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Sample records for modifier rotigaptide zp123

  1. Electrophysiological effect of rotigaptide in rabbits with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Li, Haitao; Xia, Wenfang; Yu, Shengbo; Huang, Congxin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Rotigaptide is a new anti-arrhythmic peptide, which has recently been found to increase junctional conductance and prevent ischemia-induced ventricular tachycardia. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects and mechanisms of rotigaptide on the vulnerability to ventricular arrhythmias in rabbits with heart failure (HF). Material and methods Chronic volume-pressure overload was used to induce HF. After rotigaptide infusion, an electrophysiological study was performed to record monophasic action potential (MAP), determine the effective refractory period (ERP) and ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT), and assess the susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmia. Finally, real-time PCR was used to detect the changes of connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA expression. Results HF rabbits exhibited significant down-regulation of Cx43 mRNA, increase of effective refractory period (ERP) and decrease of VFT (p < 0.05, respectively). These changes resulted in an increase of vulnerability to ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT/VF). Rotigaptide administration shortened ERP (113.3 ±8.6 ms vs. 131.7 ±12.5 ms, p < 0.05), restored VFT (15.0 ±2.0 V vs. 6.3 ±1.4 V, p < 0.05), and decreased the vulnerability to VT/VF. However, short-term rotigaptide treatment had no significant effect on MAP duration (MAP duration at 90% repolarization: 169.3 ±6.0 ms vs. 172.7 ±6.2 ms, p > 0.05) or connexin 43 mRNA expression (p > 0.05). Conclusions Rotigaptide decreases the ERP, elevates VFT, and reduces the vulnerability to ventricular arrhythmias without changing Cx43 expression in rabbits with HF. It may be a promising antiarrhythmic drug for preventing ventricular arrhythmia in HF. PMID:24904675

  2. Modified cyanobacteria

    DOEpatents

    Vermaas, Willem F J.

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed is a modified photoautotrophic bacterium comprising genes of interest that are modified in terms of their expression and/or coding region sequence, wherein modification of the genes of interest increases production of a desired product in the bacterium relative to the amount of the desired product production in a photoautotrophic bacterium that is not modified with respect to the genes of interest.

  3. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  4. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects. Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response by increasing the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction, increasing the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response, augmenting the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response, decreasing the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells, or increasing the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  5. Modified blank ammunition injuries.

    PubMed

    Ogunc, Gokhan I; Ozer, M Tahir; Coskun, Kagan; Uzar, Ali Ihsan

    2009-12-15

    Blank firing weapons are designed only for discharging blank ammunition cartridges. Because they are cost-effective, are easily accessible and can be modified to live firearms plus their unclear legal situation in Turkish Law makes them very popular in Turkey. 2004 through 2008, a total of 1115 modified blank weapons were seized in Turkey. Blank firing weapons are easily modified by owners, making them suitable for discharging live firearm ammunition or modified blank ammunitions. Two common methods are used for modification of blank weapons. After the modification, these weapons can discharge the live ammunition. However, due to compositional durability problems with these types of weapons; the main trend is to use the modified blank ammunitions rather than live firearm ammunition fired from modified blank firing weapons. In this study, two types of modified blank weapons and two types of modified blank cartridges were tested on three different target models. Each of the models' shooting side was coated with 1.3+/-2 mm thickness chrome tanned cowhide as a skin simulant. The first model was only coated with skin simulant. The second model was coated with skin simulant and 100% cotton police shirt. The third model was coated with skin simulant and jean denim. After the literature evaluation four high risky anatomic locations (the neck area; the eyes; the thorax area and inguinal area) were pointed out for the steel and lead projectiles are discharged from the modified blank weapons especially in close range (0-50 cm). The target models were designed for these anatomic locations. For the target models six Transparent Ballistic Candle blocks (TCB) were prepared and divided into two test groups. The first group tests were performed with lead projectiles and second group with steel projectile. The shortest penetration depth (lead projectile: 4.358 cm; steel projectile 8.032 cm) was recorded in the skin simulant and jean denim coated block for both groups. In both groups

  6. Aminoglycoside Modifying Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Maria S.; Tolmasky, Marcelo E.

    2010-01-01

    Aminoglycosides have been an essential component of the armamentarium in the treatment of life-threatening infections. Unfortunately, their efficacy has been reduced by the surge and dissemination of resistance. In some cases the levels of resistance reached the point that rendered them virtually useless. Among many known mechanisms of resistance to aminoglycosides, enzymatic modification is the most prevalent in the clinical setting. Aminoglycoside modifying enzymes catalyze the modification at different −OH or −NH2 groups of the 2-deoxystreptamine nucleus or the sugar moieties and can be nucleotidyltranferases, phosphotransferases, or acetyltransferases. The number of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes identified to date as well as the genetic environments where the coding genes are located is impressive and there is virtually no bacteria that is unable to support enzymatic resistance to aminoglycosides. Aside from the development of new aminoglycosides refractory to as many as possible modifying enzymes there are currently two main strategies being pursued to overcome the action of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes. Their successful development would extend the useful life of existing antibiotics that have proven effective in the treatment of infections. These strategies consist of the development of inhibitors of the enzymatic action or of the expression of the modifying enzymes. PMID:20833577

  7. Modified Embedded Atom Method

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-08-01

    Interatomic force and energy calculation subroutine to be used with the molecular dynamics simulation code LAMMPS (Ref a.). The code evaluated the total energy and atomic forces (energy gradient) according to a cubic spline-based variant (Ref b.) of the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) with a additional Stillinger-Weber (SW) contribution.

  8. Modified Faraday cup

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1996-01-01

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees form 0.degree. to 360.degree. and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-din-tensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment.

  9. Modified Faraday cup

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, J.W.; Teruya, A.T.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-09-10

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams is disclosed. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees from 0{degree} to 360{degree} and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment. 12 figs.

  10. Genetically modified bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Sagona, Antonia P; Grigonyte, Aurelija M; MacDonald, Paul R; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2016-04-18

    Phages or bacteriophages, viruses that infect and replicate inside bacteria, are the most abundant microorganisms on earth. The realization that antibiotic resistance poses a substantial risk to the world's health and global economy is revitalizing phage therapy as a potential solution. The increasing ease by which phage genomes can be modified, owing to the influx of new technologies, has led to an expansion of their natural capabilities, and a reduced dependence on phage isolation from environmental sources. This review will discuss the way synthetic biology has accelerated the construction of genetically modified phages and will describe the wide range of their applications. It will further provide insight into the societal and economic benefits that derive from the use of recombinant phages in various sectors, from health to biodetection, biocontrol and the food industry. PMID:26906932

  11. Modified entropic force

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Changjun

    2010-04-15

    The theory of statistical thermodynamics tells us the equipartition law of energy does not hold in the limit of very low temperatures. It is found the Debye model is very successful in explaining the experimental results for most of the solid objects. Motivated by this fact, we modify the entropic force formula which is proposed very recently. Since the Unruh temperature is proportional to the strength of the gravitational field, so the modified entropic force formula is an extension of the Newtonian gravity to the weak field. On the contrary, general relativity extends Newtonian gravity to the strong field case. Corresponding to Debye temperature, there exists a Debye acceleration g{sub D}. It is found the Debye acceleration is g{sub D}=10{sup -15} N kg{sup -1}. This acceleration is very much smaller than the gravitational acceleration 10{sup -4} N kg{sup -1} which is felt by Neptune and the gravitational acceleration 10{sup -10} N kg{sup -1} felt by the Sun. Therefore, the modified entropic force can be very well approximated by the Newtonian gravity in the Solar System and in the Galaxy. With this Debye acceleration, we find the current cosmic speeding up can be explained without invoking any kind of dark energy.

  12. Confidentiality: a modified value.

    PubMed Central

    Emson, H E

    1988-01-01

    In its original expression as a medical value confidentiality may have been absolute; this concept has become eroded by patient consent, legal actions and change in the climate of public opinion. In particular requirements arising out of legal statutes and common law judgements have greatly modified the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship in societies deriving their law from English origins. Despite this, confidentiality remains a value which the physician must strive to preserve. He cannot however do this without considering its effect upon possible innocent third parties. PMID:3392723

  13. Histone Modifiers in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Idan; Poręba, Elżbieta; Kamieniarz, Kinga; Schneider, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Covalent modifications of histones can regulate all DNA-dependent processes. In the last few years, it has become more and more evident that histone modifications are key players in the regulation of chromatin states and dynamics as well as in gene expression. Therefore, histone modifications and the enzymatic machineries that set them are crucial regulators that can control cellular proliferation, differentiation, plasticity, and malignancy processes. This review discusses the biology and biochemistry of covalent histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) and evaluates the dual role of their modifiers in cancer: as oncogenes that can initiate and amplify tumorigenesis or as tumor suppressors. PMID:21941619

  14. Surface modified aerogel monoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas (Inventor); Johnston, James C. (Inventor); Kuczmarski, Maria A. (Inventor); Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    This invention comprises reinforced aerogel monoliths such as silica aerogels having a polymer coating on its outer geometric surface boundary, and to the method of preparing said aerogel monoliths. The polymer coatings on the aerogel monoliths are derived from polymer precursors selected from the group consisting of isocyanates as a precursor, precursors of epoxies, and precursors of polyimides. The coated aerogel monoliths can be modified further by encapsulating the aerogel with the polymer precursor reinforced with fibers such as carbon or glass fibers to obtain mechanically reinforced composite encapsulated aerogel monoliths.

  15. Modifying Radiation Damage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwanghee; McBride, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation leaves a fairly characteristic footprint in biological materials, but this is rapidly all but obliterated by the canonical biological responses to the radiation damage. The innate immune recognition systems that sense “danger” through direct radiation damage and through associated collateral damage set in motion a chain of events that, in a tissue compromised by radiation, often unwittingly result in oscillating waves of molecular and cellular responses as tissues attempt to heal. Understanding “nature’s whispers” that inform on these processes will lead to novel forms of intervention targeted more precisely towards modifying them in an appropriate and timely fashion so as to improve the healing process and prevent or mitigate the development of acute and late effects of normal tissue radiation damage, whether it be accidental, as a result of a terrorist incident, or of therapeutic treatment of cancer. Here we attempt to discuss some of the non-free radical scavenging mechanisms that modify radiation responses and comment on where we see them within a conceptual framework of an evolving radiation-induced lesion. PMID:20583981

  16. Modified Composite Materials Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicus, D. L. (Compiler)

    1978-01-01

    The reduction or elimination of the hazard which results from accidental release of graphite fibers from composite materials was studied at a workshop. At the workshop, groups were organized to consider six topics: epoxy modifications, epoxy replacement, fiber modifications, fiber coatings and new fibers, hybrids, and fiber release testing. Because of the time required to develop a new material and acquire a design data base, most of the workers concluded that a modified composite material would require about four to five years of development and testing before it could be applied to aircraft structures. The hybrid working group considered that some hybrid composites which reduce the risk of accidental fiber release might be put into service over the near term. The fiber release testing working group recommended a coordinated effort to define a suitable laboratory test.

  17. Chemically modified polypyrrole

    SciTech Connect

    Inagaki, T.; Skotheim, T.A.; Lee, H.S.; Okamoto, Y.; Samuelson, L.; Tripathy, S.

    1988-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) films have been systematically modified with electroactive groups in the ..beta..-position to design electrode materials with specific electrochemical and surface active properties. Electrochemical copolymerization of pyrrole and 3-(6-ferrocenyl,6-hydroxyhexyl)pyrrole (P-6-Fc) yields a ferrocene functionalized polypyrrole with a controlled amount to ferrocene functionalization. And also, copolymers of pyrrole and 3-(4-(2,5- dimethoxyphenyl)butyl)pyrrole (P-MP) can be made by electrochemical polymerization and converted to the copolymers containing pH dependent electroactive hydroquinone moieties. Derivatized pyrroles have also been incorporated into Langmuir-Blodgett film structures. The surface pressure-area isotherms of 3-(13-ferrocenyl,13-hydroxytridecy)pyrrole (P-13-Fc) and the mixed monolayer of P-13-Fc and 3-n-hexadecylpyrrole (HDP) are shown. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Modified clay sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Fogler, H. Scott; Srinivasan, Keeran R.

    1990-01-01

    A novel modified clay sorbent and method of treating industrial effluents to remove trace pollutants, such as dioxins, biphenyls, and polyaromatics such as benzo(a)pyrene and pentachlorophenol. The novel clay sorbent has a composite structure in which the interlayer space of an expandable clay, such as smectite, is filled with polyvalent or multivalent inorganic cations which forces weaker surfactant cations to locate on the surface of the clay in such an orientation that the resulting composite is hydrophilic in nature. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-hydroxy aluminum-montmorillonite. In certain embodiments, a non-expanding clay, such as kaolinite, is used and surfactant cations are necessarily located on an external surface of the clay. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-kaolinite.

  19. [The modified Lapidus arthrodesis].

    PubMed

    Trnka, H-J; Hofstätter, S

    2005-08-01

    For the correction of hallux valgus, as one of the most common deformities of the lower limbs, a modified Lapidus arthrodesis is applied at the base of the hallux. After using a lateral tissue technique with medial capsular reefing, a general arthrodesis of the tarsometatarsal 1 joint is carried out. An unstable hallux is the indication for a classic Lapidus arthrodesis. Before determination of the indication, an exact clinical x-ray examination should be made in the dorsoplanar position as well as laterally standing. Complications associated with the Lapidus arthrodesis are postoperative metatarsalgia and pseudoarthrosis. Advantages of this technique are, for example, a high correction potential and better healing, although the surgical technique and post-operative care are more time consuming than for other methods. PMID:16028050

  20. On a modified electrodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, H.R.

    2012-01-01

    A modification of electrodynamics is proposed, motivated by previously unremarked paradoxes that can occur in the standard formulation. It is shown by specific examples that gauge transformations exist that radically alter the nature of a problem, even while maintaining the values of many measurable quantities. In one example, a system with energy conservation is transformed to a system where energy is not conserved. The second example possesses a ponderomotive potential in one gauge, but this important measurable quantity does not appear in the gauge-transformed system. A resolution of the paradoxes comes from noting that the change in total action arising from the interaction term in the Lagrangian density cannot always be neglected, contrary to the usual assumption. The problem arises from the information lost by employing an adiabatic cutoff of the field. This is not necessary. Its replacement by a requirement that the total action should not change with a gauge transformation amounts to a supplementary condition for gauge invariance that can be employed to preserve the physical character of the problem. It is shown that the adiabatic cutoff procedure can also be eliminated in the construction of quantum transition amplitudes, thus retaining consistency between the way in which asymptotic conditions are applied in electrodynamics and in quantum mechanics. The ‘gauge-invariant electrodynamics’ of Schwinger is shown to depend on an ansatz equivalent to the condition found here for maintenance of the ponderomotive potential in a gauge transformation. Among the altered viewpoints required by the modified electrodynamics, in addition to the rejection of the adiabatic cutoff, is the recognition that the electric and magnetic fields do not completely determine a physical problem, and that the electromagnetic potentials supply additional information that is required for completeness of electrodynamics. PMID:23105173

  1. Nominal Modifiers in Mandarin Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, John Y.

    In the surface structure of Chinese nominal modifiers (quantifiers, determiners, adjectives, measure phrase, relative clause, etc.) may occur either before or after a modified noun. In most of the transformational studies of Chinese syntax (e.g. Cheng 1966; Hashimoto 1966; Mei 1972; Tai 1973; Teng 1974), it has been assumed that such NP's have the…

  2. Modifiers and Perceived Stress Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Margaret W.

    1986-01-01

    The Modifiers and Perceived Stress Scale measures stressful life events by number and amount of perceived stresses and provides scores for variables such as anticipation of events, responsibility for events, and amount of social support from family and friends in coping with each event that modify the way stress is perceived. (Author)

  3. Modified Nanodiamonds for Detoxification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Natalie Marie

    essential for interacting with charged molecules, like OTA. Furthermore, the increased ZPs lead to improved colloidal stabilities over a wide range of pH, which is important for their interaction in the GI tract. While the dyes and OTA illustrated primarily electrostatic adsorption mechanisms, neutrally charged AfB1's adsorption was predominantly based upon the aggregate size of the ND substrate. In addition to mycotoxins, fluorescent dyes, including propidium iodide, pyranine and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), were initially utilized during methodological development. Fluorescent dye investigations helped assesses the adsorption mechanisms of NDs and demonstrated the significance of electrostatic interactions. Beyond electrostatic adsorption mechanisms, surface functional groups were also responsible for the amount of dye adsorbed, as was also true in OTA adsorption. Therefore, surface characterization was carried out for several ND samples by FTIR, TOF-SIMS and TDMS analysis. Final results of our studies show that our modified NDs perform better than yeast cells walls and other NDs but comparable to activated charcoal in the adsorption of AfB1, and outperform clay minerals in OTA studies. Moreover, it was demonstrated that adsorption can be maintained in a wide range of pH, thereby, increasing the possibility of NDs use in mycotoxins enterosorbent applications.

  4. The Effects of Pre Modified Input, Interactionally Modified Input, and Modified Output on EFL Learners' Comprehension of New Vocabularies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maleki, Zinat; Pazhakh, AbdolReza

    2012-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to investigate the effects of premodified input, interactionally modified input and modified output on 80 EFL learners' comprehension of new words. The subjects were randomly assigned into four groups of pre modified input, interactionally modified input, modified output and unmodified (control) groups. Each group…

  5. Modified polymers for gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeller, F. H.; Christensen, W.; Mayer, L.

    1979-01-01

    Polymeric materials are modified to serve as stationary phase in chromatographic columns used for separation of atmospheric gases. Materials simplify and improve separation of atmospheric gases in terms of time, quantity of material needed, and sharpness of separation.

  6. MS Disease-Modifying Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contents Injectable treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Oral treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Intravenous infusion treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Managing side effects of disease- modifying ... or subcutaneous), oral and intravenous (into the vein) infusion. INJECTABLE TREATMENTS Treatment (chemical name) Manufacturer Avonex ® (interferon ...

  7. Topology of modified helical gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, J.; Handschuh, R. F.; Coy, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The topology of several types of modified surfaces of helical gears is proposed. The modified surfaces allow absorption of a linear or almost linear function of transmission errors. These errors are caused by gear misalignment and an improvement of the contact of gear tooth surfaces. Principles and corresponding programs for computer aided simulation of meshing and contact of gears have been developed. The results of this investigation are illustrated with numerical examples.

  8. Modified acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Lindgvist, Ylva; Schneider, Gunter

    1998-01-06

    Disclosed is a methods for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity.

  9. Modified Acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Lindqvist, Ylva; Schneider, Gunter

    1999-03-30

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity.

  10. Stellar oscillations in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakstein, Jeremy

    2013-12-01

    Starting from the equations of modified gravity hydrodynamics, we derive the equations of motion governing linear, adiabatic, radial perturbations of stars in scalar-tensor theories. There are two new features: first, the eigenvalue equation for the period of stellar oscillations is modified such that the eigenfrequencies are always larger than predicted by general relativity. Second, the general relativity condition for stellar instability is altered so that the adiabatic index can fall below 4/3 before unstable modes appear. Stars are more stable in modified gravity theories. Specializing to the case of chameleonlike theories, we investigate these effects numerically using both polytropic Lane-Emden stars and models coming from modified gravity stellar structure simulations. We find that the change in the oscillation period of Cepheid star models can be as large as 30% for order-one matter couplings and the change in the inferred distance using the period-luminosity relation can be up to three times larger than if one had only considered the modified equilibrium structure. We discuss the implications of these results for recent and upcoming astrophysical tests and estimate that previous methods can produce new constraints such that the modifications are screened in regions of Newtonian potential of O(10-8).

  11. Model selection for modified gravity.

    PubMed

    Kitching, T D; Simpson, F; Heavens, A F; Taylor, A N

    2011-12-28

    In this article, we review model selection predictions for modified gravity scenarios as an explanation for the observed acceleration of the expansion history of the Universe. We present analytical procedures for calculating expected Bayesian evidence values in two cases: (i) that modified gravity is a simple parametrized extension of general relativity (GR; two nested models), such that a Bayes' factor can be calculated, and (ii) that we have a class of non-nested models where a rank-ordering of evidence values is required. We show that, in the case of a minimal modified gravity parametrization, we can expect large area photometric and spectroscopic surveys, using three-dimensional cosmic shear and baryonic acoustic oscillations, to 'decisively' distinguish modified gravity models over GR (or vice versa), with odds of ≫1:100. It is apparent that the potential discovery space for modified gravity models is large, even in a simple extension to gravity models, where Newton's constant G is allowed to vary as a function of time and length scale. On the time and length scales where dark energy dominates, it is only through large-scale cosmological experiments that we can hope to understand the nature of gravity. PMID:22084296

  12. Modified Acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Lindqvist, Y.; Schneider, G.

    1999-03-30

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity. 2 figs.

  13. Modified acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Lindgvist, Y.; Schneider, G.

    1998-01-06

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity. 1 fig.

  14. A modified submental orotracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Savitha, Keelara Shivalingaiah; Kujur, Abha Rani; Vikram, M S; Joseph, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    In patients with concomitant occurrence of maxillofacial and basilar skull fractures, open reduction and internal fixation is the treatment. It requires intermittent intra operative dental occlusion which precludes oral or nasal intubation. In such cases submental intubation (SMI) is a recognized technique in practice. We describe a modified technique for smooth exteriorization of the endotracheal tube (ETT) during SMI. As the SMI technique is unusual for the performer, emphasis is laid on the applied aspects to minimize probable complications during the procedure. With the modified technique we performed SMI uneventfully on five patients. PMID:26957708

  15. A modified submental orotracheal intubation

    PubMed Central

    Savitha, Keelara Shivalingaiah; Kujur, Abha Rani; Vikram, M. S.; Joseph, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    In patients with concomitant occurrence of maxillofacial and basilar skull fractures, open reduction and internal fixation is the treatment. It requires intermittent intra operative dental occlusion which precludes oral or nasal intubation. In such cases submental intubation (SMI) is a recognized technique in practice. We describe a modified technique for smooth exteriorization of the endotracheal tube (ETT) during SMI. As the SMI technique is unusual for the performer, emphasis is laid on the applied aspects to minimize probable complications during the procedure. With the modified technique we performed SMI uneventfully on five patients PMID:26957708

  16. Synthesis of chemically modified DNA.

    PubMed

    Shivalingam, Arun; Brown, Tom

    2016-06-15

    Naturally occurring DNA is encoded by the four nucleobases adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine. Yet minor chemical modifications to these bases, such as methylation, can significantly alter DNA function, and more drastic changes, such as replacement with unnatural base pairs, could expand its function. In order to realize the full potential of DNA in therapeutic and synthetic biology applications, our ability to 'write' long modified DNA in a controlled manner must be improved. This review highlights methods currently used for the synthesis of moderately long chemically modified nucleic acids (up to 1000 bp), their limitations and areas for future expansion. PMID:27284032

  17. Modified immunotherapy for alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Yoshimasu, Takashi; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-07-01

    Squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) is a commonly used contact sensitizer in immunotherapy for alopecia areata (AA). Severe contact dermatitis is induced by the currently high recommended sensitization dose of 1%-2% SADBE, often decreasing patient compliance. We assessed a modified immunotherapy for AA using SADBE at a starting concentration of 0.01% without sensitization. After one or two weeks of initial 0.01% SADBE application, the concentration of SADBE was increased gradually to 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% until the patients felt itching or erythema at the AA lesion site. The modified immunotherapy showed a response rate of 69.4% (25/36), equivalent to conventional immunotherapy using SADBE starting at 1%-2% sensitization. Furthermore, we investigated the combination therapy of SADBE and multiple courses of steroid pulses for AA. The response rate for combination therapy was 73.7% (28/38); however, the group receiving combination therapy showed a significant prevalence of severe AA compared with the group receiving modified immunotherapy only. We reviewed the efficacy and safety of modified immunotherapy without initial sensitization and combination therapy with immunotherapy and multiple courses of pulses for AA. PMID:26932732

  18. Modifying muscular dystrophy through TGFβ

    PubMed Central

    Ceco, Ermelinda; McNally, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Muscular dystrophy arises from ongoing muscle degeneration and insufficient regeneration. This imbalance leads to loss of muscle with replacement by scar or fibrosis resulting in muscle weakness and, eventually, loss of muscle function. Human muscular dystrophy is characterized by a wide range of disease severity, even when the same genetic mutation is present. This variability implies that other factors, both genetic and environmental, modify the disease outcome. There has been an ongoing effort to define the genetic and molecular bases that influence muscular dystrophy onset and progression. Modifier genes for muscle disease have been identified through candidate gene approaches as well as genomewide surveys. Multiple lines of experimental evidence have now converged on the TGFβ pathway as a modifier for muscular dystrophy. TGFβ signaling is upregulated in dystrophic muscle as a result of a destabilized plasma membrane and/or altered extracellular matrix. Given the important biological role of the TGFβ pathway, and its role beyond muscle homeostasis, we review modifier genes that alter the TGFβ pathway and approaches to modulate TGFβ activity to ameliorate muscle disease. PMID:23551962

  19. Cosmological hints of modified gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The recent measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies made by the Planck satellite have provided impressive confirmation of the Λ CDM cosmological model. However interesting hints of slight deviations from Λ CDM have been found, including a 95% C.L. preference for a "modified gravity" (MG) structure formation scenario. In this paper we confirm the preference for a modified gravity scenario from Planck 2015 data, find that modified gravity solves the so-called Alens anomaly in the CMB angular spectrum, and constrains the amplitude of matter density fluctuations to σ8=0.81 5-0.048+0.032 , in better agreement with weak lensing constraints. Moreover, we find a lower value for the reionization optical depth of τ =0.059 ±0.020 (to be compared with the value of τ =0.079 ±0.017 obtained in the standard scenario), more consistent with recent optical and UV data. We check the stability of this result by considering possible degeneracies with other parameters, including the neutrino effective number, the running of the spectral index and the amount of primordial helium. The indication for modified gravity is still present at about 95% C.L., and could become more significant if lower values of τ were to be further confirmed by future cosmological and astrophysical data. When the CMB lensing likelihood is included in the analysis the statistical significance for MG simply vanishes, indicating also the possibility of a systematic effect for this MG signal.

  20. Reduced modified Chaplygin gas cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianbo; Geng, Danhua; Xu, Lixin; Wu, Yabo; Liu, Molin

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we study cosmologies containing the reduced modified Chaplygin gas (RMCG) fluid which is reduced from the modified Chaplygin gas p = Aρ - Bρ -α for the value of α = -1 /2. In this special case, dark cosmological models can be realized for different values of model parameter A. We investigate the viabilities of these dark cosmological models by discussing the evolutions of cosmological quantities and using the currently available cosmic observations. It is shown that the special RMCG model ( A = 0 or A = 1) which unifies the dark matter and dark energy should be abandoned. For A = 1 /3, RMCG which unifies the dark energy and dark radiation is the favorite model according to the objective Akaike information criteria. In the case of A < 0, RMCG can achieve the features of the dynamical quintessence and phantom models, where the evolution of the universe is not sensitive to the variation of model parameters.

  1. Modified muscle sparing posterolateral thoracotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Ashour, M

    1990-01-01

    A modified posterolateral thoracotomy is described that combines the advantages of complete muscle sparing through a thoracolumbar fascial slide with excellent exposure. The technique is easy to perform. The procedure was associated with relatively little postoperative pain, coughing was effective, and early ambulation was achieved. Experience with this approach in the first 49 patients suggests that it offers an attractive alternative to the standard muscle cutting posterolateral thoracotomy approach for elective procedures. PMID:2281426

  2. Comment on Modified Stokes Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D.M.; Utku, C.

    2009-01-01

    It is common practice in passive microwave remote sensing (microwave radiometry) to express observables as temperatures and in the case of polarimetric radiometry to use what are called "Modified Stokes Parameters in Brightness Temperature" to describe the scene. However, definitions with slightly different normalization (with and without division by bandwidth) have appeared in the literature. The purpose of this manuscript is to present an analysis to clarify the meaning of terms in the definition and resolve the question of the proper normalization.

  3. Disulfiram as a radiation modifier

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.D.; Maners, A.W.; Salari, H.; Baker, M.; Walker, E.M. Jr.

    1986-11-01

    The radiation modifying effect and toxicity of tetraethylthiuram disulfide (disulfiram) have been studied. Disulfiram (DSM) inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase, dopamine-beta-oxygenase, microsomal mixed-function oxidases and cytochrome P-450 enzymes. It is widely used for aversion therapy in alcoholism. Disulfiram also inhibits tumor formation by several known carcinogens. A biphasic toxicity pattern of DSM is reported in the L-929 mouse fibroblast culture system. Disulfiram is 100 percent toxic at 2 X 10(-7) M (0.05 micrograms per ml), 23 percent toxic at 3 X 10(-7) M (0.1 microgram per ml), and 100 percent toxic again at 3.4 X 10(-6) M (1.0 microgram per ml). The pattern is similar to the biphasic toxicity pattern of DMS's major metabolite, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DTC). Reports of both radiation protection and radiation enhancement by DTC exist. Previously, a radioprotective effect by 2 X 10(-6) M DTC (dose modifying factor = 1.26) has been demonstrated in the L-929 cell system. To date, no radiation modifying properties of DSM have been reported. Our investigation of DSM as a radiation modifier at 3 X 10(-7) M (0.1 microgram per ml) did not show significant improvement in survival of irradiated cells treated with DSM relative to the irradiated control group, as determined by absence of a difference in the Do of the two groups. Considering DSM's close structural relationship to DTC, it is possible that DSM may exhibit a radioprotective effect when applied in a different concentration than what was used in our research.

  4. Estimating the Modified Allan Variance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, Charles

    1995-01-01

    The third-difference approach to modified Allan variance (MVAR) leads to a tractable formula for a measure of MVAR estimator confidence, the equivalent degrees of freedom (edf), in the presence of power-law phase noise. The effect of estimation stride on edf is tabulated. A simple approximation for edf is given, and its errors are tabulated. A theorem allowing conservative estimates of edf in the presence of compound noise processes is given.

  5. Polyurethane biocidal polymeric surface modifiers.

    PubMed

    Makal, Umit; Wood, Lynn; Ohman, Dennis E; Wynne, Kenneth J

    2006-03-01

    Polyurethanes (PUs) with soft blocks containing semifluorinated (-CH2OCH2CF3) and 5,5-dimethylhydantoin pendant groups were prepared and employed (2 wt%) as biocidal polymeric surface modifiers (PSMs) for a conventional PU coating comprised of an isophorone diisocyanate/1,4-butanediol-derived hard block (50%) and poly(tetramethylene oxide) soft block. Surface enrichment of the PSM was verified by dynamic contact angle measurements. The PSM modified PU was activated by converting near-surface amide groups to chloramide with 3wt% hypochlorite. The conversion of near-surface amide to chloramide is reflected in somewhat increased hydrophobic character for the antimicrobial chloramide functionalized surfaces. Biocidal activity against both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli) bacteria was demonstrated by using a modified version of American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC-100) test. By changing the PSM concentration it was found that only 1.6 wt% PSM (0.66 wt% biocide, 5,5-dimethylhydantoin) in a conventional PU affected complete kill of P. aeruginosa in 15 min by using this biocidal testing protocol. PMID:16181672

  6. Inter-Rater Reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Modified Ashworth Scale in Assessing Poststroke Elbow Flexor Spasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Taciser; Goksel Karatepe, Altinay; Gunaydin, Rezzan; Koc, Aysegul; Altundal Ercan, Ulku

    2011-01-01

    The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) is commonly used in clinical practice for grading spasticity. However, it was modified recently by omitting grade "1+" of the MAS and redefining grade "2". The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-rater reliability of MAS and modified MAS (MMAS) for the assessment of poststroke elbow flexor spasticity.…

  7. Crystallization modifiers in lipid systems.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan; Masuchi, Monise Helen; Miyasaki, Eriksen Koji; Domingues, Maria Aliciane Fontenele; Stroppa, Valter Luís Zuliani; de Oliveira, Glazieli Marangoni; Kieckbusch, Theo Guenter

    2015-07-01

    Crystallization of fats is a determinant physical event affecting the structure and properties of fat-based products. The stability of these processed foods is regulated by changes in the physical state of fats and alterations in their crystallization behavior. Problems like polymorphic transitions, oil migration, fat bloom development, slow crystallization and formation of crystalline aggregates stand out. The change of the crystallization behavior of lipid systems has been a strategic issue for the processing of foods, aiming at taylor made products, reducing costs, improving quality, and increasing the applicability and stability of different industrial fats. In this connection, advances in understanding the complex mechanisms that govern fat crystallization led to the development of strategies in order to modulate the conventional processes of fat structuration, based on the use of crystallization modifiers. Different components have been evaluated, such as specific triacyglycerols, partial glycerides (monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols), free fatty acids, phospholipids and emulsifiers. The knowledge and expertise on the influence of these specific additives or minor lipids on the crystallization behavior of fat systems represents a focus of current interest for the industrial processing of oils and fats. This article presents a comprehensive review on the use of crystallization modifiers in lipid systems, especially for palm oil, cocoa butter and general purpose fats, highlighting: i) the removal, addition or fractionation of minor lipids in fat bases; ii) the use of nucleating agents to modify the crystallization process; iii) control of crystallization in lipid bases by using emulsifiers. The addition of these components into lipid systems is discussed in relation to the phenomena of nucleation, crystal growth, morphology, thermal behavior and polymorphism, with the intention of providing the reader with a complete panorama of the associated mechanisms

  8. Cosmological tests of modified gravity.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard [Formula: see text]CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years. PMID:27007681

  9. Cosmological tests of modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard Λ CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.

  10. Observational tests of modified gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Bhuvnesh; Zhang Pengjie

    2008-09-15

    Modifications of general relativity provide an alternative explanation to dark energy for the observed acceleration of the Universe. Modified gravity theories have richer observational consequences for large-scale structures than conventional dark energy models, in that different observables are not described by a single growth factor even in the linear regime. We examine the relationships between perturbations in the metric potentials, density and velocity fields, and discuss strategies for measuring them using gravitational lensing, galaxy cluster abundances, galaxy clustering/dynamics, and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. We show how a broad class of gravity theories can be tested by combining these probes. A robust way to interpret observations is by constraining two key functions: the ratio of the two metric potentials, and the ratio of the gravitational 'constant' in the Poisson equation to Newton's constant. We also discuss quasilinear effects that carry signatures of gravity, such as through induced three-point correlations. Clustering of dark energy can mimic features of modified gravity theories and thus confuse the search for distinct signatures of such theories. It can produce pressure perturbations and anisotropic stresses, which break the equality between the two metric potentials even in general relativity. With these two extra degrees of freedom, can a clustered dark energy model mimic modified gravity models in all observational tests? We show with specific examples that observational constraints on both the metric potentials and density perturbations can in principle distinguish modifications of gravity from dark energy models. We compare our result with other recent studies that have slightly different assumptions (and apparently contradictory conclusions)

  11. Metabolomics of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

  12. Adhesives from modified soy protein

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Susan; Wang, Donghai; Zhong, Zhikai; Yang, Guang

    2008-08-26

    The, present invention provides useful adhesive compositions having similar adhesive properties to conventional UF and PPF resins. The compositions generally include a protein portion and modifying ingredient portion selected from the group consisting of carboxyl-containing compounds, aldehyde-containing compounds, epoxy group-containing compounds, and mixtures thereof. The composition is preferably prepared at a pH level at or near the isoelectric point of the protein. In other preferred forms, the adhesive composition includes a protein portion and a carboxyl-containing group portion.

  13. Modified QKLOOK program, change 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-07-01

    Recently, the four QKLOOK programs, in the earlier reports, were extensively modified. The modification were made to increase the usefulness and ease of use of the QKLOOK model. The changes made (1) increase the user's control of the PK/H functions used in QKLOOK, (2) allow the user to select true or incremental vulnerable areas, and (3) brought the programs in line with the FORTRAN 77 standards. All the changes are thoroughly documented. The program VAMERGE, which re-formats the QKLOOK output into a form usable by the ASALT program, has been documented and is also included in this change.

  14. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    PubMed Central

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

  15. Ionene modified small polymeric beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Linear ionene polyquaternary cationic polymeric segments are bonded by means of the Menshutkin reaction (quaternization) to biocompatible, extremely small, porous particles containing halide or tertiary amine sites which are centers for attachment of the segments. The modified beads in the form of emulsions or suspensions offer a large, positively-charged surface area capable of irreversibly binding polyanions such as heparin, DNA, RNA or bile acids to remove them from solution or of reversibly binding monoanions such as penicillin, pesticides, sex attractants and the like for slow release from the suspension.

  16. Estimating the Modified Allan Variance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, Charles

    1995-01-01

    A paper at the 1992 FCS showed how to express the modified Allan variance (mvar) in terms of the third difference of the cumulative sum of time residuals. Although this reformulated definition was presented merely as a computational trick for simplifying the calculation of mvar estimates, it has since turned out to be a powerful theoretical tool for deriving the statistical quality of those estimates in terms of their equivalent degrees of freedom (edf), defined for an estimator V by edf V = 2(EV)2/(var V). Confidence intervals for mvar can then be constructed from levels of the appropriate 2 distribution.

  17. The Modifier Effect and Property Mutability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, James A.; Passanisi, Alessia; Jonsson, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    The modifier effect is the reduction in perceived likelihood of a generic property sentence, when the head noun is modified. We investigated the prediction that the modifier effect would be stronger for mutable than for central properties, without finding evidence for this predicted interaction over the course of five experiments. However…

  18. Genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-09-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that directly affects more than 1 in 10,000 persons in Western societies but, as a family disorder with a long, costly, debilitating course, it has an indirect impact on a far greater proportion of the population. Although some palliative treatments are used, no effective treatment exists for preventing clinical onset of the disorder or for delaying its inevitable progression toward premature death, approximately 15 years after diagnosis. Huntington's disease involves a movement disorder characterized by chorea, as well as a variety of psychiatric disturbances and intellectual decline, with a gradual loss of independence. A dire need exists for effective HD therapies to alleviate the suffering and costs to the individual, family, and health care system. In past decades, genetics, the study of DNA sequence variation and its consequences, provided the tools to map the HD gene to chromosome 4 and ultimately to identify its mutation as an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the coding sequence of a large protein, dubbed huntingtin. Now, advances in genetic technology offer an unbiased route to the identification of genetic factors that are disease-modifying agents in human patients. Such genetic modifiers are expected to highlight processes capable of altering the course of HD and therefore to provide new, human-validated targets for traditional drug development, with the goal of developing rational treatments to delay or prevent onset of HD clinical signs. PMID:25154728

  19. Stroke prevention: modifying risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Romero, José Rafael; Morris, Jane; Pikula, Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Risk factor modification remains as the principal aspect of care for stroke prevention. Understanding of risk factors has advanced and several options are now available to treat modifiable risk factors. However, effective treatment remains a challenging task in clinical practice. Prevention begins with awareness of risk factors by patients and clinicians. Risk factor assessment along with overall stroke risk estimation should be part of evaluation of patients with stroke, and used with careful clinical judgment. In this review we discuss the impact of modifiable traditional vascular risk factors on ischemic stroke, interventions for stroke prevention, and evidence for early treatment of risk factors where available as well as areas of research progress. Emphasis should be paid in education of patients, the community and medical personnel. Future research in the field of genetic determinants of vascular risk factors and stroke will increase our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of cerebrovascular disease and likely result in development of new therapies and individualized programs for stroke prevention. PMID:19124428

  20. Investigation of modified asphalt concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimich, Vita

    2016-01-01

    Currently the problem of improving the asphalt quality is very urgent. It is used primarily as topcoats exposed to the greatest relative to the other layers of the road, dynamic load - impact and shear. The number of cars on the road, the speed of their movement, as well as the traffic intensity increase day by day. We have to upgrade motor roads, which entails a huge cost. World experience shows that the issue is urgent not only in Russia, but also in many countries in Europe, USA and Asia. Thus, the subject of research is the resistance of asphalt concrete to water and its influence on the strength of the material at different temperatures, and resistance of pavement to deformation. It is appropriate to search for new modifiers for asphaltic binder and mineral additives for asphalt mix to form in complex the skeleton of the future asphalt concrete, resistant to atmospheric condensation, soil characteristics of the road construction area, as well as the growing road transport load. The important task of the work is searching special modifying additives for bitumen binder and asphalt mixture as a whole, which will improve the quality of highways, increasing the period between repairs. The methods described in the normative-technical documentation were used for the research. The conducted research allowed reducing the frequency of road maintenance for 7 years, increasing it from 17 to 25 years.

  1. Modified sonourethrography assists urethral catheterization.

    PubMed

    Minagawa, Tomonori; Suzuki, Toshiro; Domen, Takahisa; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Masakuni; Hirakata, Shiro; Nagai, Takashi; Nakazawa, Masaki; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Ishizuka, Osamu

    2016-07-01

    Sonourethrography (SUG) is an infrequently used modality to observe the male urethra. We modified SUG to examine the reasons for difficulty in urethral catheterization and to determine a safe approach to resolve these problems. Following retrograde urethral jelly injection, modified SUG (mSUG) was performed in male patients with difficulty in urethral catheterization. mSUG was performed using transcutaneous ultrasonography in patients for whom the catheter became lodged in the penile urethra. In other patients, mSUG was performed using transrectal ultrasonography. We divided the causes of difficult indwelling urethral catheterization into physiological and pathological conditions. With regard to physiological conditions, the urethral catheter became stuck in the bulbous portion, membranous urethra, and prostatic urethra. mSUG distinguished the problematic part of the urethra in real time, and it assisted in overcoming the problem. With regard to pathological conditions, urethral stricture after trauma or surgery was clearly demonstrated in the penile and prostatic portions of the urethra. As with physiological conditions, mSUG images assisted in navigating the catheter through the problematic pathological areas or demonstrated the need to abandon the catheterization. mSUG can visualize the male urethra clearly during urethral catheterization and provide real-time assistance with the procedure. PMID:26847624

  2. Modified Bootstrap Sensitometry In Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    1981-04-01

    A new modified bootstrap approach to sensitometry is presented which provides H and D curves that show almost exact agreement with those obtained using conventional methods. Two bootstrap techniques are described; both involve a combination of inverse-square and stepped-wedge modulation of the radiation field and provide intensity-scale sensitometric curves as appropriate for medical radiography. H and D curves obtained with these modified techniques are compared with those obtained for screen-film combinations using inverse-square sensitometry as well as with those obtained for direct x-ray film using time-scale sensitometry. The stepped wedge of the Wisconsin X-Ray Test Cassette was used in the bootstrap approach since it provides sufficient exposure latitude to encompass the useful density range of medical x-ray film. This approach makes radiographic sensitometry quick and convenient, allowing accurate characteristic curves to be obtained for any screen-film cassette using standard diagnostic x-ray equipment.

  3. The Modified Embedded Atom Method

    SciTech Connect

    Baskes, M.I.

    1994-08-01

    Recent modifications have been made to generalize the Embedded Atom Method (EAM) to describe bonding in diverse materials. By including angular dependence of the electron density in an empirical way, the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) has been able to reproduce the basic energetic and structural properties of 45 elements. This method is ideally suited for examining the interfacial behavior of dissimilar materials. This paper explains in detail the derivation of the method, shows how the parameters of the MEAM are determined directly from experiment or first principles calculations, and examines the quality of the reproduction of the database. Materials with fcc, bcc, hcp, and diamond cubic crystal structure are discussed. A few simple examples of the application of the MEAM to surfaces and interfaces are presented. Calculations of pullout of a SiC fiber in a diamond matrix as a function of applied stress show non-uniform deformation of the fiber.

  4. Chern-Simons Modified Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstratiou, P.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation will be based on my, undergraduate, thesis at Aristotle University of Thessoliniki with the same subject, supervised by Professor Demetrios Papadopoulos. I will first present the general mathematical formulation of the Chern-Simons (CS) modified gravity, which is split in a dynamical and a non-dynamical context, and the different physical theories which suggest this modification. Then proceed by examing the possibility that the CS theory shares solutions with General Relativity in both contexts. In the non-dynamical context I will present a new, undocumented solution as well as all the other possible solutions found to date. I will conclude by arguing that General Relativity and CS Theory share any solutions in the dynamical context.

  5. Modified gravity and dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cembranos, Jose A. R.

    2016-05-01

    The fundamental nature of Dark Matter (DM) has not been established. Indeed, beyond its gravitational effects, DM remains undetected by present experiments. In this situation, it is reasonable to wonder if other alternatives can effectively explain the observations usually associated with the existence of DM. The modification of the gravitational interaction has been studied in this context from many different approaches. However, the large amount of different astrophysical evidences makes difficult to think that modified gravity can account for all these observations. On the other hand, if such a modification introduces new degrees of freedom, they may work as DM candidates. We will summarize the phenomenology of these gravitational DM candidates by analyzing minimal models.

  6. SELMA: Selection with Modified Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Temme, J. Sebastian; Krauss, Isaac J.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro selection of nucleic acid aptamers, coined SELEX, has led to the discovery of novel therapeutics and aided in the structural and mechanistic understanding of many ligand-biomolecule interactions. A related method, selection with modified aptamers (SELMA), enables selection of DNA aptamers containing bases with a large modification that cannot undergo PCR. A key application of this method is the evolution of aptamers containing carbohydrate modifications. Carbohydrate-binding proteins normally require several copies of the carbohydrate moiety for strong recognition. Whereas it may be difficult to rationally design synthetic scaffolds that cluster glycans in the optimal spacing and orientation for target recognition, SELMA furnishes glycoaptamers with highly optimized glycan clustering, achieving low-nanomolar recognition. Although numerous applications can be envisioned, the protocols and discussions in this article describe procedures involved in applying SELMA to the discovery glycoDNAs that bind to the HIV broadly neutralizing antibody 2G12. PMID:26344234

  7. SUMMARY OF 2009 RHEOLOGY MODIFIER PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E.

    2009-12-08

    The overall objective of the EM-31 Rheological Modifiers and Wetting Agents program is to utilize commercially available rheology modifiers to increase the solids fraction of radioactive sludge based waste streams, resulting in an increase in throughput and decreasing the overall processing time. The program first investigates the impact of rheology modifiers on slurry simulants and then utilizes the most effective rheology modifiers on radioactive slurries. The work presented in this document covers the initial investigation of rheology modifier testing with simulants. This task is supported by both the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The SRNL EM-31 task, for this year, was to investigate the use of rheology modifiers on simulant Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feeds. The task is to determine, based on the impact of the rheology modifier, if there are rheology modifiers that could reduce the water content of the slurry going to the DWPF melter, hence increasing the melt rate by decreasing the water loading. The rheology modifier in essence would allow a higher solids content slurry to have the same type of rheology or pumpability of a lower solids slurry. The modifiers selected in this report were determined based on previous modifiers used in high level waste melter feed simulants, on-going testing performed by counterparts at PNNL, and experiences gain through use of modifiers in other Department of Energy (DOE) processes such as grout processing. There were 12 rheology modifiers selected for testing, covering both organic and inorganic types and they were tested at four different concentrations for a given melter feed. Five different DWPF melter feeds were available and there was adequate material in one of the melter feeds to increase the solids concentration, resulting in a total of six simulants for testing. The mass of melter feed available in each simulant was not adequate for

  8. Lactone modified viscosity modifiers useful in oleaginous compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, A.; Lundberg, R.D.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a lactone modified reaction product useful as a viscosity index improver additive for lubricating oil compositions. It comprises: the reaction produce of: oil soluble ethylene copolymer comprising within the range of about 15 to 90 wt.% ethylene and about 10 to 85 wt.% of one or more C{sub 3} to C{sub 28} alpha-olefin, having a number average molecular weight within a range of about 15,000 to 500,000 and grafted with ethylenically unsaturated C{sub 4}--C{sub 10} monocarboxylic acid or anhydride or C{sub 4}--C{sub 0} dicarboxylic acid or anhydride wherein the carboxylic acid groups or anhydride groups are located on vicinal carbon atoms; amine selected from the group consisting of amines having at least two primary amine groups and amines having at least one primary amine group and at least one secondary amine group; long chain hydrocarbyl substituted succinic anhydride or acid having 25 to 400 carbon atoms; and lactone.

  9. Genetically modified myths and realities.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Wayne

    2010-11-30

    Myths abound when it comes to GE crops. At their worst, myths play an active role in discouraging the use of GE to solve problems that afflict humankind, such as malnutrition and birth defects. Of all the various myths, two have been particularly important in preventing the use of GE maize in its areas of origin. The first is that transgenic maize will contaminate and destroy land races, thus destroying biodiversity and its associated cultural traditions. This myth totally ignores the fact that the gene flow that has taken place between maize and its progenitor, between the land races, and between land races and modern hybrids, has not led to any dire consequences. The second myth is that crops are natural and have not been modified by humans, or if they have, that plant breeding does not alter DNA. This myth ignores the fact that for the most part, it is impossible to alter the appearance of crops without changing the DNA. In fact, DNA movement within the crop genome is normal and its movement leads to double-strand DNA repair, with results like those found around transgene insertion sites. In addition, plants have ways to create novel genes. These changes help plants adapt to evolution and to human selection. The net result is that changes similar to what happens during the production of engineered plants takes place anyway in plant genomes. PMID:20609417

  10. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are described. State-of-the-art epoxides MY720 and DER383 were used, and four bismide amines were evaluated. These were the BIA's derived from the 6F anhydride (4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) bis(phthalic anhydride) and the diamines 3,3'-diaminodiphynyl sulfone, 4,4'-oxygianiline, 4,4'-methylene dianiline, and 1,12-dodecane diamine. A key intermediate, designated 6F anhydride, is required for the synthesis of the bisimide amines. Reaction parameters to synthesize a precursor to the 6F anhydride (6FHC) in high yields were investigated. The catalyst trifluoromethane sulfonic acid was studied. Although small scale runs yielded the 6FHC in 50 percent yield, efforts to ranslate these results to a larger scale synthesis gave the 6FHC in only 9 percent yield. Results show that the concept of using bisimide amine as curing agents to improve the toughness properties of epoxies is valid.

  11. Modifiers of mutant huntingtin aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Teuling, Eva; Bourgonje, Annika; Veenje, Sven; Thijssen, Karen; de Boer, Jelle; van der Velde, Joeri; Swertz, Morris; Nollen, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Protein aggregation is a common hallmark of a number of age-related neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and polyglutamine-expansion disorders such as Huntington’s disease, but how aggregation-prone proteins lead to pathology is not known. Using a genome-wide RNAi screen in a C. elegans-model for polyglutamine aggregation, we previously identified 186 genes that suppress aggregation. Using an RNAi screen for human orthologs of these genes, we here present 26 human genes that suppress aggregation of mutant huntingtin in a human cell line. Among these are genes that have not been previously linked to mutant huntingtin aggregation. They include those encoding eukaryotic translation initiation, elongation and translation factors, and genes that have been previously associated with other neurodegenerative diseases, like the ATP-ase family gene 3-like 2 (AFG3L2) and ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 1 (UBA1). Unravelling the role of these genes will broaden our understanding of the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease. PMID:21915392

  12. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.; Pater, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    High char yield epoxy using novel bisimide amines (BIA's) as curing agents with a state of the art epoxy resin was developed. Stoichiometric quantities of the epoxy resin and the BIA's were studied to determine the cure cycle required for preparation of resin specimens. The bisimide cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). The physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these novel resins were determined. The levels of moisture absorption exhibited by the bisimide amine cured expoxies (IME's) were considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies. The strain-to-failure of the control resin system was improved 25% by replacement of DDS with 6F-DDS. Each BIA containing resin exhibited twice the char yield of the control resin MY 720/DDS. Graphite fiber reinforced control (C) and IME resins were fabricated and characterized. Two of the composite systems showed superior properties compared to the other Celion 6000/IME composite systems and state of the art graphite epoxy systems. The two systems exhibited excellent wet shear and flexural strengths and moduli at 300 and 350 F.

  13. Wave propagation in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroos, Jan Ø.; Llinares, Claudio; Mota, David F.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the propagation of scalar waves induced by matter sources in the context of scalar-tensor theories of gravity which include screening mechanisms for the scalar degree of freedom. The usual approach when studying these theories in the nonlinear regime of cosmological perturbations is based on the assumption that scalar waves travel at the speed of light. Within general relativity this approximation is valid and leads to no loss of accuracy in the estimation of observables. We find, however, that mass terms and nonlinearities in the equations of motion lead to propagation and dispersion velocities significantly different from the speed of light. As the group velocity is the one associated with the propagation of signals, a reduction of its value has direct impact on the behavior and dynamics of nonlinear structures within modified gravity theories with screening. For instance, the internal dynamics of galaxies and satellites submerged in large dark matter halos could be affected by the fact that the group velocity is smaller than the speed of light. It is therefore important, within such a framework, to take into account the fact that different parts of a galaxy will see changes in the environment at different times. A full nonstatic analysis may be necessary under those conditions.

  14. Traceability of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Henk J M; van Rie, Jean-Paul P F; Kok, Esther J

    2002-01-01

    EU regulations stipulate the labeling of food products containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) unless the GMO content is due to adventitious and unintended 'contamination' and not exceeding the 1% level at ingredient basis. In addition, member states have to ensure full traceability at all stages of the placing on the market of GMOs. Both requirements ensure consumers 'right to know', facilitate enforcement of regulatory requirements and are of importance for environmental monitoring and postmarket surveillance. Besides administrative procedures, such as used in quality certification systems, the significance of adequate molecular methods becomes more and more apparent. During the last decade a considerable number of molecular methods have been developed and validated that enable the detection, identification and quantification of GMO impurities. Most of them rely on the PCR technology and can only detect one specific stretch of DNA. It can, however, be anticipated that in the near future the situation will become more complex. The number of GMO varieties, including 'stacked-gene' varieties, which will enter the European Market will increase and it is likely that these varieties will harbor more variable constructs. New tools will be necessary to keep up with these developments. One of the most promising techniques is microarray analysis. This technique enables the screening for a large number of different GMOs within a single experiment. PMID:11963810

  15. Nonderivative modified gravity: a classification

    SciTech Connect

    Comelli, D.; Nesti, F.; Pilo, L. E-mail: fabrizio.nesti@irb.hr

    2014-11-01

    We analyze the theories of gravity modified by a generic nonderivative potential built from the metric, under the minimal requirement of unbroken spatial rotations. Using the canonical analysis, we classify the potentials V according to the number of degrees of freedom (DoF) that propagate at the nonperturbative level. We then compare the nonperturbative results with the perturbative DoF propagating around Minkowski and FRW backgrounds. A generic V implies 6 propagating DoF at the non-perturbative level, with a ghost on Minkowski background. There exist potentials which propagate 5 DoF, as already studied in previous works. Here, no V with unbroken rotational invariance admitting 4 DoF is found. Theories with 3 DoF turn out to be strongly coupled on Minkowski background. Finally, potentials with only the 2 DoF of a massive graviton exist. Their effect on cosmology is simply equivalent to a cosmological constant. Potentials with 2 or 5 DoF and explicit time dependence appear to be a further viable possibility.

  16. Genetically modified organisms and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Diamand, E

    1999-12-01

    The genetic modification of organisms for food use has raised serious concern about the potential for adverse effects on the environment, ecosystems and on the health of humans and animals. As a relatively new technology, its impacts remain uncertain but could range from disturbances to the genetic functioning of individual organisms to a reduction in the biodiversity of farmland. As a result, the question of how to monitor for potential impacts is beset with problems. The fact that genetic modification can be used on a range of organisms for a variety of purposes means that those developing monitoring systems will need to be as imaginative as those developing GMOs. In the case of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for food use, concern has focussed on the transfer of genes to other organisms, the potential for effects on non-target organisms, or on the health of humans and animals, and the likelihood of adverse effects on wildlife due to changes in farming practice. As with other new and unfamiliar technologies, genetic modification is also plagued by the problem of uncertainty. Novel genes are inserted randomly into the genome of the host organisms, and this leads to the possibility of unexpected effects. Unanticipated environmental disasters, such as the concentration of persistent organic pollutants in ecosystems at high latitudes, have highlighted the need for monitoring despite the obvious difficulties inherent in monitoring for unexpected effects. PMID:11529177

  17. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy (IME) resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are presented. State of the art epoxy resin, MY720, was used. Three aromatic bisimide amines and one aromatic aliphatic BIA were evaluated. BIA's derived from 6F anhydride (3,3 prime 4,4 prime-(hexafluoro isopropyl idene) bis (phthalic anhydride) and diamines, 3,3 prime-diam nodiphenyl sulfone (3,3 prime-DDS), 4,4 prime-diamino diphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS), 1.12-dodecane diamine (1,12-DDA) were used. BIA's were abbreviated 6F-3,3 prime-DDS, 6F-4,4 prime-DDS, 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime DDS, and 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA corresponding to 6F anhydride and diamines mentioned. Epoxy resin and BIA's (MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA and a 50:50 mixture of a BIA and parent diamine, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA/3,3 prime-DDS were studied to determine effect of structure and composition. Effect of the addition of two commercial epoxies, glyamine 200 and glyamine 100 on the properties of several formulations was evaluated. Bisimide amine cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). Physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these resins were determined. Moisture absorption in boiling water exhibited by several of the IME's was considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies (from 3.2% for the control and state of the art to 2.0 wt% moisture absorption). Char yields are increased from 20% for control and state of the art epoxies to 40% for IME resins. Relative toughness characteristics of IME resins were measured by 10 deg off axis tensile tests of Celion 6000/IME composites. Results show that IME's containing 6F-3,3 prime-DDS or 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA improved the "toughness" characteristics of composites by about 35% (tensile strength), about 35% (intralaminar shear

  18. X-0557 modified Steven tests.

    SciTech Connect

    Idar, D. J.; Mang, J. T.; Straight, J. W.; Schafstall, P.; Pacheco, A. H.; Osborn, M. A.; Coulter, W. L.; DeLuca, R. A.; Chavez, Peter J., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Low-velocity mechanical impact leading to unintentional reaction is of concern in accident scenarios involving the handling, transport, and storage of high explosives (HE). Various experimental techniques, from small- to large-scale, have been used to investigate the potential conditions leading to a high explosive violent reaction (HEVR) for pristine as well as aged materials. PBX 9501, one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) HE formulations, is routinely evaluated for potential aging mechanisms that may influence performance and or safety criteria. Ultimately, the data derived from the aging analyses will be used to further advance 3-D finite element analysis predictive capability with improved bulk constitutive HE models for the assessment of HE response to mechanical insult. The Modified Steven test geometry was used to investigate the mechanical loading behavior and response of baseline and virtually-aged PBX 9501 lots. The PBX 9501 binder system is composed of nitroplasticized Estane 5703{trademark}, a polyester polyurethane copolymer. The nitroplasticizer (NP) can migrate out of the PBX 9501 as a function of time, resulting in increased brittle behavior and response. To mimic extreme NP depletion four lots of X-0557 were formulated with reduced NP concentrations for comparison to the baseline PBX 9501. Changes to the mechanical behavior response of the PBXs as a function of plasticizer loss may eventually affect the response of the HE to low amplitude impact. The threshold velocity to reaction, and energy release for the different lots are reported, compared and evaluated for trends as a function of NP weight percent.

  19. Modified aspirated internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.E.

    1993-06-01

    An internal combustion engine is described, comprising: an engine block; at least one cylinder; at least one piston, each piston being reciprocally movable in the cylinder; a head connected with the engine block so as to form a combustion chamber above each piston; aspiration means for providing gas entry into and gas exit from the combustion chamber of each cylinder; valves for controlling gas entry and exit; ignition for initiating and timing combustion in each combustion chamber; a crankshaft rotatably mounted to the engine block, the crankshaft having at least one crank arm; connecting rod between each piston and the crank arm for translating reciprocation of each piston into rotation of each crankshaft; mounting means for rotatably mounting crankshaft to the engine block, the mounting means at each mounting location comprising: a crankshaft journal located on the crankshaft, the crankshaft journal having a crankshaft cross-section and an off-set portion, the off-set portion having a maximum which is equal to a predetermined off-set, the maximum off-set being located on a predetermined side of the crankshaft, the off-set portion smoothly decreasing from the maximum to a minimum from each side of the maximum, the minimum being equal to a zero off-set, the minimum off-set being located on the crankshaft opposite maximum off-set; and an engine block bearing connected with the engine block, wherein the crankshaft rotates in relation to the engine block about an eccentric centerline passing axially through the crankshaft journal cross-section, the eccentric centerline being displaced from a true centerline passing axially through said crankshaft cross-section by a distance equal to one-half the off-set, wherein the crank arm has a predetermined radial length centered on the eccentric centerline, and wherein the modified crankshaft has at least one output shaft portion axially aligned with the eccentric centerline.

  20. Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1999 we proposed a Modified Food Guide Pyramid for 70+ Adults. It has been extensively used in a variety of settings and formats to highlight the unique dietary challenges of older adults. We now propose a Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults in a format consistent with the MyPyramid graphic. I...

  1. Modified LaRC(TM)-IA Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, Terry L.; Chang, Alice C.; Hou, Tan H.; Working, Dennis C.

    1994-01-01

    Modified versions of thermoplastic polyimide LaRC(TM)-IA incorporate various amounts of additional, rigid moieties into backbones of LaRC(TM)-IA molecules. Modified versions more resistant to solvents and exhibit higher glass-transition temperatures, yet retain melt-flow processability of unmodified LaRC(TM)-IA.

  2. Effects of modified gravity in galactic clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Murli; Krishna Yadav, Bal

    2016-07-01

    We discuss the distinct effects of the modified gravity, especially f(R) gravity in structure formation. The small redshift as well as high redshift epochs are studied with a potential set of diagnostics distinguishing between the standard general relativistic and the modified gravity. These diagnostics are further put to test against the observations obtained in clustering surveys.

  3. Detection of Genetically Modified Food: Has Your Food Been Genetically Modified?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandner, Diana L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits and risks of genetically-modified foods and describes methods for genetically modifying food. Presents a laboratory experiment using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect foreign DNA in genetically-modified food. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)

  4. Modified gravity as dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicki, Ignacy

    2007-08-01

    We study the effects of introducing modifications to general relativity ("GR") at large scales as an alternative to exotic forms of matter required to replicate the observed cosmic acceleration. We survey the effects on cosmology and solar-system tests of Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati ("DGP") gravity, f ( R ) he changes to the background expansion history of the universe, these modifications have substantial impact on structure formation and its observable predictions. For DGP, we develop a scaling approximation for the behaviour of perturbations off the brane, for which the predicted integrated Sachs-Wolf ("ISW") effect is much stronger than observed, requiring new physics at around horizon scale to bring it into agreement with data. We develop a test based on cross-correlating galaxies and the ISW effect which is independent of the initial power spectrum for perturbations and is a smoking-gun test for DGP gravity. For f ( R ) models, we find that, for the expansion history to resemble that of Lambda-CDM, it is required that the second derivative of f with respect to R be non-negative. We then find the conditions on f ( R ) which allow this subset of models to pass solar-system tests. Provided that gravity behave like GR in the galaxy, these constraints are weak. However, for a model to allow large deviations from GR in the cosmology, the galactic halo must differ significantly from that predicted by structure evolution in GR. We then discuss the effect that these models have on structure formation, and find that even in the most conservative of models, percent-level deviations in the matter power spectrum will exist and should be detectable in the future. Finally, for MSG, we investigate the cosmology of a theory of gravity with a modified constraint structure. The acceleration era can be replicated in these models; however, linear perturbations become unstable as the universe begins to accelerate. Once the perturbations become non-linear, the model reverts to GR

  5. Modified Fittings Enhance Industrial Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is not only home to one of the largest buildings in the world - the massive Vehicle Assembly Building - it also hosts a number of one-of-a-kind facilities. The more than 30-mile-long campus has witnessed every launch from the Space Shuttle Launch Pad, as well as many homecomings at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Just as important, the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) has seen each element of the International Space Station (ISS) that passes through Kennedy before it goes into orbit. The SSPF is where ISS components are checked, tested, and adjusted before being packed into the Space Shuttle for transport. In an environment like the SSPF - spanning 457,000 square feet of processing areas, operational control rooms, laboratories, logistics areas, and office space - large workstands and equipment used to support the processing of ISS components need to be moved around the facility. One of the devices employed for this task is an air pallet. An air pallet moves on cushions of air instead of wheels. Compressed air inflates the cushions underneath the pallet and is then expelled through exhaust holes. This forms a thin film of air between the cushions and the floor, lifting the platform off the floor and making it easy to move the heavy workstands, equipment, and ISS components. Concerned with the safety of the connections on the pressurized air hoses used for the air pallets, engineers at Kennedy modified an existing commercial cam and groove fitting to control the air supply hose in the event of an accidental release of a pressurized hose. This modification prevented the hose from detaching and, propelled by compressed air, striking workers or equipment. "At the time, these were not available on commercial coupling halves, so NASA made a modification and then put them into use. If a worker were to accidentally try to remove a pressurized hose from the pallet, it no longer rapidly separated, and it safely relieved the pressure," says Paul

  6. A modified surgical procedure for concealed penis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Gong; Liu, Bianjiang; Guan, Zhaolong; Huang, Yuan; Qin, Chao; Song, Ninghong; Wang, Zengjun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We described a modified surgical procedure for repairing a concealed penis and compared the efficacy and feasibility of modified repair with traditional repair. Methods: From March 2003 to December 2012, 96 patients with a concealed penis were recruited to undergo penile repair at our centre. Modified repair and traditional repair were performed respectively on 46 and 50 cases. We compared operative time, intraoperative blood loss, cosmetic result of operative scars, postoperative penile retraction, and complications. Results: All operations were completed successfully without serious complications. The mean operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and cosmetic result of the operative scar between the two surgical methods were similar. However, the postoperative penile retraction rate in patients undergoing modified repair decreased significantly than in the traditional repair. Conclusions: Our modified surgical procedure is effective and feasible for a concealed penis. Although extra procedures were needed for the modified repair, the operative time, intraoperative blood loss and cosmetic result of operative scar between the two procedures were similar. Compared with traditional repair, modified repair has better clinical outcomes. PMID:26664507

  7. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Ronald Lee; Luebben, Silvia DeVito; Myers, Andrew William; Smith, Bryan Matthew; Elliott, Brian John; Kreutzer, Cory; Wilson, Carolina; Meiser, Manfred

    2007-07-17

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  8. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Ronald Lee (Inventor); Luebben, Silvia DeVito (Inventor); Myers, Andrew William (Inventor); Smith, Bryan Matthew (Inventor); Elliott, Brian John (Inventor); Kreutzer, Cory (Inventor); Wilson, Carolina (Inventor); Meiser, Manfred (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  9. A modified siphon sampler for shallow water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Timothy H.

    2008-01-01

    A modified siphon sampler (or 'single-stage sampler') was developed to sample shallow water at closely spaced vertical intervals. The modified design uses horizontal rather than vertical sample bottles. Previous siphon samplers are limited to water about 20 centimeters (cm) or more in depth; the modified design can sample water 10 cm deep. Several mounting options were used to deploy the modified siphon sampler in shallow bedrock streams of Middle Tennessee, while minimizing alteration of the stream bed. Sampling characteristics and limitations of the modified design are similar to those of the original design. Testing showed that the modified sampler collects unbiased samples of suspended silt and clay. Similarity of the intake to the original siphon sampler suggests that the modified sampler would probably take downward-biased samples of suspended sand. Like other siphon samplers, it does not sample isokinetically, and the efficiency of sand sampling can be expected to change with flow velocity. The sampler needs to be located in the main flow of the stream, and is subject to damage from rapid flow and floating debris. Water traps were added to the air vents to detect the flow of water through the sampler, which can cause a strong upward bias in sampled suspended-sediment concentration. Water did flow through the sampler, in some cases even when the top of the air vent remained above water. Air vents need to be extended well above maximum water level to prevent flow through the sampler.

  10. Organically Modified Silicas on Metal Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Organically modified silica coatings were prepared on metal nanowires using a variety of silicon alkoxides with different functional groups (i.e., carboxyl groups, polyethylene oxide, cyano, dihydroimidazole, and hexyl linkers). Organically modified silicas were deposited onto the surface of 6-μm-long, ∼300-nm-wide, cylindrical metal nanowires in suspension by the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon alkoxides. Syntheses were performed at several ratios of tetraethoxysilane to an organically modified silicon alkoxide to incorporate desired functional groups into thin organosilica shells on the nanowires. These coatings were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. All of the organically modified silicas prepared here were sufficiently porous to allow the removal of the metal nanowire cores by acid etching to form organically modified silica nanotubes. Additional functionality provided to the modified silicas as compared to unmodified silica prepared using only tetraethoxysilane precursors was demonstrated by chromate adsorption on imidazole-containing silicas and resistance to protein adsorption on polyethyleneoxide-containing silicas. Organically modified silica coatings on nanowires and other nano- and microparticles have potential application in fields such as biosensing or nanoscale therapeutics due to the enhanced properties of the silica coatings, for example, the prevention of biofouling. PMID:20715881

  11. Chemically modified graphite for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Greinke, R.A.; Lewis, I.C.

    1998-05-26

    This invention relates to chemically modified graphite particles: (a) that are useful in alkali metal-containing electrode of a electrochemical cell comprising: (1) the electrode, (2) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent which solvent tends to decompose when the electrochemical cell is in use, and an electrically conductive salt of an alkali metal, and (3) a counter electrode; and (b) that are chemically modified with fluorine, chlorine, iodine or phosphorus to reduce such decomposition. This invention also relates to electrodes comprising such chemically modified graphite and a binder and to electrochemical cells containing such electrodes. 3 figs.

  12. Chemically modified graphite for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Greinke, Ronald Alfred; Lewis, Irwin Charles

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to chemically modified graphite particles: (a) that are useful in alkali metal-containing electrode of a electrochemical cell comprising: (i) the electrode, (ii) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent which solvent tends to decompose when the electrochemical cell is in use, and an electrically conductive salt of an alkali metal, and (iii) a counterelectrode; and (b) that are chemically modified with fluorine, chlorine, iodine or phosphorus to reduce such decomposition. This invention also relates to electrodes comprising such chemically modified graphite and a binder and to electrochemical cells containing such electrodes.

  13. Characterization of Polyethylene Glycol Modified Hemoglobins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Gil; Barr, James; Morgan, Wayne; Ma, Li

    2011-03-01

    Polyethylene glycol modified hemoglobins (PEGHbs) was characterized by liquid chromatography and fluorescence methods. We prepared four samples of two different molecular weight PEG, 5KDa and 20KDa, modified bovine and human hemoglobin. We studied the oxygen affinities, stabilities, and peroxidase activities of PEGHbs. We have related oxygen affinities with different degrees of modifications. The data showed that the modification on the beta subunits was less stable than that of the alpha subunits on the human Hb based samples especially. We also compared peroxidase activities among different modified PEGHbs.

  14. Review Of Rheology Modifiers For Hanford Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Pareizs, J. M.

    2013-09-30

    As part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)'s strategic development scope for the Department of Energy - Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste feed acceptance and product qualification scope, the SRNL has been requested to recommend candidate rheology modifiers to be evaluated to adjust slurry properties in the Hanford Tank Farm. SRNL has performed extensive testing of rheology modifiers for use with Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulated melter feed - a high undissolved solids (UDS) mixture of simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm sludge, nitric and formic acids, and glass frit. A much smaller set of evaluations with Hanford simulated waste have also been completed. This report summarizes past work and recommends modifiers for further evaluation with Hanford simulated wastes followed by verification with actual waste samples. Based on the review of available data, a few compounds/systems appear to hold the most promise. For all types of evaluated simulated wastes (caustic Handford tank waste and DWPF processing samples with pH ranging from slightly acidic to slightly caustic), polyacrylic acid had positive impacts on rheology. Citric acid also showed improvement in yield stress on a wide variety of samples. It is recommended that both polyacrylic acid and citric acid be further evaluated as rheology modifiers for Hanford waste. These materials are weak organic acids with the following potential issues: The acidic nature of the modifiers may impact waste pH, if added in very large doses. If pH is significantly reduced by the modifier addition, dissolution of UDS and increased corrosion of tanks, piping, pumps, and other process equipment could occur. Smaller shifts in pH could reduce aluminum solubility, which would be expected to increase the yield stress of the sludge. Therefore, it is expected that use of an acidic modifier would be limited to concentrations that do not

  15. Observational bounds on modified gravity models

    SciTech Connect

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukherjee, Pia; Wang Yun

    2008-01-15

    Modified gravity provides a possible explanation for the currently observed cosmic acceleration. In this paper, we study general classes of modified gravity models. The Einstein-Hilbert action is modified by using general functions of the Ricci and the Gauss-Bonnet scalars, both in the metric and in the Palatini formalisms. We do not use an explicit form for the functions, but a general form with a valid Taylor expansion up to second order about redshift zero in the Riemann-scalars. The coefficients of this expansion are then reconstructed via the cosmic expansion history measured using current cosmological observations. These are the quantities of interest for theoretical considerations relating to ghosts and instabilities. We find that current data provide interesting constraints on the coefficients. The next-generation dark energy surveys should shrink the allowed parameter space for modified gravity models quite dramatically.

  16. A flame-resistant modified polystyrene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karle, D. W.; Kratze, R. H.; Pacioren, K. L.

    1975-01-01

    Several modified polystyrenes have been developed that are self-extinguishing in air. Information is included in report that also describes molding and fabrication properties, toxicology, and thermal behavior of the polymers.

  17. Modifying Course Materials for International Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hites, Jeanne M.; Fisher, Walter W.

    1984-01-01

    The method for modifying existing training courses for international students that is described includes conducting audience and needs analysis; matching audience needs to existing course objectives; and material modification. Specific modifications helpful in redesigning course materials are discussed. (MBR)

  18. Application of modified complex Tremblay operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esa, Zainab; Kilicman, Adem; Ibrahim, Rabha W.; Ismail, Mat Rofa; Husain, Sharifah Kartini Said

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new fractional integral operator defined by modified fractional derivative Tremblay operator of analytic functions and show that the univalence of this integral operator is preserved under certain sufficient conditions in complex domain

  19. Active containment systems incorporating modified pillared clays

    SciTech Connect

    Lundie, P. |; McLeod, N.

    1997-12-31

    The application of treatment technologies in active containment systems provides a more advanced and effective method for the remediation of contaminated sites. These treatment technologies can be applied in permeable reactive walls and/or funnel and gate systems. The application of modified pillared clays in active containment systems provides a mechanism for producing permeable reactive walls with versatile properties. These pillared clays are suitably modified to incorporate reactive intercalatants capable of reacting with both a broad range of organic pollutants of varying molecular size, polarity and reactivity. Heavy metals can be removed from contaminated water by conventional ion-exchange and other reactive processes within the clay structure. Complex contamination problems can be addressed by the application of more than one modified clay on a site specific basis. This paper briefly describes the active containment system and the structure/chemistry of the modified pillared clay technology, illustrating potential applications of the in-situ treatment process for contaminated site remediation.

  20. Compatibilizer for crumb rubber modified asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Labib, M.E.; Memon, G.M.; Chollar, B.H.

    1996-12-31

    The United States of America discards more than 300 million tires each year, and out of that a large fraction of the tires is dumped into stock piles. This large quantity of tires creates an environmental problem. The use of scrap tires is limited. There is a usage potential in such fields as fuel for combustion and Crumb Rubber-Modified Asphalt binder (CRMA). The use of crumb rubber in modifying asphalt is not a new technique; it is been used since early 1960 by pavement engineers. Crumb rubber is a composite of different blends of natural and synthetic rubber (natural rubber, processing oils, polybutadiene, polystyrene butadiene, and filler). Prior research had concluded that the performance of crumb rubber modified asphalt is asphalt dependent. In some cases it improves the Theological properties and in some cases it degrades the properties of modified asphalt.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are prepared from refined beef fat; butterfat...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are...

  5. The modified atkins diet in refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suvasini; Jain, Puneet

    2014-01-01

    The modified Atkins diet is a less restrictive variation of the ketogenic diet. This diet is started on an outpatient basis without a fast, allows unlimited protein and fat, and does not restrict calories or fluids. Recent studies have shown good efficacy and tolerability of this diet in refractory epilepsy. In this review, we discuss the use of the modified Atkins diet in refractory epilepsy. PMID:24627806

  6. The modified mucus method in India.

    PubMed

    Dorairaj, K

    1991-12-01

    The modified mucus method-Prajanan Jagriti (fertility awakening) is intended to serve the cultural needs of illiterate and semilliterate women. Over 10 months, 3003 women in northern India were taught the modified mucus method. There were a total of 42 pregnancies in 24,702 cycles for a Pearl index of 2.04. High effectiveness is attributed to the support that was provided to clients by the instructor. PMID:1755473

  7. Matter stability in modified teleparallel gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behboodi, A.; Akhshabi, S.; Nozari, K.

    2012-11-01

    We study the matter stability in modified teleparallel gravity or f(T) theories. We show that there is no Dolgov-Kawasaki instability in these types of modified teleparallel gravity theories. This gives for the f(T) theories a great advantage over their f(R) counterparts because from the stability point of view there isn't any limit on the form of functions that can be chosen.

  8. Modified locking thread form for fastener

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roopnarine, (Inventor); Vranish, John D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A threaded fastener has a standard part with a standard thread form characterized by thread walls with a standard included angle, and a modified part complementary to the standard part having a modified thread form characterized by thread walls which are symmetrically inclined with a modified included angle that is different from the standard included angle of the standard part's thread walls, such that the threads of one part make pre-loaded edge contact with the thread walls of the other part. The thread form of the modified part can have an included angle that is greater, less, or compound as compared to the included angle of the standard part. The standard part may be a bolt and the modified part a nut, or vice versa. The modified thread form holds securely even under large vibrational forces, it permits bi-directional use of standard mating threads, is impervious to the build up of tolerances and can be manufactured with a wider range of tolerances without loss of functionality, and distributes loading stresses (per thread) in a manner that decreases the possibility of single thread failure.

  9. DNA polymerase having modified nucleotide binding site for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, S.; Richardson, C.

    1997-03-25

    A modified gene encoding a modified DNA polymerase is disclosed. The modified polymerase incorporates dideoxynucleotides at least 20-fold better compared to the corresponding deoxynucleotides as compared with the corresponding naturally-occurring DNA polymerase. 6 figs.

  10. 33 CFR 20.609 - Motions to quash or modify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... motion with notice to the party requesting the subpoena, ask the ALJ to quash or modify the subpoena. (b... time fixed by the ALJ, ask the ALJ to quash or modify it. (d) The ALJ may quash or modify the...

  11. DNA polymerase having modified nucleotide binding site for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Modified gene encoding a modified DNA polymerase wherein the modified polymerase incorporates dideoxynucleotides at least 20-fold better compared to the corresponding deoxynucleotides as compared with the corresponding naturally-occurring DNA polymerase.

  12. Modified seasonal factors in exponential smoothing

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, J.S. . Wharton School of Finance and Commerce); Hwang, Ho-Ling ); Bandy, J. )

    1990-09-01

    Current practice uses statistical tests to determine whether seasonal factors should be applied in a given forecasting situation. Research suggests that an optimal policy might lie somewhere between using full seasonal factors and using no seasonal factors on series. This research proposes and tests use of a modified seasonality factor. Modified seasonal factors reduce the emphasis on the seasonal adjustments when forecasts are made. The adjustments account for errors in the estimation of the factors and for possible changes in the factors over the forecast horizon. An analysis of data from US Navy personnel inventories was conducted to test the use of a modified seasonality factor. Modified seasonal factors led to improved accuracy for predictions of inventories by paygrade using quarterly data from the Navy Personnel Research and Development Center (NPRDC). Under certain selections of factors, the mean absolute percent error (MAPE) was reduced by 4.4%. No gain was obtained, however, for the inventories by length of service. It is expected, but not shown here, that the modified seasonal factors will only be of value for series where the estimated seasonal factors show a substantial variation across the year. 3 refs., 6 tabs.

  13. Debye Entropic Force and Modified Newtonian Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Chang, Zhe

    2011-04-01

    Verlinde has suggested that the gravity has an entropic origin, and a gravitational system could be regarded as a thermodynamical system. It is well-known that the equipartition law of energy is invalid at very low temperature. Therefore, entropic force should be modified while the temperature of the holographic screen is very low. It is shown that the modified entropic force is proportional to the square of the acceleration, while the temperature of the holographic screen is much lower than the Debye temperature TD. The modified entropic force returns to the Newton's law of gravitation while the temperature of the holographic screen is much higher than the Debye temperature. The modified entropic force is connected with modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). The constant a0 involved in MOND is linear in the Debye frequency ωD, which can be regarded as the largest frequency of the bits in screen. We find that there do have a strong connection between MOND and cosmology in the framework of Verlinde's entropic force, if the holographic screen is taken to be bound of the Universe. The Debye frequency is linear in the Hubble constant H0.

  14. Genetically Modified Foods and Consumer Perspective.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Flavio; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified food is able to oppose the world's hunger and preserve the environment, even if the patents in this matter are symptomatic of several doubts. And also, transgenic consumption causes problems and skepticism among consumers in several European countries, but above all in Italy, where there is a strong opposition over recent years. So, the present study conducted a research to study the consumption of genetically modified food products by Italian young generation. This research presented the following purposes: firstly, to analyze genetically modified products' consumption among a particular category of consumers; secondly, to implement a quantitative model to understand behaviour about this particular kind of consumption and identify the factors that determine their purchase. The proposed model shows that transgenic consumption is especially linked to knowledge and impact on environment and mankind's health. PMID:25827570

  15. [Genetically modified food and allergies - an update].

    PubMed

    Niemann, Birgit; Pöting, Annette; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-07-01

    Approval by the European Commission is mandatory for placing genetically modified plants as food or feed on the market in member states of the European Union (EU). The approval is preceded by a safety assessment based on the guidance of the European Food Safety Authority EFSA. The assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified plants and their newly expressed proteins is an integral part of this assessment process. Guidance documents for the assessment of allergenicity are currently under revision. For this purpose, an expert workshop was conducted in Brussels on June 17, 2015. There, methodological improvements for the assessment of coeliac disease-causing properties of proteins, as well as the use of complex models for in vitro digestion of proteins were discussed. Using such techniques a refinement of the current, proven system of allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants can be achieved. PMID:27240596

  16. Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    The development of silicon modified resins for graphite fiber laminates which will prevent the dispersal of graphite fibers when the composites are burned is discussed. Eighty-five silicone modified resins were synthesized and evaluated including unsaturated polyesters, thermosetting methacrylates, epoxies, polyimides, and phenolics. Neat resins were judged in terms of Si content, homogeneity, hardness, Char formation, and thermal stability. Char formation was estimated by thermogravimetry to 1,000 C in air and in N2. Thermal stability was evaluated by isothermal weight loss measurements for 200 hrs in air at three temperatures. Four silicone modified epoxies were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 25 to 50%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 140 kpsi and a modulus of 10 Mpsi. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 5.3 kpsi.

  17. Error Analysis of Modified Langevin Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redon, Stephane; Stoltz, Gabriel; Trstanova, Zofia

    2016-06-01

    We consider Langevin dynamics associated with a modified kinetic energy vanishing for small momenta. This allows us to freeze slow particles, and hence avoid the re-computation of inter-particle forces, which leads to computational gains. On the other hand, the statistical error may increase since there are a priori more correlations in time. The aim of this work is first to prove the ergodicity of the modified Langevin dynamics (which fails to be hypoelliptic), and next to analyze how the asymptotic variance on ergodic averages depends on the parameters of the modified kinetic energy. Numerical results illustrate the approach, both for low-dimensional systems where we resort to a Galerkin approximation of the generator, and for more realistic systems using Monte Carlo simulations.

  18. Black hole thermodynamics in MOdified Gravity (MOG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mureika, Jonas R.; Moffat, John W.; Faizal, Mir

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the thermodynamical properties of black holes in a modified theory of gravity, which was initially proposed to obtain correct dynamics of galaxies and galaxy clusters without dark matter. The thermodynamics of non-rotating and rotating black hole solutions resembles similar solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with the electric charge being replaced by a new mass dependent gravitational charge Q =√{ αGN } M. This new mass dependent charge modifies the effective Newtonian constant from GN to G =GN (1 + α), and this in turn critically affects the thermodynamics of the black holes. We also investigate the thermodynamics of regular solutions, and explore the limiting case when no horizons forms. So, it is possible that the modified gravity can lead to the absence of black hole horizons in our universe. Finally, we analyze corrections to the thermodynamics of a non-rotating black hole and obtain the usual logarithmic correction term.

  19. Error Analysis of Modified Langevin Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redon, Stephane; Stoltz, Gabriel; Trstanova, Zofia

    2016-08-01

    We consider Langevin dynamics associated with a modified kinetic energy vanishing for small momenta. This allows us to freeze slow particles, and hence avoid the re-computation of inter-particle forces, which leads to computational gains. On the other hand, the statistical error may increase since there are a priori more correlations in time. The aim of this work is first to prove the ergodicity of the modified Langevin dynamics (which fails to be hypoelliptic), and next to analyze how the asymptotic variance on ergodic averages depends on the parameters of the modified kinetic energy. Numerical results illustrate the approach, both for low-dimensional systems where we resort to a Galerkin approximation of the generator, and for more realistic systems using Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Plants having modified response to ethylene

    DOEpatents

    Meyerowitz, Elliot M.; Chang, Caren; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    1998-01-01

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype.

  1. Plants having modified response to ethylene

    DOEpatents

    Meyerowitz, E.M.; Chang, C.; Bleecker, A.B.

    1997-11-18

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype. 31 figs.

  2. Plants having modified response to ethylene

    DOEpatents

    Meyerowitz, Elliott M.; Chang, Caren; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    1997-01-01

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype.

  3. Plants having modified response to ethylene

    DOEpatents

    Meyerowitz, E.M.; Chang, C.; Bleecker, A.B.

    1998-10-20

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype. 67 figs.

  4. A fast route to modified gravitational growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Tessa; Ferreira, Pedro; Skordis, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    The growth rate of the large-scale structure of the Universe has been advocated as the observable par excellence for testing gravity on cosmological scales. By considering linear-order deviations from general relativity, we show that corrections to the growth rate, f, can be expressed as an integral over a "source" term, weighted by a theory-independent "response kernel." This leads to an efficient and accurate "plug-and-play" expression for generating growth rates in alternative gravity theories, bypassing lengthy theory-specific computations. We use this approach to explicitly show that f is sensitive to a degenerate combination of modified expansion and modified clustering effects. Hence the growth rate, when used in isolation, is not a straightforward diagnostic of modified gravity.

  5. A Modifiable Approach To Expert Systems Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanborn, James C.

    1987-05-01

    Rule based expert systems programmers experience similar difficulties in developing and maintaining large application programs: rules become instantiated when they shouldn't the execution order of rules is undesirably nondeterministic, or worse, simply incorrect; and modifications to program behavior are difficult or unwieldy. All of these problems arise from the control strategies used by the development language, their implementation, and the programmers control over (and awareness of) them. This paper explores the impact of rule based program control on overall program modifiability. We present a language designed with efficiency, modifiability, and ease of use in mind. Throughout, we discuss traditional control strategies, improvements made through our research, and directions for further study.

  6. Thermodynamic properties of modified gravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamba, Kazuharu

    2016-06-01

    We review thermodynamic properties of modified gravity theories, such as F(R) gravity and f(T) gravity, where R is the scalar curvature and T is the torsion scalar in teleparallelism. In particular, we explore the equivalence between the equations of motion for modified gravity theories and the Clausius relation in thermodynamics. In addition, thermodynamics of the cosmological apparent horizon is investigated in f(T) gravity. We show both equilibrium and nonequilibrium descriptions of thermodynamics. It is demonstrated that the second law of thermodynamics in the universe can be met, when the temperature of the outside of the apparent horizon is equivalent to that of the inside of it.

  7. Magnetically modified microalgae and their applications.

    PubMed

    Safarik, Ivo; Prochazkova, Gita; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Branyik, Tomas

    2016-10-01

    The majority of algal cells can interact with a wide range of nano- and microparticles. Upon interaction the modified cells usually maintain their viability and the presence of foreign material on their surfaces or in protoplasm can provide additional functionalities. Magnetic modification and labeling of microalgal biomass ensures a wide spectrum of biotechnological, bioanalytical and environmental applications. Different aspects of microalgal cell magnetic modification are covered in the review, followed by successful applications of magnetic algae. Modified cells can be employed during their harvesting and removal, applied in toxicity microscreening devices and also as efficient adsorbents of different types of xenobiotics. PMID:26154466

  8. Gene modified cell transplantation for vascular regeneration.

    PubMed

    Murasawa, Satoshi; Asahara, Takayuki

    2007-02-01

    Cell Transplantation is one of the powerful tools to ameliorate the capillary flow in ischemic condition. EPC (Endothelial Progenitor Cell) was identified in adult peripheral blood and thought to be a suitable candidate for cell transplantation. Also, gene therapy is already promising choice for enhancing angiogenic property. The combination of cell transplantation and gene therapy should be more effective way to regenerate vasculature in ischemic region. Recently, several research reports have come out regarding gene modified cell transplantation. We will mainly focus on the background of EPC, and then gene modified EPC findings in this review. PMID:17305524

  9. Modified Benes networks for photonic switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jiun-Shjou; Huang, Yang-Tung

    2001-10-01

    The Benes network has two major advantages: one is that it has the lowest system insertion loss and the other is that it needs the fewest switches and drivers. However, lower signal- to-noise ratio (SNR) is its major disadvantage. The generally modified dilated Benes (GMDB) network has been proposed to obtain a higher SNR, but this network needs much more drivers. In this presentation, the modified Benes network is proposed to obtain a higher SNR with the same number of drivers as Benes network.

  10. Modified Coaxial Probe Feeds for Layered Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.; Dobbins, Justin A.; Lin, Greg Y.

    2006-01-01

    In a modified configuration of a coaxial probe feed for a layered printed-circuit antenna (e.g., a microstrip antenna), the outer conductor of the coaxial cable extends through the thickness of at least one dielectric layer and is connected to both the ground-plane conductor and a radiator-plane conductor. This modified configuration simplifies the incorporation of such radio-frequency integrated circuits as power dividers, filters, and low-noise amplifiers. It also simplifies the design and fabrication of stacked antennas with aperture feeds.

  11. Polysaccharide-modified synthetic polymeric biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Aaron D; Kiick, Kristi L

    2010-01-01

    This review presents an overview of polysaccharide-conjugated synthetic polymers and their use in tissue-engineered scaffolds and drug-delivery applications. This topic will be divided into four categories: (1) polymeric materials modified with non-mammalian polysaccharides such as alginate, chitin, and dextran; (2) polymers modified with mammalian polysaccharides such as hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and heparin; (3) multi-polysaccharide-derivatized polymer conjugate systems; and (4) polymers containing polysaccharide-mimetic molecules. Each section will discuss relevant conjugation techniques, analysis, and the impact of these materials as micelles, particles, or hydrogels used in in-vitro and in-vivo biomaterial applications. PMID:20091875

  12. Coprecal: materials accounting in the modified process

    SciTech Connect

    Dayem, H.A.; Kern, E.A.; Shipley, J.P.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of an advanced materials accounting system for a uranium-plutonium nitrate-to-oxide coconversion facility based on the General Electric Coprecal process as modified by Savannah River Laboratory and Plant and DuPont Engineering. The modifications include adding small aliquot tanks to feed the process and reconfiguring the calciner filter systems. Diversion detection sensitivities for the modified Coprecal process are somewhat better than the original Coprecal design, but they are still significantly worse than a same-sized conversion facility based on the oxalate (III) precipitation process.

  13. Polysaccharide-Modified Synthetic Polymeric Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Aaron D.; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2010-01-01

    This review presents an overview of polysaccharide-conjugated synthetic polymers and their use in tissue-engineered scaffolds and drug-delivery applications. This topic will be divided into four categories: (1) polymeric materials modified with non-mammalian polysaccharides such as alginate, chitin, and dextran; (2) polymers modified with mammalian polysaccharides such as hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and heparin; (3) multi-polysaccharide-derivatized polymer conjugate systems; and (4) polymers containing polysaccharide-mimetic molecules. Each section will discuss relevant conjugation techniques, analysis, and the impact of these materials as micelles, particles, or hydrogels used in in-vitro and in-vivo biomaterial applications. PMID:20091875

  14. Genetic Modifiers of Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Martin H.; Sebastiani, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is associated with unusual clinical heterogeneity for a Mendelian disorder. Fetal hemoglobin concentration and coincident ∝ thalassemia, both which directly affect the sickle erythrocyte, are the major modulators of the phenotype of disease. Understanding the genetics underlying the heritable subphenotypes of sickle cell anemia would be prognostically useful, could inform personalized therapeutics, and might help the discovery of new “druggable” pathophysiologic targets. Genotype-phenotype association studies have been used to identify novel genetic modifiers. In the future, whole genome sequencing with its promise of discovering hitherto unsuspected variants could add to our understanding of the genetic modifiers of this disease. PMID:22641398

  15. Modified Kriging: evaluation, modification, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, C.A.; Myers, S.C.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes modifications to a technique developed by Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) to predict general corrections (traveltime, etc.) for a geographic grid only sparsely covered by calibration points (Hipp and Young, 1997). SNL has worked to create a modified version of linear prediction (kriging) based on the idea of blending the surface back to zero at some distance from the points or, in other words, by damping the solution through the damping of the input data points. LLNL has been working with SNL to evaluate Modified Kriging. This report documents our evaluation of the technique and our resulting recommendations to SNL.

  16. Modified octupoles for damping coherent instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cornacchia, M. . Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.); Corbett, W.J. ); Halbach, K. )

    1991-05-01

    The introduction tune spread in circular e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} accelerators with modified octupoles to reduce the loss of dynamic aperture is discussed. The new magnet design features an octupole of field component on-axis and a tapered field structure off-axis to minimize loss of dynamic aperture. Tracking studies show that the modified octupoles can produce the desired tune spread in SPEAR without compromising confinement of the beam. The technique for designing such magnets is presented, together with an example of magnets that give the required field distribution. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette

    SciTech Connect

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E

    2013-09-10

    Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

  18. 21 CFR 178.3520 - Industrial starch-modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Industrial starch-modified. 178.3520 Section 178... § 178.3520 Industrial starch-modified. Industrial starch-modified may be safely used as a component of..., transporting, or holding food, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Industrial starch-modified...

  19. 77 FR 58592 - Modified Norway Post Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ...The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to include a modified Norway Post Agreement within an existing competitive product. The modification includes an 18-month extension of the original agreement's term. This notice addresses procedural aspects of the...

  20. Modified Antifreeze Liquids for Use on Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, R. O.

    1983-01-01

    Report presents results of evaluation of two antifreeze liquids, dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol and five viscosity modifiers: gelatin, gum tragacanth, starch, agarose powder and citrus pectin. Purpose of evaluation to find best way of dealing with frost formation on Space Shuttle.

  1. [Genetically modified food--unnecessary controversy?].

    PubMed

    Tchórz, Michał; Radoniewicz-Chagowska, Anna; Lewandowska-Stanek, Hanna; Szponar, Elzbieta; Szponar, Jarosław

    2012-01-01

    Fast development of genetic engineering and biotechnology allows use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) more and more in different branches of science and economy. Every year we can see an increase of food amount produced with the use of modification of genetic material. In our supermarkets we can find brand new types of plants, products including genetically modified ingredients or meat from animals fed with food containing GMO. This article presents general information about genetically modified organisms, it also explains the range of genetic manipulation, use of newly developed products and current field area for GMO in the world. Based on scientific data the article presents benefits from development of biotechnology in reference to modified food. It also presents the voice of skeptics who are extremely concerned about the impact of those organisms on human health and natural environment. Problems that appear or can appear as a result of an increase of GMO are very important not only from a toxicologist's or a doctor's point of view but first of all from the point of view of ordinary consumers--all of us. PMID:23243917

  2. Laser Gyro Temperature Compensation Using Modified RBFNN

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jicheng; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Weiquan; Chen, Shuai

    2014-01-01

    To overcome the effect of temperature on laser gyro zero bias and to stabilize the laser gyro output, this study proposes a modified radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) based on a Kohonen network and an orthogonal least squares (OLS) algorithm. The modified method, which combines the pattern classification capability of the Kohonen network and the optimal choice capacity of OLS, avoids the random selection of RBFNN centers and improves the compensation accuracy of the RBFNN. It can quickly and accurately identify the effect of temperature on laser gyro zero bias. A number of comparable identification and compensation tests on a variety of temperature-changing situations are completed using the multiple linear regression (MLR), RBFNN and modified RBFNN methods. The test results based on several sets of gyro output in constant and changing temperature conditions demonstrate that the proposed method is able to overcome the effect of randomly selected RBFNN centers. The running time of the method is about 60 s shorter than that of traditional RBFNN under the same test conditions, which suggests that the calculations are reduced. Meanwhile, the compensated gyro output accuracy using the modified method is about 7.0 × 10−4 °/h; comparatively, the traditional RBFNN is about 9.0 × 10−4 °/h and the MLR is about 1.4 × 10−3 °/h. PMID:25302814

  3. Modified Video Course Methodology for Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Stephen B.

    In recent years, colleges have made extensive efforts to provide distance learning opportunities for adult students. At Southwest Texas State University, a required course in the Occupational Education program has been delivered in a modified video format. The video was made of an actual class being taught in a production studio. The main…

  4. Evolving targets for lipid-modifying therapy

    PubMed Central

    Do, Rose Q; Nicholls, Stephen J; Schwartz, Gregory G

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis are integrally connected to the concentration and function of lipoproteins in various classes. This review examines existing and emerging approaches to modify low-density lipoprotein and lipoprotein (a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and high-density lipoproteins, emphasizing approaches that have progressed to clinical evaluation. Targeting of nuclear receptors and phospholipases is also discussed. PMID:25172365

  5. Generalization of a Modified Food Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Leann Lipps

    1981-01-01

    Assesses preschool children's preferences for eight snack foods and tests procedures to modify preferences for certain foods by having children sort foods according to self-determined categories. Enhanced preferences for target foods generalized to other foods in the same category only for children using semantic sorting categories. (Author/DB)

  6. Genetically Modified Plants: Public and Scientific Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The potential of genetically modified plants to meet the requirements of growing population is not being recognized at present. This is a consequence of concerns raised by the public and the critics about their applications and release into the environment. These include effect on human health and environment, biosafety, world trade monopolies, trustworthiness of public institutions, integrity of regulatory agencies, loss of individual choice, and ethics as well as skepticism about the real potential of the genetically modified plants, and so on. Such concerns are enormous and prevalent even today. However, it should be acknowledged that most of them are not specific for genetically modified plants, and the public should not forget that the conventionally bred plants consumed by them are also associated with similar risks where no information about the gene(s) transfer is available. Moreover, most of the concerns are hypothetical and lack scientific background. Though a few concerns are still to be disproved, it is viewed that, with proper management, these genetically modified plants have immense potential for the betterment of mankind. In the present paper, an overview of the raised concerns and wherever possible reasons assigned to explain their intensity or unsuitability are reviewed. PMID:25937981

  7. Zirconium modified nickel-copper alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improved material for use in a catalytic reactor which reduces nitrogen oxide from internal combustion engines is in the form of a zirconium-modified, precipitation-strengthened nickel-copper alloy. This material has a nominal composition of Ni-30 Cu-0.2 Zr and is characterized by improved high temperature mechanical properties.

  8. Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Six silicone modified resins were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 6-63%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 1,220 MPa and a modulus of 105 GPa. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 72 MPa.

  9. MATCON MODIFIED ASPHALT COVER CONTAINMENT SYSTEM DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to make improvements to conventional paving asphalt to make it more suitable for containment applications, Wilder Construction Co. of Everett, WA offers MatCon, a polymer modified asphalt system comprised of proprietary binder, when coupled with a selected aggregate type...

  10. Modified triglyceride oil through reactions with phenyltriazolinedione

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthesis of a modified triglyceride oil was achieved through the reactions with 4-phenyl-1,2-4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD). 1H NMR was used for structure determination and to monitor the reactions. Several reaction products were produced, and their relative yields depended on the stoichiometry ...

  11. Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

    2005-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

  12. Genetically modified pig models for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Holm, Ida E; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Luo, Yonglun

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease has become one of the most challenging health issues in ageing humans. One approach to combat this is to generate genetically modified animal models of neurodegenerative disorders for studying pathogenesis, prognosis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Owing to the genetic, anatomic, physiologic, pathologic, and neurologic similarities between pigs and humans, genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders have been attractive large animal models to bridge the gap of preclinical investigations between rodents and humans. In this review, we provide a neuroanatomical overview in pigs and summarize and discuss the generation of genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's diseases, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, and ataxia-telangiectasia. We also highlight how non-invasive bioimaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET), computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and behavioural testing have been applied to characterize neurodegenerative pig models. We further propose a multiplex genome editing and preterm recloning (MAP) approach by using the rapid growth of the ground-breaking precision genome editing technology CRISPR/Cas9 and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). With this approach, we hope to shorten the temporal requirement in generating multiple transgenic pigs, increase the survival rate of founder pigs, and generate genetically modified pigs that will more closely resemble the disease-causing mutations and recapitulate pathological features of human conditions. PMID:26446984

  13. Modified borohydrides for reversible hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Au, Ming

    2005-08-29

    In attempt to develop lithium borohydrides as the reversible hydrogen storage materials with the high capacity, the feasibility to reduce dehydrogenation temperature of the lithium borohydride and moderate rehydrogenation condition has been explored. The commercial available lithium borohydride has been modified by ball milling with metal oxides and metal chlorides as the additives. The modified lithium borohydrides release 9 wt% hydrogen starting from 473K. The dehydrided modified lithium borohydrides absorb 7-9 wt% hydrogen at 873K and 7 MPa. The additive modification reduces dehydriding temperature from 673K to 473K and moderates rehydrogenation conditions to 923K and 15 MPa. XRD and SEM analysis discovered the formation of the intermediate compound TiB{sub 2} that may plays the key role in change the reaction path resulting the lower dehydriding temperature and reversibility. The reversible hydrogen storage capacity of the oxide modified lithium borohydrides decreases gradually during hydriding-dehydriding cycling due to the lost of the boron during dehydrogenation. But, it can be prevented by selecting the suitable additive, forming intermediate boron compounds and changing the reaction path. The additives reduce dehydriding temperature and improve the reversibility, it also reduces the hydrogen storage capacity. The best compromise can be reached by optimization of the additive loading and introducing new process other than ball milling.

  14. Monitoring Transport Across Modified Nanoporous Alumina Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Penumetcha, Sai S.; Kona, Ravikanth; Hardin, Jonathan L.; Molder, Andrew L.; Steinle, Erich D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the use of several characterization methods to examine alumina nanotubule membranes that have been modified with specific silanes. The function of these silanes is to alter the transport properties through the membrane by changing the local environment inside the alumina nanotube. The presence of alkyl groups, either long (C18) or short and branched (isopropyl) hydrocarbon chains, on these silanes significantly decreases the rate of transport of permeant molecules through membranes containing alumina nanotubes as monitored via absorbance spectroscopy. The presence of an ionic surfactant can alter the polarity of these modified nanotubes, which correlates to an increased transport of ions. Fluorescent spectroscopy is also utilized to enhance the sensitivity of detecting these permeant molecules. Confirmation of the alkylsilane attachment to the alumina membrane is achieved with traditional infrared spectroscopy, which can also examine the lifetime of the modified membrane. The physical parameters of these silane-modified porous alumina membranes are studied via scanning electron microscopy. The alumina nanotubes are not physically closed off or capped by the silanes that are attached to the alumina surfaces.

  15. Modified lithium borohydrides for reversible hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Au, Ming; Jurgensen, Arthur

    2006-04-01

    In an attempt to develop lithium borohydrides as reversible hydrogen storage materials with high hydrogen storage capacities, the feasibility of reducing the dehydrogenation temperature of the lithium borohydride and moderating rehydrogenation conditions was explored. The lithium borohydride was modified by ball milling with metal oxides and metal chlorides as additives. The modified lithium borohydrides released 9 wt % hydrogen starting from 473 K. The dehydrided modified lithium borohydrides absorbed 7-9 wt % hydrogen at 873 K and 7 MPa. The modification with additives reduced the dehydriding starting temperature from 673 to 473 K and moderated the rehydrogenation conditions from 923 K/15 MPa to 873 K/7 MPa. XRD and SEM analysis revealed the formation of an intermediate compound that might play a key role in changing the reaction path, resulting in the lower dehydriding temperature and reversibility. The reversible hydrogen storage capacity of the oxide-modified lithium borohydrides decreased gradually during hydriding/dehydriding cycling. One of the possible reasons for this effect might be the loss of boron during dehydrogenation, but this can be prevented by changing the dehydriding path using appropriate additives. The additives reduced the dehydriding temperature and improved the reversibility, but they also reduced the hydrogen storage capacity. The best compromise can be reached by selecting appropriate additives, optimizing the additive loading, and using new synthesis processes other than ball milling. PMID:16571023

  16. How Landscape Plants Modify the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Sylvia; Wise, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    Presents three experiments that provide examples of how plants modify their surroundings and create microenvironments. Examples demonstrate (1) how types of ground cover influence water quality; (2) how plants can create a thermal microenvironment; and (3) how plants can serve as barriers to wind. (MDH)

  17. 27 CFR 24.21 - Modified forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Authorities § 24.21 Modified... in a net increase in cost to the Government or hinder the effective administration of this part... compliance with the procedures, conditions, and limitations specified in the approval of the application....

  18. Solving Differential Equations Using Modified Picard Iteration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, W. A.

    2010-01-01

    Many classes of differential equations are shown to be open to solution through a method involving a combination of a direct integration approach with suitably modified Picard iterative procedures. The classes of differential equations considered include typical initial value, boundary value and eigenvalue problems arising in physics and…

  19. A Modified Impress Method for Beginning Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Russell W., Jr.

    A modified impress approach to teaching reading has been successfully used in a program involving first grade students. The program was multisensory and included aural, oral, visual, and kinesthetic learning experiences gained through listening, group discussions, dramatic play, art activities, audience reading, and recorded oral reading. These…

  20. A linear combination of modified Bessel functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shitzer, A.; Chato, J. C.

    1971-01-01

    A linear combination of modified Bessel functions is defined, discussed briefly, and tabulated. This combination was found to recur in the analysis of various heat transfer problems and in the analysis of the thermal behavior of living tissue when modeled by cylindrical shells.

  1. [Genetically modified organisms--problems and legislation].

    PubMed

    Drobník, J

    2002-03-01

    Genetically modified organisms are defined by law as entities capable of replication and/or transmission of hereditary material that had been altered by the insertion or removal of a DNA fragment. By the EU legal regulation as well as by the Czech law, such organisms are considered risky whereas other products of breeding, though obtained by, e.g., induced mutagenesis, are claimed as safe. Organisms transferred from other ecosystems are also considered safe. The Czech law on the use of genetically modified organisms is based on registers of users and organisms for specific use. Application for the registration that is valid as an approval should be submitted to the Ministry of Environment. The applicant is obliged to present the risk assessment of the particular use of genetically modified organisms. Genetically modified organisms are connected with certain risk to ecology, however health risks are brought about almost exclusively by microorganisms. Modified organisms used for food production are thoroughly tested for substantial equivalency with standard crops and with respect to health parameters of the protein(s) newly introduced due to genetic modification. Detail tests as well as their cost are close to the testing of new drugs. European as well as Czech rules for food labelling are motivated by the psychology of consumers rather than by health impact. They result to absurdities but do not meet the task of public psychology. This is why the EU authorities are looking for measures to change the present situation that other wise would bring Europe well behind the developed countries. PMID:12046253

  2. Cobalt Phthalocyanine Modified Electrodes Utilised in Electroanalysis: Nano-Structured Modified Electrodes vs. Bulk Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Christopher W.; Pillay, Jeseelan; Metters, Jonathan P.; Banks, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) compounds have been reported to provide electrocatalytic performances towards a substantial number of analytes. In these configurations, electrodes are typically constructed via drop casting the CoPC onto a supporting electrode substrate, while in other cases the CoPC complex is incorporated within the ink of a screen-printed sensor, providing a one-shot economical and disposable electrode configuration. In this paper we critically compare CoPC modified electrodes prepared by drop casting CoPC nanoparticles (nano-CoPC) onto a range of carbon based electrode substrates with that of CoPC bulk modified screen-printed electrodes in the sensing of the model analytes l-ascorbic acid, oxygen and hydrazine. It is found that no “electrocatalysis” is observed towards l-ascorbic acid using either of these CoPC modified electrode configurations and that the bare underlying carbon electrode is the origin of the obtained voltammetric signal, which gives rise to useful electroanalytical signatures, providing new insights into literature reports where “electrocatalysis” has been reported with no clear control experiments undertaken. On the other hand true electrocatalysis is observed towards hydrazine, where no such voltammetric features are witnessed on the bare underlying electrode substrate. PMID:25414969

  3. Are genetically modified plants useful and safe?

    PubMed

    Weil, Jacques-Henry

    2005-01-01

    So far, plants have been genetically modified essentially to achieve resistance to herbicides, or to pathogens (mainly insects, or viruses), but resistance to abiotic stresses (such as cold, heat, drought, or salt) is also being studied. Genetically modified (GM) plants with improved nutritional qualities have more recently been developed, such as plants containing higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6) in their oil (to prevent cardio-vascular diseases), or containing beta-carotene as in the golden rice (to prevent vitamin A deficiency). Possible risks for human health (such as the production of allergenic proteins), or for the environment (such as the appearance of superweeds as a result from gene flow), should be carefully studied, and a science-based assessment of benefits vs. risks should be made on a case by case basis, both for GM plants and for plants obtained by conventional breeding methods. PMID:16036615

  4. WELLFOCUS PPT: Modifying positive psychotherapy for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Riches, Simon; Schrank, Beate; Rashid, Tayyab; Slade, Mike

    2016-03-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) is an established psychological intervention initially validated with people experiencing symptoms of depression. PPT is a positive psychology intervention, an academic discipline that has developed somewhat separately from psychotherapy and focuses on amplifying well-being rather than ameliorating deficit. The processes targeted in PPT (e.g., strengths, forgiveness, gratitude, savoring) are not emphasized in traditional psychotherapy approaches to psychosis. The goal in modifying PPT is to develop a new clinical approach to helping people experiencing psychosis. An evidence-based theoretical framework was therefore used to modify 14-session standard PPT into a manualized intervention, called WELLFOCUS PPT, which aims to improve well-being for people with psychosis. Informed by a systematic review and qualitative research, modification was undertaken in 4 stages: qualitative study, expert consultation, manualization, and stake-holder review. The resulting WELLFOCUS PPT is a theory-based 11-session manualized group therapy. PMID:25961372

  5. Genetically modified animals and pharmacological research.

    PubMed

    Wells, Dominic J

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews the use of genetically modified animals and the increasingly detailed knowledge of the genomes of the domestic species. The different approaches to genetic modification are outlined as are the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques in different species. Genetically modified mice have been fundamental in understanding gene function and in generating affordable models of human disease although these are not without their drawbacks. Transgenic farm animals have been developed for nutritionally enhanced food, disease resistance and xenografting. Transgenic rabbits, goats, sheep and cows have been developed as living bioreactors producing potentially high value biopharmaceuticals, commonly referred to as "pharming". Domestic animals are also important as a target as well as for testing genetic-based therapies for both inherited and acquired disease. This latter field may be the most important of all, in the future development of novel therapies. PMID:20204589

  6. Organically modified clay removes oil from water

    SciTech Connect

    Alther, G.R.

    1995-12-31

    When bentonite or other clays and zeolites are modified with quaternary amines, they become organophilic. Such modified bentonites are used to remove mechanically emulsified oil and grease, and other sparingly soluble organics. If the organoclay is granulated, it is placed into a liquid phase carbon filter vessel to remove FOG`s and chlorinated hydrocarbons. In this application the clay is mixed with anthrazite to prevent early plugging of the filter by oil or grease droplets. In batch systems a powered organoclay is employed. Types of oil found in water can include fats, lubricants, cutting fluids, heavy hydrocarbons such as tars, grease, crude oil, diesel oils; and light hydrocarbons such as kerosene, jet fuel, and gasoline.

  7. Lower incisor retraction with a modified corticotomy.

    PubMed

    Germeç, Derya; Giray, Bahadir; Kocadereli, Ilken; Enacar, Ayhan

    2006-09-01

    This case report demonstrates the orthodontic treatment facilitated with a new conservative corticotomy technique to shorten the treatment time during lower incisor retraction. The patient was a 22-year-old woman with protrusive profile, severe anterior crowding, an anterior crossbite, and Class III dental relationship. Orthodontic treatment consisted of the extraction of four first premolars with maximum anchorage. A modified corticotomy technique, in which the lingual vertical and subapical horizontal cuts were eliminated, was combined with orthodontic therapy for the retraction of the lower anterior teeth. Corticotomy-facilitated orthodontics dramatically reduced the treatment time without any adverse effects on the periodontium and the vitality of the teeth. The main advantages of this modified corticotomy technique were the elimination of the lingual cuts and flap, the reduction of surgery time, and minimum discomfort to the patient. At the end of active orthodontic therapy, balanced occlusion and facial esthetics were achieved. PMID:17029527

  8. Lubrication of modified perfluoropolyether on magnetic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, H.; Hisamichi, Y.; Kamei, T.

    1996-03-01

    The effect of the polar group of perfluoropolyether (PFPE) on the friction of metal evaporated (ME) tape is presented in this paper. The newly synthesized amine salt has a better frictional characteristic than other conventional polar groups in 100 reciprocating motions and even shows a coefficient of 0.21, which becomes over 0.3 for the PFPE, and the difference is enhanced with surface smoothness. Stick-slip motion was not observed even for the smooth surface for the modified PFPE tape. The relation between the surface energy and friction is complicated, but the amine salt being tightly anchored to the rubbing surface covers uniformly which leads to better lubricity. Moreover, the modified PFPE are dissolved in alcohol and hexane, which makes practical use convenient without any environmental problems.

  9. Chemical and semisynthesis of modified histones.

    PubMed

    Maity, Suman Kumar; Jbara, Muhammad; Brik, Ashraf

    2016-05-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones play critical roles in the epigenetic regulation of eukaryotic genome by directly altering the biophysical properties of chromatin or by recruiting effector proteins. The large number of PTMs and the inherent complexity in their population and signaling processes make it highly challenging to understand epigenetics-related processes. To address these challenges, accesses to homogeneously modified histones are obligatory. Over the last decade, synthetic protein chemists have been devising novel synthetic tools and applying state-of-the-art chemoselective ligation strategies to prepare precious materials useful in answering fundamental questions in this area. In this short review, we cover some of the recent breakthroughs in these directions in particular the synthesis and semi-synthesis of modified histones and their use to unravel the mysteries of epigenetics. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26778211

  10. Summary: the modified nucleosides of RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Limbach, P A; Crain, P F; McCloskey, J A

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive listing is made of posttranscriptionally modified nucleosides from RNA reported in the literature through mid-1994. Included are chemical structures, common names, symbols, Chemical Abstracts registry numbers (for ribonucleoside and corresponding base), Chemical Abstracts Index Name, phylogenetic sources, and initial literature citations for structural characterization or occurrence, and for chemical synthesis. The listing is categorized by type of RNA: tRNA, rRNA, mRNA, snRNA, and other RNAs. A total of 93 different modified nucleosides have been reported in RNA, with the largest number and greatest structural diversity in tRNA, 79; and 28 in rRNA, 12 in mRNA, 11 in snRNA and 3 in other small RNAs. PMID:7518580

  11. Einstein spaces modeling nonminimal modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizalde, Emilio; Vacaru, Sergiu I.

    2015-06-01

    Off-diagonal vacuum and nonvacuum configurations in the Einstein gravity can mimic physical effects of modified gravitational theories of f( R, T, R μν T μν ) type. To prove this statement, exact and approximate solutions are constructed in the paper, which encode certain models of covariant Hořava-type gravity with dynamical Lorentz symmetry breaking. The corresponding FLRW cosmological dynamics with possible nonholonomic deformations and the reconstruction procedure of certain actions closely related with the standard ΛCDM universe are studied. Off-diagonal generalizations of de Sitter universes are constructed which are generated through nonlinear gravitational polarization of fundamental physical constants and which model interactions with nonconstant exotic fluids and effective matter. The problem of possible matter instability for such off-diagonal deformations in (modified) gravity theories is briefly discussed.

  12. Further capacitive imaging experiments using modified probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiaokang; Li, Zhen; Yan, An; Li, Wei; Chen, Guoming; Hutchins, David A.

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, capacitive imaging (CI) is growing in popularity within the NDE communities, as it has the potential to test materials and structures for defects that are not easily tested by other techniques. In previous work, The CI technique has been successfully used on a various types of materials, including concrete, glass/carbon fibre composite, steel, etc. In such CI experiments, the probes are normally with symmetric or concentric electrodes etched onto PCBs. In addition to these conventional coplanar PCB probes, modified geometries can be made and they can lead to different applications. A brief overview of these modified probes, including high resolution surface imaging probe, combined CI/eddy current probe, and CI probe using an oscilloscope probe as the sensing electrode, is presented in this work. The potential applications brought by these probes are also discussed.

  13. Production of modified starches by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Il-Jun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Bae, Chun-Ho; Lee, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Chung, Cha-Kwon

    1999-04-01

    As a new processing method for the production of modified starch, gamma irradiation and four kinds of inorganic peroxides were applied to commercial corn starch. The addition of inorganic peroxides without gamma irradiation or gamma irradiation without the addition of inorganic peroxides effectively decreased initial viscosity, but did not sufficiently keep viscosity stable. The combination of adding ammonium persulfate (APS) and gamma irradiation showed the lowest initial viscosity and the best stability out of the tested four kinds of inorganic peroxides. Among the tested mixing methods of APS, soaking was found to be more effective than dry blending or spraying. Therefore, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with sufficient viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added APS to starch.

  14. [Genetically modified food--great unknown].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, G; Wiackowski, S K

    2012-08-01

    Genetically modified food (GMF) creates evident threat to consumers' health. In spite of assurances of biotechnologists, DNA of transgenic plants is instable, so, synthesis of foreign, allergenic proteins is possible. Due to high trypsin inhibitor content the GMF is digested much more slowly what, alike Bt toxin presence, increases probability of alimentary canal diseases. Next threats are bound to the presence of fitoestrogens and residues of Roundup pesticide, that can diminish reproductiveness; and even lead to cancerogenic transformation through disturbance of human hormonal metabolism. In spite of food producers and distributors assurances that food made of GMF raw materials is marked, de facto consumers have no choice. Moreover, along the food law products containing less than 0.9% of GMF protein are not included into genetically modified food. PMID:23009001

  15. Influence of Prepackaged Polymer-Modified Mortar as a Modifier on Strength of Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saand, Abdullah; Ismail, Mohammad; Radin Sumadi, Salihuddin

    This study introduce a new trend of utilising Prepackaged Polymer-Modified Mortar (PPMM) as a modifier to ordinary concrete for producing Polymer-Modified Concrete (PMC). The experimental study articulates the strength development of proposed polymer-modified concrete. A range of quantities of PPMM, as 5 to 50%, were mixed with ordinary concrete of 30 N mmG2 characteristic strength to produce polymer-modified concrete and to evaluate for compressive strength, tensile strength, density and workability. The material behaviour in terms of compressive strength and tensile strength, together with density and slump was investigated by casting and testing cubes of 100 mm size, cylinders 100 mm dia and 200 mm height. This Preliminary study shows that compressive strength and tensile strength is improved significantly by inclusion of various quantities as percentages of PPMM to ordinary concrete and curing regime as specified by JIS. PPMM dosages of 5 to 20% resulted considerably higher compressive and tensile strength than that of ordinary concrete, on the other hand further increase in percentage of PPMM gave less strengths. Results demonstrated more prominent percentage increase in tensile strength than compressive strength of produced polymer-modified concrete. Polymer-mod fied concrete mixes with all percentage dosages of PPMM were found cohesive and workable.

  16. Engineering sulfotransferases to modify heparan sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ding; Moon, Andrea F.; Song, Danyin; Pedersen, Lars C.; Liu, Jian

    2008-03-19

    The biosynthesis of heparan sulfate (HS) involves an array of specialized sulfotransferases. Here, we present a study aimed at engineering the substrate specificity of different HS 3-O-sulfotransferase isoforms. Based on the crystal structures, we identified a pair of amino acid residues responsible for selecting the substrates. Mutations of these residues altered the substrate specificities. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of tailoring the specificity of sulfotransferases to modify HS with desired functions.

  17. Disease Modifying Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Williams, U. E.; Oparah, S. K.; Philip-Ephraim, E. E.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammatory demyelination and axonal degeneration. It is the commonest cause of permanent disability in young adults. Environmental and genetic factors have been suggested in its etiology. Currently available disease modifying drugs are only effective in controlling inflammation but not prevention of neurodegeneration or accumulation of disability. Search for an effective neuroprotective therapy is at the forefront of multiple sclerosis research. PMID:27355035

  18. Mercier criterion modified by kinetic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbluth, M.N.; Porcelli, F.

    1996-12-31

    The ideal MHD Mercier criterion for the stability of localized interchange modes is easily violated by modest pressure gradients in the central region of a Tokamak plasma where the magnetic winding index q drops below unity. However, kinetic effects can substantially modify this criterion, allowing for stable peaked pressure profiles. In this paper, we discuss the modifications to the Mercier criterion brought about by the fusion alpha particles and by the thermal trapped ions in the collisionless Kruskal-Oberman limit.

  19. Rotationally shearing interferometer employing modified Dove prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paez, Gonzalo; Strojnik, Marija; Moreno, Ivan

    2003-12-01

    We describe the rotationally shearing interferometer (RSI) employing modified Dove prisms, designed with a widened aperture to increase throughput and with larger base angles to minimize the wave-front tilt introduced due to manufacturing errors. Experimental results obtained with the RSI ascertain the feasibility of the design. This work demonstrates that the rotationally shearing interferometry may be used to perform some functions of the traditional astronomical instruments.

  20. Modified Youngswick procedure for hallux limitus.

    PubMed

    Radovic, Philip; Yadav-Shah, Ekta; Choe, Ki

    2007-01-01

    Multiple surgical procedures have been described for the correction of hallux limitus deformity. We describe a new modification of the Youngswick procedure for the surgical treatment of hallux limitus. Other procedures for hallux limitus correction are also discussed. This modified Youngswick procedure will provide a new approach to treating hallux limitus secondary to metatarsus primus elevatus when shortening of the first metatarsal is not indicated. PMID:17901350

  1. Modified Spot Welder Solders Flat Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haehner, Carl L.

    1992-01-01

    Soldering device, essentially modified spot welder, melts high-melting-temperature solders without damaging plastic insulation on flat electrical cables. Solder preform rests on exposed conductor of cable, under connector pin. Electrodes press pin/preform/conductor sandwich together and supply pulse of current to melt preform, bonding pin to conductor. Anvil acts as support and heat sink. Device used to solder flexible ribbon cables to subminiature pin connectors.

  2. The cosmology of asymmetric brane modified gravity

    SciTech Connect

    O'Callaghan, Eimear; Gregory, Ruth; Pourtsidou, Alkistis E-mail: ppxap1@nottingham.ac.uk

    2009-09-01

    We consider the asymmetric branes model of modified gravity, which can produce late time acceleration of the universe and compare the cosmology of this model to the standard ΛCDM model and to the DGP braneworld model. We show how the asymmetric cosmology at relevant physical scales can be regarded as a one-parameter extension of the DGP model, and investigate the effect of this additional parameter on the expansion history of the universe.

  3. Modified, Packaged Tortillas Have Long Shelf Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourland, Charles; Glaus-Late, Kimberly

    1995-01-01

    Tortillas made from modified recipe and sealed in low-pressure nitrogen in foil pouches in effort to increase their shelf life at room temperature. Preliminary tests show that shelf life of these tortillas at least five months; in contrast, commercial tortillas last only few days. Part of water in recipe replaced with glycerin. Particularly necessary to avoid Clostridium botulinum, which grows in anaerobic environments and produces deadly toxin that causes botulism.

  4. Chemically modified electrodes and related solution studies

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report briefly discusses work done in the following areas of chemically modified electrodes: Spectroscopic studies of the modes of interactions of pyridine containing ligands with metal surfaces; attempted synthesis of gem-dihalide containing polymers for attachment of Mo{sub 2}S{sub 4} clusters; Synthesis of oxo-ruthenium dimer complexes as catalysts for H{sub 2} oxidation; and, studies of porphyrin based polymers which catalyze the oxidation (oxygenation) of olefins and benzylic carbons. (JDL)

  5. Characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, L.C.; Ishida, Takanobu.

    1991-12-01

    The characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces has been accomplished through the use of four major electrochemical techniques. These were chronoamperometry, chronopotentiommetry, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. A systematic study on the under-potential deposition of several transition metals has been performed. The most interesting of these were: Ag, Cu, Cd, and Pb. It was determined, by subjecting the platinum electrode surface to a single potential scan between {minus}0.24 and +1.25 V{sub SCE} while stirring the solution, that the electrocatalytic activity would be regenerated. As a consequence of this study, a much simpler method for producing ultra high purity water from acidic permanganate has been developed. This method results in water that surpasses the water produced by pyrocatalytic distillation. It has also been seen that the wettability of polycrystalline platinum surfaces is greatly dependent on the quantity of oxide present. Oxide-free platinum is hydrophobic and gives a contact angle in the range of 55 to 62 degrees. We have also modified polycrystalline platinum surface with the electrically conducting polymer poly-{rho}-phenylene. This polymer is very stable in dilute sulfuric acid solutions, even under applied oxidative potentials. It is also highly resistant to electrochemical hydrogenation. The wettability of the polymer modified platinum surface is severely dependent on the choice of supporting electrolyte chosen for the electrochemical polymerization. Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate produces a film that is as hydrophobic as Teflon, whereas tetraethylammonium perchlorate produces a film that is more hydrophilic than oxide-free platinum.

  6. Theoretical priors on modified growth parametrisations

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Yong-Seon; Hollenstein, Lukas; Caldera-Cabral, Gabriela; Koyama, Kazuya E-mail: Lukas.Hollenstein@unige.ch E-mail: Kazuya.Koyama@port.ac.uk

    2010-04-01

    Next generation surveys will observe the large-scale structure of the Universe with unprecedented accuracy. This will enable us to test the relationships between matter over-densities, the curvature perturbation and the Newtonian potential. Any large-distance modification of gravity or exotic nature of dark energy modifies these relationships as compared to those predicted in the standard smooth dark energy model based on General Relativity. In linear theory of structure growth such modifications are often parameterised by virtue of two functions of space and time that enter the relation of the curvature perturbation to, first, the matter over- density, and second, the Newtonian potential. We investigate the predictions for these functions in Brans-Dicke theory, clustering dark energy models and interacting dark energy models. We find that each theory has a distinct path in the parameter space of modified growth. Understanding these theoretical priors on the parameterisations of modified growth is essential to reveal the nature of cosmic acceleration with the help of upcoming observations of structure formation.

  7. Biodegradation potential of a modified natural product

    SciTech Connect

    Sajjad, W.

    1996-12-31

    Biodegradation potential of a modified natural product for treating petroleum contaminated soils was investigated along with some commercially available microbial cultures in three different scales from a laboratory to pilot to case studies. The modified natural product is lignocellulosic in nature and proprietary product of a company in Iowa. The production process of this product involves mechanical size reduction, blending/coating, and aerobic digestion of hay, corn cob residue, straw or crop residue in presence of poultry manure. The degradation kinetics of the petroleum products in the contaminated soils were measured both directly and indirectly. Residual petroleum products in different soils (treated and untreated) at various time periods were quantified by gas chromatographic (GC) analysis on extracted samples. The indirect assessment of the kinetics of biological activity involved the measurement of CO{sub 2} evolved from flasks (250 ml capacity) containing contaminated soil (about 50 ml) with various treatments. The results indicated that the biodegradation kinetics of petroleum products in the contaminated soils were significantly improved by treatment with this modified natural product. In most cases tested, this product performed significantly better than the available commercial bacterial cultures for biological removal of petroleum products from contaminated soils. This study also demonstrated the significance of temperature and moisture content in biodegradation kinetics.

  8. Rheological Modifier Testing with DWPF Process Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL, STONE

    2004-02-01

    Rheological modification agents were tested on simulated SRAT and SME products to determine if a suitable agent could be found for the DWPF process slurries. The agents tested were dispersants that lower the rheological properties of slurries by preventing agglomerization. Dolapix CE64, an ethylene glycol, and Disperse-Ayd W28, a polyacrylate, were the most effective dispersants tested. Further evaluation and testing should be performed on Dolapix CE64 and Disperse-Ayd W28 to determine if implementation is possible in DWPF. The initial phase of future work will include optimization of the rheology modifier by the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) and development of a maximum concentration limit for the rheology modifiers. IIT has been commissioned to evaluate the properties of these chemicals to determine if the chemical makeup can be optimized to enhance the properties of these modifiers. An initial concentration limit based upon the DWPF flammability limit and other constraints should be calculated to determine the potential downstream impacts.

  9. Plasma-Modified Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrabee, Thomas; Prokes, Sharka

    2015-09-01

    PEALD is known to grow thin films with differing properties from those grown purely via chemical reactions, or thermal ALD processes. However, material properties are still limited when compared to films grown by other deposition techniques. We have used non-growth plasma steps in each ALD cycle to modify properties, in a technique we refer to as plasma-modified ALD. To study how non-growth plasma steps modify properties, we have grown metal oxides with various plasma processing steps from CCPs of Ar, O2, N2, and H2 gases at relatively high pressures of 1-2 mbar. A grid is used to screen ion bombardment of the samples within a commercial Beneq TFS-200 reactor, making this plasma configuration indirect, but not remote. Several properties show significant differences between the films grown with and without these additional steps. These altered properties include crystalline orientation as indicated by XRD, plasmon resonances, photoluminescence, electron paramagnetic resonance, optical dispersion, mobilities, carrier concentrations, and resistivities. Selected plasma-initiated modifications to ALD-grown oxides of zinc, vanadium, and hafnium, and their anticipated applications in novel materials systems will be presented. NRC Postdoc at the Naval Research Laboratory.

  10. Simplification of the modified Gallyas method

    PubMed Central

    Kuninaka, Nobuo; Kawaguchi, Minato; Ogawa, Masaru; Sato, Ayako; Arima, Kunimasa; Murayama, Shigeo; Saito, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    The Gallyas method is a silver impregnation technique that is essential in the field of neuropathology because of its high sensitivity for the detection of argentophilic inclusion bodies in the central nervous system. In Japan, the Gallyas method has improved and is widely used as the “modified Gallyas method”. However, this method is not popularly used in general pathology laboratories because of the need for special reagents, several staining processes, and skilled techniques. The objective of the current study was to provide a simplified Gallyas method. We omitted the lanthanum nitrate step from the staining process and verified the adequacy in comparison with the original method as well as immunohistochemistry, using specimens from patients of Alzheimer's disease, argyrophilic grain disease, multiple system atrophy, Pick's disease, and Lewy body disease. The simplified method provided good staining to all the structures in archival tissues, compared with the modified Gallyas method in a significantly shorter staining time. The lanthanum nitrate step can be omitted from the modified Gallyas method, resulting in reduction in the number of reagents required and shortening of the staining time. PMID:25178396

  11. Organic intercalation of structure modified vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nian; Wu, Limei; Liao, Libing; Lv, Guocheng

    2015-11-01

    The experiment used cationic surfactants of different chain lengths to intercalate structure modified vermiculites. The influences of structure modification, chain length and dosage of surfactants on the intercalation behavior of vermiculites were studied, and intercalation mechanism and features of interlayer chemical reactions were discussed. Results indicate that structure modified vermiculites with different layer charge have different intercalation behavior. The basal spacing of the organic intercalated modified vermiculite is the largest when acid concentration used in structure modification is 0.003 mol/L, and increases with increasing the chain length and dosage of the organics. Molecular dynamics simulation verifies that interlayer organics align almost parallel to structure layer of vermiculite, with alkyl chain stretching to the middle of interlayer space. -N(+) groups of the three surfactants locate above the leached [SiO4], which has stronger interaction with interlayer organic cations. Electrostatic force is the main interaction force between interlayer organics and structure layer of vermiculite, and then is Van der Waals force, no chemical bond formed. PMID:26196709

  12. Modified osteomyocutaneous iliac crest flaps transplantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Song, Dajiang; Li, Jinsong; Xu, Jian; Lv, Hongbin

    2015-04-01

    The paper aims to improve the operative technique of osteomyocutaneous iliac crest flap harvesting, further minimise morbidity of donor site, and improve the effect of recipient site reconstruction. From March 2005 to March 2011, 55 cases of osteomyocutaneous iliac crest flap harvested by different methods were performed to reconstruct the defects of the extremities. Twenty-nine cases were reconstructed with a traditional deep circumflex iliac artery osteomusculocutaneous flap. Twenty-six cases were repaired with modified osteomyocutaneous iliac crest flaps. In 29 cases with a traditional DCIA osteomusculocutaneous flap, two cases showed the injured lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. Flapnecrosis was significant in two cases. Arterial compromise occurred in one case 5 days after operation completion and led to flap failure. Three flaps developed postoperative venous congestion, but only one flap received re-exploration. In the other two cases, some stitches were removed for decompression. All three flaps survived. In two cases, marginal flap necrosis occurred, but no secondary skin grafting was required. In 26 cases with modified flap transplantation, one case showed the injured lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. All flaps survived totally. Osseous integration was achieved in all 55 cases in 3 ∼ 9 months after operation. The modified osteomyocutaneous iliac crest flap technique enhances flap safety, provides the additional advantages of reducing donor-site morbidity, and improves the recipient-site contour. PMID:25001367

  13. Influence of concentration modifier on the structure and functional properties of aluminum oxyhydroxide modified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiyan, L. N.; Gryaznova, E. N.; Galanov, S. I.; Sidorova, O. I.

    2016-02-01

    Studying the properties of nanomaterials is an important task, but nanomaterials with desired properties is a promising direction. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of the value of the concentration of the modifier (ions Mn2+) on the structural and functional properties of modified aluminum oxyhydroxide. In this paper, using methods such as the X-ray diffraction studies, differential thermal analysis, electron microscopy, chromatography. The paper found that increasing the concentration of the modifier result in significant changes in the morphology, the appearance of metallic aluminum, which is well seen on X-ray data samples. The influence of thermal effects on a modified aluminum oxyhydroxide argon. Set the phase transition temperatures in the synthesized samples. It is shown that with increasing sodeozhaniya manganese in the composition of the synthesized samples decreases the value of specific surface area. Study of the functional properties showed that the synthesized material has catalytic properties in the oxidation of methane. It is shown that the effective sample is a sample with a manganese content of 2.7 wt. %. By XRD results calcined in air samples modified aluminum oxyhydroxide was shown that only in the sample with a manganese content of 2.7 wt. % MnAl2O4 phase is formed, which is catalytically active phase.

  14. Testing modified gravity with cosmic shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnois-Déraps, J.; Munshi, D.; Valageas, P.; van Waerbeke, L.; Brax, P.; Coles, P.; Rizzo, L.

    2015-12-01

    We use the cosmic shear data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey to place constraints on f(R) and Generalized Dilaton models of modified gravity. This is highly complementary to other probes since the constraints mainly come from the non-linear scales: maximal deviations with respects to the General Relativity (GR) + Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) scenario occurs at k ˜ 1 h Mpc-1. At these scales, it becomes necessary to account for known degeneracies with baryon feedback and massive neutrinos, hence we place constraints jointly on these three physical effects. To achieve this, we formulate these modified gravity theories within a common tomographic parametrization, we compute their impact on the clustering properties relative to a GR universe, and propagate the observed modifications into the weak lensing ξ± quantity. Confronted against the cosmic shear data, we reject the f(R) \\lbrace |f_{R_0}| = 10^{-4}, n = 1\\rbrace model with more than 99.9 per cent confidence interval (CI) when assuming a ΛCDM dark matter only model. In the presence of baryonic feedback processes and massive neutrinos with total mass up to 0.2 eV, the model is disfavoured with at least 94 per cent CI in all different combinations studied. Constraints on the \\lbrace |f_{R_0}| = 10^{-4}, n = 2\\rbrace model are weaker, but nevertheless disfavoured with at least 89 per cent CI. We identify several specific combinations of neutrino mass, baryon feedback and f(R) or Dilaton gravity models that are excluded by the current cosmic shear data. Notably, universes with three massless neutrinos and no baryon feedback are strongly disfavoured in all modified gravity scenarios studied. These results indicate that competitive constraints may be achieved with future cosmic shear data.

  15. Methylglyoxal can modify GAPDH activity and structure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyon Jae; Howell, Scott K; Sanford, Rebecca J; Beisswenger, Paul J

    2005-06-01

    The activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) can play an important role in regulating multiple upstream pathways relating to the development of diabetic complications. GAPDH can be modified by a number of metabolic factors, including oxidative and glycation products. To study the effect of glycation on GAPDH we have measured GAPDH structure and activity after exposure of the enzyme to the potent alpha dicarbonyl sugar methylglyoxal (MG). Rabbit GAPDH was incubated with 10-1000 microM MG for 96 hours, and enzyme activity was measured at intervals by a spectrophotometric assay. Isoelectric focusing of purified and cellular GAPDH was performed with a PROTEAN IEF system and the bands visualized by Western blotting. The mass of glycated and native GAPDH was determined by MALDI with a Applied Biosystems Voyager System 6235. GAPDH activity (at 96 h) was decreased by 20% with 1.0 micromolar MG and showed progressively greater suppression of activity with increasing concentrations up to 1 mM, where activity was decreased by 97%. Reduction in GAPDH activity was rapidly decreasing by 69.2% by two hours with 1 mM MG. IEF showed an isoelectric point (IEP) of 8.5 for native GAPDH, while measurable changes were seen with modification by MG levels of 1 mM (IEP 7.5) and 50 microM (IEP 8.0). With MALDI, GAPDH mass increased from 36.012 kDa to 37.071 after exposure to 50 microM MG and to 40.625 following 1 mM MG. This indicates addition of 12.75 and 55.6 MG residues, respectively, to GAPDH. GAPDH can be modified by methylglyoxal intracellular concentrations close to those previously observed in vivo, with measurable changes in isoelectric point and mass. These modifications can lead to decreased enzyme activity, suggesting that conditions associated with elevated intracellular MG could modify GAPDH activity in vivo. PMID:16037232

  16. "Disease modifying nutricals" for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Katja; Barthelmes, Julia; Stolz, Leonie; Beyer, Susanne; Diehl, Olaf; Tegeder, Irmgard

    2015-04-01

    The association between vitamin D and multiple sclerosis has (re)-opened new interest in nutrition and natural compounds in the prevention and treatment of this neuroinflammatory disease. The dietary amount and type of fat, probiotics and biologicals, salmon proteoglycans, phytoestrogens and protease inhibitor of soy, sodium chloride and trace elements, and fat soluble vitamins including D, A and E were all considered as disease-modifying nutraceuticals. Studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice suggest that poly-unsaturated fatty acids and their 'inflammation-resolving' metabolites and the gut microflora may reduce auto-aggressive immune cells and reduce progression or risk of relapse, and infection with whipworm eggs may positively change the gut-brain communication. Encouraged by the recent interest in multiple sclerosis-nutrition nature's pharmacy has been searched for novel compounds with anti-inflammatory, immune-modifying and antioxidative properties, the most interesting being the scorpion toxins that inhibit specific potassium channels of T cells and antioxidative compounds including the green tea flavonoid epigallocatechin-3-gallate, curcumin and the mustard oil glycoside from e.g. broccoli and sulforaphane. They mostly also inhibit pro-inflammatory signaling through NF-κB or toll-like receptors and stabilize the blood brain barrier. Disease modifying functions may also complement analgesic and anti-spastic effects of cannabis, its constituents, and of 'endocannabinoid enhancing' drugs or nutricals like inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase. Nutricals will not solve multiple sclerosis therapeutic challenges but possibly support pharmacological interventions or unearth novel structures. PMID:25435020

  17. Genetically Modified Foods and Social Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M.

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm. PMID:23408723

  18. Genetically modified foods and social concerns.

    PubMed

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M

    2011-07-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm. PMID:23408723

  19. The modified norwegian method of biceps tenodesis.

    PubMed

    Foad, Abdullah; Faruqui, Sami; Hanna, Courtney C

    2014-02-01

    This technical note describes a method of biceps tenodesis called the Modified Norwegian Method that is an all-arthroscopic, intra-articular, bony biceps tenodesis that uses a suture shuttle passer through an anterosuperolateral portal. It allows for easy passage of suture through the long head of the biceps tendon while one is viewing through the posterior portal. We believe this method to be a very reasonable and simple method of biceps tenodesis that has complication rates similar to those described for subpectoral and other methods of fixation. PMID:24843845

  20. Modified Iterative Extended Hueckel. 1: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronowitz, S.

    1980-01-01

    Iterative Extended Huekel is modified by inclusion of explicit effective internuclear and electronic interactions. The one electron energies are shown to obey a variational principle because of the form of the effective electronic interactions. The modifications permit mimicking of aspects of valence bond theory with the additional feature that the energies associated with valence bond type structures are explicitly calculated. In turn, a hybrid molecular, orbital valence, bond scheme is introduced which incorporates variant total molecular electronic density distributions similar to the way that Iterative Extended Hueckel incorporates atoms.

  1. Modified Sigmund sputtering theory: isotopic puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. L.; Zhang, L.

    2005-05-01

    The theory of anisotropic sputtering proposed by Zhang [Z.L. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 71 026101 (2005).] and [Z.L. Zhang and L. Zhang, Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids 159(5) 301 (2004).] has been generalized to sputtering of isotopic mixtures. The present theory (modified Sigmund theory) has been shown to fit numerous simulations and experimental measurements, including energy and angular distribution of sputtered atoms. In particular, the theory has successfully solved the isotope puzzle of sputtering induced by low energy and heavy ion bombardment.

  2. Development of modified FT (MFT) process

    SciTech Connect

    Jinglai Zhou; Zhixin Zhang; Wenjie Shen

    1995-12-31

    Two-Stage Modified FT (MFT) process has been developed for producing high-octane gasoline from coal-based syngas. The main R&D are focused on the development of catalysts and technologies process. Duration tests were finished in the single-tube reactor, pilot plant (100T/Y), and industrial demonstration plant (2000T/Y). A series of satisfactory results has been obtained in terms of operating reliability of equipments, performance of catalysts, purification of coal - based syngas, optimum operating conditions, properties of gasoline and economics etc. Further scaling - up commercial plant is being considered.

  3. A modified sulfate process to lunar oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    A modified sulfate process which produces oxygen from iron oxide-bearing minerals in lunar soil is under development. Reaction rates of ilmenite in varying strength sulfuric acid have been determined. Quantitative conversion of ilmenite to ferrous sulfate was observed over a range of temperatures and concentrations. Data has also been developed on the calcination of by-product sulfates. System engineering for overall operability and simplicity has begun, suggesting that a process separating the digestion and sulfate dissolution steps may offer an optimum process.

  4. Aptamer-modified nanoparticles as biosensors.

    PubMed

    Lönne, Maren; Zhu, Guohong; Stahl, Frank; Walter, Johanna-Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Aptamers are short oligonucleotides that are capable of selectively binding to their corresponding target. Therefore, they can be thought of as a nucleic acid-based alternative to antibodies and can substitute for their amino acid-based counterparts in analytical applications, including as receptors in biosensors. Here they offer several advantages because their nucleic acid nature and their binding via an induced fit mechanism enable novel sensing strategies. In this article, the utilization of aptamers as novel bio-receptors in combination with nanoparticles as transducer elements is reviewed. In addition to these analytical applications, the medical relevance of aptamer-modified nanoparticles is described. PMID:23824145

  5. Crystallization of modified hydroxyapatite on titanium implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Izmailov, R. R.; Ghyngazov, S. A.; Zaits, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    Carbonated-hydroxyapatite (CHA) and Si-hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) precipitation have been synthesized from the model bioliquid solutions (synovial fluid and SBF). It is found that all the samples synthesized from the model solutions are single-phase and represent hydroxyapatite. The crystallization of the modified hydroxyapatite on alloys of different composition, roughness and subjected to different treatment techniques was investigated. Irradiation of the titanium substrates with the deposited biomimetic coating can facilitate further growth of the crystal and regeneration of the surface.

  6. Modified Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation of Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm and a computer program that implements the algorithm that performs recursive hierarchical segmentation (RHSEG) of data have been developed. While the current implementation is for two-dimensional data having spatial characteristics (e.g., image, spectral, or spectral-image data), the generalized algorithm also applies to three-dimensional or higher dimensional data and also to data with no spatial characteristics. The algorithm and software are modified versions of a prior RHSEG algorithm and software, the outputs of which often contain processing-window artifacts including, for example, spurious segmentation-image regions along the boundaries of processing-window edges.

  7. [Genetically modified organisms (GMO): toxicological aspects].

    PubMed

    Ludwicki, J K

    1998-01-01

    The genetically modified organisms (GMO) are one of the major public concerns partially due to the activity of the non-governmental organizations which believe that public opinion must be duly informed on what leaves the laboratories and enters the environment or is proposed as food. This article discusses some major toxicological and nutritional aspects of GMO designed as food for humans. The range of current use of GMOs, potential hazards for humans, safety assessment, allergenic concerns, and some aspects of the use of marker genes are discussed in regard to human safety. The need for relevant regulations is stressed. PMID:9930018

  8. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  13. 15 CFR 325.10 - Modifying or revoking a certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modifying or revoking a certificate... CERTIFICATES OF REVIEW § 325.10 Modifying or revoking a certificate. (a) Action subject to modification or revocation. The Secretary shall revoke a certificate, in whole or in part, or modify it, as the Secretary...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10128 - Modified imidazole (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified imidazole (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10128 Modified imidazole (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified imidazole (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10128 - Modified imidazole (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified imidazole (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10128 Modified imidazole (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified imidazole (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10128 - Modified imidazole (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified imidazole (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10128 Modified imidazole (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified imidazole (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10128 - Modified imidazole (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified imidazole (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10128 Modified imidazole (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified imidazole (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10128 - Modified imidazole (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified imidazole (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10128 Modified imidazole (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified imidazole (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6493 - Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amidoamine modified polyethylene... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6493 Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic). (a) Chemical... as an amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (PMN P-99-0645) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6493 - Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amidoamine modified polyethylene... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6493 Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic). (a) Chemical... as an amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (PMN P-99-0645) is subject to reporting under...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6493 - Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amidoamine modified polyethylene... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6493 Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic). (a) Chemical... as an amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (PMN P-99-0645) is subject to reporting under...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface of articles intended for use in contact...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6493 - Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amidoamine modified polyethylene... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6493 Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic). (a) Chemical... as an amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (PMN P-99-0645) is subject to reporting under...

  7. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6493 - Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amidoamine modified polyethylene... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6493 Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic). (a) Chemical... as an amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (PMN P-99-0645) is subject to reporting under...

  9. Cell targeted gene delivery system based on modified pectin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus pectin modified with various amine groups have been studied for its potential as a novel non-viral gene delivery carrier. The modified cationic pectin was able to condense DNA and mediate transfection in a cell type specific manner. The modified pectin seems to be a promising carrier, attra...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified phenolic resin...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10119 - Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10119 Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (PMN P-05-673) is subject to reporting under this...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10119 - Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10119 Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (PMN P-05-673) is subject to reporting under this...

  14. 9 CFR 77.11 - Modified accredited States or zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.11 Modified accredited States or zones. (a) The following are modified... test requirements contained in the “Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication” (January... reclassified as accreditation preparatory. (d) If tuberculosis is diagnosed within a modified accredited...

  15. 9 CFR 77.11 - Modified accredited States or zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.11 Modified accredited States or zones. (a) The following are modified... the “Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication” (January 22, 1999, edition), which is...) If tuberculosis is diagnosed within a modified accredited State or zone in an animal not...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9499 - Modified silicone resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified silicone resin. 721.9499... Substances § 721.9499 Modified silicone resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified silicone resin (PMN P-96-1649)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10120 - Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Siloxane modified alumina... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10120 Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (PMN P-05-687) is subject to reporting under this...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10119 - Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10119 Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (PMN P-05-673) is subject to reporting under this...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10119 - Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10119 Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (PMN P-05-673) is subject to reporting under this...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10119 - Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10119 Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (PMN P-05-673) is subject to reporting under this...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10120 - Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Siloxane modified alumina... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10120 Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (PMN P-05-687) is subject to reporting under this...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10120 - Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Siloxane modified alumina... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10120 Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (PMN P-05-687) is subject to reporting under this...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10528 - Modified fluorinated acrylates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified fluorinated acrylates... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10528 Modified fluorinated acrylates (generic). (a) Chemical substances... modified fluorinated acrylates (PMNs P-12-30, P-12-31, and P-12-32) are subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10528 - Modified fluorinated acrylates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified fluorinated acrylates... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10528 Modified fluorinated acrylates (generic). (a) Chemical substances... modified fluorinated acrylates (PMNs P-12-30, P-12-31, and P-12-32) are subject to reporting under...