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Sample records for modules m-7 m-15

  1. Hepatic Differentiation from Human Ips Cells Using M15 Cells.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Kahoko; Shiraki, Nobuaki; Kume, Shoen

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a procedure of human iPS cells differentiation into the definitive endoderm, further into albumin-expressing and albumin-secreting hepatocyte, using M15, a mesonephros- derived cell line. Approximately 90 % of human iPS cells differentiated into SOX17-positive definitive endoderm then approximately 50 % of cells became albumin-positive cells, and secreted ALB protein. This M15 feeder system for endoderm and hepatic differentiation is a simple and efficient method, and useful for elucidating molecular mechanisms for hepatic fate decision, and could represent an attractive approach for a surrogate cell source for pharmaceutical studies. PMID:25417065

  2. Biotransformation studies of cresol red by Absidia spinosa M15.

    PubMed

    Kristanti, Risky Ayu; Fikri Ahmad Zubir, Meor Mohd; Hadibarata, Tony

    2016-05-01

    Cresol Red, a commercial dye that used widely to color nylon, wool, cotton, and polyacrylonitrile-modified nylon in the massive textile manufacture is toxic recalcitrant. Absidia spinosa M15, a novel fungal strain isolated from a tropical rain forest, was found to decolorize Cresol Red 65% within 30 d under agitation condition. UV-Vis spectroscopy, TLC analysis and mass spectra of samples after decolorization process in culture medium confirmed final decolorization of Cresol Red. Two metabolites were identified in the treated medium: benzeneacetic acid (tR 9.6 min and m/z 136) and benzoic acid (tR 5.7 min and m/z 122). Laccase showed the significant activity (133.8 U/L) in biomass obtained at the end of experiment demonstrates role of the enzyme in the decolorization process. PMID:26922501

  3. The stellar population in the core of M15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Marchi, Guido; Paresce, Francesco

    1994-01-01

    The inner core of the globular cluster M15 within approximately 2 sec of the geometrical center has been explored with high-resolution images taken through several broad-band UV filter with the Faint Object Camera (FOC) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Approximately 210 stars in this region down to a 5 sigma detection limit of m(sub 220) = 21.5 were reliably identified and located on a UV - U color magnitude diagram for the first time. A majority of stars (about 70% of the total) observed this way lie above the expected main-sequence turn-off of this cluster and below the sparsely populated horizontal branch. The extension of the main sequence above the turn-off separates this population in two roughly equal components situated to the right and left of this line. Most of the former must be classical blue stragglers while the rest belong to a new, as yet unidentified, population of very blue stars. Possibilities include, but are not restricted to, well-mixed single stars, subdwarfs, and helium white dwarfs. Similar objects are also found just outside the core out to approximately 6 sec from the center, but the brighter, presumably more massive ones, are sharply confined to the core itself. The measured excess of bright blue stars and the relative deficiency of bright red giants in the core are consistent with the blue inward color gradient measured from the ground and imply that dynamical evolution can significantly affect the stellar population in the very dense central regions of a high-concentration globular cluster like M15.

  4. Candidates of M7-Class Earthquake Beneath Greater Tokyo Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Y.

    2003-12-01

    In greater Tokyo area, the occurrence of M7-class earthquake is thought to be imminent by the following reasons. (1) In these 20 years, maximum size of shallow microearthquakes beneath Tokyo is steadily increasing. (2) In recent 80 years after Kanto earthquake, maximum size of the earthquakes in Kanto region is gradually increasing. (3) In these 400 years, it was observed twice that two M7-class earthquakes precede the M8 interplate earthquakes in the latter half of the interseismic period. Taking into consideration these background, the Central Disaster Management Council, Japan issued _gGuideline for Countermeasures to the Earthquakes Beneath Southern Kanto Region _h on August 1994, and proposed 19 fault models along the upper boundary of Philippine Sea plate as the candidates of the forthcoming M7-class earthquake. At present, we have no data of abnormal seismic activity or crustal movement to select preferable one among these 19 fault models. Here, we will try to constrain the candidates which may have relatively higher possibility of the occurrence by a elimination method. It seems to be possible to exclude some of the fault models by the following ways. (1) Adopting characteristic earthquake concept, we can exclude 5 models which overlap to the focal region of 1923 Kanto earthquake. (2) A belt like zone of serpentine are found from tomography results at 30-40km depth along the Philippine Sea plate beneath the Kanto Plain and no microearthquake activities are generated along this zone (Kamiya and Kobayashi, GRL, 2000). We can eliminate 4 models which lie in this zone. (3) Beneath the eastern Boso Peninsula, it was found that slow slips of M6.5-class are repeated every 5-6 years. We can exclude 2 models in the area (4) Since plate collision is undertaken beneath eastern Yamanashi Prefecture, we can exclude 1 model in this area. Finally, it remains 7 fault models as the possible candidates of M7-class earthquake beneath Tokyo area. They are 3 models just beneath

  5. The postcollapse core of M15 imaged with the HST planetary camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, Tod R.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Faber, S. M.; Baum, William A.; Currie, Douglas G.; Ewald, S. P.; Groth, Edward J.; Hester, J. Jeff; Kelsall, T.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown here that, despite the severe spherical aberration present in the HST, the Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WFPC) images still present useful high-resolution information on M15, the classic candidate for a cluster with a collapsed core. The stars in M15 have been resolved down to the main-sequence turnoff and have been subtracted from the images. The remaining faint, unresolved stars form a diffuse background with a surprisingly large core with r(c) = 0.13 pc. The existence of a large core interior to the power-law cusp may imply that M15 has evolved well past maximum core collapse and may rule out the presence of a massive central black hole as well.

  6. Waste water effluent contributes to the dissemination of CTX-M-15 in the natural environment

    PubMed Central

    Amos, G. C. A.; Hawkey, P. M.; Gaze, W. H.; Wellington, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae pose a significant threat to public health. We aimed to study the impact of sewage treatment effluent on antibiotic resistance reservoirs in a river. Methods River sediment samples were taken from downstream and upstream of a waste water treatment plant (WWTP) in 2009 and 2011. Third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were enumerated. PCR-based techniques were used to elucidate mechanisms of resistance, with a new two-step PCR-based assay developed to investigate blaCTX-M-15 mobilization. Conjugation experiments and incompatibility replicon typing were used to investigate plasmid ecology. Results We report the first examples of blaCTX-M-15 in UK river sediment; the prevalence of blaCTX-M-15 was dramatically increased downstream of the WWTP. Ten novel genetic contexts for this gene were identified, carried in pathogens such as Escherichia coli ST131 as well as indigenous aquatic bacteria such as Aeromonas media. The blaCTX-M-15 ­gene was readily transferable to other Gram-negative bacteria. We also report the first finding of an imipenem-resistant E. coli in a UK river. Conclusions The high diversity and host range of novel genetic contexts proves that evolution of novel combinations of resistance genes is occurring at high frequency and has to date been significantly underestimated. We have identified a worrying reservoir of highly resistant enteric bacteria in the environment that poses a threat to human and animal health. PMID:24797064

  7. Neutron-Capture Element Abundances in the Globular Cluster M15.

    PubMed

    Sneden; Johnson; Kraft; Smith; Cowan; Bolte

    2000-06-20

    High-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio, blue-violet spectra of three red giant branch tip stars in M15 have been obtained with the Keck I High-Resolution Echelle Spectrograph. These spectra have been analyzed to determine the abundances of several neutron-capture elements, including the radioactive chronometer element thorium. There are two principal results of this study. First, the abundances of the heavier (Z>/=56) elements for each of the three stars is well matched by a scaled solar system r-process abundance distribution. Second, a weighted mean-observed Th/Eu ratio for the stars implies an age for the neutron-capture material in M15 stars of 14+/-3 Gyr, in reasonable agreement with other recent age estimates for Galactic globular clusters. PMID:10859124

  8. Genotyping and characterization of CTX-M-15 -producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from an Iranian hospital.

    PubMed

    Derakhshan, Safoura; Peerayeh, Shahin Najar; Bakhshi, Bita

    2016-08-01

    The aims were to describe the genetic characterization of blaCTX-M-1 group gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae and to investigate the relationship between isolates by MLVA and PFGE. We analyzed 36 CTX-M group 1-ESBL producing K. pneumoniae. rmpA and wcaG virulence genes were identified by PCR. The genetic environment of blaCTX-M-1 was analyzed by PCR and sequencing. Plasmid replicons were determined using PCR-based replicon typing. The isolates were typed by MLVA and PFGE. All blaCTX-M-1 were blaCTX-M-15. The wcaG and rmpA were detected in 1 and 2 isolates, respectively. IncF were the most frequently detected replicons (63.88%). In all isolates, ISEcp1 was found upstream and orf477 downstream of blaCTX-M-15, IS26 was found in two isolates. MLVA identified 20 MLVA types, whereas PFGE identified 25 different profiles. The dissemination of CTX-M-15 in our isolates was due to the clonal spread of isolates and to the genetic transfer of mobile elements among unrelated strains. PMID:25734924

  9. The central mass and mass-to-light profile of the Galactic globular cluster M15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Brok, Mark; van de Ven, Glenn; van den Bosch, Remco; Watkins, Laura

    2014-02-01

    We analyse line-of-sight velocity and proper motion data of stars in the Galactic globular cluster M15 using a new method to fit dynamical models to discrete kinematic data. Our fitting method maximizes the likelihood for individual stars and, as such, does not suffer the same loss of spatial and velocity information incurred when spatially binning data or measuring velocity moments. In this paper, we show that the radial variation in M15 of the mass-to-light ratio is consistent with previous estimates and theoretical predictions, which verifies our method. Our best-fitting axisymmetric Jeans models do include a central dark mass of ˜2 ± 1 × 103 M⊙, which can be explained by a high concentration of stellar remnants at the cluster centre. This paper shows that, from a technical point of view and with current computing power, spatial binning of data is no longer necessary. This not only leads to more accurate fits, but also avoids biased mass estimates due to the loss of resolution. Furthermore, we find that the mass concentration in M15 is significantly higher than previously measured, and is in close agreement with theoretical predictions for core-collapsed globular clusters without a central intermediate-mass black hole.

  10. Prevalence of CTX-M-15 Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Salmonella Isolated from Chicken in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sara; Kang, Hyun-Wol; Woo, Gun-Jo

    2015-08-01

    A total of 162 Salmonella isolates were isolated in samples from poultry farms, slaughterhouses, retail chicken meats, and human feces between 2012 and 2013. All extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing isolates had bla(CTX-M-15) gene sequence in their plasmids. This genotype may be related to multidrug resistance. Repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction patterns among CTX-M-15 isolates were classified into 12 indistinguishable groups. CTX-M-15 isolates had various plasmid replicon types; however, the most frequent type was FIIS. This result suggests that bla(CTX-M-15) could be propagated via plasmid transfer. PMID:26258260

  11. Statement of Basis: Building M7-505 Treatment Tank SWMU 039

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Andrew Scott

    2015-01-01

    The Statement of Basis (SB) has been developed to inform and give the public an opportunity to comment on a proposed remedy to address contamination at the Building M7-505 Treatment Tank (M7-505) site.

  12. The Dynamics of M15: Observations of the Velocity Dispersion Profile and Fokker-Planck Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dull, J. D.; Cohn, H. N.; Lugger, P. M.; Murphy, B. W.; Seitzer, P. O.; Callanan, P. J.; Rutten, R. G. M.; Charles, P. A.

    1997-05-01

    We report a new measurement of the velocity dispersion profile within 1' (3 pc) of the center of the globular cluster M15 (NGC 7078), using long-slit spectra from the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope at La Palma Observatory. We obtained spatially resolved spectra for a total of 23 slit positions during two observing runs. During each run, a set of parallel slit positions was used to map out the central region of the cluster; the position angle used during the second run was orthogonal to that used for the first. The spectra are centered in wavelength near the Ca II infrared triplet at 8650 Å, with a spectral range of about 450 Å. We determined radial velocities by cross-correlation techniques for 131 cluster members. A total of 32 stars were observed more than once. Internal and external comparisons indicate a velocity accuracy of about 4 km s-1. The velocity dispersion profile rises from about σ = 7.2 +/- 1.4 km s-1 near 1' from the center of the cluster to σ = 13.9 +/- 1.8 km s-1 at 20". Inside of 20", the dispersion remains approximately constant at about 10.2 +/- 1.4 km s-1 with no evidence for a sharp rise near the center. This last result stands in contrast with that of Peterson, Seitzer, & Cudworth who found a central velocity dispersion of 25 +/- 7 km s-1, based on a line-broadening measurement. Our velocity dispersion profile is in good agreement with those determined in the recent studies of Gebhardt et al. and Dubath & Meylan. We have developed a new set of Fokker-Planck models and have fitted these to the surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles of M15. We also use the two measured millisecond pulsar accelerations as constraints. The best-fitting model has a mass function slope of x = 0.9 (where 1.35 is the slope of the Salpeter mass function) and a total mass of 4.9 × 105 M⊙. This model contains approximately 104 neutron stars (3% of the total mass), the majority of which lie within 6" (0.2 pc) of the cluster center. Since the

  13. Morphology and Physical Properties of Staphylococcus Bacteriophage P11-M15

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Dennis T.; Brown, Neal C.; Burlingham, Byron T.

    1972-01-01

    The Group B Staphylococcus phage P11-M15 is shown to be 51% protein and 49% deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The intact virion has a molecular weight of 66.7 × 106 daltons. The purified viral DNA has a molecular weight of 32.7 × 106 daltons. The intact virion is shown to be composed of a polyhedral head which is attached at one of its vertices to a flexible tail having helical symmetry. The tail structure is terminated by a complex baseplate which has sixfold symmetry. The virion contains a single molecule of double-stranded DNA which has no apparent single-strand nicks or single-stranded terminal redundancies. Images PMID:4112070

  14. Period Derivative of the M15 X-Ray Binary AC211/X2127+119

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, L.; Charles, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    We have combined Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations of X2127+119, the low-mass X-ray binary in the globular cluster M15, with archival X-ray lightcurves to study the stability of the 17.1 hr orbital period. We find that the data cannot be fit by the Ilovaisky ephemeris, and requires either a 7.sigma change to the period or a period derivative P prime/P approximately 9 x 10(exp -7)/yr. Given its remarkably low L(sub X)/L(sub opt) such a P prime lends support to models that require super-Eddington mass transfer in a q approximately 1 binary.

  15. Observations of RR Lyrae Stars in M15 With Small Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoltz, J. M.; West, M. L.

    2004-05-01

    Images of the globular cluster M15 were taken with a CCD using Meade 8 inch and 12 inch telescopes. Our intention was to reproduce the photographs by Duncan made at the 100 inch telescope in 1932 and published as a laboratory exercise by Gingerich in Sky and Telescope in 1967. Images were collected on eleven nights, but only three were clear enough for differential photometry. These were analyzed with AIP for Windows (Burnell) and yielded phased light curves which fit with Clement's values for period and epoch of maximum brightness for four of the six stars measured (Bailey's stars 4, 5, 8, 11, 14, 15). We plan to obtain more images of this cluster next winter and to investigate other clusters as well. We hope to improve our techniques for observing in cloudy and light polluted metropolitan New Jersey.

  16. Accurate position for the globular cluster X-ray source M15 - 211/X2127 + 119

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geffert, M.; Auriere, M.; Ilovaisky, S. A.; Terzan, A.

    1989-01-01

    Two new and improved determinations of the position of the globular cluster X-ray source X2127+119/M15:AC211 are presented. The positions were determined using long focus exposures on CCD frames and photographic and image tube plates. Stars from the SAO and AGK 3 catalogues were taken to derive positions of faint reference stars in the surroundings of the X-ray source. The uncertainty of the best position (in the AGK 3 system) is 0.20 arcsec in alpha and delta. The nominal separation of the optical position and the X-ray position is found to be 2 arcsec, but with an uncertainty of about 1.5 arcsec from the Einstein determination.

  17. Dark Matter Content in Three Galactic Globular Clusters - 47 Tuc, NGC 1851, and M 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joowon; Shin, Jihye; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2015-08-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) are known to have a very small amount of or no dark matter (DM). Even if GCs are formed in individual DM halos, they must have lost the majority of the DM through dynamical processes such as mass segregation and tidal shocks. NGC 2419 and NGC 6397 did not show any evidence of significant amounts of DM, however, similar studies for other galactic GCs would be needed to understand the GC formation. Using Fokker-Planck (FP) calculations, we investigate the dynamical evolution of the Galactic GCs initially residing in mini DM halos. We trace the amount of DM of 47 Tuc, NGC 1851, and M15, which are a ‘disk/bulge’ cluster, an ‘old halo’ cluster, and a ‘young halo’ cluster, respectively. We find that the three GCs must have initially had insignificant amounts of DM, less than 20 percent of the initial stellar mass of each cluster.

  18. Very Blue Stars and Mass Segregation in the Core of M15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Marchi, Guido; Paresce, Francesco

    1996-08-01

    The core of the globular cluster M15 (NGC 7078) has been observed with the COSTAR-corrected Faint Object Camera on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), through medium-band ultraviolet filters centered at 255 nm and 348 nm. A total of about 1200 stars are detected in a region of size 7" x 7" located just west of the cluster center, to form a color-magnitude diagram extending down to magnitude 21.5 at 346 nm, or about 2 mag below the turnoff level. The luminosity function in the core, corrected for a small amount of photometric incompleteness (˜15% at m346 ≃ 21), peaks at the turnoff and then drops continuously all the way to the detection limit at m346 ≃ 22. We interpret the observed turndown below the turnoff as due to mass segregation in the cluster core. A comparison with the luminosity function obtained at 4'.6 or ˜3rh from the center indicates rough numerical consistency with the predictions of two-body relaxation. The projected density profile of stars brighter than the turnoff, corrected for differential photometric incompleteness due to crowding, follows a power-law increase with decreasing radial distance from ˜7" to ˜1" from the center, but the presence of a small core of rc ≃ 1".8 cannot be excluded. It is, therefore, not possible to decide unequivocally whether M15 hosts a black hole in its core, or even if it is going through a dense collapse phase. Finally, the existence of a concentrated population of very blue stars, discovered with the aberrated HST, is confirmed. These objects appear bluer than the blue straggler sequence, with an average temperature of 25,000 K based on their photometry in the medium-band filters used here. Some hypotheses recently put forth to explain their nature are examined here and are found to be compatible with the observed properties, suggesting a dynamical origin for these stars.

  19. Rapid Emergence and Clonal Dissemination of CTX-M-15-Producing Salmonella enterica Serotype Virchow, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Seok; Yun, Young-Sun; Kim, Soo Jin; Jeon, Se-Eun; Lee, Deog-yong; Chung, Gyung Tae; Yoo, Cheon-Kwon; Kim, Junyoung

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Virchow has dramatically increased in South Korea since the first isolation in 2011. Of 68 isolates collected over 10 years, 28 cefotaxime-resistant isolates harbored the bla(CTX-M-15) extended-spectrum β-lactamase gene and were closely related genetically, demonstrating the clonal dissemination of CTX-M-15-producing Salmonella Virchow in South Korea. PMID:26674083

  20. The Swift UVOT Stars Survey. II. RR Lyrae Stars in M3 and M15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Michael H.; Porterfield, Blair L.; Balzer, Benjamin G.; Hagen, Lea M. Z.

    2015-10-01

    We present the first results of a near-ultraviolet (NUV) survey of RR Lyrae stars from the Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) on board the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Mission. It is well-established that RR Lyrae stars have large amplitudes in the far- and near-ultraviolet. We have used UVOT’s unique wide-field NUV imaging capability to perform the first systematic NUV survey of variable stars in the Galactic globular clusters M3 and M15. We identify 280 variable stars, comprised of 275 RR Lyrae, 2 anomalous Cepheids, 1 classical Cepheid, 1 SX Phoenicis star, and 1 possible long-period or irregular variable. Only two of these are new discoveries. We compare our results to previous investigations and find excellent agreement in the periods with significantly larger amplitudes in the NUV. We map out, for the first time, an NUV Bailey diagram from globular clusters, showing the usual loci for fundamental mode RRab and first overtone RRc pulsators. We show the unique sensitivity of NUV photometry to both the temperatures and the surface gravities of RR Lyrae stars. Finally, we show evidence of an NUV period-metallicity-luminosity relationship. Future investigations will further examine the dependence of NUV pulsation parameters on metallicity and Oosterhoff classification.

  1. Growth characteristics of primary M7C3 carbide in hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sha; Zhou, Yefei; Xing, Xiaolei; Wang, Jibo; Ren, Xuejun; Yang, Qingxiang

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure of the hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy is observed by optical microscopy (OM). The initial growth morphology, the crystallographic structure, the semi-molten morphology and the stacking faults of the primary M7C3 carbide are observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The in-suit growth process of the primary M7C3 carbide was observed by confocal laser microscope (CLM). It is found that the primary M7C3 carbide in hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy is irregular polygonal shape with several hollows in the center and gaps on the edge. Some primary M7C3 carbides are formed by layers of shell or/and consist of multiple parts. In the initial growth period, the primary M7C3 carbide forms protrusion parallel to {} crystal planes. The extending and revolving protrusion forms the carbide shell. The electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) maps show that the primary M7C3 carbide consists of multiple parts. The semi-molten M7C3 carbide contains unmelted shell and several small-scale carbides inside, which further proves that the primary M7C3 carbide is not an overall block. It is believed that the coalescence of the primary M7C3 carbides is ascribed to the growing condition of the protrusion and the gap filling process. PMID:27596718

  2. Growth characteristics of primary M7C3 carbide in hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sha; Zhou, Yefei; Xing, Xiaolei; Wang, Jibo; Ren, Xuejun; Yang, Qingxiang

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure of the hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy is observed by optical microscopy (OM). The initial growth morphology, the crystallographic structure, the semi-molten morphology and the stacking faults of the primary M7C3 carbide are observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The in-suit growth process of the primary M7C3 carbide was observed by confocal laser microscope (CLM). It is found that the primary M7C3 carbide in hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy is irregular polygonal shape with several hollows in the center and gaps on the edge. Some primary M7C3 carbides are formed by layers of shell or/and consist of multiple parts. In the initial growth period, the primary M7C3 carbide forms protrusion parallel to {} crystal planes. The extending and revolving protrusion forms the carbide shell. The electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) maps show that the primary M7C3 carbide consists of multiple parts. The semi-molten M7C3 carbide contains unmelted shell and several small-scale carbides inside, which further proves that the primary M7C3 carbide is not an overall block. It is believed that the coalescence of the primary M7C3 carbides is ascribed to the growing condition of the protrusion and the gap filling process. PMID:27596718

  3. The Discovery of a Second Luminous Low Mass X-ray Binary in the Globular Cluster M15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E.; Angelini, Lorella

    2001-01-01

    We report an observation by the Chandra X-ray Observatory of 4U2127+119, the X-ray source identified with the globular cluster M15. The Chandra observation reveals that 4U2127+119 is in fact two bright sources, separated by 2.7". One source is associated with AC21 1, the previously identified optical counterpart to 4U2127+119, a low mass X-ray binary (LMXB). The second source, M15-X2, is coincident with a 19th U magnitude blue star that is 3.3" from the cluster core. The Chandra count rate of M15-X2 is 2.5 times higher than that of AC211. Prior to the 0.5" imaging capability of Chandra the presence of two so closely separated bright sources would not have been resolved, The optical counterpart, X-ray luminosity and spectrum of M15-X2 are consistent with it also being an LMXB system. This is the first time that two LMXBS have been seen to be simultaneously active in a globular cluster. The discovery of a second active LMXB in M15 solves a long standing puzzle where the properties of AC211 appear consistent with it being dominated by an extended accretion disk corona, and yet 4U2127+119 also shows luminous X-ray bursts requiring that the neutron star be directly visible. The resolution of 4U2127+119 into two sources suggests that the X-ray bursts did not come from AC211, but rather from M15X2. We discuss the implications of this discovery for understanding the origin and evolution of LMXBs in GCs as well as X-ray observations of globular clusters in nearby galaxies.

  4. Epidemiology of extended spectrum beta-lactamase E. coli (CTX-M-15) on a commercial dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Watson, Eamon; Jeckel, Sonja; Snow, Lucy; Stubbs, Rebecca; Teale, Chris; Wearing, Heather; Horton, Robert; Toszeghy, Monique; Tearne, Oliver; Ellis-Iversen, Joey; Coldham, Nick

    2012-01-27

    The epidemiology of an extended spectrum beta-lactamase Escherichia coli (CTX-M-15) was observed and described on a commercial dairy farm located in the United Kingdom. During 2008 longitudinal sampling of faecal pat samples from different cattle groups comprising milking and non-milking cows, calving cows, calves, and the environment was carried out. The proportion of CTX-M-15 E. coli positive samples was significantly (p<0.0.01) higher in milking cows (30.3%, CI(95%) 26.8; 33.8) than in the herd as a whole (17.0%, CI(95%) 14.9; 19.0). In 2008 95.6% of sampled calves tested positive for CTX-M-15 E. coli at two days of age. A more detailed investigation in 2009 revealed that cows and heifers were approximately eight times more likely to test positive in the 10 days after calving than the 9 days before (OR 7.6, CI(95%) 2.32; 24.9). The CTX-M15 E. coli was also readily isolated from the immediate calving pen environment, including the water troughs. A cyclic pattern was apparent where cows immediately after calving and as high yielders were highly positive, but where the prevalence decreased during the dry period. The increased prevalence of the CTX-M-15 E. coli in certain cattle groups and farm environments including calving pens suggested that husbandry, antimicrobial usage and hygiene may play a significant role on a farm with regards to the epidemiology of CTX-M-15. This may offer a practical opportunity to reduce further dissemination through good practice and hygiene around calving. PMID:21840142

  5. The Discovery of a Second Luminous Low-Mass X-Ray Binary in the Globular Cluster M15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E.; Angelini, Lorella

    2001-01-01

    We report an observation by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory of 4U 2127+119, the X-ray source identified with the globular cluster M15. The Chandra observation reveals that 4U 2127+119 is in fact two bright sources, separated by 2.7 arcsec. One source is associated with AC 211, the previously identified optical counterpart to 4U 2127+119, a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB). The second source, M15 X-2, is coincident with a 19th U magnitude blue star that is 3.3 arcsec from the cluster core. The Chandra count rate of M15 X-2 is 2.5 times higher than that of AC 211. Prior to the 0.5 arcsec imaging capability of Chandra, the presence of two so closely separated bright sources would not have been resolved. The optical counterpart, X-ray luminosity, and spectrum of M15 X-2 are consistent with it also being an LMXB system. This is the first time that two LMXBs have been seen to be simultaneously active in a globular cluster. The discovery of a second active LMXB in M15 solves a long-standing puzzle where the properties of AC 211 appear consistent with it being dominated by an extended accretion disk corona, and yet 4U 2127+119 also shows luminous X-ray bursts requiring that the neutron star be directly visible. The resolution of 4U 2127+119 into two sources suggests that the X-ray bursts did not come from AC 211 but rather from M15 X-2. We discuss the implications of this discovery for understanding the origin and evolution of LMXBs in globular clusters as well as X-ray observations of globular clusters in nearby galaxies.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of KPC-3- and CTX-M-15-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 307

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Laura; Feudi, Claudia; Fortini, Daniela; Iacono, Michele; Bonura, Celestino; Endimiani, Andrea; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 307, carrying blaKPC-3, blaCTX-M-15, blaOXA-1, aac(6′)-Ib-cr, and qnrB1 genes, is replacing the predominant hyperepidemic ST258 clone in Italy. Whole-genome and complete plasmid sequencing of one ST307 strain was performed and new features were identified. PMID:27056222

  7. The Discovery of a Second Luminous Low Mass X-Ray Binary System in the Globular Cluster M15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E.; Angelini, Lorella

    2001-01-01

    Using the Chandra X-ray Observatory we have discovered a second bright X-ray source in the globular cluster M15 that is 2.7" to the west of AC211, the previously known low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) in this system. Prior to the 0.5" imaging capability of Chandra this second source could not have been resolved from AC211. The luminosity and spectrum of this new source, which we call M15-X2, are consistent with it also being a LMXB system. This is the first time that two LMXBs have been seen to be simultaneously active in a globular cluster. The new source, M15-X2, is coincident with a 18th U magnitude very blue star. The discovery of a second LMXB in M15 clears up a long standing puzzle where the X-ray and optical properties of AC211 appear consistent with the central source being hidden behind an accretion disk corona, and yet also showed a luminous X-ray burst suggesting the neutron star is directly visible. This discovery suggests instead that the X-ray burst did not come from AC211, but rather from the newly discovered X-ray source. We discuss the implications of this discovery for X-ray observations of globular clusters in nearby galaxies.

  8. An insight into the biophysical characterization of different states of cefotaxime hydrolyzing β-lactamase 15 (CTX-M-15).

    PubMed

    Rehman, Md Tabish; Faheem, Mohd; Khan, Asad U

    2015-01-01

    Cefotaxime hydrolyzing β-lactamase-15 (CTX-M-15) is encoded by blaCTX-M-15 gene present on plasmid of various Gram-negative bacteria, such as E. coli, E. cloacae, K. pneumoniae, etc. The widespread dissemination of CTX-M-15 harboring bacteria in hospital as well as community settings is a universal threat as they are resistant to various clinically significant antibiotics. In order to gain an insight into the folding mechanism of CTX-M-15, we carried out pH-induced denaturation study by monitoring Trp fluorescence, far-UV circular dichroism (CD), and ANS fluorescence. We found that the pH-induced denaturation of CTX-M-15 was a three-step process with the accumulation of two stable folding intermediates (XI at pH 2.5 and XII at pH 1.5) in the folding pathway. The intermediates were further characterized by far-UV and near-UV CD analysis, Trp fluorescence, ANS fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, acrylamide quenching, dynamic light scattering, and thermal denaturation studies. We found that XI state lacked tertiary structure but retained most of the secondary structure, its Trp residues were partially exposed to the solvent and its hydrophobic patches were highly accessible to ANS. On the other hand, a complete disruption of tertiary structure along with more than 50% loss in secondary structure was observed in XII state. We conclude that the XI state of CTX-M-15 at pH 2.5 had all the characteristics of a molten globule (MG) state, while its XII state at pH 1.5 was more similar to pre-molten globule (PMG) state. ANS fluorescence also showed that the binding of ANS in XII state was lower than that in the XI state. We propose that the accumulation of MG- and PMG-states was due to separation (at pH 2.5) and then unfolding (at pH 1.5) of the αβα-fold of CTX-M-15, respectively. PMID:24650131

  9. 20. Public Works Department Drawing 461M7 (1943), 'Sulphuric Acid Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Public Works Department Drawing 461-M-7 (1943), 'Sulphuric Acid Storage System-Building 463 Details' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. Characterization of Salmonella Isangi possessing a CTX-M15 ESBL associated with an outbreak in a US Hospital.

    PubMed

    Suleyman, Geehan; Perri, Mary; Vager, Dora; Samuel, Linoj; Zervos, Marcos J; Alangaden, George; Tibbetts, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Over an approximately 50-day period in 2015, an outbreak of CTX-M-15 extended spectrum β-lactamase-(ESBL)-possessing Salmonella Isangi occurred among 19 adult surgical patients and one healthcare worker (HCW) at a large urban tertiary care hospital in the United States. A total of 45 S. Isangi isolates were isolated from stool (35), blood (4), urine (3), respiratory (2), and wound (1) cultures. Phenotypically, all but three isolates demonstrated resistance to ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, ceftriaxone, and cefepime, and one isolate was resistant to ertapenem. Genotypically, a single CTX-M-15 ESBL was identified in all but three isolates by real-time PCR. Interestingly, two of the CTX-M-15 negative, susceptible isolates were isolated from a single patient who initially had a CTX-M positive, resistant strain. Isolates were clonally related, including both resistant and susceptible strains, as confirmed by pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). This is the first case of a novel Salmonella outbreak at this hospital, and we believe it to be the first case of an S. Isangi serotype outbreak in the United States. PMID:27130476

  11. Low intestinal colonization of Escherichia coli clone ST131 producing CTX-M-15 in Jordanian infants.

    PubMed

    Badran, E F; Din, R A Qamer; Shehabi, A A

    2016-02-01

    Over a period of 3 years' study (2012-2014), a total of 518 faecal samples were collected and cultured to isolate Escherichia coli. Of these, 338 (65.3 %) E. coli isolates were recovered from infants, and 142/338 (42 %) were multidrug-resistant (MDR) to ≥ 3 drug classes using the antimicrobial susceptibility disc diffusion method. A total of 125/142 (88 %) of E. coli isolates were extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers. blaCTX-M-15 types were observed in 80/125 (64 %) of the isolates, and 60/80 (75 %) were positive for blaCTX-M-15. Out of 338 E. coli isolates, 9 (2.6 %) were positive for ST131/O25b clone and each isolate was associated with several plasmids of different sizes (1-21.2 kb). The identities of these nine isolates were confirmed by sequencing for presence of pabB (347 bp) and trpA (427 bp) genes. This study demonstrates low prevalence rate of the highly virulent E. coli ST131 clone producing blaCTX-M-15 in the intestines of Jordanian infants. PMID:26690259

  12. Positive selection on mitochondrial M7 lineages among the Gelong people in Hainan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kun; Zheng, Hongxiang; Qin, Zhendong; Lu, Yan; Farina, Sara E; Li, Shilin; Jin, Li; Li, Dongna; Li, Hui

    2011-03-01

    Selections on human mitochondrial variations are difficult to examine. In this study, we found possible signs of selection on mitochondrial M7 lineages among the Gelong people who migrated from Guizhou to Hainan (the hottest province in China) throughout the last 1000 years. The genetic structure of the Gelong people shows an obvious sex-biased population admixture pattern with only 4.9% paternal contribution but 30.7% maternal contribution from indigenous Hlai people. According to frequency spectrum tests for deviation from neutrality and mismatch tests of demographic expansion, part of the maternal mitochondrial M7 lineages among the Gelong came from the Hlai had spread quickly and therefore might have undergone positive selection. In the future, whole mitochondrial genome sequencing might reveal the functional advantage of the M7 lineages. PMID:21179103

  13. 78 FR 22269 - International Conference on Harmonisation; Draft Guidance on M7 Assessment and Control of DNA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... M7 Assessment and Control of DNA Reactive (Mutagenic) Impurities in Pharmaceuticals To Limit... ``M7 Assessment and Control of DNA Reactive (Mutagenic) Impurities in Pharmaceuticals to Limit... and Control of DNA Reactive (Mutagenic) Impurities in Pharmaceuticals to Limit Potential...

  14. Systematic monitoring and evaluation of M7 scanner performance and data quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, S.; Christenson, D.; Larsen, L.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to provide the information required to maintain data quality of the Michigan M7 Multispectral scanner by systematic checks on specific system performance characteristics. Data processing techniques which use calibration data gathered routinely every mission have been developed to assess current data quality. Significant changes from past data quality are thus identified and attempts made to discover their causes. Procedures for systematic monitoring of scanner data quality are discussed. In the solar reflective region, calculations of Noise Equivalent Change in Radiance on a permission basis are compared to theoretical tape-recorder limits to provide an estimate of overall scanner performance. M7 signal/noise characteristics are examined.

  15. ULTRAVIOLET-BRIGHT STELLAR POPULATIONS AND THEIR EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATIONS IN THE COLLAPSED-CORE CLUSTER M15

    SciTech Connect

    Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Lubell, Gabriel M. G.; Cohn, Haldan N.; Lugger, Phyllis M.; Anderson, Jay; Cool, Adrienne M.; Serenelli, Aldo M. E-mail: glubell@astro.indiana.ed E-mail: lugger@astro.indiana.ed E-mail: cool@stars.sfsu.ed

    2010-10-10

    We performed deep photometry of the central region of the Galactic globular cluster M15 from archival Hubble Space Telescope data taken on the High Resolution Channel and Solar Blind Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys. Our data set consists of images in far-UV (FUV{sub 140}; F140LP), near-UV (NUV{sub 220}; F220W), and blue (B{sub 435}; F435W) filters. The addition of an optical filter complements previous UV work on M15 by providing an additional constraint on the UV-bright stellar populations. Using color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), we identified several populations that arise from non-canonical evolution including candidate blue stragglers, extreme horizontal branch (HB) stars, blue hook (BHk) stars, cataclysmic variables (CVs), and helium-core white dwarfs (He WDs). Due to preliminary identification of several He WD and BHk candidates, we add M15 as a cluster containing an He WD sequence and suggest it be included among clusters with a BHk population. We also investigated a subset of CV candidates that appear in the gap between the main sequence (MS) and WDs in FUV{sub 140}-NUV{sub 220} but lie securely on the MS in NUV{sub 220}-B{sub 435}. These stars may represent a magnetic CV or detached WD-MS binary population. Additionally, we analyze our candidate He WDs using model cooling sequences to estimate their masses and ages and investigate the plausibility of thin versus thick hydrogen envelopes. Finally, we identify a class of UV-bright stars that lie between the HB and WD cooling sequences, a location not usually populated on cluster CMDs. We conclude these stars may be young, low-mass He WDs.

  16. The Absolute Age of the Globular Cluster M15 Using Near-infrared Adaptive Optics Images from PISCES/LBT.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monelli, M.; Testa, V.; Bono, G.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Fiorentino, G.; Arcidiacono, C.; Massari, D.; Boutsia, K.; Briguglio, R.; Busoni, L.; Carini, R.; Close, L.; Cresci, G.; Esposito, S.; Fini, L.; Fumana, M.; Guerra, J. C.; Hill, J.; Kulesa, C.; Mannucci, F.; McCarthy, D.; Pinna, E.; Puglisi, A.; Quiros-Pacheco, F.; Ragazzoni, R.; Riccardi, A.; Skemer, A.; Xompero, M.

    2015-10-01

    We present deep near-infrared J, {K}{{s}} photometry of the old, metal-poor Galactic globular cluster M15 obtained with images collected with the LUCI1 and PISCES cameras available at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). We show how the use of First Light Adaptive Optics (FLAO) system coupled with the PISCES camera allows us to improve the limiting magnitude by ˜2 mag in {K}{{s}}. By analyzing archival Hubble Space Telescope data, we demonstrate that the quality of the LBT/PISCES color-magnitude diagram is fully comparable with analogous space-based data. The smaller field of view is balanced by the shorter exposure time required to reach a similar photometric limit. We investigated the absolute age of M15 by means of two methods: (i) by determining the age from the position of the main-sequence turnoff (MSTO), and (ii) by the magnitude difference between the MSTO and the well-defined knee detected along the faint portion of the MS. We derive consistent values of the absolute age of M15, that is, 12.9 ± 2.6 Gyr and 13.3 ± 1.1 Gyr, respectively. Observations were carried out using the Large Binocular Telescope at Mount Graham, AZ. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are the University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; the Ohio State University; and the Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia.

  17. CTX-M-15-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Escherichia coli from wild birds in Germany.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Sebastian; Grobbel, Mirjam; Beutlich, Janine; Bethe, Astrid; Friedrich, Nicole D; Goedecke, Andreas; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Guerra, Beatriz; Wieler, Lothar H; Ewers, Christa

    2010-10-01

    The isolation of Escherichia coli from wild birds in Germany revealed the occurrence of four CTX-M-15-producing strains from four different birds (2.3% of 172 isolates). CTX-M producers were recovered from two Eurasian Blackbirds, one Rock Pigeon and a Greater White-fronted Goose. All CTX-M-producing E. coli revealed a clonal relationship as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and were assigned to multilocus sequence type (ST) 648. Our findings suggest the emergence of a new clone with epidemiological importance and strengthen the role of wild bird species other than waterfowl as possible reservoirs of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:23766249

  18. CATS-ISS_L1B_D-M7.2-V2-05

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-03

    CATS-ISS_L1B_D-M7.2-V2-05 The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength, polarization-sensitive lidar that provides ... in the Earth's atmosphere. Project Title:  CATS Discipline:  Clouds Aerosols Version:  ...

  19. CATS-ISS_L1B_D-M7.2-V2-06

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-04-27

    CATS-ISS_L1B_D-M7.2-V2-06 The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength, polarization-sensitive lidar that provides ... in the Earth's atmosphere. Project Title:  CATS Discipline:  Clouds Aerosols Version:  ...

  20. CATS-ISS_L1B_N-M7.1-V2-04

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-04-27

    CATS-ISS_L1B_N-M7.1-V2-04 The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength, polarization-sensitive lidar that provides ... in the Earth's atmosphere. Project Title:  CATS Discipline:  Clouds Aerosols Version:  ...

  1. CATS-ISS_L1B_N-M7.2-V2-05

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-04-27

    CATS-ISS_L1B_N-M7.2-V2-05 The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength, polarization-sensitive lidar that provides ... in the Earth's atmosphere. Project Title:  CATS Discipline:  Clouds Aerosols Version:  ...

  2. CATS-ISS_L1B_D-M7.2-V2-07

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-22

    CATS-ISS_L1B_D-M7.2-V2-07 The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength, polarization-sensitive lidar that provides ... in the Earth's atmosphere. Project Title:  CATS Discipline:  Clouds Aerosols Version:  ...

  3. CATS-ISS_L1B_N-M7.2-V2-07

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-22

    CATS-ISS_L1B_N-M7.2-V2-07 The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength, polarization-sensitive lidar that provides ... in the Earth's atmosphere. Project Title:  CATS Discipline:  Clouds Aerosols Version:  ...

  4. Globular cluster photometry with the Hubble Space Telescope. 2: U, V, and I measurements of M15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanny, Brian; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Bahcall, John N.; Schneider, Donald P.

    1994-01-01

    The projected density distribution of resolved stars near the center of M15 is shown to be consistent with either a power-law cusp N(r) approximately r(exp alpha), with alpha approximately -0.85 +/- 0.2, or with a King model with a core of radius approximately less than 2 sec. The inferred slope is in agreement with the theoretical value, alpha = -0.75, calculated by Bahcall and Wolf for the distribution of equal-mass stars surrounding a massive black hole and is also consistent with the radial profile expected from core collapse without a central black hole. The object AC 214 is a candidate for the central density cusp. Analysis of Monte Carlo simulations of the diffuse light indicates that, using current analysis techniques and available data, the residual light is not a reliable indicator of the true density distribution. This is contrary to earlier work. Photometric measurements in V and I of more than 5 x 10(exp 3) stars (and in U, V, and I of approximately greater than 1500 stars) are used to construct color-magnitude diagrams in the central 1 min of M15. Fourteen blue straggler candidates are identified in the inner 20 sec. The central color gradient noticed by previous researchers is caused by a central depletion of bright red giant stars rather than an excess of blue stragglers or blue horizontal branch stars.

  5. Dissemination of multiresistant Enterobacter cloacae isolates producing OXA-48 and CTX-M-15 in a Spanish hospital.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Javier; Montero, Ignacio; Martínez, Óscar; Fleites, Ana; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice; Rodicio, M Rosario

    2015-10-01

    Twenty-one multiresistant Enterobacter cloacae isolates producing OXA-48 (n=10), CTX-M-15 (n=7) or both (n=4) β-lactamases were detected in a Spanish hospital during a 1-year period (June 2013 to June 2014). The isolates were also resistant to non-β-lactam antimicrobials, further complicating the therapeutic options. Genotyping of the isolates identified two major clones (ST74 and ST66) that caused prolonged outbreaks in different buildings of the hospital as well as some sporadic isolates (ST78, ST45 and ST295). Isolates belonging to clone 1 (n=7) were carbapenem-resistant and carried the bla(OXA-48) gene on a conjugative IncL/M plasmid of ca. 65 kb. Clone 2 isolates (n=11) were resistant to cefepime and harboured the bla(CTX-M-15) gene on an ca. 150-kb, non-conjugative plasmid of the IncF group, co-harbouring the qnrB and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes encoding quinolone resistance. Four clone 2 isolates were also resistant to carbapenems owing to the co-production of OXA-48. Most of the isolates were recovered from critically ill patients and were admitted to intensive care units; a single patient was transferred from another Spanish hospital. Intrahospital and interhospital dissemination of multiresistant E. cloacae isolates is of major clinical concern as it could lead to endemic nosocomial situations. PMID:26307466

  6. First Characterization of CTX-M-15-Producing Escherichia coli ST131 and ST405 Clones Causing Community-Onset Infections in South America▿

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Sory J.; Montealegre, Maria Camila; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Correa, Adriana; Briceño, David F.; Martinez, Ernesto; Rosso, Fernando; Muñoz, Martin; Quinn, John P.; Cantón, Rafael; Villegas, Maria Virginia

    2011-01-01

    CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli has emerged worldwide as an important pathogen associated with community-onset infections, but in South America reports are scarce. We document the presence of CTX-M-15-producing E. coli of the international ST131 and ST405 clones in Colombia and present the first molecular characterization of these isolates in South America. PMID:21325548

  7. Chromosomal Integration of the Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Gene blaCTX-M-15 in Salmonella enterica Serotype Concord Isolates from Internationally Adopted Children▿

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Laëtitia; Delauné, Aurélia; Espié, Emmanuelle; Nygard, Karin; Pardos, Maria; Polomack, Lucette; Guesnier, Françoise; Galimand, Marc; Lassen, Jørgen; Weill, François-Xavier

    2009-01-01

    We report the emergence of Salmonella enterica isolates of serotype Concord (and its monophasic variant 6,7:l,v:-) producing the extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) SHV-12 and CTX-M-15 in France and Norway between 2001 and 2006 (43 in France and 26 in Norway). The majority of these isolates were from adopted children from Ethiopia, most of whom were healthy carriers. Several symptomatic secondary cases were found in the adoptive families and health care facilities in France. Serotype Concord isolates collected before 2003 produced SHV-12 encoded on a 340-kb conjugative plasmid of replicon IncI1. Isolates collected after 2003 produced CTX-M-15. We detected two conjugative plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-15. One plasmid, approximately 300 kb in size, was positive for the IncHI2 replicon and the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance gene qnrA1. The other plasmid, from one of the earliest CTX-M-15-producing isolates collected, was a fusion plasmid with IncY and IncA/C2 replicons and was 200 kb in size. However, we showed, using Southern hybridization of I-CeuI-digested chromosomal DNA and S1 nuclease analysis of plasmid DNA, that most isolates had a blaCTX-M-15 gene located on chromosomal DNA. Analysis of the flanking regions of the chromosomally located blaCTX-M-15 gene by cloning revealed an ISEcp1 truncated by an intact IS26 upstream from the blaCTX-M-15 gene and a truncated orf477 gene downstream from blaCTX-M-15. We found regions beyond the IS26 and the orf477 genes that were derived from IncA/C2 plasmids, suggesting the chromosomal integration of part of the blaCTX-M-15-carrying IncY and IncA/C2 fusion plasmid from early CTX-M-15-producing isolates. PMID:19273688

  8. Outflow from the outer Lagrangian point - Observations and models of 4U 2127 + 12 in M15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailyn, Charles D.; Garcia, Michael R.; Grindlay, Jonathan

    1989-01-01

    MMT observations of AC 211, the optical counterpart of the high-luminosity X-ray source in globular cluster M15, are presented. The observation of Naylor et al. (1988) that the He I absorption is blueshifted by more than 100 km/s with respect to the mean velocity of the cluster is confirmed. It is shown that if the absorption occurs in a stream of gas outflowing from the L2 point of a binary system, as might be expected for a common envelope binary, both the blueshift and the unexpectedly low velocity variations of the He I lines can be understood. The model predicts that the He I velocity curve is not sinusoidal.

  9. Identification and characterization of CTX-M-15 producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clone ST101 in a Hungarian university teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Melegh, Szilvia; Schneider, György; Horváth, Marianna; Jakab, Ferenc; Emődy, Levente; Tigyi, Zoltán

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the molecular epidemiology of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates derived from the teaching hospitals of University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary in the time period 2004-2008. Molecular typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of common β-lactamase genes (bla(CTX-M), bla(TEM) and bla(SHV)) and virulence associated traits (hypermucoviscosity, magA, k2a, rmpA, siderophores, type 1 and 3 fimbria, biofilm formation, serum resistance) were performed for 102 isolates. The results showed the presence of three major ciprofloxacin resistant CTX-M-15 producing clones (ST15 n = 69, ST101 n = 10, and ST147 n = 9), of which ST15 was predominant and universally widespread. Considering distribution in time and place, ST101 and ST147 were detected at fewer inpatient units and within a narrower time frame, as compared to ST15. Beside major clones, eleven minor clones were identified, and were shown to harbour the following β-lactamase genes: six clones carried bla(CTX-M), four clones harboured bla(SHV-5) and one clone possessed both bla(CTX-M) and ESBL type bla(SHV). Among the SHV-5 producing K. pneumoniae clones a novel sequence type was found, namely ST1193, which harboured a unique infB allele. Different virulence factor content and peculiar antimicrobial susceptibility profile were characteristic for each clone. In contrast to major clone isolates, which showed high level resistance to ciprofloxacin, minor clone isolates displayed significantly lower MIC values for ciprofloxacin suggesting a role for fluoroquinolones in the dissemination of the major K. pneumoniae clones. This is the first description of the CTX-M-15 producing K. pneumoniae clone ST101 in Hungary. PMID:26551567

  10. BeppoSAX spectroscopy of the NGC 7078 (M 15) globular cluster X-ray source X 2127+119

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidoli, L.; Parmar, A. N.; Oosterbroek, T.

    2000-08-01

    Results of a 1999 November 16-17 BeppoSAX observation of the low-mass X-ray binary X 2127+119 located in the globular cluster M15 are presented. The system is believed to be one where the central neutron star is normally obscured by the accretion disk, and only X-rays scattered into our line of sight by an extended accretion disk corona (ADC) are observed. The 0.1- 10 keV lightcurve is energy dependent and shows two partial eclipses separated by the 17.1 hr orbital period. The 0.1-100 keV spectrum is unusually complex, but can be successfully modeled using a partially covered power-law and disk-blackbody model. Together with a column consistent with the interstellar value to M15, ~60% of the source is covered by an additional column of ~1022 atom cm-2. The absorbed component may be X-rays that pass through the outer layers of the accretion disk. The energy dependent intensity variations by a factor of ~2 may be modeled as due to a changing normalization of the disk-blackbody. None of the other spectral parameters appear to clearly depend on luminosity. The same spectral model is also able to fit an archival ASCA spectrum. We demonstrate that during the luminous (~ Eddington) X-ray burst observed from X 2127+119 by Ginga, material located in the outer regions of the accretion disk could have been temporarily ionized, so allowing the central neutron star to be viewed directly.

  11. Detection of chromosomal blaCTX-M-15 in Escherichia coli O25b-B2-ST131 isolates from the Kinki region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Itaru; Fukui, Naoki; Taguchi, Masumi; Yamauchi, Kou; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Okano, Sho; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2013-12-01

    Escherichia coli O25b-B2-ST131 isolates harbouring bla(CTX-M-15) are distributed worldwide. The bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit has often been found on plasmids and the genetic contexts have been examined; however, less is known about the frequency and contexts of the bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit on the chromosome. This study was performed to determine the chromosomal location of the bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit and to analyse the molecular structure of the region surrounding the bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit in E. coli O25b-B2-ST131 isolates. Twenty-two E. coli O25b-B2-ST131 strains harbouring bla(CTX-M-15) that had been isolated from university hospital patients and nursing home residents in the Kinki region of Japan were examined. Inverse PCR (iPCR) targeting bla(CTX-M-15) was performed to classify the molecular structure of the region surrounding the bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit. The isolates were classified into nine types (types A-I) considering the iPCR results; type A was the most prevalent type (13/22 isolates). Sequences of the iPCR-amplified DNA fragments showed that the bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit consisted of ISEcp1, bla(CTX-M-15) and orf477Δ. A homology search of the obtained sequences showed that the bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit was inserted into different chromosomal regions in eight of the nine classified types. Although 21 of the 22 E. coli isolates possessed chromosomally located bla(CTX-M-15) transposition units, clonal spread was not evident on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. Taken together, these data indicate that certain E. coli O25b-B2-ST131 strains harbouring chromosomal bla(CTX-M-15) have emerged and spread in the Kinki region of Japan. PMID:24091130

  12. A Plasmid Bearing the bla(CTX-M-15) Gene and Phage P1-Like Sequences from a Sequence Type 11 Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate.

    PubMed

    Shin, Juyoun; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2015-10-01

    Plasmid pKP12226 was extracted and analyzed from a CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 11 (ST11) isolate collected in South Korea. The plasmid represents chimeric characteristics consisting of a pIP1206-like backbone and lysogenized phage P1-like sequences. It bears a resistance region that includes resistance genes to several antibiotics and is different from previously characterized plasmids from South Korea bearing blaCTX-M-15. It may have resulted from recombination between an Escherichia coli plasmid backbone, a blaCTX-M-15-bearing resistance region, and lysogenized phage P1-like sequences. PMID:26195513

  13. Tropospheric aerosol size distributions simulated by three online global aerosol models using the M7 microphysics module

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Kai; Wan, Hui; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Meigen; Feichter, J.; Liu, Xiaohong

    2010-07-14

    Tropospheric aerosol size distributions are simulated by three online global models that employ exactly the same modal approach but differ in many aspects such as model meteorology, natural aerosol emissions, sulfur chemistry, and the parameterization of deposition processes. The main purpose of this study is to identify where the largest inter-model discrepancies occur and what the main reasons are. The number concentrations of different aerosol size ranges are compared among the three models and against observations. Overall all the three models can capture the basic features of the observed aerosol number spatial distributions. The magnitude of the number concentration of each mode is consistent among the three models. Quantitative differences are also clearly detectable. For the soluble and insoluble coarse mode and accumulation mode, inter-model discrepancies mainly result from differences in the sea salt and dust emissions, as well as the different strengths of the convective transport in the meteorological models. For the nucleation mode and the soluble Aitken mode, the spread of the model results is largest in the tropics and in the middle and upper troposphere. Diagnostics and sensitivity experiments suggest that this large spread is closely related to the sulfur cycle in the models, which is strongly affected by the choice of sulfur chemistry scheme, its coupling with the convective transport and wet deposition calculation, and the related meteorological fields such as cloud cover, cloud water content, and precipitation. The aerosol size distributions simulated by the three models are compared to observations in the boundary layer. The characteristic shape and magnitude of the distribution functions are reasonably reproduced in typical conditions (i.e., clean, polluted and transition areas). Biases in the mode parameters over the remote oceans and the China adjacent seas are probably caused by the fixed mode variance in the mathematical formulations used in the modal approach in the three models, as well as some of the prescribed size distribution parameters of the natural and anthropogenic emissions.

  14. Tropospheric aerosol size distributions simulated by three online global aerosol models using the M7 microphysics module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Wan, H.; Wang, B.; Zhang, M.; Feichter, J.; Liu, X.

    2010-03-01

    Tropospheric aerosol size distributions are simulated by three online global models that employ exactly the same modal approach but differ in many aspects such as model meteorology, natural aerosol emissions, sulfur chemistry, and the parameterization of deposition processes. The main purpose of this study is to identify where the largest inter-model discrepancies occur and what the main reasons are. The number concentrations of different aerosol size ranges are compared among the three models and against observations. Overall all the three models can capture the basic features of the observed aerosol number spatial distributions. The magnitude of the number concentration of each mode is consistent among the three models. Quantitative differences are also clearly detectable. For the soluble and insoluble coarse mode and accumulation mode, inter-model discrepancies mainly result from differences in the sea salt and dust emissions, as well as the different strengths of the convective transport in the meteorological models. For the nucleation mode and the soluble Aitken mode, the spread of the model results is largest in the tropics and in the middle and upper troposphere. Diagnostics and sensitivity experiments suggest that this large spread is closely related to the sulfur cycle in the models, which is strongly affected by the choice of sulfur chemistry scheme, its coupling with the convective transport and wet deposition calculation, and the related meteorological fields such as cloud cover, cloud water content, and precipitation. The aerosol size distributions simulated by the three models are compared to observations in the boundary layer. The characteristic shape and magnitude of the distribution functions are reasonably reproduced in typical conditions (i.e., clean, polluted and transition areas). Biases in the mode parameters over the remote oceans and the China adjacent seas are probably caused by the fixed mode variance in the mathematical formulations used in the modal approach in the three models, as well as some of the prescribed size distribution parameters of the natural and anthropogenic emissions.

  15. Characterization of a CTX-M-15 Producing Klebsiella Pneumoniae Outbreak Strain Assigned to a Novel Sequence Type (1427)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kai; Lokate, Mariëtte; Deurenberg, Ruud H.; Arends, Jan; Lo-Ten Foe, Jerome; Grundmann, Hajo; Rossen, John W. A.; Friedrich, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Extended-spectrum -lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae have emerged as one of the major nosocomial pathogens. Between July and September 2012, a CTX-M-15 producing K. pneumoniae caused an outbreak in a university hospital in the Netherlands. The outbreak isolates were characterized and assigned to a novel sequence type (ST1427). An epidemiological link between affected patients was supported by patient contact tracing and whole-genome phylogenetic analysis. Intra-strain polymorphism was detected among multiple isolates obtained from different body sites of the index patient, which may relate to antibiotic treatment and/or host adaptation. Environmental contamination caused by the outbreak clone was found in the patient rooms even on medical equipment. The novel clone was not closely related to any known endemic/epidemic clone, but carried a set of a plasmid-borne resistance genes [blaCTX−M−15, blaTEM−1, blaOXA−1, aac(6′)-Ib-cr, qnrB1, tetA(A), aac(3)-II]. Analysis of its virulence factors revealed a previously uncharacterized capsular biosynthesis region and two uncharacterized fimbriae gene clusters, and suggested that the new clone was not hypervirulent. To our knowledge, this is the first outbreak report of K. pneumoniae ST1427, and our study could be of help to understand the features of this newly emerging clone. PMID:26617589

  16. Earthquake nucleation by transient deformations caused by the M = 7.9 Denali, Alaska, earthquake.

    PubMed

    Gomberg, J; Bodin, P; Larson, K; Dragert, H

    2004-02-12

    The permanent and dynamic (transient) stress changes inferred to trigger earthquakes are usually orders of magnitude smaller than the stresses relaxed by the earthquakes themselves, implying that triggering occurs on critically stressed faults. Triggered seismicity rate increases may therefore be most likely to occur in areas where loading rates are highest and elevated pore pressures, perhaps facilitated by high-temperature fluids, reduce frictional stresses and promote failure. Here we show that the 2002 magnitude M = 7.9 Denali, Alaska, earthquake triggered widespread seismicity rate increases throughout British Columbia and into the western United States. Dynamic triggering by seismic waves should be enhanced in directions where rupture directivity focuses radiated energy, and we verify this using seismic and new high-sample GPS recordings of the Denali mainshock. These observations are comparable in scale only to the triggering caused by the 1992 M = 7.4 Landers, California, earthquake, and demonstrate that Landers triggering did not reflect some peculiarity of the region or the earthquake. However, the rate increases triggered by the Denali earthquake occurred in areas not obviously tectonically active, implying that even in areas of low ambient stressing rates, faults may still be critically stressed and that dynamic triggering may be ubiquitous and unpredictable. PMID:14961117

  17. Discovery of m7G-cap in eukaryotic mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    FURUICHI, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Terminal structure analysis of an insect cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV) genome RNA in the early 1970s at the National Institute of Genetics in Japan yielded a 2′-O-methylated nucleotide in the 5′ end of double-stranded RNA genome. This finding prompted me to add S-adenosyl-L-methionine, a natural methylation donor, to the in vitro transcription reaction of viruses that contain RNA polymerase. This effort resulted in unprecedented mRNA synthesis that generates a unique blocked and methylated 5′ terminal structure (referred later to as “cap” or “m7G-cap”) in the transcription of silkworm CPV and human reovirus and vaccinia viruses that contain RNA polymerase in virus particles. Initial studies with viruses paved the way to discover the 5′-cap m7GpppNm structure present generally in cellular mRNAs of eukaryotes. I participated in those studies and was able to explain the pathway of cap synthesis and the significance of the 5′ cap (and capping) in gene expression processes, including transcription and protein synthesis. In this review article I concentrate on the description of these initial studies that eventually led us to a new paradigm of mRNA capping. PMID:26460318

  18. Principles and procedures for implementation of ICH M7 recommended (Q)SAR analyses.

    PubMed

    Amberg, Alexander; Beilke, Lisa; Bercu, Joel; Bower, Dave; Brigo, Alessandro; Cross, Kevin P; Custer, Laura; Dobo, Krista; Dowdy, Eric; Ford, Kevin A; Glowienke, Susanne; Van Gompel, Jacky; Harvey, James; Hasselgren, Catrin; Honma, Masamitsu; Jolly, Robert; Kemper, Raymond; Kenyon, Michelle; Kruhlak, Naomi; Leavitt, Penny; Miller, Scott; Muster, Wolfgang; Nicolette, John; Plaper, Andreja; Powley, Mark; Quigley, Donald P; Reddy, M Vijayaraj; Spirkl, Hans-Peter; Stavitskaya, Lidiya; Teasdale, Andrew; Weiner, Sandy; Welch, Dennie S; White, Angela; Wichard, Joerg; Myatt, Glenn J

    2016-06-01

    The ICH M7 guideline describes a consistent approach to identify, categorize, and control DNA reactive, mutagenic, impurities in pharmaceutical products to limit the potential carcinogenic risk related to such impurities. This paper outlines a series of principles and procedures to consider when generating (Q)SAR assessments aligned with the ICH M7 guideline to be included in a regulatory submission. In the absence of adequate experimental data, the results from two complementary (Q)SAR methodologies may be combined to support an initial hazard classification. This may be followed by an assessment of additional information that serves as the basis for an expert review to support or refute the predictions. This paper elucidates scenarios where additional expert knowledge may be beneficial, what such an expert review may contain, and how the results and accompanying considerations may be documented. Furthermore, the use of these principles and procedures to yield a consistent and robust (Q)SAR-based argument to support impurity qualification for regulatory purposes is described in this manuscript. PMID:26877192

  19. Earthquake nucleation by transient deformations caused by the M = 7.9 Denali, Alaska, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Bodin, P.; Larson, K.; Dragert, H.

    2004-01-01

    The permanent and dynamic (transient) stress changes inferred to trigger earthquakes are usually orders of magnitude smaller than the stresses relaxed by the earthquakes themselves, implying that triggering occurs on critically stressed faults. Triggered seismicity rate increases may therefore be most likely to occur in areas where loading rates are highest and elevated pore pressures, perhaps facilitated by high-temperature fluids, reduce frictional stresses and promote failure. Here we show that the 2002 magnitude M = 7.9 Denali, Alaska, earthquake triggered wide-spread seismicity rate increases throughout British Columbia and into the western United States. Dynamic triggering by seismic waves should be enhanced in directions where rupture directivity focuses radiated energy, and we verify this using seismic and new high-sample GPS recordings of the Denali mainshock. These observations are comparable in scale only to the triggering caused by the 1992 M = 7.4 Landers, California, earthquake, and demonstrate that Landers triggering did not reflect some peculiarity of the region or the earthquake. However, the rate increases triggered by the Denali earthquake occurred in areas not obviously tectonically active, implying that even in areas of low ambient stressing rates, faults may still be critically stressed and that dynamic triggering may be ubiquitous and unpredictable.

  20. The 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake - Result of Local and Abnormal Mass Imbalances?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, C. D.

    2008-12-01

    The May 12, 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake occurred along the Longmen Shan margin of the eastern Tibetan plateau in the Sichuan province of the People's Republic of China. A complex and NNW dipping reverse fault system including the Beichuan fault ruptured 250-300 km parallel to the Longmen Shan thrust belt. This region has been tectonically loaded for >10kyr. It has low deformation rates of less than 1.0±1.0 mm yr-1 resulting in no major seismic activity during the Quaternary period. Several geophysical observations suggest that this M7.9 earthquake was triggered by local and abnormal mass imbalances on the surface of the Earth's crust. These observations include (1) elastostatic response of the crust to the mass changes (2) slip distribution of the main rupture, and (3) aftershock distribution. Initially, approximately 2 years prior the nucleation of the mainshock, at least 320 million tonnes of water accumulated within the upper Min river valley. It enters the Chengdu plain of the Sichuan basin, a stable continental region (SCR). The water volume amplified the strain energy on the Earth's crust. Shear stresses increased by >1kPa on the Beichuan fault at the nucleation point in about 20km depth. Normal stresses decreased by <-4kPa and weakened the fault strength. Pore pressure increases might have additionally destabilized the fault locally due to pore pressure diffusion. This effect, however, might be minor in 20km depth, because of low lateral fracture connectivity and permeability between the area of water accumulation and the Beichuan fault. Overall, the stress alterations within a 120±70km2 large area resulted in the Beichuan fault coming closer to failure. Such an area ruptured would account for a M7.2±0.1 earthquake assuming only 10 MPa stress drop. Secondly, a reverse fault focal mechanism dominated, in particular, during the first 50 seconds of the main M7.9 rupture. The Beichuan fault slipped up to 7m upward peaking at shallow depth (<7km) (Nishimura

  1. Different IncI1 plasmids from Escherichia coli carry ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-15 associated with different Tn2-derived elements.

    PubMed

    Zong, Zhiyong; Ginn, Andrew N; Dobiasova, Hana; Iredell, Jonathan R; Partridge, Sally R

    2015-07-01

    The bla(CTX-M-15) gene, encoding the globally dominant CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum β-lactamase, has generally been found in a 2.971-kb ISEcp1-bla(CTX-M-15)-orf477Δ transposition unit, with ISEcp1 providing a promoter. In available IncF plasmid sequences from Escherichia coli, this transposition unit interrupts a truncated copy of transposon Tn2 that lies within larger multiresistance regions. In E. coli, bla(CTX-M-15) is also commonly associated with IncI1 plasmids and here three such plasmids from E. coli clinical isolates from western Sydney 2006-2007 have been sequenced. The plasmid backbones are organised similarly to those of other IncI1 plasmids, but have insertions and/or deletions and sequence differences. Each plasmid also has a different insertion carrying bla(CTX-M-15). pJIE113 (IncI1 sequence type ST31) is almost identical to plasmids isolated from the 2011 E. coli O104:H4 outbreak in Europe, where the typical bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit interrupts a complete Tn2 inserted directly in the plasmid backbone. In the novel plasmid pJIE139 (ST88), ISEcp1-blaC(TX-M-15)-orf477Δ lies within a Tn2/3 hybrid transposon. Homologous recombination could explain movement of ISEcp1-bla(CTX-M-15)-orf477Δ between copies of Tn2 on IncF and IncI1 plasmids and generation of the Tn2/3 hybrid. pJIE174 (ST37) is almost identical to pESBL-12 from the Netherlands and in these plasmids bla(CTX-M-15) is flanked by two copies of IS26 that truncate the transposition unit within a larger region bounded by the ends of Tn2. bla(CTX-M-15) and the associated ISEcp1-derived promoter may be able to move from this structure by the actions of IS26, independently of both ISEcp1 and Tn2. PMID:25929173

  2. Camera trap records of animal activity prior to a M=7 earthquake in Northern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, R.; Raulin, J.; Freund, F.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake (EQ) preparation is associated with geophysical changes occurring over many scales. Some pre-earthquake (pre-EQ) processes affect the ionosphere, others leave their mark on biota. We report (i) on ionospheric anomalies recorded prior to the M=7 Contamana EQ [1] in North-Eastern Peru, 134 km deep, associated with the subduction of the Nazca plate underneath the Northern Andes, (ii) on changes in animal activity recorded in the Yanachaga National Park, about 320 km from the EQ epicentre, over a 30 day period leading up to the M=7 seismic event. Night-time Very Low Frequency (VLF) phase data were analyzed for the period 01 June to 31 Oct. 2011 using propagation paths passing close to the Yanachaga Park from the NAA emitter (USA) to receivers PIU in Piura and PLO in Lima (Peru). Ionospheric phase perturbations were observed starting 2 weeks before the EQ with periodicities from few tens of secs to few minutes. Animal activity data were obtained by evaluating the images of a cluster of 10 motion-triggered cameras of the Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring Network www.teamnetwork.org. We analyzed 1359 photographic records for the pre-EQ period and 1491 photographic records for a control period with low seismicity. Animal activity started to noticeably decline 3 weeks before the EQ. Different animal species were found to react differently. The number of rodents declined to zero about one week before the EQ and so did the number of tapirs. Armadillos, a burrowing animal, were recorded in larger numbers. Though the armadillos were presumably also flushed out of their holes, they apparently did not hide like the rodents. We discuss the results in the context of recent advances in solid state physics, which provide plausible mechanisms for pre-EQ ionospheric anomalies and for changes in animal behavior. [1] Tavera, H. (2012), Report on the 24 Aug. 2011 M 7.0 Contamana, Peru, Intermediate Depth Earthquake Seismological Research Letters, 83, 1007-1013, doi: 10.1785/0220120005

  3. Building M7-0505 Treatment Tank (SWMU 039) Annual Performance Monitoring Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    This Annual Performance Monitoring Report presents a summary of Interim Measure (IM) activities and an evaluation of data collected during the third year (June 2014 to September 2015) of operation, maintenance, and monitoring (OM&M) conducted at the Building M7-505 (M505) Treatment Tank area, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida ("the Site"). Under KSC's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Corrective Action Program, the M505 Treatment Tank area was designated Solid Waste Management Unit 039. Arcadis U.S., Inc. (Arcadis) began IM activities on January 10, 2012, after completion of construction of an in situ air sparge (IAS) system to remediate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater at concentrations exceeding applicable Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Chapter 62-777, Florida Administrative Code, Natural Attenuation Default Concentrations (NADCs). This report presents a summary of the third year of OM&M activities conducted between June 2014 and September 2015.

  4. Faecal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy dogs harbour CTX-M-15 and CMY-2 β-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Gracia, R C; Cortés-Cortés, G; Lozano-Zarain, P; Bello, F; Martínez-Laguna, Y; Torres, C

    2015-03-01

    The presence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC) producing Escherichia coli, along with the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and the molecular types of isolates, was investigated in faecal samples from 53 healthy dogs in Mexico. Samples were inoculated on Levine agar plates with 2 µg/mL cefotaxime for recovery of cefotaxime-resistant (CTX(R)) E. coli. CTX(R)E. coli isolates were recovered from 9/53 (17%) samples; one isolate was characterised from each positive sample. ESBL producing E. coli isolates were detected in 3/53 (6%) samples; these isolates carried the blaCTX-M-15 gene and one isolate also carried blaSHV-2. These three ESBL-positive E. coli isolates belonged to phylogroup A and sequence types ST617, ST410 or ST3944. The remaining 6/53 (11%) samples contained pAmpC positive isolates; these isolates carried the blaCMY-2 gene, which encodes CMY-2 β-lactamase. These six isolates belonged to phylogroups A (n = 2), B1 (n = 1) and D (n = 3), and sequences types ST1431, ST57, ST93 and ST4565. One CMY-2 β-lactamase positive E. coli isolate of lineage ST93 had the -32 mutation in the chromosomal ampC promoter/attenuator region. Five ESBL/pAmpC positive E. coli isolates carried class 1 integrons (dfrA17-aadA5, aadA and aadA/aadB arrays were detected in three isolates) and one isolate carried a class 2 integron (dfrA12-sat2-aadA1). The aac(6')Ib-cr, aac(3)-II, qnrB19, tet(A), tet(B), cmlA, and sul3 genes were also detected. All studied isolates showed unrelated PFGE-patterns. To our knowledge, this is the first description of ESBL-producing E. coli and the second of pAmpC-producing E. coli from healthy dogs in America. Our results suggest the potential zoonotic role of dogs in the transmission to humans of ESBL and pAmpC E. coli in the household environment. PMID:25624187

  5. CCD photometry of globular cluster core structure. I - NGC 6388, NGC 6624, and M15: One flat core and two cusps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugger, Phyllis M.; Cohn, Haldan; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Hertz, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The first results of a major survey of globular cluster core structure are reported. Surface brightness profiles for three clusters are presented: one with a normal flat core profile (NGC 6388), and two with central cusps (NGC 6624 and M15). The profiles are fitted with both seeing-convolved King models and seeing-convolved power laws. A King model provides a reasonable fit to the entire profile of NGC 6388, but there are no acceptable King profiles for NGC 6624 and M15. For these two clusters, a seeing-convolved power law provides a good fit to the inner part of the profile, while a King model gives a good fit to the outer part of the profile. The interpretation of the measured power-law slopes of the central surface brightness cusps of NGC 6624 and M15 are discussed in terms of models for core collapse in a multicomponent cluster.

  6. Earthquake Forecasts for Gorkha Immediately Following the 25th April, M=7.8 Mainshock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segkou, M.; Parsons, T.

    2015-12-01

    The M-7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake on the 25th April, 2015 has shaken the central Himalayan front and immediately raised concerns for the severity of future triggered earthquakes. Here, we implement standard and innovative forecast models to predict the spatio-temporal distribution of triggered events. Key challenges addressed are: 1) the limited information on early aftershocks, 2) the low-productivity aftershock sequence in the near-source area, 3) the off-fault (>250 km) triggered events exemplified by the M=5.4 Xegar event, 3 hrs after the mainshock. We apply short-term empirical/statistical ETAS and physical forecast models, the latter based on the combination of rate/state friction law and Coulomb stresses. Within the physics-based model implementation we seek to evaluate the uncertainty related with the rupture style of triggered events by considering: 1) the geometry of active structures, 2) optimally oriented for failure faults and 3) all-potential faults described by the total stress field. The latter is represented by the full stress tensor before and after the mainshock and our analysis suggests that the preseismic stress magnitudes are still sufficient to cause earthquakes even after modification by the mainshock. The above remark reveals that there are no "stress shadows" affecting the spatial distribution of near-field aftershocks. It is also noted that the method allows for an a-priori determination of the rupture plan of the M=7.3 event, within the limit of uncertainty (20˚). The results show that: (1) ETAS models underestimate the number of observed events, since they heavily base their good performance in small magnitude earthquakes, not available in the first few weeks after the mainshock, (2) far field triggered events are captured only by physics-based forecasts, and (3) the total stress method improves the predictability of larger magnitude events. We conclude that frontier regions benefit from the implementation of physics-based models

  7. Slip budget and potential for a M7 earthquake in central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Ruth A.; Archuleta, Ralph J.

    1988-10-01

    The slip rate budget of the San Andreas fault (SAF) in central California, which is approximately 33 mm/yr, is accounted for by a change in the slip release mechanism along the fault. In the NW section of the fault, between Bear Valley and Monarch Peak, creep apparently accounts for the slip budget with the seismicity contributing negligibly. The section at Parkfield marks the transition from a creeping to a locked fault trace. Since the M8 1857 earthquake five M6 earthquakes have occurred but have not completely accounted for the slip budget. Southeast of Parkfield, the SAF has been locked since 1857. From Cholame to Bitterwater Valley this section now lags the deep slip by the amount of slip released in 1857; consequently faulting in this section could occur at the time of the next Parkfield earthquake. If this earthquake releases the slip deficit accumulated in the transition zone and in the locked zone, the earthquake will have a moment-magnitude M7.2.

  8. CD18 deficiency evolving to megakaryocytic (M7) acute myeloid leukemia: case report.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Dewton de Moraes; Beitler, Beatriz; Martinez, Gracia A; Pereira, Juliana; Amigo Filho, José Ulysses; Klautau, Giselle Burlamaqui; Lian, Yu Cheng; Della Negra, Marinella; Duarte, Alberto José da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD 1 - CD18 deficiency) is a rare disease characterized by disturbance of phagocyte function associated with less severe cellular and humoral dysfunction. The main features are bacterial and fungal infections predominantly in the skin and mucosal surfaces, impaired wound healing and delayed umbilical cord separation. The infections are indolent, necrotic and recurrent. In contrast to the striking difficulties in defense against bacterial and fungal microorganisms, LAD 1 patients do not exhibit susceptibility to viral infections and neoplasias. The severity of clinical manifestations is directly related to the degree of CD18 deficiency. Here, a 20 year-old female presenting a partial CD18 deficiency that developed a megakaryocytic (M7) acute myeloid leukemia is described for the first time. The clinical features of the patient included relapsing oral thrush due to Candida, cutaneous infections and upper and lower respiratory tract infections, followed by a locally severe necrotic genital herpetic lesion. The patient's clinical features improved for a period of approximately two years, followed by severe bacterial infections. At that time, the investigation showed a megakaryocytic acute myeloid leukemia, treated with MEC without clinical improvement. The highly aggressive evolution of the leukemia in this patient suggests that adhesion molecules could be involved in the protection against the spread of neoplastic cells. PMID:25106692

  9. Evidence of shallow fault zone strengthening after the 1992 M7.5 Landers, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Y.-G.; Vidale, J.E.; Aki, K.; Xu, Fei; Burdette, T.

    1998-01-01

    Repeated seismic surveys of the Landers, California, fault zone that ruptured in the magnitude (M) 7.5 earthquake of 1992 reveal an increase in seismic velocity with time. P, S, and fault zone trapped waves were excited by near-surface explosions in two locations in 1994 and 1996, and were recorded on two linear, three-component seismic arrays deployed across the Johnson Valley fault trace. The travel times of P and S waves for identical shot-receiver pairs decreased by 0.5 to 1.5 percent from 1994 to 1996, with the larger changes at stations located within the fault zone. These observations indicate that the shallow Johnson Valley fault is strengthening after the main shock, most likely because of closure of cracks that were opened by the 1992 earthquake. The increase in velocity is consistent with the prevalence of dry over wet cracks and with a reduction in the apparent crack density near the fault zone by approximately 1.0 percent from 1994 to 1996.

  10. Simulations of Orographic Mixed-Phase Clouds at Mountain Range Site using COSMO-ART-M7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneberg, Olga; Henneberger, Jan; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    -moment microphysics scheme, show the occurrence of MPCs in accordance with the measurements with mass concentration of liquid and ice phase on the same order of magnitude as observed but the high ice number concentration observed at JFJ can not be captured by the simulations with the current setup. As the processes leading to such high ice concentration are not well understood yet it is not clear if they are considered by the model. The correlation between updraft velocities and occurrence of liquid water content found in the measurement results can also be seen in the first simulations with COSMO for some chosen days in February and April 2013 based on the measurements. Nevertheless the simulations also confirm that occurrence of MPC can not exclusively be explained by updraft velocities. Further simulations with modified aerosol concentrations and coupled to the ART-M7 module will explore influences of aerosols on clouds at JFJ.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: WATTS PREMIER M-SERIES M-15,000 REVERSE OSMOSIS TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Watts Premier M-Series M-15,000 RO Treatment System was conducted over a 31-day period from April 26, 2004, through May 26, 2004. This test was conducted at the Coachella Valley Water District (CVWD) Well 7802 in Thermal, California. The source water...

  12. H.E.S.S. OBSERVATIONS OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS NGC 6388 AND M15 AND SEARCH FOR A DARK MATTER SIGNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Brucker, J.; Barnacka, A.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Borrel, V.; Becker, J.; Behera, B.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.

    2011-07-01

    Observations of the globular clusters (GCs) NGC 6388 and M15 were carried out by the High Energy Stereoscopic System array of Cherenkov telescopes for a live time of 27.2 and 15.2 hr, respectively. No gamma-ray signal is found at the nominal target position of NGC 6388 and M15. In the primordial formation scenario, GCs are formed in a dark matter (DM) halo and DM could still be present in the baryon-dominated environment of GCs. This opens the possibility of observing a DM self-annihilation signal. The DM content of the GCs NGC 6388 and M15 is modeled taking into account the astrophysical processes that can be expected to influence the DM distribution during the evolution of the GC: the adiabatic contraction of DM by baryons, the adiabatic growth of a black hole in the DM halo, and the kinetic heating of DM by stars. Ninety-five percent confidence level exclusion limits on the DM particle velocity-weighted annihilation cross section are derived for these DM halos. In the TeV range, the limits on the velocity-weighted annihilation cross section are derived at the 10{sup -25} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} level and a few 10{sup -24} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} for NGC 6388 and M15, respectively.

  13. Comparative epidemiology of CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-15 producing Escherichia coli: association with distinct demographic groups in the community in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Freeman, J T; Williamson, D A; Heffernan, H; Smith, M; Bower, J E; Roberts, S A

    2012-08-01

    Extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli (ESBL-EC) are an emerging public health issue. In New Zealand (NZ), bla (CTX-M-14) and bla (CTX-M-15) are the most common ESBL genes. Although many studies describe risk factors for ESBL-EC, few describe risk factors for specific ESBL genes. Between January 2006 and December 2007, we characterized 108 consecutive, non-duplicate isolates of ESBL-EC at the Auckland Hospital laboratory. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. Of the 108, 54.6% (59) were CTX-M-15-EC, 26.9% (29) were CTX-M-14-EC and 12.09% were CTX-M-9 (13). The remaining seven isolates carried CTX-M-3 (3; 2.7%), CTX-M-65 (2; 1.8%), CTX-M-27 (1; 0.9%) and CTX-M-57 (1; 0.9%). CTX-M-15-EC were more likely than CTX-M-14-EC to be fluoroquinolone-resistant (86.4% versus 32.4%; p=0.006) and to be non-susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate (84.7% versus 41.4%; p=0.0001). Patients with CTX-M-15-EC were more likely to be of Indian ethnicity (34.5% versus 0%; p=0.0012) and to have travelled recently (31.6% versus 4%; p=0.0088). Patients with CTX-M-14-EC were more likely to have Chinese or South-East Asian ethnicity (48.1% versus 5.2%; p<0.0001) and to have no history of either travel or prior hospital admission (44% versus 8.9%; p=0.0006). These data imply that CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-14 producing E. coli are associated with distinct demographic subgroups in NZ. PMID:22271302

  14. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Escherichia coli CTX-M-15 and Klebsiella pneumoniae SHV-12 β-Lactamases from Bovine Mastitis Isolates in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Maciuca, Iuliana E.; Evans, Nicholas J.; Williams, Helen; Wattret, Andrew; Fick, Jenny C.; Williams, Nicola J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports raised concerns about the role that farm stock may play in the dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria. This study characterized the ESBLs in two Escherichia coli and three Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae isolates from cases of clinical bovine mastitis in the United Kingdom. Bacterial culture and sensitivity testing of bovine mastitic milk samples identified Gram-negative cefpodoxime-resistant isolates, which were assessed for their ESBL phenotypes. Conjugation experiments and PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT) were used for characterization of transferable plasmids. E. coli isolates belonged to sequence type 88 (ST88; determined by multilocus sequence typing) and carried blaCTX-M-15 and blaTEM-1, while K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae isolates carried blaSHV-12 and blaTEM-1. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that blaCTX-M-15 and blaTEM-1 were carried on a conjugative plasmid in E. coli, and PBRT identified this to be an IncI1 plasmid. The resistance genes were nontransferable in K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae isolates. Moreover, in the E. coli isolates, an association of ISEcp1 and IS26 with blaCTX-M-15 was found where the IS26 element was inserted upstream of both ISEcp1 and the blaCTX-M promoter, a genetic arrangement highly similar to that described in some United Kingdom human isolates. We report the first cases in Europe of bovine mastitis due to E. coli CTX-M-15 and also of bovine mastitis due to K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae SHV-12 β-lactamases in the United Kingdom. We also describe the genetic environment of blaCTX-M-15 and highlight the role that IncI1 plasmids may play in the spread and dissemination of ESBL genes, which have been described in both human and cattle isolates. PMID:24247146

  15. Genetic Environment of Plasmid Mediated CTX-M-15 Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases from Clinical and Food Borne Bacteria in North-Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Supriya; Hussain, Abbas; Mishra, Shweta; Maurya, Anand Prakash; Bhattacharjee, Amitabha; Joshi, Santa Ram

    2015-01-01

    Background The study investigated the presence of CTX-M-15 type extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), compared their genetic arrangements and plasmid types in gram negative isolates of hospital and food origin in north-east India. From September 2013 to April 2014, a total of 252 consecutive, non-duplicate clinical isolates and 88 gram negative food isolates were selected. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of ESBL genes was performed. Presence of integrons and gene cassettes were analyzed by integrase and 59 base-element PCR respectively. The molecular environments surrounding blaCTX-M and plasmid types were investigated by PCR and PCR-based replicon typing respectively. Transformation was carried out to assess plasmid transfer. Southern blotting was conducted to localize the blaCTX-M-15 genes. DNA fingerprinting was performed by ERIC-PCR. Results Prevalence of ESBL was found to be 40.8% (103/252) in clinical and 31.8% (28/88) in food-borne isolates. Molecular characterization revealed the presence of 56.3% (58/103) and 53.5% (15/28) blaCTX-M-15 in clinical and food isolates respectively. Strains of clinical and food origin were non-clonal. Replicon typing revealed that IncI1 and IncFII plasmid were carrying blaCTX-M-15 in clinical and food isolates and were horizontally transferable. The ISEcp1 element was associated with blaCTX-M-15 in both clinical and food isolates. Conclusions The simultaneous presence of resistance determinants in non-clonal isolates of two different groups thus suggests that the microbiota of common food products consumed may serve as a reservoir for some of the drug resistance genes prevalent in human pathogens. PMID:26361395

  16. Versatility of Streptomyces sp. M7 to bioremediate soils co-contaminated with Cr(VI) and lindane.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, JuanDaniel; Solá, María Zoleica Simón; Benimeli, Claudia Susana; Amoroso, María Julia; Polti, Marta Alejandra

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the impact of environmental factors on the bioremediation of Cr(VI) and lindane contaminated soil, by an actinobacterium, Streptomyces sp. M7, in order to optimize the process. Soil samples were contaminated with 25 µg kg(-1) of lindane and 50 mg kg(-1) of Cr(VI) and inoculated with Streptomyces sp. M7. The lowest inoculum concentration which simultaneously produced highest removal of Cr(VI) and lindane was 1 g kg(-1). The influence of physical and chemical parameters was assessed using a full factorial design. The factors and levels tested were: Temperature: 25, 30, 35°C; Humidity: 10%, 20%, 30%; Initial Cr(VI) concentration: 20, 50, 80 mg kg(-1); Initial lindane concentration: 10, 25, 40 µg kg(-1). Streptomyces sp. M7 exhibited strong versatility, showing the ability to bioremediate co-contaminated soil samples at several physicochemical conditions. Streptomyces sp. M7 inoculum size was optimized. Also, it was fitted a model to study this process, and it was possible to predict the system performance, knowing the initial conditions. Moreover, optimum temperature and humidity conditions for the bioremediation of soil with different concentrations of Cr(VI) and lindane were determined. Lettuce seedlings were a suitable biomarker to evaluate the contaminants mixture toxicity. Streptomyces sp. M7 carried out a successful bioremediation, which was demonstrated through ecotoxicity test with Lactuca sativa. PMID:25749405

  17. Geodetic Constraint of the 1905 Kangra M=7.8 Himalayan Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, K.; Bilham, R.; Gaur, V.; Bendick, R.; Blume, F.

    2002-12-01

    The 1905 Kangra earthquake in the western Himalaya claimed 20,000 lives, comparable to the Quetta 1935 and Bhuj 2001 events. No surface rupture was reported but from isoseismal maps made at the time, its rupture zone is believed to lie between the Greater and Lesser Himalaya and to extend from 76.5°E to 77.5°E. A second smaller area of Mercalli Intensity VIII shaking at 78°E originally lead to the event being interpreted as Mw=8. Although horizontal geodetic control in the epicentral region existed prior to the earthquake none of these points were re-measured after the event. Instead, triangulation and leveling were repeated at 78°E, 250 km SE of the epicenter. No horizontal deformation was detected, but the leveling line (with 1.6 km of relief) revealed an apparent 0.15 m uplift of the headquarters of the Survey of India (from whence the leveling lines originated) lending credence to the isoseismal interpretation of a great rupture. Recent analysis of these data reveals that the inferred height changes can be ascribed to systematic slope-dependent errors. In that deformation from the 1905 rupture was negligible at 78°E, we believe that this area of remote shaking was caused by local site amplification effects. The 96-year-long scientific neglect of the triangulation network near the epicenter was corrected in June 2001 when twenty points, first surveyed in 1845, were occupied using GPS methods. Many of the points had been repaired, two were lost, and two were towers that had been truncated and tilted over time. With suitable corrections we were able to recover data from 17 of the points. The data were analyzed using both a coordinate transformation, and least-squares methods to remove rotation, scale and translation differences between the 2001 and 1850 surveys. We find no net change within the network exceeding 1 m, consistent with a M=7.8 a rupture area similar to that given by the intensity XI isoseismal of Middlemiss 1910. Although we are unable to

  18. Macroscopic anomalies before the September 2010 M = 7.1 earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, N. E.; Ulusoy, Ü.

    2013-01-01

    Previous published work after the Kobe and İzmit earthquakes (1995 and 1999, respectively) demonstrated some reported meteorological and animal behaviour precursors were valid. Predictions were freshly tested for the Christchurch earthquake (M = 7.1, 4 September 2010). An internet survey with nearly 400 valid replies showed relative numbers of reports in precursor categories the day before the quake, were statistically significantly different from those in the preceding three days (excess meteorological events and animal behaviour). The day before the quake, there was also altered relative precursor class occurrence within 56 km compared with further away. Both these confirmed the earlier published work. Owners were woken up by unique pet behaviour 12 times as often in the hour before the quake compared with other hours immediately before (statistically highly significant). Lost and Found pet reports were double normal the week before, and 4.5 times normal both the day before the quake, and 9 days before. (Results were again statistically significant). Unique animal behaviour before the quake was often repeated before the numerous aftershocks. These pet owners claimed an approximate 80% prediction reliability. However, a preliminary telephone survey suggested that animals showing any precursor response are a minority. Some precursors seem real, but usefulness seemed mostly restricted to 7 cases where owners were in, or near, a place of safety through disruptive pet behaviour, and one in which owners were diverted by a pet from being struck by falling fixtures. For a later 22 February 2011 M = 6.3 quake no reports of escape through warning by pets were recorded, which raises serious questions whether such prediction is practically useful, because lives claimed saved are extremely low compared with fatalities. It is shown the lost-pet statistics dates, correspond to ionospheric anomalies recorded using the GPS satellite system and geomagnetic disturbance data, and

  19. Cloning and functional validation of early inducible Magnaporthe oryzae responsive CYP76M7 promoter from rice

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, Joshitha; Devanna, B. N.; Singh, Nagendra K.; Sharma, Tilak R.

    2015-01-01

    Cloning and functional characterization of plant pathogen inducible promoters is of great significance for their use in the effective management of plant diseases. The rice gene CYP76M7 was up regulated at 24, 48, and 72 hours post inoculation (hpi) with two isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae Mo-ei-11 and Mo-ni-25. In this study, the promoter of CYP76M7 gene was cloned from rice cultivar HR-12, characterized and functionally validated. The Transcription Start Site of CYP76M7 was mapped at 45 bases upstream of the initiation codon. To functionally validate the promoter, 5′ deletion analysis of the promoter sequences was performed and the deletion fragments fused with the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene were used for generating stable transgenic Arabidopsis plants as well as for transient expression in rice. The spatial and temporal expression pattern of GUS in transgenic Arabidopsis plants and also in transiently expressed rice leaves revealed that the promoter of CYP76M7 gene was induced by M. oryzae. The induction of CYP76M7 promoter was observed at 24 hpi with M. oryzae. We report that, sequences spanning -222 bp to -520 bp, with the cluster of three W-boxes, two ASF1 motifs and a single GT-1 element may contribute to the M. oryzae inducible nature of CYP76M7 promoter. The promoter characterized in this study would be an ideal candidate for the overexpression of defense genes in rice for developing durable blast resistance rice lines. PMID:26052337

  20. Structural Distinction of Diacyl-, Alkylacyl, and Alk-1-Enylacyl Glycerophosphocholines as [M - 15]- Ions by Multiple-Stage Linear Ion-Trap Mass Spectrometry with Electrospray Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Fong-Fu; Lodhi, Irfan J.; Turk, John; Semenkovich, Clay F.

    2014-08-01

    We describe a linear ion-trap (LIT) multiple-stage (MSn) mass spectrometric approach towards differentiation of alkylacyl, alk-1-enylacyl- and diacyl-glycerophoscholines (PCs) as the [M - 15]- ions desorbed by electrospray ionization (ESI) in the negative-ion mode. The MS4 mass spectra of the [M - 15 - R2'CH = CO]- ions originated from the three PC subfamilies are readily distinguishable, resulting in unambiguous distinction of the lipid classes. This method is applied to two alkyl ether rich PC mixtures isolated from murine bone marrow neutrophils and kidney, respectively, to explore its utility in the characterization of complex PC mixture of biological origin, resulting in the realization of the detailed structures of the PC species, including various classes and many minor isobaric isomers.

  1. Detection of gamma-ray emission from globular clusters M15, NGC 6397, 5904, 6218 and 6139 with Fermi-LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P. F.; Xin, Y. L.; Fu, L.; Zhou, J. N.; Yan, J. Z.; Liu, Q. Z.; Zhang, L.

    2016-06-01

    In the third Fermi catalogue (3FGL) there are 16 gamma-ray globular clusters. Following an analysis of the recently released Pass 8 data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), we report the discovery of significant gamma-ray emission from M15 and NGC 6397, confirm that NGC 5904 is a gamma-ray-emitter and provide evidence of gamma-ray emission from NGC 6218 and 6139. Interestingly, in the globular clusters M15, NGC 6397 and 5904, millisecond pulsars (MSPs) have been found in the radio or X-ray, which strongly support the MSP origin of the gamma-ray emission. Owing to the relatively low luminosity of the gamma-ray emission, however, we do not find any evidence for gamma-ray pulsation or flux variability in these sources.

  2. Plasmid content of a clinically relevant Klebsiella pneumoniae clone from the Czech Republic producing CTX-M-15 and QnrB1.

    PubMed

    Dolejska, Monika; Villa, Laura; Dobiasova, Hana; Fortini, Daniela; Feudi, Claudia; Carattoli, Alessandra

    2013-02-01

    The entire plasmid content of a multidrug-resistant, CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST416 clone was investigated. Two FII(K) plasmids, pKDO1 (127 kb) and pKPN-CZ (207 kb), were identified and found to carry a formidable set of genes conferring resistance to toxic compounds, metals, and antimicrobial drugs and exhibiting novel features putatively associated with adaptation and fitness of the bacterium in the human host. PMID:23229477

  3. Plasmid Content of a Clinically Relevant Klebsiella pneumoniae Clone from the Czech Republic Producing CTX-M-15 and QnrB1

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Laura; Dobiasova, Hana; Fortini, Daniela; Feudi, Claudia; Carattoli, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    The entire plasmid content of a multidrug-resistant, CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST416 clone was investigated. Two FIIK plasmids, pKDO1 (127 kb) and pKPN-CZ (207 kb), were identified and found to carry a formidable set of genes conferring resistance to toxic compounds, metals, and antimicrobial drugs and exhibiting novel features putatively associated with adaptation and fitness of the bacterium in the human host. PMID:23229477

  4. blaCTX-M-15 carried by IncF-type plasmids is the dominant ESBL gene in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae at a hospital in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agyekum, Alex; Fajardo-Lubián, Alicia; Ansong, Daniel; Partridge, Sally R; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Iredell, Jonathan R

    2016-04-01

    Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are among the most multidrug-resistant pathogens in hospitals and are spreading worldwide. Horizontal gene transfer and spread of high-risk clones are involved in ESBL dissemination. Investigation of the resistance phenotypes of 101 consecutive clinical E. coli (n=58) and K. pneumoniae (n=43) isolated at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Ghana over 3months revealed 63 (62%) with an ESBL phenotype. All 63 had a blaCTX-M gene, and sequence analysis showed that 62 of these were blaCTX-M-15. blaCTX-M-15 was linked to ISEcp1 and orf477Δ in all isolates, and most isolates also carried blaTEM, aac(3)-II, aacA4cr, and/or blaOXA-30 genes on IncF plasmids. XbaI/pulsed-field electrophoresis showed heterogeneity among isolates of both species, suggesting that blaCTX-M-15 dissemination is caused by horizontal gene transfer rather than clonal spread of these species in Ghana. PMID:26830052

  5. Circulation of clonal populations of fluoroquinolone-resistant CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli ST410 in humans and animals in Germany.

    PubMed

    Falgenhauer, Linda; Imirzalioglu, Can; Ghosh, Hiren; Gwozdzinski, Konrad; Schmiedel, Judith; Gentil, Katrin; Bauerfeind, Rolf; Kämpfer, Peter; Seifert, Harald; Michael, Geovana Brenner; Schwarz, Stefan; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Werner, Guido; Pietsch, Michael; Roesler, Uwe; Guerra, Beatriz; Fischer, Jennie; Sharp, Hannah; Käsbohrer, Annemarie; Goesmann, Alexander; Hille, Katja; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Chakraborty, Trinad

    2016-06-01

    Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli encoding CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are isolated in increasing numbers from humans, companion animals and livestock, raising concern regarding the exchange and spread of isolates in these populations. In this study, whole-genome sequencing of CTX-M-15-producing E. coli isolates recently sampled from humans, companion animals, livestock and farm environments was performed. In total, 26 different sequence types (STs) were detected, of which ST410 was the most frequent and was the only ST present in all populations studied. Five clades (designated A-E) were detected within the ST410 isolates. In particular, isolates of clade B were present in all four populations and had core genomes that differed by less than 70 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Isolates of clades B and C were also clonally marked, exhibiting identical chromosomal insertions of blaCTX-M-15 at distinct loci. These data provide strong evidence for the clonal dissemination of specific clades of CTX-M-15-producing E. coli ST410 in human and animal populations. PMID:27208899

  6. The M7 October 21, 1868 Hayward Earthquake, Northern California-140 Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocher, T. M.; Boatwright, J.; Lienkaemper, J. J.; Schwartz, D. P.; Garcia, S.

    2007-12-01

    October 21, 2008 marks the 140th anniversary of the M7 1868 Hayward earthquake. This large earthquake, which occurred slightly before 8 AM, caused extensive damage to San Francisco Bay Area and remains the nation's 12th most lethal earthquake. Property loss was extensive and about 30 people were killed. This earthquake culminated a decade-long series of earthquakes in the Bay Area which started with an M~6 earthquake in the southern Peninsula in 1856, followed by a series of four M5.8 to M6.1 sized earthquakes along the northern Calaveras fault, and ended with a M~6.5 earthquake in the Santa Cruz Mountains in 1865. Despite this flurry of quakes, the shaking from the 1868 earthquake was the strongest that the new towns and growing cities of the Bay Area had ever experienced. The effect on the brick buildings of the time was devastating: walls collapsed in San Francisco, Oakland, and San Jose, and buildings cracked as far away as Napa, Santa Rosa, and Hollister. The area that was strongly shaken (at Modified Mercalli Intensity VII or higher) encompassed about 2,300 km2. Aftershocks continued into November 1868. Surface cracking of the ground along the southern end of the Hayward Fault was traced from Warm Springs in Fremont northward 32 km to San Leandro. As Lawson (1908) reports, "the evidence to the northward of San Leandro is not very satisfactory. The country was then unsettled, and the information consisted of reports of cow- boys riding on the range". Analysis of historical triangulation data suggest that the fault moved as far north as Berkeley, and from these data the average slip along the fault is inferred to be about 1.9 ± 0.4 meters. The paleoseismic record from the southern end of the Hayward Fault provides evidence for 10 earthquakes before 1868. The average interval between these earthquakes is 170 ± 80 years, but the last five earthquakes have had an average interval of only 140 ± 50 years. The 1868 Hayward earthquake and more recent analogs such

  7. CATS-ISS_L2O_N-M7.2-V1-03_05kmPro

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-04-27

    CATS-ISS_L2O_N-M7.2-V1-03_05kmPro Project Title:  CATS Discipline:  Clouds Aerosols Version:  ... and Order:  ASDC Order Tool Product Browse Tool:  CATS Order Tool OPeNDAP Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  ...

  8. CATS-ISS_L2O_N-M7.2-V1-03_05kmLay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-04-27

    CATS-ISS_L2O_N-M7.2-V1-03_05kmLay Project Title:  CATS Discipline:  Clouds Aerosols Version:  ... and Order:  ASDC Order Tool Product Browse Tool:  CATS Order Tool OPeNDAP Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  ...

  9. CATS-ISS_L2O_D-M7.2-V1-03_05kmLay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-04-27

    CATS-ISS_L2O_D-M7.2-V1-03_05kmLay The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength, polarization-sensitive lidar that provides ... in the Earth's atmosphere. Project Title:  CATS Discipline:  Clouds Aerosols Version:  ...

  10. An inter-laboratory comparison study of the ANSI/BIFMA standard test method M7.1 for furniture

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five laboratories using five different test chambers participated in the study to quantify within- and between-laboratory variability in the measurement of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from new commercial furniture test items following ANSI/BIFMA M7.1. Test item...

  11. CATS-ISS_L2O_D-M7.2-V1-04_05kmLay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-30

    CATS-ISS_L2O_D-M7.2-V1-04_05kmLay Project Title:  CATS Discipline:  Clouds Aerosols Version:  ... and Order:  ASDC Order Tool Product Browse Tool:  CATS Order Tool OPeNDAP Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  ...

  12. CATS-ISS_L2O_N-M7.2-V1-04_05kmPro

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-30

    CATS-ISS_L2O_N-M7.2-V1-04_05kmPro Project Title:  CATS Discipline:  Clouds Aerosols Version:  ... and Order:  ASDC Order Tool Product Browse Tool:  CATS Order Tool OPeNDAP Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  ...

  13. CATS-ISS_L2O_N-M7.2-V1-04_05kmLay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-30

    CATS-ISS_L2O_N-M7.2-V1-04_05kmLay Project Title:  CATS Discipline:  Clouds Aerosols Version:  ... and Order:  ASDC Order Tool Product Browse Tool:  CATS Order Tool OPeNDAP Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  ...

  14. CATS-ISS_L2O_D-M7.2-V1-04_05kmPro

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-30

    CATS-ISS_L2O_D-M7.2-V1-04_05kmPro Project Title:  CATS Discipline:  Clouds Aerosols Version:  ... and Order:  ASDC Order Tool Product Browse Tool:  CATS Order Tool OPeNDAP Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  ...

  15. Hubble Space Telescope Evidence for an Intermediate-Mass Black Hole in the Globular Cluster M15. I. STIS Spectroscopy and WFPC2 Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Marel, Roeland P.; Gerssen, Joris; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peterson, Ruth C.; Gebhardt, Karl

    2002-12-01

    In this series of two papers, we describe a project with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to measure the line-of-sight velocities of stars in the central few arcseconds of the dense globular cluster M15. The main goal of this project is to search for the possible presence of an intermediate-mass central black hole. This first paper focuses on the observations and reduction of the data. We ``scanned'' the central region of M15 spectroscopically by consecutively placing the 0.1" HST/STIS slit at 18 adjacent positions. The spectral pixel size exceeds the velocity dispersion of M15. This puts the project at the limit of what is feasible with STIS, and exceedingly careful and complicated data reduction and analysis were required. We applied corrections for the following effects: drifts in the STIS wavelength scale during an HST orbit; the orbital velocity component of HST along the line of sight to the cluster, and its variations during the HST orbit; and the apparent wavelength shift that is perceived for a star that is not centered in the slit. The latter correction is particularly complicated and requires many pieces of information: (1) the positions and magnitudes of all the stars near the center of M15; (2) accurate positionings of the STIS slits during the observations; (3) and the HST/STIS point-spread function (PSF) and line-spread function (LSF). To address the first issue we created a stellar catalog of M15 from the existing HST/WFPC2 data discussed previously by Guhathakurta et al., but with an improved astrometric and photometric calibration. The catalog is distributed electronically as part of this paper. It contains 31,983 stars with their positions and U, B, and V magnitudes. To address the second issue, we model the observed intensity profiles along the STIS slits to determine the slit positionings to 0.007" accuracy in each coordinate. To address the third issue, we obtained observations of a bright

  16. Escherichia coli of sequence type 3835 carrying bla NDM-1, bla CTX-M-15, bla CMY-42 and bla SHV-12.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yu; Yang, Ping; Xie, Yi; Wang, Xiaohui; McNally, Alan; Zong, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) represents a serious challenge for treatment and public health. A carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli clinical strain WCHEC13-8 was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests, whole genome sequencing and conjugation experiments. It was resistant to imipenem (MIC, >256 μg/ml) and meropenem (MIC, 128 μg/ml) and belonged to ST3835. bla NDM-1 was the only carbapenemase gene detected. Strain WCHEC13-8 also had a plasmid-borne AmpC gene (bla CMY-42) and two extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes (bla CTX-M-15 and bla SHV-12). bla NDM-1 and bla SHV-12 were carried by a 54-kb IncX3 self-transmissible plasmid, which is identical to plasmid pNDM-HF727 from Enterobacter cloacae. bla CMY-42 was carried by a 64-kb IncI1 plasmid and bla CTX-M-15 was located on a 141-kb plasmid with multiple F replicons (replicon type: F36:A4:B1). bla CMY-42 was in a complicated context and the mobilisation of bla CMY-42 was due to the transposition of ISEcp1 by misidentifying its right-end boundary. Genetic context of bla NDM-1 in strain WCHEC13-8 was closely related to those on IncX3 plasmids in various Enterobacteriaceae species in China. In conclusion, a multidrug-resistant ST3835 E. coli clinical strain carrying bla NDM-1, bla CTX-M-15, bla CMY-42 and bla SHV-12 was identified. IncX3 plasmids may be making a significant contribution to the dissemination of bla NDM among Enterobacteriaceae in China. PMID:26194736

  17. Detection of CTX-M-15-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates of Lineages ST131-B2 and ST167-A in Environmental Samples of a Tunisian Hospital.

    PubMed

    Dziri, Raoudha; Klibi, Naouel; Alonso, Carla Andrea; Jouini, Ahlem; Ben Said, Leila; Chairat, Sarra; Bellaaj, Ridha; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Ben Slama, Karim; Torres, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the possible role of the hospital environment in the dissemination of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates, 300 samples were taken during 2013 from abiotic surfaces (n = 250), healthcare worker hands (n = 27), and hands of patients (n = 23) in a Tunisian Hospital. ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were recovered in 3.7% of analyzed samples (4% abiotic surfaces; 4.3% hands of patients; 0% in healthcare worker hands), and one isolate/sample was further studied. The characterization of beta-lactamase genes, as well as the genetic environment of blaCTX-M gene, was performed by PCR and sequencing. The ESBL genes found were as follows: blaCTX-M-15 (eight isolates), blaCTX-M-15+blaSHV-12 (two isolates), and blaSHV-12 (one isolate). The blaTEM-1b gene was detected in seven ESBL-positive isolates. The orf477 was found downstream of blaCTX-M-15 gene in 10 strains, whereas the ISEcp1 sequence was identified upstream of this gene in two isolates. The analysis of class 1 integrons by PCR and sequencing revealed five positive isolates with the following gene cassette arrangements: dfrA1-aadA1 (two isolates), aadA1 (two isolates), and aadA2 (one isolate). The virulence-encoding genes aer, eae, bfp, and hly were detected by PCR in six, four, four, and three isolates, respectively. The following sequence types and associated phylogroups were detected among ESBL-producing strains: ST167-phylogroup-A (six isolates) and ST131-phylogroup-B2 (two isolates). In conclusion, the hospital environment could be a reservoir of multiresistant bacteria, including ESBL-positive E. coli isolates, which could be acquired by the patient population, and strict control measures should be established to minimize this problem. PMID:26958744

  18. Radio HI and optical absorption-line spectra of an intermediate-velocity cloud in the general direction of the M15 globular cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, D. C.; Bates, B.; Keenan, F. P.; Kemp, S. N.; Ryans, R. S. I.; Davies, R. D.; Sembach, K. R.

    1998-07-01

    Using HI spectra obtained with the Lovell telescope (FWHM ~ 12 arcmin) we present maps showing the HI distribution and velocity structure of an intermediate-velocity cloud (IVC; v_LSR~70 km s^-1) which is observed in the general direction of the globular cluster M15. The gas is shown to be clumpy in nature and we examine its position and velocity structure. The IVC is detected in absorption in the CaII K line towards five cluster stars in intermediate resolution spectra obtained with ISIS/WHT and in high resolution UES/WHT NaI D line spectra of two cluster stars (II-75; IV-38). The clumpy nature of the gas is indicated by the NaI and KI spectra obtained in the II-75 and IV-38 sightlines, which have angular separation ~ 3.5 arcmin. The IVC is detected in KI in the higher column density II-75 sightline; this appears to be the first detection of IVC or HVC gas in KI. The IVC gas towards M15 has a similar velocity to that observed towards HD 203664, some 3.1 deg away from the cluster. Similarities in the IVC gas velocity suggest a gas structure that extends across both sightlines, although gas column densities are considerably higher towards M15. For a common feature, this would place the M15 IVC at a height above the Galactic plane (z-distance) of <~1.5 kpc based on the Little et al. estimate of the HD 203664 distance. From the fine-scale structure and column density observations, estimates are made of the space density of the small-scale concentrations. However, these remain uncertain and the present observations emphasize the need for higher spatial and spectral resolution studies to provide firmer estimates of cloud properties. We report also on a radio HI and CaII line survey towards a sample of 24 stars over a wider field. This was carried out in an attempt to detect any wider distribution of the IVC gas and to place better limits on its distance. Although these observations are of sufficient spectral quality, no new optical detections are reported.

  19. Power coupling in TREAT M-Series: New experimental results from M7CAL and updated analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, W R; Bauer, T H

    1988-02-01

    Experiments and methods used to determine power coupling of test fuel to the TREAT reactor during six recent metal-fueled sodium loop tests (M2-M7) are described. Previously reported calibration work on a three-pin test configuration with uranium-fissium fuel is updated (M2CAL). Additional results on a two-pin test configuration with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) reference fuel (uranium-zirconium and uranium-plutonium-zirconium) are reported (M7CAL). The peak axial low-level, steady-state (LLSS) fresh fuel pin power coupling factors for the IFR fuel compositions were determined from radiochemical analysis of fuel segments. A large data base of uranium-zirconium neutron flux monitor wire measurements were compiled to extend the fuel measurements to high-power transient conditions by comparing the measured power couplings from high and low-power wire irradiations. Power coupling results were obtained in both a full-slotted and a half-slotted TREAT core configuration. Relative power coupling measurements are compared to calculations for the three different types of fuel; U/Fs, U/Zr and U/Pu/Zr. Estimates of power coupling including corrections accounting for the effect on the power coupling of isotopic depletion and fuel swelling as the fuel undergoes burnup are presented for planning and analysis of tests M5, M6 and M7.

  20. Safer one-pot synthesis of the ‘SHAPE’ reagent 1-methyl-7-nitroisatoic anhydride (1m7)

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Rushia; Shefer, Kinneret; Ares, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the reactivity of 2′-hydroxyl groups along an RNA chain of interest aids in the modeling of the folded RNA structure; flexible loops tend to be reactive, whereas duplex regions are generally not. Among the most useful reagents for probing 2′-hydroxyl reactivity is 1-methyl-7-nitroisatoic anhydride (1m7), but the absence of a reliable, inexpensive source has prevented widespread adoption. An existing protocol for the conversion of an inexpensive precursor 4-nitroisatoic anhydride (4NIA) recommends the use of NaH in dimethylformamide (DMF), a reagent combination that most molecular biology labs are not equipped to handle, and that does not scale safely in any case. Here we describe a safer, one-pot method for bulk conversion of 4NIA to 1m7 that reduces costs and bypasses the use of NaH. We show that 1m7 produced by this method is free of side products and can be used to probe RNA structure in vitro. PMID:24141619

  1. Evidence of α-, β- and γ-HCH mixture aerobic degradation by the native actinobacteria Streptomyces sp. M7.

    PubMed

    Sineli, P E; Tortella, G; Dávila Costa, J S; Benimeli, C S; Cuozzo, S A

    2016-05-01

    The organochlorine insecticide γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH, lindane) and its non-insecticidal α- and β-isomers continue to pose serious environmental and health concerns, although their use has been restricted or completely banned for decades. In this study we report the first evidence of the growth ability of a Streptomyces strain in a mineral salt medium containing high doses of α- and β-HCH (16.6 mg l(-1)) as a carbon source. Degradation of HCH isomers by Streptomyces sp. M7 was investigated after 1, 4, and 7 days of incubation, determining chloride ion release, and residues in the supernatants by GC with µECD detection. The results show that both the α- and β-HCH isomers were effectively metabolized by Streptomyces sp. M7, with 80 and 78 % degradation respectively, after 7 days of incubation. Moreover, pentachlorocyclohexenes and tetrachlorocyclohexenes were detected as metabolites. In addition, the formation of possible persistent compounds such as chlorobenzenes and chlorophenols were studied by GC-MS, while no phenolic compounds were detected. In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that Streptomyces sp. M7 can degrade α- and β-isomers individually or combined with γ-HCH and could be considered as a potential agent for bioremediation of environments contaminated by organochlorine isomers. PMID:27038951

  2. Molecular Epidemiological Analysis of Escherichia coli Sequence Type ST131 (O25:H4) and blaCTX-M-15 among Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing E. coli from the United States, 2000 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Carl; Weissman, Scott J.; Jorgensen, James H.; Lewis, James S.; Hansen, Glen; Edelstein, Paul H.; Robicsek, Ari; Cleary, Timothy; Adachi, Javier; Paterson, David; Quinn, John; Hanson, Nancy D.; Johnston, Brian D.; Clabots, Connie; Kuskowski, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli sequence type ST131 (from phylogenetic group B2), often carrying the extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) gene blaCTX-M-15, is an emerging globally disseminated pathogen that has received comparatively little attention in the United States. Accordingly, a convenience sample of 351 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from 15 U.S. centers (collected in 2000 to 2009) underwent PCR-based phylotyping and detection of ST131 and blaCTX-M-15. A total of 200 isolates, comprising 4 groups of 50 isolates each that were (i) blaCTX-M-15 negative non-ST131, (ii) blaCTX-M-15 positive non-ST131, (iii) blaCTX-M-15 negative ST131, or (iv) blaCTX-M-15 positive ST131, also underwent virulence genotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Overall, 201 (57%) isolates exhibited blaCTX-M-15, whereas 165 (47%) were ST131. ST131 accounted for 56% of blaCTX-M-15-positive- versus 35% of blaCTX-M-15-negative isolates (P < 0.001). Whereas ST131 accounted for 94% of the 175 total group B2 isolates, non-ST131 isolates were phylogenetically distributed by blaCTX-M-15 status, with groups A (blaCTX-M-15-positive isolates) and D (blaCTX-M-15-negative isolates) predominating. Both blaCTX-M-15 and ST131 occurred at all participating centers, were recovered from children and adults, increased significantly in prevalence post-2003, and were associated with molecularly inferred virulence. Compared with non-ST131 isolates, ST131 isolates had higher virulence scores, distinctive virulence profiles, and more-homogeneous PFGE profiles. blaCTX-M-15 was associated with extensive antimicrobial resistance and ST131 with fluoroquinolone resistance. Thus, E. coli ST131 and blaCTX-M-15 are emergent, widely distributed, and predominant among ESBL-positive E. coli strains in the United States, among children and adults alike. Enhanced virulence and antimicrobial resistance have likely promoted the epidemiological success of these emerging public health

  3. 3-D ground motion modeling for M7 dynamic rupture earthquake scenarios on the Wasatch fault, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roten, D.; Olsen, K. B.; Cruz Atienza, V. M.; Pechmann, J. C.; Magistrale, H. W.

    2009-12-01

    The Salt Lake City segment of the Wasatch fault (WFSLC), located on the eastern edge of the Salt Lake Basin (SLB), is capable of producing M7 earthquakes and represents a serious seismic hazard to Salt Lake City, Utah. We simulate a series of rupture scenarios on the WFSLC to quantify the ground motion expected from such M7 events and to assess the importance of amplification effects from basin focusing and source directivity. We use the newly revised Wasatch Front community velocity model for our simulations, which is tested by simulating records of three local Mw 3.3-3.7 earthquakes in the frequency band 0.5 to 1.0 Hz. The M7 earthquake scenarios make use of a detailed 3-D model geometry of the WFSLC that we developed based on geological observations. To obtain a suite of realistic source representations for M7 WFSLC simulations we perform spontaneous-rupture simulations on a planar 43 km by 23 km fault with the staggered-grid split-node finite-difference (FD) method. We estimate the initial distribution of shear stress using models that assume depth-dependent normal stress for a dipping, normal fault as well as simpler models which use constant (depth-independent) normal stress. The slip rate histories from the spontaneous rupture scenarios are projected onto the irregular dipping geometry of the WFSLC and used to simulate 0-1 Hz wave propagation in the SLB area using a 4th-order, staggered-grid visco-elastic FD method. We find that peak ground velocities tend to be larger on the low-velocity sediments on the hanging wall side of the fault than on outcropping rock on the footwall side, confirming results of previous studies on normal faulting earthquakes. The simulated ground motions reveal strong along-strike directivity effects for ruptures nucleating towards the ends of the WFSLC. The 0-1 Hz FD simulations are combined with local scattering operators to obtain broadband (0-10 Hz) synthetics and maps of average peak ground motions. Finally we use broadband

  4. On the Dynamics of Ultra Compact X-Ray Binaries: 4U 1850-087, 4U 0513-40, and M15 X-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodan, Snezana; Murray, Norman

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we extend our dynamical study of ultra compact X-ray binaries (UCXB) 4U 1820-30 from Prodan & Murray to three more UCXBs in globular clusters: 4U 1850-087, 4U 0513-40, and M15 X-2. These three UCXBs have orbital periods <~ 20 minutes. Two of them, 4U 1850-087 and 4U 0513-40, have suspected luminosity variations of the order of ~1 yr. There is insufficient observational data to make any statements regarding the long periodicity in the light curve of M15 X-2 at this point. The properties of these three systems are quite similar to 4U 1820-30, which prompt us to model their dynamics in the same manner. As in the case of 4U 1820-30, we interpret the suspected long periods as the period of small oscillations around a stable fixed point in the Kozai resonance. We provide a lower limit on the tidal dissipation factor Q, which is in agreement with results obtained for the case of 4U 1820-30.

  5. Utilization of Trihalogenated Propanes by Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 through Heterologous Expression of the Haloalkane Dehalogenase from Rhodococcus sp. Strain m15-3

    PubMed Central

    Bosma, Tjibbe; Kruizinga, Edwin; de Bruin, Erik J.; Poelarends, Gerrit J.; Janssen, Dick B.

    1999-01-01

    Trihalogenated propanes are toxic and recalcitrant organic compounds. Attempts to obtain pure bacterial cultures able to use these compounds as sole carbon and energy sources were unsuccessful. Both the haloalkane dehalogenase from Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 (DhlA) and that from Rhodococcus sp. strain m15-3 (DhaA) were found to dehalogenate trihalopropanes to 2,3-dihalogenated propanols, but the kinetic properties of the latter enzyme are much better. Broad-host-range dehalogenase expression plasmids, based on RSF1010 derivatives, were constructed with the haloalkane dehalogenase from Rhodococcus sp. strain m15-3 under the control of the heterologous promoters Plac, PdhlA, and Ptrc. The resulting plasmids yielded functional expression in several gram-negative bacteria. A catabolic pathway for trihalopropanes was designed by introducing these broad-host-range dehalogenase expression plasmids into Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1, which has the ability to utilize dihalogenated propanols for growth. The recombinant strain AD1(pTB3), expressing the haloalkane dehalogenase gene under the control of the dhlA promoter, was able to utilize both 1,2,3-tribromopropane and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane as sole carbon sources. Moreover, increased expression of the haloalkane dehalogenase resulted in elevated resistance to trihalopropanes. PMID:10508091

  6. ON THE DYNAMICS OF ULTRA COMPACT X-RAY BINARIES: 4U 1850-087, 4U 0513-40, AND M15 X-2

    SciTech Connect

    Prodan, Snezana; Murray, Norman

    2015-01-10

    In this work, we extend our dynamical study of ultra compact X-ray binaries (UCXB) 4U 1820-30 from Prodan and Murray to three more UCXBs in globular clusters: 4U 1850-087, 4U 0513-40, and M15 X-2. These three UCXBs have orbital periods ≲ 20 minutes. Two of them, 4U 1850-087 and 4U 0513-40, have suspected luminosity variations of the order of ∼1 yr. There is insufficient observational data to make any statements regarding the long periodicity in the light curve of M15 X-2 at this point. The properties of these three systems are quite similar to 4U 1820-30, which prompt us to model their dynamics in the same manner. As in the case of 4U 1820-30, we interpret the suspected long periods as the period of small oscillations around a stable fixed point in the Kozai resonance. We provide a lower limit on the tidal dissipation factor Q, which is in agreement with results obtained for the case of 4U 1820-30.

  7. Detector-level spectral characterization of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite long-wave infrared bands M15 and M16.

    PubMed

    Padula, Francis; Cao, Changyong

    2015-06-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor data record (SDR) product achieved validated maturity status in March 2014 after roughly two years of on-orbit characterization (S-NPP spacecraft launched on 28 October 2011). During post-launch analysis the VIIRS Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Environmental Data Record (EDR) team observed an anomalous striping pattern in the daytime SST data. Daytime SST retrievals use the two VIIRS long-wave infrared bands: M15 (10.7 μm) and M16 (11.8 μm). To assess possible root causes due to detector-level spectral response function (SRF) effects, a study was conducted to compare the radiometric response of the detector-level and operational-band averaged SRFs of VIIRS bands M15 and M16. The study used simulated hyperspectral blackbody radiance data and clear-sky ocean hyperspectral radiances under different atmospheric conditions. It was concluded that the SST product is likely impacted by small differences in detector-level SRFs and that if users require optimal radiometric performance, detector-level processing is recommended for both SDR and EDR products. Future work should investigate potential SDR product improvements through detector-level processing in support of the generation of Suomi NPP VIIRS climate quality SDRs. PMID:26192672

  8. High Prevalence of Escherichia coli-Producing CTX-M-15 Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases in Poultry and Human Clinical Isolates in Romania.

    PubMed

    Maciuca, Iuliana E; Williams, Nicola J; Tuchilus, Cristina; Dorneanu, Olivia; Guguianu, Eleonora; Carp-Carare, Catalin; Rimbu, Cristina; Timofte, Dorina

    2015-12-01

    Use of antibiotics in food animals may contribute to development and spread of resistant organisms, particularly so in some countries. The aim of this study was two-fold; first, to establish the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in chicken production in a region within Romania. Second, to study the relatedness of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates recovered from broilers, abattoir workers where the chickens were slaughtered and from the human clinical specimens from two regional hospitals. The results indicated a very high (69%) rate of carriage of ESBL and AmpC-producing E. coli in chickens with 36% CTX-M producers. Sequencing showed that chickens in Romania have the highest worldwide prevalence (53%) of blaCTX-M-15 reported in poultry E. coli isolates. The majority (53%) of the extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli carried plasmid-mediated blaampC genes, mostly blaCMY-2 type, one of the highest prevalences reported in Europe. The predominant CTX-M type found in the human clinical E. coli isolates was blaCTX-M-15 and most isolates coharbored blaOXA-1, blaTEM, and aac(6')-ib-cr. The majority (60%) of the human clinical isolates belonged to the pandemic virulent clone B2-ST131. The clonal relationship between broiler and the human CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates was assessed by macrorestriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), which indicated strain diversity with no common STs found between human and poultry isolates. Moreover, IncI1 was the most prevalent replicon found in broiler ESBL-producing E. coli isolates and also in transconjugants, indicating that plasmids and not clonal spread may play a role in the transfer of blaCTX-M genes. This study identifies a high prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli from broiler chickens in Romania with a high occurrence incidence of blaCTX-M-15, which reflects the main ESBL type found in human E. coli infections in this

  9. Preliminary study of the Suomi NPP VIIRS detector-level spectral response function effects for the long-wave infrared bands M15 and M16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padula, Francis; Cao, Changyong

    2014-09-01

    The Suomi NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Environmental Data Record (EDR) team observed an anomalous striping pattern in the SST data. To assess possible causes due to the detector-level Spectral Response Functions (SRFs), a study was conducted to compare the radiometric response of the detector-level and operation band averaged SRFs of VIIRS bands M15 & M16 using simulated blackbody radiance data and clear-sky ocean radiances under different atmospheric conditions. It was concluded that the SST product is likely impacted by small differences in detector-level SRFs, and that if users require optimal system performance detector-level processing is recommended. Future work will investigate potential SDR product improvements through detector-level processing in support of the generation of Suomi NPP VIIRS climate quality SDRs.

  10. Outbreak Caused by an Ertapenem-Resistant, CTX-M-15-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 101 Clone Carrying an OmpK36 Porin Variant

    PubMed Central

    Poulou, Aggeliki; Voulgari, Evangelia; Vrioni, Georgia; Koumaki, Vasiliki; Xidopoulos, Grigorios; Chatzipantazi, Vasiliki; Markou, Fani

    2013-01-01

    Although numerous studies have documented outbreaks of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) possessing various carbapenemases, reports on outbreaks due to CRKP possessing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and/or AmpCs with porin lesions have been limited. Here, we describe an outbreak caused by an ertapenem-resistant, CTX-M-15-producing clonal K. pneumoniae strain expressing an OmpK36 porin variant. From May 2012 to November 2012, 37 ertapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates phenotypically negative for carbapenemase production were recovered from 19 patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit of a Greek hospital. The isolates were either susceptible or intermediate to other carbapenems and resistant to all remaining β-lactams but cefotetan. Phenotypic and molecular analysis revealed the presence in all isolates of the blaCTX-M-15 gene on a conjugative 100-kb plasmid, disruption in the expression of the ompK35 gene, and the production of an Ompk36 porin variant. The index case was a patient admitted from another hospital. Active surveillance upon admission and on a weekly basis was immediately initiated; environmental samples were also periodically tested. Molecular typing showed that all clinical isolates as well as two ertapenem-resistant environmental K. pneumoniae isolates belonged to the same clonal type and were assigned to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) sequence type 101 (ST101). As all colonized/infected patients were hospitalized during overlapping periods, cross-infection was considered the main route for the dissemination of the outbreak strain. Despite reinforcement of infection control measures and active surveillance, the outbreak lasted approximately 7 months. Identification of hidden carriers upon admission and by screening on a weekly basis was found valuable for early recognition and subsequent successful management of the outbreak. PMID:23850951

  11. High-resolution imaging and crowded-field photometry of the stellar populations in the cores of the Globular Clusters M15 and M4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, R. F.

    1999-02-01

    This thesis presents work performed at the Department of Physics, University College Galway from 1992 to 1997. It is concerned with ground- and space-based high-resolution optical imaging of globular cluster cores, and the subsequent application of image-restoration and crowded-field photometry techniques; thus we may gain an improved understanding of the nature of their stellar populations, by either monitoring their temporal behaviour over moderate periods for the first time, or by obtaining a more precise "static" picture than was hitherto possible. These goals can be achieved by the development of innovative instrumentation and data analysis techniques. The particularly unique aspect of this work is that it deals with the first application of two-dimensional photon-counting detectors (2D-PCDs) and post-exposure image sharpening (PEIS) for crowded-field photometry. The thesis starts by introducing some basic concepts and characteristics of globular clusters and the diverse stellar species which they contain, in particular those predicted to have formed as a result of dynamical processes in the cluster cores, and those which exhibit variability in emission over time. It then reviews the fields of high-resolution imaging through the turbulent atmosphere & image deconvolution, optical stellar photometry, and Hubble Space Telescope observing and data reduction, each concluded with a description of the systems used in the work reported here (for the HST chapter this involves photometry of WFPC2 (Wide Field & Planetary Camera 2) observations of M15 (NGC 7078) released into the archives in 1995). The core of the thesis begins with a review of the observations to date of the objects with which this thesis is chiefly concerned, M15 and M4 (NGC 6121). In the following sections we describe the observations of these clusters which were made using the TRIFFID camera between 1992 and 1995, the image sharpening and calibration steps performed, and the photometric techniques

  12. High-resolution imaging and crowded-field photometry of the stellar populations in the cores of the Globular Clusters M15 and M4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, R. F.

    1999-02-01

    This thesis presents work performed at the Department of Physics, University College Galway from 1992 to 1997. It is concerned with ground- and space-based high-resolution optical imaging of globular cluster cores, and the subsequent application of image-restoration and crowded-field photometry techniques; thus we may gain an improved understanding of the nature of their stellar populations, by either monitoring their temporal behaviour over moderate periods for the first time, or by obtaining a more precise "static" picture than was hitherto possible. These goals can be achieved by the development of innovative instrumentation and data analysis techniques. The particularly unique aspect of this work is that it deals with the first application of two-dimensional photon-counting detectors (2D-PCDs) and post-exposure image sharpening (PEIS) for crowded-field photometry. The thesis starts by introducing some basic concepts and characteristics of globular clusters and the diverse stellar species which they contain, in particular those predicted to have formed as a result of dynamical processes in the cluster cores, and those which exhibit variability in emission over time. It then reviews the fields of high-resolution imaging through the turbulent atmosphere & image deconvolution, optical stellar photometry, and Hubble Space Telescope observing and data reduction, each concluded with a description of the systems used in the work reported here (for the HST chapter this involves photometry of WFPC2 (Wide Field & Planetary Camera 2) observations of M15 (NGC 7078) released into the archives in 1995). The core of the thesis begins with a review of the observations to date of the objects with which this thesis is chiefly concerned, M15 and M4 (NGC 6121). In the following sections we describe the observations of these clusters which were made using the TRIFFID camera between 1992 and 1995, the image sharpening and calibration steps performed, and the photometric techniques

  13. Holocene paleoseismicity, temporal clustering, and probabilities of future large (M > 7) earthquakes on the Wasatch fault zone, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCalpin, J.P.; Nishenko, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    The chronology of M>7 paleoearthquakes on the central five segments of the Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) is one of the best dated in the world and contains 16 earthquakes in the past 5600 years with an average repeat time of 350 years. Repeat times for individual segments vary by a factor of 2, and range from about 1200 to 2600 years. Four of the central five segments ruptured between ??? 620??30 and 1230??60 calendar years B.P. The remaining segment (Brigham City segment) has not ruptured in the past 2120??100 years. Comparison of the WFZ space-time diagram of paleoearthquakes with synthetic paleoseismic histories indicates that the observed temporal clusters and gaps have about an equal probability (depending on model assumptions) of reflecting random coincidence as opposed to intersegment contagion. Regional seismicity suggests that for exposure times of 50 and 100 years, the probability for an earthquake of M>7 anywhere within the Wasatch Front region, based on a Poisson model, is 0.16 and 0.30, respectively. A fault-specific WFZ model predicts 50 and 100 year probabilities for a M>7 earthquake on the WFZ itself, based on a Poisson model, as 0.13 and 0.25, respectively. In contrast, segment-specific earthquake probabilities that assume quasi-periodic recurrence behavior on the Weber, Provo, and Nephi segments are less (0.01-0.07 in 100 years) than the regional or fault-specific estimates (0.25-0.30 in 100 years), due to the short elapsed times compared to average recurrence intervals on those segments. The Brigham City and Salt Lake City segments, however, have time-dependent probabilities that approach or exceed the regional and fault specific probabilities. For the Salt Lake City segment, these elevated probabilities are due to the elapsed time being approximately equal to the average late Holocene recurrence time. For the Brigham City segment, the elapsed time is significantly longer than the segment-specific late Holocene recurrence time.

  14. Was the 2015 Hindu-Kush intermediate-depth earthquake a repeat of the previous M~7 earthquakes ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Tomoya; Satake, Kenji; Ishibashi, Katsuhiko

    2016-04-01

    On Oct. 26, 2015, an Mw7.5 earthquake occurred at intermediate depth (230 km) beneath Hindu-Kush. This event took place in the source region of the six previous M~7 earthquakes which recurred about every nine years:1956 (mb 6.5), 1965 (mb 7.5), 1974 (mb 7.1), 1983 (Mw 7.4), 1993 (Mw 7.0), and 2002 (Mw 7.3). On the basis of these past events, Harada and Ishibashi (2012, EGU) proposed that next event might be imminent in this region. However, recurrence interval between the 2002 and 2015 events is longer than those of events before 2002. In this study, in order to examine whether the 2015 earthquake re-ruptured the source region of the repeating M~7 earthquakes, we performed the same analysis of Harada and Ishibashi (2012) for the previous M~7 intermediate-depth earthquakes; namely, simultaneous relocation of the 1956 main shock and the earthquakes from 1964 to 2015, and mechanism determination / slip distribution estimation of the six events by tele-seismic body-wave analysis. As a result, the 2015 main shock is located close to the 1956, 1965, 1974, and 1983 main shocks and the 1993 foreshock (Mw 6.3) which occurred about 30 minutes before the main shock. The 2015 mechanism solution is very similar to those of the former six events (ESE-WNW striking and southward-dipping high-angle reverse faulting with a down-dip tension). However, the 2015 slip is distributed at the un-ruptured area by the five earthquakes from 1965 to 2002. The 1965, 1974, 1983, and 1993 events rupture the same region repeatedly. The main slips of the 1993, 2002, and 2015 events do not overlap each other; this was confirmed by re-analysis of the waveforms recorded at the same stations. As for the 1965, 1974, and 1983 earthquakes, overlap of the slip distributions may be caused by the low quality of the waveform data. From slip distributions, the M~7 earthquakes, at least for the 1993, 2002, and 2015 events, may not be considered as characteristic earthquakes. However, it is notable that main

  15. Acoustic Emission Precursors of M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989Loma Prieta Earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Korneev, Valeri

    2005-02-01

    Two recent strike-slip earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault(SAF) in California, the M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989 Loma Prietaevents, revealed peaks in the acoustic emission (AE) activity in thesurrounding crust several months prior to the main events. Earthquakesdirectly within the SAF zone were intentionally excluded from theanalysis. The observed increase in AE is assumed to be a signature of theincreasing stress level in the surrounding crust, while the peak andsubsequent decrease in AE starting several months prior to the mainevents is attributed to damage-induced softening processes as discussedherein. Further, distinctive zones of low seismic activity surroundingthe epicentral regions in the pre-event time period are present for thetwo studied events. Both AE increases in the crust surrounding apotential future event and the development of a low-seismicity epicentralzone can be regarded as promising precursory information that could helpsignal the arrival of large earthquakes.

  16. Escherichia coli-producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase CTX-M-15 in a captive South American tapir (Tapirus terrestris).

    PubMed

    Klimes, Jiri; Machalkova, Marketa; Dolejska, Monika; Cizek, Alois; Janoszowska, Dagmar; Alexa, Pavel; Albrechtova, Katerina; Vojtech, Jiri; Literak, Ivan

    2013-03-01

    Only a few reports exist on the occurrence of resistant bacteria in zoo animals. Therefore, an isolation of multiresistant Escherichia coli from the lungs of a captive South American tapir (Tapirus terrestris) lead to its characterization and further investigation of samples from animals inhabiting the same paddock and from the shared environment. The tapir suffered from an intermandibular abscess and pneumonia and was euthanatized after unsuccessful therapy, including administration of antibiotics. The authors performed selective isolation of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive E. coli strains and identification of resistance genes using polymerase chain reaction. Seven multiresistant, ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were obtained, all belonging to the B2 phylogenetic group and showing identical profile on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. These isolates carried several resistance genes, including the gene bla(CTX-M-15). This case demonstrates the transmission of related epidemiologically important E. coli isolates whose potential transmission to other animals and zoo staff can be assumed. PMID:23505722

  17. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of OP0595, a New Diazabicyclooctane, against CTX-M-15-Positive Escherichia coli and KPC-Positive Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Morinaka, Akihiro; Tsutsumi, Yuko; Yamada, Keiko; Takayama, Yoshihiro; Sakakibara, Shiro; Takata, Toshihiko; Abe, Takao; Furuuchi, Takeshi; Inamura, Seiichi; Sakamaki, Yoshiaki; Tsujii, Nakako; Ida, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are evolving to produce β-lactamases of increasing diversity that challenge antimicrobial chemotherapy. OP0595 is a new diazabicyclooctane serine β-lactamase inhibitor which acts also as an antibiotic and as a β-lactamase-independent β-lactam "enhancer" against Enterobacteriaceae Here we determined the optimal concentration of OP0595 in combination with piperacillin, cefepime, and meropenem, in addition to the antibacterial activity of OP0595 alone and in combination with cefepime, in in vitro time-kill studies and an in vivo infection model against five strains of CTX-M-15-positive Escherichia coli and five strains of KPC-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae An OP0595 concentration of 4 μg/ml was found to be sufficient for an effective combination with all three β-lactam agents. In both in vitro time-kill studies and an in vivo model of infection, cefepime-OP0595 showed stronger efficacy than cefepime alone against all β-lactamase-positive strains tested, whereas OP0595 alone showed weaker or no efficacy. Taken together, these data indicate that combinational use of OP0595 and a β-lactam agent is important to exert the antimicrobial functions of OP0595. PMID:26953205

  18. Successful international clones of blaCTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae with coexpression of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants in Tehran hospitals.

    PubMed

    Nematzadeh, Shoeib; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Iversen, Aina; Giske, Christian G

    2015-12-01

    The dissemination of plasmid-mediated multidrug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is a major public health concern. We investigated the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR), 16S rRNA methylases, CTX-M, and acquired AmpC enzymes in ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=40) from Tehran hospitals. Plasmid replicon typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were carried out for typing. CTX-M group 1 (confirmed as bla(CTX-M-15) in selected isolates) was found in 35/40 isolates. Thirty-two isolates hosted PMQR genes. Twenty isolates featured aac(6')-Ib-CR only; 9 isolates had aac(6')-Ib-CR and qnrB; 2 isolates had aac(6')-Ib-CR and qnrS; and 1 isolate had aac(6')-Ib-CR, qnrS, and qepA. The 16S rRNA methylase RmtB was found in 1 isolate; and acquired AmpC enzymes, in 6 isolates. PFGE detected 7 pulsotypes, the largest corresponded to sequence type 16. The successful clone ST101 was also found. The emergence of successful clones of K. pneumoniae in Tehran hospitals is concerning. PMID:26458278

  19. Activation of PrfA results in overexpression of virulence factors but does not rescue the pathogenicity of Listeria monocytogenes M7.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chun; Cao, Tong; Cheng, Changyong; Xia, Ye; Shan, Ying; Xin, Yongping; Guo, Ningning; Li, Xiaoliang; Song, Houhui; Fang, Weihuan

    2015-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes encodes a transcriptional activator, PrfA, to positively regulate the expression of virulence factors. Several mutations in PrfA (PrfA*) have been found to contribute to increased regulatory activity. Here, we describe a strain, M7, containing a PrfA*(G145S) that activates expression of virulence factors but with low pathogenicity. To study this contradictory relationship, we exchanged the prfA genes between strains EGDe and M7 (designated EGDe-prfA(M7) and M7-prfA(EGDe)). The phospholipase B (PlcB) and listeriolysin O (LLO) activities were significantly upregulated in the strain EGDe-prfA(M7) (PrfA*). Constitutive activation of PrfA potentiated virulence of the pathogenic strain EGDe, shown as increased adhesion and invasion as well as enhanced cell-to-cell spread in cultured cell lines. However, the strain M7, though PrfA-activated, had significant defects in these virulence-related phenotypes and low pathogenicity in the murine infection model, as compared with EGDe or EGDe-PrfA(M7). To further uncover the possible mechanisms, we analysed abundance and distributions of InlA, InlB, LLO and ActA proteins, all regulated by PrfA, in EGDe, M7 and their prfA mutants. Western blotting showed that the PrfA-regulated genes of constitutively activated PrfA strains were overexpressed in vitro, while different distributions were observed. In contrast to the virulent strain EGDe-prfA(M7), the majority of InlB in M7 was detected in the culture supernatant and not on the bacterial surface. We suppose that the low virulence of strain M7 is due to its defects in infecting host cells, possibly as a result of failed anchorage on the bacterial cells of surface proteins like InlB, a major protein involved in adhesion and invasion of pathogenic L. monocytogenes strains. Further research is warranted to address why InlB detaches from the bacterial cells of this particular strain. PMID:26055558

  20. Dissemination of IncFII(K)-type plasmids in multiresistant CTX-M-15-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates from children in hospital paediatric oncology wards.

    PubMed

    Dolejska, Monika; Brhelova, Eva; Dobiasova, Hana; Krivdova, Jana; Jurankova, Jana; Sevcikova, Alena; Dubska, Lenka; Literak, Ivan; Cizek, Alois; Vavrina, Martin; Kutnikova, Lucia; Sterba, Jaroslav

    2012-12-01

    In this study, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates in children with malignancies hospitalised at a paediatric oncology department in the Czech Republic were investigated. From June 2009 to January 2010, a total of 50 ESBL-producing faecal isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were obtained from 28 patients. These isolates were characterised with regard to ESBL enzymes, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and plasmids conferring resistance to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. ESBL-producing isolates included Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=36), Escherichia coli (n=7), Klebsiella oxytoca (n=3), Enterobacter cloacae (n=2) and Citrobacter freundii (n=2). Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates belonged to 7 MLST types, including sequence types ST280, ST321, ST323 and ST416 as well as the novel types ST626, ST627 and ST628. The multiresistant epidemic clone E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 was detected in one patient. The gene bla(CTX-M-15) was found on large conjugative IncFII(K) plasmids along with bla(TEM-1), bla(OXA-1), qnrB1, aac(6')-Ib-cr, strA, sul2, aac(3')-II and tet(A) genes in most isolates. Dissemination of IncFII(K) plasmids among various Enterobacteriaceae isolates was considered an important aspect of nosocomial colonisation in the wards by Enterobacteriaceae species producing ESBLs. This is the first study documenting multiple antibiotic resistance elements, including qnr genes, in IncFII(K) plasmids in various bacterial species isolated in a single hospital department. The results highlight the evolution of IncFII(K) plasmids into new variants containing novel antibiotic resistance elements and their important role in spreading ESBL-producing bacteria among hospitalised patients. PMID:23043911

  1. Outbreak of Serratia marcescens Coproducing ArmA and CTX-M-15 Mediated High Levels of Resistance to Aminoglycoside and Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Batah, Rima; Loucif, Lotfi; Olaitan, Abiola Olumuyiwa; Boutefnouchet, Nafissa; Allag, Hamoudi; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2015-08-01

    Serratia marcescens is one of the most important pathogens responsible for nosocomial infections worldwide. Here, we have investigated the molecular support of antibiotic resistance and genetic relationships in a series of 54 S. marcescens clinical isolates collected from Eastern Algeria between December 2011 and July 2013. The 54 isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by disc diffusion and E-test methods. Antibiotic resistance genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genetic transfer of antibiotic resistance was performed by conjugation using azide-resistant Escherichia coli J53 as the recipient strain, and plasmid analysis was done by PCR-based replicon typing. The relatedness of our isolates was determined by phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of four protein-encoding genes (gyrB, rpoB, infB, and atpD) and then compared to MALDI-TOF MS clustering. Thirty-five out of 54 isolates yielded an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype and carried bla(CTX-M-15) (n=32), bla(TEM-1) (n=26), bla(TEM-71) (n=1), bla(SHV-1a) (n=1), and bla(PER-2) (n=12). Among these isolates, we identified a cluster of 15 isolates from a urology unit that coharbored ESBL and the 16S rRNA methyltransferase armA. Conjugation was successful for five selected strains, demonstrating the transferability of a conjugative plasmid of incompatibility group incL/M type. Phylogenetic analysis along with MALDI-TOF clustering likely suggested an outbreak of such isolates in the urology unit. In this study, we report for the first time the co-occurrence of armA methyltransferase with ESBL in S. marcescens clinical isolates in Eastern Algeria. PMID:25884511

  2. Post-Seismic Fault Healing on the Rupture Zone of the 1999 M7.1 Hector Mine, California Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Vidale, J. E.; Day, S. M.; Oglesby, D. D.; Cochran, E.; Gross, K.; Burdette, T.; Alvarez, M.

    2002-12-01

    We probed the rupture zone of the October 1999 M7.1 Hector Mine earthquake using repeated near-surface explosions in October, 2000 and November, 2001. Three dense linear seismic arrays were deployed across the north and south Lavic Lake faults (LLF) that broke to the surface in the mainshock, and across the Bullion fault (BF) that experienced minor slip in that event. Two explosions each year were detonated in the rupture zone on the middle and south LLF, respectively. We found that P and S velocities of fault-zone rocks increased by ~0.7 to 1.4% and ~0.5 to 1.0% between 2000 and 2001, respectively. In contrast, the velocities for P and S waves in surrounding rocks increased much less. This trend indicates the Hector Mine rupture zone has been healing by strengthening after the mainshock, which we attribute to the closure of cracks that opened during the 1999 earthquake. The 'crack dilatancy' mechanisms are most likely to operate for fault healing at shallow depth although the healing may be controlled by a combination of mechanical and chemical processes on the fault during the earthquake cycle. The observed fault-zone strength recovery is consistent with an apparent crack density decrease of 1.5% within the rupture zone. The ratio of travel time decrease for P to S waves was 0.72, consistent with partially fluid-filled cracks near the fault zone were. We also find variability in healing rates between the fault segments. The velocity increase with time varies from one fault segment to another at the Hector Mine rupture zone. We see greater changes on the LLF than on the BF, and the greatest change is on the middle LLF at shallow depth. We speculate that greater damage was inflicted, and thus greater healing is observed, in regions with larger slip in the mainshock. This post-seismic restrengthening of the Hector Mine rupture zone is similar to that observed on the Johnson Valley fault which ruptured in the 1992 M7.4 Landers earthquake (Li and Vidale, GRL, 2001

  3. Identification and role analysis of an intermediate produced by a polygenic mutant of Monascus pigments cluster in Monascus ruber M7.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiao; Zhou, Youxiang; Yi, Tao; Zhao, Mingming; Xie, Nana; Lei, Ming; Liu, Qingpei; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2016-08-01

    Monascus pigments (Mps) are a group of azaphilonic secondary metabolites produced by Monascus spp. via a polyketide pathway. A mutant deleted an about 30 kb region of Mps gene cluster from Monascus ruber M7 was isolated previously, which produces a high amount of a light yellow pigment. The current study revealed that the mutant named ΔMpigJ-R lost proximate eight genes of the Mps gene cluster in M. ruber M7 through genetic analysis at DNA and RNA levels. The produced light yellow material was identified as a benzaldehyde derivative named as 6-(4-hydroxy-2-oxopentyl)-3-methyl-2, 4-dioxocyclohexane carb-aldehyde (M7PKS-1) by FT-IR, NMR, and MS. The sodium acetate-1-(13)C feeding experiment indicated that M7PKS-1 was a product produced from polyketide pathway. Finally, the feeding of M7PKS-1 helped to induce and regain Mps production of the mutants (ΔMpigA and ΔMpigE) which were previously unable to biosynthesize Mps and proved that M7PKS-1 was an initial intermediate of Mps. The results in this study provide a line of action to unveil Monascus pigments biosynthesis pathway. PMID:26946170

  4. Observations and simulations of seismoionospheric GPS total electron content anomalies before the 12 January 2010 M7 Haiti earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. Y.; Le, H.; Chen, Y. I.; Chen, C. H.; Liu, L.; Wan, W.; Su, Y. Z.; Sun, Y. Y.; Lin, C. H.; Chen, M. Q.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, the total electron content (TEC) of the global ionosphere map (GIM) is used to detect seismoionospheric anomalies associated with the 12 January 2010 M7 Haiti earthquake, and an ionospheric model is applied to simulate the detected anomalies. The GIM temporal variation shows that the TEC over the epicenter significantly enhances on 11 January 2010, 1 day before the earthquake. The latitude-time-TEC (LTT) plots reveal three anomalies: (1) the northern crest of equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) moves poleward, (2) the TECs at the epicenter and its conjugate increase, and (3) the TECs at two dense bands in the midlatitude ionosphere of 35°N and 60°S further enhance. The spatial analysis demonstrates that the TEC enhancement anomaly appears specifically and persistently in a small region of the northern epicenter area. The simulation well reproduces the three GIM TEC anomalies, which indicate that the dynamoelectric field of the ionospheric plasma fountain might have been perturbed by seismoelectric signals generated around the epicenter during the earthquake preparation period.

  5. Monacyclinones, New Angucyclinone Metabolites Isolated from Streptomyces sp. M7_15 Associated with the Puerto Rican Sponge Scopalina ruetzleri

    PubMed Central

    Vicente, Jan; Stewart, Allison K.; van Wagoner, Ryan M.; Elliott, Elizabeth; Bourdelais, Andrea J.; Wright, Jeffrey L. C.

    2015-01-01

    During an investigation of new actinomycete species from Caribbean sponges for novel bioactive natural products, frigocyclinone (1), dimethyldehydrorabelomycin (3) and six new angucyclinone derivatives were isolated from Streptomyces sp. strain M7_15 associated with the sponge Scopalina ruetzleri. Of these, monacyclinones A–B (4–5) contain the core ring structure of dehydrorabelomycin (2) with the aminodeoxysugar found in frigocyclinone (1). Monacyclinone C (6) is a hydroxylated variant of frigocyclinone (1) and monacyclinone D (7) is a Baeyer Villiger derivative of (6) which also exists as the open chain hydrolysis product monacyclinone E (8). Monacyclinone F (9) contains two unique epoxide rings attached to the angucyclinone moiety and an additional aminodeoxysugar attached through an angular oxygen bond. All structures were confirmed through spectral analyses. Activity against rhabdomycosarcoma cancer cells (SJCRH30) after 48 h of treatment was observed with frigocyclinone (1; EC50 = 5.2 µM), monacyclinone C (6; 160 µM), monacyclinone E (8; 270 µM), and monacyclinone F (9; 0.73 µM). The strongest bioactivity against rhabdomycosarcoma cancer cells and gram-positive bacteria was exhibited by compound 9, suggesting that the extra aminodeoxysugar subunit is important for biological activity. PMID:26230704

  6. Structural characterization of M7C3-type carbide precipitated in the aging treated 100Mn13 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Linnan; Ding, Zhimin; Liang, Bo; Xu, Zhenfeng

    2015-11-01

    The distribution and the microstructure of carbides and pearlite, orientation relationships of pearlitic component phase in 100Mn13 steel by solution treatment at 1050 °C and aging treatment at 525 °C were investigated by optical microscope and transmission electron microscope. The results show that there is a large number of carbides and pearlite forming within the austenite grain and at the grain boundaries. The carbides in the pearlite of 100Mn13 steel have two kinds of morphologies, namely flaky and short rod. The type of carbides is M7C3. The carbides with different morphologies in the pearlite have different crystallographic orientation relationships with the ferrite. The orientation relationships between the flaky carbides and the ferrite are ?, ?, while the orientation relationships between the short-rod carbides and the ferrite are ?, ?. The short-rod carbides distribute directionally and orderly on the ferrite, which is similar to the morphology of the interphase precipitate. Therefore, the class-interphase precipitate mechanism is proposed in this study.

  7. Rapid earthquake characterization using MEMS accelerometers and volunteer hosts following the M 7.2 Darfield, New Zealand, Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, J. F.; Cochran, E.S.; Chung, A.; Kaiser, A.; Christensen, C. M.; Allen, R.; Baker, J.W.; Fry, B.; Heaton, T.; Kilb, Debi; Kohler, M.D.; Taufer, M.

    2014-01-01

    We test the feasibility of rapidly detecting and characterizing earthquakes with the Quake‐Catcher Network (QCN) that connects low‐cost microelectromechanical systems accelerometers to a network of volunteer‐owned, Internet‐connected computers. Following the 3 September 2010 M 7.2 Darfield, New Zealand, earthquake we installed over 180 QCN sensors in the Christchurch region to record the aftershock sequence. The sensors are monitored continuously by the host computer and send trigger reports to the central server. The central server correlates incoming triggers to detect when an earthquake has occurred. The location and magnitude are then rapidly estimated from a minimal set of received ground‐motion parameters. Full seismic time series are typically not retrieved for tens of minutes or even hours after an event. We benchmark the QCN real‐time detection performance against the GNS Science GeoNet earthquake catalog. Under normal network operations, QCN detects and characterizes earthquakes within 9.1 s of the earthquake rupture and determines the magnitude within 1 magnitude unit of that reported in the GNS catalog for 90% of the detections.

  8. Large rock avalanches triggered by the M 7.9 Denali Fault, Alaska, earthquake of 3 November 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jibson, R.W.; Harp, E.L.; Schulz, W.; Keefer, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    The moment magnitude (M) 7.9 Denali Fault, Alaska, earthquake of 3 November 2002 triggered thousands of landslides, primarily rock falls and rock slides, that ranged in volume from rock falls of a few cubic meters to rock avalanches having volumes as great as 20 ?? 106 m3. The pattern of landsliding was unusual: the number and concentration of triggered slides was much less than expected for an earthquake of this magnitude, and the landslides were concentrated in a narrow zone about 30-km wide that straddled the fault-rupture zone over its entire 300-km length. Despite the overall sparse landslide concentration, the earthquake triggered several large rock avalanches that clustered along the western third of the rupture zone where acceleration levels and ground-shaking frequencies are thought to have been the highest. Inferences about near-field strong-shaking characteristics drawn from interpretation of the landslide distribution are strikingly consistent with results of recent inversion modeling that indicate that high-frequency energy generation was greatest in the western part of the fault-rupture zone and decreased markedly to the east. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Crystal structure of Bacillus subtilis TrmB, the tRNA (m7G46) methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Zegers, Ingrid; Gigot, Daniel; van Vliet, Françoise; Tricot, Catherine; Aymerich, Stéphane; Bujnicki, Janusz M.; Kosinski, Jan; Droogmans, Louis

    2006-01-01

    The structure of Bacillus subtilis TrmB (BsTrmB), the tRNA (m7G46) methyltransferase, was determined at a resolution of 2.1 Å. This is the first structure of a member of the TrmB family to be determined by X-ray crystallography. It reveals a unique variant of the Rossmann-fold methyltransferase (RFM) structure, with the N-terminal helix folded on the opposite site of the catalytic domain. The architecture of the active site and a computational docking model of BsTrmB in complex with the methyl group donor S-adenosyl-l-methionine and the tRNA substrate provide an explanation for results from mutagenesis studies of an orthologous enzyme from Escherichia coli (EcTrmB). However, unlike EcTrmB, BsTrmB is shown here to be dimeric both in the crystal and in solution. The dimer interface has a hydrophobic core and buries a potassium ion and five water molecules. The evolutionary analysis of the putative interface residues in the TrmB family suggests that homodimerization may be a specific feature of TrmBs from Bacilli, which may represent an early stage of evolution to an obligatory dimer. PMID:16600901

  10. Seismicity Precursors of the M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989Loma Prieta Earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Korneev, Valeri A.

    2006-03-09

    The M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989 Loma Prietastrike-slip earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault (SAF) were preceded byseismicity peaks occurring several months prior to the main events.Earthquakes directly within the SAF zone were intentionally excluded fromthe analysis because they manifest stress-release processes rather thanstress accumulation. The observed increase in seismicity is interpretedas a signature of the increasing stress level in the surrounding crust,whereas the peaks and the subsequent decrease in seismicity areattributed to damage-induced softening processes. Furthermore, in bothcases there is a distinctive zone of low seismic activity that surroundsthe epicentral region in the pre-event period. The increase of seismicityin the crust surrounding a potential future event and the development ofa low-seismicity epicentral zone can be regarded as promising precursoryinformation that could help signal the arrival of large earthquakes. TheGutenberg-Richter relationship (GRR) should allow extrapolation ofseismicity changes down to seismic noise level magnitudes. Thishypothesis is verified by comparison of seismic noise at 80 Hz with theParkfield M4 1993-1994 series, where noise peaks 5 months before theseries to about twice the background level.

  11. Monacyclinones, New Angucyclinone Metabolites Isolated from Streptomyces sp. M7_15 Associated with the Puerto Rican Sponge Scopalina ruetzleri.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Jan; Stewart, Allison K; van Wagoner, Ryan M; Elliott, Elizabeth; Bourdelais, Andrea J; Wright, Jeffrey L C

    2015-08-01

    During an investigation of new actinomycete species from Caribbean sponges for novel bioactive natural products, frigocyclinone (1), dimethyldehydrorabelomycin (3) and six new angucyclinone derivatives were isolated from Streptomyces sp. strain M7_15 associated with the sponge Scopalina ruetzleri. Of these, monacyclinones A-B (4-5) contain the core ring structure of dehydrorabelomycin (2) with the aminodeoxysugar found in frigocyclinone (1). Monacyclinone C (6) is a hydroxylated variant of frigocyclinone (1) and monacyclinone D (7) is a Baeyer Villiger derivative of (6) which also exists as the open chain hydrolysis product monacyclinone E (8). Monacyclinone F (9) contains two unique epoxide rings attached to the angucyclinone moiety and an additional aminodeoxysugar attached through an angular oxygen bond. All structures were confirmed through spectral analyses. Activity against rhabdomycosarcoma cancer cells (SJCRH30) after 48 h of treatment was observed with frigocyclinone (1; EC50 = 5.2 µM), monacyclinone C (6; 160 µM), monacyclinone E (8; 270 µM), and monacyclinone F (9; 0.73 µM). The strongest bioactivity against rhabdomycosarcoma cancer cells and gram-positive bacteria was exhibited by compound 9, suggesting that the extra aminodeoxysugar subunit is important for biological activity. PMID:26230704

  12. Factors Contributing to Multi-Segment Rupture in the 2010 M7.1 Darfield, New Zealand, Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aagaard, B.; Williams, C. A.; Fry, B.

    2014-12-01

    We use dynamic prescribed slip (kinematic) modeling to examine the factors contributing to multi-segment rupture in the 2010 M7.1 Darfield earthquake. We consider fault geometry and slip distributions from inversions by Beavan et al. (2012) based on geodetic observations and by Elliott et al. (2012) based on geodetic and teleseismic observations. We invert for subevent origin times using strong-motion records and find complex rupture propagation across multiple fault segments. Our inversions suggest that the rupture began on one or two secondary faults with reverse/oblique slip near the hypocenter, consistent with the GNS first motion mechanism. The primary bilateral strike-slip rupture of the Greendale fault, consistent with centroid moment tensor solutions, occurred about 9-10 seconds after the origin time. The strong-motion records provide poor constraints on the timing of rupture of the reverse Hororata fault, which may have occurred about 16-17 seconds after the origin time. Denser strong-motion instrumentation would have provided stronger constraints on the timing of the complex rupture. The relative orientation of the regional stress field and the faulting regime explain the sense of motion and loading of these fault segments. Additionally, dynamic stress changes also created favorable conditions for triggering of the main rupture on the Greendale fault. Current work focuses on evaluating how well the UCERF3 (USGS Open File Report 2013-1165) criteria for forecasting multi-segment ruptures in California apply to this complex rupture in New Zealand.

  13. Lateral spread hazard mapping of the northern Salt Lake Valley, Utah, for a M7.0 scenario earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, M.J.; Bartlett, S.F.; Solomon, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology used to develop a lateral spread-displacement hazard map for northern Salt Lake Valley, Utah, using a scenario M7.0 earthquake occurring on the Salt Lake City segment of the Wasatch fault. The mapping effort is supported by a substantial amount of geotechnical, geologic, and topographic data compiled for the Salt Lake Valley, Utah. ArcGIS?? routines created for the mapping project then input this information to perform site-specific lateral spread analyses using methods developed by Bartlett and Youd (1992) and Youd et al. (2002) at individual borehole locations. The distributions of predicted lateral spread displacements from the boreholes located spatially within a geologic unit were subsequently used to map the hazard for that particular unit. The mapped displacement zones consist of low hazard (0-0.1 m), moderate hazard (0.1-0.3 m), high hazard (0.3-1.0 m), and very high hazard (> 1.0 m). As expected, the produced map shows the highest hazard in the alluvial deposits at the center of the valley and in sandy deposits close to the fault. This mapping effort is currently being applied to the southern part of the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, and probabilistic maps are being developed for the entire valley. ?? 2007, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  14. Stress interaction of strike-slip and thrust faults associated with the 2010 M=7.0 Haiti earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Stein, R. S.; Sevilgen, V.; Toda, S.

    2010-12-01

    Recent investigations from combined seismological and space geodetic constraints suggest that the mainshock source faults of the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake might be complex and consist of both strike-slip and thrust faults. We calculate Coulomb stress changes on adjacent strike-slip and thrust faults caused by the 2010 M=7.0 rupture by considering a range of mainshock and receiver fault models. We find that for all of the mainshock source models examined, including Hayes et al. (submitted to Nature Geoscience), the Coulomb stress is calculated to have increased on sections of the Enriquillo Fault to both the east and west of the January ruptures. We assume the Enriquillo is dominantly strike-slip. While the magnitude of the calculated stress increase depends on the complexity of the proposed mainshock models, the Enriquillo Fault segment immediately south of Port-au-Prince is calculated to be within a zone of stress increases regardless if the Enriquillo Fault is assumed south dipping or vertical. We further calculate that 60-70% of the nodal planes of the aftershocks determined by Nettles & Hjorleifsdottir (GJI, 2010) were brought closer to failure by the mainshock. Relocating these aftershock locations north by 10 km would bring additional 10% of the aftershock nodal planes into Coulomb stress increases. Overall the 2010 Haiti earthquake illustrates the complex stress interaction between strike-slip and thrust motion on various segments of a larger compressional fault system.

  15. Landslides and liquefaction triggered by the M 7.9 denali fault earthquake of 3 November 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, E.L.; Jibson, R.W.; Kayen, R.E.; Keefer, D.K.; Sherrod, B.L.; Carver, G.A.; Collins, B.D.; Moss, R.E.S.; Sitar, N.

    2003-01-01

    The moment magnitude (M) 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake in Alaska of 3 November 2002 triggered an unusual pattern of landslides and liquefaction effects. The landslides were primarily rock falls and rock slides that ranged in volume from a few cubic meters to the 40 million-cubic-meter rock avalanche that covered much of the McGinnis Glacier. Landslides were concentrated in a narrow zone ???30 km wide that straddled the fault rupture zone over its entire 300 km length. Large rock avalanches all clustered at the western end of the rupture zone where acceleration levels are reported to have been the highest. Liquefaction effects, consisting of sand blows, lateral spreads, and settlement, were widespread within susceptible alluvial deposits extending from Fairbanks eastward several hundred kilometers. The liquefaction effects displayed a pattern of increasing concentration and severity from west to east and extended well beyond the zone of landslides, which is unusual. The contrasting patterns formed by the distributions of landslides and liquefaction effects initially seemed to be inconsistent; however, preliminary analyses of strong-motion records from the earthquake offer a possible explanation for the unusual ground-failure patterns that are related to three subevents that have been discerned from the earthquake records.

  16. Growth of a Structure Connecting the 2010 M 7.2 El Mayor - Cucapah Rupture with the Elsinore Faul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnellan, A.; Parker, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The M 7.2 El Mayor - Cucapah earthquake occurred on 4 April 2010 in the northern part of Baja, Mexico. The rupture extended about 120 km from near the northern tip of the Gulf of California to the US - Mexican border south of the Elsinore fault zone. Most of the aftershocks occurred within days of the main event. On 14 June 2010 a M 5.7 late aftershock occurred 8 km southeast of Ocotillo, CA and is the largest aftershock in the sequence. The right-lateral event occurred in a cluster of aftershocks and was followed by its own aftershock sequence. UAVSAR data were collected for a swath covering the aftershock on 13 April, 2010 just after the El Mayor - Cucapah earthquake and before the earthquake on 21 October 2009. The line was reflown 1 July 2010 after the M 5.7 14 June 2010 aftershock. Data have been continued to be collected semi yearly to yearly since then. Repeat Pass Interferomety (RPI) products spanning the aftershock show the growth of a lineament that with an azimuth of 121.5° or a strike of -58.5°. The interferograms suggest that a stepover develops following the earthquake. The epicenter of the M 5.7 aftershock is proximal to the linear discontinuity in the postseismic interferogram and the mechanism of the event is consistent with slip on this stepover. Inversions for slip on the northeast linear structure that steps west of the mainshock rupture yield a moment magnitude ranging from 5.5 - 5.8, which is consistent with the magnitude of the aftershock. Slip occurs at a depth of 2-10 km on a steeply dipping fault.

  17. InSAR detection of a new mode of postseismic deformation following the 2010 M=7.0 Haiti earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wdowinski, S.; Hong, S.

    2011-12-01

    An unusual postseismic deformation pattern was detected at the northern extent of the Leogane delta (northern shores of Haiti's southern peninsula) following the devastating M=7.0 Haiti earthquake by TerraSAR-X (TSX) and ALOS Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations. The deformation was primarily subsidence, occurred within a 1 km wide strip along the delta's shores, and was time dependent. Because the observed deformation showed no relations to the epicentre location or to the coseismic deformation pattern, it cannot be explained by the three known modes of postseismic deformation, which are afterslip, viscous relaxation, and poro-elasticity. The elongated subsidence pattern following the delta's northern shoreline suggests that coastal processes caused the deformation in response to the earthquake. We suggest that the observed subsidence represents a new mode of postseimsic deformation occurring in the shallow subsurface (upper several meters) by alluvium compaction due to groundwater flow in response to the earthquake's induced uplift. The 2010 Haiti earthquake uplifted the entire Leogane delta by 60-80 cm. In the delta's reference frame, the uplift caused a sudden sea level drop. Consequently, groundwater in the northern delta, which were in equilibrium with the pre-earthquake sea level, responded to the sudden sea level drop by horizontal seaward flow in order to reach a new equilibrium. Because groundwater flow is a diffusive process, the response to the sudden sea level change was time dependent. Preliminary modeling results using an analytical solution of aquifer discharge due to a sudden change in boundary head (Lockington, 1997) reveal a very good agreement between the observed and calculated subsidence. Best-fit results obtained when the model's hydraulic conductivity is in the range of 1000-2000 m/day and sediment compaction is 15-20%.

  18. The Abundances of Neutron-capture Species in the Very Metal-poor Globular Cluster M15: A Uniform Analysis of Red Giant Branch and Red Horizontal Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Kraft, Robert P.; Sneden, Christopher; Preston, George W.; Cowan, John J.; Smith, Graeme H.; Thompson, Ian B.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Burley, Gregory S.

    2011-06-01

    The globular cluster M15 is unique in its display of star-to-star variations in the neutron-capture elements. Comprehensive abundance surveys have been previously conducted for handfuls of M15 red giant branch (RGB) and red horizontal branch (RHB) stars. No attempt has been made to perform a single, self-consistent analysis of these stars, which exhibit a wide range in atmospheric parameters. In the current effort, a new comparative abundance derivation is presented for three RGB and six RHB members of the cluster. The analysis employs an updated version of the line transfer code MOOG, which now appropriately treats coherent, isotropic scattering. The apparent discrepancy in the previously reported values for the metallicity of M15 RGB and RHB stars is addressed and a resolute disparity of Δ(RHB - RGB) ≈ 0.1 dex in the iron abundance was found. The anti-correlative behavior of the light neutron-capture elements (Sr, Y, Zr) is clearly demonstrated with both Ba and Eu, standard markers of the s- and r-process, respectively. No conclusive detection of Pb was made in the RGB targets. Consequently for the M15 cluster, this suggests that the main component of the s-process has made a negligible contribution to those elements normally dominated by this process in solar system material. Additionally for the M15 sample, a large Eu abundance spread is confirmed, which is comparable to that of the halo field at the same metallicity. These abundance results are considered in the discussion of the chemical inhomogeneity and nucleosynthetic history of M15.

  19. Emergence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-14)-Producing Nontyphoid Salmonella with Reduced Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin among Food Animals and Humans in Korea ▿

    PubMed Central

    Tamang, Migma Dorji; Nam, Hyang-Mi; Kim, Tae-Sun; Jang, Geum-Chan; Jung, Suk-Chan; Lim, Suk-Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Twenty of 1,279 nontyphoid Salmonella strains isolated from food animals and humans produced CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase. All expressed CTX-M-15, except two which coexpressed CTX-M-14 and TEM-1. Insertion sequence ISEcp1 was identified upstream of blaCTX-M genes. The blaCTX-M-15 and blaCTX-M-14 genes were disseminated by large conjugative IncFIIs and IncI1-Iγ plasmids, respectively. PMID:21613434

  20. Physics-based Broadband Ground Motion Simulations for Probable M>7.0 earthquakes in the Marmara Sea Region (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinci, Aybige; Aochi, Hideo; Herrero, Andre; Pischiutta, Marta; Karanikas, Dimitris

    2016-04-01

    The city of Istanbul is characterized by one of the highest levels of seismic risk in Europe and the Mediterranean region. The important source of the increased risk in Istanbul is the remarkable probability of the occurrence of a large earthquake, which stands at about 65% during the coming years due to the existing seismic gap and the post-1999 earthquake stress transfer at the western portion of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). In this study, we have simulated hybrid broadband time histories from two selected scenario earthquakes having magnitude M>7.0 in the Marmara Sea within 10-20 km of Istanbul believed to have generated devastating 1509 event in the region. The physics-based rupture scenarios, which may be an indication of potential future events, are adopted to estimate the ground motion characteristics and its variability in the region. Two simulation techniques (a full 3D wave propagation method to generate low-frequency seismograms, <~1 Hz and a stochastic technique to simulate high-frequency seismograms, >1Hz) are used to compute more realistic time series associated with scenario earthquakes having magnitudes Mw >7.0 in the Marmara Sea Region. A dynamic rupture is generated and computed with a boundary integral equation method and the propagation in the medium is realized through a finite difference approach (Aochi and Ulrich, 2015). The high frequency radiation is computed using stochastic finite-fault model approach based on a dynamic corner frequency (Motazedian and Atkinson, 2005; Boore, 2009). The results from the two simulation techniques are then merged by performing a weighted summation at intermediate frequencies to calculate broadband synthetic time series. The hybrid broadband ground motions computed with the proposed approach are validated by comparing peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), and spectral acceleration (SA) with recently proposed ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) in the region. Our

  1. The M=7.9 Alaska Earthquake of 3 November 2002: Felt Reports and Unusual Effects Across Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, J. F.; Rogers, G. C.; Bird, A. L.; Mulder, T. L.

    2002-12-01

    The 3 November 2002 M=7.9 Alaska earthquake was one of the largest earthquakes recorded in North America during the past 100 years. This earthquake occurred at 2:12 p.m. PST (on a Sunday) and was located 330 km to the west of the Yukon-Alaska border. Surface rupture and aftershocks extended to within about 100 km of the Canadian border. More than 250 "felt" reports were submitted to the Geological Survey of Canada website (http://www.pgc.nrcan.gc.ca/seismo/table.htm) within a few days of the earthquake. Here, we summarize those reports which include typical high-frequency shaking effects to distances of about 1500 km, as well as numerous long-period effects, such as human effects (nausea), swaying highrises, telephone poles and chandeliers, seiches in lakes and inlets, water sloshing from swimming pools, and instances of dirty well-water to distances of nearly 3500 km across Western Canada. Felt intensities (MMI)of about IV were observed across the Yukon Territory at distances of 350 km to 750 km. There were a few reports of minor damage in this region, as well as numerous reports of items knocked from shelves and parked vehicles rocking noticeably. The most distant felt reports in western Canada were from southern Alberta (2400 km distance) where people in highrises felt the swaying. More than 30 reports of human effects were received. These ranged from people feeling dizzy, seasick or nauseated (to distances of 2400 km), to difficulty standing and maintaining balance (to distances of 1000 km). Long-period effects of houses "swaying", large signs flexing, and telephone poles and tall trees swaying were reported to distances of more than 1000 km. Swinging of chandeliers, hanging plants and lights were reported to distances of 2400 km. There were more than 30 reports of seiches. Most reports came from southern British Columbia (2200-2400 km) where, although no ground shaking was noticed, water surges up to 1 m were observed. In one case a cabin held by cables near

  2. The M=7.6 Earthquake in the Pakistani-Administered Region of Kashmir on Oct. 8, 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Q.; Nisar, A.; Mooney, W. D.; Loeffler, K.

    2006-12-01

    On October 8, 2005 a M=7.6 earthquake struck the northwestern portion of the Himalayan region. Damage was extensive in the Pakistani-administered region of Kashmir and the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. The mainshock occurred at 03:50 (UTC/GMT), 8:50 AM local time with the epicenter located in the Kishenganga (Neelam) Valley, approximately 100 km north of Pakistan's capital city of Islamabad. The earthquake ruptured the Indus-Kohistan seismic zone, accompanied by rupture of the Balakot-Bagh fault that runs along the Jhelum River in the northwest direction and passes close to the city of Muzaffarabad (Capital of Pakistani-administered Kashmir), and Balakot. The tremors lasted for about 50 seconds. Approximately 200,000 houses collapsed and entire towns and villages were destroyed (Harp &Crone, 2006; Parsons et al., 2006). The northern regions of Mansehra and Muzaffarabad were the worst-affected areas, and the majority of deaths occurred in the town of Muzaffarabad where an estimated 80% of the buildings collapsed. The nearby town of Balakot was completely destroyed along with several mountain villages. It is estimated that approximately 87,000 people were killed, and 74,000 were injured (Parsons et al., 2006; Khattri, 1986, Rai & Murty, 2006). Within 24 hours of the mainshock, aftershocks were registered of which more than 20 were over M=5.0. Since Pakistan's formation in 1947, the population has increased from c. 32 Million to c. 165 Million today. The official average is 166 persons/km2, but the population-density varies significantly throughout the country. Islamabad, Karachi, and Lahore (up to 550 persons/km2) have some of the highest densities in the world. Because of the population increase in Pakistan, there are larger settlements and cities developing in earthquake-prone regions. This subjects more people to potential seismic hazards. As demonstrated during the recent earthquake, construction in the earthquake-prone areas is highly

  3. Natural Hazard Public Policy Implications of the May 12, 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cydzik, K.; Hamilton, D.; Stenner, H. D.; Cattarossi, A.; Shrestha, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    The May 12, 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake in Sichuan Province, China killed almost 90,000 people and affected a population of over 45.5 million throughout western China. Shaking caused the destruction of five million buildings, many of them homes and schools, and damaged 21 million other structures, inflicting devastating impacts to communities. Landslides, a secondary effect of the shaking, caused much of the devastation. Debris flows buried schools and homes, rock falls crushed cars, and rockslides, landslides, and rock avalanches blocked streams and rivers creating massive, unstable landslide dams, which formed “quake lakes” upstream of the blockages. Impassable roads made emergency access slow and extremely difficult. Collapses of buildings and structures large and small took the lives of many. Damage to infrastructure impaired communication, cut off water supplies and electricity, and put authorities on high alert as the integrity of large engineered dams were reviewed. During our field reconnaissance three months after the disaster, evidence of the extent of the tragedy was undeniably apparent. Observing the damage throughout Sichuan reminded us that earthquakes in the United States and throughout the world routinely cause widespread damage and destruction to lives, property, and infrastructure. The focus of this poster is to present observations and findings based on our field reconnaissance regarding the scale of earthquake destruction with respect to slope failures, landslide dams, damage to infrastructure (e.g., schools, engineered dams, buildings, roads, rail lines, and water resources facilities), human habitation within the region, and the mitigation and response effort to this catastrophe. This is presented in the context of the policy measures that could be developed to reduce risks of similar catastrophes. The rapid response of the Chinese government and the mobilization of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army to help the communities affected

  4. PERIODIC RADIO EMISSION FROM THE M7 DWARF 2MASS J13142039+1320011: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE MAGNETIC FIELD TOPOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, M.; Berger, E.; Irwin, J.; Forbrich, J.; Reiners, A.

    2011-11-01

    We present multi-epoch radio and optical observations of the M7 dwarf 2MASS J13142039+1320011. We detect a {approx}1 mJy source at 1.43, 4.86, 8.46, and 22.5 GHz, making it the most luminous radio emission over the widest frequency range detected from an ultracool dwarf to date. A 10 hr Very Large Array observation reveals that the radio emission varies sinusoidally with a period of 3.89 {+-} 0.05 hr, and an amplitude of {approx}30% at 4.86 GHz and {approx}20% at 8.46 GHz. The periodicity is also seen in circular polarization, where at 4.86 GHz the polarization reverses helicity from left- to right-handed in phase with the total intensity. An archival detection in the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters survey indicates that the radio emission has been stable for at least a decade. We also detect periodic photometric variability in several optical filters with a period of 3.79 hr and measure a rotation velocity of vsin i = 45 {+-} 5 km s{sup -1}, in good agreement with the radio and optical periods. The subtle difference in radio and optical periods may be due to differential rotation, with {Delta}{Omega} {approx} 1 rad day{sup -1} between the equation and poles. The period and rotation velocity allow us to place a lower limit on the radius of the source of {approx}> 0.13R{sub sun}, about 30% larger than theoretical expectations. The properties of the radio emission can be explained with a simple model of a magnetic dipole misaligned relative to the stellar rotation axis, with the sinusoidal variations and helicity reversal due to the rotation of the magnetic poles relative to our line of sight. The long-term stability of the radio emission indicates that the magnetic field (and hence the dynamo) is stable on a much longer timescale than the convective turnover time of {approx}0.2 yr. If the radio emission is due to gyrosynchrotron emission the inferred magnetic field strength is {approx}0.1 kG, while the electron cyclotron maser process requires a

  5. The 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla northern Chile earthquake sequence - along and across strike rupture segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurr, B.; Asch, G.; Motagh, M.; Oncken, O.; Chong Diaz, G.; Barrientos, S. E.; Vilotte, J.

    2010-12-01

    In November 2007 a M7.7 earthquake occurred near the coastal town of Tocopilla in the southern part of a presumed seismic gap extending some 500 km along the northern Chile subduction zone. This major segment last broke in a magnitude ≧8.5 earthquake in 1877. Assuming a complete lock of the interface, it has accumulated more than 8 m of slip deficit. The contiguous segments to the north and south broke in M≧8 earthquakes in 2001 and 1995. Teams from Chile (Universidad Católica del Norte and Universidad de Chile), France (IPGP) and Germany (GFZ) started in 2006 to install semi-permanent multi-parameter observatories within the Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) Initiative to monitor deformation at a variety of spatial and temporal scales in the final stage of the seismic cycle. At the time of the Tocopilla earthquake, 12 sites were equipped with seismic broadband and strong-motion sensors recording both the mainshock and its aftershock series. The earthquake rupture extended for about 160 km from the centre of the Mejillones peninsula (MP) to about 20 km north of the town of Tocopilla. Slip was confined to the depth range 30-55 km and concentrated in two patches in the north and south with a maximum of about 2.6 m. Hence the earthquake released only a fraction of the slip deficit and broke only the down-dip part of the plate interface, with the up-dip limit of the rupture approximately following the coastline. This poses the important question why rupture did not extend offshore, where the interface is presumably locked based on models of long-term interseismic deformation. We relocated more than 1000 aftershocks occurring in the week following the mainshock using hand-picked arrival times, cross-correlation based differential travel times and the double-difference algorithm. Despite the sparseness of the network, the aftershocks sharply define the plate interface. Seismicity in the first 24h is congruent to the slip distribution with the area

  6. Structural insights into parasite eIF4E binding specificity for m7G and m2,2,7G mRNA caps.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weizhi; Zhao, Rui; McFarland, Craig; Kieft, Jeffrey; Niedzwiecka, Anna; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena; Stepinski, Janusz; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Jones, David N M; Davis, Richard E

    2009-11-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E recognizes the mRNA cap, a key step in translation initiation. Here we have characterized eIF4E from the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. Schistosome mRNAs have either the typical monomethylguanosine (m(7)G) or a trimethylguanosine (m(2,2,7)G) cap derived from spliced leader trans-splicing. Quantitative fluorescence titration analyses demonstrated that schistosome eIF4E has similar binding specificity for both caps. We present the first crystal structure of an eIF4E with similar binding specificity for m(7)G and m(2,2,7)G caps. The eIF4E.m(7)GpppG structure demonstrates that the schistosome protein binds monomethyl cap in a manner similar to that of single specificity eIF4Es and exhibits a structure similar to other known eIF4Es. The structure suggests an alternate orientation of a conserved, key Glu-90 in the cap-binding pocket that may contribute to dual binding specificity and a position for mRNA bound to eIF4E consistent with biochemical data. Comparison of NMR chemical shift perturbations in schistosome eIF4E on binding m(7)GpppG and m(2,2,7)GpppG identified key differences between the two complexes. Isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrated significant thermodynamics differences for the binding process with the two caps (m(7)G versus m(2,2,7)G). Overall the NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry data suggest the importance of intrinsic conformational flexibility in the schistosome eIF4E that enables binding to m(2,2,7)G cap. PMID:19710013

  7. Full-Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli K-15KW01, a Uropathogenic E. coli B2 Sequence Type 127 Isolate Harboring a Chromosomally Carried blaCTX-M-15 Gene.

    PubMed

    Zurfluh, Katrin; Tasara, Taurai; Stephan, Roger

    2016-01-01

    We present here the full-genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-15KW01, an extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing uropathogenic strain. Assembly and annotation of the draft genome resulted in a 5,154,641-bp chromosome and revealed a chromosomally contained blaCTX-M-15 gene embedded at the right-hand extremity of an ISEcp1 element in a plasmid-like structure (36,907 bp). PMID:27587831

  8. Residues Distal to the Active Site Contribute to Enhanced Catalytic Activity of Variant and Hybrid β-Lactamases Derived from CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-15

    PubMed Central

    He, Dandan; Chiou, Jiachi; Zeng, Zhenling; Liu, Lanping; Chen, Xiaojie; Zeng, Li; Chan, Edward Wai Chi

    2015-01-01

    A variety of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), including hybrid ones, have been reported in China that are uncommon elsewhere. To better characterize the substrate profiles and enzymatic mechanisms of these enzymes, we performed comparative kinetic analyses of both parental and hybrid CTX-M enzymes, including CTX-M-15, -132, -123, -64, -14 and -55, that are known to confer variable levels of β-lactam resistance in the host strains. All tested enzymes were susceptible to serine β-lactamase inhibitors, with sulbactam exhibiting the weakest inhibitory effects. CTX-M-55, which differs from CTX-M-15 by one substitution, A77V, displayed enhanced catalytic activity (kcat/Km) against expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs). CTX-M-55 exhibits higher structure stability, most likely by forming hydrophobic interactions between A77V and various key residues in different helices, thereby stabilizing the core architecture of the helix cluster, and indirectly contributes to a more stable active site conformation, which in turn shows higher catalytic efficiency and is more tolerant to temperature change. Analyses of the hybrids and their parental prototypes showed that evolution from CTX-M-15 to CTX-M-132, CTX-M-123, and CTX-M-64, characterized by gradual enhancement of catalytic activity to ESCs, was attributed to introduction of different substitutions to amino acids distal to the active site of CTX-M-15. Similarly, the increased hydrolytic activities against cephalosporins and sensitivity to β-lactamase inhibitors, clavulanic acid and sulbactam, of CTX-M-64 were partly due to the amino acids that were different from CTX-M-14 and located at both the C and N termini of CTX-M-64. These data indicate that residues distal to the active site of CTX-Ms contributed to their enhanced catalytic activities to ESCs. PMID:26169409

  9. Constraints on the Distance Moduli, Helium and Metal Abundances, and Ages of Globular Clusters from their RR Lyrae and Non-variable Horizontal-branch Stars. I. M3, M15, and M92

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VandenBerg, Don A.; Denissenkov, P. A.; Catelan, Márcio

    2016-08-01

    Up-to-date isochrones, zero-age horizontal-branch (ZAHB) loci, and evolutionary tracks for core He-burning stars are applied to the color–magnitude diagrams of M3, M15, and M92, focusing in particular on their RR Lyrae populations. Periods for the ab- and c-type variables are calculated using the latest theoretical calibrations of {log} {P}{ab} and {log} {P}c as a function of luminosity, mass, effective temperature ({T}{{eff}}), and metallicity. Our models are generally able to reproduce the measured periods to well within the uncertainties implied by the stellar properties on which pulsation periods depend, as well as the mean periods and cluster-to-cluster differences in < {P}{ab}> and < {P}c> , on the assumption of well-supported values of E(B-V), {(m-M)}V, and [Fe/H]. While many of RR Lyrae in M3 lie close to the same ZAHB that fits the faintest horizontal-branch (HB) stars at bluer or redder colors, the M92 variables are all significantly evolved stars from ZAHB locations on the blue side of the instability strip. M15 appears to contain a similar population of HB stars as M92, along with additional helium-enhanced populations not present in the latter which comprise most of its RR Lyrae stars. The large number of variables in M15 and the similarity of the observed values of < {P}{ab}> and < {P}c> in M15 and M92 can be explained by HB models that allow for variations in Y. Similar ages (˜12.5 Gyr) are found for all three clusters, making them significantly younger than the field halo subgiant HD 140283. Our analysis suggests a preference for stellar models that take diffusive processes into account.

  10. Full-Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli K-15KW01, a Uropathogenic E. coli B2 Sequence Type 127 Isolate Harboring a Chromosomally Carried blaCTX-M-15 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Zurfluh, Katrin; Tasara, Taurai

    2016-01-01

    We present here the full-genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-15KW01, an extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing uropathogenic strain. Assembly and annotation of the draft genome resulted in a 5,154,641-bp chromosome and revealed a chromosomally contained blaCTX-M-15 gene embedded at the right-hand extremity of an ISEcp1 element in a plasmid-like structure (36,907 bp). PMID:27587831

  11. Constraints on the Distance Moduli, Helium and Metal Abundances, and Ages of Globular Clusters from their RR Lyrae and Non-variable Horizontal-branch Stars. I. M3, M15, and M92

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VandenBerg, Don A.; Denissenkov, P. A.; Catelan, Márcio

    2016-08-01

    Up-to-date isochrones, zero-age horizontal-branch (ZAHB) loci, and evolutionary tracks for core He-burning stars are applied to the color–magnitude diagrams of M3, M15, and M92, focusing in particular on their RR Lyrae populations. Periods for the ab- and c-type variables are calculated using the latest theoretical calibrations of {log} {P}{ab} and {log} {P}c as a function of luminosity, mass, effective temperature ({T}{{eff}}), and metallicity. Our models are generally able to reproduce the measured periods to well within the uncertainties implied by the stellar properties on which pulsation periods depend, as well as the mean periods and cluster-to-cluster differences in < {P}{ab}> and < {P}c> , on the assumption of well-supported values of E(B-V), {(m-M)}V, and [Fe/H]. While many of RR Lyrae in M3 lie close to the same ZAHB that fits the faintest horizontal-branch (HB) stars at bluer or redder colors, the M92 variables are all significantly evolved stars from ZAHB locations on the blue side of the instability strip. M15 appears to contain a similar population of HB stars as M92, along with additional helium-enhanced populations not present in the latter which comprise most of its RR Lyrae stars. The large number of variables in M15 and the similarity of the observed values of < {P}{ab}> and < {P}c> in M15 and M92 can be explained by HB models that allow for variations in Y. Similar ages (∼12.5 Gyr) are found for all three clusters, making them significantly younger than the field halo subgiant HD 140283. Our analysis suggests a preference for stellar models that take diffusive processes into account.

  12. An analytical method about anomalies on the synthetical variables of the multiple seismic activity parameters-taking 2 M =7 earthquakes occurring in Qinghai as examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Heqing; Yang, Mingzhi

    2014-05-01

    Based on the random field theory, a new method of the synthetical variables of the multiple seismic activity parameters has been proposed. This method is that the natural perpendicular function development has been used on the random field function of seismic activity first. And then the synthetical variables constituted of the linear combination of four seismic activity parameters, i.e. the seismic strain release E-, the average distance between each two earthquakes D, the average time interval between each two earthquakes T , and the earthquake occurrence rate N have been studied. Though the analysis on the synthetical variables about the field, the seismic activity anomalies before large earthquakes have been drew. As the examples, the Gonghe M=7.0 earthquake occurred in Qinghai, 1990 and the Yushu M=7.1 earthquake occurred in Qinghai, 2010 have been discussed. The results have showed that before the two M=7 earthquakes, the main synthetical variables have all showed obvious abnormal variations, displaying better corresponding relationship with these two earthquakes. The synthetical variables of seismic activity field can focus on the slight differences which are included in each original variable. And the abnormal variations showed from the synthetical variables are as obvious as possible. The authors think that the synthetical variable method is possibly an effective analytic technique. Key words: seismic activity field; natural perpendicular function development; synthetical variables; anomaly; Earthquake example

  13. Microstructure and wear resistance of Al2O3-M7C3/Fe composite coatings produced by laser controlled reactive synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Hui; Luo, Zhen; Li, Yang; Yan, Fuyu; Duan, Rui

    2015-05-01

    Based on the principle of thermite reaction of Al and Fe2O3 powders, the Al2O3 ceramic reinforced Fe-based composite coatings were fabricated on a steel substrate by laser controlled reactive synthesis and cladding. The effects of different additions of thermite reactants on the phase transition, microstructure evolution, microhardness and wear resistance of the composite coatings were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Vickers microhardness and block-on-ring wear test, respectively. The results show that Al2O3 ceramic and M7C3 carbide are in situ synthesized via the laser controlled reactive synthesis. The Al2O3 ceramic and M7C3 carbides prefer to distribute along the γ-Fe phase boundary continuously, which separates the γ-Fe matrix and is beneficial to the grain refinement. With the increase of thermite reactants, the amount of Al2O3 ceramic and M7C3 carbide in the composite coatings increases gradually. Moreover the cladding layer changes from dendritic structure to columnar structure and martensite structure in the heat affected zone becomes coarse. The increased thermite reactants improve the microhardness and wear resistance of the in situ composite coatings obviously and enhance the hardness of the heat affected zone, which should be ascribed to the grain refinement, ceramic and carbide precipitation and solid solution strengthening.

  14. Emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactam resistance among Escherichia coli at a US academic children’s hospital is clonal at the sequence type level for CTX-M-15, but not for CMY-2

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Scott J.; Adler, Amanda; Qin, Xuan; Zerr, Danielle M.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to extended-spectrum β-lactams is increasing worldwide among Escherichia coli and has been linked to a small number of emergent clones (e.g. ST38, ST131 and ST405) recovered from extraintestinal infections in community and hospital settings. There are, however, limited data about the relative contributions of bacterial strains, plasmids and β-lactamase genes to extended-spectrum β-lactam resistance in paediatric infections. We performed an extensive molecular analysis of phylogenetic, virulence and antibiotic resistance-related properties of 49 previously reported serial E. coli isolates recovered during 1999–2007 at Seattle Children’s Hospital (Seattle, WA). Class C enzyme CMY-2 and class A enzyme CTX-M-15 were the most prominent extended-spectrum β-lactam resistance enzymes in the collection, first appearing in this patient population in 2001 and 2003, respectively, and then steadily increasing in frequency over the remainder of the study period. Among 19 CMY-2-positive isolates, 16 distinct STs were detected (D = 98.25%, 95% CI 96–100.25%), indicating that CMY spread is non-clonal at the host strain level. In contrast, among ten CTX-M-15-positive isolates, three STs were detected (D = 37.78%, 95% CI 2.36–73.20%), of which eight represented the worldwide-disseminated ST131 lineage, consistent with clonal spread of CTX-M-15-associated resistance. fimHTR subtyping of ten ST131 isolates (including two CTX-M-negative isolates) revealed that, within ST131, carriage of allele fimHTR30 correlated with CTX-M-15 positivity, whilst carriage of non-fimHTR30 alleles correlated with carriage of non-CTX-M enzymes. Thus, spread of CMY-2 is non-clonal at the ST level, but clonal spread of CTX-M-15 may be associated with a specific fimHTR-defined sublineage of ST131. PMID:23434250

  15. Module Configuration

    DOEpatents

    Oweis, Salah; D'Ussel, Louis; Chagnon, Guy; Zuhowski, Michael; Sack, Tim; Laucournet, Gaullume; Jackson, Edward J.

    2002-06-04

    A stand alone battery module including: (a) a mechanical configuration; (b) a thermal management configuration; (c) an electrical connection configuration; and (d) an electronics configuration. Such a module is fully interchangeable in a battery pack assembly, mechanically, from the thermal management point of view, and electrically. With the same hardware, the module can accommodate different cell sizes and, therefore, can easily have different capacities. The module structure is designed to accommodate the electronics monitoring, protection, and printed wiring assembly boards (PWAs), as well as to allow airflow through the module. A plurality of modules may easily be connected together to form a battery pack. The parts of the module are designed to facilitate their manufacture and assembly.

  16. Crystal structures of 7-methylguanosine 5'-triphosphate (m(7)GTP)- and P(1)-7-methylguanosine-P(3)-adenosine-5',5'-triphosphate (m(7)GpppA)-bound human full-length eukaryotic initiation factor 4E: biological importance of the C-terminal flexible region.

    PubMed Central

    Tomoo, Koji; Shen, Xu; Okabe, Koumei; Nozoe, Yoshiaki; Fukuhara, Shoichi; Morino, Shigenobu; Ishida, Toshimasa; Taniguchi, Taizo; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Terashima, Akira; Sasaki, Masahiro; Katsuya, Yoshio; Kitamura, Kunihiro; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Masahide; Miura, Kin-ichiro

    2002-01-01

    The crystal structures of the full-length human eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E complexed with two mRNA cap analogues [7-methylguanosine 5'-triphosphate (m(7)GTP) and P(1)-7-methylguanosine-P(3)-adenosine-5',5'-triphosphate (m(7)GpppA)] were determined at 2.0 A resolution (where 1 A=0.1 nm). The flexibility of the C-terminal loop region of eIF4E complexed with m(7)GTP was significantly reduced when complexed with m(7)GpppA, suggesting the importance of the second nucleotide in the mRNA cap structure for the biological function of eIF4E, especially the fixation and orientation of the C-terminal loop region, including the eIF4E phosphorylation residue. The present results provide the structural basis for the biological function of both N- and C-terminal mobile regions of eIF4E in translation initiation, especially the regulatory function through the switch-on/off of eIF4E-binding protein-eIF4E phosphorylation. PMID:11879179

  17. Structural basis for m7G recognition and 2'-O-methyl discrimination in capped RNAs by the innate immune receptor RIG-I.

    PubMed

    Devarkar, Swapnil C; Wang, Chen; Miller, Matthew T; Ramanathan, Anand; Jiang, Fuguo; Khan, Abdul G; Patel, Smita S; Marcotrigiano, Joseph

    2016-01-19

    RNAs with 5'-triphosphate (ppp) are detected in the cytoplasm principally by the innate immune receptor Retinoic Acid Inducible Gene-I (RIG-I), whose activation triggers a Type I IFN response. It is thought that self RNAs like mRNAs are not recognized by RIG-I because 5'ppp is capped by the addition of a 7-methyl guanosine (m7G) (Cap-0) and a 2'-O-methyl (2'-OMe) group to the 5'-end nucleotide ribose (Cap-1). Here we provide structural and mechanistic basis for exact roles of capping and 2'-O-methylation in evading RIG-I recognition. Surprisingly, Cap-0 and 5'ppp double-stranded (ds) RNAs bind to RIG-I with nearly identical Kd values and activate RIG-I's ATPase and cellular signaling response to similar extents. On the other hand, Cap-0 and 5'ppp single-stranded RNAs did not bind RIG-I and are signaling inactive. Three crystal structures of RIG-I complexes with dsRNAs bearing 5'OH, 5'ppp, and Cap-0 show that RIG-I can accommodate the m7G cap in a cavity created through conformational changes in the helicase-motif IVa without perturbing the ppp interactions. In contrast, Cap-1 modifications abrogate RIG-I signaling through a mechanism involving the H830 residue, which we show is crucial for discriminating between Cap-0 and Cap-1 RNAs. Furthermore, m7G capping works synergistically with 2'-O-methylation to weaken RNA affinity by 200-fold and lower ATPase activity. Interestingly, a single H830A mutation restores both high-affinity binding and signaling activity with 2'-O-methylated dsRNAs. Our work provides new structural insights into the mechanisms of host and viral immune evasion from RIG-I, explaining the complexity of cap structures over evolution. PMID:26733676

  18. Development and Validation of a Liquid Medium (M7H9C) for Routine Culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis To Replace Modified Bactec 12B Medium

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, Ann-Michele; Waldron, Anna; Begg, Douglas J.; de Silva, Kumi; Purdie, Auriol C.; Plain, Karren M.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from clinical samples, such as feces, is the most sensitive antemortem test for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in ruminants. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and some other countries, the Bactec 460 system with modified Bactec 12B medium (Becton, Dickinson) has been the most commonly used liquid culture system, but it was discontinued in 2012. In this study, a new liquid culture medium, M7H9C, was developed. It consists of a Middlebrook 7H9 medium base with added Casitone, albumin, dextrose, catalase, egg yolk, mycobactin J, and a cocktail of antibiotics. We found that polyoxyethylene stearate (POES) was not essential for the cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in either the Bactec 12B or the M7H9C medium. The limit of detection determined using pure cultures of the C and S strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 7 bacilli per 50 μl inoculum in the two media. The new medium was validated using 784 fecal and tissue samples from sheep and cattle, >25% of which contained viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Discrepant results for the clinical samples between the two media were mostly associated with samples that contained <10 viable bacilli per gram, but these results were relatively uncommon, and the performances of the two media were not significantly different. M7H9C medium was less than half the cost of the Bactec 12B medium and did not require regular examination during incubation, but a confirmatory IS900 PCR test had to be performed on every culture after the predetermined incubation period. PMID:24048541

  19. Development and validation of a liquid medium (M7H9C) for routine culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to replace modified Bactec 12B medium.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Richard J; Whittington, Ann-Michele; Waldron, Anna; Begg, Douglas J; de Silva, Kumi; Purdie, Auriol C; Plain, Karren M

    2013-12-01

    Liquid culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from clinical samples, such as feces, is the most sensitive antemortem test for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in ruminants. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and some other countries, the Bactec 460 system with modified Bactec 12B medium (Becton, Dickinson) has been the most commonly used liquid culture system, but it was discontinued in 2012. In this study, a new liquid culture medium, M7H9C, was developed. It consists of a Middlebrook 7H9 medium base with added Casitone, albumin, dextrose, catalase, egg yolk, mycobactin J, and a cocktail of antibiotics. We found that polyoxyethylene stearate (POES) was not essential for the cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in either the Bactec 12B or the M7H9C medium. The limit of detection determined using pure cultures of the C and S strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 7 bacilli per 50 μl inoculum in the two media. The new medium was validated using 784 fecal and tissue samples from sheep and cattle, >25% of which contained viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Discrepant results for the clinical samples between the two media were mostly associated with samples that contained <10 viable bacilli per gram, but these results were relatively uncommon, and the performances of the two media were not significantly different. M7H9C medium was less than half the cost of the Bactec 12B medium and did not require regular examination during incubation, but a confirmatory IS900 PCR test had to be performed on every culture after the predetermined incubation period. PMID:24048541

  20. Importin 8 mediates m7G cap-sensitive nuclear import of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E.

    PubMed

    Volpon, Laurent; Culjkovic-Kraljacic, Biljana; Osborne, Michael J; Ramteke, Anup; Sun, Qingxiang; Niesman, Ashley; Chook, Yuh Min; Borden, Katherine L B

    2016-05-10

    Regulation of nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of oncoproteins is critical for growth homeostasis. Dysregulated trafficking contributes to malignancy, whereas understanding the process can reveal unique therapeutic opportunities. Here, we focus on eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), a prooncogenic protein highly elevated in many cancers, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Typically, eIF4E is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm, where it acts in export and translation of specific methyl 7-guanosine (m(7)G)-capped mRNAs, respectively. Nuclear accumulation of eIF4E in patients who have AML is correlated with increased eIF4E-dependent export of transcripts encoding oncoproteins. The subcellular localization of eIF4E closely correlates with patients' responses. During clinical responses to the m(7)G-cap competitor ribavirin, eIF4E is mainly cytoplasmic. At relapse, eIF4E reaccumulates in the nucleus, leading to elevated eIF4E-dependent mRNA export. We have identified importin 8 as a factor that directly imports eIF4E into the nucleus. We found that importin 8 is highly elevated in untreated patients with AML, leading to eIF4E nuclear accumulation. Importin 8 only imports cap-free eIF4E. Cap-dependent changes to the structure of eIF4E underpin this selectivity. Indeed, m(7)G cap analogs or ribavirin prevents nuclear entry of eIF4E, which mirrors the trafficking phenotypes observed in patients with AML. Our studies also suggest that nuclear entry is important for the prooncogenic activity of eIF4E, at least in this context. These findings position nuclear trafficking of eIF4E as a critical step in its regulation and position the importin 8-eIF4E complex as a novel therapeutic target. PMID:27114554

  1. 12 May 2008 M = 7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake calculated to increase failure stress and seismicity rate on three major fault systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toda, S.; Lin, J.; Meghraoui, M.; Stein, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    The Wenchuan earthquake on the Longmen Shan fault zone devastated cities of Sichuan, claiming at least 69,000 lives. We calculate that the earthquake also brought the Xianshuihe, Kunlun and Min Jiang faults 150-400 km from the mainshock rupture in the eastern Tibetan Plateau 0.2-0.5 bars closer to Coulomb failure. Because some portions of these stressed faults have not ruptured in more than a century, the earthquake could trigger or hasten additional M > 7 earthquakes, potentially subjecting regions from Kangding to Daofu and Maqin to Rangtag to strong shaking. We use the calculated stress changes and the observed background seismicity to forecast the rate and distribution of damaging shocks. The earthquake probability in the region is estimated to be 57-71% for M ??? 6 shocks during the next decade, and 8-12% for M ??? 7 shocks. These are up to twice the probabilities for the decade before the Wenchuan earthquake struck. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Strong-motion observations of the M 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake sequence and development of the N-shake strong-motion network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixit, Amod; Ringler, Adam; Sumy, Danielle F.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Hough, Susan E.; Martin, Stacey; Gibbons, Steven; Luetgert, James H.; Galetzka, John; Shrestha, Surya; Rajaure, Sudhir; McNamara, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    We present and describe strong-motion data observations from the 2015 M 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake sequence collected using existing and new Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) and U.S. Geological Survey NetQuakes sensors located in the Kathmandu Valley. A comparison of QCN data with waveforms recorded by a conventional strong-motion (NetQuakes) instrument validates the QCN data. We present preliminary analysis of spectral accelerations, and peak ground acceleration and velocity for earthquakes up to M 7.3 from the QCN stations, as well as preliminary analysis of the mainshock recording from the NetQuakes station. We show that mainshock peak accelerations were lower than expected and conclude the Kathmandu Valley experienced a pervasively nonlinear response during the mainshock. Phase picks from the QCN and NetQuakes data are also used to improve aftershock locations. This study confirms the utility of QCN instruments to contribute to ground-motion investigations and aftershock response in regions where conventional instrumentation and open-access seismic data are limited. Initial pilot installations of QCN instruments in 2014 are now being expanded to create the Nepal–Shaking Hazard Assessment for Kathmandu and its Environment (N-SHAKE) network.

  3. A VOLUME-LIMITED SAMPLE OF 63 M7-M9.5 DWARFS. II. ACTIVITY, MAGNETISM, AND THE FADE OF THE ROTATION-DOMINATED DYNAMO

    SciTech Connect

    Reiners, A.; Basri, G. E-mail: basri@berkeley.ed

    2010-02-20

    In a volume-limited sample of 63 ultracool dwarfs of spectral type M7-M9.5, we have obtained high-resolution spectroscopy with UVES at the Very Large Telescope and HIRES at Keck Observatory. In this second paper, we present projected rotation velocities, average magnetic field strengths, and chromospheric emission from the Halpha line. We confirm earlier results that the mean level of normalized Halpha luminosity decreases with lower temperature, and we find that the scatter among Halpha luminosities is larger at lower temperature. We measure average magnetic fields between 0 and 4 kG with no indication for a dependence on temperature between M7 and M9.5. For a given temperature, Halpha luminosity is related to magnetic field strength, consistent with results in earlier stars. A few very slowly rotating stars show very weak magnetic fields and Halpha emission, and all stars rotating faster than our detection limit show magnetic fields of at least a few hundred Gauss. In contrast to earlier-type stars, we observe magnetic fields weaker than 1 kG in stars rotating faster than {approx}3 km s{sup -1}, but we find no correlation between rotation and magnetic flux generation among them. We interpret this as a fundamental change in the dynamo mechanism; in ultracool dwarfs, magnetic field generation is predominantly achieved by a turbulent dynamo, while other mechanisms can operate more efficiently at earlier spectral types.

  4. Importin 8 mediates m7G cap-sensitive nuclear import of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E

    PubMed Central

    Volpon, Laurent; Culjkovic-Kraljacic, Biljana; Osborne, Michael J.; Ramteke, Anup; Sun, Qingxiang; Niesman, Ashley; Chook, Yuh Min; Borden, Katherine L. B.

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of oncoproteins is critical for growth homeostasis. Dysregulated trafficking contributes to malignancy, whereas understanding the process can reveal unique therapeutic opportunities. Here, we focus on eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), a prooncogenic protein highly elevated in many cancers, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Typically, eIF4E is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm, where it acts in export and translation of specific methyl 7-guanosine (m7G)–capped mRNAs, respectively. Nuclear accumulation of eIF4E in patients who have AML is correlated with increased eIF4E-dependent export of transcripts encoding oncoproteins. The subcellular localization of eIF4E closely correlates with patients’ responses. During clinical responses to the m7G-cap competitor ribavirin, eIF4E is mainly cytoplasmic. At relapse, eIF4E reaccumulates in the nucleus, leading to elevated eIF4E-dependent mRNA export. We have identified importin 8 as a factor that directly imports eIF4E into the nucleus. We found that importin 8 is highly elevated in untreated patients with AML, leading to eIF4E nuclear accumulation. Importin 8 only imports cap-free eIF4E. Cap-dependent changes to the structure of eIF4E underpin this selectivity. Indeed, m7G cap analogs or ribavirin prevents nuclear entry of eIF4E, which mirrors the trafficking phenotypes observed in patients with AML. Our studies also suggest that nuclear entry is important for the prooncogenic activity of eIF4E, at least in this context. These findings position nuclear trafficking of eIF4E as a critical step in its regulation and position the importin 8–eIF4E complex as a novel therapeutic target. PMID:27114554

  5. Hydrological changes due to the M7.0 earthquake at Iwaki, Fukushima induced by the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Kazahaya, K.; Yasuhara, M.; Itoh, J.; Takahashi, H. A.; Morikawa, N.; Takahashi, M.; Inamura, A.; Handa, H.; Matsumoto, N.

    2011-12-01

    After a month of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw9.0) in Japan, two normal faults located 300 km southwest of the epicenter moved with several earthquakes (Max Mw7.0, 11 April 2011). Significant hydrological anomalies occurred around the faults after the movements. We have surveyed spatial distribution of the hydrological anomalies within 10 km of the faults, and analyzed chemical composition of some hot spring waters including the spouting waters which began to discharge just after the M7.0 earthquake. Increases of groundwater level were observed on the lower block of the normal faults. Especially water level of a hot spring well increased about 10 m in the Iwaki Yumoto area, located 3 km away from the faults. The GPS observation by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) showed that contraction of 16 cm between the two GPS stations 9.6 km away and uplift of 6 cm occurred simultaneously in the Iwaki Yumoto area. The observation results for the crustal deformation indicated that the increases of groundwater level were caused by contraction strain change due to the fault movement. On the other hand, decreases of groundwater level were observed on the upper block of the faults, which was thought to be caused by dilatation strain change due to the fault movement. In the Iwaki Yumoto area, a large amount of hot water with higher temperature (58 degree-C) has flowed out from the old coal mine after the M7.0 earthquake. The flow rate was up to about 10,000 m3/day on May, 2011. The chemical composition of this hot water has gradually changed to that of 1000m-deep-groundwater from boreholes drilled to basement rocks in this area. The analytical result indicates that the outflow occurred by discharging of the hot groundwater stored in the fractures of the basement rocks to the roadway of the old coal mine by contraction strain changes of the basement rocks due to the M7.0 earthquake.

  6. Structural basis for m7G recognition and 2′-O-methyl discrimination in capped RNAs by the innate immune receptor RIG-I

    PubMed Central

    Devarkar, Swapnil C.; Wang, Chen; Miller, Matthew T.; Ramanathan, Anand; Jiang, Fuguo; Khan, Abdul G.; Patel, Smita S.; Marcotrigiano, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    RNAs with 5′-triphosphate (ppp) are detected in the cytoplasm principally by the innate immune receptor Retinoic Acid Inducible Gene-I (RIG-I), whose activation triggers a Type I IFN response. It is thought that self RNAs like mRNAs are not recognized by RIG-I because 5′ppp is capped by the addition of a 7-methyl guanosine (m7G) (Cap-0) and a 2′-O-methyl (2′-OMe) group to the 5′-end nucleotide ribose (Cap-1). Here we provide structural and mechanistic basis for exact roles of capping and 2′-O-methylation in evading RIG-I recognition. Surprisingly, Cap-0 and 5′ppp double-stranded (ds) RNAs bind to RIG-I with nearly identical Kd values and activate RIG-I’s ATPase and cellular signaling response to similar extents. On the other hand, Cap-0 and 5′ppp single-stranded RNAs did not bind RIG-I and are signaling inactive. Three crystal structures of RIG-I complexes with dsRNAs bearing 5′OH, 5′ppp, and Cap-0 show that RIG-I can accommodate the m7G cap in a cavity created through conformational changes in the helicase-motif IVa without perturbing the ppp interactions. In contrast, Cap-1 modifications abrogate RIG-I signaling through a mechanism involving the H830 residue, which we show is crucial for discriminating between Cap-0 and Cap-1 RNAs. Furthermore, m7G capping works synergistically with 2′-O-methylation to weaken RNA affinity by 200-fold and lower ATPase activity. Interestingly, a single H830A mutation restores both high-affinity binding and signaling activity with 2′-O-methylated dsRNAs. Our work provides new structural insights into the mechanisms of host and viral immune evasion from RIG-I, explaining the complexity of cap structures over evolution. PMID:26733676

  7. Global study of great (M>= 7) deep focus seismic events having regard to the May 24, 2013 Mw 8.3 earthquake the Sea of Okhotsk, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Peter; Rogozhin, Evgeny; Süle, Bálint; Andreeva, Nadezda

    2014-05-01

    Distribution of great seismic events M >= 7.0 and consequently the released seismic energy along the Earth radius is of bimodal character. 90% of the great seismic events, which are responsible for the most of energy released, occur relatively close to the Earth's surface, at an average depth of 50 km. The vast majority of remaining 10% is associated with seismic events that occur very deep, an average of 580-590 km, above the border between transition zone and lower mantle (660 km). These very deep earthquakes (depth >= 500 km) differ significantly from the shallow events. For the study of the distribution of M >= 7.0 earthquakes and their radiated energy a catalogue was completed for the time-interval between 1900 and 2013. Examination of the source zones in which both shallow and deep M >= 7.0 earthquakes occur shows that linear distribution of deep earthquakes is considerably shorter than that found for the shallow earthquakes, which determine the length of the zone. The position of very deep (≥ 500 km) earthquakes foci show where the down going lithosperic plates conflict with the upper boundary of lower mantle, and where they probably cross it. This passage generates compression - elongation inside the slab. A comparison of temporal distribution of shallow and deep seismic events of a given source zone suggests that there is no direct relationship in the distribution of these two different earthquake activities. The largest of these great deep earthquakes, the May 24, 2013 Mw 8.3 earthquake the Sea of Okhotsk, was preceded by an earthquake swarm, which consists 58 M >= 5 events and occurred between May 15 and 24, 2013 in the higher part of the sinking slab east of Kamchatka. The aftershock activity after the Okhotsk Sea earthquake was moderate: twelve events with magnitudes above M 4 were observed till June 27. These events determine a fault area (2.64x104 km2) similar to the case of a shallow M 8.3 event. The effect of Okhotsk Sea was felt throughout

  8. Rupture process of the M 7.9 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake: Subevents, directivity, and scaling of high-frequency ground motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, A.

    2004-01-01

    Displacement waveforms and high-frequency acceleration envelopes from stations at distances of 3-300 km were inverted to determine the source process of the M 7.9 Denali fault earthquake. Fitting the initial portion of the displacement waveforms indicates that the earthquake started with an oblique thrust subevent (subevent # 1) with an east-west-striking, north-dipping nodal plane consistent with the observed surface rupture on the Susitna Glacier fault. Inversion of the remainder of the waveforms (0.02-0.5 Hz) for moment release along the Denali and Totschunda faults shows that rupture proceeded eastward on the Denali fault, with two strike-slip subevents (numbers 2 and 3) centered about 90 and 210 km east of the hypocenter. Subevent 2 was located across from the station at PS 10 (Trans-Alaska Pipeline Pump Station #10) and was very localized in space and time. Subevent 3 extended from 160 to 230 km east of the hypocenter and had the largest moment of the subevents. Based on the timing between subevent 2 and the east end of subevent 3, an average rupture velocity of 3.5 km/sec, close to the shear wave velocity at the average rupture depth, was found. However, the portion of the rupture 130-220 km east of the epicenter appears to have an effective rupture velocity of about 5.0 km/ sec, which is supershear. These two subevents correspond approximately to areas of large surface offsets observed after the earthquake. Using waveforms of the M 6.7 Nenana Mountain earthquake as empirical Green's functions, the high-frequency (1-10 Hz) envelopes of the M 7.9 earthquake were inverted to determine the location of high-frequency energy release along the faults. The initial thrust subevent produced the largest high-frequency energy release per unit fault length. The high-frequency envelopes and acceleration spectra (>0.5 Hz) of the M 7.9 earthquake can be simulated by chaining together rupture zones of the M 6.7 earthquake over distances from 30 to 180 km east of the

  9. Multiresistant Uropathogenic Escherichia coli from a Region in India Where Urinary Tract Infections Are Endemic: Genotypic and Phenotypic Characteristics of Sequence Type 131 Isolates of the CTX-M-15 Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Arif; Ewers, Christa; Nandanwar, Nishant; Guenther, Sebastian; Jadhav, Savita; Wieler, Lothar H.

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (O25b:H4), associated with the CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and linked predominantly to the community-onset antimicrobial-resistant infections, has globally emerged as a public health concern. However, scant attention is given to the understanding of the molecular epidemiology of these strains in high-burden countries such as India. Of the 100 clinical E. coli isolates obtained by us from a setting where urinary tract infections are endemic, 16 ST131 E. coli isolates were identified by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Further, genotyping and phenotyping methods were employed to characterize their virulence and drug resistance patterns. All the 16 ST131 isolates harbored the CTX-M-15 gene, and half of them also carried TEM-1; 11 of these were positive for blaOXA groups 1 and 12 for aac(6′)-Ib-cr. At least 12 isolates were refractory to four non-beta-lactam antibiotics: ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and tetracycline. Nine isolates carried the class 1 integron. Plasmid analysis indicated a large pool of up to six plasmids per strain with a mean of approximately three plasmids. Conjugation and PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT) revealed that the spread of resistance was associated with the FIA incompatibility group of plasmids. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and genotyping of the virulence genes showed a low level of diversity among these strains. The association of ESBL-encoding plasmid with virulence was demonstrated in transconjugants by serum assay. None of the 16 ST131 ESBL-producing E. coli strains were known to synthesize carbapenemase enzymes. In conclusion, our study reports a snapshot of the highly virulent/multiresistant clone ST131 of uropathogenic E. coli from India. This study suggests that the ST131 genotypes from this region are clonally evolved and are strongly associated with the CTX-M-15 enzyme, carry a high antibiotic resistance background, and have

  10. High performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection of ferulic acid in Rubus protoplasts elicited by O-glycans from Fusarium sp. M7-1.

    PubMed

    Nita-Lazar, Mihai; Chevolot, Lionel; Iwahara, Shojiro; Takegawa, Kaoru; Furmanek, Aleksandra; Lienart, Yvette

    2002-01-01

    So far only little data have been available concerning the eliciting capacity of well defined glycan molecules isolated from plant pathogens. This study brings new information about changes in plant cells caused by fungal pathogens. Sugar fractions derived from glycoproteins isolated from the fungus Fusarium sp. M7-1 have been tested here as signaling molecules. The ability of three O-glycan fractions (named in this work inducer I, II, III) to trigger responses in Rubus protoplasts has been examined. It was found that inducer III was the most efficient as it elicited changes in the levels of phenylpropanoid pathway intermediates in relation to phenylalanine-ammonia lyase (PAL) activation. PMID:12545209

  11. Possible relationship between changes in IMF, M7+ earthquakes and VEI index, during the transition between the solar minimum cycle 23 and the rise of solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casati, Michele; Straser, Valentino

    2013-04-01

    Numerous scientific papers seem to suggest a possible influence of solar activity on geological dynamics (hypothesis triggers earthquakes or volcanic activity) on Earth. In the following study, all earthquakes around the globe with a magnitude greater than or equal to 7, from January 2010 to November 2012, were taken into account which corresponds to the appearance of the first sunspot of Solar Cycle SC24. The data was then compared with the graph that shows the variations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). This second track is the result of a moving average equal to 27 (solar rotation of Bartel) starting from the daily values of the field, detected by the magnetometer on board the probe Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE). The analysis reveals a first major change in February 2010, when the IMF changes from 4.5 nT to about 5.8 nT . A second identical significant change is found in February 2011, when the IMF, went from 4.5 nT to about 5.8 nT. In March 2012, we have, the other way around, a third important change in the IMF, with later's dynamics registering a variation from 5.6 nT to about 6.8 nT. We find that the three most important seismic events of the last three years (M8.8 in Chile 27/02/2010; M9 in Japan on 11/03/2011, and M8.6 on 11/04/2012 in Sumatra) occurred at the same time or slightly after the peaks (Bmax) of increase in the magnetic field of the heliosphere "facing the Earth" were reached. The analysis also suggests further connections between earthquakes with M> 7 and when the peak (maximum value the IMF) were reached, recorded in other changes in the field in these three years. Like, for example, the earthquake of M7.5 in India of 12/06/2010, when the IMF increased from 4.5 nT to 5.2 nT, or the earthquake in Sumatra 25/10/2010, when the IMF went from 4.4 nT to 5.1 nT. The variation of the IMF, recorded in May 2011, from 4.7 nT to 5.9 nT, relates, for example, not only with the M7.6 earthquake in Kermadec (07/06/2011), but also with

  12. CTX-M-15-non-ST131 Escherichia coli isolates are mainly responsible of faecal carriage with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in travellers, immigrants and those visiting friends and relatives.

    PubMed

    Valverde, A; Turrientes, M-C; Norman, F; San Martín, E; Moreno, L; Pérez-Molina, J A; López-Vélez, R; Cantón, R

    2015-03-01

    Prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) and/or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EPE and CPE) in stool samples from 75 travellers, 8 people visiting friends and relatives and 3 immigrants who had travelled or came from tropical or subtropical areas was determined. Thirty-one per cent (27/86) of the subjects were faecal carriers of EPE, and 37 EPE isolates were recovered (36 Escherichia coli, 1 Klebsiella pneumoniae). CTX-M-15 was the most prevalent enzyme (64.8%) mainly associated with E. coli belonging to phylogroup A and sequence type complex 10. Most of the ESBL-positive travellers (50%) had visited countries from Asia. PMID:25658550

  13. UAVSAR observations of triggered slip on the Imperial, Superstition Hills, and East Elmore Ranch Faults associated with the 2010 M 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnellan, Andrea; Parker, Jay; Hensley, Scott; Pierce, Marlon; Wang, Jun; Rundle, John

    2014-03-01

    4 April 2010 M 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake that occurred in Baja California, Mexico and terminated near the U.S. Mexican border caused slip on the Imperial, Superstition Hills, and East Elmore Ranch Faults. The pattern of slip was observed using radar interferometry from NASA's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) instrument collected on 20-21 October 2009 and 12-13 April 2010. Right-lateral slip of 36 ± 9 and 14 ± 2 mm occurred on the Imperial and Superstition Hills Faults, respectively. Left-lateral slip of 9 ± 2 mm occurred on the East Elmore Ranch Fault. The widths of the zones of displacement increase northward suggesting successively more buried fault motion to the north. The observations show a decreasing pattern of slip northward on a series of faults in the Salton Trough stepping between the El Mayor-Cucapah rupture and San Andreas Fault. Most of the motion occurred at the time of the M 7.2 earthquake and the UAVSAR observations are consistent with field, creepmeter, GPS, and Envisat observations. An additional 28 ± 1 mm of slip at the southern end of the Imperial Fault over a <1 km wide zone was observed over a 1 day span a week after the earthquake suggesting that the fault continued to slip at depth following the mainshock. The total moment release on the three faults is 2.3 × 1023-1.2 × 1024 dyne cm equivalent to a moment magnitude release of 4.9-5.3, assuming shallow slip depths ranging from 1 to 5 km.

  14. Genetic background of novel sequence types of CTX-M-8- and CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from public wastewater treatment plants in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dropa, Milena; Lincopan, Nilton; Balsalobre, Livia C; Oliveira, Danielle E; Moura, Rodrigo A; Fernandes, Miriam Rodriguez; da Silva, Quézia Moura; Matté, Glavur R; Sato, Maria I Z; Matté, Maria H

    2016-03-01

    The release of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae to the environment is a public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic background of genes encoding ESBLs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In 2009, during a local surveillance study, seven ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains were recovered from five WWTPs and screened for ESBL genes and mobile genetic elements. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was carried out, and wild plasmids were transformed into electrocompetent Escherichia coli. S1-PFGE technique was used to verify the presence of high molecular weight plasmids in wild-type strains and in bla ESBL-containing E. coli transformants. Strains harbored bla CTX-M-8, bla CTX-M-15, and/or bla SHV-28. Sequencing results showed that bla CTX-M-8 and bla CTX-M-15 genes were associated with IS26. MLST revealed new sequence types for E. coli (ST4401, ST4402, ST4403, and ST4445) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ST1574), except for one K. pneumoniae from ST307 and Enterobacter cloacae from ST131. PCR and S1-PFGE results showed CTX-M-producing E. coli transformants carried heavy plasmids sizing 48.5-209 kb, which belonged to IncI1, IncF, and IncM1 incompatibility groups. This is the first report of CTX-M-8 and SHV-28 enzymes in environmental samples, and the present results demonstrate the plasmid-mediated spread of CTX-M-encoding genes through five WWTPs in São Paulo, Brazil, suggesting WWTPs are hotspots for the transfer of ESBL genes and confirming the urgent need to improve the management of sewage in order to minimize the dissemination of resistance genes to the environment. PMID:26782324

  15. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

  16. Firefighting Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

  17. Thermionic modules

    DOEpatents

    King, Donald B.; Sadwick, Laurence P.; Wernsman, Bernard R.

    2002-06-18

    Modules of assembled microminiature thermionic converters (MTCs) having high energy-conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures manufactured using MEMS manufacturing techniques including chemical vapor deposition. The MTCs incorporate cathode to anode spacing of about 1 micron or less and use cathode and anode materials having work functions ranging from about 1 eV to about 3 eV. The MTCs also exhibit maximum efficiencies of just under 30%, and thousands of the devices and modules can be fabricated at modest costs.

  18. Classification of M~7 earthquakes in Tokyo Metropolitan area since 1885 - The 1921 Ibaraki-ken Nambu and 1922 Uraga channel earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibe, T.; Satake, K.; Shimazaki, K.; Murotani, S.; Nishiyama, A.

    2011-12-01

    S-P times, focal mechanism solutions from initial motion, and seismic intensity distribution show that the 1921 Ibaraki-ken Nambu earthquake (M 7.0) and the 1922 Uraga channel earthquake (M 6.8) both occurred within the subducting Philippine Sea plate beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area. The Tokyo Metropolitan area is situated in a tectonically complex region; The Philippine Sea plate (PHS) subducts from south, while the Pacific plate (PAC) subducts from east below PHS. As a result, various types of earthquakes occur in this region. They are classified into: shallow crustal earthquakes, intraplate (slab) earthquakes within PHS, within PAC, and interplate earthquakes between continental plate and PHS, and between PHS and PAC. The probability of the large earthquakes with magnitude (M)~7 is high; Earthquake Research Committee calculated the probability of occurrence during the next 30 years as 70 %, based on the fact that five M~7 earthquakes (the 1894 Meiji Tokyo, 1895 and 1921 Ibaraki-ken Nambu, 1922 Uraga Channel, and 1987 Chiba-ken Toho-oki earthquakes) occurred since 1885. However, types of these earthquakes except for the 1987 earthquake are not well known due to low quality of data. It is important to classify these earthquakes into above-described intraplate or interplate earthquakes. The Ibaraki-ken Nambu earthquake occurred on 8 December, 1921 and caused damage such as fissures on road, tumble of gravestones especially in the northwestern Chiba and southwestern Ibaraki prefectures. The focal depth was estimated to be around 55 km using S-P times of old seismograms or JMA reports, suggesting that this earthquake was probably a slab earthquake within PHS. Seismic intensity distribution supports this result; seismic intensity anomalies characterizing the PAC slab earthquakes are not recognized. Furthermore, initial motion focal mechanisms using HASH algorithm (Hardebeck and Shearer, 2002) are strike-slip types, even if the uncertainty of hypocenter locations

  19. Real-Time Science on Social Media: The Example of Twitter in the Minutes, Hours, Days after the 2015 M7.8 Nepal Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, A.; Bossu, R.; Mazet-Roux, G.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific information on disasters such as earthquakes typically comes firstly from official organizations, news reports and interviews with experts, and later from scientific presentations and peer-reviewed articles. With the advent of the Internet and social media, this information is available in real-time from automated systems and within a dynamic, collaborative interaction between scientific experts, responders and the public. After the 2015 M7.8 Nepal earthquake, Twitter Tweets from earth scientists* included information, analysis, commentary and discussion on earthquake parameters (location, size, mechanism, rupture extent, high-frequency radiation, …), earthquake effects (distribution of felt shaking and damage, triggered seismicity, landslides, …), earthquake rumors (e.g. the imminence of a larger event) and other earthquake information and observations (aftershock forecasts, statistics and maps, source and regional tectonics, seismograms, GPS, InSAR, photos/videos, …).In the future (while taking into account security, false or erroneous information and identity verification), collaborative, real-time science on social media after a disaster will give earlier and better scientific understanding and dissemination of public information, and enable improved emergency response and disaster management.* A sample of scientific Tweets after the 2015 Nepal earthquake: In the first minutes: "mb5.9 Mwp7.4 earthquake Nepal 2015.04.25-06:11:25UTC", "Major earthquake shakes Nepal 8 min ago", "Epicenter between Pokhara and Kathmandu", "Major earthquake shakes Nepal 18 min ago. Effects derived from witnesses' reports". In the first hour: "shallow thrust faulting to North under Himalayas", "a very large and shallow event ... Mw7.6-7.7", "aftershocks extend east and south of Kathmandu, so likely ruptured beneath city", "Valley-blocking landslides must be a very real worry". In the first day: "M7.8 earthquake in Nepal 2hr ago: destructive in Kathmandu Valley and

  20. A Field Assessment of the Effects of the M7.6 Earthquake, 30 September 2009, beneath Padang, Western Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, W. D.; McGarr, A.; Sumarso, S.; Fauzi, F.; Amarizal, I.; Rudianto, S.; Deierlein, G.

    2009-12-01

    We report field observations of the effects of the M7.6 Padang earthquake of 30 September 2009, in Western Sumatra, Indonesia. In Padang City and its environs, we observed localized regions where heavy damage affected a large fraction of the structures separated by regions of only light damage. Construction type (e.g., unreinforced masonry) and the extent to which contractors adhered to building codes almost certainly played roles in the observed damage. Our observations of localized damage suggest, however, that site effects were also important. Factors influencing site response include near-surface geology, height of the water table, and depth to bedrock. We observed major landslides to the north of Padang City, where it appears that recent heavy rainfall saturated the weathered volcanic formations setting up the conditions for liquefaction and massive debris flows. These debris flows, which buried three villages at the site we visited, were triggered by the strong ground motion from the earthquake, as confirmed by eyewitnesses. Partly because of the great Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of 26 December 2004, earthquake hazards in the city of Padang were considered to be primarily due to an anticipated mega-thrust earthquake in the offshore region and an associated tsunami. On the contrary, the M7.6 earthquake of 30 September was neither a mega-thrust event nor did it generate a tsunami of any consequence. Instead, the compact rupture zone of this earthquake was located within the subducting oceanic slab at a depth of about 80 km. The September 30 earthquake is similar in terms of its intra-slab setting and damaging high-frequency ground motion to intermediate depth earthquakes elsewhere that have caused damage to cities above subduction zones, including those of South and Central America. The focal mechanism of this earthquake, however, was unusual in that it entailed thrust faulting on planes striking at high angles to the trend of the local subduction zone

  1. Implications for stress changes along the Motagua fault and other nearby faults using GPS and seismic constraints on the M=7.3 2009 Swan Islands earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, S. E.; Rodriguez, M.; Rogers, R. D.; Strauch, W.; Hernandez, D.; Demets, C.

    2010-12-01

    The May 28, 2009 M=7.3 Swan Islands earthquake off the north coast of Honduras caused significant damage in the northern part of the country, including seven deaths. This event, the largest in the region for several decades, ruptured the offshore continuation of the Motagua-Polochic fault system, whose 1976 earthquake (located several hundred kilometers to the southwest of the 2009 epicenter) caused more than 23,000 deaths in Central America and left homeless 20% of Guatemala’s population. We use elastic half-space modeling of coseismic offsets measured at 39 GPS stations in Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala to better understand the slip source of the recent Swan Islands earthquake. Measured offsets range from .32 meters at a campaign site near the Motagua fault in northern Honduras to 4 millimeters at five continuous sites in El Salvador. Coulomb stress calculations based on the estimated distribution of coseismic slip will be presented and compared to earthquake focal mechanisms and aftershock locations determined from a portable seismic network that was installed in northern Honduras after the main shock. Implications of the Swan Islands rupture for the seismically hazardous Motagua-Polochic fault system will be described.

  2. Effect of multiple short highly energetic X-ray pulses on the synthesis of endoglucanase by a mutant strain of Trichoderma reesei-M7

    PubMed Central

    Gemishev, Orlin; Zapryanov, Stanislav; Blagoev, Alexander; Markova, Maya; Savov, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    Bioconversion of cellulose-containing substrate to glucose represents an important area of modern biotechnology. Enzymes for the degradation of the polysaccharide part of biomass have been produced, mostly by fungi belonging to genus Trichoderma. Studies were carried out with the mutant strain Trichoderma reesei-M7, a cellulase producer. Spores of the enzyme producer were irradiated with different doses of characteristic X-ray radiation from metallic tungsten (mainly the W Kα1 and Kα2 lines) with a high dose rate. The latter is a specific property of the dense plasma focus (DPF) device, which has pulsed operation and thus gives short and highly energetic pulses of multiple types of rays and particles. In this case, we focused our study on the influence of hard X-rays. The doses of X-rays absorbed by the spores varied in the range of approximately 5–11,000 mSv measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The influence of the applied doses in combination with exceptionally high dose rates (in the order of tens of millisieverts per microsecond) on the activity of the produced endoglucanase, amount of biomass and extra-cellular protein, was studied in batch cultivation conditions. In the dose range of 200–1200 mSv, some enhancement of endoglucanase activity was obtained: around 18%–32%, despite the drop of the biomass amount, compared with the untreated material. PMID:26019569

  3. Strong ground motion synthesis for a M=7.2 earthquake in the Gulf of Corinth, Greece using Empirical Green`s functions

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.; Stavrakakis, G.N.; Ioannidou, E.; Wu, F.T.; Jarpe, S.; Kasameyer, P.

    1998-01-01

    We synthesize strong ground motion at three sites from a M=7.2 earthquake along the MW-trending Gulf of Cornith seismic zone. We model rupture along an 80 segment of the zone. The entire length of the fault, if activated at one time, can lead to an event comparable to that of the 1995 Kobe earthquake. With the improved digital data now routinely available, it becomes possible to use recordings of small earthquakes as empirical Green`s functions to synthesize potential ground motion for future large earthquakes. We developed a suite of 100 rupture scenarios for the earthquake and computed the commensurate strong ground motion time histories. We synthesized strong ground motion with physics-based solutions of earthquake rupture and applied physical bounds on rupture parameters. The synthesized ground motions obtained are source and site specific. By having a suite of rupture scenarios of hazardous earthquakes for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to a site from the statistical distribution of engineering parameters, we have introduced a probabilistic component to the deterministic hazard calculation. The time histories suggested for engineering design are the ones that most closely match either the average or one standard deviation absolute accelerations response values.

  4. Earthquake Performance of Structures in the Philippines: A Post-event Assessment of the M7.2 October 2013 Bohol Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naguit, M.; Cummins, P. R.; Bautista, B.; Edwards, M.; Ryu, H.; Jakab, M.

    2015-12-01

    A M7.2 inland earthquake occurred in Bohol, Philippines on the 15th of October 2013, associated with rupture along a newly-discovered thrust fault called the North Bohol Fault. While secondary hazards including lateral spreading, landslides, sinkholes, liquefaction, coastal uplift and subsidence have been observed, the impact was dominated by strong ground shaking that killed about 230 people and damaged over 70,000 buildings. Because of the extensive damage and the wide spread of intensities inferred to have shaken the island, the Bohol earthquake presents an important opportunity to improve knowledge of building fragility for the Philippines and similar countries. To this end we undertook a statistical building survey of over 18,000 damaged and undamaged structures located in urban and rural settings and at various inferred ground motion intensity levels. Building typology developed by structural engineers in the Philippines has been considered in classifying the structures based on structural materials and era of construction. The vast majority of the buildings are residential houses with wall types made of wooden materials, concrete hollow blocks or confined masonry. Tailored to assess the vulnerability of structures to earthquake loadings, this post-event analysis aims to validate and constrain the building fragility curves for seismic risk assessment. This can lead to more robust impact forecasts and higher priorities on seismic regulations and construction practices, applicable not only in Bohol but in other areas in the Philippines as well.

  5. Inhibition of cap (m7GpppXm)-dependent endonuclease of influenza virus by 4-substituted 2,4-dioxobutanoic acid compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Tomassini, J; Selnick, H; Davies, M E; Armstrong, M E; Baldwin, J; Bourgeois, M; Hastings, J; Hazuda, D; Lewis, J; McClements, W

    1994-01-01

    Synthesis of influenza virus mRNA is primed by capped and methylated (cap 1, m7GpppXm) RNAs which the virus derives by endonucleolytic cleavage from RNA polymerase II transcripts in host cells. The conserved nature of the endonucleolytic processing provides a unique target for the development of antiviral agents for influenza viruses. A series of 4-substituted 2,4-dioxobutanoic acid compounds has been identified as selective inhibitors of this activity in both influenza A and B viruses. These inhibitors exhibited 50% inhibitory concentrations in the range of 0.2 to 29.0 microM for cap-dependent influenza virus transcription and had no effect on the activity of other viral and cellular polymerases when tested at 100- to 500-fold higher concentrations. The compounds did not inhibit the initiation or elongation of influenza virus mRNA synthesis but specifically inhibited the cleavage of capped RNAs by the influenza virus endonuclease and were not inhibitory to the activities of other nucleases. Additionally, the compounds specifically inhibited replication of influenza A and B viruses in cell culture with potencies comparable to the 50% inhibitory concentrations obtained for transcription. Images PMID:7695269

  6. Geophysical investigation of the Denali fault and Alaska Range orogen within the aftershock zone of the October-November 2002, M = 7.9 Denali fault earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Ratchkovski, N.A.; Pellerin, L.; Glen, J.M.; Brocher, T.M.; Booker, J.

    2004-01-01

    The aftershock zone of the 3 November 2002, M = 7.9 earthquake that ruptured along the right-slip Denali fault in south-central Alaska has been investigated by using gravity and magnetic, magnetotelluric, and deep-crustal, seismic reflection data as well as outcrop geology and earthquake seismology. Strong seismic reflections from within the Alaska Range orogen north of the Denali fault dip as steeply as 25°N and extend to depths as great as 20 km. These reflections outline a relict crustal architecture that in the past 20 yr has produced little seismicity. The Denali fault is nonreflective, probably because this fault dips steeply to vertical. The most intriguing finding from geophysical data is that earthquake aftershocks occurred above a rock body, with low electrical resistivity (>10 Ω·m), that is at depths below ∼10 km. Aftershocks of the Denali fault earthquake have mainly occurred shallower than 10 km. A high geothermal gradient may cause the shallow seismicity. Another possibility is that the low resistivity results from fluids, which could have played a role in locating the aftershock zone by reducing rock friction within the middle and lower crust.

  7. Case study of a magnetic transient in NOAA 11429 observed by SDO/HMI during the M7.9 flare on 2012 march 13

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, Brian J.; Pevtsov, Alexei A. E-mail: apevtsov@nso.edu

    2013-12-01

    NOAA 11429 was the source of an M7.9 X-ray flare at the western solar limb (N18° W63°) on 2012 March 13 at 17:12 UT. Observations of the line-of-sight magnetic flux and the Stokes I and V profiles from which it is derived were carried out by the Solar Dynamics Observatory Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (SDO/HMI) with a 45 s cadence over the full disk, at a spatial sampling of 0.''5. During flare onset, a transient patch of negative flux can be observed in SDO/HMI magnetograms to rapidly appear within the positive polarity penumbra of NOAA 11429. We present here a detailed study of this magnetic transient and offer interpretations as to whether this highly debated phenomenon represents a 'real' change in the structure of the magnetic field at the site of the flare, or is instead a product of instrumental/algorithmic artifacts related to particular SDO/HMI data reduction techniques.

  8. Cloning, expression and characterization of a novel cold-active and organic solvent-tolerant esterase from Monascus ruber M7.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hailun; Zhang, Yan; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Wanping; Chen, Fusheng; Li, Mu

    2016-07-01

    Cold active esterases are a class of important biocatalysts that exhibit high activity at low temperatures. In this study, a search for putative cold-active esterase encoding genes from Monascus ruber M7 was performed. A cold-active esterase, named Lip10, was isolated, cloned, purified, and characterized. Amino acid sequence analysis reveals that Lip10 contained a conserved sequence motif Gly(173)-Xaa-Ser(175)-Xaa-Gly(177) that is also present in the majority of esterases and lipases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Lip10 was a novel microbial esterase. The lip10 gene was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), resulting in the expression of an active and soluble protein that constituted 40 % of the total cell protein content. Lip10 maintained almost 50 % of its maximal activity at 4-10 °C, with optimal activity at 40 °C. Furthermore, Lip10 retained 184-216 % of its original activity, after incubation in 50 % (v/v) hydrophobic organic solvents for 24 h. The enzyme also exhibited high activity under alkaline conditions and good tolerance to metal ions in the reaction mixture. These results indicate that Lip10 may have potential uses in chemical synthesis and food processing industrial applications as an esterase. PMID:27209523

  9. A VOLUME-LIMITED SAMPLE OF 63 M7-M9.5 DWARFS. I. SPACE MOTION, KINEMATIC AGE, AND LITHIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Reiners, A.; Basri, G. E-mail: basri@berkeley.ed

    2009-11-10

    In a volume-limited sample of 63 ultracool dwarfs of spectral type M7-M9.5, we have obtained high-resolution spectroscopy with UVES at the Very Large Telescope and HIRES at Keck Observatory. In this first paper we introduce our volume-complete sample from DENIS and 2MASS targets, and we derive radial velocities and space motion. Kinematics of our sample are consistent with the stars being predominantly members of the young disk. The kinematic age of the sample is 3.1 Gyr. We find that six of our targets show strong Li lines implying that they are brown dwarfs younger than several hundred million years. Five of the young brown dwarfs were unrecognized before. Comparing the fraction of Li detections to later spectral types, we see a hint of an unexpected local maximum of this fraction at spectral type M9. It is not yet clear whether this maximum is due to insufficient statistics, or to a combination of physical effects including spectral appearance of young brown dwarfs, Li line formation, and the star formation rate at low masses.

  10. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Firefly II pump module is NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's commercial offshoot of a NASA/US Coast Guard program involving development of a lightweight, helicopter-transportable firefighting module for a quick response in combating shipboard or harbor fires. Operable on land or water, the Amphib One is equipped with 3 water cannons. When all 3 are operating, unit pumps more than 3,000 gallons a minute. Newly developed model used by U.S. Coast Guard can pump 5,000 gallons per minute. It was designed for applications such as firefighting onboard ship fires, emergency dockside water pumping, dewatering ships in danger of sinking, flood control, and emergency water supply at remote locations.

  11. Thermoelectric module

    DOEpatents

    Kortier, William E.; Mueller, John J.; Eggers, Philip E.

    1980-07-08

    A thermoelectric module containing lead telluride as the thermoelectric mrial is encapsulated as tightly as possible in a stainless steel canister to provide minimum void volume in the canister. The lead telluride thermoelectric elements are pressure-contacted to a tungsten hot strap and metallurgically bonded at the cold junction to iron shoes with a barrier layer of tin telluride between the iron shoe and the p-type lead telluride element.

  12. The 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla northern Chile earthquake sequence: Implications for along-strike and downdip rupture segmentation and megathrust frictional behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurr, B.; Asch, G.; Rosenau, M.; Wang, R.; Oncken, O.; Barrientos, S.; Salazar, P.; Vilotte, J.-P.

    2012-05-01

    In 2007 a M7.7 earthquake occurred near the town of Tocopilla within the northern Chile seismic gap. Main shock slip, derived from coseismic surface deformation, was confined to the depth range between 30 and 55 km. We relocated ˜1100 events during six months before and one week after the main shock. Aftershock seismicity is first congruent to the main shock slip and then it spreads offshore west and northwest of Mejillones Peninsula (MP). Waveform modeling for 38 aftershocks reveals source mechanisms that are in the majority similar to the main shock. However, a few events appear to occur in the upper plate, some with extensional mechanisms. Juxtaposing the Tocopilla aftershocks with those following the neighboring 1995 Antofagasta earthquake produces a striking symmetry across an EW axis in the center of MP. Events seem to skirt around MP, probably due to a shallower Moho there. We suggest that the seismogenic coupling zone in northern Chile changes its frictional behavior in the downdip direction from unstable to mostly conditionally stable. For both earthquake sequences, aftershocks agglomerate in the conditionally stable region, whereas maximum inter-seismic slip deficit and co-seismic slip occurs in the unstable region. The boundary between the unstable and conditionally stable zones parallels the coastline. We identify a similar segmentation for other earthquakes in Chile and Peru, where the offshore segments break in great M > 8 earthquakes, and the onshore segments in smaller M < 8 earthquakes. Using critical taper analysis, we demonstrate a causal relationship between varying slip behavior on the interface and forearc wedge anatomy that can be attributed to spatial variations in the rate-dependency of friction.

  13. Modelling macroseismic observations for historical earthquakes: the cases of the M = 7.0, 1954 Sofades and M = 6.8, 1957 Velestino events (central Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papazachos, Giannis; Papazachos, Costas; Skarlatoudis, Andreas; Kkallas, Harris; Lekkas, Efthimios

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to model the spatial distribution of the strong ground motion for the large M = 7.0, 1954 Sofades and M = 6.8, 1957 Velestino events (southern Thessaly basin, central Greece), using the macroseismic intensities ( I M M up to 9+) observed within the broader Thessaly area. For this reason, we employ a modified stochastic method realised by the EXSIM algorithm for extended sources, in order to reproduce the damage distribution of these earthquakes, in an attempt to combine existing earthquake information and appropriate scaling relations with surface geology and to investigate the efficiency of the available macroseismic data. For site-effects assessment, we use a new digital geological map of the broader Thessaly basin, where geological formations are grouped by age and mapped on appropriate NEHRP soil classes. Using the previous approach, we estimate synthetic time series for different rupture scenarios and employ various calibrating relations between PGA/PGV and macroseismic intensity, allowing the generation of synthetic (stochastic) isoseismals. Also, different site amplification factors proposed for the broader Aegean area, according to local geology, are tested. Finally, we also perform a sensitivity analysis of the fault location, taking into account the available neotectonic data for the broader southern Thessaly fault zone. The finally determined fault locations are different than previously proposed, in agreement with the available neotectonic information. The observed macroseismic intensities are in good agreement with the ones derived from the synthetic waveforms, verifying both the usefulness of the approach, as well as of the macroseismic data used. Finally, site-effects show clear correlation with the geological classification employed, with constant amplification factors for each soil class generally providing better results than generic transfer functions.

  14. Are the source models of the M 7.1 1908 Messina Straits earthquake reliable? Insights from a novel inversion and a sensitivity analysis of levelling data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisi, M.; Bruno, V.; Cannavò, F.; Ferranti, L.; Mattia, M.; Monaco, C.; Palano, M.

    2013-03-01

    For decades, many authors have attempted to define the location, geometry and kinematics of the causative fault for the 1908 December 28, M 7.1 earthquake that struck the Messina Straits between Sicily and Calabria (southern Italy). The coseismic displacement caused a predominant downwarping of the Straits and small land uplift away from it, which were documented by levelling surveys performed 1 yr before and immediately after the earthquake. Most of the source models based on inversion of levelling data suggested that the earthquake was caused by a low angle, east-dipping blind normal fault, whose upper projection intersects the Earth surface on the Sicilian (west) side of the Messina Straits. An alternative interpretation holds that the causative fault is one of the high-angle, west-dipping faults located in southern Calabria, on the eastern side of the Straits, and may in large part coincide with the mapped Armo Fault. Here, we critically review the levelling data with the aim of defining both their usefulness and limits in modelling the seismogenic fault. We demonstrate that the levelling data alone are not capable of discriminating between the two oppositely dipping fault models, and thus their role as a keystone for modellers is untenable. However, new morphotectonic and geodetic data indicate that the Armo Fault has very recent activity and is accumulating strain. The surface observations, together with appraisal of macroseismic intensity distribution, available seismic tomography and marine geophysical evidence, lends credit to the hypothesis that the Armo and possibly the S. Eufemia faults are part of a major crustal structure that slipped during the 1908 earthquake.

  15. Transient stresses at Parkfield, California, produced by the M 7.4 Landers earthquake of June 28, 1992: Observations from the UPSAR dense seismograph array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spudich, Paul; Steck, Lee K.; Hellweg, Margaret; Fletcher, J. B.; Baker, Lawrence M.

    1995-01-01

    The M 7.4 Landers earthquake triggered widespread seismicity in the western United States. Because the transient dynamic stresses induced at regional distances by the Landers surface waves are much larger than the expected static stresses, the magnitude and the characteristics of the dynamic stresses may bear upon the earthquake triggering mechanism. The Landers earthquake was recorded on the UPSAR (U.S. Geological Survey Parkfield Small Aperture Array) array, a group of 14 triaxial accelerometers located within a 1-square-km region 10 km southwest of the town of Parkfield, California, 412 km northwest of the Landers epicenter. No triggered earthquakes were observed at Parkfield. Multiple filter analysis shows that the displacements, obtained by double integrations, are dominated by the fundamental mode Love and Rayleigh modes, with some higher-mode contributions for periods shorter than 10 s. Most of the surface waves propagated along the great circle path from Landers, but a late arriving surface wave appears to have been scattered from the Sierra Nevada Mountains. We used a standard geodetic inversion procedure to determine the surface strain and stress tensors as functions of time from the observed displacements. Comparison of dynamic stresses induced by the Landers, Loma Prieta, and Petrolia earthquakes at a variety of sites indicates that the Landers stresses were not spectacularly larger than those induced by the other sources. Landers dynamic stresses were comparable to Coalinga static stresses at Parkfield. The effective strain caused by Landers at Parkfield, where no earthquakes were triggered, are the same amplitude as those at some sites in Nevada where earthquakes were triggered. Comparing various authors' observations of dynamic stresses, there is no obvious characteristic of these stresses that correlates with the triggered seismicity.

  16. Crustal structure of the northern margin of the eastern Tien Shan, China, and its tectonic implications for the 1906 M~7.7 Manas earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Chun-Yong; Yang, Zhu-En; Luo, Hai; Mooney, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    The Tien Shan orogenic belt is the most active intracontinental mountain belt in the world. We describe an 86-km-long N–S-trending deep seismic reflection profile (which passes through the southern Junggar basin) located on the northeastern Tien Shan piedmont. Two distinct anticlines beneath the northern margin of the Tien Shan are clearly imaged in the seismic section. In addition, we have imaged two detachment surfaces at depths of ∼7 and ∼16 km. The detachment surface at 16-km depth corresponds to the main detachment that converges with the steep angle reverse fault (the Junggar Southern Marginal Fault) on which the 1906 M~7.7 Manas earthquake occurred. A 12–14-km-thick sedimentary basin is imaged beneath the southern Junggar basin near Shihezi. The crust beneath the northern margin of the Tien Shan is 50–55-km thick, and decreases beneath the Junggar basin to 40–45-km thick. The crustal image of the deep seismic reflection profile is consistent with models derived from nearby seismic refraction data and Bouguer gravity anomalies in the same region. The faulting associated with the 1906 Manas earthquake also fits within the structural framework imaged by the seismic reflection profile. Present-day micro-seismicity shows a hypocentral depth-distribution between 5 and 35 km, with a peak at 20 km. We hypothesize that the 1906 Manas earthquake initiated at a depth of ∼20 km and propagated upwards, causing northward slip on the sub-horizontal detachments beneath the southern Junggar basin. Thus, in accord with regional geological mapping, the current shortening within the eastern Tien Shan is accommodated both by high-angle reverse faulting and detachment faulting that can be clearly imaged at depth in seismic reflection data.

  17. Source properties of earthquakes near the Salton Sea triggered by the 16 October 1999 M 7.1 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Kanamori, H.

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the source properties of a sequence of triggered earthquakes that occurred near the Salton Sea in southern California in the immediate aftermath of the M 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake of 16 October 1999. The sequence produced a number of early events that were not initially located by the regional network, including two moderate earthquakes: the first within 30 sec of the P-wave arrival and a second approximately 10 minutes after the mainshock. We use available amplitude and waveform data from these events to estimate magnitudes to be approximately 4.7 and 4.4, respectively, and to obtain crude estimates of their locations. The sequence of small events following the initial M 4.7 earthquake is clustered and suggestive of a local aftershock sequence. Using both broadband TriNet data and analog data from the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN), we also investigate the spectral characteristics of the M 4.4 event and other triggered earthquakes using empirical Green's function (EGF) analysis. We find that the source spectra of the events are consistent with expectations for tectonic (brittle shear failure) earthquakes, and infer stress drop values of 0.1 to 6 MPa for six M 2.1 to M 4.4 events. The estimated stress drop values are within the range observed for tectonic earthquakes elsewhere. They are relatively low compared to typically observed stress drop values, which is consistent with expectations for faulting in an extensional, high heat flow regime. The results therefore suggest that, at least in this case, triggered earthquakes are associated with a brittle shear failure mechanism. This further suggests that triggered earthquakes may tend to occur in geothermal-volcanic regions because shear failure occurs at, and can be triggered by, relatively low stresses in extensional regimes.

  18. Microwave Imaging of a Hot Flux Rope Structure during the Pre-impulsive Stage of an Eruptive M7.7 Solar Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhao; Chen, Yao; Huang, Guangli; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Song, Hongqiang; Melnikov, Victor; Liu, Wei; Li, Gang; Chandrashekhar, Kalugodu; Jiao, Fangran

    2016-04-01

    Corona structures and processes during the pre-impulsive stage of solar eruption are crucial to understanding the physics leading to the subsequent explosive energy release. Here we present the first microwave imaging study of a hot flux rope structure during the pre-impulsive stage of an eruptive M7.7 solar flare, with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph at 17 GHz. The flux rope is also observed by the SDO/AIA in its hot passbands of 94 and 131 Å. In the microwave data, it is revealed as an overall arcade-like structure consisting of several intensity enhancements bridged by generally weak emissions, with brightness temperatures (T B) varying from ∼10,000 K to ∼20,000 K. Locations of microwave intensity enhancements along the structure remain relatively fixed at certain specific parts of the flux rope, indicating that the distribution of emitting electrons is affected by the large-scale magnetic configuration of the twisted flux rope. Wavelet analysis shows a pronounced 2 minute period of the microwave T B variation during the pre-impulsive stage of interest. The period agrees well with that reported for AIA sunward-contracting loops and upward ejective plasmoids (suggested to be reconnection outflows). This suggests that both periodicities are controlled by the same reconnection process that takes place intermittently at a 2 minute timescale. We infer that at least a part of the emission is excited by non-thermal energetic electrons via the gyro-synchrotron mechanism. The study demonstrates the potential of microwave imaging in exploring the flux rope magnetic geometry and relevant reconnection process during the onset of solar eruption.

  19. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2012-07-17

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame. The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  20. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2013-08-27

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame, The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  1. Spread of Enterobacter cloacae carrying blaNDM-1, blaCTX-M-15, blaSHV-12 and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in a surgical intensive care unit in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Petrosillo, N; Vranić-Ladavac, M; Feudi, C; Villa, L; Fortini, D; Barišić, N; Bedenić, B; Ladavac, R; D'Arezzo, S; Andrašević, A Tambić; Capone, A

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe a hospital cluster of NDM-1-producing Enterobacter cloacae infections observed in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary-care hospital at Pula, Croatia. NDM-1-producing E. cloacae strains isolated from clinical samples were screened by PCR for the presence of carbapenemases. Genetic relatedness of NDM-1-producing E. cloacae strains was determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). During the period October 2013 to April 2014, four patients, with overlapping hospital stay in the surgical ICU, developed severe infections caused by E. cloacae demonstrated to produce carbapenemases. According to MLST, all strains belonged to ST133 and were positive by PCR for the blaNDM-1 carbapenemase gene, for blaCTX-M-15 and blaSHV-12 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes, and for blaTEM-1 and blaOXA-1 narrow-spectrum β-lactamase genes. They were negative for other carbapenemases genes including blaOXA-48, blaVIM and blaKPC as well as for AmpC and the armA and rmtB aminoglycoside resistance genes. All strains were positive for the HI2 replicon, suggesting that an IncHI2 plasmid is likely the plasmid carrying the blaNDM-1 gene. Infection control measures were implemented after the first case although they were not effective in avoiding spread of this organism to other patients in the surgical ICU. In conclusion, the evolving epidemiology of NDM-producing micro-organisms and the interspecies diffusion of this resistance mechanism to emerging pathogens such as E. cloacae necessitate the setting up of strong and urgent joint measures to control the spread of NDM carbapenemase especially in the ICU setting. PMID:27436392

  2. CTX-M-15 in combination with aac(6')-Ib-cr is the most prevalent mechanism of resistance both in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, including K. pneumoniae ST258, in an ICU in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Bado, Inés; Gutiérrez, Claudia; García-Fulgueiras, Virginia; Cordeiro, Nicolás F; Araújo Pirez, Lucía; Seija, Verónica; Bazet, Cristina; Rieppi, Gloria; Vignoli, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-EcKp) clones circulating in an intensive care unit (ICU) in Uruguay between August 2010 and July 2011, (ii) to characterise the ESBL and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes of the studied isolates and (iii) to determine the virulotype of the clinical isolates. Clinical and gut-colonising ESBL-EcKp from ICU patients were studied. Bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination were performed using a VITEK(®)2 system. Detection of ESBL, KPC and PMQR genes was performed by PCR and sequencing. Clonality was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). In total, 54 ESBL-EcKp isolates (40 K. pneumoniae and 14 E. coli), with or without PMQR genes, were recovered from 30 of 68 inpatients. Forty-seven isolates were CTX-M-15-producers (36 as a single ESBL and 11 together with CTX-M-14). In addition, four isolates produced CTX-M-14, two produced CTX-M-2 and one produced SHV-5. No carbapenemases were detected either in E. coli or K. pneumoniae isolates. Among the ESBL-producing isolates, 42 also harboured PMQR genes: 27 aac(6')-Ib-cr; 14 aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrB; and a single isolate carrying only qnrB. K. pneumoniae ST258, ST48 and ST16 and E. coli ST10 and ST405 were detected in 46/54 isolates, including 9 clinical isolates. In conclusion, non-KPC-producing K. pneumoniae ST258 harbouring different ESBL and PMQR genes was the main clone disseminated in the ICU. Extensive surveillance measures must be implemented to prevent the emergence of acquired plasmid-encoded blaKPC by ST258 K. pneumoniae. PMID:27530831

  3. Tsunami modelling and source constraints from regional tide-gages and tilt measurements for the 2008 M=7.5, Tocopilla subduction earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hébert, H.; Boudin, F.; Bernard, P.; Peyrat, S.; Bejarpi, M.

    2008-12-01

    We focus on the small tsunami (a few tens of cm) generated by the November 2007, M=7.5 Tocopilla earthquake, which ruptured about 140 km of the southernmost part of the major, 1000 km long seismic gap of the northern Chile subduction. We first use the available regional tide-gage records, within 1000 km, at coastal stations and on nearby DART buoys (source of data: SHOA, Chile; University of Hawai; NOAA/NBDC) , to constrain the offshore, up-dip extension of the rupture, poorly constrained by the on-land records (GPS, InSAR, accelerograms). For this purpose, various source models, compatible with the geodetic/seismological data, are used as input for numerical calculations, including the best-fit, minimal seismological and geodetic inverted models. The vertical static displacement of the ocean floor is calculated using uniform, instantaneous dislocations in an elastic half-space. The tsunami wave is calculated using a finite-difference scheme solving the hydrodynamic equations, under the non linear shallow water assumption. Bathymetric data derived from the 1' GEBCO dataset are used. The time and amplitude of the first oscillations at the closest tide-gages constrain the offshore part of the source. The later part of the signal is persistent during more than one day, with dominant period of 40 to 45 minutes. Numerical simulation correctly reproduces these spectral characteristic as well as the persistence of the waves, which appear to be trapped within a narrow band (50 to 70 km wide) along at least the 800 km long coastline of the model, suggesting a very efficient trapping by the shallow area between the trench and the coast. This characteristic period was already present for previous tsunamis in this area (2001,1995,1877 major earthquakes) . At 200 to 300 km north to the epicentral area, tilt records from a long base tiltmeter and from broad-band seismometers (STS2) of the IPOC array, installed at short distances from the coast (3 to 25 km), show a clear signal

  4. Earthquake source imaging by high-resolution array analysis at regional distances: the 2010 M7 Haiti earthquake as seen by the Venezuela National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, L.; Ampuero, J. P.; Rendon, H.

    2010-12-01

    Back projection of teleseismic waves based on array processing has become a popular technique for earthquake source imaging,in particular to track the areas of the source that generate the strongest high frequency radiation. The technique has been previously applied to study the rupture process of the Sumatra earthquake and the supershear rupture of the Kunlun earthquakes. Here we attempt to image the Haiti earthquake using the data recorded by Venezuela National Seismic Network (VNSN). The network is composed of 22 broad-band stations with an East-West oriented geometry, and is located approximately 10 degrees away from Haiti in the perpendicular direction to the Enriquillo fault strike. This is the first opportunity to exploit the privileged position of the VNSN to study large earthquake ruptures in the Caribbean region. This is also a great opportunity to explore the back projection scheme of the crustal Pn phase at regional distances,which provides unique complementary insights to the teleseismic source inversions. The challenge in the analysis of the 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake is its very compact source region, possibly shorter than 30km, which is below the resolution limit of standard back projection techniques based on beamforming. Results of back projection analysis using the teleseismic USarray data reveal little details of the rupture process. To overcome the classical resolution limit we explored the Multiple Signal Classification method (MUSIC), a high-resolution array processing technique based on the signal-noise orthognality in the eigen space of the data covariance, which achieves both enhanced resolution and better ability to resolve closely spaced sources. We experiment with various synthetic earthquake scenarios to test the resolution. We find that MUSIC provides at least 3 times higher resolution than beamforming. We also study the inherent bias due to the interferences of coherent Green’s functions, which leads to a potential quantification

  5. Social vulnerability analysis of earthquake risk using HAZUS-MH losses from a M7.8 scenario earthquake on the San Andreas fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriega, G. R.; Grant Ludwig, L.

    2010-12-01

    Natural hazards research indicates earthquake risk is not equitably distributed. Demographic differences are significant in determining the risks people encounter, whether and how they prepare for disasters, and how they fare when disasters occur. In this study, we analyze the distribution of economic and social losses in all 88 cities of Los Angeles County from the 2008 ShakeOut scenario earthquake. The ShakeOut scenario earthquake is a scientifically plausible M 7.8 scenario earthquake on the San Andreas fault that was developed and applied for regional earthquake preparedness planning and risk mitigation from a compilation of collaborative studies and findings by the 2007 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP). The scenario involved 1) developing a realistic scenario earthquake using the best available and most recent earthquake research findings, 2) estimation of physical damage, 3) estimation of social impact of the earthquake, and 4) identifying changes that will help to prevent a catastrophe due to an earthquake. Estimated losses from this scenario earthquake include 1,800 deaths and $213 billion dollars in economic losses. We use regression analysis to examine the relationship between potential city losses due to the ShakeOut scenario earthquake and the cities' demographic composition. The dependent variables are economic and social losses calculated in HAZUS-MH methodology for the scenario earthquake. The independent variables -median household income, tenure and race/ethnicity- have been identified as indicators of social vulnerability to natural disasters (Mileti, 1999; Cutter, 2006; Cutter & Finch, 2008). Preliminary Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression analysis of economic losses on race/ethnicity, income and tenure, indicates that cities with lower Hispanic population are associated with lower economic losses. Cities with higher Hispanic population are associated with higher economic losses, though this relationship is

  6. Updated Rupture Model for the M7.8 October 28, 2012, Haida Gwaii Earthquake as Constrained by GPS-Observed Displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykolaishen, L.; Dragert, H.; Wang, K.; James, T. S.; de Lange Boom, B.; Schmidt, M.; Sinnott, D.

    2014-12-01

    The M7.8 low-angle thrust earthquake off the west coast of southern Haida Gwaii on October 28, 2012, provided Canadian scientists the opportunity to study a local large thrust earthquake and has provided important information towards an improved understanding of geohazards in coastal British Columbia. Most large events along the Pacific-North America boundary in this region have involved strike-slip motion, such as the 1949 M8.1 earthquake on the Queen Charlotte Fault. In contrast along the southern portion of Haida Gwaii, the young (~8 Ma) Pacific plate crust also underthrusts North America and has been viewed as a small-scale analogy of the Cascadia Subduction Zone. Initial seismic-based rupture models for this event were improved through inclusion of GPS observed coseismic displacements, which are as large as 115 cm of horizontal motion (SSW) and 30 cm of subsidence. Additional campaign-style GPS surveys have since been repeated by the Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS) at seven vertical reference benchmarks throughout Haida Gwaii, significantly improving the coverage of coseismic displacement observations in the region. These added offsets were typically calculated by differencing a single occupation before and after the earthquake and preliminary displacement estimates are consistent with previous GPS observations from the Geological Survey of Canada. Addition of the CHS coseismic offset estimates may allow direct inversion of the GPS data to derive a purely GPS-based rupture model. To date, cumulative postseismic displacements at six sites indicate up to 6 cm of motion, varying in azimuth between SSW and SE. Preliminary postseismic timeseries curve fitting to date has utilized a double exponential function characteristic of mantle relaxation. The current postseismic trends also suggest afterslip on the deeper plate interface beneath central Haida Gwaii along with possible induced aseismic slip on a deeper segment of the Queen Charlotte Fault located offshore

  7. Comparison of the Structurally Controlled Landslides Numerical Model Results to the M 7.2 2013 Bohol Earthquake Co-seismic Landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macario Galang, Jan Albert; Narod Eco, Rodrigo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2015-04-01

    The M 7.2 October 15, 2013 Bohol earthquake is the most destructive earthquake to hit the Philippines since 2012. The epicenter was located in Sagbayan municipality, central Bohol and was generated by a previously unmapped reverse fault called the "Inabanga Fault". Its name, taken after the barangay (village) where the fault is best exposed and was first seen. The earthquake resulted in 209 fatalities and over 57 billion USD worth of damages. The earthquake generated co-seismic landslides most of which were related to fault structures. Unlike rainfall induced landslides, the trigger for co-seismic landslides happen without warning. Preparedness against this type of landslide therefore, relies heavily on the identification of fracture-related unstable slopes. To mitigate the impacts of co-seismic landslide hazards, morpho-structural orientations or discontinuity sets were mapped in the field with the aid of a 2012 IFSAR Digital Terrain Model (DTM) with 5-meter pixel resolution and < 0.5 meter vertical accuracy. Coltop 3D software was then used to identify similar structures including measurement of their dip and dip directions. The chosen discontinuity sets were then keyed into Matterocking software to identify potential rock slide zones due to planar or wedged discontinuities. After identifying the structurally-controlled unstable slopes, the rock mass propagation extent of the possible rock slides was simulated using Conefall. The results were compared to a post-earthquake landslide inventory of 456 landslides. Out the total number of landslides identified from post-earthquake high-resolution imagery, 366 or 80% intersect the structural-controlled hazard areas of Bohol. The results show the potential of this method to identify co-seismic landslide hazard areas for disaster mitigation. Along with computer methods to simulate shallow landslides, and debris flow paths, located structurally-controlled unstable zones can be used to mark unsafe areas for settlement. The

  8. Beta-globin mRNAs capped with m7G, m2.7(2)G or m2.2.7(3)G differ in intrinsic translation efficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Darzynkiewicz, E; Stepinski, J; Ekiel, I; Jin, Y; Haber, D; Sijuwade, T; Tahara, S M

    1988-01-01

    We examined the intramolecular effect of altered cap structures on translation efficiency of artificial beta-globin mRNAs. For these studies, synthetic dinucleotides of the form X(5')ppp(5')G [X = 7-methyl guanosine (m7G), 2,7-dimethyl guanosine (m2(2,7)G) or 2,2,7-trimethyl guanosine (m3(2,2,7)G)], were transcriptionally incorporated into mRNAs, containing rabbit beta-globin coding sequences, using T7 RNA polymerase and a beta-globin cDNA template. These synthetic mRNAs were assayed in reticulocyte lysate for activity relative to m7G-capped mRNA. m2(2,7)G-Capped mRNA was found to be 1.5-fold more active than m7G-capped mRNA. Messenger RNA capped with m3(2,2,7)G was less active with activity of 0.24 relative to its m7G-capped counterpart (activity = 1.0). These data suggest that m7G-capped mRNAs become more active as translation templates after addition of a single N2 methyl moiety, which is especially pertinent to gene expression in togaviridae. The latter are observed to synthesize m2(2,7)G and m3(2,2,7)G-capped mRNAs in addition to m7G-capped templates during the course of infection in animal cells. Images PMID:3174438

  9. The Post-seismic Slip of the 1973 M7.6 earthquake on the Luhuo Segment of the Xianshuihe Fault Zone, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, D.; Xue-Ze, W.

    2012-04-01

    An M=7.6 earthquake ruptured the Luhuo segment of the Xianshuihe fault zone on Feb. 6, 1973. Since then, several across-fault (across the 1973 rupture) deformation observation systems have been set up one after another at the site of Xialatuo, Luhuo county, Sichuan province, China. Among them are a system of short baselines and short leveling, a set of creep-meters, an artificial construction, and some near-fault to far-fault GPS geodetic stations. By using data from the observation of these systems, this paper studies the characteristic of the post-seismic slip/deformation and their temporal-spatial variations for the Luhuo segment of the Xianshuihe fault zone, and builds a tectonic-dynamic model to explain the characteristic features. Our study mainly shows that, (1) in the first five years following the 1973 earthquake, the earthquake fault at Xialatuo behaved as an open one that the post-seismic slip showed mainly as aseismic left-lateral slip (creeping) at an average rate of 10.27mm/a along with slight tensional creeping. Since 1979, however, the rate of the post-seismic left-lateral creep has been slowing down gradually from 5.3mm/a to 2.27mm/a, and the process of the rate slowing down is the type of logarithmic function, suggesting that during the period since 1979 the fault plane, that ruptured in the 1973 earthquake, has been tending to re-couple and re-lock gradually with some strain having rebuilt-up. (2) Since 1999 the rate of relative left-lateral displacement/deformation at the fault far-fields on both sides of the fault segment is estimated to be 10mm/a, much greater than the near-fault (40m to 144m across the fault) left-lateral creep rates of 0.66 mm/a to 2.52mm/a in the same stage. Also, such significant differences of the near- to far-fault displacement/deformation rates occur along an about 2×30-km-wide zone centered along the fault segment of Luhuo, indicating the width of the seismogenic fault zone associated with the stress/strain build

  10. Supported PV module assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Mascolo, Gianluigi; Taggart, David F.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Edgett, Christopher S.

    2013-10-15

    A supported PV assembly may include a PV module comprising a PV panel and PV module supports including module supports having a support surface supporting the module, a module registration member engaging the PV module to properly position the PV module on the module support, and a mounting element. In some embodiments the PV module registration members engage only the external surfaces of the PV modules at the corners. In some embodiments the assembly includes a wind deflector with ballast secured to a least one of the PV module supports and the wind deflector. An array of the assemblies can be secured to one another at their corners to prevent horizontal separation of the adjacent corners while permitting the PV modules to flex relative to one another so to permit the array of PV modules to follow a contour of the support surface.

  11. Ionospheric anomalies related to the (M = 7.3), August 27, 2012, Puerto earthquake, (M = 6.8), August 30, 2012 Jan Mayen Island earthquake, and (M = 7.6), August 31, 2012, Philippines earthquake: two-dimensional principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jyh-Woei

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) are used to examine the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) data during the time period from 00:00 on August 21 to 12: 45 on August 31 (UT), which are 10 days before the M = 7.6 Philippines earthquake at 12:47:34 on August 31, 2012 (UT) with the depth at 34.9 km. From the results by using 2DPCA, a TEC precursor of Philippines earthquake is found during the time period from 4:25 to 4:40 on August 28, 2012 (UT) with the duration time of at least 15 minutes. Another earthquake-related TEC anomaly is detectable for the time period from 04:35 to 04:40 on August 27, 2012 (UT) with the duration time of at least 5 minutes during the Puerto earthquake at 04: 37:20 on August 27, 2012 (UT) (M(w) = 7.3) with the depth at 20.3 km. The precursor of the Puerto earthquake is not detectable. TEC anomaly is not to be found related to the Jan Mayen Island earthquake (M w = 6.8) at 13:43:24 on August 30, 2012 (UT). These earthquake-related TEC anomalies are detectable by using 2DPCA rather than PCA. They are localized nearby the epicenters of the Philippines and Puerto earthquakes. PMID:23844386

  12. Lunar Module Ascent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Lunar Module 'Spider' ascent stage is photographed from the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Lunar Module's descent stage had already been jettisoned.

  13. Ballasted photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt

    2011-11-29

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module and a ballast tray. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes an arm. The ballast tray is adapted for containing ballast and is removably associated with the PV module in a ballasting state where the tray is vertically under the PV laminate and vertically over the arm to impede overt displacement of the PV module. The PV module assembly can be installed to a flat commercial rooftop, with the PV module and the ballast tray both resting upon the rooftop. In some embodiments, the ballasting state includes corresponding surfaces of the arm and the tray being spaced from one another under normal (low or no wind) conditions, such that the frame is not continuously subjected to a weight of the tray.

  14. Module utilization committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volkmer, K.; Praver, G.

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the U.S. Dept. of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules on a national basis and to act as a broker for requests for these modules originating outside of the National Photovoltaics Program.

  15. The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) Project's Response to the April 25, 2015 M7.8 Nepal Earthquake: Rapid Measurements and Models for Science and Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, S. E.; Fielding, E. J.; Yun, S. H.; Yue, H.; Polet, J.; Riel, B. V.; Liang, C.; Huang, M. H.; Webb, F.; Simons, M.; Moore, A. W.; Agram, P. S.; Barnhart, W. D.; Hua, H.; Liu, Z.; Milillo, P.; Sacco, G. F.; Rosen, P. A.; Manipon, G.

    2015-12-01

    On April 25, 2015, the M7.8 Gorkha earthquake struck Nepal and the city of Kathmandu. The quake caused a significant humanitarian crisis and killed more than 8,000 due to widespread building damage and triggered landslides throughout the region. This was the strongest earthquake to occur in the region since the 1934 Nepal-Bihar magnitude 8.0 quake caused more than 10,000 fatalities. In the days following the earthquake, the JPL/Caltech ARIA project produced coseismic GPS and SAR displacements, fault slip models, and damage assessments from SAR coherence change that were helpful in both understanding the event and in the response efforts. The ARIA project produced InSAR observations from two new SAR missions - JAXA's ALOS-2 and ESA's Sentinel 1a. The GPS coseismic displacements showed ~1.8 meters of southward motion and ~1.3 meters of uplift in Kathmandu. InSAR images of the displacement field and fault models show that the rupture extended 135 km southeast of the epicenter. The SAR imagery also confirmed that the fault slip did not extend to the surface, though localized offsets formed due to liquefaction. The GPS and SAR analysis has continued to image the large M7.3 aftershock and postseismic deformation. The damage assessments from coherence change were used by several organizations guiding the response effort, including the NGA, the World Bank, and OFDA/USAID. We will present imaging, modeling, and damage assessment results from the recent April 25, 2015 M7.8 earthquake in Nepal, and its largest aftershock, a M7.3 event on May 12, 2015. We also discuss how these data were used for understanding the event, guiding the response, and for educational outreach.

  16. Almond brush module cutter

    SciTech Connect

    Zohns, M.A.; Jenkins, B.M.; Mehlschau, J.J.; Morrison, D.

    1983-06-01

    This paper addresses the design, construction, and evaluation of an almond brush module cutter. The module cutter is one link in a system which processes tree prunings for fuel and fiber. This system includes a modified cotton module builder, a module mover, the cutter, and a tub grinder. An economic analysis of the cutter is presented along with the problems involved in cutting brush modules.

  17. Modulational effects in accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Satogata, T.

    1997-12-01

    We discuss effects of field modulations in accelerators, specifically those that can be used for operational beam diagnostics and beam halo control. In transverse beam dynamics, combined effects of nonlinear resonances and tune modulations influence diffusion rates with applied tune modulation has been demonstrated. In the longitudinal domain, applied RF phase and voltage modulations provide mechanisms for parasitic halo transport, useful in slow crystal extraction. Experimental experiences with transverse tune and RF modulations are also discussed.

  18. mdv1-miR-M7-5p, located in the newly identified first intron of the latency-associated transcript of Marek's disease virus, targets the immediate-early genes ICP4 and ICP27.

    PubMed

    Strassheim, S; Stik, G; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S

    2012-08-01

    Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV-1) is an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus causing fatal T-cell lymphoma in chickens. MDV latency is characterized by the production of latency-associated transcripts (LATs), a family of non-protein-coding spliced RNAs. A cluster of four microRNAs (cluster mdv1-miR-M8-M10) was identified, but not formally mapped, at the predicted LAT 5' end. We established a LAT cDNA library from latently MDV-infected cell line MSB-1. We identified 22 highly variable LATs, which were due to the extensive alternative splicing of a total of 14 introns. RACE PCR confirmed the predicted 3' end and allowed identification of the 5' end, 400 nt upstream of the previously predicted LAT end. The LATs share their transcription start site with the microRNA-expressing transcript described previously, localizing the microRNAs to the first LAT intron and identifying the LATs as the primary transcripts of the microRNAs. We identified MDV immediate-early (IE) genes ICP4 and ICP27 as putative targets of mdv1-miR-M7-5p, the third microRNA of the cluster mdv1-miR-M8-M10. Endogenously expressed mdv1-miR-M7-5p in MSB-1 cells reduced luciferase activity significantly when microRNA-responsive elements from ICP4 or ICP27 were cloned in the 3' UTR of the firefly luciferase gene. ICP27 protein levels were decreased by 70 % when the mdv1-miR-M7-5p precursor was co-expressed with an ICP27 expression plasmid. Additionally, we showed a negative correlation between the decreased expression of mdv1-miR-M7-5p and an increase in ICP27 expression during virus reactivation. Our results suggest that, by targeting two IE genes, MDV microRNAs produced from LAT transcripts may contribute to establish and/or maintain latency. PMID:22513387

  19. A short note on ground-motion recordings from the M 7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake and ground-motion prediction equations in the Central and Eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Z.; Lu, M.

    2011-01-01

    The 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (M 7.9) occurred along the western edge of the eastern China SCR and was well recorded by modern strong-motion instruments: 93 strong-motion stations within 1.4 to 300 km rupture distance recorded the main event. Preliminary comparisons show some similarities between ground-motion attenuation in the Wenchuan region and the central and eastern United States, suggesting that ground motions from the Wenchuan earthquake could be used as a database providing constraints for developing GMPEs for large earthquakes in the central and eastern United States.

  20. Temporal Aperture Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The two types of modulation techniques useful to X-ray imaging are reviewed. The use of optimum coded temporal aperature modulation is shown, in certain cases, to offer an advantage over a spatial aperture modulator. Example applications of a diffuse anisotropic X-ray background experiment and a wide field of view hard X-ray imager are discussed.

  1. Module flammability research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimura, R. S.; Otth, D. H.; Arnett, J. C.; Lewis, K.

    1984-03-01

    The technology base required to construct fire-ratable modules is explored. New materials of construction and module configurations to achieve increased fire resistance are investigated. The fire-resistance capability of current PV module designs is assessed. Parametric tests are performed to characterize flammability.

  2. The modulation of immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Modulation of Immunity by Thymus-Derived Lymphocytes; Modulation of Immunity by Macrophages; Modulation of Immunity by Soluble Mediators; Viruses and the Immune Response; and Methanol Extraction Residue: Effects and Mechanisms of Action.

  3. Integrating Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Provides an overview of the complete National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) model, and includes brief descriptions of the modules with which the Integrating Module interacts. The emphasis and focus, however, is on the structure and function of the Integrating Module of NEMS.

  4. Modulating lignin in plants

    DOEpatents

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  5. Rescue Manual. Module 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The fifth of 10 modules contains information on hazardous materials. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany substantive material in this module. In addition, the module contains a Department of Transportation guide chart on…

  6. Small modulation ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ducharme, Stephen P. (Inventor); El Hajj, Hassanayn M. (Inventor); Johs, Blaine D. (Inventor); Woollam, John A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    In an ellipsometer, a phase-modulated, polarized light beam is applied to a sample, electrical signals are obtained representing the orthogonal planes of polarization of the light after it has interacted with the sample and the constants of the sample are calculated from the two resulting electrical signals. The phase modulation is sufficiently small so that the calibration errors are negligible. For this purpose, the phase modulator phase modulates the light within a range of no more than ten degrees modulations peak to peak. The two electrical signals are expanded by Fourier analysis and the coefficients thereof utilized to calculate psi and delta.

  7. Spatial Light Amplifier Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eng, Sverre T.; Olsson, N. Anders

    1992-01-01

    Spatial light amplifier modulators (SLAM's) are conceptual devices that effect two-dimensional spatial modulation in optical computing and communication systems. Unlike current spatial light modulators, these provide gain. Optical processors incorporating SLAM's designed to operate in reflection or transmission mode. Each element of planar SLAM array is optical amplifier - surface-emitting diode laser. Array addressed electrically with ac modulating signals superimposed on dc bias currents supplied to lasers. SLAM device provides both desired modulation and enough optical gain to enable splitting of output signal into many optical fibers without excessive loss of power.

  8. Loadable Hypervisor Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Naughton, III, Thomas J; Vallee, Geoffroy R; Scott, Stephen L; Aderholdt, Ferrol

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of a new hypervisor mechanism for loading dynamic shared objects (modules) at runtime. These loadable hypervisor modules (LHM) are modeled after the loadable kernel modules used in Linux. We detail the current LHM implementation based on the Xen hypervisor. Potential use cases for this LHM mechanism include dynamic hypervisor instrumentation for debug tracing or performance analysis. We discuss the initial LHM prototype and future plans.

  9. Cavity enhanced terahertz modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Born, N.; Scheller, M.; Moloney, J. V.; Koch, M.

    2014-03-10

    We present a versatile concept for all optical terahertz (THz) amplitude modulators based on a Fabry-Pérot semiconductor cavity design. Employing the high reflectivity of two parallel meta-surfaces allows for trapping selected THz photons within the cavity and thus only a weak optical modulation of the semiconductor absorbance is required to significantly damp the field within the cavity. The optical switching yields to modulation depths of more than 90% with insertion efficiencies of 80%.

  10. Advanced module development overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smokler, M. I.

    1984-01-01

    Crystalline silicon solar power modules are examined for reliability and cost effectiveness. A goal of 12% solar energy conversion efficiency is considered feasible at a cost of 12/kWh, and a decision is made to limit consideration to float zone silicon wafer and dendritic web silicone modules. A preliminary module packaging configuration of glass/ethylene vinyl acetate/plastic film is selected. Anticipated module efficiency levels are 12.6% at 25 C and 11.5% at NOCT (Nominal Operating Cell Temperature).

  11. Bubble memory module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohning, O. D.; Becker, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Design, fabrication and test of partially populated prototype recorder using 100 kilobit serial chips is described. Electrical interface, operating modes, and mechanical design of several module configurations are discussed. Fabrication and test of the module demonstrated the practicality of multiplexing resulting in lower power, weight, and volume. This effort resulted in the completion of a module consisting of a fully engineered printed circuit storage board populated with 5 of 8 possible cells and a wire wrapped electronics board. Interface of the module is 16 bits parallel at a maximum of 1.33 megabits per second data rate on either of two interface buses.

  12. Bracket for photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2014-06-24

    Brackets for photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. In one embodiment, a saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. The gusset can have a first leg and a second leg extending at an angle relative to the mounting surface. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets. The mounting feature can be coupled to the first gusset and configured to stand the one or more PV modules off the tube.

  13. Silicon photonic heater-modulator

    DOEpatents

    Zortman, William A.; Trotter, Douglas Chandler; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-07-14

    Photonic modulators, methods of forming photonic modulators and methods of modulating an input optical signal are provided. A photonic modulator includes a disk resonator having a central axis extending along a thickness direction of the disk resonator. The disk resonator includes a modulator portion and a heater portion. The modulator portion extends in an arc around the central axis. A PN junction of the modulator portion is substantially normal to the central axis.

  14. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Shiga toxin gene (stx1)-positive Escherichia coli O91:H14 carrying blaCTX-M-15 on an IncI1-ST31 plasmid isolated from a human patient in Germany.

    PubMed

    Arvand, Mardjan; Bettge-Weller, Gudrun; Fruth, Angelika; Uphoff, Helmut; Pfeifer, Yvonne

    2015-05-01

    In 2011, the Shiga toxin- and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 caused a serious outbreak of gastroenteritis in Germany. This strain carried bla(CTX-M-15) and bla(TEM-1) on an IncI1-ST31 plasmid. During screening of individuals at risk for acquisition of the epidemic E. coli O104:H4, we isolated another ESBL-producing and Shiga toxin-positive E. coli belonging to serotype O91:H14 from feces of a human patient. Interestingly, the patient also carried a further ESBL-producing but Shiga toxin-negative E. coli. Both strains harbored bla(CTX-M-15) and bla(TEM-1) on an IncI1-ST31 plasmid, which was indistinguishable regarding size and plasmid restriction pattern from the plasmid of the epidemic E. coli O104:H4 strain. The patient had traveled to India 6 months prior to the isolation of the E. coli strains. This is the first report of an ESBL-producing, Shiga toxin-positive E. coli of serogroup O91. Our data suggest a high propensity of the IncI1-ST31 plasmid to spread in the human and/or animal population. PMID:25801683

  15. Logs Perl Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-04-04

    A perl module designed to read and parse the voluminous set of event or accounting log files produced by a Portable Batch System (PBS) server. This module can filter on date-time and/or record type. The data can be returned in a variety of formats.

  16. Applied Algebra Curriculum Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Marshall.

    This collection of 11 applied algebra curriculum modules can be used independently as supplemental modules for an existing algebra curriculum. They represent diverse curriculum styles that should stimulate the teacher's creativity to adapt them to other algebra concepts. The selected topics have been determined to be those most needed by students…

  17. Membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kaschemekat, Jurgen

    1994-01-01

    A membrane module assembly adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation.

  18. Cosmetology. Computerized Learning Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnerty, Kathy, Ed.

    Intended to help reading-limited students meet course objectives, these 11 modules are based on instructional materials in cosmetology that have a higher readability equivalent. Modules cover bacteriology, chemical waving, scalp and hair massage, chemistry, hair shaping, hairstyling, chemical hair relaxing, hair coloring, skin and scalp,…

  19. Human Development Student Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This set of 61 student learning modules deals with various topics pertaining to human development. The modules, which are designed for use in performance-based vocational education programs, each contain the following components: an introduction for the student, a performance objective, a variety of learning activities, content information, a…

  20. Membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kaschemekat, J.

    1994-03-15

    A membrane module assembly is described which is adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation. 2 figures.

  1. Module Safety Issues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2012-02-01

    Description of how to make PV modules so that they are less likely to turn into safety hazards. Making modules inherently safer with minimum additional cost is the preferred approach for PV. Safety starts with module design to ensure redundancy within the electrical circuitry to minimize open circuits and proper mounting instructions to prevent installation related ground faults. Module manufacturers must control the raw materials and processes to ensure that that every module is built like those qualified through the safety tests. This is the reason behind the QA task force effort to develop a 'Guideline for PV Module Manufacturing QA'. Periodic accelerated stress testing of production products is critical to validate the safety of the product. Combining safer PV modules with better systems designs is the ultimate goal. This should be especially true for PV arrays on buildings. Use of lower voltage dc circuits - AC modules, DC-DC converters. Use of arc detectors and interrupters to detect arcs and open the circuits to extinguish the arcs.

  2. Nonformal Education Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Helen; And Others

    This Peace Corps Nonformal Education (NFE) training module provides training ideas for volunteers. This module contains 10 sessions, each designed to fit into a 3-hour period: (1) What is NFE? (2) adult learning; (3) helping people identify their needs; (4) facilitation skills--part 1; (5) facilitation skills--part 2; (6) NFE materials…

  3. Solar energy modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, R. R. (Inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

  4. A multipurpose digital modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz; Sumida, Joe T.

    1989-01-01

    The theoretical basis and hardware implementation of a versatile device which uses digital signal-processing methods to achieve signal modulation are reported. The carrier-modulation process is formulated as a simple quadrature equation; a generalized description of the signal constellation to be processed is derived; the pulse-shaping scheme is explained; and the system architecture is described in detail and illustrated with diagrams. Experimental results obtained with a breadboard transmitter based on this modulation technique are presented in extensive graphs. The power spectra and eye diagrams generated for different QPSK, 8PSK, and MSK modulation schemes are shown to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions. It is suggested that this modulator could be readily implemented in VLSI and mass produced.

  5. Japanese Experiment Module (JEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is removed from its shipping crate and moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named 'Kibo' (Hope) to arrive at KSC. Japan's primary contribution to the International Space Station, the module will enhance unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts will conduct experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility or platform for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  6. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  7. Optical modulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, J.

    1972-01-01

    The fabrication, test, and delivery of an optical modulator system which will operate with a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser indicating at either 1.06 or 0.53 micrometers is discussed. The delivered hardware operates at data rates up to 400 Mbps and includes a 0.53 micrometer electrooptic modulator, a 1.06 micrometer electrooptic modulator with power supply and signal processing electronics with power supply. The modulators contain solid state drivers which accept digital signals with MECL logic levels, temperature controllers to maintain a stable thermal environment for the modulator crystals, and automatic electronic compensation to maximize the extinction ratio. The modulators use two lithium tantalate crystals cascaded in a double pass configuration. The signal processing electronics include encoding electronics which are capable of digitizing analog signals between the limit of + or - 0.75 volts at a maximum rate of 80 megasamples per second with 5 bit resolution. The digital samples are serialized and made available as a 400 Mbps serial NRZ data source for the modulators. A pseudorandom (PN) generator is also included in the signal processing electronics. This data source generates PN sequences with lengths between 31 bits and 32,767 bits in a serial NRZ format at rates up to 400 Mbps.

  8. Amplitude Modulator Chassis

    SciTech Connect

    Erbert, G

    2009-09-01

    The Amplitude Modulator Chassis (AMC) is the final component in the MOR system and connects directly to the PAM input through a 100-meter fiber. The 48 AMCs temporally shape the 48 outputs of the MOR using an arbitrary waveform generator coupled to an amplitude modulator. The amplitude modulation element is a two stage, Lithium Niobate waveguide device, where the intensity of the light passing through the device is a function of the electrical drive applied. The first stage of the modulator is connected to a programmable high performance Arbitrary Waveform Generator (AWG) consisting of 140 impulse generators space 250 ps apart. An arbitrary waveform is generated by independently varying the amplitude of each impulse generator and then summing the impulses together. In addition to the AWG a short pulse generator is also connected to the first stage of the modulator to provide a sub 100-ps pulse used for timing experiments. The second stage of the modulator is connect to a square pulse generator used to further attenuate any pre or post pulse light passing through the first stage of the modulator. The fast rise and fall time of the square pulse generator is also used to produce fast rise and fall times of the AWG by clipping the AWG pulse. For maximum extinction, a pulse bias voltage is applied to each stage of the modulator. A pulse voltage is applied as opposed to a DC voltage to prevent charge buildup on the modulator. Each bias voltage is adjustable to provide a minimum of 50-dB extinction. The AMC is controlled through ICCS to generate the desired temporal pulse shape. This process involves a closed-loop control algorithm, which compares the desired temporal waveform to the produced optical pulse, and iterates the programming of the AWG until the two waveforms agree within an allowable tolerance.

  9. A Search for Coronal Emission at the Bottom of the Main-Sequence: Stars and Brown Dwarf Candidates with Spectral Types Later than M7 and the Rotation-Activity Relation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringfellow, Guy

    2004-01-01

    This program intended to test whether the lowest mass stars at the bottom end of the main sequence and the lower mass brown dwarfs have coronae. If they have coronae, what are the coronal characteristics and what drives them? In the classical dynamo picture, the closed magnetic loop structure is generated near the boundary of the convective envelope and the radiative core. Stars with mass below 0.30 Msun however are fully convective, and the nature of the dynamo responsible for the generation of the coronae in this regime is poorly understood. Previous results from the ROSAT mission (e.g., Fleming et al. 1993, 1995; Schmitt et al. 1995) had confirmed three very important characteristics of M-star coronae: (1) a very high percentage of all M dwarfs have coronae (of order 85% in the local 7 pc sample), (2) those M dwarfs showing high chromospheric activity, such as having the Balmer series in emission or large/numerous optical flaring, indeed exhibit the highest coronal activity, and (3) that the maximum saturation boundary in X-ray luminosity, which amounts to 0.0001-0.001 for Lx/Lbol for the dMe stars, extends down to the current detection limit, through spectral types M7. It was likely that the incompleteness noted for result (1) above was simply a detection limit problem; for more distant sources, the X-ray fainter dM stars will drop below detection thresholds before the more X-ray luminous dMe stars. The latest stars for which direct detection of the corona had been successful were of spectral type dM7 (e.g., VB8, LHS 3003). This program proposed to obtain ROSAT HRI observations for a large number of the coolest known (at that time) stars at the bottom of the main-sequence, which had spectral types of M9 or later. Three stars were approved for observations with ROSAT-HRI totaling 180 ksec. The goal was to obtain X-ray detections or low upper limits for the three approved stars.

  10. Water heater control module

    DOEpatents

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.