials in the modified auditory…

  4. Modified atmosphere packaging for fresh-cut produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is effective in maintaining quality through its effects on modification of the gas composition in the package headspace. The degree of atmosphere modification within a modified atmosphere package is a consequence of the respiratory O2 uptake and CO2 evolution of ...

  5. 21 CFR 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.10 Modified polyacrylamide resin... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Modified polyacrylamide resin. 173.10 Section 173.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  6. 21 CFR 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.10 Modified polyacrylamide resin... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Modified polyacrylamide resin. 173.10 Section 173.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  7. 31 CFR 1010.716 - Modifying or rescinding rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modifying or rescinding rulings. 1010.716 Section 1010.716 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS Administrative Rulings § 1010.716 Modifying or...

  8. [Adsorption of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) onto modified activated carbons].

    PubMed

    Tong, Xi-Zhen; Shi, Bao-You; Xie, Yue; Wang, Dong-Sheng

    2012-09-01

    Modified coal and coconut shell based powdered activated carbons (PACs) were prepared by FeCl3 and medium power microwave treatment, respectively. Batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the characteristics of adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) onto original and modified PACs. Based on pore structure and surface functional groups characterization, the adsorption behaviors of modified and original PACs were compared. The competitive adsorption of humic acid (HA) and PFOS on original and modified coconut shell PACs were also investigated. Results showed that both Fe3+ and medium power microwave treatments changed the pore structure and surface functional groups of coal and coconut shell PACs, but the changing effects were different. The adsorption of PFOS on two modified coconut shell-based PACs was significantly improved. While the adsorption of modified coal-based activated carbons declined. The adsorption kinetics of PFOS onto original and modified coconut shell-based activated carbons were the same, and the time of reaching adsorption equilibrium was about 6 hours. In the presence of HA, the adsorption of PFOS by modified PAC was reduced but still higher than that of the original. PMID:23243870

  9. Corneal epithelialisation on surface-modified hydrogel implants: artificial cornea.

    PubMed

    Ma, Aihua; Zhao, Bojun; Bentley, Adam J; Brahma, Arun; MacNeil, Sheila; Martin, Francis L; Rimmer, Stephen; Fullwood, Nigel J

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to investigate corneal re-epithelialisation of surface-modified polymethacrylate hydrogel implants in order to evaluate them as potential materials for an artificial cornea. Polymethacrylate hydrogels were modified with amines and then coated with different extracellular matrix proteins (collagen I, IV, laminin and fibronectin). The modified hydrogels were surgically implanted into bovine corneas maintained in a 3-D culture system for 5 days. The epithelial growth across the implant surface was evaluated using fluorescent, light and electron microscopy. Full epithelialisation was achieved on 1,4-diaminobutane-modified hydrogels after coating with collagen IV. Hydrogels modified with 1,4-diaminobutane but without further coating only showed partial re-epithelialisation. Hydrogels modified with other amines (1,2-diaminoethane or 1,3-diaminopropane) showed only partial re-epithelialisation; further coating with extracellular matrix proteins improved epithelialisation of these surfaces but did not result in complete re-epithelialisation. Evaluation of the corneas implanted with the 1,4-diaminobutane-modified hydrogels coated with collagen IV showed that the artificial corneas remain clear, integrate well and become covered by a healthy stratified epithelium. In conclusion the 1,4-diaminobutane surface-modified hydrogel coated with collagen IV supported the growth of a stable stratified epithelium. With further refinement this hydrogel has the potential to be used clinically for an artificial cornea. PMID:21287242

  10. Chemically modified nucleic acids as immunodetectable probes in hybridization experiments.

    PubMed Central

    Tchen, P; Fuchs, R P; Sage, E; Leng, M

    1984-01-01

    Guanine residues in nucleic acids can be modified by treatment with N-acetoxy-N-2-acetylaminofluorene and its 7-iodo derivative in an in vitro nonenzymatic reaction. The modified nucleic acids (ribo or deoxyribo, single or double stranded) are recognized by specific antibodies. They can be immunoprecipitated or used as probes in hybridization experiments and detected by immunochemical techniques. Images PMID:6374657

  11. Modifiability: A Dynamic Approach To Assessing Immediate Language Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez-Clellan, Vera F.; Conboy, Barbara; Brown, Sandra; Robinson-Zanartu, Carol

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the use of dynamic mediation procedures for assessing language modifiability of Spanish-speaking students with learning disabilities. Pre- and post-mediation measures included language scores and behavioral observations of language learning and modifiability during mediation. Results indicated significant improvement in…

  12. The Free Modifier: A Fresh Mode of Teaching Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, William Silas

    Patterns and possibilities of free modifiers in written composition were studied. One purpose of the investigation was to help students communicate more effectively in writing. A more specific purpose was to determine if complicated syntactic elements used as free modifiers could be lifted from the complex subject of grammar and be presented as…

  13. Surface acidity and degree of carburization of modified silver catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Pestryakov, A.N.; Belousova, V.N.; Roznina, M.I.

    1993-11-10

    The effect has been studied of some compounds as modifying additives on the surface acidity, degree of carburization, aggregation and silver entrainement of silver-pumice catalysts for methanol oxidation. Catalyst samples have been tested in an industrial reactor. The probable mechanism of modifying action of the additives is discussed.

  14. Modified fiber tips: optical and thermal characteristics (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdaasdonck, Rudolf M.; Borst, Cornelius

    1992-08-01

    The strongly forward directed and torch like beam profile and spatial irradiance distribution of a laser beam delivered by a fiber may be changed by modifying the fiber tip optically. This paper briefly reviews the optical and thermal properties of several modified fiber tips used in conjunction with various lasers.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section 721.10151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to reporting under this...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section 721.10151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to reporting under this...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section 721.10151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to reporting under this...

  18. 46 CFR 54.15-3 - Definitions (modifies Appendix 3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions (modifies Appendix 3). 54.15-3 Section 54.15-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Pressure-Relief Devices § 54.15-3 Definitions (modifies Appendix 3). (a) Definitions applicable...

  19. 46 CFR 54.23-1 - Scope (modifies UB-1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope (modifies UB-1). 54.23-1 Section 54.23-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Fabrication by Brazing § 54.23-1 Scope (modifies UB-1). (a) Fabrication by brazing shall be in accordance...

  20. 46 CFR 54.15-3 - Definitions (modifies Appendix 3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions (modifies Appendix 3). 54.15-3 Section 54.15-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Pressure-Relief Devices § 54.15-3 Definitions (modifies Appendix 3). (a) Definitions applicable...

  1. 46 CFR 54.23-1 - Scope (modifies UB-1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope (modifies UB-1). 54.23-1 Section 54.23-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Fabrication by Brazing § 54.23-1 Scope (modifies UB-1). (a) Fabrication by brazing shall be in accordance...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section 721.10151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to reporting under this...

  3. 46 CFR 54.15-3 - Definitions (modifies appendix 3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions (modifies appendix 3). 54.15-3 Section 54.15-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Pressure-Relief Devices § 54.15-3 Definitions (modifies appendix 3). (a) Definitions applicable...

  4. 46 CFR 54.15-3 - Definitions (modifies Appendix 3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions (modifies Appendix 3). 54.15-3 Section 54.15-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Pressure-Relief Devices § 54.15-3 Definitions (modifies Appendix 3). (a) Definitions applicable...

  5. 46 CFR 54.23-1 - Scope (modifies UB-1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope (modifies UB-1). 54.23-1 Section 54.23-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Fabrication by Brazing § 54.23-1 Scope (modifies UB-1). (a) Fabrication by brazing shall be in accordance...

  6. 46 CFR 54.15-3 - Definitions (modifies appendix 3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions (modifies appendix 3). 54.15-3 Section 54.15-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Pressure-Relief Devices § 54.15-3 Definitions (modifies appendix 3). (a) Definitions applicable...

  7. 46 CFR 54.23-1 - Scope (modifies UB-1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scope (modifies UB-1). 54.23-1 Section 54.23-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Fabrication by Brazing § 54.23-1 Scope (modifies UB-1). (a) Fabrication by brazing shall be in accordance...

  8. Preparation and evaluation of tara-modified proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quebracho, a vegetable tannin, can be used to modify gelatin to produce a product that has been applied effectively as a filler in leather processing, as described in our previous report. In this ongoing study, another vegetable tannin tara is examined for its possible application in protein modifi...

  9. 28. MODIFIED CHAIN SAW FOR CUTTING ROCK CORES; BRUNTON COMPASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MODIFIED CHAIN SAW FOR CUTTING ROCK CORES; BRUNTON COMPASS STAND FOR DETERMINING CORE'S FIELD ORIENTATION; INSECTICIDE DISPENSER MODIFIED TO LUBRICATE CORE DRILLING PROCESS. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  10. The Wilson bunion procedure modified for improved clinical results.

    PubMed

    Pittman, S R; Burns, D E

    1984-01-01

    The Wilson procedure for correction of hallux abducto valgus is modified for use in three specific clinical conditions. The modifications are outlined and demonstrated in the preoperative conditions of 1) juvenile hallux abducto valgus, 2) functional hallux limitus, and 3) postoperative metatarsus primus elevatus. The rationale and biomechanical considerations for the modified Wilson bunion procedure are discussed. PMID:6470430

  11. Improved egg crack detection algorithm for modified pressure imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shell eggs with microcracks are often undetected during egg grading processes. In the past, a modified pressure imaging system was developed to detect eggs with microcracks without adversely affecting the quality of normal intact eggs. The basic idea of the modified pressure imaging system was to ap...

  12. 46 CFR 53.01-5 - Scope (modifies HG-100).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope (modifies HG-100). 53.01-5 Section 53.01-5... IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 53.01-1). Table... General Requirements § 53.01-5 Scope (modifies HG-100). (a) The regulations in this part apply to...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10120 - Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nanoparticles (generic). 721.10120 Section 721.10120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10120 Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (PMN P-05-687) is subject to reporting under this...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10120 - Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nanoparticles (generic). 721.10120 Section 721.10120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10120 Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (PMN P-05-687) is subject to reporting under this...

  15. Interpreting Qualifying Modifiers: Implications for Ethical Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jeffrey A.

    The Ethical Principles for Psychologists now states, "The modifiers used in some of the standards of this Ethics Code (e.g. reasonability, appropriate, potentiality) are included in the standards when they would (1) allow professional judgment on the part of psychologists, (2) eliminate injustice or inequality that would occur with the modifier,…

  16. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section 721.10151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to reporting under this...

  17. Corrosion behavior of rare earth modified WC-12Co coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Hui; Ceng, Shengbo; Gou, Guoqing; Tu, Mingjing

    2015-03-01

    Rare earth has been widely used in materials manufacturing to improve hardness and toughness. In this paper, conventional, nano-modified and CeO2 modified WC-12Co coatings are produced by using high speed oxygen flaming (HVOF) spraying technology. Long-term immersion and electrochemical tests of these coatings in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution are conducted. The surface morphologies were observed to investigate the corrosion mechanisms. The results show CeO2 modified WC-12Co coatings to possess the best corrosion resistance but the nano-modified WC-12Co coating has the worst performance. Results suggest that the improvement of corrosion resistance for CeO2 modified WC-12Co coating can be attributed to the enhancement of interfacial strength between Co binder phase and WC particles.

  18. Modified Mason number for charged paramagnetic colloidal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Di; Hilou, Elaa; Biswal, Sibani Lisa

    2016-06-01

    The dynamics of magnetorheological fluids have typically been described by the Mason number, a governing parameter defined as the ratio between viscous and magnetic forces in the fluid. For most experimental suspensions of magnetic particles, surface forces, such as steric and electrostatic interactions, can significantly influence the dynamics. Here we propose a theory of a modified Mason number that accounts for surface forces and show that this modified Mason number is a function of interparticle distance. We demonstrate that this modified Mason number is accurate in describing the dynamics of a rotating pair of paramagnetic colloids of identical or mismatched sizes in either high or low salt solutions. The modified Mason number is confirmed to be pseudoconstant for particle pairs and particle chains undergoing a stable-metastable transition during rotation. The interparticle distance term can be calculated using theory or can be measured experimentally. This modified Mason number is more applicable to magnetorheological systems where surface forces are not negligible.

  19. Optimal modified tracking performance for MIMO systems under bandwidth constraint.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin-Xiang; Wu, Jie; Zhan, Xi-Sheng; Han, Tao

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the optimal modified tracking performance of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) networked control systems (NCSs) with bandwidth and channel noise constraints. A new modified tracking performance index is proposed which prevents variations in the tracking error from leading to invalid data where there is no integrator in the plant. An expression for the optimal modified tracking performance is obtained using a method which includes co-prime factorization, partial factorization, spectral decomposition and H2 norm. The obtained results show that the optimal modified tracking performance is influenced by the non-minimum phase (NMP) zeros, unstable poles, and their directions. Furthermore, the characteristics of the input signal, the modification factor, the bandwidth and the channel noise are also shown to be closely related to the optimal modified tracking performance. Finally, the efficiency of the result is verified using some typical examples. PMID:26874745

  20. Harmful algae blooms removal from fresh water with modified vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chunguang; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Zhengyan; Wang, Xiangqin

    2014-01-01

    Vermiculite and vermiculite modified with hydrochloric acid were investigated to evaluate their flocculation efficiencies in freshwater containing harmful algae blooms (HABs) (Microcystis aeruginosa). Scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, converted fluorescence microscope, plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, and Zetasizer were used to study the flocculation mechanism of modified vermiculite. It was found that the vermiculite modified with hydrochloric acid could coagulate algae cells through charge neutralization, chemical bridging, and netting effect. The experimental results show that the efficiency of flocculation can be notably improved by modified vermiculite. Ninety-eight per cent of algae cells in algae solution could be removed within 10 min after the addition ofmodified vermiculite clay. The method that removal of HABs with modified vermiculite is economical with high efficiency, and more research is needed to assess their ecological impacts before using in practical application. PMID:24600873

  1. Modified Gravity Emerging from Thermodynamics and Holographic Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Gong, Yungui; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    A new conception is proposed in [E. P. Verlinde, arXiv:1001.0785 [hep-th] and [T. Padmanabhan, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 25 (2010) 1129] that gravity is one kind of entropic force. In this letter, we try to discuss its applications to the modified gravities by using three different corrections to the area law of entropy which are derived from the quantum effects and extra dimensions. According to the assumption of holographic principle, the number of bits N which is related to the equipartition law of energy is modified. Then, the modified law of Newton's gravity and the modified Friedmann equations are obtained by using the new notion. By choosing suitable parameters, the modified area law of entropy leads to de Sitter solutions which can be used to explain the accelerating expansion of our universe. It suggests that the accelerating phase in our universe may be an emergent phenomenon based on holographic principle and thermodynamics.

  2. GenAnneal: Genetically modified Simulated Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoulos, Ioannis G.; Lagaris, Isaac E.

    2006-05-01

    A modification of the standard Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm is presented for finding the global minimum of a continuous multidimensional, multimodal function. We report results of computational experiments with a set of test functions and we compare to methods of similar structure. The accompanying software accepts objective functions coded both in Fortran 77 and C++. Program summaryTitle of program:GenAnneal Catalogue identifier:ADXI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXI_v1_0 Program available from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: The tool is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler Installation: University of Ioannina, Greece on Linux based machines Programming language used:GNU-C++, GNU-C, GNU Fortran 77 Memory required to execute with typical data: 200 KB No. of bits in a word: 32 No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:84 885 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:14 896 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: A multitude of problems in science and engineering are often reduced to minimizing a function of many variables. There are instances that a local optimum does not correspond to the desired physical solution and hence the search for a better solution is required. Local optimization techniques are frequently trapped in local minima. Global optimization is hence the appropriate tool. For example, solving a non-linear system of equations via optimization, employing a "least squares" type of objective, one may encounter many local minima that do not correspond to solutions (i.e. they are far from zero). Typical running time: Depending on the objective function. Method of solution: We modified the process of step selection that the traditional Simulated

  3. Gene Flow in Genetically Modified Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Rieben, Silvan; Kalinina, Olena; Schmid, Bernhard; Zeller, Simon L.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding gene flow in genetically modified (GM) crops is critical to answering questions regarding risk-assessment and the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. In two field experiments, we tested whether rates of cross-pollination differed between GM and non-GM lines of the predominantly self-pollinating wheat Triticum aestivum. In the first experiment, outcrossing was studied within the field by planting “phytometers” of one line into stands of another line. In the second experiment, outcrossing was studied over distances of 0.5–2.5 m from a central patch of pollen donors to adjacent patches of pollen recipients. Cross-pollination and outcrossing was detected when offspring of a pollen recipient without a particular transgene contained this transgene in heterozygous condition. The GM lines had been produced from the varieties Bobwhite or Frisal and contained Pm3b or chitinase/glucanase transgenes, respectively, in homozygous condition. These transgenes increase plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. Although the overall outcrossing rate in the first experiment was only 3.4%, Bobwhite GM lines containing the Pm3b transgene were six times more likely than non-GM control lines to produce outcrossed offspring. There was additional variation in outcrossing rate among the four GM-lines, presumably due to the different transgene insertion events. Among the pollen donors, the Frisal GM line expressing a chitinase transgene caused more outcrossing than the GM line expressing both a chitinase and a glucanase transgene. In the second experiment, outcrossing after cross-pollination declined from 0.7–0.03% over the test distances of 0.5–2.5 m. Our results suggest that pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM wheat might only be a concern if it occurs within fields, e.g. due to seed contamination. Methodologically our study demonstrates that outcrossing rates between transgenic and other lines within crops can be assessed using a phytometer approach and

  4. Taq DNA Polymerase Mutants and 2'-Modified Sugar Recognition.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Hayley J; Gochi, Andrea M; Chia, Hannah E; Ogonowsky, Alexie L; Chiang, Sharon; Filipovic, Nedim; Weiden, Aurora G; Hadley, Emma E; Gabriel, Sara E; Leconte, Aaron M

    2015-09-29

    Chemical modifications to DNA, such as 2' modifications, are expected to increase the biotechnological utility of DNA; however, these modified forms of DNA are limited by their inability to be effectively synthesized by DNA polymerase enzymes. Previous efforts have identified mutant Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase I (Taq) enzymes capable of recognizing 2'-modified DNA nucleotides. While these mutant enzymes recognize these modified nucleotides, they are not capable of synthesizing full length modified DNA; thus, further engineering is required for these enzymes. Here, we describe comparative biochemical studies that identify useful, but previously uncharacterized, properties of these enzymes; one enzyme, SFM19, is able to recognize a range of 2'-modified nucleotides much wider than that previously examined, including fluoro, azido, and amino modifications. To understand the molecular origins of these differences, we also identify specific amino acids and combinations of amino acids that contribute most to the previously evolved unnatural activity. Our data suggest that a negatively charged amino acid at 614 and mutation of the steric gate residue, E615, to glycine make up the optimal combination for modified oligonucleotide synthesis. These studies yield an improved understanding of the mutational origins of 2'-modified substrate recognition as well as identify SFM19 as the best candidate for further engineering, whether via rational design or directed evolution. PMID:26334839

  5. Modified madigan prostatectomy: a procedure preserved prostatic urethra intact.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Ye, Zhangqun; Hu, Weilie

    2005-01-01

    A total of 92 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were subjected to modified Madigan prostatectomy (MPC) for a much satisfactory effect in open prostatectomy surgery. Exposing anterior prostatic urethra near the bladder neck and conjunct cystotomy modified the MPC procedure. This modified procedure preserved prostatic urethra intact and could also deal with intracystic lesions at the same time. The intact of prostatic urethra was kept completely or largely in 86 cases. The amount of blood loss during modified procedure was less. The mean operative time was 105 min. Seventy patients had been followed up for 3-24 months. The postoperative average Qmax was 19. 2 ml/s. The cystourethrography revealed that the urethra and bladder neck were intact in 10 patients postoperatively. Furthermore, the prostatic urethra was obviously wider after modified MPC. The modified MPC can reduce the occurrence of urethra injury and enlarge the MPC indications. The modified technique is easy to perform with less complications and much satisfactory clinical result. PMID:16201285

  6. Natriuretic peptides modify Pseudomonas fluorescens cytotoxicity by regulating cyclic nucleotides and modifying LPS structure

    PubMed Central

    Veron, Wilfried; Orange, Nicole; Feuilloley, Marc GJ; Lesouhaitier, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Background Nervous tissues express various communication molecules including natriuretic peptides, i.e. Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) and C-type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP). These molecules share structural similarities with cyclic antibacterial peptides. CNP and to a lesser extent BNP can modify the cytotoxicity of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The psychrotrophic environmental species Pseudomonas fluorescens also binds to and kills neurons and glial cells, cell types that both produce natriuretic peptides. In the present study, we investigated the sensitivity of Pseudomonas fluorescens to natriuretic peptides and evaluated the distribution and variability of putative natriuretic peptide-dependent sensor systems in the Pseudomonas genus. Results Neither BNP nor CNP modified P. fluorescens MF37 growth or cultivability. However, pre-treatment of P. fluorescens MF37 with BNP or CNP provoked a decrease of the apoptotic effect of the bacterium on glial cells and an increase of its necrotic activity. By homology with eukaryotes, where natriuretic peptides act through receptors coupled to cyclases, we observed that cell-permeable stable analogues of cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) and cyclic GMP (8BcGMP) mimicked the effect of BNP and CNP on bacteria. Intra-bacterial concentrations of cAMP and cGMP were measured to study the involvement of bacterial cyclases in the regulation of P. fluorescens cytotoxicity by BNP or CNP. BNP provoked an increase (+49%) of the cAMP concentration in P. fluorescens, and CNP increased the intra-bacterial concentrations of cGMP (+136%). The effect of BNP and CNP on the virulence of P. fluorescens was independent of the potential of the bacteria to bind to glial cells. Conversely, LPS extracted from MF37 pre-treated with dbcAMP showed a higher necrotic activity than the LPS from untreated or 8BcGMP-pre-treated bacteria. Capillary electrophoresis analysis suggests that these different effects of the LPS may be due, at least in part, to

  7. Modified sol-gel coatings for biotechnological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beganskiene, A.; Raudonis, R.; Zemljic Jokhadar, S.; Batista, U.; Kareiva, A.

    2007-12-01

    The modified sol-gel derived silica coatings were prepared and characterized. The amino and methyl groups were introduced onto the colloidal silica. The silica coatings with different wettability properties: coloidal silica (water contact angle 17°), polysiloxane (61°), methyl-modified (158° and 46°) coatings samples were tested for CaCo-2 cells proliferation. Methyl-modified coating (46°) proved to be the best substrate for cell proliferation. CaCo-2 cell proliferation two days post seeding was significantly faster on almost laminine, fibronectin and collagen-1 coated samples compared to corresponding controls.

  8. Modified electrochromism of tungsten oxide via platinum nanophases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyung-Won; Shim, Hee-Sang; Seong, Tae-Yeon; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2006-05-01

    We report electrochromic properties of WO3 modified by platinum nanophases. The WO3 incorporated by Pt metallic nanophases (Pt -WO3) showed exactly reverse electrochromic phenomenon compared with that of both pure WO3 and WO3 intercepted and coated by metallic Pt thin-film layer. In addition, to investigate the origin of modified electrochromic properties, electrodes consisting of WO3 and/or Pt layers were designed and observed in optical properties during electrochemical reaction. The change of electrochromic properties in the Pt -WO3 is caused by modified structural and electrochemical properties of the WO3 by Pt metallic nanophases dispersed in the oxide matrix.

  9. [Assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified food crops].

    PubMed

    Schauzu, M; Pöting, A; Rubin, D; Lampen, A

    2012-03-01

    The placing on the European Union's market of genetically modified crops requires authorization by the European Commission which is based on the proof that the derived foods are as safe as their conventional counterparts. The assessment of potential allergenicity is part of the necessary investigations recommended in the updated Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. All genetically modified crops which so far have been authorized in the European Union were evaluated by the EFSA GMO Panel which considered it unlikely that their overall allergenicity has been altered. PMID:22373855

  10. Metallurgical Properties and Phase Transformations of Barium-Strontium Modifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonov, M. A.; Sulimova, I. S.; Rozhikhina, I. D.; Dmitrienko, V. I.; Horoshun, G. V.

    2016-04-01

    Metallurgical properties and phase transformations of barium-strontium modifier were tested in laboratory conditions resembling steel processing in furnace and ladle. When heating barium-strontium modifier start of melting, kinetics of decomposition, phase and structure transformation were studied. The concentrate under consideration has been revealed to be a complex mineral compound containing barytocalcite, calcite, calciostrontianite, dolomite and siderite. The reaction kinetics of decomposing mineral components of barium-strontium modifier to oxides does not considerably affect slag formation in conditions of out-of-furnace steel processing.

  11. Modified 8×8 quantization table and Huffman encoding steganography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yongning; Sun, Shuliang

    2014-10-01

    A new secure steganography, which is based on Huffman encoding and modified quantized discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients, is provided in this paper. Firstly, the cover image is segmented into 8×8 blocks and modified DCT transformation is applied on each block. Huffman encoding is applied to code the secret image before embedding. DCT coefficients are quantized by modified quantization table. Inverse DCT(IDCT) is conducted on each block. All the blocks are combined together and the steg image is finally achieved. The experiment shows that the proposed method is better than DCT and Mahender Singh's in PSNR and Capacity.

  12. [Progress in nanomaterials modified anodes of microbial fuel cell].

    PubMed

    Niu, Hao; Wu, Wenguo

    2016-03-01

    Anode is an important part of microbial fuel cell, its performance significantly affects the electricity generation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Nanomaterials have excellent properties, such as good conductivity and large surface area. Therefore, nanomaterials modified anode can effectively reduce the electrode resistance, increase the amount of microbial adhesion and improve the electricity generation of MFCs. In this paper, we introduced various nanomaterials modified anodes and summarized their effects on the output performance of MFCs. Finally, the prospect of modifying nanomaterials and technologies were discussed. PMID:27349110

  13. Drag reduction obtained by modifying a standard truck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, A. E.; Grier, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    A standard two-axle truck with a box-shaped cargo compartment was tested to determine whether significant reductions in aerodynamic drag could be obtained by modifying the front of the cargo compartment. The coastdown method was used to determine the total drag of the baseline vehicle, which had a square-cornered cargo box, and of several modified configurations. Test velocities ranged from 56.3 to 94.6 kilometers per hour (35 to 60 miles per hour). At 88.5 kilometers per hour (55 miles per hour), the aerodynamic drag reductions obtained with the modified configurations ranged from 8 to 30 percent.

  14. Modified random phase approximation for multipole excitations at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, N.D. )

    1992-03-01

    The modified finite-temperature random phase approximation (FT-RPA) has been constructed by taking the influence of thermostat on the structure of quasiparticles into account. The modified FT-RPA linear response for electric quadrupole ({lambda}{sup {pi}}=2{sup +}) and octupole ({lambda}{sup {pi}}=3{sup {minus}}) excitations in {sup 58}Ni has been calculated as a function of the nuclear temperature. As compared to the conventional FT-RPA, the modified FT-RPA has given a stronger spreading for the strength distribution of quadrupole excitations at finite temperature {ital T}{le}3 MeV.

  15. The Crystal Structure of Non-Modified and Bipyridine-Modified PNA Duplexes

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Joanne I.; Pohl, Ehmke; Truan, Daphne; He, Wei; Sheldrick, George M.; Du, Shoucheng; Achim, Catalina

    2011-09-28

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a synthetic analogue of DNA that commonly has an N-aminoethyl glycine backbone. The crystal structures of two PNA duplexes, one containing eight standard nucleobase pairs (GGCATGCC)2, and the other containing the same nucleobase pairs and a central pair of bipyridine ligands, have been solved with a resolution of 1.22 and 1.10 {angstrom}, respectively. The non-modified PNA duplex adopts a P-type helical structure similar to that of previously characterized PNAs. The atomic-level resolution of the structures allowed us to observe for the first time specific modes of interaction between the terminal lysines of the PNA and the backbone and the nucleobases situated in the vicinity of the lysines, which are considered an important factor in the induction of a preferred handedness in PNA duplexes. Our results support the notion that whereas PNA typically adopts a P-type helical structure, its flexibility is relatively high. For example, the base-pair rise in the bipyridine-containing PNA is the largest measured to date in a PNA homoduplex. The two bipyridines bulge out of the duplex and are aligned parallel to the major groove of the PNA. In addition, two bipyridines from adjacent PNA duplexes form a p-stacked pair that relates the duplexes within the crystal. The bulging out of the bipyridines causes bending of the PNA duplex, which is in contrast to the structure previously reported for biphenyl-modified DNA duplexes in solution, where the biphenyls are p stacked with adjacent nucleobase pairs and adopt an intrahelical geometry. This difference shows that relatively small perturbations can significantly impact the relative position of nucleobase analogues in nucleic acid duplexes.

  16. The Crystal Structure of Non-Modified and Bipyridine-Modified PNA Duplexes

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Joanne I.; Pohl, Ehmke; Truan, Daphne; He, Wei; Sheldrick, George M.; Du, Shoucheng; Achim, Catalina

    2011-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a synthetic analogue of DNA that commonly has an N-aminoethlyl-glycine backbone. The crystal structure of two PNA duplexes, one containing eight standard nucleobase pairs (GGCATCGG)2 (pdb: 3MBS), and the other containing the same nucleobase pairs and a central pair of bipyridine ligands (pdb: 3MBU), has been solved with a resolution of 1.2 Å and 1.05 Å, respectively. The non-modified PNA duplex adopts a P-type helical structure s i m i l a r t o that of previously characterized PNAs. The atomic-level resolution of the structures allowed us to observe for the first time specific modes of interaction between the terminal lysines of the PNA and the backbone and nucleobases situated in the vicinity of the lysines, which are considered an important factor in the induction of a preferred handedness in PNA duplexes. These results support the notion that while PNA typically adopts a P-type helical structure, its flexibility is relatively high. For example, the base pair rise in the bipyridine-containing PNA is the largest measured to date in a PNA homoduplex. The two bipyridines are bulged out of the duplex and are aligned parallel to the minor groove of the PNA. In the case of the bipyridine-containing PNA, two bipyridines from adjacent PNA duplexes form a π-stacked pair that relates the duplexes within the crystal. The bulging out of the bipyridines causes bending of the PNA duplex, which is in contrast to the structure previously reported for biphenyl-modified DNA duplexes in solution, where the biphenyls are π-stacking with adjacent nucleobase pairs and adopt an intrahelical geometry [Johar et al., Chem. Eur. J., 2008, 14, 2080]. This difference shows that relatively small perturbations can significantly impact the relative position of nucleobase analogues in nucleic acid duplexes. PMID:20859960

  17. A novel application of modified bamboo charcoal to treat oil-containing wastewater and its modified mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hu, Cui; Zou, Xiaoming; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Shucong; Feng, Yi; Huang, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Three conventional coalescence filters including walnut shells (WS), polystyrene resin particles (PR), and quartz sand (QS) were compared with bamboo charcoal (BC) to treat oily wastewater in a coalescence system process. The results showed the order of oil removal efficiency was QS>BC>WS>PR. To improve the oil removal efficiency of BC further, six types of modified BC were prepared. The results showed that the modified BC using silane coupling agent (SCA) significantly increased oil removal efficiency, but the other types (including the use of NaOH, HNO3, H2O2, FeCl3 and ultrasound) of modified BC exhibited nearly the same level of efficiency as that of pure BC. Infra-red, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and the contact angle for modified BC were measured to reveal the modified mechanism. It was found that the higher oil removal efficiency of the SCA-modified BC occurred due to the changed crystal structure of the BC and the increase in its surface hydrophobicity, which resulted in higher oil removal efficiency. Therefore, modified bamboo charcoal is an attractive filter candidate for oil removal in a coalescence system process. PMID:25521135

  18. Elastomer-modified phosphorus-containing imide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Phosphine oxide-containing polyimide resins modified by elastomers, are disclosed which have improved mechanical properties. These products are particularly useful in the production of fiber or fabric-reinforced composites or laminates.

  19. Immobilization and characterization of hemoglobin on modified sporopollenin surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gubbuk, Ilkay Hilal; Ozmen, Mustafa; Maltas, Esra

    2012-06-01

    Hemoglobin was covalently immobilized onto modified sporopollenin surface with different functional groups by chemical reactions to enhance binding ability of protein. In this study, the influence of various silane linker molecules on the capacity of protein binding was studied. For this purpose, activated sporopollenin was modified by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS), 3-chloropropyltrimethoxysilane (CPTS) and (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPTS). Hemoglobin (Hb) was immobilized on modified sporopollenin surfaces in phosphate buffer saline solution (PBS, pH 7.4) at 4°C. Results showed that GPTS modified sporopollenin surfaces resulted in the highest binding capacity for Hb. Micro porosity of samples was observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal behavior of the samples were studied with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) within a temperature range: 25-900°C. TGA studies demonstrated the advantages of silane modification for high temperature applications and illustrated differences of the structures due to the different tail groups. PMID:22537474

  20. Hamiltonian formulation of the modified Hasegawa-Mima equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandre, C.; Morrison, P. J.; Tassi, E.

    2014-02-01

    We derive the Hamiltonian structure of the modified Hasegawa-Mima equation from the ion fluid equations applying Dirac's theory of constraints. We discuss the Casimirs obtained from the corresponding Poisson structure.

  1. Adsorption of β-carotene on modified magnesium silicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shanshan; Guo, Ning; Fu, Yongfeng

    2016-02-01

    Modified flocculation magnesium silicate is prepared by a hydrothermal process at 120°C for 18 h after adding Al2(SO4)3 into the magnesium silicate gel. Compared with standard magnesium silicate with 328.116 m2 g-1 surface area, this modified magnesium silicate has a bigger BET surface area of 536.803 m2 g-1 and a lower interlayer water content. Modified magnesium silicate exhibits high β-carotene adsorption with a maximum adsorption capacity of 364.96 mg g-1. It is shown that when suspended in organic solvent, this material can be used effectively for carotenoid separation. Furthermore, our results suggest that modified magnesium silicate may be a promising candidate as an absorbent in the decoloring of oil.

  2. The biomimetic apatite-cefalotin coatings on modified titanium.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Kyung; Lee, Sang-Bae; Moon, Seung-Kyun; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2012-02-01

    Dental implant failure often occurs due to oral bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that antibiotic efficacy could be enhanced with modified titanium. First, the titanium was modified by anodization and heat-treatment. Then, a biomimetic coating process was completed in two steps. Surface characterization was performed with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Release of antibiotic was evaluated by UV/VIS spectrometry, and the antibacterial effect was evaluated on Streptococcus mutans. After the second coating step, we observed a thick homogeneous apatite layer that contained the antibiotic, cefalotin. The titanium formed a rutile phase after the heat treatment, and a carbonated apatite phase appeared after biomimetic coating. We found that the modified titanium increased the loading of cefalotin onto the hydroxyapatite coated surface. The results suggested that modified titanium coated with a cefalotin using biomimetic coating method might be useful for preventing local post-surgical implant infections. PMID:22277612

  3. Used Cylinder Oil Modified Cold-Mix Asphalt Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazri Borhan, Muhamad; Suja, Fatihah; Ismail, Amiruddin; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O. K.

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate mechanical properties of control and modified asphalt mixtures. The modified asphalt mixtures were studied on cold-mix asphalt. Used Cylinder Oil (UCO) was used as a modifier in this study. The modification efficiency was evaluated by the improvement in the performance of prepared asphalt concrete mixes. Physical analysis of the UCO was then performed. Asphalt concrete mixes having different percentages of UCO (0, 20, 25 and 30%) as a modifier were prepared. These samples were characterized using the Marshall Stability, indirect tension test, static creep and dynamic creep test. As a result, the addition of oil to the asphalt has reduced the solvency of maltenes. The higher the added percentages of oil are seen, the softer the asphalt-UCO binders happen. It is believed that the higher the percentages of the UCO were existed, the lower the ability of the mixes to resist deformation occurred.

  4. The modified ASEP as a model of ideal gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, D.; Sossinsky, A.

    2015-01-01

    A modified version of the ASEP model is interpreted as a two-dimensional model of ideal gas. Its properties are studied by simulating its behavior in different situations, using an animation program designed for that purpose.

  5. Investigation of modified cottonseed protein adhesives for wood composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several modified cottonseed protein isolates were studied and compared to corresponding soy protein isolates for their adhesive properties when bonded to wood composites. Modifications included treatments with alkali, guanidine hydrochloride, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and urea. Wood composites...

  6. Copper modified carbon molecular sieves for selective oxygen removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor); Seshan, Panchalam K. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Carbon molecular sieves modified by the incorporation of finely divided elemental copper useful for the selective sorption of oxygen at elevated temperatures. The carbon molecular sieves can be regenerated by reduction with hydrogen. The copper modified carbon molecular sieves are prepared by pyrolysis of a mixture of a copper-containing material and polyfunctional alcohol to form a sorbent precursor. The sorbent precursors are then heated and reduced to produce copper modified carbon molecular sieves. The copper modified carbon molecular sieves are useful for sorption of all concentrations of oxygen at temperatures up to about 200.degree. C. They are also useful for removal of trace amount of oxygen from gases at temperatures up to about 600.degree. C.

  7. Wild worm embryogenesis harbors ubiquitous polygenic modifier variation

    PubMed Central

    Paaby, Annalise B; White, Amelia G; Riccardi, David D; Gunsalus, Kristin C; Piano, Fabio; Rockman, Matthew V

    2015-01-01

    Embryogenesis is an essential and stereotypic process that nevertheless evolves among species. Its essentiality may favor the accumulation of cryptic genetic variation (CGV) that has no effect in the wild-type but that enhances or suppresses the effects of rare disruptions to gene function. Here, we adapted a classical modifier screen to interrogate the alleles segregating in natural populations of Caenorhabditis elegans: we induced gene knockdowns and used quantitative genetic methodology to examine how segregating variants modify the penetrance of embryonic lethality. Each perturbation revealed CGV, indicating that wild-type genomes harbor myriad genetic modifiers that may have little effect individually but which in aggregate can dramatically influence penetrance. Phenotypes were mediated by many modifiers, indicating high polygenicity, but the alleles tend to act very specifically, indicating low pleiotropy. Our findings demonstrate the extent of conditional functionality in complex trait architecture. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09178.001 PMID:26297805

  8. Use of modified silicone tracheal cannula for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Strauss, M

    1990-02-01

    Experience with the original Montgomery silicone tracheal cannulas in 47 patients with obstructive sleep apnea has been reported. Further experience with 10 obstructive sleep apnea patients who used modified silicone tracheal cannulas that permit periodic self-removal, cleaning, and reinsertion was analyzed. Two patients used the tube briefly and without complications. The remaining eight patients used the modified cannula for 18 to 24 months. The average number of office visits following insertion was three. Compared to the original cannulas, there were markedly fewer difficulties with granulations, infection, and tube malposition with the modified cannulas. The improvements make this modified device a useful tool worth further study in obstructive sleep apnea patients requiring tracheostomy. PMID:2299956

  9. 125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6A of 11 (#3279) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  10. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  11. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  12. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  13. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  14. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  15. [Biological activity of native and modified lipopolysaccharides of Pragia fontium].

    PubMed

    Varbanets', L D; Shubchyns'kyĭ, V V; Pokhyl, S I; Seĭfullina, I I; Shmatkova, N V; Samburs'kyĭ, S E

    2009-01-01

    Modified lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Pragia fontium were obtained with germanium complexes (IV) of 2-aminobenzoylhydrazon of salicylic aldehyde (2-NH2-H2Bs), 2-hydroxybenzoylhydrazon salicylic aldehyde (2-OH-H2Bs) and nicotinoylhydrazon of salicylic aldehyde (H2Ns). The modification of LPS was confirmed by IR spectroscopy. Comparative investigations of pyrogenic activity of native and modified LPS showed, that only P. fontium 20125 LPS, modified by germanium complexes with 2-hydroxybenzoylhydrazon of salicylic aldehyde (2-OH-H2Bs) has lost the pyrogenic activity. In the homological reactions of double immunodiffusion in agar it was shown that all modified LPS unlike the native ones lose completely antigenic activity. PMID:19877414

  16. Inequalities involving modified Bessel functions of the first kind II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baricz, Arpad; Neuman, Edward

    2007-08-01

    The intrinsic properties, including logarithmic convexity (concavity), of the modified Bessel functions of the first kind and some other related functions are obtained. Several inequalities involving functions under discussion are established.

  17. 2'-modified nucleosides for site-specific labeling of oligonucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krider, Elizabeth S.; Miller, Jeremiah E.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    We report the synthesis of 2'-modified nucleosides designed specifically for incorporating labels into oligonucleotides. Conversion of these nucleosides to phosphoramidite and solid support-bound derivatives proceeds in good yield. Large-scale synthesis of 11-mer oligonucleotides possessing the 2'-modified nucleosides is achieved using these derivatives. Thermal denaturation studies indicate that the presence of 2'-modified nucleosides in 11-mer duplexes has minimal destabilizing effects on the duplex structure when the nucleosides are placed at the duplex termini. The powerful combination of phosphoramidite and support-bound derivatives of 2'-modified nucleosides affords the large-scale preparation of an entirely new class of oligonucleotides. The ability to synthesize oligonucleotides containing label attachment sites at 3', intervening, and 5' locations of a duplex is a significant advance in the development of oligonucleotide conjugates.

  18. A Modified CIPW Norm Calculation for Lunar Mare Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, R. E.; Basu, A.

    2000-01-01

    CIPW norms of lunar mare basalts are anomalously low in pyroxene. A modified norm calculation allowing higher Ca, Ti, Al, Cr, and Mn in di' and hy' obtains closer matches between normative and modal mineralogy.

  19. Method for modifying trigger level for adsorber regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Ruth, Michael J.; Cunningham, Michael J.

    2010-05-25

    A method for modifying a NO.sub.x adsorber regeneration triggering variable. Engine operating conditions are monitored until the regeneration triggering variable is met. The adsorber is regenerated and the adsorbtion efficiency of the adsorber is subsequently determined. The regeneration triggering variable is modified to correspond with the decline in adsorber efficiency. The adsorber efficiency may be determined using an empirically predetermined set of values or by using a pair of oxygen sensors to determine the oxygen response delay across the sensors.

  20. Isotopically Modified Molybdenum: Production for Application in Nuclear Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. Yu.; Bonarev, A. K.; Sulaberidze, G. A.; Borisevich, V. D.; Kulikov, G. G.; Shmelev, A. N.

    The possibility to use the isotopically modified molybdenum as a constructive material for the fuel rods of light water and fast reactors is discussed. The calculations demonstrate that the isotopically modified molybdenum with an average neutron absorption cross-section comparable to that of zirconium can be obtained with the reasonable for practice cost by a cascade of gas centrifuges, specially designed for separation of non-uranium isotopes.

  1. Shielding effectiveness of original and modified building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenzel, T.; Stumpf, J.; Koch, M.

    2007-06-01

    This contribution deals with the determination of the shielding effectiveness of building materials used for office, factory and government buildings. Besides the examination of standard materials, measurements were also performed on modified materials, e.g. ferro concrete with enhanced shielding effectiveness due to a changed mixture or structure of the reinforcement. The measurements of original and modified materials were carried out in a fully anechoic room (FAR) according to IEEE 299-1997 from 80 MHz up to 10 GHz.

  2. Constructing an inflaton potential by mimicking modified Chaplygin gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahya, E. O.; Pourhassan, B.; Uraz, S.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we consider an inflationary model that effectively behaves as a modified Chaplygin gas in the context of quintessence cosmology. We reconstruct the inflaton potential from the bottom up and using the recent observational data we fix the free parameters of the model. We show that the modified Chaplygin gas-inspired model is suitable for both the early and the late time acceleration but has shortcomings between the two periods.

  3. 46 CFR 54.01-30 - Loadings (modifies UG-22).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Loadings (modifies UG-22). 54.01-30 Section 54.01-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-30 Loadings (modifies UG-22). (a) The loadings for pressure vessels shall be as required by UG-22 of section VIII of...

  4. Hydrodynamic properties of 2-mercaptoethanol-modified glycogen.

    PubMed

    Geddes, R; Harvey, J D; Wills, P R

    1977-12-01

    Treatment of glycogen with 2-mercaptoethanol and iodoacetamide gives rise to a modified glycogen which resembles the original glycogen in its hydrodynamic behaviour but has a pronounced tendency to aggregate. The modified glycogen can be distinguished easily, by its diffusion coefficient, from glycogen degraded by more traditional methods of extraction. The 'fundamental' glycogen particle appears to be composed of two or three glycogen beta-particles linked by a single protein chain. PMID:598377

  5. P-V Criticality of Modified BTZ Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, J.; Kubeka, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the BTZ black hole in P-V critical point of view. As we know, the BTZ black hole does not have P-V critical behavior. So in this case, we introduce some anstaz that give us the modified BTZ black hole. Finally, we show that this modified BTZ black hole is satisfied by the equation of state of Liquid-gas phase transition.

  6. Copyright Protection for Modifiable Digital Content Based on Distributed Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Heejae; Kim, Jong

    Today, users themselves are becoming subjects of content creation. The fact that blog, wiki, and UCC have become very popular shows that users want to participate to create and modify digital content. Users who participate in composing content also want to have their copyrights on their modification parts. Thus, a copyright protection system for the content which can be modified by multiple users is required. However, the conventional DRM (Digital Rights Management) systems like OMA DRM are not suitable for the modifiable content because they do not support the content created and modified by different users. Therefore in this paper, we propose a new copyright protection system which allows each modifier of the content created and modified by multiple users to have one's own copyright. We propose data formats and protocols, and analyze the proposed system in terms of the correctness and security. Performance evaluation in the view of response time shows that the proposed system is 2 to 18 times shorter than other comparative schemes.

  7. Modifying cellular properties using artificial aptamer-lipid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Meghan O.; Chang, Yun Min; Xiong, Xiangling; Tan, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that artificial aptamer-lipid receptors (AR), which anchor on the surface of cells, can modify important cellular functions, including protein binding, enzymatic activity, and intercellular interactions. Streptavidin (SA)-AR-modified CEM cells captured the tetravalent SA with one biotin binding site. The remaining biotin sites captured biotinylated TDO5 aptamers, which target IgM on Ramos cells, to form CEM-Ramos cell assemblies. In another design, thrombin, an enzyme involved in blood clotting, was captured by thrombin-AR-modified cells and clot formation was visualized. Lastly, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mimics were modified with a tenascin-C-AR to improve the homing of HSC after an autologous bone marrow transplant. Tenascin-C-AR modified cells aggregated to cells in a tenascin-C expressing stem cell niche model better than library-AR modified cells. Modification of cellular properties using ARs is a one-step, dosable, nontoxic, and reversible method, which can be applied to any cell-type with any protein that has a known aptamer. PMID:24275961

  8. [Tetracycline penetration into tissue by modified electro- and phonophoretic methods].

    PubMed

    Ragelis, S Iu

    1981-09-01

    A total of 451 experiments (130 with the method of electrophoresis and 321 with the method of phonophoresis) were performed on healthy rabbits of the same species, age, weight and sex with the use of the galvanization apparatus "Potok-1" and ultrasound therapeutic apparatus "VTP-1". The penetration levels of tetracycline into the tissues after its administration with the modified methods of electro- and phonophoresis were determined. The dependence of the process on the current density, ultrasound intensity, time and antibiotic concentration was studied. The efficacy of the routine electro- and phonophoresis methods was compared with that of the modified ones. It was found that the tissue levels of tetracycline administered with the modified methods of electro- and phonophoresis increased with an increase in the current density or ultrasound intensity, the procedure time and antibiotic concentration. When tetracycline was administered with the modified method of electrophoresis its levels were highest in the skin, lower in the muscles and minimum in the bones. With the use of the modified method of phonophoresis the highest levels were in the skin, the lowest in the bones and the minimum in the muscles. The tissue levels of tetracycline administered with the modified methods of electro- and phonophoresis were higher than those obtained with the routine methods of electro- and phonophoresis. PMID:7294763

  9. Modifying cellular properties using artificial aptamer-lipid receptors.

    PubMed

    Altman, Meghan O; Chang, Yun Min; Xiong, Xiangling; Tan, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that artificial aptamer-lipid receptors (AR), which anchor on the surface of cells, can modify important cellular functions, including protein binding, enzymatic activity, and intercellular interactions. Streptavidin (SA)-AR-modified CEM cells captured the tetravalent SA with one biotin binding site. The remaining biotin sites captured biotinylated TDO5 aptamers, which target IgM on Ramos cells, to form CEM-Ramos cell assemblies. In another design, thrombin, an enzyme involved in blood clotting, was captured by thrombin-AR-modified cells and clot formation was visualized. Lastly, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mimics were modified with a tenascin-C-AR to improve the homing of HSC after an autologous bone marrow transplant. Tenascin-C-AR modified cells aggregated to cells in a tenascin-C expressing stem cell niche model better than library-AR modified cells. Modification of cellular properties using ARs is a one-step, dosable, nontoxic, and reversible method, which can be applied to any cell-type with any protein that has a known aptamer. PMID:24275961

  10. 20 CFR 652.213 - What information must a State include when the plan is modified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... plan is modified? A State must follow the instructions for modifying the strategic five-year plan in 20 CFR 661.230. ... the plan is modified? 652.213 Section 652.213 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND...

  11. 20 CFR 652.213 - What information must a State include when the plan is modified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... plan is modified? A State must follow the instructions for modifying the strategic five-year plan in 20 CFR 661.230. ... the plan is modified? 652.213 Section 652.213 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND...

  12. 20 CFR 652.213 - What information must a State include when the plan is modified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... plan is modified? A State must follow the instructions for modifying the strategic five-year plan in 20 CFR 661.230. ... the plan is modified? 652.213 Section 652.213 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND...

  13. 20 CFR 652.213 - What information must a State include when the plan is modified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... plan is modified? A State must follow the instructions for modifying the strategic five-year plan in 20 CFR 661.230. ... the plan is modified? 652.213 Section 652.213 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND...

  14. Effects of Dipole Potential Modifiers on Heterogenic Lipid Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Efimova, Svetlana S; Malev, Valery V; Ostroumova, Olga S

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we examine the ability of dipole modifiers, flavonoids, and RH dyes to affect the dipole potential (φ d) and phase separation in membranes composed of ternary mixtures of POPC with different sphingolipids and sterols. Changes in the steady-state conductance induced by cation-ionophore complexes have been measured to evaluate the changes in dipole potential of planar lipid bilayers. Confocal fluorescence microscopy has been employed to investigate lipid segregation in giant unilamellar vesicles. The effects of flavonoids on φ d depend on lipid composition and dipole modifier type. The effectiveness of RH dyes to increase φ d depends on sphingolipid type but is not influenced by sterol content. Tested modifiers lead to partial or complete disruption of gel domains in bilayers composed of POPC, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol. Substitution of cholesterol to ergosterol or 7-dehydrocholesterol leads to a loss of fluidizing effects of modifiers except phloretin. This may be due to various compositions of gel domains. The lack of influence of modifiers on phase scenario in vesicles composed of ternary mixtures of POPC, cholesterol, and phytosphingosine or sphinganine is related to an absence of gel-like phase. It was concluded that the membrane lateral heterogeneity affects the dipole-modifying abilities of the agents that influence the magnitude of φ d by intercalation into the bilayer and orientation of its own large dipole moments (phloretin and RH dyes). The efficacy of modifiers that do not penetrate deeply and affect φ d through water adsorption (phlorizin, quercetin, and myricetin) is not influenced by lateral heterogeneity of membrane. PMID:26454655

  15. Allelopathic effect of methanolic extracts of genetically modified and non-genetically modified canola on soybean.

    PubMed

    Syed, Kashmala; Shinwari, Zabta Khan

    2016-03-01

    This study on the effect of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM canola on soybean was carried out for physiological and biochemical biosafety assessment of GM canola. Methanolic extracts of GM and non-GM canola were assessed on seed germination and growth of soybean (Glycine max L.) under sterilized conditions. The extracts applied were of 3, 5, and 10% concentrations. The results showed that methanolic extracts of both GM and non-GM canola improved the germination percentage. However, germination rate index was significantly decreased with concomitant increase in mean germination time of soybean. A significant rate of decrease was observed in root fresh weight while increase in shoot length took place; when treatment of GM canola extracts were applied, however, no effect was observed in shoot fresh weight. A significant increase in protein contents, as well as phenolic, carotenoids, proline, and chlorophyll a content, was observed when different GM canola treatments (3, 5, and 10%) were applied to soybean; however, a significant rate of reduction in chlorophyll b content was observed by the application of GM canola treatment. Similar results were observed for superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase activities. A significant increase in the sugar content levels was observed when GM canola treatments (3, 5, and 10%) were applied to soybean. PMID:24105070

  16. Position of modifying groups on starch chains of octenylsuccinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yanjie; Kaufman, Rhett C; Wilson, Jeff D; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2014-06-15

    Octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starches with a low (0.018) and high (0.092) degree of substitution (DS) were prepared from granular native waxy maize starch in aqueous slurry. The position of OS substituents along the starch chains was investigated by enzyme hydrolysis followed by chromatographic analysis. Native starch and two OS starches with a low and high DS had β-limit values of 55.9%, 52.8%, and 34.4%, respectively. The weight-average molecular weight of the β-limit dextrin from the OS starch with a low DS was close to that of the β-limit dextrin from native starch but lower than that of the β-limit dextrin from the OS starch with a high DS. Debranching of OS starches was incomplete compared with native starch. OS groups in the OS starch with a low DS were located on the repeat units near the branching points, whereas the OS substituents in the OS starch with a high DS occurred both near the branching points and the non-reducing ends. PMID:24491720

  17. Surfactants modify the release from tablets made of hydrophobically modified poly (acrylic acid)☆

    PubMed Central

    Knöös, Patrik; Onder, Sebla; Pedersen, Lina; Piculell, Lennart; Ulvenlund, Stefan; Wahlgren, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Many novel pharmaceutically active substances are characterized by a high hydrophobicity and a low water solubility, which present challenges for their delivery as drugs. Tablets made from cross-linked hydrophobically modified poly (acrylic acid) (CLHMPAA), commercially available as Pemulen™, have previously shown promising abilities to control the release of hydrophobic model substances. This study further investigates the possibility to use CLHMPAA in tablet formulations using ibuprofen as a model substance. Furthermore, surfactants were added to the dissolution medium in order to simulate the presence of bile salts in the intestine. The release of ibuprofen is strongly affected by the presence of surfactant and/or buffer in the dissolution medium, which affect both the behaviour of CLHMPAA and the swelling of the gel layer that surrounds the disintegrating tablets. Two mechanisms of tablet disintegration were observed under shear, namely conventional dissolution of a soluble tablet matrix and erosion of swollen insoluble gel particles from the tablet. The effects of surfactant in the surrounding medium can be circumvented by addition of surfactant to the tablet. With added surfactant, tablets that may be insusceptible to the differences in bile salt level between fasted or fed states have been produced, thus addressing a central problem in controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs. In other words CLHMPAA is a potential candidate to be used in tablet formulations for controlled release with poorly soluble drugs. PMID:25755999

  18. Second harmonic generation of chiral-modified silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yue; Aldea-Nunzi, Gabriela; Rao Bobbara, Sanyasi; Nunzi, Jean-Michel

    2013-10-01

    Various approaches for the optical detection of chiral compounds have been developed due to their natural optical activity. Since the advantages of second harmonic generation (SHG) on noble-metal nanoparticles (NPs) have been observed, it would be interesting to study the nonlinear phenomena from chiral compounds attached Ag NPs. In the present work, we fabricated chiral-modified Ag NPs based on the self-assembly process of cysteine and Ag, and carried out the investigation on SHG on modified and unmodified Ag NPs. For modified Ag NPs, either L-Cysteine (L-C) or D-Cysteine (D-C), as a pair of enantiomers, was applied on top of the Ag NPs. The resulting chiral-modified monolayers of L-C/Ag NPs and D-C/Ag NPs exhibit a reversed optical rotation difference (ORD) at linearly +/-45° polarization of SH, where no such difference exists for Ag NPs alone. SHG efficiently probes and discriminates L-C from D-C monolayers on the modified Ag NPs, which constitutes a simple and sensitive optical diagnostic of chiral molecules.

  19. Antibacterial effect of silver nanofilm modified stainless steel surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, F.; Kennedy, J.; Dhillon, M.; Flint, S.

    2015-03-01

    Bacteria can attach to stainless steel surfaces, resulting in the colonization of the surface known as biofilms. The release of bacteria from biofilms can cause contamination of food such as dairy products in manufacturing plants. This study aimed to modify stainless steel surfaces with silver nanofilms and to examine the antibacterial effectiveness of the modified surface. Ion implantation was applied to produce silver nanofilms on stainless steel surfaces. 35 keV Ag ions were implanted with various fluences of 1 × 1015 to 1 × 1017 ions•cm-2 at room temperature. Representative atomic force microscopy characterizations of the modified stainless steel are presented. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry spectra revealed the implanted atoms were located in the near-surface region. Both unmodified and modified stainless steel coupons were then exposed to two types of bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Streptococcus thermophilus, to determine the effect of the surface modification on bacterial attachment and biofilm development. The silver modified coupon surface fluoresced red over most of the surface area implying that most bacteria on coupon surface were dead. This study indicates that the silver nanofilm fabricated by the ion implantation method is a promising way of reducing the attachment of bacteria and delay biofilm formation.

  20. Atomic diffusion in laser surface modified AISI H13 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aqida, S. N.; Brabazon, D.; Naher, S.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a laser surface modification process of AISI H13 steel using 0.09 and 0.4 mm of laser spot sizes with an aim to increase surface hardness and investigate elements diffusion in laser modified surface. A Rofin DC-015 diffusion-cooled CO2 slab laser was used to process AISI H13 steel samples. Samples of 10 mm diameter were sectioned to 100 mm length in order to process a predefined circumferential area. The parameters selected for examination were laser peak power, pulse repetition frequency (PRF), and overlap percentage. The hardness properties were tested at 981 mN force. Metallographic study and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) were performed to observe presence of elements and their distribution in the sample surface. Maximum hardness achieved in the modified surface was 1017 HV0.1. Change of elements composition in the modified layer region was detected in the laser modified samples. Diffusion possibly occurred for C, Cr, Cu, Ni, and S elements. The potential found for increase in surface hardness represents an important method to sustain tooling life. The EDXS findings signify understanding of processing parameters effect on the modified surface composition.

  1. Effective Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater Using Modified Clay.

    PubMed

    Song, Mun-Seon; Vijayarangamuthu, K; Han, EunJi; Jeon, Ki-Joon

    2016-05-01

    We report an economical and eco-friendly way to remove the heavy metal pollutant using modified clay. The modification of clay was done by calcining the natural clay from Kyushu region in Japan. Further, the removal efficiency for various pH and contact time was evaluated. The morphology of the clays was studied using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The structural and chemical analyses of modified clay were done by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and Energy dispersion analysis (EDAX) to understand the properties related to the removal of heavy metal pollutant. Further, we studied the absorption efficiency of clay for various pH and contacting time using Ni polluted water. The modified clays show better removal efficiency for all pH with different saturation time. The adsorption follows pseudo-second order kinetics and the adsorption capacity of modified clay is 1.5 times larger than that of natural clay. The increase in the adsorption efficiency of modified clay was correlated to the increase in hematite phase along with increase in surface area due to surface morphological changes. PMID:27483775

  2. Genetic modifiers of obesity and bariatric surgery outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sevilla, Samantha; Hubal, Monica J

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a highly heritable trait. While acute and chronic changes in body weight or obesity-related comorbidities are heavily influenced by environmental factors, there are still strong genomic modifiers that help account for inter-subject variability in baseline traits and in response to interventions. This review is intended to provide an up-to-date overview of our current understanding of genetic influences on obesity, with emphasis on genetic modifiers of baseline traits and responses to intervention. We begin by reviewing how genetic variants can influence obesity. We then examine genetic modifiers of weight loss via different intervention strategies, focusing on known and potential modifiers of surgical weight loss outcomes. We will pay particular attention to the effects of patient age on outcomes, addressing the risks and benefits of adopting early intervention strategies. Finally, we will discuss how the field of bariatric surgery can leverage knowledge of genetic modifiers to adopt a personalized medicine approach for optimal outcomes across this widespread and diverse patient population. PMID:24491368

  3. Dissolution from solid lipid extrudates containing release modifiers.

    PubMed

    Güres, Sinan; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2011-06-30

    The influence of different types of release modifiers on the dissolution from solid lipid extrudates was investigated. Diprophylline was extruded together with 45% tristearin and 5% (w/w) of a release modifier to suitable extrudates. Three groups of release modifiers were defined: Hydrocolloids, disintegrants and pore formers. All of the release modifier-containing extrudates showed a faster release compared to the reference extrudate, which contained 50% (w/w) of each, API and lipid. Increasing the amount of diprophylline in the binary mixture up to 55% (w/w) also increased its release rate. Compared to this new reference, not all of the release modifier-containing extrudates exhibited an increased dissolution rate. Within the group of pore formers, there was a great discrepancy concerning the dissolution rates. Extrudates containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) exhibited a much higher release rate compared with extrudates containing sodium chloride or mannitol. This behaviour was assumed to be based on the extrusion temperature of 65°C at which PEG exists in the molten state. The hypothesis was tested using different PEGs and another solid lipid. PMID:21515350

  4. Removal of Microcystis aeruginosa using cationic starch modified soils.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenqing; Tan, Wanqiao; Wang, Lijing; Pan, Gang

    2016-06-15

    A cheap and biodegradable modifier, cationic starch (CS), was used to turn local soils into effective flocculants for Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) removal. The isoelectric point of soil particles was remarkably increased from pH 0.5 to 11.8 after modification with CS, which made CS modified soil particles positively charged and obtain algal flocculation ability. At the soil concentration of 100 mg/L, when the CS modifier was 10 mg/L, 86% of M. aeruginosa cells were removed within 30 min. Lower or higher CS dosage led to limited algal removal. About 71% and 45% of M. aeruginosa cells were removed within 30 min when CS was 5 mg/L and 80 mg/L, respectively. This is because only part of algal cells combined with CS modified soil particles through charge neutralization at low dosage, while flocs formed at high CS dosage were positively charged which prevents further aggregation among the flocs. The floc stability was quantified by a floc breakage index under applied shear force. Algal flocs formed at acid and alkaline conditions were more prone to be broken than those at the neutral condition. The cost and biodegradability concerns may be largely reduced through the use of CS modified local soils. For field applications, other practical issues (e.g., re-suspension) should be further studied by jointly using other methods. PMID:26143587

  5. Antibacterial mesoporous molecular sieves modified with polymeric N-halamine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingfeng; Li, Lin; Liu, Ying; Ren, Xuehong; Liang, Jie

    2016-12-01

    In this research, a new kind of porous N-halamine material with high antibacterial efficacies was prepared. Poly [5,5-dimethyl-3-(3'-triethoxysilylpropyl)-hydantoin] (PSPH), an N-halamine precursor, was synthesized and grafted onto the surface of mesoporous molecular sieves (SBA-15). The mesoporous molecular sieves modified with the N-halamine polymer could be rendered biocidal upon exposure to dilute household bleach. The modified mesoporous molecular sieves were characterized by SEM, TEM, FTIR, XPS, TGA, XRD and BET analysis. It was found that the PSPH has been successfully grafted on the surface of mesoporous molecular sieves, and the morphology and structure of the modified mesoporous molecular sieves were slightly affected. The N-halamine modified mesoporous molecular sieves showed excellent antibacterial property, and inactivated 100% of S. aureus and E. coli O157:H7 with 8.05 and 7.92 log reductions within 1min of contact, respectively. The modified SBA-15 with high-antibacterial efficiency has potential application in water treatment and biomaterials areas. PMID:27612805

  6. Controlling harmful algae blooms using aluminum-modified clay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Xihua; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Qiu, Lixia

    2016-02-15

    The performances of aluminum chloride modified clay (AC-MC), aluminum sulfate modified clay (AS-MC) and polyaluminum chloride modified clay (PAC-MC) in the removal of Aureococcus anophagefferens were compared, and the potential mechanisms were analyzed according to the dispersion medium, suspension pH and clay surface charges. The results showed that AC-MC and AS-MC had better efficiencies in removing A.anophagefferens than PAC-MC. The removal mechanisms of the three modified clays varied. At optimal coagulation conditions, the hydrolysates of AC and AS were mainly monomers, and they transformed into Al(OH)3(am) upon their addition to algae culture, with the primary mechanism being sweep flocculation. The PAC mainly hydrolyzed to the polyaluminum compounds, which remained stable when added to the algae culture, and the flocculation mainly occurred through polyaluminum compounds. The suspension pH significantly influenced the aluminum hydrolysate and affected the flocculation between the modified clay and algae cells. PMID:26763322

  7. Impedimetric investigation of gold nanoparticles - guanine modified electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Vulcu, A.; Pruneanu, S.; Berghian-Grosan, C.; Olenic, L.; Muresan, L. M.; Barbu-Tudoran, L.

    2013-11-13

    In this paper we report the preparation of a modified electrode with gold nanoparticles and guanine. The colloidal suspension of gold nanoparticles was obtained by Turkevich method and was next analyzed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The gold electrode was modified by self-assembling the gold nanoparticles with guanine, the organic molecule playing also the role of linker. The electrochemical characteristics of the bare and modified electrode were investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). A theoretical model was developed based on an electrical equivalent circuit which contain solution resistance (R{sub s}), charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}), Warburg impedance (Z{sub W}) and double layer capacitance (C{sub dl})

  8. Dual Syringe Electrospinning of FNfds-modified Hyaluronic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yuan; Ghosh, Kaustabh; Shu, Xiaozheng; Sokolov, Jonathan; Prestwich, Glenn; Clark, Richard; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2006-03-01

    We described the fabrication of a unique HA nanofibrous scaffold using dual syringe reactive electrospinning. 3^'-dithiobis(propanoic dihydrazide)-modified HA (HA-DTPH) and Poly (ethylene glycol)-diacrylate (PEGDA) were selected as the cross-linking system. PEO was blended with HA-DTPH to facilitate the fiber formation. Fibronectin functional domains (FNfds) were incorporated with PEGDA and covalently linked to HA via conjugate addition to improve the cell attachment. The as-spun scaffold was soaked into DI water to remove PEO and yield an FNfds-modified HA-DTPH nanofibrous scaffold. Human dermal fibroblasts CF31 were seeded on FNfds-modified HA-DTPH scaffolds. The CF31 fibroblasts showed a unique extended dendritic morphology which is opposed to the typical flattened morphology of cells on regular 2D geometries. Supported by NSF-MRSEC.

  9. Modified Friedberg-Lee symmetry for neutrino mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhen-hua

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we put forward a special neutrino mass matrix which is invariant under a modified Friedberg-Lee (FL) transformation νe→νe-2 ξ and νμ ,τ→νμ ,τ+ξ with ξ being a space-time independent element of the Grassmann algebra. Compared to the original FL symmetry (with the transformation νe ,μ ,τ→νe ,μ ,τ+ξ ) which results in the TM2 neutrino mixing, the modified FL symmetry will lead us to the TM1 mixing which has a better agreement with the experimental results. While the original FL symmetry has to be broken in order to produce a realistic neutrino mass spectrum, the modified FL symmetry is allowed to remain intact and give us a vanishing m1. A combination of the FL symmetry with the μ -τ reflection symmetry is also discussed.

  10. Pool boiling of nanoparticle-modified surface with interlaced wettability

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the pool boiling heat transfer under heating surfaces with various interlaced wettability. Nano-silica particles were used as the coating element to vary the interlaced wettability of the surface. The experimental results revealed that when the wettability of a surface is uniform, the critical heat flux increases with the more wettable surface; however, when the wettability of a surface is modified interlacedly, regardless of whether the modified region becomes more hydrophilic or hydrophobic, the critical heat flux is consistently higher than that of the isotropic surface. In addition, this study observed that critical heat flux was higher when the contact angle difference between the plain surface and the modified region was smaller. PMID:22607462

  11. Massive gravitational waves in Chern-Simons modified gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon E-mail: tymoon@inje.ac.kr

    2014-10-01

    We consider the nondynamical Chern-Simons (nCS) modified gravity, which is regarded as a parity-odd theory of massive gravity in four dimensions. We first find polarization modes of gravitational waves for θ=x/μ in nCS modified gravity by using the Newman-Penrose formalism where the null complex tetrad is necessary to specify gravitational waves. We show that in the Newman–Penrose formalism, the number of polarization modes is one in addition to an unspecified Ψ{sub 4}, implying three degrees of freedom for θ=x/μ. This compares with two for a canonical embedding of θ=t/μ. Also, if one introduces the Ricci tensor formalism to describe a massive graviton arising from the nCS modified gravity, one finds one massive mode after making second-order wave equations, which is compared to five found from the parity-even Einstein–Weyl gravity.

  12. Modified Lombard-Dowell broth as a general growth medium.

    PubMed Central

    Jessee, M T; Robinson, P J

    1977-01-01

    A new liquid medium (modified Lombard-Dowell broth) was inoculated with stock culture strains of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and compared with prereduced chopped-meat glucose inoculated with the same anaerobes. Both broths were subcultured at 48 and 72 h to aerobic and anaerobic blood agar plates, and the numbers of colonies were compared after 48-h incubation of the agar plates. This was repeated with mixed cultures of both aerobes and anaerobes. For a period of 11 months all specimens received for anaerobic-aerobic culture were inoculated into prereduced chopped-meat glucose and modified Lombard-Dowell broth plus the appropriate plate medium. Growth from subcultures was compared with primary plate isolates. Chopped-meat glucose and modified Lombard-Dowell broth isolates agreed, with the exception of one, Fusobacterium necrophorum, that did not grow in chopped-meat glucose. PMID:925150

  13. The removal of bacteria by modified natural zeolites.

    PubMed

    Milán, Z; de Las Pozas, C; Cruz, M; Borja, R; Sánchez, E; Ilangovan, K; Espinosa, Y; Luna, B

    2001-01-01

    The removal effect of natural and modified zeolites containing different heavy metals (Ni2+, Zn2+, Fe3+ and Cu2+) on pure cultures of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in a solid medium was evaluated in this work. These experiments were carried out in a continuous mode treating municipal wastewater. Faecal coliform species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified. The rate constants of heavy metal lixiviation were determined using a first order kinetic model. The removal effect of modified natural zeolites in both a solid medium and in continuous mode showed an increased elimination of the bacterial population. The results established a decreasing order of the removal effect as follows: Cu2+ > Fe3+ > Zn2+ > Ni2+. The best performance of columns was obtained for inlet bacterial concentrations below 10(6) cells/100 ml. Most of the identified bacterial species were affected by copper modified zeolites, although Serratia marcescens presented the highest sensitivity and Klebsiella pneumoniae the greatest resistance. PMID:11501306

  14. Inhibition of MMP-13 with modified polymer particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Hai; Bratlie, Kaitlin M.

    2016-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteases that destroy the extracellular matrix and have important roles in the foreign body response, wound healing, and disease. Of particular importance is the chronic wound environment in which MMP activity is increased, resulting in destruction of the de novo extracellular matrix. One potential treatment of these wounds would be to use dressings that are capable of inhibiting MMP activity. In this study, we examined the effect of seven polymer modifiers (2-amino-3-guanidinopropionic acid, arginine, carnitine, citrulline, creatine, 3-guanidino propionic acid, and Nw-nitro-L-arginine) on MMP-13 activity. MMP-13 is a collagenase that is present in chronic wounds and is zinc dependent. Our results showed that these polymer modifiers were able to inhibit MMP-13 activity to varying degrees. The mechanism of inhibition appears to be binding zinc to the modifiers.

  15. Method of detecting luminescent target ions with modified magnetic microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Shkrob, Ilya A; Kaminski, Michael D

    2014-05-13

    This invention provides methods of using modified magnetic microspheres to extract target ions from a sample in order to detect their presence in a microfluidic environment. In one or more embodiments, the microspheres are modified with molecules on the surface that allow the target ions in the sample to form complexes with specific ligand molecules on the microsphere surface. In one or more embodiments, the microspheres are modified with molecules that sequester the target ions from the sample, but specific ligand molecules in solution subsequently re-extract the target ions from the microspheres into the solution, where the complexes form independent of the microsphere surface. Once the complexes form, they are exposed to an excitation wavelength light source suitable for exciting the target ion to emit a luminescent signal pattern. Detection of the luminescent signal pattern allows for determination of the presence of the target ions in the sample.

  16. Effects of Chemically Modified Messenger RNA on Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Luo, Xiao; Dong, Yizhou

    2016-03-16

    Chemically modified nucleotides play significant roles in the effectiveness of mRNA translation. Here, we describe the synthesis of two sets of chemically modified mRNAs [encoding firefly Luciferase (FLuc) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), respectively], evaluation of protein expression, and correlation analysis of expression level under various conditions. The results indicate that chemical modifications of mRNAs are able to significantly improve protein expression, which is dependent on cell types and coding sequences. Moreover, eGFP mRNAs with N1-methylpseudouridine (me(1)ψ), 5-methoxyuridine (5moU), and pseudouridine (ψ) modifications ranked top three in cell lines tested. Interestingly, 5moU-modified eGFP mRNA was more stable than other eGFP mRNAs. Consequently, me(1)ψ, 5moU, and ψ are promising nucleotides for chemical modification of mRNAs. PMID:26906521

  17. Modified Nucleoside Triphosphates for In-vitro Selection Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Dellafiore, María A.; Montserrat, Javier M.; Iribarren, Adolfo M.

    2016-01-01

    The development of SELEX (Selective Enhancement of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) provides a powerful tool for the search of functional oligonucleotides with the ability to bind ligands with high affinity and selectivity (aptamers) and for the discovery of nucleic acid sequences with diverse enzymatic activities (ribozymes and DNAzymes). This technique has been extensively applied to the selection of natural DNA or RNA molecules but, in order to improve chemical and structural diversity as well as for particular applications where further chemical or biological stability is necessary, the extension of this strategy to modified oligonucleotides is desirable. Taking into account these needs, this review intends to collect the research carried out during the past years, focusing mainly on the use of modified nucleotides in SELEX and the development of mutant enzymes for broadening nucleoside triphosphates acceptance. In addition, comments regarding the synthesis of modified nucleoside triphosphate will be briefly discussed. PMID:27200340

  18. Pool boiling of nanoparticle-modified surface with interlaced wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chin-Chi; Su, Tsung-Wen; Chen, Ping-Hei

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the pool boiling heat transfer under heating surfaces with various interlaced wettability. Nano-silica particles were used as the coating element to vary the interlaced wettability of the surface. The experimental results revealed that when the wettability of a surface is uniform, the critical heat flux increases with the more wettable surface; however, when the wettability of a surface is modified interlacedly, regardless of whether the modified region becomes more hydrophilic or hydrophobic, the critical heat flux is consistently higher than that of the isotropic surface. In addition, this study observed that critical heat flux was higher when the contact angle difference between the plain surface and the modified region was smaller.

  19. Characterization of modified pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) starch.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, S; Sharma, R; Kaur, J; Bhardwaj, N

    2014-02-01

    Pearl millet starch (Pennisetum typhoides) was isolated and subjected to hydrothermal, acidic and enzymatic modifications. Native and various modified starches were characterized in terms of yield, moisture, protein, ash, bulk density, swelling power, solubility, colour, sediment volume, gel consistency, water binding capacity, pasting properties, freeze thaw stability and paste clarity. Hydrothermal modification (HTMS) caused an increase in swelling power and solubility. L value was higher for acid and enzymatically modified starches (EMS). A significant reduction (p ≤ 0.05) in sediment volume and water binding capacity was observed for acid modified starch (AMS) and EMS. Peak viscosity values declined for all modifications. However, EMS and AMS showed an improved freeze-thaw stability and paste clarity. PMID:24493886

  20. Acidity characterization of a titanium and sulfate modified vermiculite

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, W.Y.; Centeno, M.A.; Odriozola, J.A.; Moreno, S.; Molina, R.

    2008-07-01

    A natural vermiculite has been modified with titanium and sulfated by the intercalation and impregnation method in order to optimize the acidity of the clay mineral, and characterization of samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption isotherms, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and temperature programmed desorption with ammonia (TPD-NH{sub 3}). All the modified solids have a significantly higher number of acidic sites with respect to the parent material and in all of these, Broensted as well as Lewis acidity are identified. The presence of sulfate appears not to increase the number of acidic centers in the modified clay. For the materials sulfated with the intercalation method, it is observed that the strength of the acidic sites found in the material increases with the nominal sulfate/metal ratio. Nevertheless, when elevated quantities of sulfur are deposited, diffusion problems in the heptane reaction appear.