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Sample records for molars anatomical aspects

  1. The maxillary second molar - anatomical variations (case report).

    PubMed

    Beshkenadze, E; Chipashvili, N

    2015-01-01

    To be acquainted with dental anatomical specificity is of great importance for dental endodontic treatment algorithm. The subject of present publication is 2 clinical cases of upper second molars, detailed characterization of, which is considered very important for enrichment of anatomical knowledge about dental anatomical variations. In one case, the reason for admission to the clinic of a 38-year-old woman was complains as of esthetic character as well as functional misbalance (disturbance of chewing function due to the damage of orthopedic construction). The patient indicated to the existence of coronary defects of large size aesthetic discomforts, damage and discolouration of old orthopedic construction (denture) in maxillary right molar area. According to the data obtained after clinical and visiographical examinations, chronic periodontitis of 17 teeth was identified as a result of incomplete endodontic treatment. According to the data obtained after clinical and visiographical examinations, the diagnosis of chronic periodontitis of 17 teeth was identified, tooth 17 with 2 roots and 2 canals. In the second clinical case, the reason for admission to the clinic of a 39-year-old woman was severe pain in the upper right molar area. The patient indicated to the caries on the tooth 17. After completion of proper survey clinical and visiographical examinations, acute pulpitis (K04.00) - with three roots and 4 canals was diagnosed. In both cases after the proper examinations and agreement with the patients a treatment plan envisaging: 17 teeth endodontic treatment, filling of caries defects and their preparation on one hand for orthopedic construction (denture) and on the other hand for restoration of anatomical integrity by light-cured composite, was scheduled. The present study is designed to prevent complications of endodontic treatment of the second molar, to optimize diagnosis and treatment algorithm, once again proving reliable information indicating to the

  2. Anatomically guided implant site preparation technique at molar sites.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Tizcareño, Mario H; Bravo-Flores, Claudia

    2009-10-01

    Immediate postextraction implant placement in the areas of multiradicular teeth is a difficult procedure in view of having to place the implant in an ideal position without jeopardizing its initial stability. The surgeon often faces the problem of directing the initial osteotomy in the medial portion of the alveolus with the difficulty of engaging the inter-radicular septum of the extraction socket. The drill may slip continually leading to an inaccurate site preparation, and consequently to a deficient implant insertion. The fixture is often placed directly into either one of the extraction sockets of the tooth to be replaced. The anatomically guided site preparation technique is a very useful tool to perform implant placement in the areas of multiradicular teeth. This approach of implant insertion consists of a progressive preparation of the implant site using the anatomy and geometry of the root of the multiradicular teeth to be extracted as a reference and as an aid to engage the inter-radicular septum. This places the implants in a favorable and proper position from a biomechanical and occlusal standpoint. The objective of this article is to describe the anatomically guided implant site preparation technique as an aid to favorably place dental implants in multiradicular teeth postextraction. PMID:22129957

  3. Anatomical Relationship of Lingual Nerve to the Region of Mandibular Third Molar

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho Leite Leal Nunes, Carla Maria; de Almeida Lopes, Maria Cândida

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This study evaluated the relationship of the lingual nerve with the adjacent anatomical structures of the mandibular third molar region, influencing the dentist to be aware of the variability of these relationships. Material and Methods Samples of 24 human corpse half-heads were selected and divided according with the presence or absence of the mandibular third molars. The lingual nerve (LN) was explored, showing its run from the oblique line until its crossing with the submandibular gland duct. The measurements along the LN and the adjacent anatomical structures were taken at the retromolar, molar and sublingual region with the use of a digital caliper. Results The distance from the LN and the third molar socket, which represents the horizontal distance of the lingual plate to the nerve, on average, was 4.4 mm (SD 2.4 mm). The distance from the LN and the lingual alveolar rim, which represents the vertical relationship between the nerve and the lingual alveolar rim of the third molar socket, on average, was 16.8 mm (SD 5.7 mm). The LN has a varied topography that leaves it very vulnerable during any procedure executed in this region. Conclusions Unless adequate protection of the lingual nerve is acquired by following an adequate surgical technique, the lingual nerve will always be vulnerable to damage during surgical intervention or manipulation in this region. PMID:24478912

  4. Anatomical and clinical aspects of Klinefelter's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bird, Rebecca J; Hurren, Bradley J

    2016-07-01

    Klinefelter's syndrome, the most common sex disorder associated with chromosomal aberrations, is characterized by a plethora of clinical features. Parameters for diagnosis of the syndrome are constantly expanding as new anatomical and hormonal abnormalities are noted, yet Klinefelter's remains underdiagnosed and underreported. This review outlines the key anatomical characteristics associated with the syndrome, which are currently used for clinical diagnosis, or may provide means for improving diagnosis in the future. Clin. Anat. 29:606-619, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26823086

  5. Anatomical aspects of angiosperm root evolution

    PubMed Central

    Seago, James L.; Fernando, Danilo D.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Anatomy had been one of the foundations in our understanding of plant evolutionary trends and, although recent evo-devo concepts are mostly based on molecular genetics, classical structural information remains useful as ever. Of the various plant organs, the roots have been the least studied, primarily because of the difficulty in obtaining materials, particularly from large woody species. Therefore, this review aims to provide an overview of the information that has accumulated on the anatomy of angiosperm roots and to present possible evolutionary trends between representatives of the major angiosperm clades. Scope This review covers an overview of the various aspects of the evolutionary origin of the root. The results and discussion focus on angiosperm root anatomy and evolution covering representatives from basal angiosperms, magnoliids, monocots and eudicots. We use information from the literature as well as new data from our own research. Key Findings The organization of the root apical meristem (RAM) of Nymphaeales allows for the ground meristem and protoderm to be derived from the same group of initials, similar to those of the monocots, whereas in Amborellales, magnoliids and eudicots, it is their protoderm and lateral rootcap which are derived from the same group of initials. Most members of Nymphaeales are similar to monocots in having ephemeral primary roots and so adventitious roots predominate, whereas Amborellales, Austrobaileyales, magnoliids and eudicots are generally characterized by having primary roots that give rise to a taproot system. Nymphaeales and monocots often have polyarch (heptarch or more) steles, whereas the rest of the basal angiosperms, magnoliids and eudicots usually have diarch to hexarch steles. Conclusions Angiosperms exhibit highly varied structural patterns in RAM organization; cortex, epidermis and rootcap origins; and stele patterns. Generally, however, Amborellales, magnoliids and, possibly

  6. Morphologic Measurements of Anatomic Landmarks in Pulp Chambers of Human First Molars: A Study of Bitewing Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Khojastepour, Leila; Rahimizadeh, Naser; Khayat, Akbar

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Knowledge of the anatomic location and dimension of the molar pulp chamber may preserve healthy pulp during operative procedure and reduce risk of perforation of chamber during access preparation. A review of literatures regarding the morphology of pulp chamber however revealed very little information; so the aim of this in vivo study was to measure the dimensions of first molar pulp chambers as seen on bitewing (BW) radiographs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study molar's BW radiographs of 130 subjects in two age groups were taken under standardized conditions (group of 18-25 years old subjects and group of 50-65 years old subjects). The films were digitized and nine anatomical landmarks were evaluated from the image of each first molar as follow: A; mesial to distal pulp horn distance, B; mesial to distal walls at the middle of pulp chamber, C; mesial to distal orifices, D; mesial cusp tip to its horn, E; distal cusp tip to its horn, F; pulp chamber height, G; pulp chamber floor to furcation, H; pulp chamber ceiling to furcation, I; cusp tips to furcation. The data were evaluated by using AUTOCAD (2007) software with 0.00 precision. Two way ANOVA test (Uni-variant analysis) were used to determine the interaction between restoration and age on pulp chamber dimensions. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in pulp chamber dimensions between the genders. Although there was significant reduction in the size of pulp chamber with advancing age, no significant differences were found in the restored and non restored teeth. CONCLUSION: The finding of this study showed size reduction and changes of pulp chamber with age so may enhance knowledge to minimize errors during endodontics treatments. PMID:24265638

  7. Anatomical study of C-shaped canals in mandibular second molars by analysis of computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guang-Chun; Lee, Seong-Jong; Roh, Byoung-Duck

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and configuration of the C-shaped canal using serial axial computed tomography images of the mandibular second molars that had not been restored severely or treated endodontically, and to compare the thickness of the remaining tooth structure from the center of the canal to the outer surface of the deepest groove area in C-shaped mandibular second molar to that of "danger zone of perforation" in normal mandibular second molar. This distance was measured at the cervical, middle, and apical third level each. From 220 teeth, C-shaped canals were found in 98 teeth (44.5%). Almost all the grooves were directed lingual (99%). The continuous C-shaped canal was the most frequently found (49%) and the separated canal was the least (17.4%). The thinnest remaining tooth structure in the groove area of the C-shaped mandibular second molar was not different from that of the danger zone of normal mandibular second molar at the three levels (p > 0.05). PMID:16410060

  8. Morphological measurements of anatomic landmarks in human maxillary and mandibular molar pulp chambers.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Allan S; Musikant, Barry Lee

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to measure critical morphology of molar pulp chambers. One hundred random human maxillary and mandibular molars (200 teeth in total) were used. Each molar was radiographed mesiodistally on a millimeter grid. Using a stereomicroscope, the measurements were read to the nearest 0.5 mm. Results were as follows (mean, mm): pulp chamber floor to furcation, maxillary = 3.05 +/- 0.79, mandibular = 2.96 +/- 0.78; pulp chamber ceiling to furcation, maxillary = 4.91 +/- 1.06, mandibular = 4.55 +/- 0.91; buccal cusp to furcation, maxillary = 11.15 +/- 1.21, mandibular = 10.90 +/- 1.21; buccal cusp to pulp chamber floor, maxillary = 8.08 +/- 0.88, mandibular = 7.95 +/- 0.79; buccal cusp to pulp chamber ceiling, maxillary = 6.24 +/- 0.88, mandibular = 6.36 +/- 0.93; and pulp chamber height, maxillary = 1.88 +/- 0.69, mandibular = 1.57 +/- 0.68. The pulp chamber ceiling was at the level of the cementoenamel junction in maxillary, 98%, and mandibular, 97% of the specimens. The measurements showing the lowest percentage variance were buccal cusp to furcation (approximately 11%) and buccal cusp to pulp chamber ceiling (approximately 14%). The measurements were similar for both maxillary and mandibular molars. PMID:15167463

  9. Reproductive system of females of the Magdalena river endemic stingray Potamotrygon magdalenae: Anatomical and functional aspects.

    PubMed

    del Mar Pedreros-Sierra, Tania; Arrieta-Prieto, Dagoberto M; Mejía-Falla, Paola A

    2016-05-01

    We studied anatomical and functional aspects of the reproductive system of females of the Magdalena river stingray Potamotrygon magdalenae using microscopic and macroscopic analysis of each organ. Although the reproductive tract was fully functional on both side, the left organs possibly have a greater contribution to reproductive success, because left ovary and uterus were more developed and had higher number of oocytes and embryos, respectively, than the right ones. This species has histotrophic viviparity given by the presence of uterine trophonemata and by glandular character in pregnant and postpartum females. We suggest that the epigonal organ is involved in the degradation of components of atretic follicles and the embryos begin to develop surrounded by a gelatinous tertiary envelope produced by the oviducal gland. This latter organ is composed by three zones in mature females, club, papillary, and baffle zone, as described for other elasmobranchs. From the anatomical observations, a maturity scale comprising six sexual maturity stages (Immature I, Immature II, early mature, pregnant, post-partum, and regenerating) was established for female P. magdalenae, and it can be useful as basis for reproductive studies of other potamotrygonid species. Finally, we propose a continuous reproductive cycle for P. magdalenae. PMID:26968745

  10. Selection of an animal model for implant fixation studies: anatomical aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Goel, V. K.; Drinker, H.; Panjabi, M. M.; Strongwater, A.

    1982-01-01

    A number of different animal models have been employed by investigators to study the biology of the bone-cement interface as it relates to the problem of hip implant loosening in humans. This study compares to the human three species (baboon, dog, and sheep) currently under use as experimental animal models from an anatomical point of view. A number of parameters, important for the dimensional design of a femoral prosthesis, loads at the hip joint and its subsequent performance, were used for comparing external and internal femoral anatomy. The baboon and dog femora were found to be most similar to the human femur in their external anatomy. The quantification of cancellous bone distribution within the medullary canal revealed that, of the species studied, the sheep femur provided the least support to the prosthesis. The results suggest that the dog and baboon are anatomically appropriate for studying hip implant biomechanics experimentally. Thus, from an anatomical point of view, the current extensive use of the dog as an experimental animal appears appropriate. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:7136007

  11. Comparing and authenticating on anatomical aspects of Abrus cantoniensis and Abrus mollis by microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhifeng; Lu, Luyang; Liu, Yuan; Qing, Linsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abrus cantoniensis is popularly used as traditional Chinese medicine and a cool tea in South of China. However, due to diminishing source of A. cantoniensis, it is usually interchanged or adulterated with other species of Abrus genus because of the limited knowledge in identification and differentiation. Especially, Abrus mollis is widely mixed on herbal markets and pharmaceutical preparation. Objective: To ensure safety and efficacy, a detailed comparison was undertaken to carry out an anatomical and micro-morphological study of two species of A. cantoniensis and A. mollis. Materials and Methods: Microscopic characteristics of roots, leaves and stems, including transverse sections and the crude drug powder, were observed using a light microscope according to the usual microscopic techniques. Results: The basic diagnostic features of A. cantoniensis include that stem is extremely thin; xylem vessels of root are radially arranged in 10 or more bundles; pith is hollow in stem, and the palisade tissue is made up of two layers of palisade cells. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy was used to compare nonglandular hairs and the stomata of the leaflet surface. A table of the key authentication parameters based on the analyzed microscopic characteristics was drawn up. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the microscopy and related techniques provided a systematic method that is convenient, feasible, and can be unambiguously applied to the authentication of the species of Abrus. PMID:25829788

  12. Diseases in the cranio-cervical junction: Anatomical and pathological aspects and detailed clinical accounts

    SciTech Connect

    Voth, D.; Glees, P.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 40 selections. Some of the titles are: Radionuclide imaging of the cranio-cervical region; Magnetic resonance imaging in the cranio-cervical region: Experiences in 194 cases; NMR-finding in a case of Morquio's syndrome with syncope; The dynamic evaluation of the cervical spinal canal and spinal cord by magnetic resonance imaging during movement; and A review of clinical and radiological aspects of rheumatoid arthritis of head joints.

  13. Rats show molar sensitivity to different aspects of random-interval-with-linear-feedback-functions and random-ratio schedules.

    PubMed

    Reed, Phil

    2015-10-01

    Three experiments examined the impact of various aspects of reinforcement contingencies on responding maintained by free-operant schedules by food-deprived rats. Experiment 1 demonstrated that random interval (RI) and random-interval-with-positive-response-reinforcer-feedback (RI+) schedules maintained similar rates of responding at a variety of reinforcer frequencies. Experiment 2 demonstrated that a random ratio (RR) schedule maintained higher rates than RI or RI+ schedules, except at high rates of reinforcement, where response rates were similar on all schedules. Experiment 3 again demonstrated that RR schedules produced higher response rates than either RI or RI+ schedules, but modification of the RI+ schedule to prevent ratio strain enhanced response rates relative to an RI schedule. Together these results reveal a pattern of interacting factors in schedule controlled behavior: at high rates of reinforcement, this factor overrides the impact of other controlling factors, but as reinforcement rate decreases the joint impact of interresponse times reinforcement, response-reinforcer feedback functions, and ratio strain are observed. PMID:25915752

  14. Maxillary First Molar with Two Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Saeed; Ghasemi, Negin

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge regarding the anatomic morphology of maxillary molars is absolutely essential for the success of endodontic treatment. The morphology of the permanent maxillary first molar has been reviewed extensively; however, the presence of two canals in a two-rooted maxillary first molar has rarely been reported in studies describing tooth and root canal anatomies. This case report presents a patient with a maxillary first molar with two roots and two root canals, who was referred to the Department of Endodontics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. PMID:23862051

  15. Endodontic treatment of molars

    PubMed Central

    Habl, Claudia; Bodenwinkler, Andrea; Stürzlinger, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    Objective Commissioned by the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI) the Austrian Health Institute (ÖBIG) prepared a HTA report on the long-term effectiveness of endodontic treatment (root canal treatment, RCT) of molars. The focus is to examine factors influencing the outcome of endodontic treatment and showing their impact on long-term results. Additionally, economic aspects of root canal treatment in Germany are discussed. Methodology By performing a systematic literature search in 29 databases (e.g. MEDLINE), the Cochrane Library and by hand searching two peer-reviewed endodontic journals the authors could identify 750 relevant articles, of which finally 18 qualified for assessment. Results The findings show that the most relevant factor influencing the long-term outcome of endodontic treatment is the preoperative status of a tooth. The lowest success rates are reported for molars with a preoperative devital or necrotic pulp and persisting periapical lesions (so called periapical disease). Discussion Even if there is no positive selection of patients and the RCT is performed by a normal dentist rather than an endodontist - a fact which is very common - long-term success rates of more then 90% are possible. The overall success rates for endodontic treatment of molars therefore seem to be similar to those of other tooth-types. Conclusions Especially primary, conventional (i.e. non-surgical) root canal treatment is an effective and efficient therapy for endodontically ill molars, especially if no large periapical lesion persists. Nonetheless, a long term successful endodontic therapy requires a thorough assessment of the pre-operative status of the molar and treatment according to established guidelines. PMID:21289954

  16. Single-rooted primary first mandibular molar

    PubMed Central

    Haridoss, SelvaKumar; Swaminathan, Kavitha; Rajendran, Vijayakumar; Rajendran, Bharathan

    2014-01-01

    Morphological variations like single-rooted molar in primary dentition are scarce. Understanding the root canal anatomy and variations is necessary for successful root canal therapy. The purpose of the present article is to report successful endodontic treatment of primary left mandibular first molar with an abnormal morphology of a single root. This case report highlights the importance of knowledge and its applications in the management of anomalous anatomic variants which play a crucial role in the success of endodontic treatment. PMID:25150245

  17. Deciduous molar hypomineralization and molar incisor hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Elfrink, M E C; ten Cate, J M; Jaddoe, V W V; Hofman, A; Moll, H A; Veerkamp, J S J

    2012-06-01

    This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. This study focused on the relationship between Deciduous Molar Hypomineralization (DMH) and Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH). First permanent molars develop during a period similar to that of second primary molars, with possible comparable risk factors for hypomineralization. Children with DMH have a greater risk of developing MIH. Clinical photographs of clean, moist teeth were taken with an intra-oral camera in 6,161 children (49.8% girls; mean age 74.3 mos, SD ± 5.8). First permanent molars and second primary molars were scored with respect to DMH or MIH. The prevalence of DMH and MIH was 9.0% and 8.7% at child level, and 4.0% and 5.4% at tooth level. The Odds Ratio for MIH based on DMH was 4.4 (95% CI, 3.1-6.4). The relationship between the occurrence of DMH and MIH suggests a shared cause and indicates that, clinically, DMH can be used as a predictor for MIH. PMID:22370445

  18. Role of third molars in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Almpani, Konstantinia; Kolokitha, Olga-Elpis

    2015-02-16

    The role of third molars in the oral cavity has been extensively studied over the years. Literature includes numerous diagnostic and treatment alternatives regarding the third molars. However, an issue that has not been discussed at the same level is their involvement in orthodontic therapy. The aim of this study is to present a review of the contemporary literature regarding the most broadly discussed aspects of the multifactorial role of third molars in orthodontics and which are of general dental interest too. PMID:25685759

  19. Autotransplantation of Mandibular Third Molar: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ravi kumar, Pabbati; Jyothi, Mandava; Sirisha, Kantheti; Racca, Khushboo; Uma, Chalasani

    2012-01-01

    Autogenous transplantation is a feasible, fast, and economical option for the treatment of nonsalvageable teeth when a suitable donor tooth is available. This paper presents successful autotransplantation of a mature mandibular left third molar (38) without anatomical variances is used to replace a mandibular left second molar (37). The mandibular second molar was nonrestorable due to extensive root caries and resorption of distal root. After extraction of mandibular second and third molars, root canal therapy was done for the third molar extraorally, and the tooth was reimplanted into the extracted socket of second molar site. After one year, clinical and radiographic examination revealed satisfactory outcome with no signs or symptoms suggestive of pathology. In selected cases, autogenous tooth transplantation, even after complete root formation of the donor tooth, may be considered as a practical treatment alternative to conventional prosthetic rehabilitation or implant treatment. PMID:23346422

  20. Clinical significance of computed tomography assessment for third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Nakamori, Kenji; Tomihara, Kei; Noguchi, Makoto

    2014-07-28

    Surgical extraction of the third molar is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the clinical practice of oral surgery. Third molar surgery is warranted when there is inadequate space for eruption, malpositioning, or risk for cyst or odontogenic tumor formation. Preoperative assessment should include a detailed morphologic analysis of the third molar and its relationship to adjacent structures and surrounding tissues. Due to developments in medical engineering technology, computed tomography (CT) now plays a critical role in providing the clear images required for adequate assessment prior to third molar surgery. Removal of the maxillary third molar is associated with a risk for maxillary sinus perforation, whereas removal of the mandibular third molar can put patients at risk for a neurosensory deficit from damage to the lingual nerve or inferior alveolar nerve. Multiple factors, including demographic, anatomic, and treatment-related factors, influence the incidence of nerve injury during or following removal of the third molar. CT assessment of the third molar prior to surgery can identify some of these risk factors, such as the absence of cortication between the mandibular third molar and the inferior alveolar canal, prior to surgery to reduce the risk for nerve damage. This topic highlight presents an overview of the clinical significance of CT assessment in third molar surgery. PMID:25071882

  1. Clinical significance of computed tomography assessment for third molar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nakamori, Kenji; Tomihara, Kei; Noguchi, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Surgical extraction of the third molar is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the clinical practice of oral surgery. Third molar surgery is warranted when there is inadequate space for eruption, malpositioning, or risk for cyst or odontogenic tumor formation. Preoperative assessment should include a detailed morphologic analysis of the third molar and its relationship to adjacent structures and surrounding tissues. Due to developments in medical engineering technology, computed tomography (CT) now plays a critical role in providing the clear images required for adequate assessment prior to third molar surgery. Removal of the maxillary third molar is associated with a risk for maxillary sinus perforation, whereas removal of the mandibular third molar can put patients at risk for a neurosensory deficit from damage to the lingual nerve or inferior alveolar nerve. Multiple factors, including demographic, anatomic, and treatment-related factors, influence the incidence of nerve injury during or following removal of the third molar. CT assessment of the third molar prior to surgery can identify some of these risk factors, such as the absence of cortication between the mandibular third molar and the inferior alveolar canal, prior to surgery to reduce the risk for nerve damage. This topic highlight presents an overview of the clinical significance of CT assessment in third molar surgery. PMID:25071882

  2. Five Canalled and Three-Rooted Primary Second Mandibular Molar

    PubMed Central

    Selvakumar, Haridoss; Kavitha, Swaminathan; Bharathan, Rajendran; Varghese, Jacob Sam

    2014-01-01

    A thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy and its variation is necessary for successful completion of root canal procedures. Morphological variations such as additional root canals in human deciduous dentition are rare. A mandibular second primary molar with more than four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations, especially when three of these canals are located in the distal root. This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for additional canals. PMID:25147744

  3. Five canalled and three-rooted primary second mandibular molar.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Haridoss; Kavitha, Swaminathan; Bharathan, Rajendran; Varghese, Jacob Sam

    2014-01-01

    A thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy and its variation is necessary for successful completion of root canal procedures. Morphological variations such as additional root canals in human deciduous dentition are rare. A mandibular second primary molar with more than four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations, especially when three of these canals are located in the distal root. This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for additional canals. PMID:25147744

  4. Ruptured tubal molar pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yakasai, I A; Adamu, N; Galadanchi, H S

    2012-01-01

    Molar pregnancies in most instances develop within the uterine cavity, but may occur at any site. Ectopic molar pregnancy is a rare event. The objective of this study was to present a case of ruptured tubal molar gestation, discuss its clinical features and ways to improve diagnostic accuracy. A 35-year-old woman presented with features suggestive of ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy. There was neither any evidence at the time of presentation to suspect a molar gestation, nor β human chorionic gonadotrophin (βhCG) hormone estimation was done, but only a clearview pregnancy test was carried out. She had total left salpingectomy and histological evaluation of the specimen revealed complete hydatidiform mole. The hCG level normalized within 3 weeks of follow-up. Clinical features of ectopic molar pregnancy may be indistinguishable from non-molar ectopic pregnancy. We recommend βhCG estimation as well as histological examination of the surgical specimen for all patients coming with features suggestive of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:23238205

  5. Mandibular Third Molar Impaction: Review of Literature and a Proposal of a Classification

    PubMed Central

    Daugela, Povilas

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of present article was to review impacted mandibular third molar aetiology, clinical anatomy, radiologic examination, surgical treatment and possible complications, as well as to create new mandibular third molar impaction and extraction difficulty degree classification based on anatomical and radiologic findings and literature review results. Material and Methods Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were mandibular third molar, impacted mandibular third molar, inferior alveolar nerve injury third molar, lingual nerve injury third molar. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1976 to April 2013. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy and oral surgery journals and books was performed. The publications there selected by including clinical and human anatomy studies. Results In total 75 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. Impacted mandibular third molar aetiology, clinical anatomy, radiographic examination, surgical extraction of and possible complications, classifications and risk factors were discussed. New mandibular third molar impaction and extraction difficulty degree classification based on anatomical and radiologic findings and literature review results was proposed. Conclusions The classification proposed here based on anatomical and radiological impacted mandibular third molar features is promising to be a helpful tool for impacted tooth assessment as well as for planning for surgical operation. Further clinical studies should be conducted for new classification validation and reliability evaluation. PMID:24422029

  6. A Clinical Evaluation of Anatomic Features of Gingiva in Dental Students in Tabriz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Faramarzie, Masoumeh; Lafzi, Ardeshir

    2008-01-01

    Background and aims The anatomical features of gingiva are important in appropriate periodontal treatment planning. This study was designed to determine the anatomic features of gingival in a group of dental students in Tabriz, Iran. Materials and methods One-hundred healthy subjects (aged 20-24 years old) with no history of periodontal or orthodontic treatment and a gingival index of zero or one were included. The following measurements were made using a periodontal probe: the distance between the gingival margin and base of gingival sulcus (depth of sulcus); the distance between the gingival margin and mucogingival junction (keratinized gingiva); and the distance between base of gingival sulcus and mucogingival junction (attached gingiva). Existence of free gingival groove was also recorded by observation. Mean values of collected data were calculated. Results The widest attached gingiva and keratin-ized gingiva on the buccal aspect was seen in upper lateral incisor and their minimum in lower premo-lars. The maximum depth of sulcus on the buccal surface was recorded in upper right molar and its minimum on the buccal surface was found in lower left canine. All of the studied students had free gin-gival groove on the buccal or oral aspect of at least one tooth. Conclusion The anatomic features found in this study were similar to those of the previous studies. However, mild variations with regard to race differ-ences were observed. PMID:23277852

  7. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Rao, Murali H; Aluru, Srikanth C; Jayam, Cheranjeevi; Bandlapalli, Anila; Patel, Nikunj

    2016-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect affecting teeth. High prevalence rates of MIH and its clinical implications are significant for both the patients and clinicians. A wide variation in defect prevalence (2.4-40.2%) is reported. It seems to differ with regions and various birth cohorts. Some of the recent prevalence studies are tabulated. Patient implications include hypersensitive teeth, rapid progression of caries, mastication impairment due to rapid attrition, and esthetic repercussions. Implications for clinicians include complexity in treatment planning and treatment implementation, poor prognosis of the restorations, difficulty in achieving pain control during treatment, and behavior management problems. Intention of this paper is to review the etio-pathogenesis, prevalence, clinical features, diagnostic features, and eventually present a sequential treatment approach, i.e., in accordance with current clinical practice guidelines. PMID:27595731

  8. Lower molar and incisor displacement associated with mandibular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, S; Bravo, L A; Ben-Bassat, Y; Curry, S; Korn, E L

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the amount of alveolar modeling at the apices of the mandibular incisor and first molar specifically associated with appositional and resorptive changes on the lower border of the mandible during growth and treatment. Cephalometric data from superimpositions on anterior cranial base, mandibular implants of the Björk type, and anatomical "best fit" of mandibular border structures were integrated using a recently developed strategy, which is described. Data were available at annual intervals between 8.5 and 15.5 years for a previously described sample of approximately 30 children with implants. The average magnitudes of the changes at the root apices of the mandibular first molar and central incisor associated with modeling/remodeling of the mandibular border and symphysis were unexpectedly small. At the molar apex, mean values approximated zero in both anteroposterior and vertical directions. At the incisor apex, mean values approximated zero in the anteroposterior direction and averaged less than 0.15 mm/year in the vertical direction. Standard deviations were roughly equal for the molar and the incisor in both the anteroposterior and vertical directions. Dental displacement associated with surface modeling plays a smaller role in final tooth position in the mandible than in the maxilla. It may also be reasonably inferred that anatomical best-fit superimpositions made in the absence of implants give a more complete picture of hard tissue turnover in the mandible than they do in the maxilla. PMID:9107373

  9. Patients' anxieties with third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Earl, P

    1994-10-01

    There has been little study of patients' anxieties about third molar surgery despite its widespread practice. 105 patients were invited to complete questionnaires preoperatively to assess anxieties about the procedure and to assess how well it was explained. They were also asked post operatively to assess differences from expectations, accuracy of the preoperative explanation and which aspect would worry them most should the procedure be repeated. Patients generally found their worries as expected or even better. Few found events worse with only pain (12%) and paraesthesia (13%) of note. Although 88% of patients assessed pain as better than or as expected, 43% would fear it most if the procedure was repeated. Pain is the single most feared factor despite evidence that it is usually no worse than originally feared. Reassurance and adequate pain control are the most important factors to patients in third molar surgery, and this reassurance should start at operation booking rather than on admission. PMID:7999736

  10. Controversy of the third molars.

    PubMed

    Pitekova, L; Satko, I

    2009-01-01

    Third molars are teeth that have little functional value and a relatively high rate of associated pain and disease. Their value as a part of the dentition of modern people is dubious. Our aim is to review the evolution, morbidity and complications of the third molars (Ref. 19). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:19408843

  11. Anatomical study of total cystoprostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Benoit, G; Boccon-Gibod, L; Steg, A

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe an anatomical study of total cystoprostatectomy. They show that Denonvilliers' fascia is made up of many membranous layers starting at the bladder. They recall the fact that the preprostatic veins are attached at the bottom, not only to the venae dorsales penis, but also to the venae pudendae internae which runs under the levator ani muscle. These preprostatic veins lie inside a vessel-bearing blade of tissue made of muscular and collagenous tissue derived from the anterior vesical wall. This anatomical study recalls the fact that the interprostatorectal dissection line is behind Denonvilliers' fascia and that the preprostatic vein dissection line is on the anterior aspect of the membranous urethra. PMID:4043160

  12. Root Canal Therapy of a Mandibular First Molar with Five Root Canals: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Reyhani, Mohammad Frough; Rahimi, Saeed; Shahi, Shahriar

    2007-01-01

    A mandibular first molar requiring root canal therapy was found with five canals, three mesial canals, and two distal canals. Initially, four canals (mesiobuccal, mesiolingual, distobuccal, and distolingual) were identified. The mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals were found in their normal locations, and a fifth canal was noted between these two. This case demonstrates a rare anatomical configuration and supplements previous reports of the existence of such configurations in mandibular first molars. PMID:24298291

  13. 3D imaging reconstruction and impacted third molars: case reports

    PubMed Central

    Tuzi, Andrea; Di Bari, Roberto; Cicconetti, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Summary There is a debate in the literature about the need for Computed Tomagraphy (CT) before removing third molars, even if positive radiographic signs are present. In few cases, the third molar is so close to the inferior alveolar nerve that its extraction might expose patients to the risk of post-operative neuro-sensitive alterations of the skin and the mucosa of the homolateral lower lip and chin. Thus, the injury of the inferior alveolar nerve may represent a serious, though infrequent, neurologic complication in the surgery of the third molars rendering necessary a careful pre-operative evaluation of their anatomical relationship with the inferior alveolar nerve by means of radiographic imaging techniques. This contribution presents two case reports showing positive radiographic signs, which are the hallmarks of a possible close relationship between the inferior alveolar nerve and the third molars. We aim at better defining the relationship between third molars and the mandibular canal using Dental CT Scan, DICOM image acquisition and 3D reconstruction with a dedicated software. By our study we deduce that 3D images are not indispensable, but they can provide a very agreeable assistance in the most complicated cases. PMID:23386934

  14. Finite Element Reconstruction of a Mandibular First Molar

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Sara; Mirhashemi, Fatemeh Sadat; Asgary, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mandibular first molar is the most important tooth with complicated morphology. In finite element (FE) studies, investigators usually prefer to model anterior teeth with a simple and single straight root; it makes the results deviate from the actual case. The most complicated and time-consuming step in FE studies is modeling of the desired tooth, thus this study was performed to establish a finite element method (FEM) of reconstructing a mandibular first molar with the greatest precision. Materials and Methods An extracted mandibular first molar was digitized, and then radiographed from different aspects to achieve its outer and inner morphology. The solid model of tooth and root canals were constructed according to this data as well as the anatomy of mandibular first molar described in the literature. Result A three-dimensional model of mandibular first molar was created, giving special consideration to shape and root canal system dimensions. Conclusion This model may constitute a basis for investigating the effect of different clinical situations on mandibular first molars in vitro, especially on its root canal system. The method described here seems feasible and reasonably precise foundation for investigations. PMID:23717327

  15. [Headgear-free molar distalization].

    PubMed

    Manhartsberger, C

    1994-12-01

    The difficulty in treating dentoalveolar class II disharmonies is briefly outlined. An innovative treatment method is presented which makes possible a distalization without the use of headgear. In the treatment method bands are cemented on the first molars, next impressions are made of the upper and lower dental arch, and then the impressions are poured with plaster. Following this the models are mounted in centric relationship in an articulator and the bite is opened 2 mm to 3 mm, so that the molars can be moved without making occlusal contact. The apparatus, an acrylic splint, is constructed in such a fashion as to cover the palatal surfaces from 2nd premolar to 2nd premolar. In addition, the premolars are also covered occlusally and buccally and the canine tips and the incisal edges are covered labially. A headgear tube is attached at the buccal surface in the premolar region of the acrylic splint. This acrylic splint, which is itself retentive, is cemented using glass ionomer cement. Combining this apparatus with a modified Nance Button makes it possible to establish an anchoring segment which is able to retain its position in the face of molar distalization. Molar distalization is then performed using a 0.032 inch stainless steel wire, which is placed between the headgear tube of the acrylic splint and the headgear tube of the band of the first molar. Highly elastic nickel-titanium open coil springs are used as the force elements. PMID:7851830

  16. Hypomineralized Second Primary Molars as Predictor of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Negre-Barber, A; Montiel-Company, J M; Boronat-Catalá, M; Catalá-Pizarro, M; Almerich-Silla, J M

    2016-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect of dental enamel that shares features with hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPM). Prior to permanent tooth eruption, second primary molars could have predictive value for permanent molar and incisor hypomineralization. To assess this possible relationship, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 8 and 9 years from the INMA cohort in Valencia (Spain). A calibrated examiner (linear-weighted Kappa 0.83) performed the intraoral examinations at the University of Valencia between November 2013 and 2014, applying the diagnostic criteria for MIH and HSPM adopted by the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. 100 children (24.2%) presented MIH and 60 (14.5%) presented HSPM. Co-occurrence of the two defects was observed in 11.1% of the children examined. The positive predictive value was 76.7% (63.9-86.6) and the negative predictive value 84.7% (80.6-88.3). The positive likelihood ratio (S/1-E) was 10.3 (5.9-17.9) and the negative likelihood ratio (1-S/E) 0.57 (0.47-0.68). The odds ratio was 18.2 (9.39-35.48). It was concluded that while the presence of HSPM can be considered a predictor of MIH, indicating the need for monitoring and control, the absence of this defect in primary dentition does not rule out the appearance of MIH. PMID:27558479

  17. Complications after third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Pitekova, L; Satko, I; Novotnakova, D

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the incidence of postoperative complications after the surgical removal of third molars, most common postoperative complications and their symptoms as well as risk factors leading to greater incidence of postoperative complications (Ref. 17). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:20568422

  18. [Topographic features of lingual nerve and its relationship with other anatomical structures in maxillolingual groove].

    PubMed

    Dyidyikin, S S; Syomkin, V A; Kuzin, A V; Sogacheva, V V

    2016-01-01

    By surgical interventions in maxillolingual groove area one should consider anatomical variations and topography of vessels, glands ducts and lingual nerve to prevent their injury. At the Department of Operative Surgery and Topographic Anatomy of the First Moscow State Medical University named after I.M. Sechenov we carried out anatomical study on cadavers (men and women, n=30).The study revealed topographical features of the lingual nerve and its relationship to other anatomical structures in the maxillolingual groove. It was found out that at the level of the second molar (96%) lingual nerve "crosses" duct of submandibular salivary gland, at the level of the third molar lingual nerve is located under the duct and lateral to it, closer to the inner surface of the body of the mandible. At the level of the first molar lingual nerve is located above and medial to Wharton duct and passes along sublingual-lingual muscles (m.hyoglossus). PMID:26925560

  19. Hypomineralized Second Primary Molars as Predictor of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Negre-Barber, A.; Montiel-Company, J. M.; Boronat-Catalá, M.; Catalá-Pizarro, M.; Almerich-Silla, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect of dental enamel that shares features with hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPM). Prior to permanent tooth eruption, second primary molars could have predictive value for permanent molar and incisor hypomineralization. To assess this possible relationship, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 8 and 9 years from the INMA cohort in Valencia (Spain). A calibrated examiner (linear-weighted Kappa 0.83) performed the intraoral examinations at the University of Valencia between November 2013 and 2014, applying the diagnostic criteria for MIH and HSPM adopted by the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. 100 children (24.2%) presented MIH and 60 (14.5%) presented HSPM. Co-occurrence of the two defects was observed in 11.1% of the children examined. The positive predictive value was 76.7% (63.9–86.6) and the negative predictive value 84.7% (80.6–88.3). The positive likelihood ratio (S/1-E) was 10.3 (5.9–17.9) and the negative likelihood ratio (1-S/E) 0.57 (0.47–0.68). The odds ratio was 18.2 (9.39–35.48). It was concluded that while the presence of HSPM can be considered a predictor of MIH, indicating the need for monitoring and control, the absence of this defect in primary dentition does not rule out the appearance of MIH. PMID:27558479

  20. Fracture behavior of human molars.

    PubMed

    Keown, Amanda J; Lee, James J-W; Bush, Mark B

    2012-12-01

    Despite the durability of human teeth, which are able to withstand repeated loading while maintaining form and function, they are still susceptible to fracture. We focus here on longitudinal fracture in molar teeth-channel-like cracks that run along the enamel sidewall of the tooth between the gum line (cemento-enamel junction-CEJ) and the occlusal surface. Such fractures can often be painful and necessitate costly restorative work. The following study describes fracture experiments made on molar teeth of humans in which the molars are placed under axial compressive load using a hard indenting plate in order to induce longitudinal cracks in the enamel. Observed damage modes include fractures originating in the occlusal region ('radial-median cracks') and fractures emanating from the margin of the enamel in the region of the CEJ ('margin cracks'), as well as 'spalling' of enamel (the linking of longitudinal cracks). The loading conditions that govern fracture behavior in enamel are reported and observations made of the evolution of fracture as the load is increased. Relatively low loads were required to induce observable crack initiation-approximately 100 N for radial-median cracks and 200 N for margin cracks-both of which are less than the reported maximum biting force on a single molar tooth of several hundred Newtons. Unstable crack growth was observed to take place soon after and occurred at loads lower than those calculated by the current fracture models. Multiple cracks were observed on a single cusp, their interactions influencing crack growth behavior. The majority of the teeth tested in this study were noted to exhibit margin cracks prior to compression testing, which were apparently formed during the functional lifetime of the tooth. Such teeth were still able to withstand additional loading prior to catastrophic fracture, highlighting the remarkable damage containment capabilities of the natural tooth structure. PMID:22956116

  1. Comparison of Primary Molar Crown Dimensions with Stainless Steel Crowns in a Sample of Iranian Children

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Hossein; Kamali Sabeti, Arghavan; Shahrabi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Due to anatomic variation in tooth anatomy between populations, this study compared the buccolingual (BL) and mesiodistal (MD) dimensions of primary molars with those of stainless steel crowns (SSCs) in anIranian population. Materials and methods. Impressions were taken from both dental arches of children, and casts were poured. Teeth with caries, restoration, hypoplasia or other dental anomalies were excluded. 216 primary molars were selected and divided into 4 groups of 54 each (maxillary and mandibular first and second primary molars). MD/BL dimensions were measured using a digital caliper with 0.01 mm precision on casts and SCCs (3M brand). Data were assessed using paired t-test, post hoc test and ANOVA. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The MD dimension of the lower first molar SSC and the BL dimension of the lower second molar SSC had the least difference with the corresponding values of the respective teeth. The MD dimension of the upper second molar SSC and the BL dimension of the upper first molar SSC had the greatest difference with the corresponding values in the respective teeth. Comparison of the two different brands of SSCs for the upper first molar revealed that both types had significant differences with the teeth in terms of both MD (P = 0.0) and BL (P = 0.0) dimensions. Conclusion. In the studied population, best adaptation was seen in second lower molars and the least adaptationswere seen in first and second upper molars. PMID:26236433

  2. Mandibular lip bumper for molar torque control.

    PubMed

    Celentano, Giuseppe; Longobardi, Annalisa; Cannavale, Rosangela; Perillo, Letizia

    2011-01-01

    Treatment effects of lip bumpers alone include flaring of the mandibular incisors, distalization and uprighting of the mandibular first molars, and buccal expansion of the canines, premolars, and molar. Lip forces are transmitted through this appliance onto the molars. Moreover the lip bumper is able to derotate, expand or constrict, upright and reinforce the anchorage whereas torque control is lacking. Aim of this paper is the presentation of a new type of lip bumper that allows the molar torque control. PMID:21515237

  3. [Distalization of the upper second molar: biomechanics].

    PubMed

    Castaldo, A

    1991-01-01

    The Author shows a system to dystalize the second upper molars and, if necessary, the third upper molars. This system, easy to be adapted, is made up by a palatal bar inserted between the first upper molars, by a sectional and a 100 grams precalibrated open Sentalloy coil spring used as an active force. PMID:1784296

  4. Molar versus as a paradigm clash.

    PubMed Central

    Baum, W M

    2001-01-01

    The molar view of behavior arose in response to the demonstrated inadequacy of explanations based on contiguity. Although Dinsmoor's (2001) modifications to two-factor theory render it irrefutable, a more basic criticism arises when we see that the molar and molecular views differ paradigmatically. The molar view has proven more productive. PMID:11453623

  5. Reference Man anatomical model

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  6. Rat molar teeth as a study model for direct pulp capping research in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dammaschke, Till

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate the suitability of rat molar teeth in preclinical evaluation of medical devices for direct pulp capping. The ISO standard 7405 states clearly that only non-rodent mammals are suitable species for animal research in dentistry. Furthermore, without clear justification a considerable number of researchers previously rejected results of animal experiments concerning preclinical evaluation of the biocompatibility of dental materials undertaken in rat molar teeth. However, in the past 50 years about 70 studies have been published using rat molar teeth in order to evaluate direct pulp capping, pulpotomies and tissue reactions after pulp exposure. Numerous studies showed that the healing of rat molar pulp tissue after direct pulp capping is histologically comparable with humans and other animal species pulp tissue. Rat molar teeth, including pulp tissue, can be seen anatomically, histologically, biologically, and physiologically as miniature human molar teeth. Hence, the essential biological reactions of the pulp tissue and the interaction during the different stages of wound healing of rat molar teeth are comparable with that of other mammals. Rat molar teeth are a valid study model in order to provide valuable data concerning pulp tissue reaction after direct pulp capping and related questions in dentistry. Therefore, the use of rats may significantly reduce the number of currently used higher animals in research. Tests in higher developed animals should be limited to experiments which clarify inconsistent results. However, some technical difficulties, like the small size of rat molar teeth must be dealt with before undertaking any research. PMID:19854755

  7. An in vitro assessment of type, position and incidence of isthmus in human permanent molars

    PubMed Central

    de LIMA, Fernando José Camello; MONTAGNER, Francisco; JACINTO, Rogério Castilho; AMBROSANO, Glaucia Maria Bovi; GOMES, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Root canal anatomical complexities, such as isthmus, may limit the action of the endodontic instruments, irrigant solutions and intracanal medications, leading to endodontic treatment failure. Objectives This in vitro study assessed the type, position and incidence of isthmus in human permanent molars. Material and Methods One hundred and twenty eight upper and lower first and second permanent molars were analyzed. The roots were embedded in transparent resin, and then split at different distances from the apex (1.0-2.5-4.0-5.5-7.0 mm). Following the sample examination in stereomicroscope, the data were submitted to chi-square statistical test at a 5% significance level. Results The highest isthmus incidence was at 7.0 mm from the root apex in all samples, except the distal root of lower molars (at 5.5 mm). In upper and lower molars, type V (complete isthmus with a continuous opening between the two main root canals) was the most common classification of isthmus (28.8%). In the mesial root of first and second mandibular molars, type IV had the highest incidence (36% and 23.9%, respectively). Conclusion It was concluded that isthmus was widely found in flat roots, with a low percentage in areas close to the apex. In upper and lower molars, these structures were most frequently found at 7 mm from the apex. PMID:25141198

  8. Endodontic Treatment of Hypertaurodontic Mandibular Molar Using Reciprocating Single-file System: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    C do Nascimento, Adriano; A F Marques, André; C Sponchiado-Júnior, Emílio; F R Garcia, Lucas; M A de Carvalho, Fredson

    2016-01-01

    Taurodontism is a developmental tooth disorder characterized by lack of constriction in the cementoenamel junction and consequent vertical stretch of the pulp chamber, accompanied by apical displacement of the pulpal floor. The endodontic treatment of teeth with this type of morpho-anatomical anomaly is challenging. The purpose of this article is to report the successful endodontic treatment of a hypertaurodontic mandibular molar using a reciprocating single-file system. PMID:27320297

  9. Value of Computed Tomography (CT) in Imaging the Morbidity of Submerged Molars: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kırzıoḡlu, Zuhal; Karayılmaz, Hüseyin; Baykal, Bahattin

    2007-01-01

    Submerged primary molars can be difficult to manage due to the developing dentition. Rarely in some severe cases, may the surgical interventions be required while ensuring the vital structures are protected. Therefore these cases require sophisticated imaging techniques in order to locate the vital structures. In this case report, a 17 year old girl who had a retained and submerged deciduous molar which caused impaction of the second premolar and tipping of the first molar was presented. In addition, value of computed tomography (CT) for locating the vital anatomic structures was discussed. In our case, CT has been supplied effective information about localization of the vital structures and amount of bone volume during the diagnosis and treatment planning period in addition to the routine dental radiographies. PMID:19212475

  10. Endodontic management of mandibular first molar with seven canals using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Banode, Ankur Mahesh; Gade, Vandana; Patil, Sanjay; Gade, Jaykumar

    2016-01-01

    The endodontic treatment of a mandibular molar with aberrant canal configuration can be diagnostically and clinically challenging. Successful endodontic therapy thus depends on the clinician's ability to anticipate and look for these aberrant variations. A mandibular first molar with seven canals represents a rare anatomical variant, particularly when four canals are found in distal root. Based on in vitro studies, its incidence is reported to be between 0.2% and 3%. With the advent of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) as an adjunctive diagnostic aid, the determination of root canal anatomy in teeth with complex canal configurations has become more precise. The present case report discusses successful nonsurgical management of radix entomolaris along with middle mesial canal and middle distal canal in mandibular first molar with seven canals (four canals in distal and three in mesial) employing CBCT as an adjunctive diagnostic aid to conventional radiography. PMID:27307680

  11. Endodontic management of mandibular first molar with seven canals using cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Banode, Ankur Mahesh; Gade, Vandana; Patil, Sanjay; Gade, Jaykumar

    2016-01-01

    The endodontic treatment of a mandibular molar with aberrant canal configuration can be diagnostically and clinically challenging. Successful endodontic therapy thus depends on the clinician's ability to anticipate and look for these aberrant variations. A mandibular first molar with seven canals represents a rare anatomical variant, particularly when four canals are found in distal root. Based on in vitro studies, its incidence is reported to be between 0.2% and 3%. With the advent of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) as an adjunctive diagnostic aid, the determination of root canal anatomy in teeth with complex canal configurations has become more precise. The present case report discusses successful nonsurgical management of radix entomolaris along with middle mesial canal and middle distal canal in mandibular first molar with seven canals (four canals in distal and three in mesial) employing CBCT as an adjunctive diagnostic aid to conventional radiography. PMID:27307680

  12. Occipital neuralgia: anatomic considerations.

    PubMed

    Cesmebasi, Alper; Muhleman, Mitchel A; Hulsberg, Paul; Gielecki, Jerzy; Matusz, Petru; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2015-01-01

    Occipital neuralgia is a debilitating disorder first described in 1821 as recurrent headaches localized in the occipital region. Other symptoms that have been associated with this condition include paroxysmal burning and aching pain in the distribution of the greater, lesser, or third occipital nerves. Several etiologies have been identified in the cause of occipital neuralgia and include, but are not limited to, trauma, fibrositis, myositis, fracture of the atlas, and compression of the C-2 nerve root, C1-2 arthrosis syndrome, atlantoaxial lateral mass osteoarthritis, hypertrophic cervical pachymeningitis, cervical cord tumor, Chiari malformation, and neurosyphilis. The management of occipital neuralgia can include conservative approaches and/or surgical interventions. Occipital neuralgia is a multifactorial problem where multiple anatomic areas/structures may be involved with this pathology. A review of these etiologies may provide guidance in better understanding occipital neuralgia. PMID:25244129

  13. Retromolar foramen: an anatomical study with clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Gamieldien, M Y; Van Schoor, A

    2016-09-01

    The retromolar canal and foramen, an anatomical variation in the mandibular retromolar area, houses and transmits neurovascular elements that may innervate the mandibular third molar and associated tissues. These structures have been implicated in local anaesthetic failure, loss of sensation in the normal distribution of the buccal nerve, and local haemorrhage during surgery. Examination of 885 dry mandibles showed that 70 had a retromolar foramen (8%). There were no significant differences between groups according to age, sex, or ancestry. The mean (SD) distance from molar to retromolar foramen was 16.8 (5.6) mm for the mandibular second molar and 10.5 (3.8) mm for the mandibular third molar. The link between these structures and failure of local anaesthesia seems tenuous at best. Bleeding may not represent a serious complication. Although there may be a possibility of perineural spread of infective and invasive pathology, we know of no reported cases. The only clear evidence of complications associated with a confirmed retromolar foramen seems to be loss of sensation in the normal distribution of the buccal nerve. Even though the retromolar foramen does not seem to be of great clinical importance, it could be a source of anxiety for the inexperienced practitioner. PMID:27354332

  14. Molar volumes and densities of minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, Richard A.; Bethke, Philip M.

    1962-01-01

    These tables present critically chosen "best values" for the density and molar volume of selected mineral compounds. No attempt was made to be all-inclusive; rather we have tried to present data for chemically and physically well-defined phases for which the molar volume and/or density was knovvn to the order of 0. 2 percent.

  15. General technique of third molar removal.

    PubMed

    Farish, Sam E; Bouloux, Gary F

    2007-02-01

    The most commonly performed surgical procedure in most oral and maxillofacial surgery practices is the removal of impacted third molars. Extensive training, skill, and experience allow this procedure to be performed in an atraumatic fashion with local anesthesia, sedation, or general anesthesia. The decision to remove symptomatic third molars is not usually difficult, but the decision to remove asymptomatic third molars is sometimes less clear and requires clinical experience. A wide body of literature (discussed elsewhere in this issue) attempts to establish clinical practice guidelines for dealing with impacted teeth. Data is beginning to accumulate from third molar studies, which hopefully will provide surgeons and their patients with evidence-based guidelines regarding elective third molar surgery. PMID:18088862

  16. Expressly fabricated molar tube bases: enhanced adhesion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Tarun; Phull, Tarun Singh; Rana, Tarun; Kumar, Varun

    2014-06-01

    Clinicians, Orthodontists and their patients' parents often expect the best results in the shortest time span possible. Orthodontic bonding of molar tubes has been an acceptable risk in a modern era of refined biomaterials and instrumentation. Although many orthodontists still prefer banding to bonding, it is the failure rate of the tubes on molars which accounts to an impedance in molar bonding. One of the reasons for molar attachment failures is attributed to improper adaptation of the buccal tube base with or without increased thickness of composite. Merits of banding the second molars especially when these are the terminal teeth for anchorage have been overemphasized in the literature. The present article presents a simple and relatively less time consuming technique of preparing molar tubes to be bonded on tooth surfaces which may be quite difficult to isolate especially for bonding, for example, mandibular second molars. The increased surface area of the composite scaffold helps not only in enhanced bond strength but also serves to reduce the incidence of plaque accumulation given the dexterity of invitro preparation. The removal of the occlusal part of the molar tube scaffold helps in prevention of open / raised bite tendencies. The present innovation, therefore, is not merely serendipity but a structured technique to overcome a common dilemma for the clinical orthodontist. The present dictum of banding being superior to molar tube bonding may prove to be futile with trendsetting molar attachments. It is also an established fact that bonding proves to be a lesser expensive modality when compared to banding procedures. PMID:25121070

  17. Dietary Inference from Upper and Lower Molar Morphology in Platyrrhine Primates

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Kari L.; Cooke, Siobhán B.; Gonzales, Lauren A.; Kay, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between diet and dental topography is of importance to paleontologists seeking to diagnose ecological adaptations in extinct taxa. Although the subject is well represented in the literature, few studies directly compare methods or evaluate dietary signals conveyed by both upper and lower molars. Here, we address this gap in our knowledge by comparing the efficacy of three measures of functional morphology for classifying an ecologically diverse sample of thirteen medium- to large-bodied platyrrhines by diet category (e.g., folivore, frugivore, hard object feeder). We used Shearing Quotient (SQ), an index derived from linear measurements of molar cutting edges and two indices of crown surface topography, Occlusal Relief (OR) and Relief Index (RFI). Using SQ, OR, and RFI, individuals were then classified by dietary category using Discriminate Function Analysis. Both upper and lower molar variables produce high classification rates in assigning individuals to diet categories, but lower molars are consistently more successful. SQs yield the highest classification rates. RFI and OR generally perform above chance. Upper molar RFI has a success rate below the level of chance. Adding molar length enhances the discriminatory power for all variables. We conclude that upper molar SQs are useful for dietary reconstruction, especially when combined with body size information. Additionally, we find that among our sample of platyrrhines, SQ remains the strongest predictor of diet, while RFI is less useful at signaling dietary differences in absence of body size information. The study demonstrates new ways for inferring the diets of extinct platyrrhine primates when both upper and lower molars are available, or, for taxa known only from upper molars. The techniques are useful in reconstructing diet in stem representatives of anthropoid clade, who share key aspects of molar morphology with extant platyrrhines. PMID:25738266

  18. Dietary inference from upper and lower molar morphology in platyrrhine primates.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kari L; Cooke, Siobhán B; Gonzales, Lauren A; Kay, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between diet and dental topography is of importance to paleontologists seeking to diagnose ecological adaptations in extinct taxa. Although the subject is well represented in the literature, few studies directly compare methods or evaluate dietary signals conveyed by both upper and lower molars. Here, we address this gap in our knowledge by comparing the efficacy of three measures of functional morphology for classifying an ecologically diverse sample of thirteen medium- to large-bodied platyrrhines by diet category (e.g., folivore, frugivore, hard object feeder). We used Shearing Quotient (SQ), an index derived from linear measurements of molar cutting edges and two indices of crown surface topography, Occlusal Relief (OR) and Relief Index (RFI). Using SQ, OR, and RFI, individuals were then classified by dietary category using Discriminate Function Analysis. Both upper and lower molar variables produce high classification rates in assigning individuals to diet categories, but lower molars are consistently more successful. SQs yield the highest classification rates. RFI and OR generally perform above chance. Upper molar RFI has a success rate below the level of chance. Adding molar length enhances the discriminatory power for all variables. We conclude that upper molar SQs are useful for dietary reconstruction, especially when combined with body size information. Additionally, we find that among our sample of platyrrhines, SQ remains the strongest predictor of diet, while RFI is less useful at signaling dietary differences in absence of body size information. The study demonstrates new ways for inferring the diets of extinct platyrrhine primates when both upper and lower molars are available, or, for taxa known only from upper molars. The techniques are useful in reconstructing diet in stem representatives of anthropoid clade, who share key aspects of molar morphology with extant platyrrhines. PMID:25738266

  19. [Anatomical rationale for lingual nerve injury prevention during mandibular block].

    PubMed

    Semkin, V A; Dydikin, S S; Kuzin, A V; Sogacheva, V V

    2015-01-01

    The topographic and anatomical study of lingual nerve structural features was done. It was revealed that during mandibular anesthesia possible lingual nerve injury can occur if puncture needle is lower than 1 cm. of molars occlusal surface level. The position of the lingual nerve varies withmandible movements. At the maximum open mouth lingual nerve is not mobile and is pressed against the inner surface of the mandibular ramus by the medial pterygoid muscle and the temporal muscle tendon. When closing the mouth to 1.25±0.2 cmfrom the physiological maximum, lingual nerve is displaced posteriorly from the internal oblique line of the mandible and gets mobile. On the basis of topographic and anatomic features of the lingual nervestructure the authors recommend the re-do of inferior alveolar nerve block, a semi-closed mouth position or the use the "high block techniques" (Torus anesthesia, Gow-Gates, Vazirani-Akinozi). PMID:26271698

  20. The complexity of anatomical systems

    PubMed Central

    Grizzi, Fabio; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    Background The conception of anatomical entities as a hierarchy of infinitely graduated forms and the increase in the number of observed anatomical sub-entities and structural variables has generated a growing complexity, thus highlighting new properties of organised biological matter. Results (1) Complexity is so pervasive in the anatomical world that it has come to be considered as a primary characteristic of anatomical systems. (2) Anatomical entities, when viewed at microscopic as well as macroscopic level of observation, show a different degree of complexity. (3) Complexity can reside in the structure of the anatomical system (having many diverse parts with varying interactions or an intricate architecture) or in its behaviour. Often complexity in structure and behaviour go together. (4) Complex systems admit many descriptions (ways of looking at the system) each of which is only partially true. Each way of looking at a complex system requires its own description, its own mode of analysis and its own breaking down of the system in different parts; (5) Almost all the anatomical entities display hierarchical forms: their component structures at different spatial scales or their process at different time scales are related to each other. Conclusion The need to find a new way of observing and measuring anatomical entities, and objectively quantifying their different structural changes, prompted us to investigate the non-Euclidean geometries and the theories of complexity, and to apply their concepts to human anatomy. This attempt has led us to reflect upon the complex significance of the shape of an observed anatomical entity. Its changes have been defined in relation to variations in its status: from a normal (i.e. natural) to a pathological or altered state introducing the concepts of kinematics and dynamics of anatomical forms, speed of their changes, and that of scale of their observation. PMID:16029490

  1. Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar: Report of five rare cases.

    PubMed

    Souki, Bernardo Q; Cheib, Paula L; de Brito, Gabriela M; Pinto, Larissa S M C

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar is a rare condition that practitioners might face in the field of pediatric dentistry and orthodontics. The early diagnosis and extraction of the adjacent ectopic third molar have been advocated, and prior research has reported a high rate of spontaneous eruption following third molar removal. However, some challenges in the daily practice are that the early diagnosis of this type of tooth impaction is difficult with conventional radiographic examination, and sometimes the early surgical removal of the maxillary third molar must be postponed because of the risks of damaging the second molar. The objective of this study is to report a case series of five young patients with maxillary second molar impaction and to discuss the difficulty of early diagnosis with the conventional radiographic examination, and unpredictability of self-correction. PMID:26321848

  2. Tracking in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Mackinnon, Alexander C; Sinard, John H

    2013-12-01

    Bar code-based tracking solutions, long present in clinical pathology laboratories, have recently made an appearance in anatomic pathology (AP) laboratories. Tracking of AP "assets" (specimens, blocks, slides) can enhance laboratory efficiency, promote patient safety, and improve patient care. Routing of excess clinical material into research laboratories and biorepositories are other avenues that can benefit from tracking of AP assets. Implementing tracking is not as simple as installing software and turning it on. Not all tracking solutions are alike. Careful analysis of laboratory workflow is needed before implementing tracking to assure that this solution will meet the needs of the laboratory. Such analysis will likely uncover practices that may need to be modified before a tracking system can be deployed. Costs that go beyond simply that of purchasing software will be incurred and need to be considered in the budgeting process. Finally, people, not technology, are the key to assuring quality. Tracking will require significant changes in workflow and an overall change in the culture of the laboratory. Preparation, training, buy-in, and accountability of the people involved are crucial to the success of this process. This article reviews the benefits, available technology, underlying principles, and implementation of tracking solutions for the AP and research laboratory. PMID:23634908

  3. Proximity of the mandibular molar root apex from the buccal bone surface: a cone-beam computed tomographic study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dokyung; Jin, Myoung-Uk

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the proximity of the mandibular molar apex to the buccal bone surface in order to provide anatomic information for apical surgery. Materials and Methods Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of 127 mandibular first molars and 153 mandibular second molars were analyzed from 160 patients' records. The distance was measured from the buccal bone surface to the root apex and the apical 3.0 mm on the cross-sectional view of CBCT. Results The second molar apex and apical 3 mm were located significantly deeper relative to the buccal bone surface compared with the first molar (p < 0.01). For the mandibular second molars, the distance from the buccal bone surface to the root apex was significantly shorter in patients over 70 years of age (p < 0.05). Furthermore, this distance was significantly shorter when the first molar was missing compared to nonmissing cases (p < 0.05). For the mandibular first molars, the distance to the distal root apex of one distal-rooted tooth was significantly greater than the distance to the disto-buccal root apex (p < 0.01). In mandibular second molar, the distance to the apex of C-shaped roots was significantly greater than the distance to the mesial root apex of non-C-shaped roots (p < 0.01). Conclusions For apical surgery in mandibular molars, the distance from the buccal bone surface to the apex and apical 3 mm is significantly affected by the location, patient age, an adjacent missing anterior tooth, and root configuration. PMID:27508159

  4. Unilateral Molar Distalization: A Nonextraction Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, M. Bhanu; Sreevalli, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years, nonextraction treatment approaches and noncompliance therapies have become more popular in the correction of space discrepancies. One of the conventional approaches for space gaining in the arches without patient compliance is done by using certain extra oral appliances or intraoral appliance. The greatest advantage of certain appliances like fixed functional and molar distalization appliances is that they minimize the dependence on patient cooperation. Molar distalization appliances like pendulum appliance which distalizes the molar rapidly without the need of head gear can be used in patients as a unilateral space gaining procedure due to buccal segment crowding. PMID:23320203

  5. The anatomical school of Padua.

    PubMed

    Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; Stecco, Carla; Parenti, Anna; De Caro, Raffaele

    2012-06-01

    The University of Padua is one of the most ancient in the world, being founded in 1222, and the most important anatomists of the XVI, XVII, and XVIII centuries studied and taught here. Probably, the first professor of anatomy and surgery was Bruno da Longobucco (c. 1200-c. 1286), who had previously studied at the Salerno School of Medicine. While professor in Padua, Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) published De Humani Corporis Fabrica (1543), which is considered as the birth of the modern anatomy. Following professors were Realdo Colombo (c. 1516-1559), Gabriel Fallopius (1523-1562), Hieronymus Fabricius ab Aquapendente (1533-1619), Iulius Casserius (1552-1616), Johann Wesling (1598-1649), and Johann Georg Wirsung (1589-1643). Many other foreign scholars studied in the University of Padua, such as Thomas Linacre (c. 1460-1524), the founder of the Royal College of Physicians, Werner Rolfinck (1599-1673), and Olof Rudbeck (1630-1702), who created anatomical theatres in Germany and Sweden, respectively, on the basis of the Paduan model. The anatomy of the XVII century characteristically widened the scope of its enquiry to function, as in the Exercitatio Anatomica De Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus (1628) by William Harvey (1578-1657). Further evolution was then given by the anatomy in the XVIII century, which tried to correlate alterations of structure with clinical symptoms. The most important anatomist of this century is Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771), whose masterpiece De Sedibus et Causis Morborum per Anatomen Indagatis (1761) is a landmark contribution that is viewed as the beginning of modern pathologic anatomy. This year falls the 300th anniversary of Morgagni's inaugural lecture on medical education, Nova Institutionum Medicarum Idea (1712), which is still relevant in its effort to stress the importance of a deep knowledge of all the preclinical and clinical aspects of medical science. PMID:22581496

  6. Evolution of the anatomical theatre in Padova.

    PubMed

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Stecco, Carla; De Caro, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    The anatomical theatre played a pivotal role in the evolution of medical education, allowing students to directly observe and participate in the process of dissection. Due to the increase of training programs in clinical anatomy, the Institute of Human Anatomy at the University of Padova has renovated its dissecting room. The main guidelines in planning a new anatomical theatre included: (1), the placement of the teacher and students on the same level in a horizontal anatomical theatre where it is possible to see (theatre) and to perform (dissecting room); (2), in the past, dissection activities were concentrated at the center of the theatre, while in the new anatomical theatre, such activities have been moved to the periphery through projection on surrounding screens-thus, students occupy the center of the theatre between the demonstration table, where the dissection can be seen in real time, and the wall screens, where particular aspects are magnified; (3), three groups of tables are placed with one in front with two lateral flanking tables in regards to the demonstration table, in a semicircular arrangement, and not attached to the floor, which makes the room multifunctional for surgical education, medical students and physician's continued professional development courses; (4), a learning station to introduce the students to the subject of the laboratory; (5), cooperation between anatomists and architects in order to combine the practical needs of a dissection laboratory with new technologies; (6), involvement of the students, representing the clients' needs; and (7), creation of a dissecting room of wide measurements with large windows, since a well-illuminated space could reduce the potentially negative psychological impact of the dissection laboratory on student morale. PMID:24706523

  7. Primate molar crown formation times and life history evolution revisited.

    PubMed

    Macho, G A

    2001-12-01

    Comparative studies have convincingly demonstrated that the pattern and timing of tooth emergence are highly correlated with life-history variables and brain size. Conversely, a firm relationship between molar formation time and life-history variables has not yet been established. It seems counterintuitive that one aspect of dental development should be correlated with life-history variables, whereas the other should not. In order to shed light on this apparent discrepancy this study analyzed all data on primate molar crown formations available in the published literature in relation to life-history variables, brain size, and female body mass. Crown formation times were found to be particularly highly correlated with both female body mass and brain size. Species that depart from the overall brain/body allometry by being relatively large-bodied, e.g., Gorilla gorilla and later Theropithecus oswaldi, also have shorter molar crown formation times than expected. The reverse is not found for species that depart from the overall brain/body allometry due to their larger brains, i.e., Homo sapiens. This finding is interpreted within an evolutionary and ecological framework. Specifically, by focusing on ecological commonalities, a scenario is proposed which may allow predictions to be made about the evolutionary history of other extinct primates also. If confirmed in future studies, crown formation time may again become a powerful tool in evolutionary enquiry. PMID:11748692

  8. Morphometric evaluation and planning of anticurvature filing in roots of maxillary and mandibular molars.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria Antonieta Veloso Carvalho; Venâncio, Jessyca Figueira; Raposo, Luís Henrique Araújo; Barbosa Júnior, Nelson; Biffi, João Carlos Gabrielli

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to guide the planning of anticurvature filing using pre-determined anatomical points on teeth to establish directions for proper implementation of the technique. Two hundred digital periapical radiographs of human molar teeth were selected and divided into two groups (n = 100): MX (maxillary) and MD (mandibular) molars. Mesiobuccal roots were considered for the MX group and mesial roots for the MD group. Pre-determined anatomical points required for planning the anticurvature filing on the root canal path were located, and the distances between these points obtained. The anticurvature filing was simulated in two different protocols for each group, and the region of dentin removal and the remaining dentin thickness were measured in the safety and danger zones of the root canals. Statistical analysis was carried out at a significance level of 5%. The distances between the anatomical points and the thickness of remaining dentin showed significant differences when the two groups were compared (p < 0.001). No significant differences were found between the two experimental groups regarding the area of dentin removal at the root region, but differences were detected in comparison with dentin removal at the crown (p < 0.001). In terms of wear produced after simulation of both anticurvature filing protocols, significant differences were verified for all regions, except for the dentin remaining at the danger zone. The radiographic location of anatomical points allows for planning and implementation of controlled and efficient anticurvature filing and can be performed in the same manner for maxillary and mandibular molars. PMID:25466326

  9. Molars and incisors: show your microarray IDs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the key questions in developmental biology is how, from a relatively small number of conserved signaling pathways, is it possible to generate organs displaying a wide range of shapes, tissue organization, and function. The dentition and its distinct specific tooth types represent a valuable system to address the issues of differential molecular signatures. To identify such signatures, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of developing murine lower incisors, mandibular molars and maxillary molars at the developmental cap stage (E14.5). Results 231 genes were identified as being differentially expressed between mandibular incisors and molars, with a fold change higher than 2 and a false discovery rate lower than 0.1, whereas only 96 genes were discovered as being differentially expressed between mandibular and maxillary molars. Numerous genes belonging to specific signaling pathways (the Hedgehog, Notch, Wnt, FGF, TGFβ/BMP, and retinoic acid pathways), and/or to the homeobox gene superfamily, were also uncovered when a less stringent fold change threshold was used. Differential expressions for 10 out of 12 (mandibular incisors versus molars) and 9 out of 10 selected genes were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). A bioinformatics tool (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) used to analyze biological functions and pathways on the group of incisor versus molar differentially expressed genes revealed that 143 genes belonged to 9 networks with intermolecular connections. Networks with the highest significance scores were centered on the TNF/NFκB complex and the ERK1/2 kinases. Two networks ERK1/2 kinases and tretinoin were involved in differential molar morphogenesis. Conclusion These data allowed us to build several regulatory networks that may distinguish incisor versus molar identity, and may be useful for further investigations of these tooth-specific ontogenetic programs. These programs may be dysregulated in

  10. Anatomic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Murawski, Christopher D.; Wolf, Megan R.; Araki, Daisuke; Muller, Bart; Tashman, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is common procedure performed by orthopedic surgeons, particularly in association with sports-related injuries. Whereas traditional reconstruction techniques used a single bundle graft that was typically placed in a non-anatomic position, a renewed interest in anatomy has facilitated the popularization of anatomic reconstruction techniques. Recently, a focus has been placed on individualizing ACL surgery based on each patient’s native anatomical characteristics (e.g., insertion site size, notch size, and shape), thereby dictating the ultimate procedure of choice. As subjective outcome measurements have demonstrated varying outcomes with respect to single- versus double-bundle ACL reconstruction, investigators have turned to more objective techniques, such as in vivo kinematics, as a means of evaluating joint motion and cartilage contact mechanics. Further investigation in this area may yield important information with regard to the potential progression to osteoarthritis after ACL reconstruction, including factors affecting or preventing it. PMID:26069663

  11. Anatomically Shaped Tooth and Periodontal Regeneration by Cell Homing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, K.; Lee, C.H.; Kim, B.K.; Mao, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Tooth regeneration by cell delivery encounters translational hurdles. We hypothesized that anatomically correct teeth can regenerate in scaffolds without cell transplantation. Novel, anatomically shaped human molar scaffolds and rat incisor scaffolds were fabricated by 3D bioprinting from a hybrid of poly-ε-caprolactone and hydroxyapatite with 200-µm-diameter interconnecting microchannels. In each of 22 rats, an incisor scaffold was implanted orthotopically following mandibular incisor extraction, whereas a human molar scaffold was implanted ectopically into the dorsum. Stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF1) and bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) were delivered in scaffold microchannels. After 9 weeks, a putative periodontal ligament and new bone regenerated at the interface of rat incisor scaffold with native alveolar bone. SDF1 and BMP7 delivery not only recruited significantly more endogenous cells, but also elaborated greater angiogenesis than growth-factor-free control scaffolds. Regeneration of tooth-like structures and periodontal integration by cell homing provide an alternative to cell delivery, and may accelerate clinical applications. PMID:20448245

  12. Maxillary molar distalization with first class appliance

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Namitha; Palukunnu, Biswas; Ravindran, Nidhi; Nair, Preeti P

    2014-01-01

    Non-extraction treatment has gained popularity for corrections of mild-to-moderate class II malocclusion over the past few decades. The distalization of maxillary molars is of significant value for treatment of cases with minimal arch discrepancy and mild class II molar relation associated with a normal mandibular arch and acceptable profile. This paper describes our experience with a 16-year-old female patient who reported with irregularly placed upper front teeth and unpleasant smile. The patient was diagnosed to have angles class II malocclusion with moderate maxillary anterior crowding, deep bite of 4 mm on a skeletal class II base with an orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible and normal growth pattern. She presented an ideal profile and so molar distalization was planned with the first-class appliance. Molars were distalised by 8 mm on the right and left quadrants and class I molar relation achieved within 4 months. The space gained was utilised effectively to align the arch and establish a class I molar and canine relation. PMID:24577171

  13. A veterinary digital anatomical database.

    PubMed Central

    Snell, J. R.; Green, R.; Stott, G.; Van Baerle, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the Veterinary Digital Anatomical Database Project. The purpose of the project is to investigate the construction and use of digitally stored anatomical models. We will be discussing the overall project goals and the results to date. Digital anatomical models are 3 dimensional, solid model representations of normal anatomy. The digital representations are electronically stored and can be manipulated and displayed on a computer graphics workstation. A digital database of anatomical structures can be used in conjunction with gross dissection in teaching normal anatomy to first year students in the professional curriculum. The computer model gives students the opportunity to "discover" relationships between anatomical structures that may have been destroyed or may not be obvious in the gross dissection. By using a digital database, the student will have the ability to view and manipulate anatomical structures in ways that are not available through interactive video disk (IVD). IVD constrains the student to preselected views and sections stored on the disk. Images Figure 1 PMID:1807707

  14. Efficiency of a pendulum appliance for molar distalization related to second and third molar eruption stage.

    PubMed

    Kinzinger, Gero S M; Fritz, Ulrike B; Sander, Franz-Günter; Diedrich, Peter R

    2004-01-01

    A modified pendulum appliance, including a distal screw and special preactivated pendulum springs (built-in straightening activation and toe-in bending), was used for bilateral maxillary molar distalization in 36 adolescent patients in various stages of the molar dentition. The patients were divided into 3 groups (PG 1-3) according to the stage of eruption of their second and third molars. In PG 1 (18 patients), eruption of the second molars had either not yet taken place or was not complete. In PG 2 (15 patients), the second molars had already developed as far as the occlusal plane, with the third molars at the budding stage. In PG 3 (3 patients), germectomy of the wisdom teeth had been carried out, and the first and second molars on both sides had completely erupted. Analysis of cephalograms to identify any changes in the sagittal plane showed that, in the direction of distalization, a tooth bud acts on the mesial neighboring tooth like a fulcrum, and that tipping of the first molars in patients in whom the second molar was still at the budding stage was thus greater. In patients whose second molars had erupted completely, the degree of tipping was greater again when a third molar bud was located in the direction of movement. After previously completed germectomy of the wisdom teeth, almost exclusively bodily distalization of both molars is possible, even without bands being applied to the second molars. However, if the first and second molars are distalized simultaneously with a pendulum appliance, the duration of therapy will be longer, greater forces will have to be applied, and more anchorage will be lost. Statistical analysis of the results of dental-angular measurements showed significant differences in the degree of molar tipping and reciprocal incisor protrusion. The degree of distal tipping of first molars was less in patients with erupted second molars (PG 2 and PG 3) than in those whose second molars were not yet erupted (PG 1). For instance, the

  15. Anatomical pathology is dead? Long live anatomical pathology.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, John M; Francis, Glenn D

    2011-10-01

    The standard diagnostic instrument used for over 150 years by anatomical pathologists has been the optical microscope and glass slide. The advent of immunohistochemistry in the routine laboratory in the 1980s, followed by in situ hybridisation in the 1990s, has increased the armamentaria available to the diagnostic pathologist, and this technology has led to changed patient management in a limited number of neoplastic diseases. The first decade of the 21 century has seen an increasing number of publications using proteomic technologies that promise to change disease diagnosis and management, the traditional role of an anatomical pathologist. Despite the plethora of publications on proteomics and pathology, to date there are actually limited data where proteomic technologies do appear to be of greater diagnostic value than the standard histological slide. Though proteomic techniques will become more prevalent in the future, it will need the expertise of an anatomical pathologist to dissect out and validate this added information. PMID:21876472

  16. Classification of impacted mandibular third molars on cone-beam CT images

    PubMed Central

    Maglione, Michele; Bazzocchi, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Background Neurological involvement is a serious complication associated to the surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars and the radiological investigation is the first mandatory step to assess the risk of a possible post-operative injury to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). The aim of this study was to introduce a new radiological classification that could be normally used in clinical practice to assess the relationship between an impacted third molar and mandibular canal on cone beam CT (CBCT) images. Material and Methods CBCT images of 80 patients (133 mandibular third molars) were independently studied by three members of the surgical team to draw a classification that could describe all the possible relationships between third molar and IAN on the cross-sectional images. Subsequently, the study population was subdivided according to this classification. The SPSS software, version 15.0 (SPSS® Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used for the statistical analysis. Results Eight different classes were proposed (classes 0-7) and six of them (classes 1-6) were subdivided in two subtypes (subtypes A-B). The distribution of classes showed a prevalence of buccal or apical course of the mandibular canal followed by lingual position and inter-radicular one. No differences have resulted in terms of anatomic relationship between males and females apart from a higher risk of real contact without corticalization of the canal when the IAN had a lingual course for female group. Younger patients showed an increased rate of direct contact with a reduced calibre of the canal and/or without corticalization. Conclusions The use of this classification could be a valid support in clinical practice to obtain a common language among operators in order to define the possible relationships between an impacted third molar and the mandibular canal on CBCT images. Key words:CBCT, classification, inferior alveolar nerve, third molars. PMID:26155337

  17. Technical and anatomical aspects of novalis stereotactic radiosurgery sphenopalatine ganglionectomy

    SciTech Connect

    De Salles, Antonio A.F. . E-mail: adesalles@mednet.ucla.edu; Gorgulho, Alessandra; Golish, S. Raymond Ph.D.; Medin, Paul M.; Malkasian, Dennis; Solberg, Timothy D.; Selch, Michael T.

    2006-11-15

    Background: Several techniques have been applied for destruction of the sphenopalatine ganglion to control cluster headache and ocular pain with sympathetic component. Cluster headache has responded to radiofrequency ablation or phenol destruction. Radiosurgery of the sphenopalatine ganglion is promising due to the excellent visualization of the target on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and skull X-rays. Material and Methods: Six patients and one cadaver head were analyzed in this study. The cadaver-head dissection confirmed the location of the sphenopalatine ganglion on X-rays and CT imaging. One patient undergoing radiofrequency sphenopalatine ablation participated for confirmation of the location of the ganglion on plain X-rays. Five patients received radiosurgery of the sphenopalatine ganglion. One patient had classic unilateral cluster headache. Two patients had neuropathic pain and 1 had bilateral migrainous neuralgia. The fifth patient had bilateral atypical facial pain. All received a single maximal dose of 90 Gy with a 5- or 7.5-mm circular collimator. MRI, CT, and skull X-rays identified and confirmed the target. Results: The sphenopalatine fossa is seen in the skull X-ray as an inverse tear drop just caudal to the sphenoid sinus. This location is readily correlated to the CT target by the stereotactic coordinates and confirmed with the presence of the ganglion visualized in the MRI scan. Only the patient with cluster headache experienced lasting pain relief. Conclusion: Multiple imaging modalities confirmed the location of the sphenopalatine ganglion for radiosurgery. The procedure was performed safely with CT and MRI fusion. Radiosurgery was significantly beneficial only on classic cluster headache.

  18. [Pathological-anatomical aspects of vagabondage (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Veith, G; Schwindt, W

    1976-01-01

    Autopsies of 65 agabonds including 2 females are evaluated. Dwarfism, kyphoskoliosis and other skeletal deformities, malformations, disfigurations of the face and tatoo-marks are frequent exteriors. Compared with autopsies in other grous of population there are also numerical differences in internal diseases: In equivalent age groups ulcers of the stomach, duodenum or gastric resection respectively are found in 35,4% of our colective, in 8, % of clinical autopsies and in 4,8% of epileptic patients. Furthermore hypertension, myocardial infarction, chronic emphysema of the lungs and active tuberculosis of the lung are more frequent than in control groups... PMID:1044291

  19. Orthodontic extrusion of horizontally impacted mandibular molars

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhigui; Yang, Chi; Zhang, Shanyong; Xie, Qianyang; Shen, Yuqing; Shen, Pei

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To introduce and evaluate a novel approach in treating horizontally impacted mandibular second and third molars. Materials and methods: An orthodontic technique was applied for treatment of horizontally impacted mandibular second and third molars, which included a push-type spring for rotation first, and then a cantilever for extrusion. There were 8 mandibular third molars (M3s) and 2 second molars (M2s) in this study. Tooth mobility, extraction time, the inclination and parallelism of the impacted tooth, alveolar bone height of the adjacent tooth, and the relationship of impacted M3 and the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) were evaluated. Results: Two horizontally impacted M2s could be upright in the arch and good occlusal relationships were obtained after treatment. All impacted M3s were successfully separated from the IAN, without any neurologic consequences. The average extraction time was 5 minutes. There was a significant change in the inclination and parallelism of the impacted tooth after treatment. A new bone apposition with the average height of 3.2 mm was noted distal to the adjacent tooth. Conclusions: This two-step orthodontic technique as presented here may be a safe and feasible alternative in management of severely horizontally impacted mandibular molars, which achieves a successful separation of M3s from the IAN and an excellent position for M2s. PMID:25419364

  20. Oxygen from Hydrogen Peroxide. A Safe Molar Volume-Molar Mass Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedenbaugh, John H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a molar volume-molar mass experiment for use in general chemistry laboratories. Gives background technical information, procedures for the titration of aqueous hydrogen peroxide with standard potassium permanganate and catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to produce oxygen, and a discussion of the results obtained in three…

  1. Delayed removal of a maxillary third molar from the infratemporal fossa.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Oliveira, Guillermo; Arribas-García, Ignacio; Alvarez-Flores, Modesto; Gregoire-Ferriol, Johanna; Martínez-Gimeno, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    Removal of an impacted superior third molar is usually a simple and uncomplicated procedure for an Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon. Nevertheless, complications are possible and include infection, facial swallowing, trismus, wound dehiscence, root fracture or even orosinusal fistula. Iatrogenic displacement into the infratemporal fossa is frequently mentioned but rarely reported. This anatomical fossa includes several important structures such as the internal maxillary artery, the venous pterygoid plexus, the sphenopalatine nerve, the coronoid process of the mandible and the pterygoid muscles. Recommended treatment includes immediate surgical removal if possible or initial observation and secondary removal, as necessary, because of infection, limited mandibular movement, inability to extract the tooth, or the patient's psychological unease. Sometimes, the displaced tooth may spontaneously migrate inferiorly and becomes accessible intraorally. This report describes the location and secondary surgical removal of a left maxillary third molar displaced into the infratemporal fossa, two weeks after first attempt at extraction. PMID:20038889

  2. Lower third molar eruption following orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Salehi, P; Danaie, S Momene

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of extraction and preservation of the 1st premolar on lower 3rd molar eruption. Orthodontic clinic records from 1993 to 1995 were evaluated before and after treatment and 8-9 years after treatment for 3 groups of patients: 32 with extraction of 1st premolars in both jaws, 32 with no extraction but orthodontic treatment and 48 controls with no extraction but orthodontic treatment in the upper jaws only. Successful eruption of 3rd molars was evaluated. There was a significant difference in the rates of successful eruptions in the extraction (42%), non-extraction (12%) and control (20%) groups. The findings indicate that 1st premolar extraction may increase the chance of 3rd molar eruption, leading to a lower incidence of health and economic complications. PMID:19161121

  3. Molar and molecular views of choice.

    PubMed

    Baum, William M

    2004-06-30

    The molar and molecular views of behavior are not different theories or levels of analysis; they are different paradigms. The molecular paradigm views behavior as composed of discrete units (responses) occurring at moments in time and strung together in chains to make up complex performances. The discrete pieces are held together as a result of association by contiguity. The molecular view has a long history both in early thought about reflexes and in associationism, and, although it was helpful to getting a science of behavior started, it has outlived its usefulness. The molar view stems from a conviction that behavior is continuous, as argued by John Dewey, Gestalt psychologists, Karl Lashley, and others. The molar paradigm views behavior as inherently extended in time and composed of activities that have integrated parts. In the molar paradigm, activities vary in their scale of organization--i.e., as to whether they are local or extended--and behavior may be controlled sometimes by short-term relations and sometimes by long-term relations. Applied to choice, the molar paradigm rests on two simple principles: (a) all behavior constitutes choice; and (b) all activities take time. Equivalence between choice and behavior occurs because every situation contains more than one alternative activity. The principle that behavior takes time refers not simply to any notion of response duration, but to the necessity that identifying one action or another requires a sample extended in time. The molecular paradigm's momentary responses are inferred from extended samples in retrospect. In this sense, momentary responses constitute abstractions, whereas extended activities constitute concrete particulars. Explanations conceived within the molecular paradigm invariably involve hypothetical constructs, because they require causes to be contiguous with responses. Explanations conceived within the molar paradigm retain direct contact with observable variables. PMID:15157981

  4. [Pulmonary Echinococcosis: Surgical Aspects].

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, M E; Hoffmann, H; Dienemann, H

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary cystic echinococcosis is a very rare disease in Germany. It is caused by the larvae of the dog tapeworm (echinococcus granulosus). The liver is the most affected organ, followed by the lungs. Surgery remains the main therapeutic approach for pulmonary CE. Whenever possible, parenchyma-preserving lung surgery should be preferred over anatomic lung resections. To ensure best therapeutic results, surgery needs to be performed under precise consideration of important infectiological aspects and patients should be treated in specialised centres based on interdisciplinary consensus. In addition to surgical aspects, this review summarises special infectiological features of this disease, which are crucial to the surgical approach. PMID:26351761

  5. Anatomically accurate individual face modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Prakash, Edmond C; Sung, Eric

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new 3D face model of a specific person constructed from the anatomical perspective. By exploiting the laser range data, a 3D facial mesh precisely representing the skin geometry is reconstructed. Based on the geometric facial mesh, we develop a deformable multi-layer skin model. It takes into account the nonlinear stress-strain relationship and dynamically simulates the non-homogenous behavior of the real skin. The face model also incorporates a set of anatomically-motivated facial muscle actuators and underlying skull structure. Lagrangian mechanics governs the facial motion dynamics, dictating the dynamic deformation of facial skin in response to the muscle contraction. PMID:15455936

  6. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol... Inerts 0.85 0 a MEV = molar exhaust volume, dry standard cubic feet per gram-mole (dscf/g-mol)...

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol... Inerts 0.85 0 a MEV = molar exhaust volume, dry standard cubic feet per gram-mole (dscf/g-mol)...

  8. Ectopic molar pregnancy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bousfiha, Najoua; Erarhay, Sanaa; Louba, Adnane; Saadi, Hanan; Bouchikhi, Chahrazad; Banani, Abdelaziz; Fatemi, Hind El; Sekkal, Med; Laamarti, Afaf

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of hydatidiform moles is 1 per 1,000 pregnancies. Ectopic pregnancy occurs in 20 per 1,000 pregnancies. Thus, the incidence of the ectopic molar gestation is very rare. We report a case of tubal molar pregnancy diagnosed at the systematic histology exam of an ectopic pregnancy. We report the case of 32 years old nulliparus women who presented a vaginal bleeding, lower abdominal pain and 6 weeks amenorrhea corresponding to the last menstrual period. At the clinical examination, the arterial pressure was 100/60 mmHG. The gynecological examination was difficult because of lower abdominal pain. Serum gonadotropin activity was 3454 ui/l. Pelvic ultrasound revealed an irregular echogenic mass in the left adnexa. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed a left-sided unruptured ampullary ectopic pregnancy. A left laparoscopic salpingectomy was performed. The systematic histologic test identified an ectopic partial molar pregnancy, which was confirmed by DNA ploidy image analysis. The patient was followed with weekly quantitative B-hCG titers until three successive B-hCG levels were negative. It is pertinent that clinicians take routine histological examination of tubal specimens in ectopic pregnancy very seriously in order to diagnose cases of ectopic molar gestations early and mount appropriate post treatment surveillance. PMID:22655097

  9. Ectopic molar pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bousfiha, Najoua; Erarhay, Sanaa; Louba, Adnane; Saadi, Hanan; Bouchikhi, Chahrazad; Banani, Abdelaziz; El Fatemi, Hind; Sekkal, Med; Laamarti, Afaf

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of hydatidiform moles is 1 per 1,000 pregnancies. Ectopic pregnancy occurs in 20 per 1,000 pregnancies. Thus, the incidence of the ectopic molar gestation is very rare. We report a case of tubal molar pregnancy diagnosed at the systematic histology exam of an ectopic pregnancy. We report the case of 32 years old nulliparus women who presented a vaginal bleeding, lower abdominal pain and 6 weeks amenorrhea corresponding to the last menstrual period. At the clinical examination, the arterial pressure was 100/60 mmHG. The gynecological examination was difficult because of lower abdominal pain. Serum gonadotropin activity was 3454 ui/l. Pelvic ultrasound revealed an irregular echogenic mass in the left adnexa. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed a left-sided unruptured ampullary ectopic pregnancy. A left laparoscopic salpingectomy was performed. The systematic histologic test identified an ectopic partial molar pregnancy, which was confirmed by DNA ploidy image analysis. The patient was followed with weekly quantitative B-hCG titers until three successive B-hCG levels were negative. It is pertinent that clinicians take routine histological examination of tubal specimens in ectopic pregnancy very seriously in order to diagnose cases of ectopic molar gestations early and mount appropriate post treatment surveillance. PMID:22655097

  10. Mass versus molar doses, similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Chmielewska, A; Lamparczyk, H

    2008-11-01

    Generally, they are two systems expressing the amounts of active substance in a given drug product, i.e. mass and molar dose. Currently, the dose system based on the mass is widely used in which doses are expressed in grams or milligrams. On the other hand, the molar dose system is in direct relation to the number of molecules. Hence, the objective of this work was to compare both systems in order to find their advantages and disadvantages. Active substances belonging to the groups of antibiotics, nootropic agents, beta-blockers, vitamins, GABA-analog, COX-2 inhibitors, calcium channel antagonists, benzodiazepine receptor agonists, lipid-modifying agents (fibrates), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (profens), estrogens, neuroleptics, analgesics and benzodiazepines were considered. Moreover, products containing two active substances were also taken into account. These are mixtures of hydrochlorothiazide with active substances influencing the renin-angiotensin system and combined oral contraceptives. For each active substance, belonging to the groups mentioned above molar doses were calculated from mass doses and molar mass. Hence, groups of drugs with a single active substance, drugs with similar pharmacological activities, pharmaceutical alternatives, and drugs with a single active ingredient manufactured in different doses were compared in order to find which dose system describes more adequately differences between and within the groups mentioned above. Comparisons were supported by a number of equations, which theoretically justify the data, and relationships derived from calculations. PMID:19069248

  11. Selective alveolar corticotomy to intrude overerupted molars.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Dauro Douglas; de Oliveira, Bruno Franco; de Araújo Brito, Helio Henrique; de Souza, Margareth Maria Gomes; Medeiros, Paulo José

    2008-06-01

    Orthodontic intrusion of overerupted molars in adults is challenging for most clinicians. Efficient intrusion can be achieved by combining selective alveolar corticotomies with a modified full-coverage maxillary splint to reduce surgical risks, treatment time, and costs for both orthodontists and patients. PMID:18538256

  12. Till Surgery do us Part: Unexpected Bilateral Kissing Molars

    PubMed Central

    Anish, Narayanankutty; Vivek, Velayudhannair; Thomas, Sunila; Daniel, Vineet Alex; Thomas, Jincy; Ranimol, Prasanna

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence impacted teeth, single or multiple is very common. But, phenomenon of kissing molars is an extremely rare phenomenon. Mandibular third molars are the most common impacted teeth. Mandibular first or second molars does not share the same frequency of occurrence. But, there are rare cases in which the occlusal surfaces of impacted molars are united by the same follicular space and the roots point in the opposite direction, and are termed as kissing molars. Sometimes, these teeth will be associated with pathologies. This article reports a rare case of mandibular bilateral kissing molars. PMID:25918627

  13. Treatment of 3rd molar-induced periodontal defects with guided tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Oxford, G E; Quintero, G; Stuller, C B; Gher, M E

    1997-07-01

    Recent reports provide evidence of increased attachment levels when using guided tissue regeneration (GTR) techniques for the treatment of periodontal defects. Periodontal defects frequently occur at the distal aspect of mandibular 2nd molars which are next to mesioangular impacted 3rd molars that have oral communication. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of GTR can enhance probing attachment levels (PALs) following extraction of mesioangular impacted third molars. 12 patients with bilateral soft tissue impacted mandibular 3rd molars entered this split mouth study. After extractions, the previously exposed distal root surface of the 2nd molars were debrided. The defects on the randomly selected experimental sites were covered with expanded polytetraflouro-ethylene (e-PTFE) membrane and the tissue was replaced to cover the membrane. Membranes were removed after 6 weeks. Control sites were treated identically except no membrane was placed. GI, P1I, PD, PAL and BOP records were obtained at 0, 3 and 6 months. The use of barrier material did not provide statistically-significant differences in PAL when comparing experimental versus control sites. Nevertheless, PAL gain was consistently greater at 3 and 6 months when GTR techniques were used in sites with deep impactions. PMID:9226386

  14. [International anatomical terminology: controversial issues].

    PubMed

    Bolgov, Yu A

    2012-01-01

    The article contains an analysis of problems related to the content of the International anatomical terminology (IAT): the relationship and differences between the terms and concepts as the elements of the professional language of morphologists; forms in which concepts are reflected in IAT; classification of the IAT terms according to the principle of their relationship to the categories of concrete and abstract concepts. PMID:23659048

  15. The anatomical basis of prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    Evidence is presented that patients with prosopagnosia have right anterior inferior occipital lesions in the region of the occipital temporal junction. Many if not all cases have an additional lesion in the left hemisphere; this is often but apparently not always symmetrical with the right hemisphere lesion. This evidence is discussed in relation to the anatomical connections of these regions and the results of experiments in animals. Images PMID:4209556

  16. Anatomical challenges for transcatheter mitral valve intervention.

    PubMed

    DE Backer, Ole; Luk, Ngai H; Søndergaard, Lars

    2016-06-01

    Following the success of transcatheter aortic and pulmonary valve implantation, there is a large interest in transcatheter mitral valve interventions to treat severe mitral regurgitation (MR). With the exception for the MitraClipTM (Abbott, Abbott Park, IL, USA) edge-to-edge leaflet plication system, most of these transcatheter mitral valve interventions are still in their early clinical or preclinical development phase. Challenges arising from the complex anatomy of the mitral valve and the interplay of the mitral apparatus with the left ventricle (LV) have contributed to a more difficult development process and mixed clinical results with these novel technologies. This review aims to discuss the several anatomical aspects and challenges related to transcatheter mitral valve intervention - the relevant anatomy will be reviewed in relation to specific requirements for device design and procedural aspects of transcatheter mitral valve interventions. To date, experience with these novel therapeutic modalities are still limited and resolution of many challenges are pending. Future studies have to evaluate for whom the transcatheter approach is a feasible and preferred treatment and which patients will benefit from either transcatheter mitral valve repair or replacement. Nevertheless, technological developments are anticipated to drive the transcatheter approach forward into a clinically feasible alternative to surgery for selected patients with severe MR. PMID:27028333

  17. Removal of Deeply Impacted Mandibular Molars by Sagittal Split Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Isler, Sabri Cemil

    2016-01-01

    Mandibular third molars are the most common impacted teeth. Mandibular first and second molars do not share the same frequency of occurrence. In rare cases the occlusal surfaces of impacted molars are united by the same follicular space and the roots pointing in opposite direction; these are called kissing molars. In some cases, a supernumerary fourth molar can be seen as unerupted and, in this case, such a supernumerary, deeply impacted fourth molar is seen neighboring kissing molars. The extraction of deeply impacted wisdom molars from the mandible may necessitate excessive bone removal and it causes complications such as damage to the inferior alveolar nerve and iatrogenic fractures of the mandible. This case report describes the use of the sagittal split osteotomy technique to avoid extensive bone removal and protect the inferior alveolar nerve during surgical extruction of multiple impacted teeth. PMID:27429810

  18. Enzyme Molar Fractions: A Powerful Tool for Understanding Enzyme Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serra, Juan L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Deduces the relationship between reduced velocity and molar fractions for productive enzyme complexes; obtains the mathematical expression of molar fractions for an enzyme with two specific binding sites per molecule; and proposes a useful plot to follow the dependence of enzyme molar fractions with the concentration of one of its ligands. (JN)

  19. Molar tubal ectopic pregnancy: Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Mbarki, Chaouki; Jerbi, Emna; Hsayaoui, Najeh; Zouari, Fatma; Ben Brahim, Ehsen; Oueslati, Hedhili

    2015-06-01

    Ectopic molar pregnancy is a rare occurrence and consequently not often considered as a diagnostic possibility. We report two cases of molar hydatidiform tubal pregnancy. Diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy was confirmed on clinical biological and sonographic investigations. Diagnosis of molar pregnancy was done on histopathology. The clinical course was favorable for both patients. Although rare, molar changes can occur at any site of an ectopic pregnancy. Clinical diagnosis of a molar pregnancy is difficult but histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. PMID:25510265

  20. Periodontal changes following molar intrusion with miniscrews

    PubMed Central

    Bayani, Shahin; Heravi, Farzin; Radvar, Mehrdad; Anbiaee, Najmeh; Madani, Azam Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: With the introduction of skeletal anchorage system, recently it is possible to successfully intrude molar teeth. On the other hand, there have been concerns about periodontal changes associated with intrusion and there are few studies on this topic, especially for posterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Ten female patients were enrolled in this study. Maxillary molar intrusion was achieved by inserting two miniscrews and a 17 × 25 titanium molybdenum alloy spring. Crestal height changes were evaluated at three intervals including: Baseline (T0), end of active treatment (T1) and 6 months after retention (T2). Other variables including probing depth, gingival recession, attachment level and bleeding on probing were evaluated by clinical measurements in the three above mentioned intervals. One-sample Kolmogrov-Smirnov test ascertained the normality of the data. For all patients, the changes in tooth position and crestal height were evaluated using one-sample t-test. (P < 0.05) Results: Supra-erupted molars were successfully intruded a mean of 2.1 ± 0.9 mm during active treatment (T0-T1). A mean bone resorption of 0.9 ± 0.9 mm in mesial crest and 1 ± 0.8 mm in distal crest had occurred in total treatment (T0-T2). A mean of 0.6 ± 1.4 mm bone was deposited on mesial crest during the retention period (T1-T2) following tooth relapse. On average, 0.8 ± 0.4 mm attachment gain was obtained. Gingival margin coronalized a mean of 0.8 ± 0.6 mm throughout the entire treatment. Probing depth showed no significant change during treatment. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, these results suggest that not only periodontal status was not negatively affected by intrusion, but also there were signs of periodontal improvement including attachment gain and shortening of clinical crown height. PMID:26288629

  1. Angle Class II, subdivision, with agenesis of mandibular second molars and extrusion of maxillary second molars *

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Rubens Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    This clinical case reports the treatment of an Angle Class II malocclusion in a young woman with a balanced face affected by agenesis of second and third mandibular molars and subsequent extrusion of second maxillary molars. The atypical and peculiar occlusal anomaly led to individualized treatment proposed in order to normalize dental malpositions, with subsequent rehabilitation of edentulous areas by means of a multidisciplinary approach. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for obtaining the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:25992995

  2. Brain anatomical network and intelligence.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghui; Liu, Yong; Li, Jun; Qin, Wen; Li, Kuncheng; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2009-05-01

    Intuitively, higher intelligence might be assumed to correspond to more efficient information transfer in the brain, but no direct evidence has been reported from the perspective of brain networks. In this study, we performed extensive analyses to test the hypothesis that individual differences in intelligence are associated with brain structural organization, and in particular that higher scores on intelligence tests are related to greater global efficiency of the brain anatomical network. We constructed binary and weighted brain anatomical networks in each of 79 healthy young adults utilizing diffusion tensor tractography and calculated topological properties of the networks using a graph theoretical method. Based on their IQ test scores, all subjects were divided into general and high intelligence groups and significantly higher global efficiencies were found in the networks of the latter group. Moreover, we showed significant correlations between IQ scores and network properties across all subjects while controlling for age and gender. Specifically, higher intelligence scores corresponded to a shorter characteristic path length and a higher global efficiency of the networks, indicating a more efficient parallel information transfer in the brain. The results were consistently observed not only in the binary but also in the weighted networks, which together provide convergent evidence for our hypothesis. Our findings suggest that the efficiency of brain structural organization may be an important biological basis for intelligence. PMID:19492086

  3. Anatomical heterogeneity of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Young; Jeon, Seun; Seo, Sang Won; Kim, Geon Ha; Cho, Hanna; Ye, Byoung Seok; Yoon, Cindy W.; Kim, Hee Jin; Chin, Juhee; Park, Kee Hyung; Heilman, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Because the signs associated with dementia due to Alzheimer disease (AD) can be heterogeneous, the goal of this study was to use 3-dimensional MRI to examine the various patterns of cortical atrophy that can be associated with dementia of AD type, and to investigate whether AD dementia can be categorized into anatomical subtypes. Methods: High-resolution T1-weighted volumetric MRIs were taken of 152 patients in their earlier stages of AD dementia. The images were processed to measure cortical thickness, and hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis was performed using Ward's clustering linkage. The identified clusters of patients were compared with an age- and sex-matched control group using a general linear model. Results: There were several distinct patterns of cortical atrophy and the number of patterns varied according to the level of cluster analyses. At the 3-cluster level, patients were divided into (1) bilateral medial temporal–dominant atrophy subtype (n = 52, ∼34.2%), (2) parietal-dominant subtype (n = 28, ∼18.4%) in which the bilateral parietal lobes, the precuneus, along with bilateral dorsolateral frontal lobes, were atrophic, and (3) diffuse atrophy subtype (n = 72, ∼47.4%) in which nearly all association cortices revealed atrophy. These 3 subtypes also differed in their demographic and clinical features. Conclusions: This cluster analysis of cortical thickness of the entire brain showed that AD dementia in the earlier stages can be categorized into various anatomical subtypes, with distinct clinical features. PMID:25344382

  4. Brain Anatomical Network and Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Qin, Wen; Li, Kuncheng; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2009-01-01

    Intuitively, higher intelligence might be assumed to correspond to more efficient information transfer in the brain, but no direct evidence has been reported from the perspective of brain networks. In this study, we performed extensive analyses to test the hypothesis that individual differences in intelligence are associated with brain structural organization, and in particular that higher scores on intelligence tests are related to greater global efficiency of the brain anatomical network. We constructed binary and weighted brain anatomical networks in each of 79 healthy young adults utilizing diffusion tensor tractography and calculated topological properties of the networks using a graph theoretical method. Based on their IQ test scores, all subjects were divided into general and high intelligence groups and significantly higher global efficiencies were found in the networks of the latter group. Moreover, we showed significant correlations between IQ scores and network properties across all subjects while controlling for age and gender. Specifically, higher intelligence scores corresponded to a shorter characteristic path length and a higher global efficiency of the networks, indicating a more efficient parallel information transfer in the brain. The results were consistently observed not only in the binary but also in the weighted networks, which together provide convergent evidence for our hypothesis. Our findings suggest that the efficiency of brain structural organization may be an important biological basis for intelligence. PMID:19492086

  5. Digital imaging in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, M J; Sotnikov, A V

    1996-10-01

    Advances in computer technology continue to bring new innovations to departments of anatomic pathology. This article briefly reviews the present status of digital optical imaging, and explores the directions that this technology may lead over the next several years. Technical requirements for digital microscopic and gross imaging, and the available options for image archival and retrieval are summarized. The advantages of digital images over conventional photography in the conference room, and the usefulness of digital imaging in the frozen section suite and gross room, as an adjunct to surgical signout and as a resource for training and education, are discussed. An approach to the future construction of digital histologic sections and the computer as microscope is described. The digital technologic applications that are now available as components of the surgical pathologist's workstation are enumerated. These include laboratory information systems, computerized voice recognition, and on-line or CD-based literature searching, texts and atlases and, in some departments, on-line image databases. The authors suggest that, in addition to these resources that are already available, tomorrow's surgical pathology workstation will include network-linked digital histologic databases, on-line software for image analysis and 3-D image enhancement, expert systems, and ultimately, advanced pattern recognition capabilities. In conclusion, the authors submit that digital optical imaging is likely to have a significant and positive impact on the future development of anatomic pathology. PMID:8853053

  6. Mechanics analysis of molar tooth splitting.

    PubMed

    Barani, Amir; Chai, Herzl; Lawn, Brian R; Bush, Mark B

    2015-03-01

    A model for the splitting of teeth from wedge loading of molar cusps from a round indenting object is presented. The model is developed in two parts: first, a simple 2D fracture mechanics configuration with the wedged tooth simulated by a compact tension specimen; second, a full 3D numerical analysis using extended finite element modeling (XFEM) with an embedded crack. The result is an explicit equation for splitting load in terms of indenter radius and key tooth dimensions. Fracture experiments on extracted human molars loaded axially with metal spheres are used to quantify the splitting forces and thence to validate the model. The XFEM calculations enable the complex crack propagation, initially in the enamel coat and subsequently in the interior dentin, to be followed incrementally with increasing load. The fracture evolution is shown to be stable prior to failure, so that dentin toughness, not strength, is the controlling material parameter. Critical conditions under which tooth splitting in biological and dental settings are likely to be met, however rare, are considered. PMID:25584989

  7. Positional changes of the third molar in orthodontically treated patients

    PubMed Central

    Mihai, AM; Lulache, IR; Grigore, R; Sanabil, AS; Boiangiu, S; Ionescu, E

    2013-01-01

    Objective and Rationale. Over the years, the effects of the third molars eruption on the dental arches have been studied extensively. Still, literature provides less data regarding the effects of the orthodontic treatment on the third molars position. The aim of our study was to assess the positional changes of the third molars relative to the occlusal plane and to the second molar long axis, changes occurred during orthodontic treatment performed with or without premolar extractions. Method. This study included 20 orthodontic treated patients: 10 of them with premolar extractions and 10 without premolar extractions. The pretreatment and post treatment panoramic radiographs were analyzed, and the angles between the third molar long axis and the occlusal plane and between the long axis of the third molar and the long axis of the second molar were measured. Results. Changes in third molar position, from pretreatment to post treatment, for the two groups of patients were evaluated by using the Student’s t-test. The results of the statistical analysis revealed an improvement in third molars position, the best results were seen in the lower third molars, in the group of patients treated with premolar extractions. PMID:23904878

  8. Anatomic consideration for preventive implantation.

    PubMed

    Denissen, H W; Kalk, W; Veldhuis, H A; van Waas, M A

    1993-01-01

    The aim of preventive implant therapy is to prevent or delay loss of alveolar ridge bone mass. For use in an anatomic study of 60 mandibles, resorption of the alveolar ridge was classified into four preventive stages: (1) after extraction of teeth; (2) after initial resorption; (3) when the ridge has atrophied to a knife-edge shape; and (4) when only basal bone remains. Implantation in stage 3 necessitates removal of the knife-edge ridge to create space for cylindrical implants. Therefore, implantation in stage 2 is advocated to prevent the development of stage 3. The aim of implantation in stage 4 is to prevent total loss of function of the atrophic mandible. PMID:8359876

  9. Digital photography in anatomical pathology.

    PubMed

    Leong, F J; Leong, A S

    2004-01-01

    Digital imaging has made major inroads into the routine practice of anatomical pathology and replaces photographic prints and Kodachromes for reporting and conference purposes. More advanced systems coupled to computers allow greater versatility and speed of turnaround as well as lower costs of incorporating macroscopic and microscopic pictures into pathology reports and publications. Digital images allow transmission to remote sites via the Internet for consultation, quality assurance and educational purposes, and can be stored on and disseminated by CD-ROM. Total slide digitisation is now a reality and will replace glass slides to a large extent. Three-dimensional images of gross specimens can be assembled and posted on websites for interactive educational programmes. There are also applications in research, allowing more objective and automated quantitation of a variety of morphological and immunohistological parameters. Early reports indicate that medical vision systems are a reality and can provide for automated computer-generated histopathological diagnosis and quality assurance. PMID:15048004

  10. Endodontic treatment of the mandibular first molar with six roots canals - two case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Martins, Jorge N R; Anderson, Craig

    2015-04-01

    The most common configuration of the mandibular first molar is the presence of two roots and three root canals. The objective of this work is to present two rare anatomic configurations with six root canals on two mandibular left first molars diagnosed during endodontic therapy. Root canal therapy was performed using a dental operating microscope. Ultrasonic troughing in the grooves in between the mesial root canals and in between the distal root canals was able to show the middle root canals. Large samples population characterization researches and systematic reviews were unable to detect a single case of six root canals configuration in a mandibular first molar in their investigations. Although it is a rare configuration, a six root canal configuration is possible to be found in the mandibular first molar. Three different pulp chamber configurations are possible to be found. Two or three roots may be present and the root configuration more common in the mesial root is the Type 8 and Type 12 for the distal root. Some concepts about the required technique to approach these cases are also debated. PMID:26023651

  11. Endodontic Treatment of the Mandibular First Molar with Six Roots Canals – Two Case Reports and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The most common configuration of the mandibular first molar is the presence of two roots and three root canals. The objective of this work is to present two rare anatomic configurations with six root canals on two mandibular left first molars diagnosed during endodontic therapy. Root canal therapy was performed using a dental operating microscope. Ultrasonic troughing in the grooves in between the mesial root canals and in between the distal root canals was able to show the middle root canals. Large samples population characterization researches and systematic reviews were unable to detect a single case of six root canals configuration in a mandibular first molar in their investigations. Although it is a rare configuration, a six root canal configuration is possible to be found in the mandibular first molar. Three different pulp chamber configurations are possible to be found. Two or three roots may be present and the root configuration more common in the mesial root is the Type 8 and Type 12 for the distal root. Some concepts about the required technique to approach these cases are also debated. PMID:26023651

  12. Clinical Success Rate of Compomer and Amalgam Class II Restorations in First Primary Molars: A Two-year Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderi, Faezeh; Mardani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. The majority of failures in Class II amalgam restorations occur in the first primary molar teeth; in addition, use of compomer instead of amalgam for primary molar teeth restorations is a matter of concern. The aim ofthe present study was to compare the success rate of Class II compomer and amalgam restorations in the first primary molars. Materials and methods. A total of 17 amalgams and 17 compomer restorations were placed in 17 children based on a split-mouth design. Restorations were assessed at 12- and 24-month intervals for marginal integrity, the anatomic form and recurrent caries. Data were analyzed with SPSS 11. Chi-squared test was applied for the analysis. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results. A total 34 restorations of 28 restorations (14 pairs) of the total restorations still survived after 24 months. Compomerrestorations showed significantly better results in marginal integrity. Recurrent caries was significantly lower incompomer restorations compared to amalgam restorations. Cumulative success rate at 24-month interval was significantlyhigher in compomer restorations compared to amalgam restorations. There was no statistically significant difference inanatomic form between the two materials. Conclusion. Compomer appears to be a suitable alternative to amalgam for Class II restorations in the first primary mo-lars. PMID:26236434

  13. Intrusion of overerupted molars by corticotomy and orthodontic skeletal anchorage.

    PubMed

    Moon, Cheol-Hyun; Wee, Jin-Uk; Lee, Hyun-Sun

    2007-11-01

    This article describes the orthodontic treatment of a 26-year-old female patient with overerupted left maxillary molar teeth. Her chief complaint was that the maxillary left first and the second molar intruded into the space required for the mandibular left first and the second molars, preventing prosthodontic treatment. The authors performed a corticotomy and used orthodontic skeletal anchorage with a miniplate and orthodontic miniscrews with a head modified to provide a specially designed hook. With this approach, they were able to achieve a sufficient amount of molar intrusion without discomfort, root resorption, or extrusion of the adjacent teeth. The first molar was intruded 3.0 mm and second molar was intruded 3.5 mm during 2 months of treatment. These results have been maintained for 11 months. PMID:18004918

  14. Molar mass distribution and solubility modeling of asphaltenes

    SciTech Connect

    Yarranton, H.W.; Masliyah, J.H.

    1996-12-01

    Attempts to model asphaltene solubility with Scatchard-Hildebrand theory were hampered by uncertainty in molar volume and solubility parameter distribution within the asphaltenes. By considering asphaltenes as a series of polyaromatic hydrocarbons with randomly distributed associated functional groups, molar volume and solubility parameter distributions are calculated from experimental measurements of molar mass and density. The molar mass distribution of Athabasca asphaltenes is determined from interfacial tension and vapor pressure osmometry measurements together with plasma desorption mass spectrometry determinations from the literature. Asphaltene densities are calculated indirectly from mixtures of known concentration of asphaltene in toluene. Asphaltene density, molar volume, and solubility parameter are correlated with molar mass. Solid-liquid equilibrium calculations based on solubility theory and the asphaltene property correlations successfully predict experimental data for both the precipitation point and the amount of precipitated asphaltenes in toluene-hexane solvent mixtures.

  15. Ab initio molar volumes and Gaussian radii.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Drew F; Ninham, Barry W

    2009-02-12

    Ab initio molar volumes are calculated and used to derive radii for ions and neutral molecules using a spatially diffuse model of the electron distribution with Gaussian spread. The Gaussian radii obtained can be used for computation of nonelectrostatic ion-ion dispersion forces that underlie Hofmeister specific ion effects. Equivalent hard-sphere radii are also derived, and these are in reasonable agreement with crystalline ionic radii. The Born electrostatic self-energy is derived for a Gaussian model of the electronic charge distribution. It is shown that the ionic volumes used in electrostatic calculations of strongly hydrated cosmotropic ions ought best to include the first hydration shell. Ionic volumes for weakly hydrated chaotropic metal cations should exclude electron overlap (in electrostatic calculations). Spherical radii are calculated as well as nonisotropic ellipsoidal radii for nonspherical ions, via their nonisotropic static polarizability tensors. PMID:19140766

  16. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

    2002-10-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

  17. Cone beam computed tomography evaluation and endodontic management of permanent mandibular second molar with four roots: A rare case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekhara, Subhashini; Sharath Chandra, SM; Parthasarathy, Late Bharath

    2014-01-01

    The morphological variation in the number of roots and root canals, especially in multi-rooted teeth is a constant challenge for diagnosis and successful endodontic therapy. Knowledge of the most common anatomic characteristics and their possible variations is fundamental. Although, endodontic management of four-rooted mandibular first molars have been observed on a few occasions in the literature, to the best of our knowledge four-rooted mandibular second molars having two mesial and two distal roots have not been reported. This paper highlights endodontic management of mandibular second molar with four roots (two mesial and two distal) with one canal in each root and its cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) evaluation which was primarily done for post treatment assessment for diagnosing post-endodontic complications, at the same time confirmed our radiographic diagnosis of this variation. This also helped us portraying the anatomy of this rare variation. PMID:25125856

  18. Brain Morphometry Using Anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansal, Ravi; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in studying the morphological features of various regions of the brain is described, also providing the steps used in the processing and studying of the images. The ability to correlate these features with several clinical and psychological measures can help in using anatomical MRI to…

  19. Endodontic treatment of a maxillary first molar with seven root canals confirmed with cone beam computer tomography - case report.

    PubMed

    Martins, Jorge N R

    2014-06-01

    The most common configuration of the maxillary first molar is the presence of three roots and four root canals, although the presence of several other configurations have already been reported. The objective of this work is to present a rare anatomic configuration with seven root canals diagnosed during an endodontic therapy. Endodontic treatment was performed using a dental operating microscope. Exploring the grooves surrounding the main canals with ultrasonic troughing was able expose unexpected root canals. Instrumentation with files of smaller sizes and tapers was performed to prevent root physical weakness. The anatomic configuration was confirmed with a Cone Beam Computer Tomography image analysis which was able to clearly show the presence of seven root canals. An electronic database search was conducted to identify all the published similar cases and the best techniques to approach them are discussed. PMID:25121069

  20. Endodontic Treatment of a Maxillary First Molar with Seven Root Canals Confirmed with Cone Beam Computer Tomography – Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The most common configuration of the maxillary first molar is the presence of three roots and four root canals, although the presence of several other configurations have already been reported. The objective of this work is to present a rare anatomic configuration with seven root canals diagnosed during an endodontic therapy. Endodontic treatment was performed using a dental operating microscope. Exploring the grooves surrounding the main canals with ultrasonic troughing was able expose unexpected root canals. Instrumentation with files of smaller sizes and tapers was performed to prevent root physical weakness. The anatomic configuration was confirmed with a Cone Beam Computer Tomography image analysis which was able to clearly show the presence of seven root canals. An electronic database search was conducted to identify all the published similar cases and the best techniques to approach them are discussed. PMID:25121069

  1. Endodontic management of permanent mandibular molars with 6 root canals: report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Amit; Ahlawat, Jyoti; Bansal, Chirag; Tahiliani, Divya

    2016-01-01

    Aberrations in the internal dental anatomy present challenges for clinicians performing endodontic therapy. These challenges have been partly resolved in recent years by a more comprehensive knowledge of root canal anatomy as well as advancements in the endodontic armamentarium. The aim of this case series is to describe successful root canal treatment, under magnification, in 3 cases of mandibular first molars with 6 root canals. Two of these teeth had 2 roots (mesial and distal) with 3 canals in each root; the third tooth had 3 root canals located mesially and 3 present distally as well as a radix entomolaris. A distal root with 3 canals is rare; however, it is important to look for such anatomical variations to ensure successful endodontic therapy. PMID:27599288

  2. Fusion of a supernumerary tooth to right mandibular second molar: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Liu, Chao; Ren, Shuangshuang; Lin, Zintong; Miao, Leiying; Sun, Weibin

    2015-01-01

    Gemination or fusion is a rare occurrence in the mandibular posterior teeth. The aim of this article is to describe the problems encountered and the strategy employed in treating such cases. A 34 years old patient came with the complaint of spontaneous and radiating pain in the right mandibular posterior region. The tooth in concern was an anomalous 'double' second mandibular molar diagnosed as having necrotic pulp with chronic apical abscess of endodontic origin. The present case emphasizes the importance of identifying anatomical anomalies during treatment of fused teeth with supernumerary tooth, and the need for the use of advanced imaging modalities like CBCT which is a critical aid in the diagnosis of such cases. Fused teeth can be managed quite efficiently by an overall combined treatment including both endodontic and periodontal therapy. PMID:26550101

  3. Anatomical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: a logical approach

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Julio Cesar

    2015-01-01

    We describe the surgical approach that we have used over the last years for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, highlighting the importance of arthroscopic viewing through the anteromedial portal (AMP) and femoral tunnel drilling through an accessory anteromedial portal (AMP). The AMP allows direct view of the ACL femoral insertion site on the medial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle, does not require guides for anatomic femoral tunnel reaming, prevents an additional lateral incision in the distal third of the thigh (as would be unavoidable when the outside-in technique is used) and also can be used for double-bundle ACL reconstruction. PMID:26417571

  4. Autotransplantation of a Buccally Erupted Matured Mandibular Third Molar to Replace a Grossly Decayed Second Molar.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sukhwant Singh; Bodh, Ranjeet; Kaushik, Aishvarya; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2016-02-01

    Autotransplantation can be a treatment option for tooth loss as an alternative to fixed or implant-supported prostheses. It has predictable results comparable to implants, with reported success rates often greater than 90%. In present case, buccally erupted matured third molar was autotransplanted in extraction socket of grossly carious mandibular second molar. The tooth was splinted for 1 week followed by root canal treatment. After 12 months follow up, tooth was in perfect state of function and aesthetic with healthy periapical and periodontal architecture. High success rate was found in immature tooth transplantation in previous case reports. This case report describes that even matured tooth can also be used as donor if atraumatic extraction is possible and endodontic treatment is well performed. PMID:27042593

  5. Autotransplantation of a Buccally Erupted Matured Mandibular Third Molar to Replace a Grossly Decayed Second Molar

    PubMed Central

    Bodh, Ranjeet; Kaushik, Aishvarya; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    Autotransplantation can be a treatment option for tooth loss as an alternative to fixed or implant-supported prostheses. It has predictable results comparable to implants, with reported success rates often greater than 90%. In present case, buccally erupted matured third molar was autotransplanted in extraction socket of grossly carious mandibular second molar. The tooth was splinted for 1 week followed by root canal treatment. After 12 months follow up, tooth was in perfect state of function and aesthetic with healthy periapical and periodontal architecture. High success rate was found in immature tooth transplantation in previous case reports. This case report describes that even matured tooth can also be used as donor if atraumatic extraction is possible and endodontic treatment is well performed. PMID:27042593

  6. Anchorage reinforcement with a fixed functional appliance during protraction of the mandibular second molars into the first molar extraction sites.

    PubMed

    Chhibber, Aditya; Upadhyay, Madhur

    2015-07-01

    Protraction of posterior teeth into edentulous spaces is a challenge. This report describes the treatment of a 19-year-old woman with missing mandibular first molars owing to caries. A fixed functional appliance was used for anchorage reinforcement during mandibular second molar protraction. Eight millimeters of bilateral protraction was done with bodily mesial movement of the molars and no lingual tipping of the incisors. PMID:26124039

  7. Singapore's anatomical future: quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Ang, Eng-Tat; Sugand, Kapil; Hartman, Mikael; Seow, Choon-Sheong; Bay, Boon-Huat; Abrahams, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The disciplines of anatomy and surgery are not dichotomous since one is dependent on the other. Traditionally, surgeons predominantly taught gross and clinical anatomy. In this review, we examine the context of how human anatomy is taught nowadays. In essence, we discovered that there are certain discernable trends consistently observable between the American and British systems. In Singapore, the British Russell Group first influenced its education landscape but now more so by the American Ivy League. Singapore now has three medical schools all offering differing anatomy curricula, which serves as an opportune time for it to consider if there is a best approach given that the practice of surgery is also evolving in parallel. This review discusses the various pedagogies and issues involved, and will serve as a forum and stimulus for discussion. By tweaking the curriculum correctly and the lessons learnt, future doctors and surgeons in training will receive a better anatomical education, not just in Singapore but the world in general. Key recommendations include the use of body painting, clay, plasticine to facilitate the learning of anatomy, and the implementation of a body donation program. Furthermore, strategic mergers with key stakeholders will also ensure the survival of the discipline. PMID:22566391

  8. Detection and analysis of statistical differences in anatomical shape.

    PubMed

    Golland, Polina; Grimson, W Eric L; Shenton, Martha E; Kikinis, Ron

    2005-02-01

    We present a computational framework for image-based analysis and interpretation of statistical differences in anatomical shape between populations. Applications of such analysis include understanding developmental and anatomical aspects of disorders when comparing patients versus normal controls, studying morphological changes caused by aging, or even differences in normal anatomy, for example, differences between genders. Once a quantitative description of organ shape is extracted from input images, the problem of identifying differences between the two groups can be reduced to one of the classical questions in machine learning of constructing a classifier function for assigning new examples to one of the two groups while making as few misclassifications as possible. The resulting classifier must be interpreted in terms of shape differences between the two groups back in the image domain. We demonstrate a novel approach to such interpretation that allows us to argue about the identified shape differences in anatomically meaningful terms of organ deformation. Given a classifier function in the feature space, we derive a deformation that corresponds to the differences between the two classes while ignoring shape variability within each class. Based on this approach, we present a system for statistical shape analysis using distance transforms for shape representation and the support vector machines learning algorithm for the optimal classifier estimation and demonstrate it on artificially generated data sets, as well as real medical studies. PMID:15581813

  9. Tomographic Evaluation of Mandibular Thickness on Premolar and Molar Regions Related to Monocortical Screws.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Jonathan; Marin, Charles; Homsi, Nicolas; Rocha Junior, Hernando; Magacho, Luiz; Fidalgo, Guto; Zanela, Manuella

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the thickness of the mandible from the external cortical plate to the teeth roots on premolar and molar regions using CT scan to determine the safety margin for the application of monocortical screws for internal rigid fixation. Thirty-one patients underwent CT-scan imaging for surgical planning. The images were used to measure bilaterally the distance from the external cortex of the mandible to the roots of teeth on premolar and molar region by means of Dental Slice software (Bioparts Prototipagem Biomedica, Brasília, DF, Brazil). Mean, median, standard deviation, one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test were used for statistical analysis. No statistical differences for thickness were found between right and left side (p = 0.1652). The mean thickness for the left side was 4.17 ± 1.68 mm and for right side 3.93 ± 1.49 mm. Increase in mandibular thickness from anterior to posterior regions in both sides was observed and statistical difference was found among the different groups according to the measured region (p < 0.05). The present results can predict the safety zone for the use of monocortical screws in the mandible, but the use of CT scan is imperative and individual analysis is desired owing to anatomical variations. Further studies with larger samples are necessary to confirm these data and should include other anatomic structures, different regions of mandible/maxilla, as well as other ethnic groups. PMID:27162564

  10. Morphologic analysis of third-molar maturity by digital orthopantomographic assessment.

    PubMed

    Introna, Francesco; Santoro, Valeria; De Donno, Antonio; Belviso, Maura

    2008-03-01

    Accurate timing of the eruption of first and permanent teeth is an important parameter in forensic odontology to establish the age of dead or live individuals. Determination of adulthood may determine, for example, whether an individual convicted of a crime is sentenced as an adult and incarcerated in a state penal institution or as a juvenile and sent to a juvenile camp. At present, there is a large immigrant population in Italy, and young foreign criminals sometimes have false passports bearing a later birth date, with the aim of evading punishment. In such circumstances, age determination is becoming a significant forensic issue.Late in adolescence, after formation of the premolars and canines, only the third molars continue to develop. According to several studies, although the third molars are the most variable teeth in the dentition, they remain the most reliable biologic indicator available for estimation of age during the middle teens and early twenties.In this study, the authors test the possibilities offered by orthopantomography executed by means of digital technology, with the aim of exploiting the advantages of the computerized digital technique compared with the conventional technique, to determine adult age on the basis of root development of the third molar.Digital radiography is simple to use, quick, and effective, allowing superimposition and enlargement; the images can be electronically stored and transported. In comparison with traditional orthopantomography, the digital technique features greater diagnostic accuracy of some anatomic structures: upper and lower front teeth, root apexes, floor of the nasal fossa and maxillary sinus, nasal septum, mandibular condylus. Moreover, digital orthopantomography suffers less from artifacts.The digital orthopantomographies of 83 Caucasian subjects (43 females and 40 males) aged between 16 and 22 years were analyzed in standard conditions, assessing the degree of maturation of the upper and lower third

  11. Computed Tomographic Morphometry of the Internal Anatomy of Mandibular Second Primary Molars

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pranjal; Swamy, Dinesh Francis; Shashidara, R; Swamy, Elaine Barretto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Need for the study: The most important procedure for a successful endodontic treatment is the cleaning and shaping of the canal system. Understanding the internal anatomy of teeth provides valuable information to the clinician that would help him achieve higher clinical success during endodontic therapy. Aims: To evaluate by computed tomography—the internal anatomy of mandibular second primary molars with respect to the number of canals, cross-sectional shape of canals, cross-sectional area of canals and the root dentin thickness. Materials and methods: A total of 31 mandibular second primary molars were subjected to computed-tomographic evaluation in the transverse plane, after mounting them in a prefabricated template. The images, thus, obtained were analyzed using De-winter Bio-wizard® software. Results: All the samples demonstrated two canals in the mesial root, while majority of the samples (65.48%) demonstrated two canals in the distal root. The cross-sectional images of the mesial canals demonstrated a round shape, while the distal canals demonstrated an irregular shape. The root dentin thickness was highly reduced on the distal aspect of mesial and mesial aspect of distal canals. Conclusion: The mandibular second primary molars demonstrated wide variation and complexities in their internal anatomy. A thorough understanding of the complexity of the root canal system is essential for understanding the principles and problems of shaping and cleaning, determining the apical limits and dimensions of canal preparations, and for performing successful endodontic procedures. How to cite this article: Kurthukoti AJ, Sharma P, Swamy DF, Shashidara R, Swamy EB. Computed Tomographic Morphometry of the Internal Anatomy of Mandibular Second Primary Molars. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):202-207. PMID:26628855

  12. [Distalization of the upper second molar: clinical case].

    PubMed

    Castaldo, A; Blasi, S; Vettese, P

    1991-01-01

    The Authors showed a clinical case in which has been put on a distalizing system together with a palatal bar between the first upper molars, a sectional placed between the first and the second molar and a 100 g precalibrated Sentalloy coil. PMID:1784297

  13. Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age.

    PubMed

    De Luca, S; Biagi, R; Begnoni, G; Farronato, G; Cingolani, M; Merelli, V; Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

    2014-02-01

    Due to increasingly numerous international migrations, estimating the age of unaccompanied minors is becoming of enormous significance for forensic professionals who are required to deliver expert opinions. The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical sites available for estimating the age of individuals in late adolescence. This study verifies the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing 18 years of age. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 397 living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years (192 female and 205 male) was analyzed. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 86.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (80.8%, 91.1%), and its specificity was 95.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92.1%, 98%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 91.4%. Estimated post-test probability, p was 95.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92%, 98%). Hence, the probability that a subject positive on the test (i.e., I3M<0.08) was 18 years of age or older was 95.6%. PMID:24365729

  14. The maxillary molar endodontic access opening: A microscope-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Mamoun, John Sami

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the basic clinical techniques of performing a maxillary molar endodontic access opening, starting from the initial access opening into the pulp chamber, to the point where a size #10 file has been advanced to the apices of all three or four (or more) canals. The article explains how the use of the dental surgical operating microscope or microscope-level loupes magnification of ×6–8 or greater, combined with head-mounted or coaxial illumination, improve the ability of a dentist to identify microscopic root canal orifices, which facilitates the efficient creation of conservative access openings with adequate straight-line access in maxillary molars. Magnified photos illustrate various microscopic anatomical structures or landmarks of the initial access opening. Techniques are explored for implementing an access opening for teeth with vital versus necrotic pulpal tissues. The article also explores the use of piezoelectric or ultrasonic instruments for revealing root canal orifices and for removing pulp stones or calcified pulpal tissue inside the pulp chamber. PMID:27403069

  15. The maxillary molar endodontic access opening: A microscope-based approach.

    PubMed

    Mamoun, John Sami

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the basic clinical techniques of performing a maxillary molar endodontic access opening, starting from the initial access opening into the pulp chamber, to the point where a size #10 file has been advanced to the apices of all three or four (or more) canals. The article explains how the use of the dental surgical operating microscope or microscope-level loupes magnification of ×6-8 or greater, combined with head-mounted or coaxial illumination, improve the ability of a dentist to identify microscopic root canal orifices, which facilitates the efficient creation of conservative access openings with adequate straight-line access in maxillary molars. Magnified photos illustrate various microscopic anatomical structures or landmarks of the initial access opening. Techniques are explored for implementing an access opening for teeth with vital versus necrotic pulpal tissues. The article also explores the use of piezoelectric or ultrasonic instruments for revealing root canal orifices and for removing pulp stones or calcified pulpal tissue inside the pulp chamber. PMID:27403069

  16. Collaborative regression-based anatomical landmark detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yaozong; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-12-01

    Anatomical landmark detection plays an important role in medical image analysis, e.g. for registration, segmentation and quantitative analysis. Among the various existing methods for landmark detection, regression-based methods have recently attracted much attention due to their robustness and efficiency. In these methods, landmarks are localised through voting from all image voxels, which is completely different from the classification-based methods that use voxel-wise classification to detect landmarks. Despite their robustness, the accuracy of regression-based landmark detection methods is often limited due to (1) the inclusion of uninformative image voxels in the voting procedure, and (2) the lack of effective ways to incorporate inter-landmark spatial dependency into the detection step. In this paper, we propose a collaborative landmark detection framework to address these limitations. The concept of collaboration is reflected in two aspects. (1) Multi-resolution collaboration. A multi-resolution strategy is proposed to hierarchically localise landmarks by gradually excluding uninformative votes from faraway voxels. Moreover, for informative voxels near the landmark, a spherical sampling strategy is also designed at the training stage to improve their prediction accuracy. (2) Inter-landmark collaboration. A confidence-based landmark detection strategy is proposed to improve the detection accuracy of ‘difficult-to-detect’ landmarks by using spatial guidance from ‘easy-to-detect’ landmarks. To evaluate our method, we conducted experiments extensively on three datasets for detecting prostate landmarks and head & neck landmarks in computed tomography images, and also dental landmarks in cone beam computed tomography images. The results show the effectiveness of our collaborative landmark detection framework in improving landmark detection accuracy, compared to other state-of-the-art methods.

  17. Understanding the current anatomical competence landscape: Comparing perceptions of program directors, residents, and fourth-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Fillmore, Erin P; Brokaw, James J; Kochhar, Komal; Nalin, Peter M

    2016-07-01

    A mixed methods survey of fourth-year medical students, resident physicians, and residency program directors at the Indiana University School of Medicine gathered perceptions of anatomical competence-defined as the anatomical education necessary for effective clinical practice. The survey items explored numerous aspects of anatomical competence, including the most effective modes of instruction, perceptions of readiness for clinical practice, and specific suggestions for improving anatomical education during medical school and residency. The response rate was 46% for fourth-year medical students, 47% for residents (as graduates from 137 medical schools), and 71% for program directors. A majority of students and residents reported that their course in Gross Anatomy prepared them well for clinical practice; that cadaveric dissection was important in the early development of their anatomical competence; and that placing a greater emphasis on clinical relevance in medical school would have improved their anatomical competence even further. However, in terms of anatomical preparedness upon entering residency, the program directors rated their residents less prepared than the residents rated themselves. All three groups agreed that there is need for additional opportunities for anatomical educational during medical school and residency. Suggestions for improving anatomical education included the following: providing more opportunities for cadaveric dissection during medical school and residency; more consistent teaching of anatomy for clinical practice; more workshops that review anatomy; and better integration of anatomy with the teaching of other subjects during medical school. Anat Sci Educ 9: 307-318. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26632977

  18. Mandibular third molar autotransplantation--literature review with clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Rui Amaral; Rocha, Germano

    2004-12-01

    Autotransplantation of mandibular third molars in a precocious phase of development is indicated when a substitute for adjacent compromised or missing molars is needed, and when mesial movements of the posterior teeth, the resultant loss of space, and overeruption of opposing teeth and consequent changes in the occlusion must be avoided. Provided that the apices of the mandibular third molar are immature, the immediate replacement of a lost or compromised tooth usually ensures a good outcome. Transplantation of third molars helps to maintain alveolar bone and enables endosseous implantation without requiring bone regeneration. We present examples of transplantation of mandibular third molars and review the factors that affect the success or failure of this procedure, such as atraumatic extraction and adequate immobilization of the transplanted tooth and root development after transplantation. Sex or age seem to have no effect on the final outcome. PMID:15588551

  19. Image analysis of anatomical traits in stalk transections of maize and other grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Heckwolf, Sven; Heckwolf, Marlies; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; de Leon, Natalia; Spalding, Edgar P

    2015-04-09

    Grass stalks architecturally support leaves and reproductive structures, functionally support the transport of water and nutrients, and are harvested for multiple agricultural uses. Research on these basic and applied aspects of grass stalks would benefit from improved capabilities for measuring internal anatomical features. In particular, methods suitable for phenotyping populations of plants are needed.

  20. Nonsurgical Endodontic Management of a Molar-Incisor Malformation-affected Mandibular First Molar: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yue, Wonyoung; Kim, Euiseong

    2016-04-01

    A molar-incisor malformation (MIM) is a newly reported type of dental anomaly that involves a characteristic root malformation in permanent first molars and deciduous second molars and a crown defect in permanent central incisors. This case report describes a nonsurgical root canal treatment of a MIM-affected molar by aid of a reformatted axial view of the tooth cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A MIM-affected molar has calcified canal orifices and a few immature accessory furcal canals. Conventional root canal treatment with the aid of CBCT followed by resin restoration was performed on the tooth. The malformed roots of MIM teeth generally make it difficult to apply conventional endodontic treatment; however, it was possible to do with the aid of the reformatted axial view of the CBCT. PMID:26706790

  1. Anatomical Basis for the Cardiac Interventional Electrophysiologist

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Quintana, Damián; Doblado-Calatrava, Manuel; Cabrera, José Angel; Macías, Yolanda; Saremi, Farhood

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of radiofrequency catheter ablation techniques as the mainstay in the treatment of tachycardia has renewed new interest in cardiac anatomy. The interventional arrhythmologist has drawn attention not only to the gross anatomic details of the heart but also to architectural and histological characteristics of various cardiac regions that are relevant to the development or recurrence of tachyarrhythmias and procedural related complications of catheter ablation. In this review, therefore, we discuss some anatomic landmarks commonly used in catheter ablations including the terminal crest, sinus node region, Koch's triangle, cavotricuspid isthmus, Eustachian ridge and valve, pulmonary venous orifices, venoatrial junctions, and ventricular outflow tracts. We also discuss the anatomical features of important structures in the vicinity of the atria and pulmonary veins, such as the esophagus and phrenic nerves. This paper provides basic anatomic information to improve understanding of the mapping and ablative procedures for cardiac interventional electrophysiologists. PMID:26665006

  2. Comparison of micro-computerized tomography and cone-beam computerized tomography in the detection of accessory canals in primary molars

    PubMed Central

    Kamburoğlu, Kıvanç; Tatar, İlkan; Arıkan, Volkan; Çelik, Hakan Hamdi; Yüksel, Selcen; Özen, Tuncer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to compare the accuracy of micro-computed tomography (CT) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in detecting accessory canals in primary molars. Materials and Methods Forty-one extracted human primary first and second molars were embedded in wax blocks and scanned using micro-CT and CBCT. After the images were taken, the samples were processed using a clearing technique and examined under a stereomicroscope in order to establish the gold standard for this study. The specimens were classified into three groups: maxillary molars, mandibular molars with three canals, and mandibular molars with four canals. Differences between the gold standard and the observations made using the imaging methods were calculated using Spearman's rho correlation coefficient test. Results The presence of accessory canals in micro-CT images of maxillary and mandibular root canals showed a statistically significant correlation with the stereomicroscopic images used as a gold standard. No statistically significant correlation was found between the CBCT findings and the stereomicroscopic images. Conclusion Although micro-CT is not suitable for clinical use, it provides more detailed information about minor anatomical structures. However, CBCT is convenient for clinical use but may not be capable of adequately analyzing the internal anatomy of primary teeth. PMID:26730367

  3. Replacement of a first molar and 3 second molars by the mesial inclination of 4 impacted third molars in an adult with a Class II Division 1 malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Tomonari, Hiroshi; Yagi, Takakazu; Kuninori, Takaharu; Ikemori, Takahiro; Miyawaki, Shouichi

    2015-06-01

    This case report presents the successful replacement of 1 first molar and 3 second molars by the mesial inclination of 4 impacted third molars. A woman, 23 years 6 months old, had a chief complaint of crowding of her anterior teeth and linguoclination of a second molar on the left side. The panoramic radiographic images showed that the maxillary and mandibular third molars on both sides were impacted. Root resorption on the distal surfaces of the maxillary second molars was suspected. The patient was given a diagnosis of Angle Class II Division 1 malocclusion with severe crowding of the anterior teeth and 4 impacted third molars. After we extracted the treated maxillary second premolars and the second molars on both sides, the treated mandibular second premolar and the second molar on the left side, and the root canal-filled mandibular first molar on the right side, the 4 impacted third molars were uprighted and formed part of the posterior functional occlusion. The total active treatment period was 39 months. The maxillary and mandibular third molars on both sides successfully replaced the first and second molars. The replacement of a damaged molar by an impacted third molar is a useful treatment option for using sound teeth. PMID:26038080

  4. Anatomic Considerations in Frontal Sinus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Folbe, Adam J; Svider, Peter F; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2016-08-01

    Comprehension of the complex anatomic variants comprising the frontal sinus outflow tract is essential for successful surgical intervention. Deviation from sound technique increases the potential for a variety of deleterious sequelae, including recurrent disease as well as catastrophic intracranial and orbital injury. Furthermore, incomplete removal of elements occluding the frontal recess can result in severe stenosis that can increase the difficulty of further interventions. This review covers anatomic considerations that should be kept in mind when performing frontal sinus surgery. PMID:27329978

  5. Quantitative prediction and molar description of the environment

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M.

    1989-01-01

    Molecular explanations of behavior, based on momentary events and variables that can be measured each time an event occurs, can be contrasted with molar explanations, based on aggregates of events and variables that can be measured only over substantial periods of time. Molecular analyses cannot suffice for quantitative accounts of behavior, because the historical variables that determine behavior are inevitably molar. When molecular explanations are attempted, they always depend on hypothetical constructs that stand as surrogates for molar environmental variables. These constructs allow no quantitative predictions when they are vague, and when they are made precise, they become superfluous, because they can be replaced with molar measures. In contrast to molecular accounts of phenomena like higher responding on ratio schedules than interval schedules and free-operant avoidance, molar accounts tend to be simple and straightforward. Molar theory incorporates the notion that behavior produces consequences that in turn affect the behavior, the notion that behavior and environment together constitute a feedback system. A feedback function specifies the dependence of consequences on behavior, thereby describing properties of the environment. Feedback functions can be derived for simple schedules, complex schedules, and natural resources. A complete theory of behavior requires describing the environment's feedback functions and the organism's functional relations. Molar thinking, both in the laboratory and in the field, can allow quantitative prediction, the mark of a mature science. PMID:22478030

  6. Legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Escher, A

    1975-01-01

    The manufacture, application, use and disposal of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) may give rise to legal questions relating mainly to environmental protection and the effects on man and animals. In addition to legal aspects, certain commercial aspects such as the law of competition and the obligations of industry, including compensation for damage caused by FWAs, are discussed. PMID:1064546

  7. [Establishment of anatomical terminology in Japan].

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kazuyuki

    2008-12-01

    The history of anatomical terminology in Japan began with the publication of Waran Naikei Ihan-teimŏ in 1805 and Chŏtei Kaitai Shinsho in 1826. Although the establishment of Japanese anatomical terminology became necessary during the Meiji era when many western anatomy books imported into Janan were translated, such terminology was not unified during this period and varied among translators. In 1871, Tsukumo Ono's Kaibŏgaku Gosen was published by the Ministry of Education. Although this book is considered to be the first anatomical glossary terms in Japan, its contents were incomplete. Overseas, the German Anatomical Society established a unified anatomical terminology in 1895 called the Basle Nomina Anatomica (B.N.A.). Based on this development, Kaibŏgaku Meishŭ which follows the BNA, by Buntarŏ Suzuki was published in 1905. With the subsequent establishment in 1935 of Jena Nomina Anatomica (J.N.A.), the unification of anatomical terminology was also accelerated in Japan, leading to the further development of terminology. PMID:19108488

  8. Strong links between genomic and anatomical diversity in both mammalian olfactory chemosensory systems.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Eva C; Steiper, Michael E

    2014-05-22

    Mammalian olfaction comprises two chemosensory systems: the odorant-detecting main olfactory system (MOS) and the pheromone-detecting vomeronasal system (VNS). Mammals are diverse in their anatomical and genomic emphases on olfactory chemosensation, including the loss or reduction of these systems in some orders. Despite qualitative evidence linking the genomic evolution of the olfactory systems to specific functions and phenotypes, little work has quantitatively tested whether the genomic aspects of the mammalian olfactory chemosensory systems are correlated to anatomical diversity. We show that the genomic and anatomical variation in these systems is tightly linked in both the VNS and the MOS, though the signature of selection is different in each system. Specifically, the MOS appears to vary based on absolute organ and gene family size while the VNS appears to vary according to the relative proportion of functional genes and relative anatomical size and complexity. Furthermore, there is little evidence that these two systems are evolving in a linked fashion. The relationships between genomic and anatomical diversity strongly support a role for natural selection in shaping both the anatomical and genomic evolution of the olfactory chemosensory systems in mammals. PMID:24718758

  9. Modification of uprighting spring for derotation of second molars.

    PubMed

    Mallikarjun, Vankre; Rachala, Madhukar Reddy; Aileni, Kaladhar Reddy; Jaipal, Pyata Reddy

    2013-01-01

    One of the most efficient ways for the correction of rotated upper molars is derotation with a transpalatal arch, but this appliance is usually favourable when the need for correction is same on both sides of the dental arch. Derotation of unilateral upper second molar is a difficult task, especially when there is no accessible tooth/ any attachment is available distal to it for the application of couple forces. We have designed a modification of uprighting spring which is far more convenient than using the conventional method of TPA for derotation of unilateral upper second molar. PMID:24640073

  10. Molar heat capacity and entropy of calcium metal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemingway, B.S.; Robie, R.A.; Chase, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    The heat capacity of calcium has been measured at 85 mean temperatures between T ??? 8 K and T ??? 369 K using an adiabatically-shielded calorimeter in an intermittent heating mode. At T = 298.15 K, the recommended values for the molar heat capacity, molar entropy, and molar enthalpy increment referred to T = 0 are (25.77 ?? 0.08) J??K-1??mol-1, (42.90 ?? 0.11) J??K-1??mol-1, and (5811 ?? 12) J??mol-1, respectively. The uncertainties are twice the standard deviation of the mean. ?? 1997 Academic Press Limited.

  11. Lingual Guttering Technique for Removal of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Tejraj P; Pandit, Vikram S; Patil, Shankargouda; Pawar, Vivek; Shetty, Nisha

    2014-01-01

    Background: To assess the clinical feasibility of lingual bone guttering technique for surgical extraction of mandibular third molars. Materials and Methods: 20 patients with thick lingual cortical plate were included in the study. Surgical extraction of mandibular third molars by lingual bone guttering technique was performed in all the subjects. These subjects were evaluated for integrity of lingual cortical plate and sensation of lingual nerve postoperatively. Results: All extractions done by lingual bone guttering technique were clinically feasible to perform and no complications were seen. Conclusion: Lingual bone guttering technique can be used safely in extraction of mandibular third molars with thick lingual cortical plate. PMID:25214725

  12. [BODIES ARTIFACTS AND ANATOMICAL MODELS].

    PubMed

    Aruta, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Through three different museological approaches, diachronically arranged, the essay intends to introduce some pertinent questions related to the topic of the conference "Bodies and Anatomy: the corpses in the museums from Ruysch to Von Hagens. The first item analyzes a recent line of British museological studies, treating mainly medical British museums of the XVIII and XIX century, with intriguing developments arriving up to nowadays. A second point illustrates several aspects with regards to the donation and the arrangement of the morbid specimina Luigi Gedda collection, coming from the CSS Mendel of Rome to the Museum of Pathological Anatomy of Sapienza University of Rome. Finally, in a crossover between the previous points, it will be presented some recent studies regarding the employment of new communication technologies in the scientific and medical museology. PMID:26946593

  13. Cone-beam computed tomography analysis of the vestibular surgical pathway to the palatine root of the maxillary first molar

    PubMed Central

    Kalender, Atakan; Aksoy, Umut; Basmaci, Fatma; Orhan, Kaan; Orhan, Ayse Isil

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical distance between apices of the palatine root of the maxillary first molars to the buccal bone plate to identify the vestibular surgical pathway in a Turkish adult population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Methods: CBCT scans of 107 (48 male and 59 female) patients were retrospectively analyzed. The overall mean age was 38.6 years. The distance between the vestibular cortex and vestibular side of the palatine root was measured for 192 maxillary first molars both on axial images parallel to the palatal plane and on reformatted cross-sectional images. A Pearson’s chi square test and Mann-Whitney U-test were performed to evaluate differences among age, localization, and measurements. Differences were considered statistically significant at P<.05. Results: The mean distance between the buccal cortex and the buccal side of the palatine root of the superior first molar in both male and female patients was 10.13 and 9.70 mm, respectively. The incidence of interposition of the lateral recess of the maxillary sinus between the roots was 42.2% and 49% in men and women, respectively. Statistically significant sex-related differences were found in the vestibular surgical pathway (P<.05). Conclusions: For precise planning of endodontic surgery, it is crucial to determine the exact dimensions and location of the periapical lesion, as well as its relationship with the roots and other neighboring anatomical structures. CBCT can be a powerful tool for the evaluation of surgical cases in three dimensions with less ionizing radiation and better avoidance of complications during surgery. PMID:23408714

  14. Caries Management Strategies for Primary Molars

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, R.M.; Innes, N.P.T.; Machiulskiene, V.; Evans, D.J.P.; Splieth, C.H.

    2014-01-01

    Minimal invasive approaches to managing caries, such as partial caries removal techniques, are showing increasing evidence of improved outcomes over the conventional complete caries removal. There is also increasing interest in techniques where no caries is removed. We present the 1-yr results of clinical efficacy for 3 caries management options for occlusoproximal cavitated lesions in primary molars: conventional restorations (CR; complete caries removal and compomer restoration), Hall technique (HT; no caries removal, sealing in with stainless steel crowns), and nonrestorative caries treatment (NRCT; no caries removal, opening up the cavity, teaching brushing and fluoride application). In sum, 169 children (3-8 yr old; mean, 5.56 ± 1.45 yr) were enrolled in this secondary care–based, 3-arm, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial. Treatments were carried out by specialist pediatric dentists or postgraduate trainees. One lesion per child received CR, HT, or NRCT. Outcome measures were clinical failure rates, grouped as minor failure (restoration loss/need for replacement, reversible pulpitis, caries progression, etc.) and major failure (irreversible pulpitis, abscess, etc.). There were 148 children (87.6%) with a minimum follow-up of 11 mo (mean, 12.23 ± 0.98 mo). Twenty teeth were recorded as having at least 1 minor failure: NRCT, n = 8 (5%); CR, n = 11 (7%); HT, n = 1 (1%) (p = .002, 95% CI = 0.001 to 0.003). Only the comparison between NRCT and CR showed no significant difference (p = .79, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.80). Nine (6%) experienced at least 1 major failure: NRCT, n = 4 (2%); CR, n = 5 (3%); HT, n = 0 (0%) (p = .002, 95% CI = 0.001 to 0.003). Individual comparison of NRCT and CR showed no statistically significant difference in major failures (p = .75, 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.76). Success and failure rates were not significantly affected by pediatric dentists’ level of experience (p = .13, 95% CI = 0.12 to 0.14). The HT was significantly more successful

  15. On the Etiology of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Kup, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a condition that is defined based on its peculiar clinical presentation. Reports on the etiology of the condition and possible risk factors are inconclusive and the original suggestion that MIH is an idiopathic condition is often cited. Our group was the first to suggest MIH has a genetic component that involves genetic variation in genes expressed during dental enamel formation. In this report, we provide a rationale to explain the preferential affection of molars and incisors. We suggest that MIH is a genetic condition based on its prevalence, which varies depending on the geographic location, and the evidence that on occasion second primary molars, permanent canines, and premolars can show signs of hypomineralization of enamel when molars and incisors are affected. PMID:27111773

  16. Determining Molar Combining Ratios Using Radioisotopes--A Student Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Jerry A.

    1976-01-01

    Outlines an experimental procedure in which an iodine radioisotope is used to determine molar combining ratios of lead and silver with the iodine. Tables and graphs show the definitive results that should be attainable. (CP)

  17. A Multidisciplinary Approach for Managing Severely Malaligned Lower Molars.

    PubMed

    Keinan, David; Birnboim-Blaum, Galit; Webber, Mariel

    2016-01-01

    An impacted mandibular molar is a common clinical situation that may damage adjacent teeth and impair periodontal health. Improper treatment brings the risk of damaging adjacent vital tissues. The risk can be reduced by early diagnosis and extraction of the impacted tooth by an experienced clinician. However, in clinical cases of two impacted molars, it may be beneficial for the patient to save at least one molar. This can be achieved by orthodontic alignment of one of the molars, while extracting the other. The decision should be based upon prognosis and risks for each procedure and for both teeth. The case presented here demonstrates a recommended clinical decision-making process before treatment, followed by monitored multidisciplinary treatment with adaptations made as the treatment progresses. PMID:26939154

  18. Reanalysis of the Lukeino molar (KNM-LU 335).

    PubMed

    Ungar, P S; Walker, A; Coffing, K

    1994-06-01

    This paper details a reanalysis of KNM-LU 335, a hominoid mandibular first molar dated to about 6 Ma from the Lukeino Formation, Kenya. Researchers have argued that this molar closely resembles those of modern chimpanzees and may approximate the ancestral morphotype of humans and chimpanzees. The investigation presented here describes a morphometric study of the Lukeino molar and M1s of Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, and early australopithecines. Results indicate that KNM-LU 335 differs from both human and chimpanzee M1s in relative distances (measured in three dimensions) between crown fissure termini. Further, the Lukeino molar shares with early australopithecines a pronounced flaring of the buccal surface of the crown not seen for either modern sample. Results of this study do not exclude KNM-LU 335 as a potential ancestral morphotype for Pan and Homo but provide no evidence that this morphotype resembled modern chimpanzees. PMID:8085609

  19. Treatment of a Maxillary First Molar with Two Palatal Roots

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Vahideh; Rahimi, Saeed; Ghasemi, Negin; Talebzadeh, Bita; Norlouoni, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Thorough knowledge of the morphology and internal anatomy of the root canal system is essential, because it determines the successful outcome of endodontic treatment. The main goal of endodontic treatment is to prevent apical periodontitis and/or to promote the healing of periapical lesion. Presence of two canals or roots on the palatal side of the first maxillary molar has rarely been reported. This case report presents a maxillary first molar with two separate palatal roots. PMID:26523146

  20. Cervicothoracic Subcutaneous Emphysema and Pneumomediastinum After Third Molar Extraction.

    PubMed

    Picard, Maxime; Pham Dang, Nathalie; Mondie, Jean Michel; Barthelemy, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Third molar extraction is one of the most common interventions in dental and maxillofacial surgery. Complications are frequent and well documented, with swelling, pain, bleeding, infection, and lingual or alveolar nerve injury being the most common. This report describes a case of subcutaneous extensive emphysema and pneumomediastinum that occurred 4 days after extraction of an impacted right mandibular third molar. The management and etiology of this case and those reported in the literature are discussed. PMID:26341684

  1. Fusion or gemination? An unusual mandibular second molar

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Angela Jordão; Arita, Emiko Saito; Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha

    2015-01-01

    Fusion and gemination is not an uncommon finding and affected most primary dentition and the permanent maxillary incisors. These changes can develop a series of complication. A 11-year-old male presented radiography finding: an unusual mandibular second molar. A well-documented case brings a challenge for radiologists classify between fusion and gemination. In conclusion, this alteration although common in other regions, there are no case in the literature involving “second and third” molar. PMID:26945485

  2. The orthodontic extraction of permanent molars: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Chua, Emilia S L; Felicita, A Sumathi

    2015-05-01

    The most common cause of dental crowding is the presence of an arch-length--tooth-size discrepancy. Conventional methods of gaining space in orthodontics involve the extraction of teeth, often premolars. However, there are a number of clinical situations in which the extraction of permanent molars might be considered. This paper highlights the indications, advantages, disadvantages and timing of the extraction of the first, second and third permanent molars in the treatment of a crowded malocclusion. PMID:26219149

  3. Fusion or gemination? An unusual mandibular second molar.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Angela Jordão; Arita, Emiko Saito; Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha

    2016-01-01

    Fusion and gemination is not an uncommon finding and affected most primary dentition and the permanent maxillary incisors. These changes can develop a series of complication. A 11-year-old male presented radiography finding: an unusual mandibular second molar. A well-documented case brings a challenge for radiologists classify between fusion and gemination. In conclusion, this alteration although common in other regions, there are no case in the literature involving "second and third" molar. PMID:26945485

  4. Root canal morphology of South Asian Indian maxillary molar teeth

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shishir; Pawar, Mansing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to study the root canal morphology of South Asian Indian Maxillary molars using a tooth clearing technique. Materials and Methods: Hundred teeth each comprising of first, second, and third molars collected from different dental schools and clinics in India were subjected to standard dye penetration, decalcification and clearing procedure before being studied. Results: The first molar mesiobuccal roots exhibited 69% Type I, 24% Type II, 4% Type IV, 2% Type V, and 1% exhibited a Vertuccis Type VIII canal anatomy. In the group with three separate roots the second molar mesiobuccal roots in exhibited 80.6% Type I, 15.3% Type II, 2.7% Type IV, and 1.4% Type V canal anatomy while the third molars mesiobuccal roots exhibited 57.4% Type I, 32% Type II, 2.1% Type III, 8.5% Type IV, 1% had a Type V canal anatomy in the similar group. Conclusion: A varied root canal anatomy was seen in the mesiobuccal root canal of the maxillary molars. PMID:25713497

  5. Kissing molars extraction: Case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Arjona-Amo, Manuel; Torres-Carranza, Eusebio; Batista-Cruzado, Antonio; Serrera-Figallo, Maria-Angeles; Crespo-Torres, Santos; Belmonte-Caro, Rodolfo; Albisu-Andrade, Claudio; Gutiérrez-Pérez, José-Luis

    2016-01-01

    Kissing molars are a very rare form of inclusion defined as molars included in the same quadrant, with occlusal surfaces contacting each other within a single dental follicle. We present four cases of this pathology: a 35 year-old male, referred to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of the Hospital Virgen del Rocio in Seville, and three females of 24, 26, and 31 years, all of which had kissing molars that were treated by tooth extraction. We have found only 10 cases published in the medical literature in which this type of inclusion is briefly described, none of which elaborate on the surgical technique employed. In these cases, the indication for surgery is established when there is a history of recurring infections or cystic lesions associated with dental inclusions. The extraction of kissing molars requires an exhaustive comprehension of the anatomy of the region involved, sufficiently developed surgical abilities, and an extensive planning process. Key words:Impacted molar, kissing molar, surgical extraction. PMID:26855716

  6. Standardised studies on Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) and Hypomineralised Second Primary Molars (HSPM): a need.

    PubMed

    Elfrink, M E C; Ghanim, A; Manton, D J; Weerheijm, K L

    2015-06-01

    In November 2014, a review of literature concerning prevalence data of Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) and Hypomineralised Second Primary Molars (HSPM) was performed. A search of PubMed online databases was conducted for relevant articles published until November 2014. The reference lists of all retrieved articles were hand-searched. Studies were included after assessing the eligibility of the full-text article. Out of 1078 manuscripts, a total of 157 English written publications were selected based on title and abstract. Of these 157, 60 were included in the study and allocated as 52 MIH and 5 HSPM, and 3 for both MIH and HSPM. These studies utilised the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry judgment criteria, the modified index of developmental defects of enamel (mDDE) and self-devised criteria, and demonstrated a wide variation in the reported prevalence (MIH 2.9-44 %; HSPM 0-21.8 %). Most values mentioned were representative for specific areas. More studies were performed in cities compared with rural areas. A great variation was found in calibration methods, number of participants, number of examiners and research protocols between the studies. The majority of the prevalence studies also investigated possible aetiological factors. To compare MIH and HSPM prevalence and or aetiological data around the world, standardisation of such studies seems essential. Standardisation of the research protocol should include a clearly described sample of children (minimum number of 300 for prevalence and 1000 for aetiology studies) and use of the same calibration sets and methods whereas aetiological studies need to be prospective in nature. A standardised protocol for future MIH and HSPM prevalence and aetiology studies is recommended. PMID:25894247

  7. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  8. Anatomic considerations for central venous cannulation

    PubMed Central

    Bannon, Michael P; Heller, Stephanie F; Rivera, Mariela

    2011-01-01

    Central venous cannulation is a commonly performed procedure which facilitates resuscitation, nutritional support, and long-term vascular access. Mechanical complications most often occur during insertion and are intimately related to the anatomic relationship of the central veins. Working knowledge of surface and deep anatomy minimizes complications. Use of surface anatomic landmarks to orient the deep course of cannulating needle tracts appropriately comprises the crux of complication avoidance. The authors describe use of surface landmarks to facilitate safe placement of internal jugular, subclavian, and femoral venous catheters. The role of real-time sonography as a safety-enhancing adjunct is reviewed. PMID:22312225

  9. Anatomical variants and pathologies of the vermix

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Swati; Verde, Franco; Johnson, Pamela T.; Fishman, Elliot K.

    2015-01-01

    The appendix may demonstrate a perplexing range of normal and abnormal appearances on imaging exams. Familiarity with the anatomy and anatomical variants of the appendix is helpful in identifying the appendix on ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Knowledge of the variety of pathologies afflicting the appendix and of the spectrum of imaging findings may be particularly useful to the emergency radiologist for accurate diagnosis and appropriate guidance regarding clinical and surgical management. In this pictorial essay, we review appendiceal embryology, anatomical variants such as Amyand hernias, and pathologies from appendicitis to carcinoid, mucinous, and nonmucinous epithelial neoplasms. PMID:24570122

  10. Anatomical Considerations on Surgical Anatomy of the Carotid Bifurcation

    PubMed Central

    Michalinos, Adamantios; Chatzimarkos, Markos; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos; Safioleas, Michail

    2016-01-01

    Surgical anatomy of carotid bifurcation is of unique importance for numerous medical specialties. Despite extensive research, many aspects such as precise height of carotid bifurcation, micrometric values of carotid arteries and their branches as their diameter, length, and degree of tortuosity, and variations of proximal external carotid artery branches are undetermined. Furthermore carotid bifurcation is involved in many pathologic processes, atheromatous disease being the commonest. Carotid atheromatous disease is a major predisposing factor for disabling and possibly fatal strokes with geometry of carotid bifurcation playing an important role in its natural history. Consequently detailed knowledge of various anatomic parameters is of paramount importance not only for understanding of the disease but also for design of surgical treatment, especially selection between carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting. Carotid bifurcation paragangliomas constitute unique tumors with diagnostic accuracy, treatment design, and success of operative intervention dependent on precise knowledge of anatomy. Considering those, it becomes clear that selection and application of proper surgical therapy should consider anatomical details. Further research might ameliorate available treatment options or even lead to innovative ones. PMID:27047690

  11. Genetic integration of molar cusp size variation in baboons.

    PubMed

    Koh, Christina; Bates, Elizabeth; Broughton, Elizabeth; Do, Nicholas T; Fletcher, Zachary; Mahaney, Michael C; Hlusko, Leslea J

    2010-06-01

    Many studies of primate diversity and evolution rely on dental morphology for insight into diet, behavior, and phylogenetic relationships. Consequently, variation in molar cusp size has increasingly become a phenotype of interest. In 2007 we published a quantitative genetic analysis of mandibular molar cusp size variation in baboons. Those results provided more questions than answers, as the pattern of genetic integration did not fit predictions from odontogenesis. To follow up, we expanded our study to include data from the maxillary molar cusps. Here we report on these later analyses, as well as inter-arch comparisons with the mandibular data. We analyzed variation in two-dimensional maxillary molar cusp size using data collected from a captive pedigreed breeding colony of baboons, Papio hamadryas, housed at the Southwest National Primate Research Center. These analyses show that variation in maxillary molar cusp size is heritable and sexually dimorphic. We also estimated additive genetic correlations between cusps on the same crown, homologous cusps along the tooth row, and maxillary and mandibular cusps. The pattern for maxillary molars yields genetic correlations of one between the paracone-metacone and protocone-hypocone. Bivariate analyses of cuspal homologues on adjacent teeth yield correlations that are high or not significantly different from one. Between dental arcades, the nonoccluding cusps consistently yield high genetic correlations, especially the metaconid-paracone and metaconid-metacone. This pattern of genetic correlation does not immediately accord with the pattern of development and/or calcification, however these results do follow predictions that can be made from the evolutionary history of the tribosphenic molar. PMID:20034010

  12. Erupted complex odontoma delayed eruption of permanent molar.

    PubMed

    Ohtawa, Yumi; Ichinohe, Saori; Kimura, Eri; Hashimoto, Sadamitsu

    2013-01-01

    Odontomas, benign tumors that develop in the jaw, rarely erupt into the oral cavity. We report an erupted odontoma which delayed eruption of the first molar. The patient was a 10-year-old Japanese girl who came to our hospital due to delayed eruption of the right maxillary first molar. All the deciduous teeth had been shed. The second premolar on the right side had erupted, but not the first molar. Slight inflammation of the alveolar mucosa around the first molar had exposed a tooth-like, hard tissue. Panoramic radiography revealed a radiopaque mass indicating a lesion approximately 1 cm in diameter. The border of the image was clear, and part of the mass was situated close to the occlusal surface of the first molar. The root of the maxillary right first molar was only half-developed. A clinical diagnosis of odontoma was made. The odontoma was subsequently extracted, allowing the crown of the first molar to erupt almost 5 months later. The dental germ of the permanent tooth had been displaced by the odontoma. However, after the odontoma had been extracted, the permanent tooth was still able to erupt spontaneously, as eruptive force still remained. When the eruption of a tooth is significantly delayed, we believe that it is necessary to examine the area radiographically. If there is any radiographic evidence of a physical obstruction that might delay eruption, that obstruction should be removed before any problems can arise. Regular dental checkups at schools might improve our ability to detect evidence of delayed eruption earlier. PMID:24521551

  13. Molar Intrusion in Open-bite Adults Using Zygomatic Miniplates.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Eiman S; Abdallah, Essam Mohamed; El-Kenany, Walid A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the skeletal, dental and soft tissue changes that arise after intrusion of the maxillary molars using zygomatic miniplates in adult skeletal anterior open bite patients. In addition to measuring the amount and rate of molar intrusion; with special emphasis on changes in the axial inclination of the intruded molars. The study group was composed of 13 anterior open bite patients (mean age 18 years, 8 months ± 2 years, 2 months) with posterior dentoalveolar excess. Mini-plates were placed in the zygomatic buttress bilaterally. The upper arch was segmentally leveled and a double Trans-Palatal Arch (TPA) was bonded. Closed NiTi coil spring was placed bilaterally between the book of the mini-plate just mesial and distal to the first molar buccal tube applying intrusive force of 450 gper side. Lateral and posteroanterior cephalograms were taken before intrusion (T1: post upper segmental leveling) and after intrusion (T2). Comparison between means before and after the intrusion was done using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test (WSRT). Mandibular autorotation followed the molar intrusion, SNB and SN-Pog angles significantly increased while the ANB, MP-SN angle and N-S-Gn angle significantly decreased. The mean amount of accomplished molar intrusion was 3.1mm ± 0.74mm, with a rate of 0.36mm per month ± 0.08mm per month and a bite closure of 6.55mm ± 1.83mm. There was no significant buccal tip in the right and left molars upon intrusion. Conclusion: Miniplates zygomatic anchorage can be used effectively for skeletal open bite correction through posterior dento-alveolar intrusion. Intrusion of the posterior teeth with skeletal anchorage induced counterclockwise rotation of the mandible and, as a consequence, corrected the anteroposterior intermaxillary relationship with a dramatic improvement in the facial soft tissue convexity. PMID:26349291

  14. Genetic integration of molar cusp size variation in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Christina; Bates, Elizabeth; Broughton, Elizabeth; Do, Nicholas T.; Fletcher, Zachary; Mahaney, Michael C.; Hlusko, Leslea J.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies of primate diversity and evolution rely on dental morphology for insight into diet, behavior, and phylogenetic relationships. Consequently, variation in molar cusp size has increasingly become a phenotype of interest. In 2007 we published a quantitative genetic analysis of mandibular molar cusp size variation in baboons. Those results provided more questions than answers, as the pattern of genetic integration did not fit predictions from odontogenesis. To follow up, we expanded our study to include data from the maxillary molar cusps. Here we report on these later analyses, as well as inter-arch comparisons with the mandibular data. We analyzed variation in two-dimensional maxillary molar cusp size using data collected from a captive pedigreed breeding colony of baboons, Papio hamadryas, housed at the Southwest National Primate Research Center. These analyses show that variation in maxillary molar cusp size is heritable and sexually dimorphic. We also estimated additive genetic correlations between cusps on the same crown, homologous cusps along the tooth row, and maxillary and mandibular cusps. The pattern for maxillary molars yields genetic correlations of one between the paracone-metacone and protocone-hypocone. Bivariate analyses of cuspal homologues on adjacent teeth yield correlations that are high or not significantly different from one. Between dental arcades, the non-occluding cusps consistently yield high genetic correlations, especially the metaconid-paracone and metaconid-metacone. This pattern of genetic correlation does not immediately accord with the pattern of development and/or calcification, however these results do follow predictions that can be made from the evolutionary history of the tribosphenic molar. PMID:20034010

  15. First molar health status in different craniofacial relationships

    PubMed Central

    Linjawi, Amal I

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between the health status of permanent first molars and different craniofacial relationships among adolescents. Study design This is a retrospective study on patients’ records aged 11–15 years. Sex, skeletal relationship, vertical growth pattern, malocclusion, overjet, and overbite were assessed. The health status of permanent first molars was recorded from the orthopantomograms and intraoral photographs as “sound” and “not sound”. Chi-square, Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis tests, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used to analyze and correlate the assessed variables. Significance level was set at P<0.05. Results A total of 210 records were evaluated; 81 were male, 68 had Class I and 91 had Class II skeletal relationships. More than half of the subjects had normal (n=67) to moderate deep bite (n=72); normal (n=91), moderately increased (n=54), to severely increased (n=50) overjet; and Class I (n=106) and Class II division 1 (n=75) malocclusion. Significant differences were found in the health status of the permanent first molars with respect to sex (P=0.034), vertical growth pattern (P=0.01), and overbite (P=0.047). Strong correlations were only found between the health status of the permanent first molars and the following variables: sex (P=0.036) and vertical growth pattern (P=0.004). Significant correlation was further found between the upper left first molar health status and sex (P=0.019) and the lower right first molar health status and the vertical growth pattern (P=0.001). No significant association was found with the anteroposterior craniofacial relationships (P>0.05). Conclusion Sex difference and vertical growth patterns were found to be potential predictors of the health status of the permanent first molars. No significant association was found with the anteroposterior craniofacial relationships. PMID:27462176

  16. Effect of anatomic, semi-anatomic and non-anatomic occlusal surface tooth preparations on the adaptation of zirconia copings

    PubMed Central

    Asiri, Waleed; Hefne, Mohammed Jameel

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare the accuracy of marginal and internal adaptation of zirconia (Zr) copings fabricated on anatomic (A), semi-anatomic (SA) and non-anatomic (NA) occlusal surface preparations. MATERIALS AND METHODS 45 extracted bicuspid teeth were prepared for receiving zirconia crowns, with different occlusal preparation designs A=15, SA=15 & NA=15. The Zr copings were fabricated by using CAD4DENT, CAD/CAM. The copings were adjusted, cemented and were cross sectioned centrally from buccal cusp tip to lingual cusp tip into mesial and distal halves. The copings were examined under electron microscope at ×200 magnification and the measurements were recorded at 9 predetermined areas in micrometers. RESULTS Overall mean gap values for the three groups was found to be 155.93±33.98 µm with Anatomical Occlusal preparation design having the least gap value of 139.23±30.85 µm showing the best adaptation among the groups. Post Hoc Tukey's test showed a statistically significant difference (P=.007) between the means of gap for A & NA preparation designs. Measurements recorded at 9 predetermined points showed variations for the three groups. CONCLUSION Anatomical occlusal preparation designs resulted in better marginal and internal adaptation of Zr copings. There is a considerable variation between the measured marginal and internal gap values for the Zr copings fabricated by the (CAD4DENT-CAD/CAM). This variation may be associated with the lack of standardization of the preparation of teeth, computerized designing of the coping for each tooth, cement used, uniform pressure application during the cementation of the copings, sectioning of the copings and the microscopic measurements. PMID:25551003

  17. Anatomic Variant of Liver, Gall Bladder and Inferior Vena Cava

    PubMed Central

    Gladwin, V.; Chand, Parkash

    2016-01-01

    The morphology and relations of liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava are cardinal. Their anatomical variations may be a reason for the adverse surgical outcome. During routine anatomy dissection of an abdomen, we noticed a variant liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava in a 63-year-old male cadaver. In the specimen, a retrohepatic segment of inferior vena cava was found to be intrahepatic. On dissection, it was observed that inferior vena cava was covered entirely by a liver tissue on its dorsal aspect. In the same specimen, the gall bladder had undulated inferior surface. On dissection of the gall bladder, numerous mucosal folds were present in the interior. A band of fibrous tissue was found, which was extending from the right side of the gall bladder to the falciform ligament. Hence, preoperative scanning of congenital variations of the liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava may be compassionate in planning safe surgeries and interventional abdominal procedures.

  18. Giving Ourselves: The Ethics of Anatomical Donation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderman, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    In some European countries, such as Italy, medical education is threatened by a dearth of anatomical specimens. Such a shortage could spread to other nations, including the United States. This article addresses two ethical questions in body donation. Why might people choose to donate their bodies to education and science? What sorts of ethical…

  19. HPV Vaccine Effective at Multiple Anatomic Sites

    Cancer.gov

    A new study from NCI researchers finds that the HPV vaccine protects young women from infection with high-risk HPV types at the three primary anatomic sites where persistent HPV infections can cause cancer. The multi-site protection also was observed at l

  20. Evolution of the Anatomical Theatre in Padova

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Stecco, Carla; Caro, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    The anatomical theatre played a pivotal role in the evolution of medical education, allowing students to directly observe and participate in the process of dissection. Due to the increase of training programs in clinical anatomy, the Institute of Human Anatomy at the University of Padova has renovated its dissecting room. The main guidelines in…

  1. Requirement of alveolar bone formation for eruption of rat molars.

    PubMed

    Wise, Gary E; He, Hongzhi; Gutierrez, Dina L; Ring, Sherry; Yao, Shaomian

    2011-10-01

    Tooth eruption is a localized event that requires a dental follicle (DF) to regulate the resorption of alveolar bone to form an eruption pathway. During the intra-osseous phase of eruption, the tooth moves through this pathway. The mechanism or motive force that propels the tooth through this pathway is controversial but many studies have shown that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt occurs during eruption. To determine if this bone growth (osteogenesis) was causal, experiments were designed in which the expression of an osteogenic gene in the DF, bone morphogenetic protein-6 (Bmp6), was inhibited by injection of the first mandibular molar of the rat with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted against Bmp6. The injection was followed by electroporation to promote uptake of the siRNA. In 45 first molars injected, eruption was either delayed or completely inhibited (seven molars). In the impacted molars, an eruption pathway formed but bone growth at the base of the crypt was greatly reduced compared with the erupted first-molar controls. These studies show that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt is required for tooth eruption and that Bmp6 may be essential for promoting this growth. PMID:21896048

  2. Requirement of alveolar bone formation for eruption of rat molars

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Gary E.; He, Hongzhi; Gutierrez, Dina L.; Ring, Sherry; Yao, Shaomian

    2011-01-01

    Tooth eruption is a localized event that requires a dental follicle (DF) to regulate the resorption of alveolar bone to form an eruption pathway. During the intra-osseous phase of eruption, the tooth moves through this pathway. The mechanism or motive force that propels the tooth through this pathway is controversial but many studies have shown that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt occurs during eruption. To determine if this bone growth (osteogenesis) was causal, experiments were designed in which the expression of an osteogenic gene in the DF, bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP6), was inhibited by injection of the 1st mandibular molar of the rat with an siRNA targeted against BMP6. The injection was followed by electroporation to promote uptake of the siRNA. In 45 first molars injected, eruption either was delayed or completely inhibited (7 molars). In the impacted molars, an eruption pathway formed but bone growth at the base of the crypt was greatly reduced as compared to the erupted first molar controls. These studies show that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt is required for tooth eruption and that BMP6 may be an essential gene for promoting this growth. PMID:21896048

  3. Orthodontic band retention on primary molar stainless steel crowns.

    PubMed

    Beemer, R L; Ferracane, J L; Howard, H E

    1993-01-01

    The retention of orthodontic bands cemented on primary molar stainless steel crowns (SSC) was studied in vitro. Unitek maxillary and mandibular 1st and 2nd primary molar SSC were fitted with one of four commonly used orthodontic bands (Unitek regular, Unitek narrow, Rocky Mountain, or custom bands made from SSC) using glass ionomer cement. The cemented samples were tested for their resistance to dislodgment on the Instron Universal Testing Machine (Instron Engineering Corp., Canton, MA) in tensile mode. Alpha level for statistical significance was set at alpha = 0.05. Unitek regular bands cemented on the 2nd molar crowns and Unitek narrow bands cemented on the 1st molar crown samples had equivalent or superior resistance to dislodgment compared with the other bands in the study. When the inside of the band and the outside band-bearing surfaces of selected crowns were lightly scored with a diamond bur prior to cementation, samples exhibited significantly superior retention. Subgroup means increased from 107 to 330%, compared to the values obtained in their preroughened state. The mean values obtained using the roughened band/crown interface technique (range 52.9 +/- 7.6 to 73.6 +/- 8.4 lbs) compared favorably with retention values from the literature for orthodontic bands cemented on permanent molar and premolar teeth. PMID:8153003

  4. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition.

    PubMed

    Patil, Raju Umaji; Prakash, Amit; Agarwal, Anshu

    2016-01-01

    Early and timely pedo-orthodontic treatment is aimed at eliminating the disturbances of skeletal or dentoalveolar development, to harmonize the stomatognathic system before the full eruption of all permanent teeth. The advantages of pendulum appliance are its minimal dependence on patient's compliance (child cooperation), ease of fabrication, onetime activation and adjustment of the springs if necessary to correct minor transverse and vertical molar positions. This article reports a successful treatment method of class II malocclusion with pendulum appliance in mixed dentition phase. Distalization of maxillary molar was done, followed by guidance of canine impaction orthodontically and other dental correction using 0.022 MBT appliances. Posttreatment results were stable and remarkable. How to cite this article: Patil RU, Prakash A, Agarwal A. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):67-73. PMID:27274159

  5. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Amit; Agarwal, Anshu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Early and timely pedo-orthodontic treatment is aimed at eliminating the disturbances of skeletal or dentoalveolar development, to harmonize the stomatognathic system before the full eruption of all permanent teeth. The advantages of pendulum appliance are its minimal dependence on patient’s compliance (child cooperation), ease of fabrication, onetime activation and adjustment of the springs if necessary to correct minor transverse and vertical molar positions. This article reports a successful treatment method of class II malocclusion with pendulum appliance in mixed dentition phase. Distalization of maxillary molar was done, followed by guidance of canine impaction orthodontically and other dental correction using 0.022 MBT appliances. Posttreatment results were stable and remarkable. How to cite this article: Patil RU, Prakash A, Agarwal A. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):67-73. PMID:27274159

  6. Aberration in the palatal root of the maxillary first molar

    PubMed Central

    Rajalbandi, Sandeep; Shingte, Sandhya Narayan; Sundaresh, K J; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology is essential for the endodontic therapy. Variations in the root and root canal morphology, especially in multirooted teeth, are a constant challenge for diagnosis and management. The dentist needs to be familiar with the various root canal configurations and their variations for successful endodontic therapy. There are rare variations in canal number and configuration in maxillary molars, which could affect treatment outcome. Two lingual root structures are occasionally found on human permanent maxillary molars. One of these is the normal lingual root, which is always present, the other is a supernumerary structure which can be located either mesiolingually (radix mesiolingualis) or distolingually (radix distolingualis). The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and to demonstrate a case report which describes the successful non-surgical endodontic management of an unusual maxillary first molar with four separate roots and four canals. PMID:23632609

  7. Radicular anatomy of permanent mandibular second molars in an Iranian population: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Nahid M.; Abbas, Fatemeh Mashadi; Mohammadi, Mostafa; Shamloo, Mohammad Reza Karami; Radmehr, Orkideh; Kaviani, Ramin; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Root morphology is of utmost importance to endodontic sciences. Since there are a few studies on the morphology of mandibular second molars' roots, and some anatomical variables are not evaluated before, the aim of this study was to investigate thoroughly radicular anatomy of this tooth. Materials and Methods: This ex vivo study was performed on 150 intact mandibular second molars. After access cavity preparation and ensuring canal patency, Indian ink was injected into root canals from the orifices. The teeth became transparent using methyl salicylate storage. Then, they were inspected by an endodontist under a ×10 stereomicroscope regarding numerous root morphological variables. Data were analyzed using chi-square test and analysis of variance (α = 0.05). Results: About 86.7% of teeth had two roots and 13.3% were single-rooted (P = 0.0001), of which, 50% were C-shaped (6.7% of all teeth, P = 0.0001). 86.7% of mesial roots were double canalled, whereas 75.3% of distal roots were single canalled (P = 0.0001). 71.45% and 95.3% of the mesial and distal roots had one apical foramen, respectively (P = 0.0001). Apical foramens were mostly central followed by lingual in most cases. Distances between apical foramen and apical constriction ranged between 0.27 and 0.40 mm (P = 0.0545). Distances between apical foramen and root apices ranged between 0.30 and 0.47 mm (P = 0.0001). Vertucci classifications of mesial canals were Type II in 62.6% and Type IV in 37.4%. 86.2% of single-canal distal roots were Type I. 66.7% of double-canal distal roots were Type II and 33.3% were Type IV (P = 0.0001). The mean root lengths from cervical to apex of mesial, distal, and single roots were 14.02 ± 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 13.87–14.17), 13.35 ± 0.91 (95% CI = 13.19–13.50), and 14.25 ± 0.72 mm (95% CI = 13.91–14.58), respectively. The extents of canal curvatures varied between 20° and 31° buccolingually (P = 0.0000), and between 19° and 27

  8. Molar enamel thickness and dentine horn height in Gigantopithecus blacki.

    PubMed

    Olejniczak, A J; Smith, T M; Wang, W; Potts, R; Ciochon, R; Kullmer, O; Schrenk, F; Hublin, J-J

    2008-01-01

    Absolutely thick molar enamel is consistent with large body size estimates and dietary inferences about Gigantopithecus blacki, which focus on tough or fibrous vegetation. In this study, 10 G. blacki molars demonstrating various stages of attrition were imaged using high-resolution microtomography. Three-dimensional average enamel thickness and relative enamel thickness measurements were recorded on the least worn molars within the sample (n = 2). Seven molars were also virtually sectioned through the mesial cusps and two-dimensional enamel thickness and dentine horn height measurements were recorded. Gigantopithecus has the thickest enamel of any fossil or extant primate in terms of absolute thickness. Relative (size-scaled) measures of enamel thickness, however, support a thick characterization (i.e., not "hyper-thick"); G. blacki relative enamel thickness overlaps slightly with Pongo and completely with Homo. Gigantopithecus blacki dentine horns are relatively short, similar to (but shorter than) those of Pongo, which in turn are shorter than those of humans and African apes. Gigantopithecus blacki molar enamel (and to a lesser extent, that of Pongo pygmaeus) is distributed relatively evenly across the occlusal surface compared with the more complex distribution of enamel thickness in Homo sapiens. The combination of evenly distributed occlusal enamel and relatively short dentine horns in G. blacki results in a flat and low-cusped occlusal surface suitable to grinding tough or fibrous food objects. This suite of molar morphologies is also found to varying degrees in Pongo and Sivapithecus, but not in African apes and humans, and may be diagnostic of subfamily Ponginae. PMID:17941103

  9. Sex assessment by molar odontometrics in North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Ramandeep Singh; Manchanda, Adesh S.; Singh, Balwinder

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Human identification is based on scientific principles, mainly involving dental records, fingerprints, estimation of age, postmortem reports, differentiation by blood groups, and DNA comparisons. Sex assessment is one of the prime factors employed to assist with the identification of an individual. Aims and Objective: To investigate univariate sex differences in the dimensions of permanent first molars and to assess sex, based on buccolingual (BL) and mesiodistal (MD) dimensions of permanent first molars in a population of north India. In addition, the study intended to evaluate the reliability of dimensional variation of these teeth in assessment of sex among the population. Materials and Methods: The study sample consists of 410 adult individuals (200 males and 210 females), from a north Indian population. The BL and MD diameters of the permanent first molars were measured using digital vernier callipers. Results: It was observed statistically significant difference between males and females with P < 0.05, in maxillary casts in both BL and MD dimensions; but only in the MD dimension in mandibular casts. A high level of sexual dimorphism of 7.7% was found in the BL dimension of the maxillary right first molar. The accuracy of sex assessment by each dimension was deliberated by univariate analyses with an overall accuracy ranging from 67.5 to 88% for various dimensions. Conclusion: Sexual dimorphism of teeth is population specific and among north Indian population, BL and MD dimensions in maxillary first molar and MD dimension in mandibular first molar can be used for sex assessment. PMID:25709321

  10. Historical evolution of anatomical terminology from ancient to modern.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2007-06-01

    The historical development of anatomical terminology from the ancient to the modern can be divided into five stages. The initial stage is represented by the oldest extant anatomical treatises by Galen of Pergamon in the Roman Empire. The anatomical descriptions by Galen utilized only a limited number of anatomical terms, which were essentially colloquial words in the Greek of this period. In the second stage, Vesalius in the early 16th century described the anatomical structures in his Fabrica with the help of detailed magnificent illustrations. He coined substantially no anatomical terms, but devised a system that distinguished anatomical structures with ordinal numbers. The third stage of development in the late 16th century was marked by innovation of a large number of specific anatomical terms especially for the muscles, vessels and nerves. The main figures at this stage were Sylvius in Paris and Bauhin in Basel. In the fourth stage between Bauhin and the international anatomical terminology, many anatomical textbooks were written mainly in Latin in the 17th century, and in modern languages in the 18th and 19th centuries. Anatomical terms for the same structure were differently expressed by different authors. The last stage began at the end of the 19th century, when the first international anatomical terminology in Latin was published as Nomina anatomica. The anatomical terminology was revised repeatedly until the current Terminologia anatomica both in Latin and English. PMID:17585563

  11. Anatomical calibration for wearable motion capture systems: Video calibrated anatomical system technique.

    PubMed

    Bisi, Maria Cristina; Stagni, Rita; Caroselli, Alessio; Cappello, Angelo

    2015-08-01

    Inertial sensors are becoming widely used for the assessment of human movement in both clinical and research applications, thanks to their usability out of the laboratory. This work aims to propose a method for calibrating anatomical landmark position in the wearable sensor reference frame with an ease to use, portable and low cost device. An off-the-shelf camera, a stick and a pattern, attached to the inertial sensor, compose the device. The proposed technique is referred to as video Calibrated Anatomical System Technique (vCAST). The absolute orientation of a synthetic femur was tracked both using the vCAST together with an inertial sensor and using stereo-photogrammetry as reference. Anatomical landmark calibration showed mean absolute error of 0.6±0.5 mm: these errors are smaller than those affecting the in-vivo identification of anatomical landmarks. The roll, pitch and yaw anatomical frame orientations showed root mean square errors close to the accuracy limit of the wearable sensor used (1°), highlighting the reliability of the proposed technique. In conclusion, the present paper proposes and preliminarily verifies the performance of a method (vCAST) for calibrating anatomical landmark position in the wearable sensor reference frame: the technique is low time consuming, highly portable, easy to implement and usable outside laboratory. PMID:26077101

  12. Procedures to recover DNA from pre-molar and molar teeth of decomposed cadavers with different post-mortem intervals.

    PubMed

    Raimann, Paulo E; Picanço, Juliane B; Silva, Deborah S B S; Albuquerque, Trícia C K; Paludo, Francis Jackson O; Alho, Clarice S

    2012-11-01

    A task-force to resolve 26 pending forensic caseworks was carried out. We tested four different protocols to extract DNA from molar and pre-molar teeth from 26 cadavers with post-mortem intervals from 2 months to 12 years. We compared the amount of DNA and DNA profiles with the time elapsed between death and laboratory procedures. Molar or pre-molar teeth were removed from the corpses, cleaned, and DNA was extracted using 2 or 12h of incubation on lysis buffer and filtered using concentration column or precipitated with isopropanol. DNA profiles were obtained using PowerPlex16™ System PCR Amplification Kit, AmpFlSTR(®) Yfiler™ and/or mtDNA sequencing. Complete DNA profiles comparison and statistical evaluation allowed unambiguous identification of the 26 victims. No significant differences were observed in the amount of DNA obtained with the distinct incubation times. The use of concentration column resulted in an increased amount of DNA when compared to isopropanol. However, the lower concentration of DNA obtained with isopropanol seemed to have been compensated by the higher purity. No significant differences in the number of amplified loci were found. A non-significant tendency was found between the amount of total DNA recovered and the time elapsed between death and laboratory procedures. The increase of post-mortem time did not interfere in the analysed autosomal loci. In conclusion, molar and pre-molar teeth were shown to be good candidates to obtain satisfactory DNA profiles, suggesting the high potential of tooth samples as source for DNA typing independently of the decomposed corpse's time or laboratory procedures. PMID:23040740

  13. Detection and management of a complex canal configuration in mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molar using three dimensional imaging.

    PubMed

    Deepa, Velagala L; Bollu, Indira Priyadharsini; Dhamaraju, Bhargavi; Yadla, Padmasri

    2016-04-01

    This case report discusses the identification and management of complex canal configuration of 3-2-1 in the mesiobuccal (MB) root of the maxillary left first molar. Careful attention to details of the pulpal floor and applying the knowledge of the laws of orifice location along with deepening the subpulpal groove with ultrasonic tips helped in identifying the three MB canals. Manual scouting helped in understanding the anatomic configuration; the use of three-dimensional imaging technique and spiral computed tomography (SCT) confirmed the same. SCT images showed buccolingually wide and bulbous mesiobuccal root with three separate canals at coronal third that merged into two canals in the middle and exited as a single canal at the apex. This article highlights the role of SCT in three-dimensionally analyzing the unseen rarest canal configurations that ultimately enabled the clinician to thoroughly explore, debride, and obturate the entire root canal system. PMID:27195233

  14. Detection and management of a complex canal configuration in mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molar using three dimensional imaging

    PubMed Central

    Deepa, Velagala L.; Bollu, Indira Priyadharsini; Dhamaraju, Bhargavi; Yadla, Padmasri

    2016-01-01

    This case report discusses the identification and management of complex canal configuration of 3-2-1 in the mesiobuccal (MB) root of the maxillary left first molar. Careful attention to details of the pulpal floor and applying the knowledge of the laws of orifice location along with deepening the subpulpal groove with ultrasonic tips helped in identifying the three MB canals. Manual scouting helped in understanding the anatomic configuration; the use of three-dimensional imaging technique and spiral computed tomography (SCT) confirmed the same. SCT images showed buccolingually wide and bulbous mesiobuccal root with three separate canals at coronal third that merged into two canals in the middle and exited as a single canal at the apex. This article highlights the role of SCT in three-dimensionally analyzing the unseen rarest canal configurations that ultimately enabled the clinician to thoroughly explore, debride, and obturate the entire root canal system. PMID:27195233

  15. Integrating anatomical pathology to the healthcare enterprise.

    PubMed

    Daniel-Le Bozec, Christel; Henin, Dominique; Fabiani, Bettina; Bourquard, Karima; Ouagne, David; Degoulet, Patrice; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    For medical decisions, healthcare professionals need that all required information is both correct and easily available. We address the issue of integrating anatomical pathology department to the healthcare enterprise. The pathology workflow from order to report, including specimen process and image acquisition was modeled. Corresponding integration profiles were addressed by expansion of the IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) initiative. Implementation using respectively DICOM Structured Report (SR) and DICOM Slide-Coordinate Microscopy (SM) was tested. The two main integration profiles--pathology general workflow and pathology image workflow--rely on 13 transactions based on HL7 or DICOM standard. We propose a model of the case in anatomical pathology and of other information entities (orders, image folders and reports) and real-world objects (specimen, tissue samples, slides, etc). Cases representation in XML schemas, based on DICOM specification, allows producing DICOM image files and reports to be stored into a PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System. PMID:17108550

  16. Detection of environmental effects through anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Miller, R W

    1985-01-01

    Anatomic pathology has produced considerable knowledge about environmental teratogens and carcinogens. A special disease registry established by a pathologist provided details of the association between oral contraceptives and hepatic neoplams. Pathologists were also involved in establishing in the link between diethylstilbestrol use and clear-cell adenocarcinomas of the vagina. An area of particular interest has been gender and ethnic differences in the incidence of certain diseases. Pathologists further make use of animal studies to investigate the pathogenesis of human tumors. Finally, stored serum or tissue is often used by pathologists to help diagnose diseases retrospectively. Human skin fibroblasts grown in culture and stored have been especially valuable for laboratory research. This chapter briefly highlights some of the milestones in the detection of enviromental effects through anatomic pathology. PMID:2997598

  17. Anatomic pathology laboratory information systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung Lyung; Pantanowitz, Liron; Sharma, Gaurav; Parwani, Anil Vasdev

    2012-03-01

    The modern anatomic pathology laboratory depends on a reliable information infrastructure to register specimens, record gross and microscopic findings, regulate laboratory workflow, formulate and sign out report(s), disseminate them to the intended recipients across the whole health system, and support quality assurance measures. This infrastructure is provided by the Anatomical Pathology Laboratory Information Systems (APLIS), which have evolved over decades and now are beginning to support evolving technologies like asset tracking and digital imaging. As digital pathology transitions from "the way of the future" to "the way of the present," the APLIS continues to be one of the key effective enablers of the scope and practice of pathology. In this review, we discuss the evolution, necessary components, architecture and functionality of the APLIS that are crucial to today's practicing pathologist and address the demands of emerging trends on the future APLIS. PMID:22313836

  18. The Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, M. P.; Yucker, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    A computerized anatomical man (CAM) model, representing the most detailed and anatomically correct geometrical model of the human body yet prepared, has been developed for use in analyzing radiation dose distribution in man. This model of a 50-percentile standing USAF man comprises some 1100 unique geometric surfaces and some 2450 solid regions. Internal body geometry such as organs, voids, bones, and bone marrow are explicitly modeled. A computer program called CAMERA has also been developed for performing analyses with the model. Such analyses include tracing rays through the CAM geometry, placing results on magnetic tape in various forms, collapsing areal density data from ray tracing information to areal density distributions, preparing cross section views, etc. Numerous computer drawn cross sections through the CAM model are presented.

  19. Endoscopic Ankle Lateral Ligament Graft Anatomic Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Michels, Frederick; Cordier, Guillaume; Guillo, Stéphane; Stockmans, Filip

    2016-09-01

    Chronic instability is a common complication of lateral ankle sprains. If nonoperative treatment fails, a surgical repair or reconstruction may be indicated. Today, endoscopic techniques to treat ankle instability are becoming more popular. This article describes an endoscopic technique, using a step-by-step approach, to reconstruct the ATFL and CFL with a gracilis graft. The endoscopic technique is reproducible and safe with regard to the surrounding anatomic structures. Short and midterm results confirm the benefits of this technique. PMID:27524711

  20. Quantifying anatomical shape variations in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nikhil; Fletcher, P Thomas; Preston, J Samuel; King, Richard D; Marron, J S; Weiner, Michael W; Joshi, Sarang

    2014-04-01

    We develop a multivariate analysis of brain anatomy to identify the relevant shape deformation patterns and quantify the shape changes that explain corresponding variations in clinical neuropsychological measures. We use kernel Partial Least Squares (PLS) and formulate a regression model in the tangent space of the manifold of diffeomorphisms characterized by deformation momenta. The scalar deformation momenta completely encode the diffeomorphic changes in anatomical shape. In this model, the clinical measures are the response variables, while the anatomical variability is treated as the independent variable. To better understand the "shape-clinical response" relationship, we also control for demographic confounders, such as age, gender, and years of education in our regression model. We evaluate the proposed methodology on the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database using baseline structural MR imaging data and neuropsychological evaluation test scores. We demonstrate the ability of our model to quantify the anatomical deformations in units of clinical response. Our results also demonstrate that the proposed method is generic and generates reliable shape deformations both in terms of the extracted patterns and the amount of shape changes. We found that while the hippocampus and amygdala emerge as mainly responsible for changes in test scores for global measures of dementia and memory function, they are not a determinant factor for executive function. Another critical finding was the appearance of thalamus and putamen as most important regions that relate to executive function. These resulting anatomical regions were consistent with very high confidence irrespective of the size of the population used in the study. This data-driven global analysis of brain anatomy was able to reach similar conclusions as other studies in Alzheimer's disease based on predefined ROIs, together with the identification of other new patterns of deformation. The

  1. Absence of multiple premolars and ankylosis of deciduous molar with cant of the occlusal plane treated using skeletal anchorage.

    PubMed

    Farret, Marcel M; Farret, Milton M B

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosis and the absence of premolars are two relatively common conditions encountered in the field of orthodontics. However, the absence of multiple premolars, particularly two adjacent premolars, along with ankylosis of deciduous teeth, is unusual. Herein, we present a case report and discuss some aspects related to these abnormalities. A 15-year-old boy was missing the upper right first and second premolars and the lower right and left second premolars. In addition, the deciduous lower left second molar was ankylosed and in infraocclusion, causing canting of the occlusal plane. The patient was treated with a mini-implant to correct the Class II malocclusion on the left side and a miniplate to correct the cant of the occlusal plan. After treatment, the upper right space was kept closed, with the canine in contact with the first molar, and the lower left space was opened to an implant-prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:24901068

  2. Engineering anatomically shaped human bone grafts

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Warren L.; Fröhlich, Mirjam; Yeager, Keith; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Chan, M. Ete; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Wan, Leo Q.; Liu, X. Sherry; Guo, X. Edward; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    The ability to engineer anatomically correct pieces of viable and functional human bone would have tremendous potential for bone reconstructions after congenital defects, cancer resections, and trauma. We report that clinically sized, anatomically shaped, viable human bone grafts can be engineered by using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and a “biomimetic” scaffold-bioreactor system. We selected the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condylar bone as our tissue model, because of its clinical importance and the challenges associated with its complex shape. Anatomically shaped scaffolds were generated from fully decellularized trabecular bone by using digitized clinical images, seeded with hMSCs, and cultured with interstitial flow of culture medium. A bioreactor with a chamber in the exact shape of a human TMJ was designed for controllable perfusion throughout the engineered construct. By 5 weeks of cultivation, tissue growth was evidenced by the formation of confluent layers of lamellar bone (by scanning electron microscopy), markedly increased volume of mineralized matrix (by quantitative microcomputer tomography), and the formation of osteoids (histologically). Within bone grafts of this size and complexity cells were fully viable at a physiologic density, likely an important factor of graft function. Moreover, the density and architecture of bone matrix correlated with the intensity and pattern of the interstitial flow, as determined in experimental and modeling studies. This approach has potential to overcome a critical hurdle—in vitro cultivation of viable bone grafts of complex geometries—to provide patient-specific bone grafts for craniofacial and orthopedic reconstructions. PMID:19820164

  3. Management of Six Root Canals in Mandibular First Molar

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Fabio de Almeida; Sousa, Bruno Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough cleaning, shaping, and obturation of the root canal system. This clinical case describes conventional root canal treatment of an unusual mandibular first molar with six root canals. The prognosis for endodontic treatment in teeth with abnormal morphology is unfavorable if the clinician fails to recognize extra root canals. PMID:25685156

  4. The effect of dexamethasone on neurapraxia following third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Von Arx, D P; Simpson, M T

    1989-12-01

    A double blind, controlled trial was undertaken to assess the effect of intra-muscular dexamethasone on neurapraxia following the surgical removal of mandibular third molars. No significant difference was found 24 h post-operatively between a control group and a group given dexamethasone. PMID:2597658

  5. Survival rates of porcelain molar crowns-an update.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Amr Shebl; Atta, Osama; El-Mowafy, Omar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify recent studies that dealt with the clinical performance of porcelain molar crowns and to explore the possibility of grouping the findings from similar studies together to draw overall conclusions. A MEDLINE literature search was conducted in early 2009 covering the preceding 12 years. Seventeen studies were indentified. However, only seven met the specific inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Among seven studies, five European countries were covered. Five studies reported on Procera AllCeram molar crowns while one reported on In-Ceram Alumina and Spinell crowns and another on CEREC crowns. For comparison, one additional study that reported on premolar crowns was included. In the five Procera AllCeram studies, 235 molar crowns were evaluated for 5 or more years, of which 24 failed. When the results of the five studies on the performance of Procera AllCeram molar crowns were considered collectively, an overall failure rate of 10.2% was found at 5 or more years. Int J Prosthodont 2010;23:60-62. PMID:20234895

  6. A cervical ectopic masquerading as a molar pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Masir, N; Tamby, M R; Jamil, M A

    2000-03-01

    We report a case of cervical pregnancy complicated by life threatening hemorrhage. An initial diagnosis of molar pregnancy was made preoperatively. During uterine evacuation she developed profuse hemorrhage which required an emergency hysterectomy for uncontrolled bleeding. Histopathological examination confirmed a cervical pregnancy. The clinical and pathological criteria for the diagnosis and the etiology of cervical pregnancy are discussed. PMID:11072500

  7. Anterior tympanic plate fracture following extraction of the lower molar

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The present case report describes an external auditory canal injury following extraction of the lower molar. The external auditory canal was torn in the same fashion that occurs in an anterior tympanic plate fracture. This case demonstrates one of the rare complications associated with dental extractions. PMID:26904496

  8. Intrusion of overerupted molars by corticotomy and magnets.

    PubMed

    Hwang, H S; Lee, K H

    2001-08-01

    Although posterior tooth intrusion in an adult patient is a difficult procedure, it can be achieved without extruding the adjacent teeth by performing a corticotomy and using magnets. In carrying out this procedure on 2 adult patients whose molars had overerupted due to the early loss of antagonists, tooth movement was rapidly achieved without discomfort or side effects. PMID:11500664

  9. A Time for Heresy: A Molar Reading Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Leon E.

    A survey of the literature concerning the mental processes used in reading reveals a proliferation of molecular theories which explain only a small (and frequently neurological) component of the reading act. Enough information exists, however, to sketch an integrated, molar model of the reading process, which stresses the interrelationships…

  10. Non-compliance Appliances for Upper Molar Distalization: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Noorollahian, Saeed; Alavi, Shiva; Shirban, Farinaz

    2015-01-01

    Tooth Size Arch-length Discrepancy (TSALD) is a common problem in orthodontics. Its clinical signs are tooth crowding, impaction and incisor proclination. The treatment options are dental arch expansion or tooth mass reduction (stripping or extraction). The "extraction versus non-extraction" controversy has been widely debated in the orthodontic literature. Distalization is a kind of arch expansion in anetro-posterior dimension. Several studies have evaluated both the therapeutic effectiveness and the side effects of the appliances for this method of space gaining. In some cases molar distalization is preferred, e.g., a patient with acceptable profile and skeletal pattern and half cusp Class II molar malocclusion or even less. In some cases molar distalization is the only way, e.g., the patient with previous upper premolar extraction and excessive overijet, or a skeletal Class III patient with previous upper premolar extraction needed upper anterior teeth retraction to create reverse overjet aspre surgical orthodontic decompensation. In this review article, we described non-compliance upper molar distalizing appliances. PMID:26720949

  11. Determination of sexual dimorphism via maxillary first molar teeth in Himachali population

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Swati; Gupta, Rakhi; Puri, Abhiney; Bansal, Sucheta; Singla, Smita; Nangia, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    Context: Sex determination of skeletal remains forms part of archaeological and medicolegal examinations. It is an aspect of forensic odontology. Forensic odontology primarily deals with identification, based on recognition of unique features present in an individual's dental structures. Correct sex determination limits the pool of missing persons to just one half of the population. Aim of Study: Purpose of this study is to evaluate the existence of sexual dimorphism and variation in left and right maxillary first molars using bucco-lingual and mesio-distal dimensions in population of Sirmour District, H.P. Materials and Methods: Base sample comprised 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females) of an age group ranging from 17 to 25 years. Statistical Analysis Used: Unpaired t-test. Results: It was observed that the comparison of mean values of bucco-lingual and mesio-distal parameters showed highly statistically significant differences between males and females, measured both intraorally and on study casts. There were no significant differences between the mean values of both the parameters on the left side as compared to right side. Conclusion: The study concludes that sexual dimorphism is population specific. Among Himachali people, mesio-distal dimensions and bucco-lingual dimensions of first molar can aid in sex determination. PMID:26005295

  12. Human cochlea: anatomical characteristics and their relevance for cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Rask-Andersen, Helge; Liu, Wei; Erixon, Elsa; Kinnefors, Anders; Pfaller, Kristian; Schrott-Fischer, Annelies; Glueckert, Rudolf

    2012-11-01

    This is a review of the anatomical characteristics of human cochlea and the importance of variations in this anatomy to the process of cochlear implantation (CI). Studies of the human cochlea are essential to better comprehend the physiology and pathology of man's hearing. The human cochlea is difficult to explore due to its vulnerability and bordering capsule. Inner ear tissue undergoes quick autolytic changes making investigations of autopsy material difficult, even though excellent results have been presented over time. Important issues today are novel inner ear therapies including CI and new approaches for inner ear pharmacological treatments. Inner ear surgery is now a reality, and technical advancements in the design of electrode arrays and surgical approaches allow preservation of remaining structure/function in most cases. Surgeons should aim to conserve cochlear structures for future potential stem cell and gene therapies. Renewal interest of round window approaches necessitates further acquaintance of this complex anatomy and its variations. Rough cochleostomy drilling at the intricate "hook" region can generate intracochlear bone-dust-inducing fibrosis and new bone formation, which could negatively influence auditory nerve responses at a later time point. Here, we present macro- and microanatomic investigations of the human cochlea viewing the extensive anatomic variations that influence electrode insertion. In addition, electron microscopic (TEM and SEM) and immunohistochemical results, based on specimens removed at surgeries for life-threatening petroclival meningioma and some well-preserved postmortal tissues, are displayed. These give us new information about structure as well as protein and molecular expression in man. Our aim was not to formulate a complete description of the complex human anatomy but to focus on aspects clinically relevant for electric stimulation, predominantly, the sensory targets, and how surgical atraumaticity best could be

  13. Corticotomy-assisted molar protraction with the aid of temporary anchorage device.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Flavio; Janakiraman, Nandakumar; Fattal, Amine N; Schincaglia, Gian Pietro; Nanda, Ravindra

    2013-11-01

    This case report describes the interdisciplinary management of a 58-year-old woman who was missing lower first molars and supraerupted maxillary first molars. The treatment plan included intrusion of the upper first molars and corticotomy-assisted mandibular second molar protraction with the aid of temporary anchorage devices. Miniscrews were effective in intrusion of the maxillary first molars and protraction of the lower second molars. Although good functional outcome was achieved in 41 months, the corticotomy-assisted procedure did not significantly reduce the treatment time. PMID:23834274

  14. Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Evaluation and Diagnosis of Mandibular First Molar with 6 Canals

    PubMed Central

    Pasha, Shiraz; Chaitanya, Bathula Vimala; Somisetty, Kusum Valli

    2016-01-01

    Root canal treatment of tooth with aberrant root canal morphology is very challenging. So thorough knowledge of both the external and internal anatomy of teeth is an important aspect of root canal treatment. With the advancement in technology it is imperative to use modern diagnostic tools such as magnification devices, CBCT, microscopes, and RVG to confirm the presence of these aberrant configurations. However, in everyday endodontic practice, clinicians have to treat teeth with atypical configurations for root canal treatment to be successful. This case report presents the management of a mandibular first molar with six root canals, four in mesial and two in distal root, and also emphasizes the use and importance of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) as a diagnostic tool in endodontics. PMID:26904310

  15. The anatomical diaspora: evidence of early American anatomical traditions in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, Phoebe R

    2011-09-01

    The current focus in forensic anthropology on increasing scientific certainty in ancestry determination reinforces the need to examine the ancestry of skeletal remains used for osteology instruction. Human skeletal remains were discovered on the University of North Dakota campus in 2007. After recovery, the osteological examination resulted in a profile for a 33- to 46-year-old woman of African descent with stature ranging from 56.3 to 61.0 in. The pattern of postmortem damage indicated that the remains had been prepared for use as an anatomical teaching specimen. Review of the American history of anatomical teaching revealed a preference for Black subjects, which apparently extended to states like North Dakota despite extremely low resident populations of people of African descent. This study emphasizes the need to examine the ancestry of older teaching specimens that lack provenience, rather than assuming they are derived from typical (i.e., Indian) sources of anatomical material. PMID:21447074

  16. Anatomical organization of the rat organum vasculosum laminae terminalis.

    PubMed

    Prager-Khoutorsky, Masha; Bourque, Charles W

    2015-08-15

    The organum vasculosum of the laminae terminalis (OVLT) is a circumventricular organ located along the ventral part of the anterior wall of the third ventricle. Because it lacks a complete blood-brain barrier (BBB), blood-borne signals detected in the OVLT provide the brain with information from the periphery and contribute to the generation of centrally mediated responses to humoral feedback and physiological stressors. Experimental studies on the rat OVLT are hindered by a poor understanding of its precise anatomical dimensions and cellular organization. In this study, we use histological techniques to characterize the spatial outline of the rat OVLT and to examine the location of neurons, astrocytes, tanycytes, and ependymocytes within its confines. Our data reveal that OVLT neurons are embedded in a dense network of tanycyte processes. Immunostaining against the neuronal marker NeuN revealed that neurons are distributed throughout the OVLT, except for a thick midline septum, which comprises densely packed cells of unknown function or lineage. Moreover, the most ventral aspect of the OVLT is devoid of neurons and is occupied by a dense network of glial cell processes that form a thick layer between the neurons and the pial surface on the ventral aspect of the nucleus. Lastly, combined detection of NeuN and c-Fos protein following systemic injection of hypertonic NaCl revealed that neurons responsive to this stimulus are located along the entire midline core of the OVLT, extending from its most anterior ventral aspect to the more caudally located "dorsal cap" region. PMID:26017494

  17. Piezoelectric Versus Conventional Rotary Techniques for Impacted Third Molar Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qian; Qiu, Yating; Yang, Chi; Yang, Jingyun; Chen, Minjie; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Impacted third molars are frequently encountered in clinical work. Surgical removal of impacted third molars is often required to prevent clinical symptoms. Traditional rotary cutting instruments are potentially injurious, and piezosurgery, as a new osteotomy technique, has been introduced in oral and maxillofacial surgery. No consistent conclusion has been reached regarding whether this new technique is associated with fewer or less severe postoperative sequelae after third molar extraction. The aim of this study was to compare piezosurgery with rotary osteotomy techniques, with regard to surgery time and the severity of postoperative sequelae, including pain, swelling, and trismus. We conducted a systematic literature search in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar. The eligibility criteria of this study included the following: the patients were clearly diagnosed as having impacted mandibular third molars; the patients underwent piezosurgery osteotomy, and in the control group rotary osteotomy techniques, for removing impacted third molars; the outcomes of interest include surgery time, trismus, swelling or pain; the studies are randomized controlled trials. We used random-effects models to calculate the difference in the outcomes, and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. We calculated the weighted mean difference if the trials used the same measurement, and a standardized mean difference if otherwise. A total of seven studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in our analysis. Compared with rotary osteotomy, patients undergoing piezosurgery experienced longer surgery time (mean difference 4.13 minutes, 95% confidence interval 2.75–5.52, P < 0.0001). Patients receiving the piezoelectric technique had less swelling at postoperative days 1, 3, 5, and 7 (all Ps ≤0.023). Additionally, there was a trend of less postoperative pain and trismus in the piezosurgery groups. The number of included randomized controlled

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW: Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Philip M.

    2008-06-01

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  19. Exploring metameric variation in human molars: a morphological study using morphometric mapping.

    PubMed

    Morita, Wataru; Morimoto, Naoki; Ohshima, Hayato

    2016-09-01

    Human molars exhibit a type of metameric variation, which is the difference in serially repeated morphology within an organism. Various theories have been proposed to explain how this variation is brought about in the molars. Actualistic data that support the theories, however, are still relatively scarce because of methodological limitations. Here we propose new methods to analyse detailed tooth crown morphologies. We applied morphometric mapping to the enamel-dentine junction of human maxillary molars and examined whether odontogenetic models were adaptable to human maxillary molars. Our results showed that the upper first molar is phenotypically distinct among the maxillary molars. The average shape of the upper first molar is characterized by four well-defined cusps and precipitous surface relief of the occlusal table. On the other hand, upper third molar is characterized by smooth surface relief of the occlusal table and shows greater shape variation and distinct distribution patterns in morphospace. The upper second molar represents an intermediate state between first and third molar. Size-related shape variation was investigated by the allometric vector analysis, and it appeared that human maxillary molars tend to converge toward the shape of the upper first molar as the size increases. Differences between the upper first molar and the upper second and third molar can thus be largely explained as an effect of allometry. Collectively, these results indicate that the observed pattern of metameric variation in human molars is consistent with odontogenetic models of molar row structure (inhibitory cascade model) and molar crown morphology (patterning cascade model). This study shows that morphometric mapping is a useful tool to visualize and quantify the morphological features of teeth, which can provide the basis for a better understanding of tooth evolution linking morphology and development. PMID:27098351

  20. [Sigismund Laskowski and his anatomical preparations technique].

    PubMed

    Gryglewski, Ryszard W

    2015-01-01

    Fixation of the entire bodies or individual organs, and later as well tissues and cellular structures, was and still is often a challenge for anatomists and histologists. Technique that combines extensive knowledge of natural sciences, as well as technical skills, was by those best researchers as Frederik Ruysch, brought to perfection. Preparations, if done with care and talent, are really propelling progress in anatomical studies and determining the quality of education for medical students and young physicians. And as it is true for many of today's medical disciplines and natural sciences, the nineteenth century was in many ways a breaking point for preparatory techniques in the realm of anatomy and histology. Among those who have achieved success, earning notoriety during their lifetime and often going into the annals of European most distinguished scholars were some Polish names: Louis Maurice Hirschfeld, whose preparations of the nervous system earned him well-deserved, international fame, Louis Charles Teichmann, who was the very first so precisely describing the lymphatic system and a creator of unique injection mass, Henry Kadyi, known for his outstanding preparations, especially of vascular system. Henry Frederick Hoyer sen., who was one of the first to use formalin regularly for accurate microscopic preparations, is seen by many as the founder of the Polish histology. In this group of innovators and precursors of modern preparation techniques place should be reserved for Zygmunt (Sigismund) Laskowski, Polish patriot, fighting in January Uprising, later an immigrant, a professor at the university sequentially Paris and Geneva. Acclaimed author of anatomical tables and certainly creator of one of the groundbreaking techniques in anatomical preparations. Based after many years of research on the simple glycerine-phenol mixture achieved excellent results both in fixation of entire bodies and organs or tissues. Quality of those preparations was as high and

  1. Regulatory aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

  2. Jugular foramen: anatomic and computed tomographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, D.L.; Williams, A.L.; Haughton, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of the jugular foramen was examined in detail, and anatomic and CT sections were correlated. The pars nervosa and pars vascularis were identified, and, with intravenous contrast enhancement, a rapid sequence of scans at a gantry angle of +30/sup 0/ to the canthomeatal line demonstrated cranial nerves IX, X, and XI. The osseous margins of the jugular foramen were best shown by CT at planes of sections parallel and positive (0/sup 0/-30/sup 0/) to the canthomeatal line. CT can be used to evaluate osseous anatomy and the jugular foramen with precision sufficient to confidently exclude an intracanalicular mass.

  3. Anatomic Locking Plate Fixation for Scaphoid Nonunion

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Just; Sapienza, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Nonunion can occur relatively frequently after scaphoid fracture and appears to be associated with severity of injury. There have been a number of techniques described for bone grafting with or without screw fixation to facilitate fracture healing. However, even with operative fixation of scaphoid fractures with bone grafting nonunion or malunion rates of 5 to 10 percent are still reported. This is the first report of an anatomic locking plate for scaphoid fracture repair in a 25-year-old right hand dominant healthy male. PMID:27366338

  4. Effects of anatomical constraints on tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capogrosso Sansone, B.; Delsanto, P. P.; Magnano, M.; Scalerandi, M.

    2001-08-01

    Competition for available nutrients and the presence of anatomical barriers are major determinants of tumor growth in vivo. We extend a model recently proposed to simulate the growth of neoplasms in real tissues to include geometrical constraints mimicking pressure effects on the tumor surface induced by the presence of rigid or semirigid structures. Different tissues have different diffusivities for nutrients and cells. Despite the simplicity of the approach, based on a few inherently local mechanisms, the numerical results agree qualitatively with clinical data (computed tomography scans of neoplasms) for the larynx and the oral cavity.

  5. Human vs model observers in anatomic backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Miguel P.; Abbey, Craig K.; Whiting, James S.

    1998-04-01

    Model observers have been compared to human performance detecting low contrast signals in a variety of computer generated background including white noise, correlated noise, lumpy backgrounds, and two component noise. The purpose of the present paper is to extend this work by comparing a cumber of previously proposed model observers to human visual detection performance in real anatomic backgrounds. Human and model observer performance are compared as a function of increasing added white noise. Our results show that three of the four models are good predictors of human performance.

  6. Thermal correction to the molar polarizability of a Boltzmann gas

    SciTech Connect

    Jentschura, U. D.; Puchalski, M.; Mohr, P. J.

    2011-12-15

    Metrology in atomic physics has been crucial for a number of advanced determinations of fundamental constants. In addition to very precise frequency measurements, the molar polarizability of an atomic gas has recently also been measured very accurately. Part of the motivation for the measurements is due to ongoing efforts to redefine the International System of Units (SI), for which an accurate value of the Boltzmann constant is needed. Here we calculate the dominant shift of the molar polarizability in an atomic gas due to thermal effects. It is given by the relativistic correction to the dipole interaction, which emerges when the probing electric field is Lorentz transformed into the rest frame of the atoms that undergo thermal motion. While this effect is small when compared to currently available experimental accuracy, the relativistic correction to the dipole interaction is much larger than the thermal shift of the polarizability induced by blackbody radiation.

  7. Thermal correction to the molar polarizability of a Boltzmann gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jentschura, U. D.; Puchalski, M.; Mohr, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Metrology in atomic physics has been crucial for a number of advanced determinations of fundamental constants. In addition to very precise frequency measurements, the molar polarizability of an atomic gas has recently also been measured very accurately. Part of the motivation for the measurements is due to ongoing efforts to redefine the International System of Units (SI), for which an accurate value of the Boltzmann constant is needed. Here we calculate the dominant shift of the molar polarizability in an atomic gas due to thermal effects. It is given by the relativistic correction to the dipole interaction, which emerges when the probing electric field is Lorentz transformed into the rest frame of the atoms that undergo thermal motion. While this effect is small when compared to currently available experimental accuracy, the relativistic correction to the dipole interaction is much larger than the thermal shift of the polarizability induced by blackbody radiation.

  8. Ectopic 3rd Molar Tooth in the Maxillary Antrum

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Seidu A.; Oketade, Ifeoluwa O.; Osunde, Otasowie D.

    2014-01-01

    Location of ectopic tooth in a nondentate area like the maxillary antrum is rare. A 17-year-old boy, with one year history of recurrent right facial swelling and radiographic finding of a maxillary third molar tooth located at the posterior wall of the maxillary antrum, is presented. Under endotracheal intubation, the tooth was extracted through a Caldwell-Luc antrostomy approach and patient had an uneventful recovery and has been symptom free for eight months. Ectopic tooth in the maxillary antrum is rare and is commonest with maxillary third molar. It may be symptomless but is more commonly associated with inflammatory symptoms. The treatment of choice is surgical excision which is mostly carried out with Caldwell-Luc approach, even though endoscopic approach is being reported. PMID:25132999

  9. Ectopic 3rd molar tooth in the maxillary antrum.

    PubMed

    Bello, Seidu A; Oketade, Ifeoluwa O; Osunde, Otasowie D

    2014-01-01

    Location of ectopic tooth in a nondentate area like the maxillary antrum is rare. A 17-year-old boy, with one year history of recurrent right facial swelling and radiographic finding of a maxillary third molar tooth located at the posterior wall of the maxillary antrum, is presented. Under endotracheal intubation, the tooth was extracted through a Caldwell-Luc antrostomy approach and patient had an uneventful recovery and has been symptom free for eight months. Ectopic tooth in the maxillary antrum is rare and is commonest with maxillary third molar. It may be symptomless but is more commonly associated with inflammatory symptoms. The treatment of choice is surgical excision which is mostly carried out with Caldwell-Luc approach, even though endoscopic approach is being reported. PMID:25132999

  10. Fate of the molar dental lamina in the monophyodont mouse.

    PubMed

    Dosedělová, Hana; Dumková, Jana; Lesot, Hervé; Glocová, Kristýna; Kunová, Michaela; Tucker, Abigail S; Veselá, Iva; Krejčí, Pavel; Tichý, František; Hampl, Aleš; Buchtová, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    The successional dental lamina (SDL) plays an essential role in the development of replacement teeth in diphyodont and polyphyodont animals. A morphologically similar structure, the rudimental successional dental lamina (RSDL), has been described in monophyodont (only one tooth generation) lizards on the lingual side of the developing functional tooth. This rudimentary lamina regresses, which has been proposed to play a role in preventing the formation of future generations of teeth. A similar rudimentary lingual structure has been reported associated with the first molar in the monophyodont mouse, and we show that this structure is common to all murine molars. Intriguingly, a lingual lamina is also observed on the non-replacing molars of other diphyodont mammals (pig and hedgehog), initially appearing very similar to the successional dental lamina on the replacing teeth. We have analyzed the morphological as well as ultrastructural changes that occur during the development and loss of this molar lamina in the mouse, from its initiation at late embryonic stages to its disappearance at postnatal stages. We show that loss appears to be driven by a reduction in cell proliferation, down-regulation of the progenitor marker Sox2, with only a small number of cells undergoing programmed cell death. The lingual lamina was associated with the dental stalk, a short epithelial connection between the tooth germ and the oral epithelium. The dental stalk remained in contact with the oral epithelium throughout tooth development up to eruption when connective tissue and numerous capillaries progressively invaded the dental stalk. The buccal side of the dental stalk underwent keratinisation and became part of the gingival epithelium, while most of the lingual cells underwent programmed cell death and the tissue directly above the erupting tooth was shed into the oral cavity. PMID:26010446

  11. Effective molarity in a nucleic acid-controlled reaction.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Michael J; Price, Nathan E; Gates, Kent S

    2016-06-01

    Positioning of reactive functional groups within a DNA duplex can enable chemical reactions that otherwise would not occur to an appreciable extent. However, few studies have quantitatively defined the extent to which the enforced proximity of reaction partners in duplex DNA can favor chemical processes. Here, we measured substantial effective molarities (as high as 25M) afforded by duplex DNA to a reaction involving interstrand cross-link formation between 2'-deoxyadenosine and a 2-deoxyribose abasic (Ap) site. PMID:27117430

  12. Extrusion of impacted mandibular second molar using removable appliance

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, M. K.; Prabhakar, Ramachandran; Saravanan, R.; Vikram, N. Raj; Kumar, R. Vinoth; Prasath, R. Eshwara

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the principles of case management of impacted mandibular molars and to illustrate their potential to respond well to treatment. Although the scope of treatment may be influenced by the patient's age, past dental history, severity of impaction, dentoalveolar development, and root form, the case reports demonstrate the inherent potential for good treatment outcome even in the most unfavorable circumstances. PMID:25210378

  13. Fate of the Molar Dental Lamina in the Monophyodont Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Dosedělová, Hana; Dumková, Jana; Lesot, Hervé; Glocová, Kristýna; Kunová, Michaela; Tucker, Abigail S.; Veselá, Iva; Krejčí, Pavel; Tichý, František; Hampl, Aleš; Buchtová, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    The successional dental lamina (SDL) plays an essential role in the development of replacement teeth in diphyodont and polyphyodont animals. A morphologically similar structure, the rudimental successional dental lamina (RSDL), has been described in monophyodont (only one tooth generation) lizards on the lingual side of the developing functional tooth. This rudimentary lamina regresses, which has been proposed to play a role in preventing the formation of future generations of teeth. A similar rudimentary lingual structure has been reported associated with the first molar in the monophyodont mouse, and we show that this structure is common to all murine molars. Intriguingly, a lingual lamina is also observed on the non-replacing molars of other diphyodont mammals (pig and hedgehog), initially appearing very similar to the successional dental lamina on the replacing teeth. We have analyzed the morphological as well as ultrastructural changes that occur during the development and loss of this molar lamina in the mouse, from its initiation at late embryonic stages to its disappearance at postnatal stages. We show that loss appears to be driven by a reduction in cell proliferation, down-regulation of the progenitor marker Sox2, with only a small number of cells undergoing programmed cell death. The lingual lamina was associated with the dental stalk, a short epithelial connection between the tooth germ and the oral epithelium. The dental stalk remained in contact with the oral epithelium throughout tooth development up to eruption when connective tissue and numerous capillaries progressively invaded the dental stalk. The buccal side of the dental stalk underwent keratinisation and became part of the gingival epithelium, while most of the lingual cells underwent programmed cell death and the tissue directly above the erupting tooth was shed into the oral cavity. PMID:26010446

  14. Spontaneous emergence of overgrown molar teeth in a colony of Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster)

    PubMed Central

    Jheon, Andrew H; Prochazkova, Michaela; Sherman, Michael; Manoli, Devanand S; Shah, Nirao M; Carbone, Lawrence; Klein, Ophir

    2015-01-01

    Continuously growing incisors are common to all rodents, which include the Microtus genus of voles. However, unlike many rodents, voles also possess continuously growing molars. Here, we report spontaneous molar defects in a population of Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). We identified bilateral protuberances on the ventral surface of the mandible in several voles in our colony. In some cases, the protuberances broke through the cortical bone. The mandibular molars became exposed and infected, and the maxillary molars entered the cranial vault. Visualisation upon soft tissue removal and microcomputed tomography (microCT) analyses confirmed that the protuberances were caused by the overgrowth of the apical ends of the molar teeth. We speculate that the unrestricted growth of the molars was due to the misregulation of the molar dental stem cell niche. Further study of this molar phenotype may yield additional insight into stem cell regulation and the evolution and development of continuously growing teeth. PMID:25634121

  15. Spontaneous emergence of overgrown molar teeth in a colony of Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Jheon, Andrew H; Prochazkova, Michaela; Sherman, Michael; Manoli, Devanand S; Shah, Nirao M; Carbone, Lawrence; Klein, Ophir

    2015-03-01

    Continuously growing incisors are common to all rodents, which include the Microtus genus of voles. However, unlike many rodents, voles also possess continuously growing molars. Here, we report spontaneous molar defects in a population of Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). We identified bilateral protuberances on the ventral surface of the mandible in several voles in our colony. In some cases, the protuberances broke through the cortical bone. The mandibular molars became exposed and infected, and the maxillary molars entered the cranial vault. Visualisation upon soft tissue removal and microcomputed tomography (microCT) analyses confirmed that the protuberances were caused by the overgrowth of the apical ends of the molar teeth. We speculate that the unrestricted growth of the molars was due to the misregulation of the molar dental stem cell niche. Further study of this molar phenotype may yield additional insight into stem cell regulation and the evolution and development of continuously growing teeth. PMID:25634121

  16. The Use of Narrow Diameter Implants in the Molar Area.

    PubMed

    Saad, M; Assaf, A; Gerges, E

    2016-01-01

    Implant rehabilitations in the posterior jaw are influenced by many factors such as the condition of the remaining teeth, the force factors related to the patient, the quality of the bone, the maintenance of the hygiene, the limited bone height, the type and extent of edentulism, and the nature of the opposing arch. The gold standard is to place a regular diameter implant (>3.7 mm) or a wide one to replace every missing molar. Unfortunately, due to horizontal bone resorption, this option is not possible without lateral bone augmentation. In this situation, narrow diameter implant (NDI < 3.5 mm) could be the alternative to lateral bone augmentation procedures. This paper presents a clinical study where NDIs were used for the replacement of missing molars. They were followed up to 11 years. Special considerations were observed and many parameters were evaluated. NDI could be used to replace missing molar in case of moderate horizontal bone resorption if strict guidelines are respected. Yet, future controlled prospective clinical trials are required to admit their use as scientific evidence. PMID:27293436

  17. Molar tooth carbonates and benthic methane fluxes in Proterozoic oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Bing; Dong, Lin; Xiao, Shuhai; Lang, Xianguo; Huang, Kangjun; Peng, Yongbo; Zhou, Chuanming; Ke, Shan; Liu, Pengju

    2016-01-01

    Molar tooth structures are ptygmatically folded and microspar-filled structures common in early- and mid-Proterozoic (~2,500-750 million years ago, Ma) subtidal successions, but extremely rare in rocks <750 Ma. Here, on the basis of Mg and S isotopes, we show that molar tooth structures may have formed within sediments where microbial sulphate reduction and methanogenesis converged. The convergence was driven by the abundant production of methyl sulphides (dimethyl sulphide and methanethiol) in euxinic or H2S-rich seawaters that were widespread in Proterozoic continental margins. In this convergence zone, methyl sulphides served as a non-competitive substrate supporting methane generation and methanethiol inhibited anaerobic oxidation of methane, resulting in the buildup of CH4, formation of degassing cracks in sediments and an increase in the benthic methane flux from sediments. Precipitation of crack-filling microspar was driven by methanogenesis-related alkalinity accumulation. Deep ocean ventilation and oxygenation around 750 Ma brought molar tooth structures to an end.

  18. Determination of partial molar volumes from free energy perturbation theory†

    PubMed Central

    Vilseck, Jonah Z.; Tirado-Rives, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Partial molar volume is an important thermodynamic property that gives insights into molecular size and intermolecular interactions in solution. Theoretical frameworks for determining the partial molar volume (V°) of a solvated molecule generally apply Scaled Particle Theory or Kirkwood–Buff theory. With the current abilities to perform long molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations, more direct methods are gaining popularity, such as computing V° directly as the difference in computed volume from two simulations, one with a solute present and another without. Thermodynamically, V° can also be determined as the pressure derivative of the free energy of solvation in the limit of infinite dilution. Both approaches are considered herein with the use of free energy perturbation (FEP) calculations to compute the necessary free energies of solvation at elevated pressures. Absolute and relative partial molar volumes are computed for benzene and benzene derivatives using the OPLS-AA force field. The mean unsigned error for all molecules is 2.8 cm3 mol−1. The present methodology should find use in many contexts such as the development and testing of force fields for use in computer simulations of organic and biomolecular systems, as a complement to related experimental studies, and to develop a deeper understanding of solute–solvent interactions. PMID:25589343

  19. Molar tooth carbonates and benthic methane fluxes in Proterozoic oceans

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bing; Dong, Lin; Xiao, Shuhai; Lang, Xianguo; Huang, Kangjun; Peng, Yongbo; Zhou, Chuanming; Ke, Shan; Liu, Pengju

    2016-01-01

    Molar tooth structures are ptygmatically folded and microspar-filled structures common in early- and mid-Proterozoic (∼2,500–750 million years ago, Ma) subtidal successions, but extremely rare in rocks <750 Ma. Here, on the basis of Mg and S isotopes, we show that molar tooth structures may have formed within sediments where microbial sulphate reduction and methanogenesis converged. The convergence was driven by the abundant production of methyl sulphides (dimethyl sulphide and methanethiol) in euxinic or H2S-rich seawaters that were widespread in Proterozoic continental margins. In this convergence zone, methyl sulphides served as a non-competitive substrate supporting methane generation and methanethiol inhibited anaerobic oxidation of methane, resulting in the buildup of CH4, formation of degassing cracks in sediments and an increase in the benthic methane flux from sediments. Precipitation of crack-filling microspar was driven by methanogenesis-related alkalinity accumulation. Deep ocean ventilation and oxygenation around 750 Ma brought molar tooth structures to an end. PMID:26739600

  20. Molar tooth carbonates and benthic methane fluxes in Proterozoic oceans.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bing; Dong, Lin; Xiao, Shuhai; Lang, Xianguo; Huang, Kangjun; Peng, Yongbo; Zhou, Chuanming; Ke, Shan; Liu, Pengju

    2016-01-01

    Molar tooth structures are ptygmatically folded and microspar-filled structures common in early- and mid-Proterozoic (∼2,500-750 million years ago, Ma) subtidal successions, but extremely rare in rocks <750 Ma. Here, on the basis of Mg and S isotopes, we show that molar tooth structures may have formed within sediments where microbial sulphate reduction and methanogenesis converged. The convergence was driven by the abundant production of methyl sulphides (dimethyl sulphide and methanethiol) in euxinic or H2S-rich seawaters that were widespread in Proterozoic continental margins. In this convergence zone, methyl sulphides served as a non-competitive substrate supporting methane generation and methanethiol inhibited anaerobic oxidation of methane, resulting in the buildup of CH4, formation of degassing cracks in sediments and an increase in the benthic methane flux from sediments. Precipitation of crack-filling microspar was driven by methanogenesis-related alkalinity accumulation. Deep ocean ventilation and oxygenation around 750 Ma brought molar tooth structures to an end. PMID:26739600

  1. Variable permanent mandibular first molar: Review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Ballullaya, Srinidhi V; Vemuri, Sayesh; Kumar, Pabbati Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The success of root canal therapy depends on the locations of all the canals, thourough debridement and proper sealing. At times the clinicians are challenged with variations in morphology of root canal. This review article attempts to list out all the variations of permanent mandibular first molar published so for in the literature. Materials and Methods: An exhaustive search was undertaken using PUBMED database to identify published literature from 1900 to 2010 relating to the root canal morphology of permanent first molar by using key words. The selected artcles were obtained and reviewed. Results: Total ninty seven articles were selected out of which 50 were original article and forty seven were case reports. The incidence of third canal in mesial root was 0.95% to 15%. The incidence of three rooted mandibular first molar was 3% to 33%. Only ninety cases reported with c-shape canal configuration. Incidence of Taurodintism without congenital disorder was very rare. Conclusion: The root canal treatment requires proper knowlegde of variations in root canal morphology in order to recognise, disinfect and seal all portal of exit. This can be accomplished with proper diagnosis using newer modes, modification in access preparation, use of operating microscope, enhanced methods of disinfecting and sealing of all canals. PMID:23716959

  2. The Use of Narrow Diameter Implants in the Molar Area

    PubMed Central

    Saad, M.; Assaf, A.; Gerges, E.

    2016-01-01

    Implant rehabilitations in the posterior jaw are influenced by many factors such as the condition of the remaining teeth, the force factors related to the patient, the quality of the bone, the maintenance of the hygiene, the limited bone height, the type and extent of edentulism, and the nature of the opposing arch. The gold standard is to place a regular diameter implant (>3.7 mm) or a wide one to replace every missing molar. Unfortunately, due to horizontal bone resorption, this option is not possible without lateral bone augmentation. In this situation, narrow diameter implant (NDI < 3.5 mm) could be the alternative to lateral bone augmentation procedures. This paper presents a clinical study where NDIs were used for the replacement of missing molars. They were followed up to 11 years. Special considerations were observed and many parameters were evaluated. NDI could be used to replace missing molar in case of moderate horizontal bone resorption if strict guidelines are respected. Yet, future controlled prospective clinical trials are required to admit their use as scientific evidence. PMID:27293436

  3. From molecular to molar: a paradigm shift in behavior analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M

    2002-01-01

    A paradigm clash is occurring within behavior analysis. In the older paradigm, the molecular view, behavior consists of momentary or discrete responses that constitute instances of classes. Variation in response rate reflects variation in the strength or probability of the response class. The newer paradigm, the molar view, sees behavior as composed of activities that take up varying amounts of time. Whereas the molecular view takes response rate and choice to be "derived" measures and hence abstractions, the molar view takes response rate and choice to be concrete temporally extended behavioral allocations and regards momentary "responses" as abstractions. Research findings that point to variation in tempo, asymmetry in concurrent performance, and paradoxical resistance to change are readily interpretable when seen in the light of reinforcement and stimulus control of extended behavioral allocations or activities. Seen in the light of the ontological distinction between classes and individuals, extended behavioral allocations, like species in evolutionary taxonomy, constitute individuals, entities that change without changing their identity. Seeing allocations as individuals implies that less extended activities constitute parts of larger wholes rather than instances of classes. Both laboratory research and everyday behavior are explained plausibly in the light of concrete extended activities and their nesting. The molecular- view, because it requires discrete responses and contiguous events, relies on hypothetical stimuli and consequences to account for the same phenomena. One may prefer the molar view on grounds of elegance, integrative power, and plausibility. PMID:12144313

  4. Determination of partial molar volumes from free energy perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Vilseck, Jonah Z; Tirado-Rives, Julian; Jorgensen, William L

    2015-04-01

    Partial molar volume is an important thermodynamic property that gives insights into molecular size and intermolecular interactions in solution. Theoretical frameworks for determining the partial molar volume (V°) of a solvated molecule generally apply Scaled Particle Theory or Kirkwood-Buff theory. With the current abilities to perform long molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations, more direct methods are gaining popularity, such as computing V° directly as the difference in computed volume from two simulations, one with a solute present and another without. Thermodynamically, V° can also be determined as the pressure derivative of the free energy of solvation in the limit of infinite dilution. Both approaches are considered herein with the use of free energy perturbation (FEP) calculations to compute the necessary free energies of solvation at elevated pressures. Absolute and relative partial molar volumes are computed for benzene and benzene derivatives using the OPLS-AA force field. The mean unsigned error for all molecules is 2.8 cm(3) mol(-1). The present methodology should find use in many contexts such as the development and testing of force fields for use in computer simulations of organic and biomolecular systems, as a complement to related experimental studies, and to develop a deeper understanding of solute-solvent interactions. PMID:25589343

  5. Molar Macrowear Reveals Neanderthal Eco-Geographic Dietary Variation

    PubMed Central

    Fiorenza, Luca; Benazzi, Stefano; Tausch, Jeremy; Kullmer, Ottmar; Bromage, Timothy G.; Schrenk, Friedemann

    2011-01-01

    Neanderthal diets are reported to be based mainly on the consumption of large and medium sized herbivores, while the exploitation of other food types including plants has also been demonstrated. Though some studies conclude that early Homo sapiens were active hunters, the analyses of faunal assemblages, stone tool technologies and stable isotopic studies indicate that they exploited broader dietary resources than Neanderthals. Whereas previous studies assume taxon-specific dietary specializations, we suggest here that the diet of both Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens is determined by ecological conditions. We analyzed molar wear patterns using occlusal fingerprint analysis derived from optical 3D topometry. Molar macrowear accumulates during the lifespan of an individual and thus reflects diet over long periods. Neanderthal and early Homo sapiens maxillary molar macrowear indicates strong eco-geographic dietary variation independent of taxonomic affinities. Based on comparisons with modern hunter-gatherer populations with known diets, Neanderthals as well as early Homo sapiens show high dietary variability in Mediterranean evergreen habitats but a more restricted diet in upper latitude steppe/coniferous forest environments, suggesting a significant consumption of high protein meat resources. PMID:21445243

  6. Efficacy of Postoperative Prophylactic Antibiotic Therapy in Third Molar Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Reddy B, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical extraction of mandibular third molar is the most frequently performed procedure in oral surgery. This procedure is associated with significant postoperative sequelae such as trismus, swelling, pain and infection. The need of antibiotic therapy during the removal of mandibular third molar has been a contentious issue. Method: This study investigated a regimen by using amoxycillin and metronidazole in one group and without using antibiotics in the other. Both the groups were assessed postoperatively on the 1st, 2nd, 5th, 7th and 10th days by the same observer for post operative mouth opening (interincisal distance), presence of a purulent discharge at the site of surgery, pain and swelling. Result: Overall, no statistically significant difference was seen between both the treatment groups when interincisal distance, pain, swelling and purulent discharge were considered. Conclusion: The results of this study failed to show any advantage which was associated with the routine postoperative use of antibiotics in asymptomatic third molar surgeries. PMID:24995236

  7. Anatomical and molecular imaging of skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hao; Sun, Jiangtao; Cai, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer types. It is generally divided into two categories: melanoma (∼ 5%) and nonmelanoma (∼ 95%), which can be further categorized into basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and some rare skin cancer types. Biopsy is still the gold standard for skin cancer evaluation in the clinic. Various anatomical imaging techniques have been used to evaluate different types of skin cancer lesions, including laser scanning confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, high-frequency ultrasound, terahertz pulsed imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and some other recently developed techniques such as photoacoustic microscopy. However, anatomical imaging alone may not be sufficient in guiding skin cancer diagnosis and therapy. Over the last decade, various molecular imaging techniques (in particular single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography) have been investigated for skin cancer imaging. The pathways or molecular targets that have been studied include glucose metabolism, integrin αvβ3, melanocortin-1 receptor, high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen, and several other molecular markers. Preclinical molecular imaging is thriving all over the world, while clinical molecular imaging has not lived up to the expectations because of slow bench-to-bedside translation. It is likely that this situation will change in the near future and molecular imaging will truly play an important role in personalized medicine of melanoma patients. PMID:21437135

  8. Anatomical modeling of the bronchial tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Gerrit; Klinder, Tobias; Blaffert, Thomas; Bülow, Thomas; Wiemker, Rafael; Lorenz, Cristian

    2010-02-01

    The bronchial tree is of direct clinical importance in the context of respective diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It furthermore constitutes a reference structure for object localization in the lungs and it finally provides access to lung tissue in, e.g., bronchoscope based procedures for diagnosis and therapy. This paper presents a comprehensive anatomical model for the bronchial tree, including statistics of position, relative and absolute orientation, length, and radius of 34 bronchial segments, going beyond previously published results. The model has been built from 16 manually annotated CT scans, covering several branching variants. The model is represented as a centerline/tree structure but can also be converted in a surface representation. Possible model applications are either to anatomically label extracted bronchial trees or to improve the tree extraction itself by identifying missing segments or sub-trees, e.g., if located beyond a bronchial stenosis. Bronchial tree labeling is achieved using a naïve Bayesian classifier based on the segment properties contained in the model in combination with tree matching. The tree matching step makes use of branching variations covered by the model. An evaluation of the model has been performed in a leaveone- out manner. In total, 87% of the branches resulting from preceding airway tree segmentation could be correctly labeled. The individualized model enables the detection of missing branches, allowing a targeted search, e.g., a local rerun of the tree-segmentation segmentation.

  9. Digital imaging applications in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Leong, F Joel W-M; Leong, Anthony S-Y

    2003-03-01

    Digital imaging has progressed at a rapid rate and is likely to eventually replace chemical photography in most areas of professional and amateur digital image acquisition. In pathology, digital microscopy has implications beyond that of taking a photograph. The arguments for adopting this new medium are compelling, and given similar developments in other areas of pathology and radiologic imaging, acceptance of the digital medium should be viewed as a component of the technological evolution of the laboratory. A digital image may be stored, replicated, catalogued, employed for educational purposes, transmitted for further interpretation (telepathology), analyzed for salient features (medical vision/image analysis), or form part of a wider digital healthcare strategy. Despite advances in digital camera technology, good image acquisition still requires good microscope optics and the correct calibration of all system components, something which many neglect. The future of digital imaging in pathology is very promising and new applications in the fields of automated quantification and interpretation are likely to have profound long-term influence on the practice of anatomic pathology. This paper discusses the state of the art of digital imaging in anatomic pathology. PMID:12605090

  10. CALIBRATION IS BOTH FUNCTIONAL AND ANATOMICAL

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Geoffrey P.; Pan, Jing S.; Mon-Williams, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Bingham and Pagano (1998) described calibration as a mapping from embodied perceptual units to an embodied action unit and suggested that it is an inherent component of perception/action that yields accurate targeted actions. We tested two predictions of this ‘Mapping Theory’. First, calibration should transfer between limbs, because it involves a mapping from perceptual units to an action unit, and thus is functionally specific to the action (Pan, et al., submitted). We used distorted haptic feedback to calibrate feedforward right hand reaches and tested right and left hand reaches after calibration. The calibration transferred. Second, the Mapping Theory predicts that limb specific calibration should be possible because the units are embodied and anatomy contributes to their scaling. Limbs must be calibrated to one another given potential anatomical differences among limbs. We used distorted haptic feedback to calibrate feedforward reaches with right and left arms simultaneously in opposite directions relative to a visually specified target. Reaches tested after calibration revealed reliable limb specific calibration. Both predictions were confirmed. This resolves a prevailing controversy as to whether calibration is functional (Rieser, et al., 1995; Bruggeman & Warren, 2010) or anatomical (Durgin, et al., 1999; 2003). Necessarily, it is both. PMID:23855525

  11. [Anatomical visibility of the meridian information channels].

    PubMed

    Chang, Xi-lang

    2008-12-01

    The "structure imperfectness of signal channel rule" put forward by the author of the present paper may provide a theoretical evidence for the systematicness of meridian information channel. The conclusion that no special structure of the meridian-collateral system has been found is likely to serve as a piece of counterevidence. According to the latest structural view, the development of capillaries, lymphatic vessels and nerves needs target cells-released inducible factors. In the initial phase of the development of the organism, the asymmetry of the interspaces among cells results in the production and arrangement imbalance of the sequential factors which make the capillaries, lymphatic vessels and nerves distribute sequentially in time and space. Meridian-collateral, following the "systemic statistic distribution rule", is a general expression of this distribution pattern. As a systematic structure, the meridian-collateral system distributes in an optimized way in the human body and has both orderly and compatible characteristics. The author thinks that the meridian-collateral information channel is anatomically visible in the time and spatial structure, and in its logical structure and compatibility during the process of growth. Hence, many techniques of delicate anatomy, quantitative anatomy, growth anatomy, comparative anatomy, tridimensional remodeling of living creature and dynamical remodeling of growth all should be used as the important tools for studying the meridian information channel. The theory and the anatomical techniques determine what you would finally find. PMID:19288907

  12. Arthroscopic Anatomic Glenoid Reconstruction Without Subscapularis Split

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ivan H.; Urquhart, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The role of bone loss from the anterior glenoid in recurrent shoulder instability has been well established. We present a completely arthroscopic technique for reconstructing the anterior glenoid with distal tibial allograft and without a subscapularis split. We perform the arthroscopy in the lateral position. We measure and size an allograft distal tibial graft and place it arthroscopically. We use an inside-out medial portal to introduce the graft into the shoulder, passing it through the rotator interval and above the subscapularis. A double-cannula system is used to pass the graft, which is temporarily fixed with K-wires and held in place with cannulated screws. We then perform a Bankart-like repair of the soft tissues to balance the shoulder and augment our repair. Our technique is not only anatomic in the re-creation of the glenoid surface but also anatomic in the preservation of the coracoid and subscapularis tendon and repair of the capsulolabral complex. PMID:26697303

  13. Anatomic Optical Coherence Tomography of Upper Airways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin Loy, Anthony; Jing, Joseph; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yong; Elghobashi, Said; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J. F.

    The upper airway is a complex and intricate system responsible for respiration, phonation, and deglutition. Obstruction of the upper airways afflicts an estimated 12-18 million Americans. Pharyngeal size and shape are important factors in the pathogenesis of airway obstructions. In addition, nocturnal loss in pharyngeal muscular tone combined with high pharyngeal resistance can lead to collapse of the airway and periodic partial or complete upper airway obstruction. Anatomical optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to provide high-speed three-dimensional tomographic images of the airway lumen without the use of ionizing radiation. In this chapter we describe the methods behind endoscopic OCT imaging and processing to generate full three dimensional anatomical models of the human airway which can be used in conjunction with numerical simulation methods to assess areas of airway obstruction. Combining this structural information with flow dynamic simulations, we can better estimate the site and causes of airway obstruction and better select and design surgery for patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  14. "Zip me up, and cool me down": Molar narratives and molecular intensities in 'helicopter' mental health services.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Laura; Reavey, Paula

    2016-03-01

    Experiences of the space-time dimensions of contemporary mental health services are shaped according to what we describe here as a 'helicopter service', where professionals drop down into service users' lives for short, often pre-determined bursts of time. This can create a system where users' experiences are observed and assessed from a more distanced and circumscribed perspective. This paper considers the implications of these systemic changes, using interviews with current UK service users. To help in the exploration of the complexities faced by service users', we use Deleuze and Guatarri's (1987) distinction between molar and molecular forms of organisation. A process oriented thematic analysis discusses: a) Affording narratives of distress: Molarity, monitoring and space in service interactions and b) Narratives in therapy: Compartmentalising the distressed self. Multiple aspects of the relationship between space and distress are explored. An understanding of experiences of distress beyond the boundaries of the molar, which considers its intensive, molecular and transformative nature, may help to open up engagement with the affective and emotional dimensions of mental health. PMID:26798963

  15. Relationship between mandibular condyle and angle fractures and the presence of mandibular third molars

    PubMed Central

    Mah, Deuk-Hyun; Moon, Seong-Yong; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We retrospectively evaluated the impact of mandibular third molars on the occurrence of angle and condyle fractures. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective investigation using patient records and radiographs. The sample set consisted of 440 patients with mandibular fractures. Eruption space, depth and angulation of the third molar were measured. Results Of the 144 angle fracture patients, 130 patients had third molars and 14 patients did not. The ratio of angle fractures when a third molar was present (1.26 : 1) was greater than when no third molar was present (0.19 : 1; odds ratio, 6.58; P<0.001). Of the 141 condyle fractures patients, the third molar was present in 84 patients and absent in 57 patients. The ratio of condyle fractures when a third molar was present (0.56 : 1) was lower than when no third molar was present (1.90 : 1; odds ratio, 0.30; P<0.001). Conclusion The increased ratio of angle fractures with third molars and the ratio of condyle fractures without a third molar were statistically significant. The occurrence of angle and condyle fractures was more affected by the continuity of the cortical bone at the angle than by the depth of a third molar. These results demonstrate that a third molar can be a determining factor in angle and condyle fractures. PMID:25741462

  16. Molar Mass and Second Virial Coefficient of Polyethylene Glycol by Vapor Pressure Osmometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Checkal, Caleb; Saksa, Brian; Baka, Nadia; Modi, Kalpit; Rivera, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students determine the number-average molar masses and second virial coefficients of polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers ranging in molar mass from 200 to 1500 g mol[superscript -1] using vapor pressure osmometry (VPO). Students assess VPO in relation to accurate molar mass calculations of PEG polymers. Additionally,…

  17. Sub-10-Minute Characterization of an Ultrahigh Molar Mass Polymer by Multi-detector Hydrodynamic Chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molar mass averages, distributions, and architectural information of polymers are routinely obtained using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). It has previously been shown that ultrahigh molar mass polymers may experience degradation during SEC analysis, leading to inaccurate molar mass averages a...

  18. The effect of horizontal X-ray beam angulation on the detection of furcation defects of mandibular first molars in intraoral radiography

    PubMed Central

    Hishikawa, T; Izumi, M; Naitoh, M; Furukawa, M; Yoshinari, N; Kawase, H; Matsuoka, M; Noguchi, T; Ariji, E

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to investigate the effect of changes in horizontal X-ray beam angulation in intraoral radiography on the detection accuracy of furcation defects in the mandibular first molar, and to examine the anatomical relationship between the roots and furcation area as a possible cause of changes in detectability. Methods Simulated furcation defects with various depths were created in five mandibular first molars. Intraoral radiographs were taken at various horizontal angulations of the projection beams. The diagnostic accuracies were determined based on receiver operating characteristic analysis. The geometric relationship that might influence the accuracy was investigated through use of a compact cone beam CT in 59 first molar areas. Results Although the horizontal angulations showing the highest accuracies were shifted mesially, no differences were found between the angles of −10° and 20°. The relationship between the roots and the furcation area was relevant to the range of angulations showing high detectabilities. Conclusions The angulations traditionally used for detecting proximal caries are also suitable for detecting furcation defects. PMID:20100919

  19. Association between Molar Incisor Hypomineralization in Schoolchildren and Both Prenatal and Postnatal Factors: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Bendo, Cristiane Baccin; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria; Vale, Miriam Pimenta

    2016-01-01

    Background Although studies throughout the world have investigated potential factors involved in the occurrence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH), the findings are varied and inconclusive. Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of MIH and identify associated prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors among Brazilian schoolchildren aged 8 and 9 years. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with a randomly selected population-based sample of 1181 schoolchildren. Information on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as prenatal, perinatal and postnatal aspects was obtained through questionnaires. The clinical examination included the investigation of MIH based on the criteria of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. Dental caries in the permanent dentition and developmental defects of enamel (DDE) on the primary second molars were also recorded. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, bivariate tests and Poisson regression with robust variance. Results The prevalence of MIH was 20.4%. MIH was more frequent among children with dental caries in the permanent dentition (PR: 2.67; 95% CI: 1.98–3.61), those with DDE on the primary second molars (PR: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.87–3.45) and those who experienced asthma/bronchitis in the first four years of life (PR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.45–2.56). Conclusions The prevalence of MIH was high and was associated with dental caries, the presence of DDE on primary second molars and the experience of asthma/bronchitis in early life. These findings could be useful in the identification of children in need of shorter recall intervals to prevent the consequences of MIH, such as enamel breakdown dental caries. PMID:27280451

  20. Potential Moderating Effects of Selenium on Mercury Uptake and Selenium:Mercury Molar Ratios in Fish From Oak Ridge and Savannah River Site - 12086

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Donio, Mark; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn

    2012-07-01

    Mercury contamination is an important remediation issue at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and to a lesser extent at other DOE sites because of the hazard it presents, potential consequences to humans and eco-receptors, and completed pathways, to offsite receptors. Recent work has emphasized that selenium might ameliorate the toxicity of mercury, and we examine the selenium:mercury (Se:Hg) molar ratios in fish from Oak Ridge, and compare them to Se:Hg molar ratios in fish from the Savannah River. Selenium/mercury molar ratios varied considerably among and within fish species. There was considerable variation in the molar ratios for individual fish (as opposed to mean ratios by species) for freshwater fish from both sites. The inter-individual variation in molar ratios indicates that such that the molar ratios of mean Se and Hg concentrations may not be representative. Even for fish species with relatively low mercury levels, some individual fish have molar ratios less than unity, the value sometime thought to be protective. Selenium levels varied narrowly regardless of fish size, consistent with homeostatic regulation of this essential trace element. The data indicate that considerable attention will need to be directed toward variations and variances, as well as the mechanisms of the interaction of selenium and mercury, before risk assessment and risk management policies can use this information to manage mercury pollution and risk. Even so, if there are high levels of selenium in the fish from Poplar Creek on Oak Ridge, then the potential exists for some amelioration of adverse health effects, on the fish themselves, predators that eat them, and people who consume them. This work will aid DOE because it will allow managers and scientists to understand another aspect that affects fate and transport of mercury, as well as the potential effects of methylmercury in fish for human and ecological receptors. The variability within fish

  1. Nomina anatomica. Anatomic terminology and the old French terminology.

    PubMed

    Chiapas-Gasca, Karla; Passos, Luiz Fernando De Souza; Euzébio Ribeiro, Sandra Lúcia; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo

    A surprising finding in our seminars in Latin America and Spain was that approximately half of the participants continued to use the old French anatomical nomenclature. The substance of this paper is a table in which we compare the anatomical names for the items reviewed in our seminar, in a Spanish version of the old French nomenclature and in the Spanish, Portuguese, and English versions of the currently employed anatomical terms. PMID:23228528

  2. Anatomic Brain Asymmetry in Vervet Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Fears, Scott C.; Scheibel, Kevin; Abaryan, Zvart; Lee, Chris; Service, Susan K.; Jorgensen, Matthew J.; Fairbanks, Lynn A.; Cantor, Rita M.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Woods, Roger P.

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetry is a prominent feature of human brains with important functional consequences. Many asymmetric traits show population bias, but little is known about the genetic and environmental sources contributing to inter-individual variance. Anatomic asymmetry has been observed in Old World monkeys, but the evidence for the direction and extent of asymmetry is equivocal and only one study has estimated the genetic contributions to inter-individual variance. In this study we characterize a range of qualitative and quantitative asymmetry measures in structural brain MRIs acquired from an extended pedigree of Old World vervet monkeys (n = 357), and implement variance component methods to estimate the proportion of trait variance attributable to genetic and environmental sources. Four of six asymmetry measures show pedigree-level bias and one of the traits has a significant heritability estimate of about 30%. We also found that environmental variables more significantly influence the width of the right compared to the left prefrontal lobe. PMID:22205941

  3. Mandibular third molar development after mantle radiation in long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, J.P. Jr.; Hopkins, K.P.; Thompson, E.I.; Hustu, H.O.

    1987-05-01

    Sequential panoramic radiographs were assessed for mandibular third molar development in 47 long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin's disease after treatment with 37 Gy mantle field radiation. To make a comparison, panoramic radiographs of 149 healthy, nonirradiated children were reviewed for the presence of mandibular third molars. In children between the ages of 7 and 12 years, bilateral agenesis of mandibular third molars was more frequent in patients who had been treated with mantle radiation than in nonirradiated patients. Unilateral agenesis, crown hypoplasia, and root growth impairment of mandibular third molars were also found. Similar, apparent, radiation-induced developmental anomalies were noted in maxillary third molars of the irradiated patients.

  4. Anatomic autoandrophilia in an adult male.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Anne A

    2009-12-01

    Some men are sexually aroused by impersonating the individuals to whom they are sexually attracted, or by permanently changing their bodies to become facsimiles of such individuals. Blanchard (J Sex Marital Ther 17:235-251, 1991) suggested that these paraphilic sexual interests, along with fetishism, represented erotic target location errors, i.e., developmental errors in locating erotic targets in the environment. Because the desire to impersonate or become a facsimile of the kind of person to whom one is attracted can have significant implications for identity, Freund and Blanchard (Br J Psychiatry 162:558-563, 1993) coined the term erotic target identity inversion to describe this type of erotic target location error. The best-known examples of erotic target identity inversions occur in men who are sexually attracted to women and who are also sexually aroused by the idea of impersonating or becoming women; these paraphilic interests manifest as transvestic fetishism and as one type of male-to-female transsexualism. Analogous erotic target identity inversions have been described in men who are sexually attracted to children and to female amputees. In theory, erotic target identity inversions should also occur in men who are sexually attracted to men. There have been no unambiguous descriptions, however, of men who are sexually attracted to men and also sexually aroused by the idea of changing their bodies to become more sexually attractive men. This report describes such a man, whose paraphilic interest would appropriately be called anatomic autoandrophilia. The demonstration that anatomic autoandrophilia exists in men is consistent with the theory that erotic target location errors constitute an independent paraphilic dimension. PMID:19093196

  5. MRI anatomical variants of mammillary bodies.

    PubMed

    Tagliamonte, Micaela; Sestieri, Carlo; Romani, Gian Luca; Gallucci, Massimo; Caulo, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The mammillary bodies (MBs) are classically defined as a pair of small round structures located on the undersurface of the diencephalon. The systematic observation of MR brain images of patients with neurological diseases, but also of healthy subjects enrolled in research protocols, reveals, however, a greater anatomical variability. The aim of the present study was to define the spectrum of such variability using spatial normalized 3D TFE T1-weighted MR images in a group of 151 healthy right-handed young subjects (78 females, age range 16-39 years). The MBs were identified on reformatted coronal and axial images and classified according to morphological, positional and numerical criteria. On the basis of coronal images, MBs were first divided into symmetrical (86.1 %) and asymmetrical (13.9 %), depending on their respective height. Symmetrical MBs were further subdivided into three variants [type A (2.7 %), B (76.2 %), C (7.3 %)] according to the depth of the intermammillary sulcus. Two morphological variants were defined on axial images, depending on whether the MBs were circular (63.6 %) or elliptic (36.4 %). This latter group was further divided in two subgroups, depending on whether the MBs were parallel (21.9 %) or convergent (14.6 %). Finally, two subjects (1.3 %) presented a supernumeral MB. The transverse size of the third ventricle was greater in the type A compared to the type B and C groups. Gender did not significantly affect the frequency of MBs variants, except for the three symmetrical subgroups in which the variants A and C were more frequent in males than in females. These findings suggest the presence of an anatomical variability of the MBs, in contrast to their classical definition. Therefore, atypical presentation of MBs can be the expression of this variability rather than a marker of neurological disorders (i.e. cerebral malformation, mesial temporal sclerosis, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome). PMID:24072163

  6. Growth Patterns Inferred from Anatomical Records 1

    PubMed Central

    Silk, Wendy Kuhn; Lord, Elizabeth M.; Eckard, Kathleen J.

    1989-01-01

    Our objective was to test whether accurate growth analyses can be obtained from anatomical records and some mathematical formulas. Roots of Zea mays L. were grown at one of two temperatures (19°C or 29°C) and were prepared with standard techniques for light microscopy. Positions of cell walls were digitized from micrographs. The digitized data were averaged and smoothed and used in formulas to estimate growth trajectories, Z(t), velocities, v(z), and strain rates, r(z), where Z(t) is the location occupied by the cellular particle at time t; and v(z) and r(z) are, respectively, the fields of growth velocity and strain rate. The relationships tested are: for Z(t), t = n * c; v(z) = l(z) * f; and r(z) = f * (∂/∂z (l(z))). In the formulas, n represents the number of cells between the origin and the position Z(t); l(z) is local cell length; the constant c, named the `cellochron,' denotes the time for successive cells to pass a spatial point distal to the meristem; l(z) is local cell length, and f is cell flux. Growth trajectories and velocity fields from the anatomical method are in good agreement with earlier analyses based on marking experiments at the two different temperatures. Growth strain rate fields show an unexpected oscillation which may be due to numerical artifacts or to a real oscillation in cell production rate. Images Figure 2 PMID:16666832

  7. Compensation trends of the angulation of first molars: retrospective study of 1 403 malocclusion cases

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hong; Han, Bing; Li, Sa; Na, Bin; Ma, Wen; Xu, Tian-Min

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the compensatory trends of mesiodistal angulation of first molars in malocclusion cases. We compared differences in the angulation of first molars in different developmental stages, malocclusion classifications and skeletal patterns. The medical records and lateral cephalogrammes of 1 403 malocclusion cases taken before treatment were measured to evaluate compensation of molar angulation in relation to the skeletal jaw. The cases were stratified by age, Angle classification and skeletal patterns. Differences in the mesiodistal angulation of the first molars were compared among the stratifications. We observed three main phenomena. First, angulation of the upper first molar varied significantly with age and tipped most distally in cases aged <12 years and least distally in cases aged >16 years. The lower first molar did not show such differences. Second, in Angle Class II or skeletal Class II cases, the upper first molar was the most distally tipped, the lower first molar was the most mesially tipped, and opposite angulation compensation was observed in Class III cases. Third, in high-angle cases, the upper and lower first molars were the most distally tipped, and opposite angulation compensation was observed in low-angle cases. These data suggest that the angulation of the molars compensated for various growth patterns and malocclusion types. Hence, awareness of molar angulation compensation would help to adjust occlusal relationships, control anchorage and increase the chances of long-term stability. PMID:24699185

  8. Anatomical versus Non-Anatomical Single Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Cadaveric Study of Comparison of Knee Stability

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hong-Chul; Yoon, Yong-Cheol; Wang, Joon-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the initial stability of anatomical and non-anatomical single bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and to determine which would better restore intact knee kinematics. Our hypothesis was that the initial stability of anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction would be superior to that of non-anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction. Methods Anterior tibial translation (ATT) and internal rotation of the tibia were measured with a computer navigation system in seven pairs of fresh-frozen cadaveric knees under two testing conditions (manual maximum anterior force, and a manual maximum anterior force combined with an internal rotational force). Tests were performed at 0, 30, 60, and 90 degrees of flexion with the ACL intact, the ACL transected, and after reconstruction of one side of a pair with either anatomical or non-anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction. Results Under manual maximal anterior force, both reconstruction techniques showed no significant difference of ATT when compared to ACL intact knee state at 30° of knee flexion (p > 0.05). Under the combined anterior and internal rotatory force, non-anatomical single-bundle ACL reconstruction showed significant difference of ATT compared to those in ACL intact group (p < 0.05). In contrast, central anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction showed no significant difference of ATT compared to those in ACL intact group (p > 0.05). Internal rotation of the tibia showed no significant difference in the ACL intact, the ACL transected, non-anatomical reconstructed and anatomical reconstructed knees. Conclusions Anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction restored the initial stability closer to the native ACL under combined anterior and internal rotational forces when compared to non-anatomical ACL single bundle reconstruction. PMID:23205233

  9. Patterning by heritage in mouse molar row development

    PubMed Central

    Prochazka, Jan; Pantalacci, Sophie; Churava, Svatava; Rothova, Michaela; Lambert, Anne; Lesot, Hervé; Klein, Ophir; Peterka, Miroslav; Laudet, Vincent; Peterkova, Renata

    2010-01-01

    It is known from paleontology studies that two premolars have been lost during mouse evolution. During mouse mandible development, two bud-like structures transiently form that may represent rudimentary precursors of the lost premolars. However, the interpretation of these structures and their significance for mouse molar development are highly controversial because of a lack of molecular data. Here, we searched for typical tooth signaling centers in these two bud-like structures, and followed their fate using molecular markers, 3D reconstructions, and lineage tracing in vitro. Transient signaling centers were indeed found to be located at the tips of both the anterior and posterior rudimentary buds. These centers expressed a similar set of molecular markers as the “primary enamel knot” (pEK), the signaling center of the first molar (M1). These two transient signaling centers were sequentially patterned before and anterior to the M1 pEK. We also determined the dynamics of the M1 pEK, which, slightly later during development, spread up to the field formerly occupied by the posterior transient signaling center. It can be concluded that two rudimentary tooth buds initiate the sequential development of the mouse molars and these have previously been mistaken for early stages of M1 development. Although neither rudiment progresses to form an adult tooth, the posterior one merges with the adjacent M1, which may explain the anterior enlargement of the M1 during mouse family evolution. This study highlights how rudiments of lost structures can stay integrated and participate in morphogenesis of functional organs and help in understanding their evolution, as Darwin suspected long ago. PMID:20709958

  10. Patterning by heritage in mouse molar row development.

    PubMed

    Prochazka, Jan; Pantalacci, Sophie; Churava, Svatava; Rothova, Michaela; Lambert, Anne; Lesot, Hervé; Klein, Ophir; Peterka, Miroslav; Laudet, Vincent; Peterkova, Renata

    2010-08-31

    It is known from paleontology studies that two premolars have been lost during mouse evolution. During mouse mandible development, two bud-like structures transiently form that may represent rudimentary precursors of the lost premolars. However, the interpretation of these structures and their significance for mouse molar development are highly controversial because of a lack of molecular data. Here, we searched for typical tooth signaling centers in these two bud-like structures, and followed their fate using molecular markers, 3D reconstructions, and lineage tracing in vitro. Transient signaling centers were indeed found to be located at the tips of both the anterior and posterior rudimentary buds. These centers expressed a similar set of molecular markers as the "primary enamel knot" (pEK), the signaling center of the first molar (M1). These two transient signaling centers were sequentially patterned before and anterior to the M1 pEK. We also determined the dynamics of the M1 pEK, which, slightly later during development, spread up to the field formerly occupied by the posterior transient signaling center. It can be concluded that two rudimentary tooth buds initiate the sequential development of the mouse molars and these have previously been mistaken for early stages of M1 development. Although neither rudiment progresses to form an adult tooth, the posterior one merges with the adjacent M1, which may explain the anterior enlargement of the M1 during mouse family evolution. This study highlights how rudiments of lost structures can stay integrated and participate in morphogenesis of functional organs and help in understanding their evolution, as Darwin suspected long ago. PMID:20709958

  11. Cameriere's third molar maturity index in assessing age of majority.

    PubMed

    Galić, Ivan; Lauc, Tomislav; Brkić, Hrvoje; Vodanović, Marin; Galić, Elizabeta; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Brakus, Ivan; Badrov, Jozo; Cameriere, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Estimation of chronological age of an individual is one of the main challenges in forensic science. Legally to be able to treat a person as a minor or an adult, it is necessary to determine whether their age of majority (if they are older or younger than 18, in most countries). Methods for estimating age are especially important when an individual in question lacks personal documents or other means of identification. As the dental age differs in various populations, the aim of this study was to evaluate applicability of third molar method for assessing age of majority in Croatia. Cameriere's third molar maturity index (I3M) value of 0.08, measured by the open apices of the teeth, was verified in sample of 1336 panoramic images aged between 14 and 23 years. Chronological age gradually decreased as I3M increased in both genders. Males showed statistically significant advanced maturation when I3M was between 0.0 and 0.3 value. The results indicate that the sensitivity of the test for 0.08 value was 84.3% (95%CI 80.6%, 87.5%) for females and 91.2% (95%CI 88.7%, 93.1) for males. Specificity was 95.4% (95%CI 92.5%, 97.5%) and 91.9% (95%CI 88.8%, 94.3%). The proportions of accurately classified males were 88.8% and that of females 91.5%. The estimated post-test probabilities, of individuals, in other word the probability that a Croatian individual with an I3M<0.08 is 18 years or older is 94.5% for females, and 96.5% for males. With high accuracy, the third molar maturity index should be used as a determinant of the age of majority in Croatia. PMID:26013667

  12. Restoration of Endodontically Treated Molars Using All Ceramic Endocrowns

    PubMed Central

    Carlos, Roopak Bose; Thomas Nainan, Mohan; Pradhan, Shamina; Roshni Sharma; Benjamin, Shiny; Rose, Rajani

    2013-01-01

    Clinical success of endodontically treated posterior teeth is determined by the postendodontic restoration. Several options have been proposed to restore endodontically treated teeth. Endocrowns represent a conservative and esthetic restorative alternative to full coverage crowns. The preparation consists of a circular equigingival butt-joint margin and central retention cavity into the entire pulp chamber constructing both the crown and the core as a single unit. The case reports discussed here are moderately damaged endodontically treated molars restored using all ceramic endocrowns fabricated using two different systems, namely, CAD/CAM and pressed ceramic. PMID:24455318

  13. Histological evaluation of mandibular third molar roots retrieved after coronectomy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vinod; Sproat, Chris; Kwok, Jerry; Beneng, Kiran; Thavaraj, Selvam; McGurk, Mark

    2014-05-01

    There is a resurgence of interest in coronectomy for the management of mandibular third molars because it has a low risk of injury to the inferior dental nerve. However, there is concern that the root that is left in place will eventually become a source of infection. We describe the histological evaluation of 26 consecutive symptomatic coronectomy roots in 21 patients. All roots had vital tissue in the pulp chamber and there was no evidence of periradicular inflammation. Persistent postoperative symptoms related predominantly to inflammation of the soft tissue, which was caused by partially erupted roots or failure of the socket to heal. PMID:24684971

  14. Why, what and how: caries control for erupting molars.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Helen J; Morgan, Annie G; Batley, Haris; Deery, Chris

    2015-03-01

    This article aims to update the practitioner on the various techniques and interventions available to prevent or control caries during this high-risk period. The evidence to support provision of toothbrushing advice, placement of fissure sealants and fluoride varnish application is considered, along with more novel methods. An evidence-based protocol is suggested to help the practitioner determine when further intervention is required and what action to undertake. Clinical Relevance: This article aims to reinforce the need for rigorous caries prevention in an erupting permanent molar and provides an update on the evidence behind a range of clinical techniques used for this purpose. PMID:26058229

  15. Reliability of CBCT as an assessment tool for mandibular molars furcation defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinescu, Adrian George; Boariu, Marius; Rusu, Darian; Stratul, Stefan-Ioan; Ogodescu, Alexandru

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In numerous clinical situations it is not possible to have an exact clinical evaluation of the furcation defects. Recently the use of CBCT in periodontology has led to an increased precision in diagnostic. Aim. To determine the accuracy of CBCT as diagnostic tool of the furcation defects. Material and method. 19 patients with generalised advanced chronic periodontitis were included in this study, presenting a total of 25 lower molars with different degrees of furcation defects. Clinical and digital measurements (in mm) were performed on all the molars involved. The data obtained has been compared and statistically analysed. Results. The analysis of primary data has demonstrated that all the furcation grade II and III defects were revealed using the CBCT technique. Regarding the incipient defects (grade I Hamp < 3mm), the dimensions measured on CBCT images were slightly bigger. The results have shown that 84% of the defects detected by CBCT have been confirmed by clinical measurements. These data are similar to those revealed by other studies1. Conclusions. The use of CBCT technique in evaluation and diagnosis of human mandibular furcation defects can provide many important information regarding the size and aspect of the interradicular defect, efficiently and noninvasively. CBCT technique is used more effectively in detection of advanced furcation degree compared to incipient ones. However, the CBCT examination cannot replace, at least in this stage of development, the clinical measurements, especially the intraoperative ones, which are considered to represent the „golden standard" in this domain.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam CT compared with panoramic images in predicting retromolar canal during extraction of impacted mandibular third molars

    PubMed Central

    Sisman, Yıldıray; Payveren-Arıkan, Mehtap; Sahman, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The clinical significance of the existence of a retromolar canal and of its neurovascular content is not yet clear.The aim of the present study was to assess the visibility, diameter and course of the mandibular retromolarcanal (MRC) using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan -had been taken for pre-operative radiographic evaluation of impacted mandibular third molars- compared to panoramic radiographs. Study Design: Subjects eligible for study enrollment were those who underwent preoperative CBCT scan for the extraction of impactedmandibular third molars were determined to be extremely close to the mandibular canal on panoramic radiographs. Radiographs were screened for the presence and course of retromolar canals, and linear measurements. Results: 947hemimandibles in 632 patients were examined.A total of 253 MRCs (144 left, 109 right) were detected with CBCT images (26.7%). Only 29 of these canals were also seen on the corresponding panoramic radiographs. Most MRCs had a vertical course (type VI, 28.46%), followed by slightly curved (type I, 26.09%). The visibility of the MRC on the OPGs, according to the increase in the diameter, was not statistically significant for both sides (p>.05).Statistically difference were found for the width at the point of origin from the mandibular canal (p: .037), the mean distance from the MRC to the second molar (p: .042) and height of MRC when compared the gender. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the MRC isn’t a rare anatomical structure. This study therefore clearly establishes the incidence and importance of the MRC. The detection of the presence of the MRC using CBCT may be crucial for extraction of mandibular third molars. Key words:Accessory innervation, cone beam computed tomography, mandibular anatomy, panoramic radiographs, retromolar canal, retromolar foramen. PMID:25475767

  17. The topography of the furcation entrance in Chinese molars. Furcation entrance dimensions.

    PubMed

    Hou, G L; Chen, S F; Wu, Y M; Tsai, C C

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to document the furcation entrance dimensions (FEDs) of the maxillary and mandibular 1st and 2nd molars and relate them to the choice of periodontal therapy. Study samples consisted of 89 maxillary molars (49 1st and 40 2nd molars) and 93 mandibular molars (50 1st and 43 2nd molars). All the FEDs of the molars were examined and measured under a stereomicroscope at 2.5 x equipped with a Bioscan OPTIMAS Image Analyzer (BOIA). The results may be summarized as follows. (1) The mean FEDs in the buccal, distal and mesial furcations of maxillary 1st and 2nd molars were 0.74 mm, 0.99 mm and 1.04 mm in the 1st molars, and 0.63 mm, 0.67 mm, 0.90 mm in the 2nd molars, respectively. In the buccal and lingual furcations of mandibular 1st and 2nd molars, they measured 0.88 mm and 0.81 mm, and 0.73 mm and 0.71 mm, respectively. (2) The %s of FEDs of 0.56 mm or less (the tip width of a Cavitron tip being 0.56 mm) in the buccal, distal and mesial furcations of maxillary 1st and 2nd molars, accounted for 32%, 8% and 6% of 1st molars, and 40%, 40% and 18% of 2nd molars. In the buccal and lingual areas of mandibular 1st and 2nd molars, they accounted for 16% and 26%, and 35% and 33% of the furcations, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7929856

  18. Parametric Anatomical Modeling: a method for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections

    PubMed Central

    Pyka, Martin; Klatt, Sebastian; Cheng, Sen

    2014-01-01

    Computational models of neural networks can be based on a variety of different parameters. These parameters include, for example, the 3d shape of neuron layers, the neurons' spatial projection patterns, spiking dynamics and neurotransmitter systems. While many well-developed approaches are available to model, for example, the spiking dynamics, there is a lack of approaches for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections. We present a new method, called Parametric Anatomical Modeling (PAM), to fill this gap. PAM can be used to derive network connectivities and conduction delays from anatomical data, such as the position and shape of the neuronal layers and the dendritic and axonal projection patterns. Within the PAM framework, several mapping techniques between layers can account for a large variety of connection properties between pre- and post-synaptic neuron layers. PAM is implemented as a Python tool and integrated in the 3d modeling software Blender. We demonstrate on a 3d model of the hippocampal formation how PAM can help reveal complex properties of the synaptic connectivity and conduction delays, properties that might be relevant to uncover the function of the hippocampus. Based on these analyses, two experimentally testable predictions arose: (i) the number of neurons and the spread of connections is heterogeneously distributed across the main anatomical axes, (ii) the distribution of connection lengths in CA3-CA1 differ qualitatively from those between DG-CA3 and CA3-CA3. Models created by PAM can also serve as an educational tool to visualize the 3d connectivity of brain regions. The low-dimensional, but yet biologically plausible, parameter space renders PAM suitable to analyse allometric and evolutionary factors in networks and to model the complexity of real networks with comparatively little effort. PMID:25309338

  19. Parametric Anatomical Modeling: a method for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections.

    PubMed

    Pyka, Martin; Klatt, Sebastian; Cheng, Sen

    2014-01-01

    Computational models of neural networks can be based on a variety of different parameters. These parameters include, for example, the 3d shape of neuron layers, the neurons' spatial projection patterns, spiking dynamics and neurotransmitter systems. While many well-developed approaches are available to model, for example, the spiking dynamics, there is a lack of approaches for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections. We present a new method, called Parametric Anatomical Modeling (PAM), to fill this gap. PAM can be used to derive network connectivities and conduction delays from anatomical data, such as the position and shape of the neuronal layers and the dendritic and axonal projection patterns. Within the PAM framework, several mapping techniques between layers can account for a large variety of connection properties between pre- and post-synaptic neuron layers. PAM is implemented as a Python tool and integrated in the 3d modeling software Blender. We demonstrate on a 3d model of the hippocampal formation how PAM can help reveal complex properties of the synaptic connectivity and conduction delays, properties that might be relevant to uncover the function of the hippocampus. Based on these analyses, two experimentally testable predictions arose: (i) the number of neurons and the spread of connections is heterogeneously distributed across the main anatomical axes, (ii) the distribution of connection lengths in CA3-CA1 differ qualitatively from those between DG-CA3 and CA3-CA3. Models created by PAM can also serve as an educational tool to visualize the 3d connectivity of brain regions. The low-dimensional, but yet biologically plausible, parameter space renders PAM suitable to analyse allometric and evolutionary factors in networks and to model the complexity of real networks with comparatively little effort. PMID:25309338

  20. Replantation of a maxillary second molar after removal of a third molar with a dentigerous cyst: Case report and 12-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrocha-Diago, María A.; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the replantation of a maxillary second right molar, which had been removed for surgical reasons in order to remove a dentigerous cyst associated with the adjacent third molar, and the case’s 12-month follow-up. A 51-year-old man presented swelling in the right maxillary area. Radiographic examination showed a large radiolucency in close proximity to the third molar, suggesting a follicular cyst. The third molar was extracted and the cyst underwent curettage. The second molar had to be extracted to enable complete removal of the cyst and to achieve primary closure of the wound, which would have been impossible without repositioning the molar. With this objective, extraoral endodontic treatment was performed, the root-end was resected and prepared with ultrasonic retrotips, and root-end filling was accomplished with MTA before the molar was replanted. At the 12-month follow-up, the tooth showed no clinical signs or symptoms, probing depth was no greater than 3 mm and radiographic examination showed no evidence of root resorption or periapical lesion. Key words:Replantation, maxillary molar, follicular cyst, dentigerous cyst. PMID:24790721

  1. Unilateral failure of development of mandibular premolars and molars in an Eastern Grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) and its effects on molar progression.

    PubMed

    Barber, D; Campbell, J; Davey, J; Luke, T; Agren, E; Beveridge, I

    2008-01-01

    An adult male Eastern Grey kangaroo from a wildlife reserve near Melbourne was submitted for necropsy examination and was discovered to have abnormal dentition. There was no evidence that any premolars or molars had ever been present on the right mandible, whilst the incisors were normal. The age of the kangaroo was estimated to be 1 year 9 months using the right maxillary molars and 2 years 4 months old using the contralateral side, presumably due to the asymmetry of the dental arcades. 'Lumpy jaw', a common periodontal disease of kangaroos, from which Bacteroides sp was cultured, was present on the base of the vertical ramus of the left mandible. Complete unilateral absence of premolar and molar teeth in the mandible of a kangaroo has not been described. This condition affected molar progression in both sets of maxillary molars. PMID:18271832

  2. [Anatomical variants of the medial calcaneal nerve and the Baxter nerve in the tarsal tunnel].

    PubMed

    Martín-Oliva, X; Elgueta-Grillo, J; Veliz-Ayta, P; Orosco-Villaseñor, S; Elgueta-Grillo, M; Viladot-Perice, R

    2013-01-01

    The tarsal tunnel is composed of the posterior border of the medial malleoulus, the posterior aspect of the talus and the medial aspect of the calcaneus. The medial calcaneal nerve emerges from the posterior aspect of the posterior tibial nerve in 75% of cases and from the lateral plantar nerve in the remaining 25%. Finally, the medial calcaneal nerve ends as a single terminal branch in 79% of cases and in numerous terminal branches in the remaining 21%. To describe the anatomical variants of the posterior tibial nerve and its terminal branches. To describe the steps for tarsal tunnel release. To describe Baxter nerve release. The anatomical variants of the posterior tibial nerve and its terminal branches within the tarsal tunnel were studied. Then the Lam technique was performed; it consists of: 1) opening of the laciniate ligament, 2) opening of the fascia over the abductor hallucis muscle, 3) exoneurolysis of the posterior tibial nerve and its terminal branches, identifying the emergence and pathway of the medial calcaneal branch, the lateral plantar nerve and its Baxter nerve branch and the medial plantar nerve. Baxter nerve was found in 100% of cases. In 100% of cases in our series the nerve going to the abductor digiti minimi muscle of the foot was found; 87.5% of cases had two terminal branches. The dissections proved that a crucial step was the release of the distal tarsal tunnel. PMID:24701749

  3. Observations on anatomical aspects of the fruit, leaf and stem tissues of four Citrullus spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Morphological characteristics of the fruit, stem and leaf tissues of four species of Citrullus (L.) Schrad. were examined using standard histological methods. Plant materials included the cultivated watermelon (C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) and three of its related species; C. colocynthis (...

  4. Physio-anatomic aspects on the initial growth of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Scalon, Silvana P Q; Pereira, Heloisa H G; Glaeser, Daniele F; Silva, Jocemar J; Betoni, Roseli; Mussury, Rosilda M

    2011-06-01

    This paper aimed to evaluate the initial growth of "mutambo" seedlings in different conditions of light intensity and treatments with gibberellic acid (GA). The seedlings were kept under full sun and 50% of shading. Sixty days after the emergence, seedlings were sprayed with: 1) 100 mg L(-1) GA(3); 2) 200 mg L(-1) GA(3); 3) control. At the end of the appraisals, seedlings height under 50% of shading was compared to the height that were growing under full sun with 200 mg L(-1) GA. Stem diameter was lower under shading. Leaf area did not vary among the treatments, but the root system growth was higher under full sun and did not vary among GA levels. The number of stomata, trichomes and epidermal cells on adaxial and abaxial sides was higher under full sun. Total dry masses of leaf and root were highe runder full sun and with 200 mg L(-1) GA application. "Mutambo" seedlings presented a higher initial growth under full sun, although with a lower height, diameter, and lenght of the largest root and total dry masses of leaf and root were higher. A concentration with 200 mg L(-1) promoted a higher growth. PMID:21670888

  5. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  10. Incorporating anatomical side information into PET reconstruction using nonlocal regularization.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van-Giang; Lee, Soo-Jin

    2013-10-01

    With the introduction of combined positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) or PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, there is an increasing emphasis on reconstructing PET images with the aid of the anatomical side information obtained from X-ray CT or MRI scanners. In this paper, we propose a new approach to incorporating prior anatomical information into PET reconstruction using the nonlocal regularization method. The nonlocal regularizer developed for this application is designed to selectively consider the anatomical information only when it is reliable. As our proposed nonlocal regularization method does not directly use anatomical edges or boundaries which are often used in conventional methods, it is not only free from additional processes to extract anatomical boundaries or segmented regions, but also more robust to the signal mismatch problem that is caused by the indirect relationship between the PET image and the anatomical image. We perform simulations with digital phantoms. According to our experimental results, compared to the conventional method based on the traditional local regularization method, our nonlocal regularization method performs well even with the imperfect prior anatomical information or in the presence of signal mismatch between the PET image and the anatomical image. PMID:23744678

  11. Complex vestibular macular anatomical relationships need a synthetic approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    Mammalian vestibular maculae are anatomically organized for complex parallel processing of linear acceleration information. Anatomical findings in rat maculae are provided in order to underscore this complexity, which is little understood functionally. This report emphasizes that a synthetic approach is critical to understanding how maculae function and the kind of information they conduct to the brain.

  12. An Investigation of Anatomical Competence in Junior Medical Doctors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Because of a decrease of the time available for anatomy education, decisions need to be made to reduce the relevant content of the anatomy curriculum. Several expert consensus initiatives resulted in lists of structures, lacking analysis of anatomical competence. This study aims to explore the use of anatomical knowledge by medical doctors in an…

  13. Enamel thickness trends in Plio-Pleistocene hominin mandibular molars.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Matthew M; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Gaunitz, Charleen; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2015-08-01

    Enamel thickness continues to be an important morphological character in hominin systematics and is frequently invoked in dietary reconstructions of Plio-Pleistocene hominin taxa. However, to date, the majority of published data on molar enamel thickness of Pliocene and early Pleistocene hominins derive from naturally fractured random surfaces of a small number of specimens. In this study we systematically analyze enamel thickness in a large sample of Plio-Pleistocene fossil hominins (n = 99), extant hominoids (n = 57), and modern humans (n = 30). Based on analysis of 2D mesial planes of section derived from microtomography, we examine both average and relative enamel thickness, and the distribution of enamel across buccal, occlusal, and lingual components of mandibular molars. Our results confirm the trend of increasing enamel thickness during the Pliocene that culminates in the thick enamel of the robust Australopithecus species, and then decreases from early Homo to recent modern humans. All hominin taxa share a regional average enamel thickness pattern of thick occlusal enamel and greater buccal than lingual enamel thickness. Pan is unique in exhibiting the thinnest average enamel thickness in the occlusal basin. Statistical analysis indicates that among Pliocene hominins enamel thickness is a weak taxonomic discriminator. The data underlying these results are included in a table in the Supplementary Online Material. PMID:26024565

  14. A geometric morphometric analysis of hominin upper first molar shape.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Robles, A; Martinón-Torres, M; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Margvelashvili, A; Bastir, M; Arsuaga, J L; Pérez-Pérez, A; Estebaranz, F; Martínez, L M

    2007-09-01

    Recent studies have revealed interesting differences in upper first molar morphology across the hominin fossil record, particularly significant between H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis. Usually these analyses have been performed by means of classic morphometric methods, including the measurement of relative cusp areas or the angles defined between cusps. Although these studies have provided valuable information for the morphological characterization of some hominin species, we believe that the analysis of this particular tooth could be more conclusive for taxonomic assignment. In this study, we have applied geometric morphometric methods to explore the morphological variability of the upper first molar (M(1)) across the human fossil record. Our emphasis focuses on the study of the phenetic relationships among the European middle Pleistocene populations (designated as H. heidelbergensis) with H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens, but the inclusion of Australopithecus and early Homo specimens has helped us to assess the polarity of the observed traits. H. neanderthalensis presents a unique morphology characterized by a relatively distal displacement of the lingual cusps and protrusion in the external outline of a large and bulging hypocone. This morphology can be found in a less pronounced degree in the European early and middle Pleistocene populations, and reaches its maximum expression with the H. neanderthalensis lineage. In contrast, modern humans retain the primitive morphology with a square occlusal polygon associated with a round external outline. PMID:17599390

  15. Evolutionary novelty in a rat with no molars

    PubMed Central

    Esselstyn, Jacob A.; Achmadi, Anang Setiawan; Rowe, Kevin C.

    2012-01-01

    Rodents are important ecological components of virtually every terrestrial ecosystem. Their success is a result of their gnawing incisors, battery of grinding molars and diastema that spatially and functionally separates the incisors from the molars. Until now these traits defined all rodents. Here, we describe a new species and genus of shrew-rat from Sulawesi Island, Indonesia that is distinguished from all other rodents by the absence of cheek teeth. Moreover, rather than gnawing incisors, this animal has bicuspid upper incisors, also unique among the more than 2200 species of rodents. Stomach contents from a single specimen suggest that the species consumes only earthworms. We posit that by specializing on soft-bodied prey, this species has had no need to process food by chewing, allowing its dentition to evolve for the sole purpose of procuring food. Thus, the removal of functional constraints, often considered a source of evolutionary innovations, may also lead to the loss of the very same traits that fuelled evolutionary diversification in the past. PMID:22915626

  16. Nanoparticle Counting: Towards Accurate Determination of the Molar Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Jing; Gao, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    Summary Innovations in nanotechnology have brought tremendous opportunities for the advancement of many research frontiers, ranging from electronics, photonics, energy, to medicine. To maximize the benefits of nano-scaled materials in different devices and systems, precise control of their concentration is a prerequisite. While concentrations of nanoparticles have been provided in other forms (e.g., mass), accurate determination of molar concentration, arguably the most useful one for chemical reactions and applications, has been a major challenge (especially for nanoparticles smaller than 30 nm). Towards this significant yet chronic problem, a variety of strategies are currently under development. Most of these strategies are applicable to a specialized group of nanoparticles due to their restrictions on the composition and size ranges of nanoparticles. As research and uses of nanomaterials being explored in an unprecedented speed, it is necessary to develop universal strategies that are easy to use, and compatible with nanoparticles of different sizes, compositions, and shapes. This review outlines the theories and applications of current strategies to measure nanoparticle molar concentration, discusses the advantages and limitations of these methods, and provides insights into future directions. PMID:25099190

  17. Ameloblastin and amelogenin expression in posnatal developing mouse molars.

    PubMed

    Torres-Quintana, María Angélica; Gaete, Marcia; Hernandez, Marcela; Farías, Marcela; Lobos, Nelson

    2005-03-01

    Ameloblastin and amelogenin are structural proteins present in the enamel matrix of developing teeth. Here we report the results of in situ hybridization analyses with DNA probes of ameloblastin and amelogenin expression in the mandibular first molars of ICR/Jcl mice from postnatal day 1 to day 15. Ameloblastin mRNA expression was observed in ameloblasts at day 2 while amelogenin mRNA was detected in secretory ameloblasts at day 3. Significant expression of both molecules was observed at days 4, 5 and 6, after which the levels decreased. Amelogenin expression ended on day 10, while ameloblastin mRNA was only weakly detected on day 12. Neither amelogenin nor ameloblastin expression was observed in day 15 mouse molars. Amelogenin and ameloblastin mRNAs were restricted to ameloblasts. We conclude that amelogenin and ameloblastin expression is enamel-specific, and suggest that these genes might be involved in the mineralization of enamel. It is possible that ameloblastin could participate in the attachment of ameloblasts to the enamel surface. In this case, the downregulation of expression may indicate the beginning of the maturation stage in which the ameloblasts tend to detach from the enamel layer. PMID:15881226

  18. Structured reporting in anatomic pathology for coclinical trials: the caELMIR model.

    PubMed

    Cardiff, Robert D; Miller, Claramae H; Munn, Robert J; Galvez, Jose J

    2014-01-01

    Electronic media, with their tremendous potential for storing, retrieving, and integrating data, are an essential part of modern collaborative multidisciplinary science. Structured reporting is a fundamental aspect of keeping accurate, searchable electronic records. This discussion on structured reporting in anatomic pathology for pre- and coclinical trials in animal models provides background information for scientists who are not familiar with structured reporting. Practical examples are provided using a working database system for preclinical research-caELMIR (Cancer Electronic Laboratory Management Information and Retrieval)-developed by the U.S. National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Mouse Models of Human Cancers Consortium (MMHCC). PMID:24173313

  19. Anatomical imbalance between cortical networks in autism

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Influential psychological models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have proposed that this prevalent developmental disorder results from impairment of global (integrative) information processing and overload of local (sensory) information. However, little neuroanatomical evidence consistent with this account has been reported. Here, we examined relative grey matter volumes (rGMVs) between three cortical networks, how they changed with age, and their relationship with core symptomatology. Using public neuroimaging data of high-functioning ASD males and age-/sex-/IQ-matched controls, we first identified age-associated atypical increases in rGMVs of the regions of two sensory systems (auditory and visual networks), and an age-related aberrant decrease in rGMV of a task-control system (fronto-parietal network, FPN) in ASD children. While the enlarged rGMV of the auditory network in ASD adults was associated with the severity of autistic socio-communicational core symptom, that of the visual network was instead correlated with the severity of restricted and repetitive behaviours in ASD. Notably, the atypically decreased rGMV of FPN predicted both of the two core symptoms. These findings suggest that disproportionate undergrowth of a task-control system (FPN) may be a common anatomical basis for the two ASD core symptoms, and relative overgrowth of the two different sensory systems selectively compounds the distinct symptoms. PMID:27484308

  20. The anatomical distribution of genetic associations.

    PubMed

    Wells, Alan; Kopp, Nathan; Xu, Xiaoxiao; O'Brien, David R; Yang, Wei; Nehorai, Arye; Adair-Kirk, Tracy L; Kopan, Raphael; Dougherty, J D

    2015-12-15

    Deeper understanding of the anatomical intermediaries for disease and other complex genetic traits is essential to understanding mechanisms and developing new interventions. Existing ontology tools provide functional, curated annotations for many genes and can be used to develop mechanistic hypotheses; yet information about the spatial expression of genes may be equally useful in interpreting results and forming novel hypotheses for a trait. Therefore, we developed an approach for statistically testing the relationship between gene expression across the body and sets of candidate genes from across the genome. We validated this tool and tested its utility on three applications. First, we show that the expression of genes in associated loci from GWA studies implicates specific tissues for 57 out of 98 traits. Second, we tested the ability of the tool to identify novel relationships between gene expression and phenotypes. Specifically, we experimentally confirmed an underappreciated prediction highlighted by our tool: that white blood cell count--a quantitative trait of the immune system--is genetically modulated by genes expressed in the skin. Finally, using gene lists derived from exome sequencing data, we show that human genes under selective constraint are disproportionately expressed in nervous system tissues. PMID:26586807

  1. Anatomical imbalance between cortical networks in autism.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Influential psychological models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have proposed that this prevalent developmental disorder results from impairment of global (integrative) information processing and overload of local (sensory) information. However, little neuroanatomical evidence consistent with this account has been reported. Here, we examined relative grey matter volumes (rGMVs) between three cortical networks, how they changed with age, and their relationship with core symptomatology. Using public neuroimaging data of high-functioning ASD males and age-/sex-/IQ-matched controls, we first identified age-associated atypical increases in rGMVs of the regions of two sensory systems (auditory and visual networks), and an age-related aberrant decrease in rGMV of a task-control system (fronto-parietal network, FPN) in ASD children. While the enlarged rGMV of the auditory network in ASD adults was associated with the severity of autistic socio-communicational core symptom, that of the visual network was instead correlated with the severity of restricted and repetitive behaviours in ASD. Notably, the atypically decreased rGMV of FPN predicted both of the two core symptoms. These findings suggest that disproportionate undergrowth of a task-control system (FPN) may be a common anatomical basis for the two ASD core symptoms, and relative overgrowth of the two different sensory systems selectively compounds the distinct symptoms. PMID:27484308

  2. Do retractile testes have anatomical anomalies?

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kleber M.; Costa, Suelen F.; Sampaio, Francisco J.B.; Favorito, Luciano A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the incidence of anatomical anomalies in patients with retractile testis. Materials and Methods: We studied prospectively 20 patients (28 testes) with truly retractile testis and compared them with 25 human fetuses (50 testes) with testis in scrotal position. We analyzed the relations among the testis, epididymis and patency of the processus vaginalis (PV). To analyze the relations between the testis and epididymis, we used a previous classification according to epididymis attachment to the testis and the presence of epididymis atresia. To analyze the structure of the PV, we considered two situations: obliteration of the PV and patency of the PV. We used the Chi-square test for contingency analysis of the populations under study (p <0.05). Results: The fetuses ranged in age from 26 to 35 weeks post-conception (WPC) and the 20 patients with retractile testis ranged in ages from 1 to 12 years (average of 5.8). Of the 50 fetal testes, we observed complete patency of the PV in 2 cases (4%) and epididymal anomalies (EAs) in 1 testis (2%). Of the 28 retractile testes, we observed patency of the PV in 6 cases (21.4%) and EA in 4 (14.28%). When we compared the incidence of EAs and PV patency we observed a significantly higher prevalence of these anomalies in retractile testes (p=0.0116). Conclusions: Retractile testis is not a normal variant with a significant risk of patent processus vaginalis and epididymal anomalies. PMID:27564294

  3. The anatomical distribution of genetic associations

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Alan; Kopp, Nathan; Xu, Xiaoxiao; O'Brien, David R.; Yang, Wei; Nehorai, Arye; Adair-Kirk, Tracy L.; Kopan, Raphael; Dougherty, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Deeper understanding of the anatomical intermediaries for disease and other complex genetic traits is essential to understanding mechanisms and developing new interventions. Existing ontology tools provide functional, curated annotations for many genes and can be used to develop mechanistic hypotheses; yet information about the spatial expression of genes may be equally useful in interpreting results and forming novel hypotheses for a trait. Therefore, we developed an approach for statistically testing the relationship between gene expression across the body and sets of candidate genes from across the genome. We validated this tool and tested its utility on three applications. First, we show that the expression of genes in associated loci from GWA studies implicates specific tissues for 57 out of 98 traits. Second, we tested the ability of the tool to identify novel relationships between gene expression and phenotypes. Specifically, we experimentally confirmed an underappreciated prediction highlighted by our tool: that white blood cell count – a quantitative trait of the immune system – is genetically modulated by genes expressed in the skin. Finally, using gene lists derived from exome sequencing data, we show that human genes under selective constraint are disproportionately expressed in nervous system tissues. PMID:26586807

  4. Lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia: an anatomical insight.

    PubMed

    Dias Filho, L C; Valença, M M; Guimarães Filho, F A V; Medeiros, R C; Silva, R A M; Morais, M G V; Valente, F P; França, S M L

    2003-07-01

    A detailed anatomic study was carried out on the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve to better understand the etiology and treatment of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. As it passed from the pelvis into the thigh, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve ran through an "aponeuroticofascial tunnel," beginning at the iliopubic tract and ending at the inguinal ligament; as it passed through the tunnel, an enlargement in its side-to-side diameter was observed, suggesting that the fascial structures proximal to the inguinal ligament may be implicated in the genesis of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. The finding of pseudoneuromas at this location, distant from the inguinal ligament, supports this hypothesis. The anterior superior iliac spine is located approximately 0.7 cm from the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and serves as the bony landmark for nerve localization. Within the first 3 cm of leaving the pelvis, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was observed deep to the fascia lata; therefore, surgical dissection within the subcutaneous fascia may be conducted with relative impunity near the anterior superior iliac spine just inferior to the inguinal ligament. In 36% of cases there was no posterior branch of the nerve, which is correlated to lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia symptoms often being limited to the anterior branch region. An accessory nerve was found in 30% of cases. PMID:12794914

  5. Employing anatomical knowledge in vertebral column labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

    2009-02-01

    The spinal column constitutes the central axis of human torso and is often used by radiologists to reference the location of organs in the chest and abdomen. However, visually identifying and labeling vertebrae is not trivial and can be timeconsuming. This paper presents an approach to automatically label vertebrae based on two pieces of anatomical knowledge: one vertebra has at most two attached ribs, and ribs are attached only to thoracic vertebrae. The spinal column is first extracted by a hybrid method using the watershed algorithm, directed acyclic graph search and a four-part vertebra model. Then curved reformations in sagittal and coronal directions are computed and aggregated intensity profiles along the spinal cord are analyzed to partition the spinal column into vertebrae. After that, candidates for rib bones are detected using features such as location, orientation, shape, size and density. Then a correspondence matrix is established to match ribs and vertebrae. The last vertebra (from thoracic to lumbar) with attached ribs is identified and labeled as T12. The rest of vertebrae are labeled accordingly. The method was tested on 50 CT scans and successfully labeled 48 of them. The two failed cases were mainly due to rudimentary ribs.

  6. Root anatomical phenes associated with water acquisition from drying soil: targets for crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Jonathan P; Chimungu, Joseph G; Brown, Kathleen M

    2014-11-01

    Several root anatomical phenes affect water acquisition from drying soil, and may therefore have utility in breeding more drought-tolerant crops. Anatomical phenes that reduce the metabolic cost of the root cortex ('cortical burden') improve soil exploration and therefore water acquisition from drying soil. The best evidence for this is for root cortical aerenchyma; cortical cell file number and cortical senescence may also be useful in this context. Variation in the number and diameter of xylem vessels strongly affects axial water conductance. Reduced axial conductance may be useful in conserving soil water so that a crop may complete its life cycle under terminal drought. Variation in the suberization and lignification of the endodermis and exodermis affects radial water conductance, and may therefore be important in reducing water loss from mature roots into dry soil. Rhizosheaths may protect the water status of young root tissue. Root hairs and larger diameter root tips improve root penetration of hard, drying soil. Many of these phenes show substantial genotypic variation. The utility of these phenes for water acquisition has only rarely been validated, and may have strong interactions with the spatiotemporal dynamics of soil water availability, and with root architecture and other aspects of the root phenotype. This complexity calls for structural-functional plant modelling and 3D imaging methods. Root anatomical phenes represent a promising yet underexplored and untapped source of crop breeding targets. PMID:24759880

  7. Extraction of the human cerebral ventricular system from MRI: inclusion of anatomical knowledge and clinical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Aamer; Hu, Qingmao; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.

    2004-04-01

    The human cerebral ventricular system is a complex structure that is essential for the well being and changes in which reflect disease. It is clinically imperative that the ventricular system be studied in details. For this reason computer assisted algorithms are essential to be developed. We have developed a novel (patent pending) and robust anatomical knowledge-driven algorithm for automatic extraction of the cerebral ventricular system from MRI. The algorithm is not only unique in its image processing aspect but also incorporates knowledge of neuroanatomy, radiological properties, and variability of the ventricular system. The ventricular system is divided into six 3D regions based on the anatomy and its variability. Within each ventricular region a 2D region of interest (ROI) is defined and is then further subdivided into sub-regions. Various strict conditions that detect and prevent leakage into the extra-ventricular space are specified for each sub-region based on anatomical knowledge. Each ROI is processed to calculate its local statistics, local intensity ranges of cerebrospinal fluid and grey and white matters, set a seed point within the ROI, grow region directionally in 3D, check anti-leakage conditions and correct growing if leakage occurs and connects all unconnected regions grown by relaxing growing conditions. The algorithm was tested qualitatively and quantitatively on normal and pathological MRI cases and worked well. In this paper we discuss in more detail inclusion of anatomical knowledge in the algorithm and usefulness of our approach from clinical perspective.

  8. The Inferior Alveolar Nerve of the Horse: Course and Anatomical Relationship with Mandibular Cheek Teeth.

    PubMed

    Iacopetti, I; Faughnan, M; Bono, S; Cozzi, B; Facchini, C

    2015-10-01

    The precise location of neurovascular structures within the relatively long mandibular canal of the horse is of paramount importance in surgical procedures of the area. The inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) enters the mandibular canal on the medial (lingual) surface of the mandible and innervates all the mandibular teeth. During its course, the nerve moves laterally, crossing the roots of the inferior cheek teeth. However, the exact anatomical relationships occurring between the IAN and the roots of the equine mandibular cheek teeth have not been described in detail. In this study, the mandibles of 40 horses were examined with CT scans and then used for bilateral detailed anatomical dissection, to assess the path of the IAN and its relationship to the roots of the lower cheek teeth. The data obtained show that the equine IAN is located ventral to the apices of the molar teeth (311/411, 310/410, 309/409 according to the Triadan numerical system). At the level of PM(4) (308/408), the IAN is located on the lingual side of the roots and coronally to its apices. At the level of PM(3) (307/407), the IAN is then found on the lingual side of the roots but in proximity to the apices. In 2 of 40 horses (=5%), the IAN moves towards the lingual side between the mesial and the distal root of PM(4). Our observations are valuable for planning a surgical approach to the ventral side of the mandible in the horse and to avoid potential post-operative complications. PMID:25182080

  9. Etiology, Classification and Management of Ectopic Eruption of Permanent First Molars.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chu-Chun; Boynton, James R

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic eruption of a permanent tooth involves abnormal resorption of a portion or all of the adjacent primary tooth. Among the most commonly ectopically erupted teeth are the permanent first molars. Ectopically erupting molars may require intervention to allow for full eruption, or they may spontaneously self-correct and erupt into occlusion. Decisions regarding the necessity of intervention, its ideal timing, and intervention type are multifactorial. Treatment options for the ectopically erupting permanent first molar include the elastomeric separator, brass wire, pre-fabricated clip separator, custom made appliances (Humphrey appliance, Halterman appliance), or extraction of the primary molar. Early intervention when indicated can ensure proper full eruption of the permanent first molar and prevent mesial angulation, arch perimeter loss, tooth impaction and ankylosis. Two cases are described that manage ectopic eruption of the permanent first molar. PMID:26882645

  10. Efficiency of two protocols for maxillary molar intrusion with mini-implants

    PubMed Central

    Paccini, Juliana Volpato Curi; Cotrim-Ferreira, Flávio Augusto; Ferreira, Flávio Vellini; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Cançado, Rodrigo Hermont; Valarelli, Fabrício Pinelli

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of two protocols for maxillary molar intrusion with two or three mini-implants. Methods: Twenty five maxillary first molars extruded for loss of their antagonists in adult subjects were selected. The sample was divided into two groups, according to the intrusion protocol with two or three mini-implants. Group 1 consisted of 15 molars that were intruded by two mini-implants. Group 2 consisted of 10 molars intruded by three mini-implants. Changes with treatment were analyzed in lateral cephalograms at the beginning and at the end of intrusion of maxillary molars. Results: Results showed that there was no difference in efficiency for the two intrusion protocols. It was concluded that extruded maxillary molars can be intruded with two or three mini-implants with similar efficiency. PMID:27409654

  11. Ectopic third molar in the mandibular sigmoid notch: Report of a case and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Baykul, Timuçin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the etiopathogenesis, clinical features and surgical approaches for removal of ectopic third molars in the mandible. Methods: We report a case of an impacted mandibular third molar dislocated on mandibular sigmoid notch. 20 cases of ectopic mandibular third molars reported in the English-language literature, identified from Pubmed and Medline databases are also reviewed. Results: Among the 20 article reported in the presented study, ectopic third molars were generally located in the condylar region. The common symptoms of the clinical examination were pain, trismus, swelling, temporomandibular joint syndroms or no symptoms. Conclusions: Ectopic third molar may be asymptomatic initially with clinical manifestations, later on as adjacent structures are affected. The surgical approach must be carefully planned for the aim of choosing the more conservative technique that produces the minimum trauma to patients. Key words:Ectopic third molar, sigmoid notch, cyst. PMID:25810825

  12. Foramen of Civinini: A New Anatomical Guide for Maxillofacial Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Saran, R Sharmila; Ananthi, K Suba; Subramaniam, Aruna; Balaji, MS Thotakura; Vinaitha, D; Vaithianathan, G

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Study on Morphometric and radiological aspect on existence of foramen of civinini. Sphenoid bone comprises of some rare ossified ligaments, may encounter difficulty in surgical procedures. Incidence of Pterygospinous bars various with different racial groups and they are genetically controlled. Complete ossification of pterygospinous ligament form foramen of civinini. Entrapments of vessels or nerves may occur due to existence of pterygospinous bar. The bar may locate medially or inferiorly to formen ovale as seen in Hawaiian and lemurs. Co – existence of bar with the wide lateral pterygoid plate exhibits development of the bar from herbivore, carnivore and old world monkeys. Comparatively absence or small spine of civinini noted in new world monkeys, rodents and platyrrhines. Pterygospinousbar represents the phylogenetic remnant of Human beings. Material and Methods: By using digital vernier caliper, the measurements of length, width of the pterygospinous bar and area of foramen of civinini including the length and breadth of lateral pterygoid plate were measured. Using X rays the radiological view was determined. Results: In this study from 160 cases of skull and sphenoid bones revealed that complete and incomplete foramen of civinini in 1.25% and 7.5% of cases respectively. Peculiarly accessory foramen of civinini noticed in 1.25% of cases. Maximum area of foramen of civinini was 94.2mm2. The maximum width of lateral pterygoid was noted as 19.6mm respectively. Mentocoronal view of skiagram clearly shows the bar. Conclusion: During Anaesthesia for trigeminal neuralgia may encounter difficult to pass the needle. The bar compress the mandibular nerve branches can cause lingual numbness, pain and speech impairment. Conductive anaesthesia on the mandibular nerve through the lateral subzygomatic route may be difficult to approach. Exploring the anatomical and clinical updates of pterygospinous bar may guide the surgeons and radiologists to overcome any

  13. Anatomic Variability of 120 L5 Spondylolytic Defects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Michael R.; Moore, Timothy A.; Cooperman, Daniel R.; Lee, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Adult human osteologic specimens were assessed for spondylolytic defects and characterized. Objectives To characterize and determine the prevalence of spondylolytic defects in an osteological collection. Methods Lumbar vertebrae from the Hamann-Todd Osteological Collection at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History were examined. Digital images of specimens with L5 isthmic spondylolytic defects were analyzed, examining the distance of the pars defect in the sagittal plane in relation to the caudal aspect of the pedicle. Results There were 95 bilateral complete (BC), 16 unilateral incomplete (UI), 5 unilateral complete (UC), and 4 unilateral complete defects with an incomplete defect on the contralateral side. The mean distance of BC defects from the pedicle and inferior vertebral end plate was 4.03 mm and 4.88 mm, respectively. The mean distance of the defect from the inferior end plate on the left and right sides were 5.31 mm and 4.44 mm, respectively (p = 0.001, correlation coefficient = 0.56). The mean distance of UI and UC defects from the inferior end plate was 6.38 mm and 2.6 mm, respectively. Conclusion L5 spondylolytic defects were found in 3.87% of the sample. This large-scale description of isthmic spondylolytic defects reveals that significant variability exists in the location of the defect. The anatomic location of the pars defect likely plays a role in the development of L5 nerve root compression and radiculopathy in this clinical scenario. Classifying these defects might allow surgeons to better identify those patients who might benefit from fusion alone without posterior decompression. PMID:24436876

  14. Thoughts on practical core elements of an ethical anatomical education.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    While questions of ethics in body procurement have become a focus of attention in many medical schools around the world, the recent report by a medical student regarding disturbing incidences in an anatomical dissection course (Terry, ) underlines the importance of a discussion of ethical practices in anatomical education. Here thoughts on core elements of instruction are proposed which are based on the premise that both, ethical body procurement and ethical anatomical education, are the foundation for a humanism-based professional training of students in medicine. As the anatomical dissection course presents an exceptional situation for students, practical guidelines for a curriculum founded on ethical considerations are essential. They include a preparatory phase before the start of the course in which students are asked about their expectations and fears concerning anatomical dissection; an introduction to the history and ethics of anatomy; a time for reflection in the dissection room before the start of dissection; a regular opportunity for reflections on dissection in parallel to the course with students and faculty; and a memorial service for the donors organized by students for faculty, students and donor families. Finally, anatomical faculty should undergo training in ethical educational practices. Many anatomy programs have incorporated various of these ideas, while others have not done so. Guidelines for ethical anatomical practices can strengthen the foundation of a humanistic approach to medicine in future physicians and health care workers. PMID:26474826

  15. Molar extinction coefficients of solutions of some organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kulwant; Sandhu, G. K.; Lark, B. S.

    2004-05-01

    Molar extinction coefficients of aqueous solutions of some organic compounds, viz. formamide (CH_{3}NO), N-methylformamide (C_{2}H_{5}NO), NN-dimethylformamide (C_{3}H_{7}NO), NN-dimethylacetamide (C_{4}H_{9}NO), 1,4-dioxane (C_{4}H_{8}O_{2}), succinimide (C_{4}H_{5}NO_{2}) and solutions of acetamide (C_{2}H_{5}NO) and benzoic acid (C_{7}H_{6}O_{2}) in 1,4-dioxane (C_{4}H_{8}O_{2}) have been determined by narrow beam gamma-ray transmission method at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. The experimental values of mass attenuation coefficients of these compounds have been used to calculate effective atomic numbers and electron densities. The additivity rule earlier used for aqueous solution has been extended to non-aqueous (1,4-dioxane) solutions.

  16. Analgesic regimens for third molar surgery: pharmacologic and behavioral considerations.

    PubMed

    Moore, P A; Werther, J R; Seldin, E B; Stevens, C M

    1986-11-01

    The level of pain following the extraction of impacted third molars was evaluated in 75 patients. Participants were administered acetaminophen 1,000 mg or a placebo before surgery. After surgery, acetaminophen 650 mg was administered either at fixed intervals or as needed to relieve pain. When acetaminophen was administered before surgery, the onset of peak pain was delayed and patient discomfort was decreased 3, 4, and 5 hours after surgery. Patients following the fixed interval regimen after surgery experienced more pain overall and requested the backup narcotic analgesic more frequently. Of the regimens tested, patients preferred the regimen of acetaminophen 1,000 mg administered before surgery with acetaminophen administered as needed for pain after surgery. PMID:3465787

  17. Third molar consent forms: how comprehensive should they be?

    PubMed

    Britton, Danielle; Burns, Andrew; Hudyba, Stephen; Nugent, Michael

    2016-09-01

    To establish a gold standard for the information given to patients about the risks associated with third molar extractions, we surveyed 79 oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMFS) to find out what information they gave to patients during the consent process. We also surveyed 62 medicolegal solicitors to find out what information they thought patients should be given before the procedure, and in what form. A total of 20/76 OMFS (26%) used a two-stage process to obtain consent; 13 (17%) included paraesthesia on the consent form and also gave out an information leaflet. All the lawyers agreed that patients should give their consent in writing and thought that the risk of paraesthesia should be included on the form. Three-quarters thought that they should also be given an information leaflet that includes paraesthesia. We encourage surgeons to do this as part of the two-stage consent process. PMID:27256800

  18. Partial molar volume of L-Valine in water under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawamura, Seiji

    2013-06-01

    Partial molar volume of L-valine in water was estimated up to 400 MPa from pressure coefficient of the solubility of the solute and molar volume of solid valine. The former was measured in a previous paper and the latter was measured in this article using a piston-cylinder typed cell. The partial molar volume increased with pressure and a maximum was observed around 250 MPa. It was compared with other amino acids.

  19. Three-rooted mandibular first primary molar: Report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shilpi; Nagaveni, N. B.; Chandranee, N. J.

    2012-01-01

    Accessory root formation in primary teeth is an uncommon finding. An awareness and understanding of the presence of additional roots and unusual root canal morphology is essential as it determines the successful outcome of the endodontic treatment. This paper presents three case reports on the presence of three-rooted mandibular first primary molar (primary three-rooted mandibular left first molar and bilateral mandibular first molar). PMID:22629056

  20. Automatic Molar Extraction from Dental Panoramic Radiographs for Forensic Personal Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samopa, Febriliyan; Asano, Akira; Taguchi, Akira

    Measurement of an individual molar provides rich information for forensic personal identification. We propose a computer-based system for extracting an individual molar from dental panoramic radiographs. A molar is obtained by extracting the region-of-interest, separating the maxilla and mandible, and extracting the boundaries between teeth. The proposed system is almost fully automatic; all that the user has to do is clicking three points on the boundary between the maxilla and the mandible.

  1. Age estimation using development of third molars in South Indian population: A radiological study

    PubMed Central

    Priyadharshini, K. Indra; Idiculla, Jose Joy; Sivapathasundaram, B.; Mohanbabu, V.; Augustine, Dominic; Patil, Shankargouda

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess the estimation of chronological age based on the stages of third molar development following the eight stages (A–H) method of Demirjian et al. in Chennai population of South India. Materials and Methods: A sample consisting of 848 individuals (471 males and 377 females) aged between 14 and 30 years was randomly selected for the clinical evaluation and 323 orthopantomograms with clinically missing third molars were taken for radiological evaluation using Demirjian's method from a Chennai population of known chronological age and sex. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's Chi-square test and mean values were compared between the study groups using t-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's highly significant difference (HSD). In the present study, P < 0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: The results showed that the mean age of having clinically completely erupted maxillary third molars was 22.41 years in male subjects and 23.81 years in female subjects and that of mandibular third molars was 21.49 years in male subjects and 23.34 years in female subjects. Mandibular third molars were clinically missing more often in females than in males. Eruption of mandibular third molars was generally ahead of the emergence of maxillary third molars into the oral cavity. Third molar development between male and female subjects showed statistically significant differences at calcification stage F and stage G in maxillary third molars and stage F in mandibular third molars (P < 0.05). Conclusion: There are differences indicating that maxillary and mandibular third molar eruption reached Demirjian's formation stages earlier in males than in females. It is suggested that in future studies, to increase the accuracy of age determination, indications of sexual maturity and ossification should also be evaluated in addition to third molar mineralization. PMID:25984465

  2. Embryologic and anatomic basis of duodenal surgery.

    PubMed

    Androulakis, J; Colborn, G L; Skandalakis, P N; Skandalakis, L J; Skandalakis, J E

    2000-02-01

    The following points should be remembered by surgeons (Table 1). In writing about the head of the pancreas, the common bile duct, and the duodenum in 1979, the authors stated that Embryologically, anatomically and surgically these three entities form an inseparable unit. Their relations and blood supply make it impossible for the surgeon to remove completely the head of the pancreas without removing the duodenum and the distal part of the common bile duct. Here embryology and anatomy conspire to produce some of the most difficult surgery of the abdominal cavity. The only alternative procedure, the so-called 95% pancreatectomy, leaves a rim of pancreas along the medial border of the duodenum to preserve the duodenal blood supply. The authors had several conversations with Child, one of the pioneers of this procedure, whose constant message was to always be careful with the blood supply of the duodenum (personal communication, 1970). Beger et al popularized duodenum-preserving resection of the pancreatic head, emphasizing preservation of endocrine pancreatic function. They reported that ampullectomy (removal of the papilla and ampulla of Vater) carries a mortality rate of less than 0.4% and a morbidity rate of less than 10.0%. Surgeons should not ligate the superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries because such ligation may cause necrosis of the head of the pancreas and of much of the duodenum. The accessory pancreatic duct of Santorini passes under the gastrointestinal artery. For safety, surgeons should ligate the artery away from the anterior medial duodenal wall, where the papilla is located, thereby avoiding injury to or ligation of the duct. "Water under the bridge" applies not only to the relationship of the uterine artery and ureter but also to the gastroduodenal artery and the accessory pancreatic duct. In 10% of cases, the duct of Santorini is the only duct draining the pancreas, so ligation of the gastroduodenal artery with accidental inclusion of

  3. Periodontal regeneration of transplanted rat molars after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Naoko; Hamamoto, Yoshioki; Nakajima, Tamio; Irie, Kazuharu; Ozawa, Hidehiro

    2004-01-01

    The effects of cryopreservation on periodontal regeneration of transplanted rat molars were investigated histologically and histochemically in rats. Bilateral first and second maxillary molars of 4-week-old Wistar rats were gently extracted and transplanted into the abdominal subcutaneous connective tissue immediately or after cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen overnight. Donor teeth were slowly frozen by a rate-controlling freezer (program freezer) using 5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) as cryoprotectants. One-four weeks after transplantation, they were carefully excised with the surrounding tissues. Regeneration of acellular cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone were observed 2 weeks after immediate transplantation. The pulp was repaired by the ingrowth of granulation tissue from the root apex followed by the formation of calcified tissue. The regenerated periodontal ligament was positive for alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Small or mononuclear tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive cells were scattered on the newly formed alveolar bone and on the hard tissue in the pulp, but there was no external or internal progressive root resorption at 4 weeks. Cryopreserved teeth had acellular cementum with a rough surface at 1 week, but with the increase of cementoblasts and the appearance of periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, the surface became smooth at 3 weeks. Epithelial rests of Malassez (ERM) also revived. After regeneration of the periodontal tissues at 4 weeks, there was no evidence of root resorption. Although the process proceeded slowly, the cryopreserved teeth showed the periodontal regeneration substantially similar to that of the immediately transplanted teeth without progressive root resorption, indicating that they could be applicable for clinical use. PMID:14693198

  4. Brief communication: Molar development and crown areas in early Australopithecus.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Ramirez Rozzi, Fernando V; Wood, Bernard A; Bromage, Timothy G

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that the hypodigms representing the two earliest Australopithecus (Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis) form an ancestor-descendant lineage. Understanding the details of this possible transition is important comparative evidence for assessing the likelihood of other examples of ancestor-descendant lineages within the hominin clade. To this end we have analyzed crown and cusp base areas of high resolution replicas of the mandibular molars of Au. anamensis (Allia Bay and Kanapoi sites) and those of Au. afarensis (Hadar, Laetoli, and Maka). We found no statistically significant differences in crown areas between these hypodigms although the mean of M(1) crowns was smaller in Au. anamensis, being the smallest of any Australopithecus species sampled to date. Intraspecies comparison of the areas of mesial cusps for each molar type using Wilcoxon signed rank test showed no differences for Au. anamensis. Significant differences were found between the protoconid and metaconid of Au. afarensis M(2)s and M(3)s. Furthermore, the area formed by the posterior cusps as a whole relative to the anterior cusps showed significant differences in Au. afarensis M(1)s and in Au. anamensis M(2)s but no differences were noted for M(3)s of either taxon. Developmental information derived from microstructural details in enamel shows that M(1) crown formation in Au. anamensis is similar to Pan and shorter than in H. sapiens. Taken together, these data suggests that the overall trend in the Au. anamensis-Au. afarensis transition may have involved a moderate increase in M(1) crown areas with relative expansion of distal cusps. PMID:22623291

  5. An anatomically oriented breast model for MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutra, Dominik; Bergtholdt, Martin; Sabczynski, Jörg; Dössel, Olaf; Buelow, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the western world. In the breast cancer care-cycle, MRIis e.g. employed in lesion characterization and therapy assessment. Reading of a single three dimensional image or comparing a multitude of such images in a time series is a time consuming task. Radiological reporting is done manually by translating the spatial position of a finding in an image to a generic representation in the form of a breast diagram, outlining quadrants or clock positions. Currently, registration algorithms are employed to aid with the reading and interpretation of longitudinal studies by providing positional correspondence. To aid with the reporting of findings, knowledge about the breast anatomy has to be introduced to translate from patient specific positions to a generic representation. In our approach we fit a geometric primitive, the semi-super-ellipsoid to patient data. Anatomical knowledge is incorporated by fixing the tip of the super-ellipsoid to the mammilla position and constraining its center-point to a reference plane defined by landmarks on the sternum. A coordinate system is then constructed by linearly scaling the fitted super-ellipsoid, defining a unique set of parameters to each point in the image volume. By fitting such a coordinate system to a different image of the same patient, positional correspondence can be generated. We have validated our method on eight pairs of baseline and follow-up scans (16 breasts) that were acquired for the assessment of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. On average, the location predicted and the actual location of manually set landmarks are within a distance of 5.6 mm. Our proposed method allows for automatic reporting simply by uniformly dividing the super-ellipsoid around its main axis.

  6. Anatomical and technical considerations in surface electromyography.

    PubMed

    Ferdjallah, M; Wertsch, J J

    1998-11-01

    Despite the technical and clinical limitations of surface EMG, it is essential in the physical medicine and rehabilitation field. Surface EMG has evolved from a secondary means of clinical assessment to a primary factor in determining and predicting clinical outcomes. Computer models of electrical muscular activity are currently implemented to assist in designing proper instrumentation and electrode with optimum dimensions. These models could be expanded to simulate pathological motor functions to help understand functional abnormalities even before clinical interventions. Currently, several groups all over the world are investigating the use of multichannel surface EMG. This technological advancement would have an immediate impact on several medical fields. For instance, tendon transfers are performed to improve function in peripheral nerve injury, brachial plexus lesion, spinal cord injury, and cerebral palsy. There are potential uses for multichannel surface EMG, both preoperatively and postoperatively. Preoperatively choosing the muscle for transfer has been largely based on clinical grounds. Multichannel surface EMG could give a more objective database to assess prognosis and determine which muscle to transfer. Postoperatively, multichannel surface EMG can provide a systematic way of assessing changes in gross muscle topography caused by the tendon transfer. Other applications of multichannel surface EMG would be for bony and soft tissue deformity from arthritis, heterotopic ossification, amputation, or burns. Multichannel surface EMG would allow clinicians to get a broader picture of the skeletal muscle activity despite the fact that it is physically impossible for the patient to assume the anatomic position used for traditional isolated electrode placement. Individuals with physical disabilities that affect their ability to assume the usual posture for electrophysiologic testing may benefit considerably from development of multichannel electrophysiologic

  7. Etiologic analysis of 100 anatomically failed dacryocystorhinostomies

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Tarjani Vivek; Mohammed, Faraz Ali; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Naik, Milind N

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the etiological factors contributing to the failure of a dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). Patients and methods Retrospective review was performed in 100 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with anatomically failed DCR at presentation to a tertiary care hospital over a 5-year period from 2010 to 2015. Patient records were reviewed for demographic data, type of past surgery, preoperative endoscopic findings, previous use of adjuvants such as intubation and mitomycin C, and intraoperative notes during the re-revision. The potential etiological factors for failure were noted. Results Of the 100 patients with failed DCRs, the primary surgery was an external DCR in 73 and endoscopic DCR in 27 patients. Six patients in each group had multiple revisions. The mean ages at presentation in the external and endoscopic groups were 39.41 years and 37.19 years, respectively. All patients presented with epiphora. The most common causes of failure were inadequate osteotomy (69.8% in the external group and 85.1% in the endoscopic group, P=0.19) followed by inadequate or inappropriate sac marsupialization (60.2% in the external group and 77.7% in the endoscopic group, P=0.16) and cicatricial closure of the ostium (50.6% in the external group and 55.5% in the endoscopic group, P=0.83). The least common causes such as ostium granulomas and paradoxical middle turbinate (1.37%, n=1) were noted in the external group only. Conclusion Inadequate osteotomy, incomplete sac marsupialization, and cicatricial closure of the ostium were the most common causes of failure and did not significantly differ in the external and endoscopic groups. Meticulous evaluation to identify causative factors for failure and addressing them are crucial for subsequent successful outcomes. PMID:27555748

  8. Anatomical prognostic factors after abdominal perineal resection

    SciTech Connect

    Walz, B.J.; Green, M.R.; Lindstrom, E.R.; Butcher, H.R. Jr.

    1981-04-01

    The natural history of 153 patients with rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma treated by abdominal perineal resection was retrospectively studied with emphasis on survival, clinical signs and symptoms of recurrence distantly and in the pelvis. We analyzed diagnostic factors that might predict tumor stage preoperatively and anatomical factors of the tumor itself that might predict behaviour of the lesion. Age, sex, tumor size, and distance from the anal verge were not useful in predicting stage. Constriction of the lesion tended to occur with high stage, but was not a reliable predictor. The grade or differentiation of the biopsy (when noted) did not correlate with either the grade of the resected specimen or the stage. The highest grade of the resected specimen was quite predictive of subsequent outcome. Seventy-three percent of the poorly differentiated tumors were Stage C or D, though a lower grade specimen did not rule out high stage. The Astler-Coller stage was reliable in predicting the likelihood of survival, pelvic recurrence, and distant metastases. In Stage C patients, the number of positive lymph node metastases strongly affected prognosis: if only one node was positive, survival was intermediate between Stages B and C; if more than seven nodes were positive, no patient survived. Of the evaluable cases, 48% survived clinically free of disease five or more years; 43% failed (died of the rectosigmoid tumor); 22% developed pelvic recurrence (6% pelvis only, 16% pelvis plus distant metastases). Fifty-two percent of the patients failing had tumor in the pelvis. Seven of the 56 failures (13%) occurred at or after five years; six of these seven failed locally, usually with metastases. Patients under age 40 or over age 80 and the same results as the group in general. Sixteen percent of the entire group had major complications, 52% minor. There were eight postoperative deaths (5%); 18 patients (12%) required reoperation.

  9. Saving the 2nd Molar from the 3rd Is it Really the Guilt of the Tilt?

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Pankaj; Nawal, Ruchika Roongta; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Clinicians often relate the distal caries in second molars to angulated third molars, which if left undetected can lead to gross decay that may further require removal of the tooth. Due to this fact, many third molars are advised for prophylactic removal to prevent decay in the second molar. But this approach would only be justified when the incidence of decay/loss of second molar due to third molar are reasonably high. We sought to determine incidence of caries experience and also sequel extraction in second molars associated with the third molars. Aim The study was conducted to answer the basic question that whether the incidence of caries and subsequent extraction of second molar due to angulated third molars is high enough to justify the prophylactic removal of third molar or not. Materials and Methods This study was conducted on radiographic records of 1187 patients. The effect of tilted third molar on the second molar was measured in relation with three parameters namely level & position of third molar with respect to second molar and the distribution among arches. Results The results indicated that out of total number of teeth examined only 5.4% of maxillary and 9.6% of mandibular second molars were affected by tilted third molars. Further, only 2.2% of mandibular and 2.9% of maxillary second molars were indicated for extraction. The data was statistically insignificant. Conclusion It was concluded that distal caries in second molars is not very common. It may be present in some cases of third molar impactions and prophylactic removal of these impacted teeth may not be considered appropriate. PMID:27437353

  10. A Prospective Study of Clinical Outcomes Related to Third Molar Removal or Retention

    PubMed Central

    Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Rothen, Marilynn; Spiekerman, Charles; Drangsholt, Mark; Anderson, Loren; Roset, Gayle A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated outcomes of third molar removal or retention in adolescents and young adults. Methods. We recruited patients aged 16 to 22 years from a dental practice–based research network in the Pacific Northwest from May 2009 through September 2010 who had at least 1 third molar present and had never undergone third molar removal. Data were acquired via questionnaire and clinical examination at baseline, periodic online questionnaires, and clinical examination at 24 months. Results. A total of 801 patients participated. Among patients undergoing third molar removal, rates of paresthesia and jaw joint symptoms lasting more than 1 month were 6.3 and 34.3 per 100 person-years, respectively. Among patients not undergoing removal, corresponding rates were 0.7 and 8.8. Periodontal attachment loss at distal sites of second molars did not significantly differ by third molar removal status. Incident caries at the distal surfaces of second molars occurred in fewer than 1% of all sites. Conclusions. Rates of paresthesia and temporomandibular joint disorder were higher after third molar removal. Periodontal attachment loss and incident caries at the distal sites of second molars were not affected by extraction status. PMID:24524521

  11. Periodontal considerations in the use of bonds or bands on molars in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R L; Baumrind, S

    1992-01-01

    This longitudinal study compared the periodontal status of bonded and banded molars in 20 adult and 40 adolescent patients before, during and after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Plaque accumulation (measured by the Plaque Index), gingival inflammation (measured by the Gingival Index and the bleeding tendency), and pocket depth were assessed by one examiner at sites along the mesio-buccal line angle of the maxillary right first molar and the mandibular left first molar. Assessments were made immediately prior to the placement of fixed appliances (pretreatment), at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months after appliances were placed; and 3 months after appliances were removed (posttreatment). Loss of attachment between the pretreatment and posttreatment visits also was determined. At pretreatment, no significant differences were found in gingival inflammation between maxillary and mandibular banded and bonded molars. During treatment, both maxillary and mandibular banded molars showed significantly (p less than 0.05) greater gingival inflammation and plaque accumulation than did bonded molars. Three months after appliance removal, the maxillary molars that had been banded continued to show significantly more gingival inflammation and loss of attachment than did the maxillary molars that had been bonded. When all banded and bonded teeth were grouped by patient age, mean values for plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation in the maxillary molar regions were significantly greater for adolescents than for adults. PMID:1626745

  12. Assessment of maxillary third molars with panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yun-Hoa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated maxillary third molars and their relation to the maxillary sinus using panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods A total of 395 maxillary third molars in 234 patients were examined using panoramic radiographs and CBCT images. We examined the eruption level of the maxillary third molars, the available retromolar space, the angulation, the relationship to the second molars, the number of roots, and the relationship between the roots and the sinus. Results Females had a higher frequency of maxillary third molars with occlusal planes apical to the cervical line of the second molar (Level C) than males. All third molars with insufficient retromolar space were Level C. The most common angulation was vertical, followed by buccoangular. Almost all of the Level C molars were in contact with the roots of the second molar. Erupted teeth most commonly had three roots, and completely impacted teeth most commonly had one root. The superimposition of one third of the root and the sinus floor was most commonly associated with the sinus floor being located on the buccal side of the root. Conclusion Eruption levels were differently distributed according to gender. A statistically significant association was found between the eruption level and the available retromolar space. When panoramic radiographs showed a superimposition of the roots and the sinus floor, expansion of the sinus to the buccal side of the root was generally observed in CBCT images. PMID:26730371

  13. Reduced radiation-absorbed dose to tissues with partial panoramic radiography for evaluation of third molars.

    PubMed

    Kircos, L T; Eakle, W S; Smith, R A

    1986-05-01

    The radiation-absorbed doses from panoramic radiography, distal molar radiography, and a partial panoramic radiographic technique that exposes only the third molar region to radiation are compared. Doses of radiation to the submandibular salivary gland were comparable by all three techniques, but doses of radiation to the head and neck were reduced greatly by the partial panoramic radiographic technique. Partial panoramic radiography is a diagnostically satisfactory and a radiologically safer technique for evaluation of third molar pathosis than is panoramic or distal molar radiography. PMID:3458783

  14. Reduced radiation-absorbed dose to tissues with partial panoramic radiography for evaluation of third molars

    SciTech Connect

    Kircos, L.T.; Eakle, W.S.; Smith, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    The radiation-absorbed doses from panoramic radiography, distal molar radiography, and a partial panoramic radiographic technique that exposes only the third molar region to radiation are compared. Doses of radiation to the submandibular salivary gland were comparable by all three techniques, but doses of radiation to the head and neck were reduced greatly by the partial panoramic radiographic technique. Partial panoramic radiography is a diagnostically satisfactory and a radiologically safer technique for evaluation of third molar pathosis than is panoramic or distal molar radiography.

  15. A reusable anatomically segmented digital mannequin for public health communication.

    PubMed

    Fujieda, Kaori; Okubo, Kosaku

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing development of world wide web technologies has facilitated a change in health communication, which has now become bi-directional and encompasses people with diverse backgrounds. To enable an even greater role for medical illustrations, a data set, BodyParts3D, has been generated and its data set can be used by anyone to create and exchange customised three-dimensional (3D) anatomical images. BP3D comprises more than 3000 3D object files created by segmenting a digital mannequin in accordance with anatomical naming conventions. This paper describes the methodologies and features used to generate an anatomically correct male mannequin. PMID:27311009

  16. Anatomic Double-Bundle Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chahla, Jorge; Nitri, Marco; Civitarese, David; Dean, Chase S; Moulton, Samuel G; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-02-01

    The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is known to be the main posterior stabilizer of the knee. Anatomic single-bundle PCL reconstruction, focusing on reconstruction of the larger anterolateral bundle, is the most commonly performed procedure. Because of the residual posterior and rotational tibial instability after the single-bundle procedure and the inability to restore the normal knee kinematics, an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction has been proposed in an effort to re-create the native PCL footprint more closely and to restore normal knee kinematics. We detail our technique for an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction using Achilles and anterior tibialis tendon allografts. PMID:27284530

  17. The Evolution of Anatomic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Getgood, Alan; Spalding, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has evolved significantly since the early 1900’s, back when an emphasis was placed on repair and not reconstruction. Over the past century, the technique has evolved from intra-articular non anatomic reconstruction, to extra articular reconstruction, back to intra articular (performed arthroscopically), to now, the advent of anatomic insertion site restoration. This review will aim to illustrate the changes that have occurred, describing the rational for this process, based upon anatomical, radiological, biomechanical and clinical studies, all of which have aimed to improve patient function following ACL injury. PMID:22905073

  18. Anatomical characterisation of surgical procedures in the Read Thesaurus.

    PubMed Central

    Price, C.; Bentley, T. E.; Brown, P. J.; Schulz, E. B.; O'Neil, M.

    1996-01-01

    Each concept in the surgical operations chapter of the Read Thesaurus has been analysed to determine its anatomical site component. The underlying structure of this chapter and its relationship to the anatomy chapter are explored. The defined anatomical sites have been included as atomic maps in the Read Code template table, one of the key component files of the Thesaurus, relevant features of which are described. The analysis methodology is outlined and the value of an anatomically characterised surgical procedure terminology is discussed together with the implications of semantically defining a wider range of characteristics of surgical procedures. PMID:8947638

  19. Surgical Anatomical Landmarks of the Thoracolumbar Vertebral Column on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Yeamans, C L; Haley, A; Gutierrez-Quintana, R; Penderis, J

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in veterinary medicine profoundly improved spinal cord disease investigation in canine patients. We aimed to further describe the anatomical landmarks of the thoracolumbar junction in sagittal MRI sequences. MRI studies from 90 dogs were reviewed retrospectively, representing a broad cross section of breeds and body weights. The ratio of the distance from the dorsal aspect of the vertebral canal to the dorsal aspect of the transverse process or rib articulation relative to the length of L2 vertebra was determined for T12, T13, L1 and L2 vertebrae. A statistically significant difference was noted with the transverse processes being more ventrally located than the cranial fovea costalis. The lumbar transverse processes and rib articulations dramatically varied in shape, being oval or round, respectively. The sagittal image at the level of the lateral margin of the articular facet joint proved to be the most consistent for review of these structures. PMID:26105110

  20. Differentiating the impact of anatomic and non-anatomic liver resection on early recurrence in patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background For Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) treated with hepatectomy, the extent of the resection margin remains controversial and data available on its effect on early tumor recurrence are very few and contradictory. The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of the type of resection (anatomic versus non-anatomic) on early intra-hepatic HCC recurrence in patients with solitary HCC and preserved liver function. Methods Among 53 patients with similar clinico-pathologic data who underwent curative liver resection for HCC between 2000 and 2006, 28 patients underwent anatomic resection of at least one liver segment and 25 patients underwent limited resection with a margin of at least 1 cm. Results After a close follow-up period of 24 months, no difference was detected in recurrence rates between the anatomic (35.7%) and the non-anatomic (40%) groups in either univariate (p = 0.74) and multivariate (p = 0.65) analysis. Factors contributing to early recurrence were tumor size (p = 0.012) and tumor stage including vascular invasion (p = 0.009). Conclusion The choice of the type of resection for HCC should be based on the maintenance of adequate hepatic reserve. The type of resection (anatomic vs non-anatomic) was found not to be a risk factor for early tumor recurrence. PMID:20497548

  1. Automatic anatomically selective image enhancement in digital chest radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Sezan, M.I. ); Minerbo, G.N. ); Schaetzing, R. )

    1989-06-01

    The authors develop a technique for automatic anatomically selective enhancement of digital chest radiographs. Anatomically selective enhancement is motivated by the desire to simultaneously meet the different enhancement requirements of the lung field and the mediastinum. A recent peak detection algorithm and a set of rules are applied to the image histogram to determine automatically a gray-level threshold between the lung field and mediastinum. The gray-level threshold facilitates anatomically selective gray-scale modification and/or unsharp masking. Further, in an attempt to suppress possible white-band or black-band artifacts due to unsharp masking at sharp edges, local-contrast adaptivity is incorporated into anatomically selective unsharp masking by designing an anatomy-sensitive emphasis parameter which varies asymmetrically with positive and negative values of the local image contrast.

  2. Anatomical features and clinical relevance of a persistent trigeminal artery

    PubMed Central

    Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel; Tubbs, R S; Niño-Hernández, Lucía M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is uncommonly identified, knowledge of this structure is essential for clinicians who interpret cranial imaging, perform invasive studies of the cerebral vasculature, and operate this region. Methods: A review of the medical literature using standard search engines was performed to locate articles regarding the PTA, with special attention with anatomical descriptions. Results: Although anatomical reports of PTA anatomy are very scarce, those were analyzed to describe in detail the current knowledge about its anatomical relationships and variants. Additionally, the embryology, classification, clinical implications, and imaging modalities of this vessel are extensively discussed. Conclusions: Through a comprehensive review of isolated reports of the PTA, the clinician can better understand and treat patients with such an anatomical derailment. PMID:23087827

  3. Anatomical terminology and nomenclature: past, present and highlights.

    PubMed

    Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav; Bozdechova, Ivana; Cech, Pavel; Musil, Vladimir

    2008-08-01

    The anatomical terminology is a base for medical communication. It is elaborated into a nomenclature in Latin. Its history goes back to 1895, when the first Latin anatomical nomenclature was published as Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica. It was followed by seven revisions (Jenaiensia Nomina Anatomica 1935, Parisiensia Nomina Anatomica 1955, Nomina Anatomica 2nd to 6th edition 1960-1989). The last revision, Terminologia Anatomica, (TA) created by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, was published in 1998. Apart from the official Latin anatomical terminology, it includes a list of recommended English equivalents. In this article, major changes and pitfalls of the nomenclature are discussed, as well as the clinical anatomy terms. The last revision (TA) is highly recommended to the attention of not only teachers, students and researchers, but also to clinicians, doctors, translators, editors and publishers to be followed in their activities. PMID:18488135

  4. Complications in exodontia--accidental dislodgment to adjacent anatomical areas.

    PubMed

    Grandini, S A; Barros, V M; Salata, L A; Rosa, A L; Soares, U N

    1993-01-01

    The authors report 4 cases of accidental dislodgement of teeth to adjacent anatomical areas during extraction. The causes and their prevention are discussed and solutions for the problem are suggested. PMID:8241759

  5. Editorial Commentary: Anatomic Femoral Tunnel Drilling: Does It Really Matter?

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Erik

    2016-01-01

    An anatomic anteromedial portal and outside-in technique for creating the anterior cruciate ligament femoral tunnel may improve rotational stability but shows no published differences in clinical outcomes. PMID:26743417

  6. The influence of impaction to the third molar mineralization in northwestern Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu-cheng; Yan, Chun-xia; Lin, Xing-wei; Zhang, Wen-tao; Zhou, Hong; Pan, Feng; Wei, Lai; Tang, Zheng; Liang, Feng; Chen, Teng

    2014-07-01

    Age estimation by third molar mineralization has been developed for a period of time. Recent studies showed that impaction status has an influence on the rate of the third molar mineralization in Europids and male Black African populations. In this regard, the present study was conducted to determine whether the impaction status could delay the chronological process of third molar mineralization in northwestern Chinese population too. A total of 3,512 digital orthopantomograms of 1,255 male and 2,257 female northwestern Chinese subjects aged from 11 to 26 years were assessed based on the formation stages described by Demirjian et al. with two modifications. Mineralization stage and impaction status were determined for all third molars. Statistical measures were calculated at stages C-H in the male and female gender for both impacted and non-impacted third molars. It was ascertained that the mean ages with impacted third molars at stages C-H were 0.02-1.42 years higher in males and 0.04-1.52 years higher in females than those with non-impacted third molars, but statistical differences were only found at stages C, D, and E in males and stages D and E in females. The probabilities of being under 14, 16, or 18 years of age with non-impacted third molars were all higher than those with impacted third molars. The results prove that impacted third molars show significant slower mineralization than non-impacted ones at stages D and E in both males and females of northwestern Chinese population. It is recommended to consider the influence of impaction on the rate of third molar mineralization for dental age estimation. PMID:24532176

  7. Accuracy of Panoramic Radiograph in Assessment of the Relationship Between Mandibular Canal and Impacted Third Molars

    PubMed Central

    Tantanapornkul, Weeraya; Mavin, Darika; Prapaiphittayakun, Jaruthai; Phipatboonyarat, Natnicha; Julphantong, Wanchanok

    2016-01-01

    Background: The relationship between impacted mandibular third molar and mandibular canal is important for removal of this tooth. Panoramic radiography is one of the commonly used diagnostic tools for evaluating the relationship of these two structures. Objectives: To evaluate the accuracy of panoramic radiographic findings in predicting direct contact between mandibular canal and impacted third molars on 3D digital images, and to define panoramic criterion in predicting direct contact between the two structures. Methods: Two observers examined panoramic radiographs of 178 patients (256 impacted mandibular third molars). Panoramic findings of interruption of mandibular canal wall, isolated or with darkening of third molar root, diversion of mandibular canal and narrowing of third molar root were evaluated for 3D digital radiography. Direct contact between mandibular canal and impacted third molars on 3D digital images was then correlated with panoramic findings. Panoramic criterion was also defined in predicting direct contact between the two structures. Results: Panoramic findings of interruption of mandibular canal wall, isolated or with darkening of third molar root were statistically significantly correlated with direct contact between mandibular canal and impacted third molars on 3D digital images (p < 0.005), and were defined as panoramic criteria in predicting direct contact between the two structures. Conclusion: Interruption of mandibular canal wall, isolated or with darkening of third molar root observed on panoramic radiographs were effective in predicting direct contact between mandibular canal and impacted third molars on 3D digital images. Panoramic radiography is one of the efficient diagnostic tools for pre-operative assessment of impacted mandibular third molars. PMID:27398105

  8. Appearance of dentin gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing proteins in developing rat molars in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelman, R.D.; Butler, W.T.

    1985-07-01

    An in vitro model of mineralization was devised in order to study the developmental appearance of dentin gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing proteins (DGPs) in relation to the onset of mineralization. Maxillary third molars from 11-day-old rats were cultured with or without fetal calf serum (FCS) as modified from Navia et al. Molars were incubated without radiolabel, or with either /sup 45/CaCl/sub 2/ (5 microCi/ml) for 24 hr at various stages of a ten-day culture period or (/sup 3/H)-leucine (10 microCi/ml) for 24 hr at the eighth day of culture. Molars were lyophilized and extracted with 10% formic acid overnight at 4 degrees C. DGPs in extracts were detected by immunologic and chromatographic techniques; DGPs in molar sections were detected by immunolocalization using indirect immunofluorescence. Molar development was evaluated histologically using the Von Kossa staining technique. Molars cultured with FCS showed histologic evidence for mineralized dentin and enamel and a significant increase in /sup 45/Ca uptake after the sixth day in vitro. Eleven-day-old molars in vivo and molars cultured without FCS showed no evidence of the presence of mineralized tissues. (/sup 3/H)-Leucine-labeled DGPs were isolated and identified by affinity and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and by gel electrophoresis from both mineralized and unmineralized molars. DGP antigens were localized immunohistochemically using rabbit anti-rat antibodies raised against a highly purified DGP preparation. In the unmineralized molar, antigenicity was seen in odontoblasts but not in predentin matrix, preodontoblasts, or in any other cell type. Antigens in the mineralized molar were localized to odontoblasts and dentin.

  9. The frequency and anatomical features of torus mandibularis in a Black South African population.

    PubMed

    Ihunwo, A O; Phukubye, P

    2006-01-01

    Torus mandibularis is a rounded bony protuberance on the lingual surface of the mandible and usually found above the myolohyoid line, medial to the molar roots. This report describes the frequency and morphology of torus and also proffers the likely cause among black South Africans. A total of 284 modern skeletal specimens were obtained from the Raymond Dart Collection of Human Skeletons at the School of Anatomical Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand. The mandibles were classified into dentate and edentulous, while those with torus, especially in dentate mandibles, were reviewed for side location, type and shape. No measurements were made, consistent with the view that these characteristics are non-metrical and should be assessed by means of a standard observatory procedure. Out of 246 dentate mandibles, 60 (24.4%) were found to have torus and only 1 (4.3%) out of the 23 male edentulous mandibles; the difference is statistically significant (P=2.8%). The torus distribution among males and females was 48 (80%) and 12 (20%), respectively, and again statistically significant (P< 0.05). Prevalence of torus was highest in the 40-60 years age group. The morphology of the torus showed that 37 (61.7%) were bilateral in location, 42 (70%) were of the solitary type and 31 (51.7%) were round in shape. The formation of torus follows the threshold model which holds that this is primarily a genetic trait, but with environmental factors such as mechanical stress necessary for its development. PMID:16854419

  10. Probabilistic predictions of penetrating injury to anatomic structures.

    PubMed Central

    Ogunyemi, O.; Webber, B.; Clarke, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an interactive 3D graphical system which allows the user to visualize different bullet path hypotheses and stab wound paths and computes the probability that an anatomical structure associated with a given penetration path is injured. Probabilities can help to identify those anatomical structures which have potentially critical damage from penetrating trauma and differentiate these from structures that are not seriously injured. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9357718

  11. Probabilistic predictions of penetrating injury to anatomic structures.

    PubMed

    Ogunyemi, O; Webber, B; Clarke, J R

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an interactive 3D graphical system which allows the user to visualize different bullet path hypotheses and stab wound paths and computes the probability that an anatomical structure associated with a given penetration path is injured. Probabilities can help to identify those anatomical structures which have potentially critical damage from penetrating trauma and differentiate these from structures that are not seriously injured. PMID:9357718

  12. Uncovertebral Anatomic Midline Targeting for Cervical Disc Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bednar, Drew A.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Prospective observational cohort. Objective To document the accuracy of uncovertebral anatomic targeting in positioning cervical disc arthroplasty. Summary of Background Data Disc arthroplasty implants depend on midline placement for optimum mechanical function. Fluoroscopy is used to delineate the midline. Anatomic targeting from the uncovertebral joints in the neck may be adequate. We have investigated the efficacy of uncovertebral anatomic targeting for cervical disc arthroplasty. Methods Anatomic uncovertebral midline targeting for disc arthroplasty insertion was performed in 18 male (mean age 51 years, range 27 to 67) and 22 female (mean age 50, range 35 to 70) patients receiving a total of 59 implants over a 5-year period. Device insertion was under only lateral imaging control. Postinsertion operative fluoroscopy with optimized centering was used to record implant position in the anteroposterior plane, and centerline analysis was performed using cursor measurement technology from the GE PACS™ imaging system (GE Medical Systems, Mt. Prospect, IL). Results Analysis found a mean deviation from the ideal midline placement of only 0.7 mm (range, 0 to 2.9 mm). Only three devices were more than 2 mm off the anatomic midline. Conclusion This anatomic technique is effective, safely minimizing imaging resource needs and X-ray exposure to the patient and operating team. PMID:24353946

  13. The linguistic roots of Modern English anatomical terminology.

    PubMed

    Turmezei, Tom D

    2012-11-01

    Previous research focusing on Classical Latin and Greek roots has shown that understanding the etymology of English anatomical terms may be beneficial for students of human anatomy. However, not all anatomical terms are derived from Classical origins. This study aims to explore the linguistic roots of the Modern English terminology used in human gross anatomy. By reference to the Oxford English Dictionary, etymologies were determined for a lexicon of 798 Modern English gross anatomical terms from the 40(th) edition of Gray's Anatomy. Earliest traceable language of origin was determined for all 798 terms; language of acquisition was determined for 747 terms. Earliest traceable languages of origin were: Classical Latin (62%), Classical Greek (24%), Old English (7%), Post-Classical Latin (3%), and other (4%). Languages of acquisition were: Classical Latin (42%), Post-Classical Latin (29%), Old English (8%), Modern French (6%), Classical Greek (5%), Middle English (3%), and other (7%). While the roots of Modern English anatomical terminology mostly lie in Classical languages (accounting for the origin of 86% of terms), the anatomical lexicon of Modern English is actually much more diverse. Interesting and perhaps less familiar examples from these languages and the methods by which such terms have been created and absorbed are discussed. The author suggests that awareness of anatomical etymologies may enhance the enjoyment and understanding of human anatomy for students and teachers alike. PMID:22461143

  14. Anatomical or mirror mode imitation? A behavioral approach.

    PubMed

    Pierpaoli, C; Ferrante, L; Manzoni, T; Fabri, M

    2014-03-01

    Imitation can occur in at least two forms: one, which can be defined as anatomical, is based primarily on the mental construct of the body schema and allows recognition of correspondences between own body anatomy and that of other individuals. The other form, defined as specular or mirror mode, is most probably based on the allocation of some form of attention to the same region of the environmental space both by model and imitator, and to the objects it contains. This study investigated the behavioral strategy of imitation in normal subjects, to assess whether they carried out task instructions using an anatomical or a mirror perspective. Twenty seven adults were asked to imitate intransitive meaningful and meaningless gestures shown by a model in video clips. Instructions about how to perform them were provided before each trial. Trials were free (intended to produce spontaneous imitation) or driven (intended to produce anatomical imitation); further driven trials were administered to verify participants' knowledge of bodily laterality and were used as control. Performances were interpreted as anatomical or mirror imitation, according to the observation of anatomical or spatial reference frames between stimulus and imitator. The results revealed that in spontaneous imitation the mirror mode was more frequent (61% of responses), in line with previous studies. The novel finding was the prevalence (93% of responses) of anatomical imitation in tasks involving detailed driven instructions. PMID:25181594

  15. Toledo School of Translators and their influence on anatomical terminology.

    PubMed

    Arráez-Aybar, Luis-Alfonso; Bueno-López, José-L; Raio, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    Translation facilitates transmission of knowledge between cultures. The fundamental transfer of anatomic terminology from the Ancient Greek and Islamic Golden Age cultures, to medieval Latin Christendom took place in the so-called Toledo School of Translators in the 12th-13th centuries. Translations made in Toledo circulated widely across Europe. They were the foundation of scientific thinking that was born in the boards of first universities. In Toledo, Gerard of Cremona translated Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, the key work of Islamic Golden Age of medicine. Albertus Magnus, Mondino de Luzzi and Guy de Chauliac, the leading authors of anatomical Latin words in the Middle Ages, founded their books on Gerard's translations. The anatomical terms of the Canon retain auctoritas up to the Renaissance. Thus, terms coined by Gerard such as diaphragm, orbit, pupil or sagittal remain relevant in the current official anatomical terminology. The aim of the present paper is to bring new attention to the highly significant influence that the Toledo School of Translators had in anatomical terminology. For this, we shall review here the onomastic origins of a number of anatomical terms (additamentum; coracoid process; coxal; false ribs; femur; panniculus; spondylus; squamous sutures; thorax; xiphoid process, etc.) which are still used today. PMID:25667112

  16. Modified Distal Shoe Appliance for Premature Loss of Multiple Deciduous Molars: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    K., Navin H.; Idris, Mohammed; Christopher, Pradeep; Rai, Niharika

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of the primary dentition until the normal time of exfoliation is one of the most important factor involved in preventive and interceptive dentistry. The premature loss of second primary molar before the eruption of permanent first molar can create a significant arch space/tooth size discrepancy. Distal shoe space maintainer is a valuable part of the Paediatric Dentist’s armamentarium in those cases where the second primary molar is prematurely lost and it helps to guide the first permanent molar into place. Conventional design poses various limitations in cases of premature loss of multiple deciduous molars. Thus, it is required to modify the conventional designs according to the needs of the patient. This case report describes an innovative modification of distal shoe appliance in cases of premature loss of multiple deciduous molars. In the present case, modification of distal shoe space maintainer was advocated because of inadequate abutments caused due to multiple loss of deciduous molars. Bilateral design of distal shoe was planned for unilateral loss of deciduous molars. PMID:25302284

  17. Prenatal screening tests may be a warning for the partial molar pregnancy? case report

    PubMed Central

    Sargin, Mehmet Akif; Tug, Niyazi; Yassa, Murat; Yavuz, Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening tests are frequently requested for chromosomal abnormalities. Placental pathologies in early pregnancy may be overlooked, especially in partial molar pregnancy. We are reporting an incorrect preliminary diagnosed case with an increased risk of Down syndrome in her first-trimester screening test due to partial molar pregnancy. PMID:26175814

  18. Maxillary Tuberosity Fracture Associated with First Molar Extraction: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Polat, Hidayet B.; Ay, Sinan; Kara, M. Isa

    2007-01-01

    Maxillary tuberosity fractures during molar teeth extraction can occur commonly in dental practice; however, very few cases are reported and discussed in the literature. This article presents a case of large fracture of maxillary tuberosity during extraction of first maxillary molar tooth and its conservative treatment outcomes. PMID:19212477

  19. Concomitant Third Molar Removal During Sagittal Split Osteotomy of the Mandible.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ryo; Yao, Chuan-Fong; Chen, Ying-An; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2016-01-01

    It is described in textbook about management of third molar in orthognathic surgery that "ideally, the third molars should be removed 9 to 12 months before sagittal split osteotomy (SSO)." At the Chang Gung Craniofacial Center, the authors always remove mandibular third molars during SSO, because: removal of third molars at the same time of SSO could reduce psychological stress on patients by saving 1 surgical procedure under local anesthesia, better exposure of impacted third molars could be facilitated by sagittal split of buccal cortical plate, rigid fixation could be performed without difficulty by our fixation method using plates and screws crossover anterior oblique line. Strong force during the elevation of third molars, however, may result in the fracture of distal segment of SSO, where the buccal cortical plate is relatively thin because of the presence of third molar. Therefore, more care needs to be taken in the surgical technique, which is different from ordinary tooth extraction. In this paper, the details of surgical procedure of third molar removal during SSO were reported. PMID:26745199

  20. Degradation of Ultra-High Molar Mass Polymers in Size-Exclusion Chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The degradation of high molar mass polymers during size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) analysis has been a topic of interest for several decades. Should a polymer degrade during analysis, the accuracy of the molar mass (M) and architectural information obtained will be compromised. To this effect,...

  1. Radiological age estimation: based on third molar mineralization and eruption in Turkish children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Karadayi, Beytullah; Kaya, Ahsen; Kolusayın, Melek Ozlem; Karadayi, Sükriye; Afsin, Hüseyin; Ozaslan, Abdi

    2012-11-01

    Radiographic evaluation of mineralization and eruption stages of third molars using dental panoramic radiographies can be an efficient tool for chronological age estimation in both forensic sciences and legal medicine. The third molar tooth is utilized for dental age estimation about the age span of 15-23 years because it represents the only tooth still in development. The aim of this study is to obtain and analyze data regarding third molar development and eruption in Turkish population for dental age estimation. A total of 744 dental panoramic radiographies of 394 female and 350 male subjects aged between 8 and 22 years were examined. Third molar development was determined according to the Nolla classification system, and eruption was assessed relative to the alveolar bone level. Mandibular and maxillary third molars were generally found at similar stages of development on both sides. Nolla stage 6 (completed crown calcification) was reached at around the age of 15 in both maxillary and mandibular third molars in both sexes. Alveolar emergence was at around the age of 16 in males and around age of 17 in females. Although third molars' eruption shows greater variability than development of third molars, data which were obtained from this study about eruption of these teeth can be supportive to development data for age estimation. PMID:23010906

  2. Efficacy of ultrasonic activation of NaOCl and orange oil in removing filling material from mesial canals of mandibular molars with and without isthmus.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Mirela Sangoi; Rosa, Ricardo Abreu da; Santini, Manuela Favarin; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Duarte, Marco Antônio Húngaro; Bier, Carlos Alexandre Souza; Só, Marcos Vinícius Reis

    2016-02-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the volume of remaining filling material after passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and orange oil in mesial canals of mandibular molars, with and without isthmus. Material and Methods Thirty mesial roots of mandibular molars were divided according to the presence or absence of isthmus. Canals were prepared and filled (Micro-CT #1). Filling was removed using rotary instruments, and specimens were sub-divided into three groups according to the irrigation procedures: Conventional - conventional irrigation with NaOCl, PUI/NaOCl - PUI of NaOCl (three activations, 20 seconds each), and PUI/orange oil - PUI of orange oil (Micro-CT#2). Specimens were enlarged using the X2 and X3 ProTaper Next instruments and submitted to the same irrigation protocols (Micro-CT #3). Results No differences were found between the experimental groups in each stage of assessment (P>0.05). The volume of residual filling material was similar to that in Micro-CT #2 and Micro-CT #3, but lower than that observed in Micro-CT #1 (P<0.05). When groups were pooled according to the presence or absence of an isthmus, volume of residual filling material was higher in specimens presenting isthmus (P<0.05). Conclusions PUI of NaOCl or orange oil did not improve filling removal. Isthmus consists in an anatomical obstacle that impairs the removal of filling material. PMID:26200525

  3. Assessment of legal adult age of 18 by measurement of open apices of the third molars: Study on the Albanian sample.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, Roberto; Santoro, Valeria; Roca, Roberta; Lozito, Piercarlo; Introna, Francesco; Cingolani, Mariano; Galić, Ivan; Ferrante, Luigi

    2014-12-01

    The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical structures in development available for estimating the age of individuals in the late adolescence. This study tests the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing legal adult age of 18 years in an Albanian sample. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomograms (OPTs) of 286 living subjects (152 female and 134 male) aged between 15 and 22 years was analyzed. Intra-rater and inter-raters agreement of I3M were 0.998 and 0.998, respectively and Cohen Kappa for intra-rater and inter-rater agreement in decision on adult or minor was 1.0 and 1.0, respectively. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The mean age of females is higher than that of males when I3M is between 0.04 and 0.08. Sensitivity test for males was 94.1%, with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 85.6-98.4%, and specificity was 90.9% (95%CI 81.3-96.6%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 92.5%, with a 95%CI of (86.7%, 96.4%). For females, the sensitivity test was 75.4%, with a 95%CI of (63.1%, 85.2%) and specificity was 96.6%, with a 95%CI of (90.3%, 99.3%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 87.5%, with a 95%CI of (81.2%, 92.3%). The results indicate that Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M=0.08) is useful in discriminating between Albanian adults and juveniles, and encourage us to test its suitability for determining the adult age in individuals from other populations. PMID:25459273

  4. Analysis of C-shaped canal systems in mandibular second molars using surgical operating microscope and cone beam computed tomography: A clinical approach

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Sanjay; Yadav, Seema; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The study was aimed to acquire better understanding of C-shaped canal systems in mandibular second molar teeth through a clinical approach using sophisticated techniques such as surgical operating microscope and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: A total of 42 extracted mandibular second molar teeth with fused roots and longitudinal grooves were collected randomly from native Indian population. Pulp chamber floors of all specimens were examined under surgical operating microscope and classified into four types (Min's method). Subsequently, samples were subjected to CBCT scan after insertion of K-files size #10 or 15 into each canal orifice and evaluated using the cross-sectional and 3-dimensional images in consultation with dental radiologist so as to obtain more accurate results. Minimum distance between the external root surface on the groove and initial file placed in the canal was also measured at different levels and statistically analyzed. Results: Out of 42 teeth, maximum number of samples (15) belonged to Type-II category. A total of 100 files were inserted in 86 orifices of various types of specimens. Evaluation of the CBCT scan images of the teeth revealed that a total of 21 canals were missing completely or partially at different levels. The mean values for the minimum thickness were highest at coronal followed by middle and apical third levels in all the categories. Lowest values were obtained for teeth with Type-III category at all three levels. Conclusions: The present study revealed anatomical variations of C-shaped canal system in mandibular second molars. The prognosis of such complex canal anatomies can be improved by simultaneous employment of modern techniques such as surgical operating microscope and CBCT. PMID:24944447

  5. Mandibular third molar development after mantle radiation in long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    McGinnis, J P; Hopkins, K P; Thompson, E I; Hustu, H O

    1987-05-01

    Sequential panoramic radiographs were assessed for mandibular third molar development in 47 long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin's disease after treatment with 37 Gy mantle field radiation. To make a comparison, panoramic radiographs of 149 healthy, nonirradiated children were reviewed for the presence of mandibular third molars. In children between the ages of 7 and 12 years, bilateral agenesis of mandibular third molars was more frequent in patients who had been treated with mantle radiation than in nonirradiated patients. Unilateral agenesis, crown hypoplasia, and root growth impairment of mandibular third molars were also found. Similar, apparent, radiation-induced developmental anomalies were noted in maxillary third molars of the irradiated patients. PMID:3473386

  6. A Noble, Easy and Conceptual Radiographic Analysis to Assess the Type of Tooth Movement (Molar Distalization)

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Anaveri Thimmappa; Deepthi; Naik, Atri

    2015-01-01

    Context and Aim Bodily tooth movement is desirable in the field of Orthodontics and so is with molar distalization. Till date there is no such analysis available which could gauge and quantify the molar distalization and the type of tooth movement achieved, therefore one was required. Materials and Methods An OPG and Lateral cephalogram was used taking Inter orbitale plane and FH plane respectively as reference lines and the analysis was devised to measure the amount and type of tooth movement achieved in distalization of molar. Conclusion This analysis is a noble, easy and conceptual analysis to assess the type of tooth movement achieved during molar distalization and other molar movements using Lateral cephalogram and orthopantomogram. PMID:26436040

  7. Removal of an Upper Third Molar from the Maxillary Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Klinger de Souza; da Silva, Vanessa Tavares; da Cunha, Rafael Soares; Souto, Maria Luisa Silveira; São Mateus, Carla Rocha; Souza, Liane Maciel de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The maxillary sinus or antrum is the largest of the paranasal sinuses. It is located in the maxillary bone and has a proximity to the apexes of upper molars and premolars, which allows it to form a direct link between the sinus and the oral cavity. Dislocation of a foreign body or tooth to the interior of a paranasal sinus is a situation that can occur as a result of car accidents, firearm attacks, or iatrogenic in surgical procedures. Therefore, it is necessary to know how to treat this kind of situation. This study's objective is to report the case of a 23-year-old female patient, leucoderma, who sought treatment from the Surgical Unit at the Dental Faculty of the Federal University of Sergipe. She had a history of pain and edema in the right side of the genian region and two failed attempts at removing dental unit (DU) 18. The extraoral clinical exam revealed intense edema of the left hemiface with signs of infection, excoriation of the labial commissure, hematoma, a body temperature of 39°C, and a limited ability to open her mouth. The patient was medicated and treated surgically. The tooth was removed from the maxillary sinus with caution, as should have been done initially. PMID:25705524

  8. Variability of Australopithecus second maxillary molars from Sterkfontein Member 4.

    PubMed

    Fornai, Cinzia; Bookstein, Fred L; Weber, Gerhard W

    2015-08-01

    The question of how many Australopithecus species lived at Sterkfontein Member 4 and Makapansgat continues to be controversial inasmuch as the fossils are poorly preserved, the stratigraphy is difficult to interpret, and the cranial, dental, and postcranial remains are mostly not associated. To proceed we applied the most intensive modern methods of 3D geometric morphometrics to dental form, specifically the shapes of the upper second molars (M(2)s) in a sample combining 13 Australopithecus, 11 Paranthropus, and 23 Homo. We analyzed outer and inner crown surfaces, as well as crown and cervical outlines both separately and together, using a total of 16 landmarks, 51 curve semilandmarks, and 48 pseudolandmarks over the four structures. Outer and inner enamel surfaces are highly correlated in this dataset, while crown outline is the least informative of the four structures. Homo was easily distinguished from both Australopithecus and Paranthropus by these methods, likewise Homo sapiens from Homo neanderthalensis. There were, however, no stable classes within the Australopithecus sample or between Australopithecus and Paranthropus. Instead, there was a gradient along which Australopithecus prometheus and Australopithecus africanus lie toward the extremes, with Paranthropus overlapping both. If there are indeed different species at this site, then either their M(2) morphologies are uninformative or else the present sample is too small to make an accurate assessment. Our findings suggest that the variability of the Australopithecus specimens will be difficult to interpret authoritatively, independent of the method used. PMID:26163295

  9. Biodentine Pulpotomy in Mature Permanent Molar: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Irreversible pulpitis is the most common reason for endodontic treatment in primary and permanent teeth. Root canal therapy and extraction are the two viable and most documented treatment options for the same. Studies with regards to management of mature permanent teeth with carious exposure and treatment with vital pulp therapies such as adult permanent tooth pulpotomy are scarce. However, permanent tooth pulpotomy with the new calcium-silicate based cements (Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Biodentine) can help preserve the tooth pulp vitality and promote healing and repair foregoing the more invasive root canal therapy procedure. A 12-year old male patient with irreversible pulpitis in right mandibular first permanent molar was treated with complete coronal pulpotomy with placement of Biodentine in the pulp chamber and a full coronal coverage using stainless steel crown. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed at three, six, twelve and eighteen months. At the end of 18 months, the patient was completely asymptomatic and the tooth was free of any clinical and radiographic signs of inflammation and infection.

  10. Molar crown inner structural organization in Javanese Homo erectus.

    PubMed

    Zanolli, Clément

    2015-01-01

    This contribution investigates the inner organizational pattern (tooth tissue proportions and enamel-dentine junction morphology) of seven Homo erectus permanent molar crowns from the late Lower-early Middle Pleistocene Kabuh Formation of the Sangiran Dome (Central Java, Indonesia). The previous study of their external characteristics confirmed the degree of time-related structural reduction occurred in Javanese H. erectus, and also revealed a combination of nonmetric features which are rare in the Lower and early Middle Pleistocene dental record, but more frequently found in recent humans. In accordance with their outer occlusal morphology, the specimens exhibit a set of derived internal features, such as thick to hyperthick enamel, an incomplete expression of the crest patterns at the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) level, a sharp EDJ topography. As a whole, these features differ from those expressed in some penecontemporaneous specimens/samples representing African H. erectus/ergaster and H. heidelbergensis, as well as in Neanderthals, but occur in recent human populations. Further research in virtual dental paleoanthropology to be developed at macroregional scale would clarify the polarity and intensity of the intermittent exchanges between continental and insular Southeast Asia around the Lower to Middle Pleistocene boundary, as well as should shed light on the still poorly understood longitudinal evolutionary dynamics across continental Asia. PMID:25209431

  11. Functional implication of nucleolin in the mouse first molar development.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming; Kobayashi, Ieyoshi; Kiyoshima, Tamotsu; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Honda, Jun-ya; Takahashi, Keiko; Enoki, Norio; Akamine, Akifumi; Sakai, Hidetaka

    2007-08-10

    We examined the functional implication of nucleolin in the mouse first molar development. Both the nucleolin mRNA and protein expressions were demonstrated in the odontogenic epithelial cells in the early stage and in the inner enamel epithelial layer in the late stage. The expression pattern of nucleolin corresponded to the proliferating cells in the tooth germ, thus showing that nucleolin could possibly be related to cell proliferation. No in situ signal of nucleolin was found in the primary enamel knot (PEK). Furthermore, nucleolin protein was demonstrated in the PEK by immunohistochemistry. The existence of nucleolin protein in the PEK may possibly be related to the apoptosis in the PEK cells. An inhibition assay using the hemagglutinating virus of Japan-liposome containing nucleolin antisense phosphorothioated oligonucleotide (AS S-ODN) in cultured mouse mandibles at embryonic day (E) 11.0 showed a marked growth inhibition of tooth germ. Moreover, no developmental arrest was found in the cultured tooth germ at E15.0 treated with nucleolin AS S-ODN. Real time PCR was performed to examine the mRNA expression of nucleolin-related genes, and a significant reduction in the midkine mRNA expression was thus observed in the mouse mandible after being treated with nucleolin AS S-ODN. This inhibition assay indicated that nucleolin could thus be involved in the early stage of tooth germ initiation and morphogenesis, possibly by regulating the midkine expression. PMID:17562718

  12. Characterization of stem and progenitor cells in the dental pulp of erupted and unerupted murine molars

    PubMed Central

    Balic, Anamaria; Aguila, H. Leonardo; Caimano, Melissa J.; Francone, Victor P.; Mina, Mina

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years there have been significant advances in the identification of putative stem cells also referred to as “mesenchymal stem cells” (MSC) in dental tissues including the dental pulp. It is thought that MSC in dental pulp share certain similarities with MSC isolated from other tissues. However, cells in dental pulp are still poorly characterized. This study focused on the characterization of progenitor and stem cells in dental pulps of erupted and unerupted mice molars. Our study showed that dental pulps from unerupted molars contain a significant number of cells expressing CD90+/CD45-, CD117+/CD45-, Sca-1+/CD45- and little if any CD45+ cells. Our in vitro functional studies showed that dental pulp cells from unerupted molars displayed extensive osteo-dentinogenic potential but were unable to differentiate into chondrocytes and adipocytes. Dental pulp from erupted molars displayed a reduced number of cells, contained higher percentage of CD45+ and lower percentage of cells expressing CD90+/CD45-, CD117+/CD45- as compared to unerupted molars. In vitro functional assays demonstrated the ability of a small fraction of cells to differentiate into odontoblasts, osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. There was a significant reduction in the osteo-dentinogenic potential of the pulp cells derived from erupted molars compared to unerupted molars. Furthermore, the adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of pulp cells from erupted molars was dependent on a long induction period and infrequent. Based on these findings we propose that the dental pulp of the erupted molars contain a small population of multipotent cells, whereas the dental pulp of the unerupted molars does not contain multipotent cells but is enriched in osteo-dentinogenic progenitors engaged in the formation of coronal and radicular odontoblasts. PMID:20193787

  13. Biological aspects of gender disorders.

    PubMed

    Corsello, S M; Di Donna, V; Senes, P; Luotto, V; Ricciato, M P; Paragliola, R M; Pontecorvi, A

    2011-12-01

    The scientific community is very interested in the biological aspects of gender disorders and sexual orientation. There are different levels to define an individual's sex: chromosomal, gonadic, and phenotypic sex. Concerning the psychological sex, men and women are different by virtue of their own gender identity, which means they recognize themselves as belonging to a determinate sex. They are different also as a result of their own role identity, a set of behaviors, tendencies, and cognitive and emotional attitudes, commonly defined as "male" and "female". Transsexuality is a disorder characterized by the development of a gender identity opposed to phenotypic sex, whereas homosexuality is not a disturbance of gender identity but only of sexual attraction, expressing sexual orientation towards people of the same sex. We started from a critical review of literature on genetic and hormonal mechanisms involved in sexual differentiation. We re-examined the neuro-anatomic and functional differences between men and women, with special reference to their role in psychosexual differentiation and to their possible implication in the genesis of homosexuality and identity gender disorders. Homosexuality and transsexuality are conditions without a well defined etiology. Although the influence of educational and environmental factors in humans is undeniable, it seems that organic neurohormonal prenatal and postnatal factors might contribute in a determinant way in the development of these two conditions. This "organicistic neurohormal theory" might find support in the study of particular situations in which the human fetus is exposed to an abnormal hormonal environment in utero. PMID:22322655

  14. [Anatomic and functional features of venous valves].

    PubMed

    Griton, P; Vanet, P; Cloarec, M

    1997-05-01

    The comparison of the venous system in the human organism, and in particular the venous valves of the lower limbs, with studies conducted in animal models helped us to understand better the mechanisms involved in adapting to the upright position and walking. We examined work conducted in several species from the horse to the dog, especially in animals who often take on an upright position such as the chimpanzee and the kangouroo, in search for structures comparable to those in man. Different types of valves can be described in man: flotting valves (bicuspid, pigeon nest valves); reinforced valves (mid-thigh); reinforcing valves (periarticular zone in the knee); finally, "flat" valves which are highly resistant formations but with little anti-back flow action. We also describe valvular structures with muscle cells found in the plantar aspect of the foot and the veins of the quadriceps muscle, these valves may have an active hematopropulsive action (Bassi). These results allowed us to identify certain common points between the structures observed in the posterior legs of certain animals and to propose models for investigating venous diseases. PMID:9480339

  15. [ANATOMICAL PREPARATIONS IN MUSEUMS A SPECIAL CATEGORY OF CULTURAL HERITAGE].

    PubMed

    Monza, Francesca; Licata, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The international debate on the issue of human remains in museums and on the ethical issues related to their exhibition stimulates reflection on the Italian anatomical collections and on their preparations. A definition of human remains or of anatomical preparation does not exist in the Italian legislation. The anatomical specimens in museums are protected by the laws of Cultural Heritage as part of public collections, but their status is not well defined. By their nature of human material they would in fact be considered as a special category of Cultural Heritage. Because they are part of a cadaver they can be regarded as res nullius, but since treated with special techniques they could also change their meaning and being considered a species nova. Finally, it reflects on the possibility of creating a museum in Italy composed by new anatomical preparations. The article outline the contours of a museological issue that deserves to be investigated in order to better identify the anatomical preparations and their management in museums. PMID:26946604

  16. Combining multiple anatomical MRI measures improves Alzheimer's disease classification.

    PubMed

    de Vos, Frank; Schouten, Tijn M; Hafkemeijer, Anne; Dopper, Elise G P; van Swieten, John C; de Rooij, Mark; van der Grond, Jeroen; Rombouts, Serge A R B

    2016-05-01

    Several anatomical MRI markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been identified. Hippocampal volume, cortical thickness, and grey matter density have been used successfully to discriminate AD patients from controls. These anatomical MRI measures have so far mainly been used separately. The full potential of anatomical MRI scans for AD diagnosis might thus not yet have been used optimally. In this study, we therefore combined multiple anatomical MRI measures to improve diagnostic classification of AD. For 21 clinically diagnosed AD patients and 21 cognitively normal controls, we calculated (i) cortical thickness, (ii) cortical area, (iii) cortical curvature, (iv) grey matter density, (v) subcortical volumes, and (vi) hippocampal shape. These six measures were used separately and combined as predictors in an elastic net logistic regression. We made receiver operating curve plots and calculated the area under the curve (AUC) to determine classification performance. AUC values for the single measures ranged from 0.67 (cortical thickness) to 0.94 (grey matter density). The combination of all six measures resulted in an AUC of 0.98. Our results demonstrate that the different anatomical MRI measures contain complementary information. A combination of these measures may therefore improve accuracy of AD diagnosis in clinical practice. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1920-1929, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26915458

  17. Presentation of Anatomical Variations Using the Aurasma Mobile App

    PubMed Central

    Bézard, Georg; Lozanoff, Beth K; Labrash, Steven; Lozanoff, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of anatomical variations is critical to avoid clinical complications and it enables an understanding of morphogenetic mechanisms. Depictions are comprised of photographs or illustrations often limiting appreciation of three-dimensional (3D) spatial relationships. The purpose of this study is to describe an approach for presenting anatomical variations utilizing video clips emphasizing 3D anatomical relationships delivered on personal electronic devices. An aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) was an incidental finding in a routine dissection of an 89-year-old man cadaver during a medical student instructional laboratory. The specimen was photographed and physical measurements were recorded. Three-dimensional models were lofted and rendered with Maya software and converted as Quicktime animations. Photographs of the first frame of the animations were recorded and registered with Aurasma Mobile App software (www.aurasma.com). Resulting animations were viewed on mobile devices. The ARSA model can be manipulated on the mobile device enabling the student to view and appreciate spatial relationships. Model elements can be de-constructed to provide even greater spatial resolution of anatomical relationships. Animations provide a useful approach for visualizing anatomical variations. Future work will be directed at creating a library of variants and underlying mechanism of formation for presentation through the Aurasma application. PMID:26793410

  18. Complex cellular responses to tooth wear in rodent molar.

    PubMed

    Mahdee, A; Alhelal, A; Eastham, J; Whitworth, J; Gillespie, J I

    2016-01-01

    The arrangement and roles of the odontoblast and its process in sensing and responding to injuries such as tooth wear are incompletely understood. Evidence is presented that dentine exposure by tooth wear triggers structural and functional changes that aim to maintain tooth integrity. Mandibular first molars from freshly culled 8 week Wistar rats were prepared for light microscopy ground-sections (n=6), or fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, decalcified in 17% EDTA, sectioned and stained with antibodies to cyto-skeletal proteins (vimentin (vim), α-tubulin (tub) and α-actin), cellular homeostatic elements (sodium potassium ATPase (NaK-ATPase) and sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE-1)), and sensory nerve fibres (CGRP) (n=10) for fluorescence microscopy of worn and unworn regions of the mesial cusp. Immunoreactivity (IR) to vim, actin, NaK-ATPase and CGRP was confined to the pulpal third of odontoblast processes (OPs). IR to tub and nhe-1 was expressed by OPs in full dentine thickness. In areas associated with dentine exposure, the tubules contained no OPs. In regions with intact dentine, odontoblasts were arranged in a single cell layer and easily distinguished from the sub-odontoblast cells. In regions with open tubules, the odontoblasts were in stratified or pseudo-stratified in arrangement. Differences in structural antibody expression suggest a previously unreported heterogeneity of the odontoblast population and variations in different regions of the OP. This combined with differences in OPs extension and pulp cellular arrangement in worn and unworn regions suggests active and dynamic cellular responses to the opening of dentinal tubules by tooth wear. PMID:26547699

  19. Morphometric variation of extant platyrrhine molars: taxonomic implications for fossil platyrrhines.

    PubMed

    Nova Delgado, Mónica; Galbany, Jordi; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of many fossil platyrrhines with respect to extant ones is not yet clear. Two main hypotheses have been proposed: the layered or successive radiations hypothesis suggests that Patagonian fossils are Middle Miocene stem platyrrhines lacking modern descendants, whereas the long lineage hypothesis argues for an evolutionary continuity of all fossil platyrrhines with the extant ones. Our geometric morphometric analysis of a 15 landmark-based configuration of platyrrhines' first and second lower molars suggest that morphological stasis may explain the reduced molar shape variation observed. Platyrrhine lower molar shape might be a primitive retention of the ancestral state affected by strong ecological constraints throughout the radiation of the main platyrrhine families. The Patagonian fossil specimens showed two distinct morphological patterns of lower molars, Callicebus-like and Saguinus-like, which might be the precursors of the extant forms, whereas the Middle Miocene specimens, though showing morphological resemblances with the Patagonian fossils, also displayed new, derived molar patterns, Alouatta-like and Pitheciinae-like, thereby suggesting that despite the overall morphological stasis of molars, phenotypic diversification of molar shape was already settled during the Middle Miocene. PMID:27190704

  20. Morphology of the Physiological Apical Foramen in Maxillary and Mandibular First Molars

    PubMed Central

    Abarca, J.; Zaror, C.; Monardes, H.; Hermosilla, V.; Muñoz, C.; Cantin, M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Information regarding the anatomy of the physiological apical foramen is limited. Knowing its diameter and shapes contributes to clinical work, specifically to the cleaning and shaping of the apical third. The aim of this ex vivo study was to determine the minimum and maximum diameters and shape of the physiological apical foramen in the roots of maxillary and mandibular first molars. A descriptive study was conducted on 89 recently extracted first molars. Roots 3–5 mm from the apex were sectioned and prepared for analysis at 40× magnification. The minimum and maximum diameters of each physiological foramen were measured using the program Motic Images plus 2.0 ML. The shape of the foramina, classified as round, oval or irregular, was determined by the difference between the maximum and minimum diameters. A total of 174 physiological foramina were analyzed. The average of the minimum and maximum diameters was between 0.24–0.33 mm in maxillary first molars and between 0.25–0.33 mm in mandibular first molars. In maxillary molars, the most common shape of the foramen was oval (50%), then irregular (32%), then round (18%). In mandibular molars, the oval shape was also the most frequent (59%), followed by irregular (23%) and round (18%). The findings of this study regarding the morphology of physiological apical foramina in first molars make it easier for the operator to choose the appropriately-sized instruments to perform endodontic therapy successfully. PMID:25937698

  1. Incidence of chronic neuropathic pain subsequent to surgical removal of impacted third molars.

    PubMed

    Berge, Trond Inge

    2002-03-01

    To determine the incidence of atypical odontalgia/chronic neuropathic pain subsequent to surgical removal of impacted third molars, a telephone survey and a clinical investigation were carried out. Patients operated on for impacted mandibular third molars during 1994 96 in the Oral Surgery Clinic. School of Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, were contacted by telephone. Answers were obtained from 1035 (71%) out of a total of 1458 operated patients. Median observation time was 5 years 9 months, ranging from 4 years 5 months to 6 years 9 months. All except 23 (2.2%) patients stated that they had no long-term symptoms or problems from the surgical site, jaw, or face after the third molar removal. These 23 patients were all examined clinically and radiologically, and symptoms and findings were evaluated. Seventeen patients had TMJ dysfunction: primarily pain of muscular and joint origin. Three patients had a periodontal problem associated with the adjacent second molar, with deep bony pockets and recurrent periodontal infection while two had chronic pulpitis of a second molar. One patient reported a temporary maxillary pain after removal of an ipsilateral mandibular third molar. None of the patients met the criteria for a diagnosis of atypical odontalgia/neuropathic pain. A 95% confidence interval of 0-0.38% of incidence rate of postoperative neuropathic pain was calculated. It is concluded that atypical odontalgia/ chronic neuropathic pain subsequent to surgical third molar removal is rare. PMID:12020113

  2. Morphometric variation of extant platyrrhine molars: taxonomic implications for fossil platyrrhines

    PubMed Central

    Nova Delgado, Mónica; Galbany, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of many fossil platyrrhines with respect to extant ones is not yet clear. Two main hypotheses have been proposed: the layered or successive radiations hypothesis suggests that Patagonian fossils are Middle Miocene stem platyrrhines lacking modern descendants, whereas the long lineage hypothesis argues for an evolutionary continuity of all fossil platyrrhines with the extant ones. Our geometric morphometric analysis of a 15 landmark-based configuration of platyrrhines’ first and second lower molars suggest that morphological stasis may explain the reduced molar shape variation observed. Platyrrhine lower molar shape might be a primitive retention of the ancestral state affected by strong ecological constraints throughout the radiation of the main platyrrhine families. The Patagonian fossil specimens showed two distinct morphological patterns of lower molars, Callicebus—like and Saguinus—like, which might be the precursors of the extant forms, whereas the Middle Miocene specimens, though showing morphological resemblances with the Patagonian fossils, also displayed new, derived molar patterns, Alouatta—like and Pitheciinae—like, thereby suggesting that despite the overall morphological stasis of molars, phenotypic diversification of molar shape was already settled during the Middle Miocene. PMID:27190704

  3. The influence of endodontic infection on periodontal status in mandibular molars.

    PubMed

    Jansson, L E; Ehnevid, H

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of an endodontic infection on periodontal probing depth and presence of furcation involvement in periodontally-involved mandibular molars. All first and second mandibular molars in 100 patients were selected if at least one was root-filled or had a possible periapical radiolucency. The sample consisted of patients from a referral population at a periodontal clinic which represented an adult population with a mean age between 50 and 60 years. For mandibular molars with periapical destruction at both roots, mean periodontal probing depth was significantly greater compared to teeth without periapical destruction. Horizontal furcation depths > or =3 mm were significantly more frequent at mandibular molars with periapical destruction. It is suggested that a root canal infection in periodontitis-involved molars may potentiate periodontitis progression by spreading of endodontic pathogens through patent accessory canals and dentinal tubules. In conclusion, an endodontic infection in mandibular molars was found to be associated with additional attachment loss in the furcation area, and may thus be considered to be one of several risk factors influencing the prognosis of molars in periodontitis-prone patients. PMID:9926769

  4. Anatomical and functional perspectives of the cervical spine: Part III: the “unstable” cervical spine †

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Marion

    1990-01-01

    In this, the last of the three part series on the anatomical and functional perspectives of the cervical spine, the clinical entity-instability-is addressed. A summative definition of instability, addressing both the clinical and radiographic issues, is presented based on current available literature. The etiology of instability is discussed as it pertains to three possible mechanisms: acute trauma, latent evidence of trauma and repetitive microtrauma. The anatomical, clinical and radiographic aspects in each of these meachanisms is discussed. A case report is presented to illustrate the salient features of this potentially disastrous condition. The conclusion emphasizes the importance of defineable limits in each of the presented definitions, calling for future research into the clinical and radiographic correlations of abnormal cervical motion. ImagesFigure 4Figure 5Figure 6

  5. Developmental constraints revealed by co-variation within and among molar rows in two murine rodents.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Sabrina; Pantalacci, Sophie; Quéré, Jean-Pierre; Laudet, Vincent; Auffray, Jean-Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Morphological integration corresponds to interdependency between characters that can arise from several causes. Proximal causes of integration include that different phenotypic features may share common genetic sets and/or interact during their development. Ultimate causes may be the prolonged effect of selection favoring integration of functionally interacting characters, achieved by the molding of these proximal causes. Strong and direct interactions among successive teeth of a molar row are predicted by genetic and developmental evidences. Functional constraints related to occlusion, however, should have selected more strongly for a morphological integration of occluding teeth and a corresponding evolution of the underlying developmental and genetic pathways. To investigate how these predictions match the patterns of phenotypic integration, we studied the co-variation among the six molars of the murine molar row, focusing on two populations of house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) and wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). The size and shape of the three upper and lower molars were quantified and compared. Our results evidenced similar patterns in both species, size being more integrated than shape among all the teeth, and both size and shape co-varying strongly between adjacent teeth, but also between occluding teeth. Strong co-variation within each molar row is in agreement with developmental models showing a cascade influence of the first molar on the subsequent molars. In contrast, the strong co-variation between molars of the occluding tooth rows confirms that functional constraints molded patterns of integration and probably the underlying developmental pathways despite the low level of direct developmental interactions occurring among molar rows. These patterns of co-variation are furthermore conserved between the house mouse and the wood mouse that diverged >10 Ma, suggesting that they may constitute long-running constraints to the diversification of the murine

  6. Allometric and metameric shape variation in Pan mandibular molars: a digital morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Michelle; Rosenberger, Alfred L; Robinson, Chris; O'neill, Rob

    2011-02-01

    The predominance of molar teeth in fossil hominin assemblages makes the patterning of molar shape variation a topic of bioanthropological interest. Extant models are the principal basis for understanding dental variation in the fossil record. As the sister taxon to the hominin clade, Pan is one such model and the only widely accepted extant hominid model for both interspecific and intraspecific variation. To explore the contributions of allometric scaling and meristic variation to molar variation in Pan, we applied geometric shape analysis to 3D landmarks collected from virtual replicas of chimpanzee and bonobo mandibular molars. Multivariate statistical analysis and 3D visualization of metameric and allometric shape vectors were used to characterize shape differences and test the hypothesis that species of Pan share patterns of metameric variation and molar shape allometry. Procrustes-based shape variables were found to effectively characterize crown shape, sorting molars into species and tooth-row positions with ≥ 95% accuracy. Chimpanzees and bonobos share a common pattern of M(1) -M(2) metameric variation, which is defined by differences in the relative position of the metaconid, size of the hypoconulid, curvature of the buccal wall, and proportions of the basins and foveae. Allometric scaling of molar shape is homogeneous for M(1) and M(2) within species, but bonobo and chimpanzee allometric vectors are significantly different. Nevertheless, the common allometric shape trend explains most molar-shape differences between P. paniscus and P. troglodytes. When allometric effects are factored out, chimpanzee and bonobo molars are not morphometrically distinguishable. Implications for hominid taxonomy and dietary reconstruction are discussed. PMID:21235007

  7. Anatomic Boundaries of the Clinical Target Volume (Prostate Bed) After Radical Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltshire, Kirsty L.; Brock, Kristy K.; Haider, Masoom A.; Zwahlen, Daniel; Kong, Vickie; Chan, Elisa; Moseley, Joanne; Bayley, Andrew; Catton, Charles; Chung, Peter W.M.; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Milosevic, Michael; Kneebone, Andrew; Warde, Padraig; Menard, Cynthia

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: We sought to derive and validate an interdisciplinary consensus definition for the anatomic boundaries of the postoperative clinical target volume (CTV, prostate bed). Methods and Materials: Thirty one patients who had planned for radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy were enrolled and underwent computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) simulation prior to radiotherapy. Through an iterative process of consultation and discussion, an interdisciplinary consensus definition was derived based on a review of published data, patterns of local failure, surgical practice, and radiologic anatomy. In validation, we analyzed the distribution of surgical clips in reference to the consensus CTV and measured spatial uncertainties in delineating the CTV and vesicourethral anastomosis. Clinical radiotherapy plans were retrospectively evaluated against the consensus CTV (prostate bed). Results: Anatomic boundaries of the consensus CTV (prostate bed) are described. Surgical clips (n = 339) were well distributed throughout the CTV. The vesicourethral anastomosis was accurately localized using central sagittal computed tomography reconstruction, with a mean {+-} standard deviation uncertainty of 1.8 {+-} 2.5 mm. Delineation uncertainties were small for both MRI and computed tomography (mean reproducibility, 0-3.8 mm; standard deviation, 1.0-2.3); they were most pronounced in the anteroposterior and superoinferior dimensions and at the superior/posterior-most aspect of the CTV. Retrospectively, the mean {+-} standard deviation CTV (prostate bed) percentage of volume receiving 100% of prescribed dose was only 77% {+-} 26%. Conclusions: We propose anatomic boundaries for the CTV (prostate bed) and present evidence supporting its validity. In the absence of gross recurrence, the role of MRI in delineating the CTV remains to be confirmed. The CTV is larger than historically practiced at our institution and should be encompassed by a microscopic tumoricidal dose.

  8. Prognostic analyses on anatomical and morphological classification of feline lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hirofumi; Fujino, Yasuhito; Chino, Junko; Takahashi, Masashi; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2014-06-01

    The present study was carried out to analyze the prognosis of 163 cats with lymphoma classified anatomically and cytomorphologically. Anatomically, alimentary lymphoma was the most common form and showed significantly shorter survival than mediastinal and nasal lymphomas in cats. Cytomorphologically, there was no predominant subtype in feline lymphomas. Immunoblastic type (18%), centroblastic type (16%), globule leukocyte type (15%), lymphocytic type (12%), lymphoblastic type (12%), pleomorphic medium and large cell type (10%) and anaplastic large cell type (7%) were relatively common subtypes. Most of the cats with globule leukocyte lymphoma had the alimentary form. Comparing median survival time among classifications, cats with globule leukocyte lymphoma showed significantly shorter survival than those with high-grade and other low-grade lymphomas. Furthermore, cats with high-grade lymphomas showed significantly shorter survival than cats with other low-grade lymphomas. The present study indicated the clinical significance of anatomical and cytomorphological evaluation in feline lymphomas. PMID:24521793

  9. Anatomic basis for the continence-preserving radical retropubic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Steiner, M S

    2000-02-01

    The technique of continence-preserving anatomic radical retropubic prostatectomy focuses on the preservation of the following anatomic components of the external striated urethral sphincteric complex: (1) the entire circumference of the rhabdosphincter musculature, (2) the periurethral fascial investments (the pubourethral ligaments anterolaterally and median fibrous raphe posteriorly), and (3) the innervation of both the rhabdosphincter by way of the intrapelvic branch of the pudendal nerve (somatic) and the mucosal and smooth muscle components by way of the urethral branch of the inferior hypogastric plexus (autonomic). The clinical impact of preserving the external striated urethral sphincter and its innervation by performing a continence preserving anatomic retropubic prostatectomy is a shorter time to achieve urinary continence. PMID:10719925

  10. Neuropathies after surgery: Anatomical considerations of pathologic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca L; Warner, Mary E; Staff, Nathan P; Warner, Mark A

    2015-07-01

    Positioning-related injuries caused during surgery under anesthesia are most likely multifactorial. Pathologic mechanical forces alone (overstretching and/or ischemia from direct compression) may not fully explain postsurgical neuropathy with recent evidence implicating patient-specific factors or perioperative inflammatory responses spatially and even temporally divorced from the anatomical region of injury. The aim of this introductory article is to provide an overview of anatomic considerations of these mechanical forces on soft and nervous tissues along with factors that may compound compression or stretch injury. Three subsequent articles will address specific positioning-related anatomic considerations of the (1) upper extremities, (2) lower extremities, and (3) central nervous system and soft tissues. PMID:25974415

  11. Anatomical and Physiological Considerations in Vestibular Dysfunction and Compensation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sherri M.; Jones, Timothy A.; Mills, Kristal N.; Gaines, G. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Sensory information from the vestibular, visual, and somatosensory/proprioceptive systems are integrated in the brain in complex ways to produce a final motor output to muscle groups for maintaining gaze, head and body posture, and controlling static and dynamic balance. The balance system is complex, which can make differential diagnosis of dizziness quite challenging. On the other hand, this complex system is organized anatomically in a variety of pathways and some of these pathways have been well studied. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is one such pathway. Understanding the anatomy and physiology of the VOR facilitates our understanding of normal and abnormal eye movements and research is advancing our understanding of the plasticity of the vestibular system. This review highlights anatomical and physiological features of the normal vestibular system, applies these concepts to explain some clinical findings in some common peripheral vestibular disorders, and discusses some of the research investigating the anatomical and physiological basis for vestibular compensation. PMID:21072129

  12. A joint model for boundaries of multiple anatomical parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Grégoire; Kurtek, Sebastian; Srivastava, Anuj

    2011-03-01

    The use of joint shape analysis of multiple anatomical parts is a promising area of research with applications in medical diagnostics, growth evaluations, and disease characterizations. In this paper, we consider several features (shapes, orientations, scales, and locations) associated with anatomical parts and develop probability models that capture interactions between these features and across objects. The shape component is based on elastic shape analysis of continuous boundary curves. The proposed model is a second order model that considers principal coefficients in tangent spaces of joint manifolds as multivariate normal random variables. Additionally, it models interactions across objects using area-interaction processes. Using given observations of four anatomical parts: caudate, hippocampus, putamen and thalamus, on one side of the brain, we first estimate the model parameters and then generate random samples from them using the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. The plausibility of these random samples validates the proposed models.

  13. [Anatomical and radiographical studies of the bifid mandibular canal].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Fan, Wanting; Zhang, Guozhi

    2016-03-01

    To review the recent progress about the anatomical and radiographical studies of bifid mandibular canal (BMC) in English literature recorded in PubMed from 2006 to 2015 to deepen our understanding of BMC. A BMC is an anatomical variation of the mandibular canal; its occurrence might be a result of the incomplete fusion of mandibular canal during prenatal development. The four types of BMC have been classified according to anatomical location and configuration. Characteristic radiographic features and identifying methods of BMC on panoramic radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) were described; the visibility of BMC on panoramic radiographs and CBCT images was compared. Clinical value of identifying the location as well as the configuration of BMC for surgical procedures that involve the mandible was discussed. PMID:26980659

  14. Vital Pulp Therapy with Three Different Pulpotomy Agents in Immature Molars: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Harandi, Azadeh; Forghani, Maryam; Ghoddusi, Jamileh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This case report describes apexogenesis treatment of three molar teeth of an 8-year-old boy using three different pulpotomy agents. Methods Pulpotomy was performed on decayed immature molar teeth with established irreversible pulpitis and the remaining pulp was capped with either zinc oxide eugenol, ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate or calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. Teeth were restored with stainless steel crowns. Results Eighteen months clinical and radiographic follow-up revealed successful preservation of pulpal vitality with continued root development in all treated teeth. Conclusion Based on this case report, CEM cement may be an alternative option for pulpotomy treatment of immature permanent molars. PMID:23922578

  15. A New Orthodontic Appliance with a Mini Screw for Upper Molar Distalization

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a new upper molar distalization appliance called Cise distalizer designed as intraoral device supported with orthodontic mini screw for upper permanent molar distalization. The new appliance consists of eight main components. In order to understand the optimum force level, the appliance under static loading is tested by using strain gage measurement techniques. Results show that one of the open coils produces approximately 300 gr distalization force. Cise distalizer can provide totally 600 gr distalization force. This range of force level is enough for distalization of upper first and second molar teeth. PMID:27528796

  16. [Analysis of divergent angle and length of CEJ to furcation entrance in extracted molars].

    PubMed

    Hou, G L; Chen, S F; Tsai, C C; Huang, J S

    1997-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the furcation entrance angle (FEA) and the distance between cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and furcation entrance (FE) of the extracted maxillary and mandibular molars. Assay teeth comprised 89 maxillary molars and 93 mandibular molars. All the FEAs and CEJ-FEs of the molars were measured by a stereomicroscope at 2.5 x equipped with a Bioscan OPTIMAS Image Analyzer (BOIA). The results were summarized as follows: (1) The mean FEAs in the buccal, mesial and distal furcations were 96.3 +/- 10.0, 103.8 +/- 9.7, and 107.2 +/- 12.2 degrees in the maxillary molars, and 91.6 +/- 11.7, 101.7 +/- 11.5, and 97.1 +/- 10.7 degrees in the maxillary second molars, respectively. At the buccal and lingual furcations of mandibular first and second molars, they measured 100.5 +/- 9.7/102.7 +/- 8.5, and 93.3 +/- 11.5/91.7 +/- 10.8 degrees, respectively. (2) The mean distance of CEJ-FEs at the buccal, mesial and distal furcations of maxillary molars were 3.42 +/- 1.5mm, 3.55 +/- 0.97 mm, and 3.69 +/- 0.98mm for the first molars, and 3.01 +/- 1.04mm, 4.04 +/- 1.58mm and 3.00 +/- 1.14mm for the second molars. At the buccal and lingual furcations of the mandibular first and second molars, they were recorded as 1.90 +/- 0.08mm and 2.90 +/- 0.07mm, and 2.82 +/- 1.34mm and 3.46 +/- 1.03mm, respectively. It was concluded that buccal FEA of maxillary 2nd molar was the smallest (91.56 +/- 9.68 degrees) as compared to the mesial and distal FEAs; whereas the mean distance of CEJ-FEs at the buccal surface was the smallest (1.90mm +/- 0.08mm) when compared to the others. PMID:9436343

  17. Endodontic management of maxillary first molar with type I canal configuration- a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Desai, Niranjan; Jadhav, Ganesh Ranganath; Raghavendra, Srinidhi Surya; Mittal, Priya; Patil, Gururaj

    2015-04-01

    Thorough knowledge about the root canal variations is essential for the predictable endodontic treatment outcome. The root and root canal anatomy of maxillary first molar varies greatly. A Pub-med literature search about single rooted single canalled maxillary first molar was done to know its details such as incidence, diagnostic method used, age, sex and ethnic background of patient. This article presented report of a single rooted single canalled maxillary first molar in a 27-year-old healthy Asian female. PMID:26023655

  18. Paediatric dentistry in the new millennium: 4. Cost-effective restorative techniques for primary molars.

    PubMed

    Duggal, M S; Gautam, S K; Nichol, R; Robertson, A J

    2003-10-01

    In the fourth article in this series the techniques for carrying out pulp therapy and stainless steel restoration in primary molars are discussed. Early pulp involvement in primary molars means that pulp therapy and the use of appropriate coronal restoration, such as stainless steel crowns, are indispensable if repetitive restoration of primary molars is to be avoided. These techniques themselves are not difficult to carry out once the child's co-operation is established and should be well within the capability of any dentist with an interest in the dental care of children. PMID:14619729

  19. Cervical Pedicle Screw Fixation: Anatomic Feasibility of Pedicle Morphology and Radiologic Evaluation of the Anatomical Measurements

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Study Design All parameters were measured manually and with a computed tomography (CT) scanner. For the manual measurements, a Vernier scale instrument was used. Purpose This study evaluates quantitatively pedicles of middle and lower cervical spine (C3 to C7) and to evaluate the possibilities of using these structures as anchors in posterior cervical fusion. Overview of Literature Pedicle screws may be an alternative fixation technique for posterior cervical instrumentation. Methods Twenty-two bony sets of adult cervical spines were studied (110 vertebrae, 220 pedicles) from C3 down to C7. Results CT measurement of cervical pedicles appeared to be accurate and valuable for preoperative planning of cervical pedicle screw instrumentation. The study showed a high correlation between the values obtained by manual and CT measurements of pedicle dimensions. The technical challenge of insertion is the obvious theoretical drawback of the use of cervical pedicle screws. Many technical factors are important to consider, namely, the point of screw entry, the pedicle dimensions, the screw direction according to the pedicle angle and orientation, the screw diameter and length, and the method of screw introduction. Conclusions Transpedicular screw fixation of the cervical spine appears to be promising. Anatomic limitations should be clear to the surgeon. Further clinical and biomechanical studies are needed to settle this technique. PMID:24967041

  20. Comparison of Piezosurgery and Conventional Rotary Instruments for Removal of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: A Randomized Controlled Clinical and Radiographic Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shokry, Mohamed; Aboelsaad, Nayer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of the surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars using piezosurgery versus the conventional surgical technique on postoperative sequelae and bone healing. Material and Methods. This study was carried out as a randomized controlled clinical trial: split mouth design. Twenty patients with bilateral mandibular third molar mesioangular impaction class II position B indicated for surgical extraction were treated randomly using either the piezosurgery or the conventional bur technique on each site. Duration of the procedure, postoperative edema, trismus, pain, healing, and bone density and quantity were evaluated up to 6 months postoperatively. Results. Test and control sites were compared using paired t-test. There was statistical significance in reduction of pain and swelling in test sites, where the time of the procedure was statistically increased in test site. For bone quantity and quality, statistical difference was found where test site showed better results. Conclusion. Piezosurgery technique improves quality of patient's life in form of decrease of postoperative pain, trismus, and swelling. Furthermore, it enhances bone quality within the extraction socket and bone quantity along the distal aspect of the mandibular second molar. PMID:27597866

  1. Comparison of Piezosurgery and Conventional Rotary Instruments for Removal of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: A Randomized Controlled Clinical and Radiographic Trial.

    PubMed

    Arakji, Hani; Shokry, Mohamed; Aboelsaad, Nayer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of the surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars using piezosurgery versus the conventional surgical technique on postoperative sequelae and bone healing. Material and Methods. This study was carried out as a randomized controlled clinical trial: split mouth design. Twenty patients with bilateral mandibular third molar mesioangular impaction class II position B indicated for surgical extraction were treated randomly using either the piezosurgery or the conventional bur technique on each site. Duration of the procedure, postoperative edema, trismus, pain, healing, and bone density and quantity were evaluated up to 6 months postoperatively. Results. Test and control sites were compared using paired t-test. There was statistical significance in reduction of pain and swelling in test sites, where the time of the procedure was statistically increased in test site. For bone quantity and quality, statistical difference was found where test site showed better results. Conclusion. Piezosurgery technique improves quality of patient's life in form of decrease of postoperative pain, trismus, and swelling. Furthermore, it enhances bone quality within the extraction socket and bone quantity along the distal aspect of the mandibular second molar. PMID:27597866

  2. Anatomic landmarks for localization of the spinal accessory nerve.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Marcelo D; Furlan, Julio C; Teixeira, Gilberto V; Friguglietti, Celso U M; Kulcsar, Marco A V; Magalhães, Roberto P; Ferraz, Alberto R; Brandão, Lenine G

    2009-05-01

    This anatomical study examines the anatomic topography and landmarks for localization of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) during surgical dissections in 40 fresh human cadavers (2 females and 38 males; ages from 22 to 89 years with a mean of 60 years). In the submandibular region, the SAN was found anteriorly to the transverse process of the atlas in 77.5% of the dissections. When the SAN crossed the posterior belly of the digastric muscle, the mean distance from the point of crossing to the tendon of the muscle was 1.75 +/- 0.54 cm. Distally, the SAN crossed between the two heads of the SCM muscle in 45% of the dissections and deep to the muscle in 55%. The SAN exited the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle in a point superior to the nerve point with a mean distance between these two anatomic parameters of 0.97 +/- 0.46 cm. The mean overall extracranial length of the SAN was 12.02 +/- 2.32 cm, whereas the mean length of the SAN in the posterior triangle was 5.27 +/- 1.52 cm. There were 2-10 lymph nodes in the SAN chain. In conclusion, the nerve point is one of the most reliable anatomic landmarks for localization of the SAN in surgical neck dissections. Although other anatomic parameters including the transverse process of the atlas and the digastric muscle can also be used to localize the SAN, the surgeon should be aware of the possibility of anatomic variations of those parameters. Similar to previous investigations, our results suggest that the number of lymph nodes of the SAN chain greatly varies. PMID:19373901

  3. Anatomic Eponyms in Neuroradiology: Brain, Cerebral Vasculature, and Calvarium.

    PubMed

    Bunch, Paul M; Zamani, Amir A

    2016-06-01

    Medical eponyms are ubiquitous, numerous, and at times controversial. They are often useful for succinctly conveying complex concepts, and familiarity with eponyms is important for proper usage and appropriate communication. In this historical review, we identify 18 anatomic eponyms used to describe structures of the brain, cerebral vasculature, and calvarium. For each structure, we first offer a biographical sketch of the individual for whom the structure is named. This is followed by a description of the anatomic structure and a brief discussion of its clinical relevance. PMID:26916250

  4. Anatomical eponyms, Part 2: The other side of the coin.

    PubMed

    Olry, Regis

    2014-11-01

    Over a century after they were removed, at least officially, from anatomical terminology, eponyms remain an obviously controversial topic. In the first part of this paper we acted as their defense counsel, aiming to demonstrate that the 1895 first edition of the Nomina Anatomica and subsequently the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) probably put the cart before the horse. However, their authors advanced arguments supporting their decision, and it is now time to develop these arguments. Let us now become the public prosecutor of eponyms. PMID:25067796

  5. Double auricles of the right atrium: a unique anatomic deformity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Anatomic deviations, especially those detected during the course of an operation, are medically intriguing, as they raise concerns about their clinical significance and putative complications. Case presentation We present, to our knowledge, for the first time a case of an anatomic deviation in the form of a second right atrial auricle in a 70 year-old, coronary bypass-operated male Caucasian patient of Greek origin. No complications were noted intra-or postoperatively. Conclusions A second right atrial auricle was found intraoperatively, without causing any clinical complications, or obstructing the normal course of a surgical procedure. PMID:21504586

  6. Robust Morphological Averages in Three Dimensions for Anatomical Atlas Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, Jorge; Bloch, Isabelle; Schmitt, Francis

    2004-09-01

    We present original methods for obtaining robust, anatomical shape-based averages of features of the human head anatomy from a normal population. Our goals are computerized atlas construction with representative anatomical features and morphopometry for specific populations. A method for true-morphological averaging is proposed, consisting of a suitable blend of shape-related information for N objects to obtain a progressive average. It is made robust by penalizing, in a morphological sense, the contributions of features less similar to the current average. Morphological error and similarity, as well as penalization, are based on the same paradigm as the morphological averaging.

  7. Macroscopic connection of rat insular cortex: anatomical bases underlying its physiological functions.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    The insular cortex (IC), which lies on the dorsal bank of the rhinal fissure, receives multi-modal sensory inputs, i.e. visceral, gustatory, nociceptive and thermal information from the sensory thalamic nuclei. In contrast to other primary sensory cortices such as visual, auditory and somatosensory areas, the anatomical features of the IC are quite distinctive; more than a half of the IC is composed of agranular or dysgranular cortex, which lacks a complete granular layer (layer IV). In addition to the characteristic layer structures, the IC has dense reciprocal innervations with the limbic structures, including the amygdala and hypothalamus. Such connectivity implies that sensory information processed in the IC is profoundly related to limbic information. By enabling the visualization of functional connectivity in the central nervous system, recent advancements in optical imaging techniques have opened the possibility to elucidate the mechanisms of sensory information processing from a macroscopic perspective. In this review, anatomical and functional features of the IC are overviewed from the aspect of gustatory processing, a typical sensation processed in the IC. In addition, the recently developed optical imaging techniques and their findings in gustatory information processing are summarized. We discuss how these characteristic features of excitatory propagation in the IC play functional roles in transmitting neural excitation arising from the limbic structures to the frontal and orbital cortices. PMID:21708315

  8. Anatomical insights into the interaction of emotion and cognition in the prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Rebecca; Zald, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Ray, R. and D. Zald. Anatomical insights into the interaction of emotion and cognition in the prefrontal cortex. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 36(X) XXX-XXX, 2011. -Psychological research increasingly indicates that emotional processes interact with other aspects of cognition. Studies have demonstrated both the ability of emotional stimuli to influence a broad range of cognitive operations, and the ability of humans to use top-down cognitive control mechanisms to regulate emotional responses. Portions of the prefrontal cortex appear to play a significant role in these interactions. However, the manner in which these interactions are implemented remains only partially elucidated. In the present review we describe the anatomical connections between ventral and dorsal prefrontal areas as well as their connections with limbic regions. Only a subset of prefrontal areas are likely to directly influence amygdalar processing, and as such models of prefrontal control of emotions and models of emotional regulation should be constrained to plausible pathways of influence. We also focus on how the specific pattern of feedforward and feedback connections between these regions may dictate the nature of information flow between ventral and dorsal prefrontal areas and the amygdala. These patterns of connections are inconsistent with several commonly expressed assumptions about the nature of communications between emotion and cognition. PMID:21889953

  9. Successful Parenchyma-Sparing Anatomical Surgery by 3-Dimensional Reconstruction of Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma Combined with Anatomic Variation.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qihong; Wang, Haolu; Liang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Yunhe; Chen, Wei; Wang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The combination of hilar cholangiocarcinoma and anatomic variation constitutes a rare and complicated condition. Precise understanding of 3-dimensional position of tumor in the intrahepatic structure in such cases is important for operation planning and navigation. We report a case of a 61-year woman presenting with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Anatomic variation and tumor location were well depicted on preoperative multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) combined with 3-dimensional reconstruction as the right posterior segmental duct drained to left hepatic duct. The common hepatic duct, biliary confluence, right anterior segmental duct, and right anterior branch of portal vein were involved by the tumor (Bismuth IIIa). After carefully operation planning, we successfully performed a radical parenchyma-sparing anatomical surgery of hilar cholangiocarcinoma: Liver segmentectomy (segments 5 and 8) and caudate lobectomy. MDCTcombined with 3-dimensional reconstruction is a reliable non-invasive modality for preoperative evaluation of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:27376205

  10. Carabelli's trait revisited: an examination of mesiolingual features at the enamel-dentine junction and enamel surface of Pan and Homo sapiens upper molars.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Alejandra; Skinner, Matthew M; Bailey, Shara E; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2012-10-01

    Carabelli's trait is a morphological feature that frequently occurs on the mesiolingual aspect of Homo sapiens upper molars. Similar structures also referred to as Carabelli's trait have been reported in apes and fossil hominins. However, the morphological development and homology of these mesiolingual structures among hominoids are poorly understood. In this study, we employ micro-computed tomography to image the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) and outer enamel surface (OES) of Pan (n = 48) and H. sapiens (n = 52) upper molars. We investigate the developmental origin of mesiolingual features in these taxa and establish the relative contribution of the EDJ and enamel cap to feature expression. Results demonstrate that mesiolingual features of H. sapiens molars develop at the EDJ and are similarly expressed at the OES. Morphological variation at both surfaces in this taxon can satisfactorily be assessed using standards for Carabelli's trait developed by the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System (ASUDAS). Relative to H. sapiens, Pan has an even greater degree of correspondence in feature expression between the EDJ and OES. Morphological manifestations in Pan molars are not necessarily limited to the protocone and are best characterized by a lingual cingulum that cannot be captured by the ASUDAS. Cusp-like structures, similar to those seen in marked Carabelli's trait expressions in H. sapiens, were not found in Pan. This study provides a foundation for further analyses on the evolutionary history of mesiolingual dental traits within the hominoid lineage. It also highlights the wealth of morphological data that can be obtained at the EDJ for understanding tooth development and for characterizing tooth crown variation in worn fossil teeth. PMID:22889682

  11. Accidental Displacement of Third Molar into the Sublingual Space: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Robson Rodrigues; Botelho, Tessa Lucena; Franco, Ademir; Silva, Rhonan Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Successful extraction of third molars depends on preoperative diagnosis and planning. Gold standard preoperative examinations are performed through computed tomography, decreasing risks and avoiding potential accidents. The present report highlights the value of preoperative examinations in face of accidentally displaced third molars. Methods An 18-years-old female patient underwent a third mandibular molar extraction with a general dentist. Accidentally, the mandibular left third molar was displaced into the sublingual space, making necessary a second surgical step. The surgery was interrupted and the patient was referred to an expert in maxillofacial surgery. Results After 21 days awaiting an asymptomatic health status, the second surgical step was successfully performed using multislice computed tomography as preoperative imaging guide. Conclusions The present case report highlights the clinical usefulness of imaging planning and informed consents in face of legal and ethic potential complaints. PMID:25386232

  12. Management of Chronic Hyperplastic Pulpitis in Mandibular Molars of Middle Aged Adults- A Multidisciplinary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lingeswaran, Somiya; Ari, Geetha; Thyagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Logaranjani, Anitha

    2016-01-01

    The molar tooth of children and young adults is a common site for chronic hyperplastic pulpitis (pulp polyp). It rarely occurs in middle aged adults. This condition is usually characterized by extensive involvement of the pulp, dictating the extraction of involved tooth. Extraction of permanent molars can lead to transient or permanent malocclusion, aesthetic, phonetic and functional problems. Here we report a case of pulp polyp in mandibular first molar of a 33-year-old woman that grew into the carious cavity. The aim of this case report is to describe the diagnosis of a chronic hyperplastic pulpitis involving the permanent molar as well as to describe its management in order to preserve them as a functional unit of the dentition. PMID:26894192

  13. Root Canal Configuration of Maxillary First Permanent Molars in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Shahriar; Yavari, Hamid Reza; Rahimi, Saeed; Ahmadi, Ali

    2007-01-01

    Background and aims It is critical to have a proper knowledge of the normal anatomy of the pulp and its variations for the success of endodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate variations in the root canal system of maxillary first permanent molars in an Iranian population. Materials and methods In this study, 137 maxillary first molars were decalcified, dye-injected, cleared and studied. Results The results demonstrated that 37.96% of the maxillary first molars under study had three canals, 58.4% had four canals and 3.64% had five canals. Conclusion According to the results of this study and considering variations in the root canal systems of maxillary first molars, it seems that great care should be taken in the root canal treatment of these teeth. PMID:23277826

  14. Root Canal Morphology of Human Mandibular First Permanent Molars in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Shahriar; Yavari, Hamid Reza; Rahimi, Saeed; Torkamani, Reza

    2008-01-01

    Background and aims The knowledge of variations in root canal morphology is critical for a successful endodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate variations in the root canal system of human mandibular first permanent molars in an Iranian population. Materials and methods In this study, 209 mandibular first molar teeth were decalcified, dye-injected, and cleared in order to determine the number and configuration of the root canals. Results The results demonstrated that 65.56% of the mandibular first molars under study had three, 31.57% had four and 2.87% had two canals. Conclusion According to the results of this study and considering variations in the root canal systems of the mandibular first molars, it seems that great care should be taken in the root canal treatment of these teeth. PMID:23285325

  15. Molar incisor hypomineralization: considerations about treatment in a controlled longitudinal case.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Daniela Cristina; Favretto, Carla Oliveira; Cunha, Robson Frederico

    2015-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a defect in the tooth enamel of systemic origin and may affect one or all four first permanent molars frequently associated with the permanent incisors. This case reports a 7-year-old child with severe MIH in the permanent molars associated with tooth decay and intense pain. In the first stage of treatment, therapy was performed with fluoride varnish and restoration with glass ionomer cement (GIC). After 6 years of clinical and radiographic follow-up, the restorations presented wear and fractures on the margins, indicating their replacement with composite resin. Severe cases of MIH in the early permanent molars can be treated with varnish and GIC to restore the patient's comfort and strengthen the hypomineralized dental structures. The clinical and radiographic monitoring frequently indicated when the restoration with composite resin should be performed. PMID:25872636

  16. How Many Digits Should We Use in Formula or Molar Mass Calculations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Christer

    2004-01-01

    The calculations of uncertainties in the formula or molar masses of compounds are streamlined. Three rules of increasing complexity are proposed, which overestimate the uncertainty so there is little if any risk that the true values are missed.

  17. The effect of cellulose molar mass on the properties of palmitate esters.

    PubMed

    Willberg-Keyriläinen, Pia; Talja, Riku; Asikainen, Sari; Harlin, Ali; Ropponen, Jarmo

    2016-10-20

    Nowadays one of the growing trends is to replace oil-based products with cellulose-based materials. Currently most cellulose esters require a huge excess of chemicals and have therefore, not been broadly used in the industry. Here, we show that decreasing the molar mass of cellulose by ozone hydrolysis provides cellulose functionalization with less chemical consumption. To reveal the differences in reactivity and chemical consumption, we showed esterification of both native cellulose and ozone treated hydrolyzed cellulose. Based on the results, the molar mass of the starting cellulose has a significant effect on the end product's degree of substitution and properties. Furthermore, molar mass controlled palmitate esters form mechanically strong, flexible and optically transparent films with excellent water barrier properties. We anticipate that molar mass controlled cellulose will provide a starting point for the greater use of cellulose based materials, in various application, such as films and composites. PMID:27474646

  18. Periodontal healing after impacted lower third molar surgery in adolescents and adults. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kugelberg, C F; Ahlström, U; Ericson, S; Hugoson, A; Kvint, S

    1991-02-01

    The effects of impacted lower 3rd molar surgery on periodontal tissues in the adjacent 2nd molar area have been investigated in a prospective study comprising 176 cases from 2 age groups: less than or equal to 20 years (n = 93) and greater than or equal to 30 years (n = 83), respectively. The preoperative and 1-year postoperative examinations included both clinical and radiographic variables. All patients were subjected to a standardized surgical procedure and optimal plaque control pre-, intra- and postoperatively. Early removal of impacted lower 3rd molars with large angulation and close positional relationship to the adjacent 2nd molar proved to have a beneficial effect on periodontal health. PMID:2019777

  19. Simplifying Chemical Reactor Design by using Molar Quantities Instead of Fractional Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lee F.; Falconer, John L.

    1987-01-01

    Explains the advantages of using molar quantities in chemical reactor design. Advocates the use of differential versions of reactor mass balances rather than the integrated forms. Provides specific examples and cases to illustrate the principles. (ML)

  20. Management of Chronic Hyperplastic Pulpitis in Mandibular Molars of Middle Aged Adults- A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    PubMed

    Anilkumar, Kanakamedala; Lingeswaran, Somiya; Ari, Geetha; Thyagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Logaranjani, Anitha

    2016-01-01

    The molar tooth of children and young adults is a common site for chronic hyperplastic pulpitis (pulp polyp). It rarely occurs in middle aged adults. This condition is usually characterized by extensive involvement of the pulp, dictating the extraction of involved tooth. Extraction of permanent molars can lead to transient or permanent malocclusion, aesthetic, phonetic and functional problems. Here we report a case of pulp polyp in mandibular first molar of a 33-year-old woman that grew into the carious cavity. The aim of this case report is to describe the diagnosis of a chronic hyperplastic pulpitis involving the permanent molar as well as to describe its management in order to preserve them as a functional unit of the dentition. PMID:26894192

  1. Sexual dimorphism in crown units of mandibular deciduous and permanent molars in Australian Aborigines.

    PubMed

    Kondo, S; Townsend, G C

    2004-01-01

    Sexual differences in the crown units of mandibular molars were investigated in Australian Aborigines. The first and second deciduous molars (dm1 and dm2), and first to third permanent molars (M1, M2 and M3) were measured on dental casts using a sliding caliper. Measurements of tooth crowns included overall mesiodistal and buccolingual diameters, as well as the mesiodistal and buccolingual diameters of the trigonid and talonid. Percentage dimorphism values were greater in the talonid dimensions than the trigonid, indicating that sex differences tend to be larger in the later-developing crown units. Sex differences in mesiodistal diameters increased from dm1 to M2 but decreased for M3, the tooth that showed the least dimorphism of all the molars. This result seems to be due to the marked variability in size of the M3 between individuals. PMID:15553268

  2. A guide to modelling cardiac electrical activity in anatomically detailed ventricles.

    PubMed

    Clayton, R H; Panfilov, A V

    2008-01-01

    One of the most recent trends in cardiac electrophysiology is the development of integrative anatomically accurate models of the heart, which include description of cardiac activity from sub-cellular and cellular level to the level of the whole organ. In order to construct this type of model, a researcher needs to collect a wide range of information from books and journal articles on various aspects of biology, physiology, electrophysiology, numerical mathematics and computer programming. The aim of this methodological article is to survey recent developments in integrative modelling of electrical activity in the ventricles of the heart, and to provide a practical guide to the resources and tools that are available for work in this exciting and challenging area. PMID:17825362

  3. The Double-Pulley Anatomic Technique for Type II SLAP Lesion Repair

    PubMed Central

    Parnes, Nata; Ciani, Mario; Carr, Brian; Carey, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The annual incidence and number of repairs of SLAP lesions in the United States are constantly increasing. Surgical repairs of type II SLAP lesions have overall good success rates. However, a low satisfaction rate and low rate of return to preinjury level of play remain a challenge with elite overhead and throwing athletes. Recent anatomic studies suggest that current surgical techniques over-tension the biceps anchor and the superior labrum. These studies suggest that restoration of the normal anatomy will improve clinical outcomes and sports performance. We present a “double-pulley” technique for arthroscopic fixation of type II SLAP lesions. In this technique the normal anatomy is respected by preserving the mobility of the articular aspect of the superior labrum while reinforcing the biceps anchor and its posterior fibers medially. PMID:26900552

  4. Alternative approach to management of early loss of second primary molar: a clinical case report.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ravi; Chaudhry, Kalpna; Yeluri, Ramakrishna; Singh, Chanchal; Munshi, Autar K

    2014-05-01

    Preservation of space after premature loss of the second primary molar is essential to prevent mesial drifting of the permanent first molar. Various modifications of distal shoe space maintainers, which have been documented, are all nonfunctional in nature. This paper describes an innovative design of a functional distal shoe space maintainer that is intended to overcome the disadvantages of conventional non-functional space maintainers and that does not hamper the periodontal status of the abutment tooth. PMID:25087351

  5. Unilateral Maxillary First Molar Extraction in Class II Subdivision: An Unconventional Treatment Alternative

    PubMed Central

    Booij, J. W.; Livas, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetrical intra-arch relationship in Class II subdivision malocclusion poses challenges in the treatment planning and mechanotherapy of such cases. This case report demonstrates a treatment technique engaging unilateral extraction of a maxillary first molar and Begg fixed appliances. The outcome stability and the enhancing effect on the eruption of the third molar in the extraction segment were confirmed by a 4-year follow-up examination. PMID:27200194

  6. A geometric morphometric analysis of hominin lower molars: Evolutionary implications and overview of postcanine dental variation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Robles, Aida; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Martinón-Torres, María; Prado-Simón, Leyre; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-05-01

    Lower molars have been extensively studied in the context of hominin evolution using classic and geometric morphometric analyses, 2D and 3D approaches, evaluations of the external (outer enamel surface) and internal anatomy (dentine, pulp chamber, and radicular canals), and studies of the crown and root variation. In this study, we present a 2D geometric morphometric analysis of the crown anatomy of lower first, second, and third molars of a broad sample of hominins, including Pliocene and Lower, Middle, and Upper Pleistocene species coming from Africa, Asia, and Europe. We show that shape variability increases from first to second and third molars. While first molars tend to retain a relatively stable 5-cusped conformation throughout the hominin fossil record, second and third molars show marked distal reductions in later Homo species. This trend to distal reduction is similar to that observed in previous studies of premolars and upper second and third molars, and points to a correlated reduction of distal areas across the whole postcanine dentition. Results on lower molar variation, as well as on other postcanine teeth, show certain trends in European Pleistocene populations from the Atapuerca sites. Middle Pleistocene hominins from Sima de los Huesos show Neanderthal affinities and strong dental reduction, especially in the most distal molars. The degree of dental reduction in this population is stronger than that observed in classic Neanderthals. Homo antecessor hominins from Gran Dolina-TD6 have primitive lower teeth that contrast with their more derived upper teeth. The evolutionary implications of these dental affinities are discussed in light of recent paleogenetic studies. PMID:25840859

  7. Unilateral Maxillary First Molar Extraction in Class II Subdivision: An Unconventional Treatment Alternative.

    PubMed

    Booij, J W; Livas, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetrical intra-arch relationship in Class II subdivision malocclusion poses challenges in the treatment planning and mechanotherapy of such cases. This case report demonstrates a treatment technique engaging unilateral extraction of a maxillary first molar and Begg fixed appliances. The outcome stability and the enhancing effect on the eruption of the third molar in the extraction segment were confirmed by a 4-year follow-up examination. PMID:27200194

  8. Comparison of sexual dimorphism of permanent mandibular canine with mandibular first molar by odontometrics

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Aditi; Manjunatha, Bhari Shranesha; Dholia, Bhavik; Althomali, Yousef

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Sexual dimorphism is one of important tool of forensic science. The objective of this study is to assess the dimorphic status of mesio-distal (MD) and bucco-lingual (BL) diameter of mandibular canine with mandibular first molar among the students of dental college. This study is of definite significance as sex chromosomes and hormonal production influenced tooth morphology. Materials and Methods: The descriptive study adopted the purposive sampling technique, of 50 male and 50 female aged 17-25 years, using study casts for mesio-distal and bucco-lingual dimensions of mandibular canine with mandibular first molar were taken using digital Vernier caliper. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using descriptive statistics and t-test to compare MD and BL dimensions in male and female populations and P ≤ 0.05 was found statistically significant. Results: Sexual dimorphism can be predicted by measuring mesiodistal dimension of mandibular canine and mandibular first molar. The left mandibular canine showed more sexual dimorphism (12.66%) in comparison to left mandibular first molar (0.824%) only. Right mandibular canine showed greater dimorphism in MD dimensions (10.94%) in comparison to right mandibular first molar (6.96%). In bucco-lingual dimensions mandibular canine showed less variability when compared with mandibular first molar, thus our study showed more significance on mesio-distal dimensions of both teeth. Conclusion: The present study concludes statistically significant sexual dimorphism in mandibular canine over mandibular first molar on study casts. The MD dimensions in mandibular canine and mandibular first molar can help in determining sex and identification of unknown person. PMID:26816466

  9. Agenesis of premolar associated with submerged primary molar and a supernumerary premolar: An unusual case report

    PubMed Central

    Nirmala, S. V. S. G.; Sandeep, C.; Sivakumar, N.; Babu, M. S.; Lalitha, V.

    2012-01-01

    The combination of submerged primary molar, agenesis of permanent successor with a supernumerary in the same place is very rare. The purpose of this article is to report a case of submerged mandibular left second primary molar with supernumerary tooth in the same region along with agenesis of second premolar in an 11-year-old girl, its possible etiological factors, and a brief discussion on treatment options. PMID:22629079

  10. Spectrophotometric color evaluation of permanent incisors, canines and molars. A cross-sectional clinical study

    PubMed Central

    POP-CIUTRILA, IOANA-SOFIA; COLOSI, HORATIU ALEXANDRU; DUDEA, DIANA; BADEA, MANDRA EUGENIA

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims An accurate color reproduction represents the final validation level of an esthetic anterior or posterior restoration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color of permanent maxillary incisors, canines and molars, using a clinical spectrophotometer. Methods The Vita Easyshade Advance 4.0® intraoral spectrophotometer was used by one clinician to determine the color of 369 permanent maxillary incisors, canines and molars. The best matches to Vitapan Classical® and 3D-Master® shade guides were recorded. A one-way analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare L*, a*, b*, c* and h* color coordinates among the 3 types of teeth. Differences between the mean values of all color coordinates were evaluated by use of Bonferroni corrections. Color difference (ΔE*) between incisors, canines and molars was calculated from ΔL*, Δa* and Δb* data and the results were compared to ΔE*=3.3 acceptability threshold. Results Except for Δa* and Δh* between canines and molars, statistically significant differences among the mean differences of all color coordinates were found when the 3 types of teeth were compared by pairs. The most frequently measured shades were A1 (48.4%), respectively 1M1 (31.5%) for incisors, B3 (36.6%), respectively 2M3 (39.8%) for canines and B3 (44.7%), respectively 2M3 (52%) for molars. Incisors had the highest lightness values, followed by canines and molars. Molars were the most chromatic with the highest a* and b* values. Conclusions Despite the limitations of this study, color differences among incisors, canines and molars were found to be statistically significant, above the clinical acceptability threshold established. In conclusion, successful esthetic restorations of permanent teeth of the same patient need an individual color assessment and reproduction of every type of tooth. PMID:26733753

  11. Designing Learning Spaces for Interprofessional Education in the Anatomical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Benjamin; Kvan, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores connections between interprofessional education (IPE) models and the design of learning spaces for undergraduate and graduate education in the anatomical sciences and other professional preparation. The authors argue that for IPE models to be successful and sustained they must be embodied in the environment in which…

  12. Constructivist Learning of Anatomy: Gaining Knowledge by Creating Anatomical Casts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermiz, David J.; O'Sullivan, Daniel J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Educators are encouraged to provide inquiry-based, collaborative, and problem solving activities that enhance learning and promote curiosity, skepticism, objectivity, and the use of scientific reasoning. Making anatomical casts or models by injecting solidifying substances into organs is an example of a constructivist activity for achieving these…

  13. Validation and detection of vessel landmarks by using anatomical knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Thomas; Bernhardt, Dominik; Biermann, Christina; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2010-03-01

    The detection of anatomical landmarks is an important prerequisite to analyze medical images fully automatically. Several machine learning approaches have been proposed to parse 3D CT datasets and to determine the location of landmarks with associated uncertainty. However, it is a challenging task to incorporate high-level anatomical knowledge to improve these classification results. We propose a new approach to validate candidates for vessel bifurcation landmarks which is also applied to systematically search missed and to validate ambiguous landmarks. A knowledge base is trained providing human-readable geometric information of the vascular system, mainly vessel lengths, radii and curvature information, for validation of landmarks and to guide the search process. To analyze the bifurcation area surrounding a vessel landmark of interest, a new approach is proposed which is based on Fast Marching and incorporates anatomical information from the knowledge base. Using the proposed algorithms, an anatomical knowledge base has been generated based on 90 manually annotated CT images containing different parts of the body. To evaluate the landmark validation a set of 50 carotid datasets has been tested in combination with a state of the art landmark detector with excellent results. Beside the carotid bifurcation the algorithm is designed to handle a wide range of vascular landmarks, e.g. celiac, superior mesenteric, renal, aortic, iliac and femoral bifurcation.

  14. Additive Manufacturing of Anatomical Models from Computed Tomography Scan Data.

    PubMed

    Gür, Y

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study presented here was to investigate the manufacturability of human anatomical models from Computed Tomography (CT) scan data via a 3D desktop printer which uses fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. First, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) CT scan data were converted to 3D Standard Triangle Language (STL) format by using In Vaselius digital imaging program. Once this STL file is obtained, a 3D physical version of the anatomical model can be fabricated by a desktop 3D FDM printer. As a case study, a patient's skull CT scan data was considered, and a tangible version of the skull was manufactured by a 3D FDM desktop printer. During the 3D printing process, the skull was built using acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) co-polymer plastic. The printed model showed that the 3D FDM printing technology is able to fabricate anatomical models with high accuracy. As a result, the skull model can be used for preoperative surgical planning, medical training activities, implant design and simulation to show the potential of the FDM technology in medical field. It will also improve communication between medical stuff and patients. Current result indicates that a 3D desktop printer which uses FDM technology can be used to obtain accurate anatomical models. PMID:26336695

  15. Anatomic Tunnel Placement in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Aman; Gallo, Robert A; Lynch, Scott A

    2016-07-01

    The anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction concept has developed in part from renewed interest in the insertional anatomy of the ACL, using surgical techniques that can reproduce this anatomy reliably and accurately during surgical reconstruction. Several technical tools are available to help identify and place the tibial and femoral grafts anatomically, including arthroscopic anatomic landmarks, a malleable ruler device, and intraoperative fluoroscopy. The changes in technique for anatomic tunnel placement in ACL reconstruction follow recent biomechanical and kinematic data that demonstrate improved time zero characteristics. A better re-creation of native ACL kinematics and biomechanics is achieved with independent femoral drilling techniques that re-create a central footprint single-bundle ACL reconstruction or double-bundle reconstruction. However, to date, limited short-term and long-term clinical outcome data have been reported that support using either of these techniques rather than a transtibial drilling technique. This lack of clear clinical advantage for femoral independent and/or double-bundle techniques may arise because of the potentially offsetting biologic incorporation challenges of these grafts when placed using these techniques or could result from modifications made in traditional endoscopic transtibial techniques that allow improved femoral and tibial footprint restoration. PMID:27243794

  16. The Cystic Vein: The Significance of a Forgotten Anatomic Landmark

    PubMed Central

    1997-01-01

    The cystic vein, a portion of biliary anatomy whose insignificance in open gallbladder surgery led to its being relegated to mythology, has been rediscovered by the magnified view of laparoscopic surgery. Its presence is an important anatomic feature that helps distinguish between cystic duct and common hepatic duct, thus diminishing the risk of inadvertent bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:9876684

  17. The cystic vein: the significance of a forgotten anatomic landmark.

    PubMed

    Fine, A

    1997-01-01

    The cystic vein, a portion of biliary anatomy whose insignificance in open gallbladder surgery led to its being relegated to mythology, has been rediscovered by the magnified view of laparoscopic surgery. Its presence is an important anatomic feature that helps distinguish between cystic duct and common hepatic duct, thus diminishing the risk of inadvertent bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:9876684

  18. Surface anatomy and anatomical planes in the adult turkish population.

    PubMed

    Uzun, C; Atman, E D; Ustuner, E; Mirjalili, S A; Oztuna, D; Esmer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Surface anatomy and anatomical planes are widely used in education and clinical practice. The planes are largely derived from cadaveric studies and their projections on the skin show discrepancies between and within anatomical reference textbooks. In this study, we reassessed the accuracy of common thoracic and abdominopelvic anatomical planes using computed tomography (CT) imaging in the live adult Turkish population. After patients with distorting pathologies had been excluded, CT images of 150 supine patients at the end tidal inspiration were analyzed. Sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal and pubic crest planes and their relationships to anatomical structures were established by dual consensus. The tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein/superior vena cava (SVC) junction and pulmonary bifurcation were usually below the sternal angle while the concavity of the aortic arch was generally within the plane. The tip of the tenth rib, the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein were usually within the transpyloric plane while the renal hila and the fundus of the gallbladder were below it. The inferior mesenteric artery was below the subcostal plane and the aortic bifurcation was below the supracristal plane in most adults. Projectional surface anatomy is fundamental to medical education and clinical practice. Modern cross-sectional imaging techniques allow large groups of live patients to be examined. Classic textbook information regarding anatomy needs to be reviewed and updated using the data gathered from these recent studies, taking ethnic differences into consideration. Clin. Anat. 29:183-190, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26403267

  19. Proceedings of the anatomical society of great britain and ireland.

    PubMed

    2000-02-01

    A one day symposium of the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland was held at the Royal Free Hospital in London on the 17th September 1999, on the topic of 'Mechanisms of ageing and longevity'. The following are abstracts of communications and posters presented at the meeting. PMID:17103660

  20. Proceedings of the anatomical society of great britain and ireland.

    PubMed

    2003-07-01

    The Winter Meeting of the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland was held at Royal Holloway College, Egham, 7-9 January 2003. It included a symposium on 'Repairing the nervous system'. The following are abstracts of communications and posters presented at the meeting. PMID:17103798

  1. Proceedings of the anatomical society of great britain and ireland.

    PubMed

    2000-08-01

    The Winter Meeting of the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland was held at the Royal Holloway College, Egham, Surrey from 5th to 7th January 2000. It included a symposium on 'Phenotypic changes in epithelial development' and the Annual General Meeting of the Society. The following are abstracts of communications and posters presented at the meeting. PMID:17103662

  2. Multiple variations of the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox

    PubMed Central

    Thwin, San San; Zaini, Fazlin; Than, Myo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Multiple tendons of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) in the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist can lead to the development of de Quervain's syndrome, which is caused by stenosing tenosynovitis. A cadaveric study was performed to establish the variations present in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox in a Malaysian population, in the hope that this knowledge would aid clinical investigation and surgical treatment of de Quervain's tenosynovitis. METHODS Routine dissection of ten upper limbs was performed to determine the variations in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist. RESULTS In all the dissected upper limbs, the APL tendon of the first extensor compartment was found to have several (3–14) tendon slips. The insertion of the APL tendon slips in all upper limbs were at the base of the first metacarpal bone, trapezium and fascia of the opponens pollicis muscle; however, in seven specimens, they were also found to be attached to the fleshy belly of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. In two specimens, double tendons of the extensor pollicis longus located in the third extensor compartment were inserted into the capsule of the proximal interphalangeal joints before being joined to the extensor expansion. In two other specimens, the first extensor compartment had two osseofibrous tunnels divided by a septum that separated the APL tendon from the extensor pollicis brevis tendon. CONCLUSION Multiple variations were found in the anatomical snuffbox region of the dissected upper limbs. Knowledge of these variations would be useful in interventional radiology and orthopaedic surgery. PMID:24452976

  3. An anatomical and functional topography of human auditory cortical areas

    PubMed Central

    Moerel, Michelle; De Martino, Federico; Formisano, Elia

    2014-01-01

    While advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) throughout the last decades have enabled the detailed anatomical and functional inspection of the human brain non-invasively, to date there is no consensus regarding the precise subdivision and topography of the areas forming the human auditory cortex. Here, we propose a topography of the human auditory areas based on insights on the anatomical and functional properties of human auditory areas as revealed by studies of cyto- and myelo-architecture and fMRI investigations at ultra-high magnetic field (7 Tesla). Importantly, we illustrate that—whereas a group-based approach to analyze functional (tonotopic) maps is appropriate to highlight the main tonotopic axis—the examination of tonotopic maps at single subject level is required to detail the topography of primary and non-primary areas that may be more variable across subjects. Furthermore, we show that considering multiple maps indicative of anatomical (i.e., myelination) as well as of functional properties (e.g., broadness of frequency tuning) is helpful in identifying auditory cortical areas in individual human brains. We propose and discuss a topography of areas that is consistent with old and recent anatomical post-mortem characterizations of the human auditory cortex and that may serve as a working model for neuroscience studies of auditory functions. PMID:25120426

  4. Ankle Joint Fusion With an Anatomically Preshaped Anterior Locking Plate.

    PubMed

    Wiewiorski, Martin; Barg, Alexej; Schlemmer, Thomas; Valderrabano, Victor

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel fixation plate for primary ankle joint fusion. A single anatomically preshaped angular stable plate was used with an anterior approach. An excellent result with good bone consolidation was present at the 1-year follow-up examination. PMID:25998475

  5. Semantic Dementia and Persisting Wernicke's Aphasia: Linguistic and Anatomical Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogar, J. M.; Baldo, J. V.; Wilson, S. M.; Brambati, S. M.; Miller, B. L.; Dronkers, N. F.; Gorno-Tempini, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have directly compared the clinical and anatomical characteristics of patients with progressive aphasia to those of patients with aphasia caused by stroke. In the current study we examined fluent forms of aphasia in these two groups, specifically semantic dementia (SD) and persisting Wernicke's aphasia (WA) due to stroke. We compared…

  6. Anatomical Variations of Cerebral MR Venography: Is Gender Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rambir; Bansal, Nikhil; Paliwal, Vimal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Knowledge of variations in the cerebral dural venous sinus anatomy seen on magnetic resonance (MR) venography is essential to avoid over-diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). Very limited data is available on gender difference of the cerebral dural venous sinus anatomy variations. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was conducted to study the normal anatomy of the intracranial venous system and its normal variation, as depicted by 3D MR venography, in normal adults and any gender-related differences. Results A total of 1654 patients (582 men, 1072 women, age range 19 to 86 years, mean age: 37.98±13.83 years) were included in the study. Most common indication for MR venography was headache (75.4%). Hypoplastic left transverse sinus was the most common anatomical variation in 352 (21.3%) patients. Left transverse sinus was hypoplastic in more commonly in male in comparison to female (24.9% versus 19.3%, p = 0.009). Most common variation of superior sagittal sinus (SSS) was atresia of anterior one third SSS (15, 0.9%). Except hypoplastic left transverse sinus, rest of anatomical variations of the transverse and other sinuses were not significantly differ among both genders. Conclusion Hypoplastic left transverse sinus is the most common anatomical variation and more common in male compared to female in the present study. Other anatomical variations of dural venous sinuses are not significantly differ among both genders. PMID:27621945

  7. An anatomical and functional topography of human auditory cortical areas.

    PubMed

    Moerel, Michelle; De Martino, Federico; Formisano, Elia

    2014-01-01

    While advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) throughout the last decades have enabled the detailed anatomical and functional inspection of the human brain non-invasively, to date there is no consensus regarding the precise subdivision and topography of the areas forming the human auditory cortex. Here, we propose a topography of the human auditory areas based on insights on the anatomical and functional properties of human auditory areas as revealed by studies of cyto- and myelo-architecture and fMRI investigations at ultra-high magnetic field (7 Tesla). Importantly, we illustrate that-whereas a group-based approach to analyze functional (tonotopic) maps is appropriate to highlight the main tonotopic axis-the examination of tonotopic maps at single subject level is required to detail the topography of primary and non-primary areas that may be more variable across subjects. Furthermore, we show that considering multiple maps indicative of anatomical (i.e., myelination) as well as of functional properties (e.g., broadness of frequency tuning) is helpful in identifying auditory cortical areas in individual human brains. We propose and discuss a topography of areas that is consistent with old and recent anatomical post-mortem characterizations of the human auditory cortex and that may serve as a working model for neuroscience studies of auditory functions. PMID:25120426

  8. [Hemostasis of the preprostatic veins in total cystoprostatectomy. Anatomical bases].

    PubMed

    Benoit, G; Boccon-Gibod, L; Quillard, J; Delmas, V; Gillot, C; Steg, A

    1984-05-26

    An anatomical study has enabled the authors to propose a diagrammatic description of pre-prostatic veins, the haemostasis of which is one of the difficult stages in total cystoprostatectomy for cancer. These veins are surrounded by the pubovesical ligaments but they are separated from the membranous urethra by a cleavage plane which can be used to control venous bleeding. PMID:6233576

  9. Anatomical features of the origin and spread of tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Levene, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    All tumours have certain broad characteristics in common, though they vary widely in their origin, distribution, shape, and mode of spread. The part played by anatomical factors in determining these variations is discussed and the need for the surgeon to bear these factors in mind in diagnosis and treatment is emphasised. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:626470

  10. Adaptation of Museum Specimens for Use in Anatomical Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, P. F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Color transparencies are prepared of a re-colored anatomical specimen after placing labels temporarily in position to indicate specific structures. The specimen is also radiographed to show skeletal and soft tissue structures. Cross-reference among the specimen, photographs, and radiographs is supplemented by examination and self-assessment…

  11. CAVEman: Standardized Anatomical Context for Biomedical Data Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turinsky, Andrei L.; Fanea, Elena; Trinh, Quang; Wat, Stephen; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Dong, Xiaoli; Shu, Xueling; Stromer, Julie N.; Hill, Jonathan W.; Edwards, Carol; Grosenick, Brenda; Yajima, Masumi; Sensen, Christoph W.

    2008-01-01

    The authors have created a software system called the CAVEman, for the visual integration and exploration of heterogeneous anatomical and biomedical data. The CAVEman can be applied for both education and research tasks. The main component of the system is a three-dimensional digital atlas of the adult male human anatomy, structured according to…

  12. Removal versus retention of asymptomatic third molars in mandibular angle fractures: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Z; Findlay, G; O'Rourke, P; Batstone, M

    2016-05-01

    The treatment dilemma provided by asymptomatic third molars in mandibular angle fractures remains controversial. This prospective randomized controlled trial was undertaken to determine whether there is an advantage to extraction or retention of the third molar whilst repairing a mandibular angle fracture. Sixty-four patients were allocated randomly to the two treatment groups. All underwent open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with standard postoperative care. The primary outcome measure was uncomplicated fracture healing. Secondary measures were surgical duration, malocclusion, wound healing, nerve injury, and return to theatre. All patients had uncomplicated fracture healing. The incidence of nerve injury was 16% for the retention group compared with 39% for the removal group (P=0.038). The average operating time for ORIF and third molar retention cases was 58.5min and for ORIF and third molar removal cases was 66.3min (P=0.26). There was no statistically significant difference between groups for wound healing, occlusion outcomes, or return to theatre. Given the additional risk of nerve injury and the additional operating time required for removal of a third molar, in the absence of an absolute indicator for removal of the third molar, it appears justifiable to advise retaining the tooth in the line of a mandibular angle fracture. PMID:26867667

  13. Recommendations for Third Molar Removal: A Practice-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rothen, Marilynn; Spiekerman, Charles; Drangsholt, Mark; McClellan, Lyle; Huang, Greg J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated general dentists’ reasons for recommending removal or retention of third molars and whether patients adhered to dentists’ recommendations. Methods. In a 2-year prospective cohort study (2009–2011) in the Pacific Northwest, we followed 801 patients aged 16 to 22 years from 50 general dental practices. Generalized estimating equations logistic regressions related patient and dentist characteristics to dentists' recommendations to remove third molars and to patient adherence. Results. General dentists recommended removal of 1683 third molars from 469 (59%) participants, mainly to prevent future problems (79%) or because a third molar had an unfavorable orientation or was unlikely to erupt (57%). Dentists recommended retention and monitoring of 1244 third molars from 366 (46%) participants, because it was too early to decide (73%), eruption path was favorable (39%), or space for eruption was sufficient (26%). When dentists recommended removal, 55% of participants adhered to this recommendation during follow-up, and the main reason was availability of insurance (88%). Conclusions. General dentists frequently recommended removal of third molars for reasons not related to symptoms or pathology, but rather to prevent future problems. PMID:24524519

  14. A Novel Chitin Binding Crayfish Molar Tooth Protein with Elasticity Properties

    PubMed Central

    Tynyakov, Jenny; Bentov, Shmuel; Abehsera, Shai; Khalaila, Isam; Manor, Rivka; Katzir Abilevich, Lihie; Weil, Simy; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Sagi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    The molar tooth of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus is part of the mandible, and is covered by a layer of apatite (calcium phosphate). This tooth sheds and is regenerated during each molting cycle together with the rest of the exoskeleton. We discovered that molar calcification occurs at the pre-molt stage, unlike calcification of the rest of the new exoskeleton. We further identified a novel molar protein from C. quadricarinatus and cloned its transcript from the molar-forming epithelium. We termed this protein Cq-M13. The temporal level of transcription of Cq-M13 in an NGS library of molar-forming epithelium at different molt stages coincides with the assembly and mineralization pattern of the molar tooth. The predicted protein was found to be related to the pro-resilin family of cuticular proteins. Functionally, in vivo silencing of the transcript caused molt cycle delay and a recombinant version of the protein was found to bind chitin and exhibited elastic properties. PMID:26010981

  15. A novel chitin binding crayfish molar tooth protein with elasticity properties.

    PubMed

    Tynyakov, Jenny; Bentov, Shmuel; Abehsera, Shai; Khalaila, Isam; Manor, Rivka; Katzir Abilevich, Lihie; Weil, Simy; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Sagi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    The molar tooth of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus is part of the mandible, and is covered by a layer of apatite (calcium phosphate). This tooth sheds and is regenerated during each molting cycle together with the rest of the exoskeleton. We discovered that molar calcification occurs at the pre-molt stage, unlike calcification of the rest of the new exoskeleton. We further identified a novel molar protein from C. quadricarinatus and cloned its transcript from the molar-forming epithelium. We termed this protein Cq-M13. The temporal level of transcription of Cq-M13 in an NGS library of molar-forming epithelium at different molt stages coincides with the assembly and mineralization pattern of the molar tooth. The predicted protein was found to be related to the pro-resilin family of cuticular proteins. Functionally, in vivo silencing of the transcript caused molt cycle delay and a recombinant version of the protein was found to bind chitin and exhibited elastic properties. PMID:26010981

  16. Prevalence of Third Molar Agenesis: Associated Dental Anomalies in Non-Syndromic 5923 Patients.

    PubMed

    Sujon, Mamun Khan; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Rahman, Shaifulizan Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of third molar agenesis and other associated dental anomalies in Bangladeshi population and to investigate the relationship of other dental anomalies with the third molar presence/agenesis. A retrospective study was performed using panoramic radiographs of 5923 patients, who ranged in age from 10 to 50 years. All radiographs were analyzed by Planmeca Romexis® 3.0 software (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland). Pearson chi-square and one way ANOVA (Post Hoc) test were conducted. The prevalence of third molar agenesis was 38.4%. The frequency of third molar agenesis was significantly higher in females than males (p <0.025). Third molar agenesis was significantly more prevalent in maxilla as compared to mandible (p <0.007). The prevalence of other dental anomalies was 6.5%, among them hypodontia was 3.1%. Prevalence of third molar agenesis varies in different geographic region. Among the other dental anomalies hypodontia was more prevalent. PMID:27580050

  17. A reliable method for evaluating upper molar distalization: Superimposition of three-dimensional digital models

    PubMed Central

    Nalcaci, Ruhi; Bicakci, Ali Altug; Ozturk, Firat; Babacan, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of measurements obtained after the superimposition of three-dimensional (3D) digital models by comparing them with those obtained from lateral cephalometric radiographs and photocopies of plaster models for the evaluation of upper molar distalization. Methods Data were collected from plaster models and lateral cephalometric radiographs of 20 Class II patients whose maxillary first molars were distalized with an intraoral distalizer. The posterior movements of the maxillary first molars were evaluated using lateral cephalometric radiographs (group CP), photocopies of plaster models (group PH), and digitized 3D models (group TD). Additionally, distalization and expansion of the other teeth and the degrees of molar rotation were measured in group PH and group TD and compared between the two groups. Results No significant difference was observed regarding the amount of molar distalization among the three groups. A comparison of the aforementioned parameters between group PH and group TD did not reveal any significant difference. Conclusions 3D digital models are reliable to assess the results of upper molar distalization and can be considered a valid alternative to conventional measurement methods. PMID:25798414

  18. Predicting anatomical results of surgical treatment of idiopathic macular hole

    PubMed Central

    Shpak, Alexander A.; Shkvorchenko, Dmitry O.; Sharafetdinov, Ilias Kh.; Yukhanova, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the parameters most informative in predicting the anatomical results of surgical treatment of idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (IMH). METHODS One hundred and sixty-two consecutive patients (170 eyes) after primary operation for IMH were enrolled. Outcomes were classified as anatomical success when both IMH closure and restoration of the outer retinal structure were achieved. “Prospective” group included 108 patients (115 eyes) followed with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and microperimetry for 1y after surgery. Potential prognostic criteria, except microperimetry data, were tested in “retrospective” group (54 patients, 55 eyes). Prognostic value of each parameter was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Combined predictive power of the best prognostic parameters was tested with the use of linear discriminant analysis. RESULTS IMH closure was achieved in 106 eyes (92%) in the prospective group and 49 eyes (89%) in the retrospective group. Despite anatomical closure, the outer retinal structure was not restored in two eyes in the first group and in one eye in the second group. Preoperative central subfield retinal thickness demonstrated the best discriminatory capability between eyes with anatomical success and failure: area under the ROC-curve (AUC) 0.938 (95% CI: 0.881-0.995), sensitivity 64% at fixed specificity 95% (cut-off value 300 µm) in the prospective group; sensitivity 57% and specificity 90% in the retrospective group. Other continuous parameters except tractional hole index (AUC: 0.796, 95% CI: 0.591-1.000) had significantly lower AUCs (P<0.05). The best combination of the parameters, established by discriminant analysis in the prospective group, could not confirm its predictive value in the retrospective group. CONCLUSION Preoperative central subfield retinal thickness is a strong and probably the best predictor of anatomical results of IMH surgical treatment. PMID:26949645

  19. PET Image Reconstruction Using Information Theoretic Anatomical Priors

    PubMed Central

    Somayajula, Sangeetha; Panagiotou, Christos; Rangarajan, Anand; Li, Quanzheng; Arridge, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a nonparametric framework for incorporating information from co-registered anatomical images into positron emission tomographic (PET) image reconstruction through priors based on information theoretic similarity measures. We compare and evaluate the use of mutual information (MI) and joint entropy (JE) between feature vectors extracted from the anatomical and PET images as priors in PET reconstruction. Scale-space theory provides a framework for the analysis of images at different levels of detail, and we use this approach to define feature vectors that emphasize prominent boundaries in the anatomical and functional images, and attach less importance to detail and noise that is less likely to be correlated in the two images. Through simulations that model the best case scenario of perfect agreement between the anatomical and functional images, and a more realistic situation with a real magnetic resonance image and a PET phantom that has partial volumes and a smooth variation of intensities, we evaluate the performance of MI and JE based priors in comparison to a Gaussian quadratic prior, which does not use any anatomical information. We also apply this method to clinical brain scan data using F18 Fallypride, a tracer that binds to dopamine receptors and therefore localizes mainly in the striatum. We present an efficient method of computing these priors and their derivatives based on fast Fourier transforms that reduce the complexity of their convolution-like expressions. Our results indicate that while sensitive to initialization and choice of hyperparameters, information theoretic priors can reconstruct images with higher contrast and superior quantitation than quadratic priors. PMID:20851790

  20. Malocclusion in Early Anatomically Modern Human: A Reflection on the Etiology of Modern Dental Misalignment

    PubMed Central

    Sarig, Rachel; Slon, Viviane; Abbas, Janan; May, Hila; Shpack, Nir; Vardimon, Alexander Dan; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Malocclusions are common in modern populations. Yet, as the study of occlusion requires an almost intact dentition in both the maxilla and mandible, searching for the ultimate cause of malocclusion is a challenge: relatively little ancient material is available for research on occlusal states. The Qafzeh 9 skull is unique, as its preserved dentition allowed us to investigate the presence and manifestations of malocclusion. The aim of this study was thus to examine the occlusal condition in the Qafzeh 9 specimen in light of modern knowledge regarding the etiology of malocclusion. We revealed a pathologic occlusion in the Qafzeh 9 skull that probably originated in the early developmental stage of the dentition, and was aggravated by forces applied by mastication. When arch continuity is interrupted due to misalignment of teeth as in this case, force transmission is not equal on both sides, causing intra-arch outcomes such as mesialization of the teeth, midline deviation, rotations and the aggravation of crowding. All are evident in the Qafzeh 9 skull: the midline deviates to the left; the incisors rotate mesio-buccally; the left segment is constricted; the left first molar is buccally positioned and the left premolars palatally tilted. The inter-arch evaluation revealed anterior cross bite with functional shift that might affect force transmission and bite force. In conclusion, the findings of the current study suggest that malocclusion of developmental origin was already present in early anatomically modern humans (AMH) (the present case being the oldest known case, dated to ca. 100,000 years); that there is no basis to the notion that early AMH had a better adjustment between teeth and jaw size; and that jaw-teeth size discrepancy could be found in prehistoric populations and is not a recent phenomenon. PMID:24278319

  1. Assessment and Evaluation of Anatomic Variations of Retromolar Pad: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Deep, Anchal; Siwach, Amit; Singh, Manas; Bhargava, Akshay; Siwach, Reenu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The retromolar pad also called piriformis papilla is a mucosal elevation located in the retromolar area covering the retromolar triangle. After molar loss, the bony alveolar process and surrounding soft periodontal tissue remodel, mainly resorb and blend with retromolar pad. It is a key intraoral landmark in prosthodontics. Aim The aim of this in-vitro study was to analyze the various anatomical shapes and sizes of retromolar pad in 150 completely edentulous patients between 55 to 70 years of age group. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on 150 completely edentulous patients. The shapes of retromolar pad on the left and right side were seen and divided into pear, triangular and round shape. The comparison of the mean longitudinal diameter and transverse diameter on the right and left sides was done. The data was evaluated statistically. The chi-square test was used for the comparison between the proportions with the help of standard deviation, t-test was used for comparison between the left and the right side and ANOVA test was used for comparison between the various shapes of the retromolar pads. Results The result showed that there was statistically significant difference among different shapes of retromolar pad and there was significant difference in mean transverse and longitudinal diameter on right and left side, the mean value of the longitudinal diameter on left and right side was 8.81 and 8.69 whereas the mean value of the transverse diameter on left and right side was 6.79 and 6.82 respectively and p-value obtained for both was 0.550 and 0.814 respectively. Conclusion The study conclude that there are three different shapes of retromolar pad among which pear and triangular shaped retomolar pad provides more stability in lower denture because of increase surface area. PMID:27437350

  2. An Evolution of Orchiopexy: Historical Aspect

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hwang

    2010-01-01

    The history of treatment for cryptorchidism dates back more than 200 years. This review is intended to highlight some historical aspect that led us to our current surgical treatment of this condition. The medical and historical surgical literatures pertaining to cryptorchidism were reviewed. Data sources were PubMed, Embase, conference proceedings, and bibliographies. No language, date, or publication status restrictions were imposed. The study of cryptorchidism began with the anatomical descriptions of Baron Albrecht von Haller and John Hunter. Attempts at surgical correction of the undescended testis began in the early 1800s, culminating in the first successful orchiopexy by Thomas Annandale in 1877. Max Schüller, Arthur Dean Bevan and Lattimer contributed to the establishment of current techniques for standard orchiopexy. Later, laparoscopy, high inguinal incision (Jones' approach) and scrotal approach were added to the list of current orchiopexy. PMID:20414389

  3. [Clinical aspects of congenital maxillofacial deformities].

    PubMed

    Sólya, Kitti; Dézsi, Csilla; Vanya, Melinda; Szabó, János; Sikovanyecz, János; Kozinszky, Zoltán; Szili, Károly

    2015-09-13

    The cleft lip and palate deformity is one of the most common type of congenital abnormalities. The aim of this paper is to summarise the literature knowledge about cleft lip and/or palate. The authors review and discuss international literature data on the prevention, genetic and environmental predisposing factors, anatomical and embryological features, as well as pre- and post-natal diagnosis and treatment of these deformities. The aetiology is multifactorial, driven by both genetic and environmental factors which lead to multifaceted phenotypes and clinical features of these malformations. The lack of the multidisciplinary knowledge about prenatal diagnosis, prevention, genetic aspects and treatment strategy could result in serious diagnostic errors, hence clinical teamwork is critically important to solve the problems of this pathology. Only the professional teamwork and multidisciplinary cooperation can guarantee the optimal level of health care and better quality of life for these patients and their families. PMID:26552024

  4. Investigations of Anatomical Variations of the Thorax and Heart, and Anatomical Knowledge for First Year Medical Dental and Podiatry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verenna, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    The universal presence of anatomy in healthcare professions is undeniable. It is a cornerstone to each of the clinical and basic sciences. Therefore, further expansion of current anatomical knowledge and effective methods to teach anatomy is essential. In this work, the relationship of the dorsal scapular artery with the trunks of the brachial…

  5. Straight, semi-anatomic and anatomic TMJ implants: the influence of condylar geometry and bone fixation screws.

    PubMed

    Ramos, A; Completo, A; Relvas, C; Mesnard, M; Simões, J A

    2011-07-01

    A 3D finite element model of in vitro intact and implanted mandibles with different temporomandibular joints (TMJ) was analyzed. Three TMJ implant geometries were assessed. The displacements, stress and strain fields on the condyle were obtained for both simulated cases. Strains were also assessed near the screws that fixate the implant to the mandible. The geometry of the mandible was obtained through 3D digitalization of a synthetic model. The TMJ implants studied were modelled considering a commercial implant which was also used to create semi-anatomic and anatomic implants that were analyzed and to assess the influence of the geometry. Numerical finite element models were built and the implants were positioned by an experienced orofacial surgeon. All implants were fixed by four screws which were placed in the same position on the mandible. The boundary conditions were simulated considering the support on the incisive tooth, the loads of the five most important muscular forces and a 5mm mouth aperture. This study indicates that the deformation on the intact mandible was similar when an anatomic implant was considered in the implanted mandible. However, the anatomic geometry presented some problems concerning the implant integrity due to geometric variations. The geometry of TMJ implant also played a role relatively to the screws structural integration and bone fixation. The geometry of TMJ implant defines the necessary number of screws and position in the mandible fixation. PMID:20801667

  6. The primo vascular system as a new anatomical system.

    PubMed

    Stefanov, Miroslav; Potroz, Michael; Kim, Jungdae; Lim, Jake; Cha, Richard; Nam, Min-Ho

    2013-12-01

    Traditional Eastern medicine has had a successful existence for a long time and has provided functional paths for curing disease. However, some scientists do not accept acupuncture, primarily because the meridian system lacks a physical anatomical basis. To date, scientific theories have not been able to explain the functional paths used by traditional Eastern medicine to cure disease. According to Western medicine, no known anatomical foundation exists for the meridians and unknown nervous, circulatory, endocrine, and immune mechanisms mediate the effects of acupuncture. In the early 1960s, only one hypothesis was proposed to explain the anatomical basis of the meridians. By using different experimental approaches during the past 10 years, the number of scientific papers that report the discovery of different anatomical and physiological evidence confirming the existence of an anatomical basis for the meridian system has increased. Morphological science is greatly challenged to offer a new biomedical theory that explains the possible existence of new bodily systems such as the primo vascular system (PVS). The PVS is a previously unknown system that integrates the features of the cardiovascular, nervous, immune, and hormonal systems. It also provides a physical substrate for the acupuncture points and meridians. Announcements of the morphological architectonics and the function of the PVS fundamentally changed the basic understanding of biology and medicine because the PVS is involved in the development and the functions of living organisms. We propose a new vision of the anatomical basis for the PVS and the vital energy-called "Qi"-as an electromagnetic wave that is involved very closely with the DNA in the PVS. DNA provides genetic information and it functions as a store of information that can be obtained from the electromagnetic fields of the environment. The PVS is the communication system between living organisms and the environment, and it lies at the lowest

  7. Radiological and microscopic aspects of the denticles.

    PubMed

    Deva, V; Mogoantă, L; Manolea, H; Pancă, Oana Adina; Vătu, Mihaela; Vătăman, Maria

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we have realized a study on 43 patients on which the retro-alveolar radiological exam has shown the existence of a calcareous structure within the pulp chamber having in view a better knowledge of this structure and its etiology, way of forming and pathological implications. For 16 of the patients the radiological exam was supplemented by a microscopic examination. Radiologically, the denticles were noticed more often in the pulp chamber of the molars. The examination of the histological samples has evidenced aspects such as the size, shape and structure of the denticles. The concentric disposition of the tissue elements shows that in the formation of a denticle there is a "center" around which a conjunctive substance avid of calcium salts is deposited. The microscopic aspects noticed on large denticles allowed us to sustain the hypothesis that in a large pulp chamber many denticles form simultaneously and grow up and merge generating a large-sized unique calcareous structure. PMID:17308686

  8. Analysis and evaluation of relative positions of mandibular third molar and mandibular canal impacts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hang-Gul

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images to categorize the relationships between the mandibular canal and the roots and investigated the prevalence of nerve damage. Materials and Methods Through CBCT images, contact and three-dimensional positional relationships between the roots of the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal were investigated. With this data, prevalence of nerve damage according to the presence of contact and three-dimensional positional relationships was studied. Other factors that affected the prevalence of nerve damage were also investigated. Results When the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal were shown to have direct contact in CBCT images, the prevalence of nerve damage was higher than in other cases. Also, in cases where the mandibular canal was horizontally lingual to the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal was vertically at the cervical level of the mandibular third molar, the prevalence of nerve damage was higher than in opposite cases. The percentage of mandibular canal contact with the roots of the mandibular third molar was higher when the mandibular canal was horizontally lingual to the mandibular third molar. Finally, the prevalence of nerve damage was higher when the diameter of the mandibular canal lumen suddenly decreased at the contact area between the mandibular canal and the roots, as shown in CBCT images. Conclusion The three-dimensional relationship of the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal can help predict nerve damage and can guide patient expectations of the possibility and extent of nerve damage. PMID:25551092

  9. Enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) morphology distinguishes the lower molars of Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Matthew M; Gunz, Philipp; Wood, Bernard A; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2008-12-01

    Tooth crown morphology plays a central role in hominin systematics, but the removal of the original outer enamel surface by dental attrition often eliminates from consideration the type of detailed crown morphology that has been shown to discriminate among hominin taxa. This reduces the size of samples available for study. The enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) is the developmental precursor and primary contributor to the morphology of the unworn outer enamel surface, and its morphology is only affected after considerable attrition. In this paper, we explore whether the form of the EDJ can be used to distinguish between the mandibular molars of two southern African fossil hominins: Paranthropus (or Australopithecus) robustus and Australopithecus africanus. After micro-computed tomographic scanning the molar sample, we made high-resolution images of the EDJ and used geometric morphometrics to compare EDJ shape differences between species, in addition to documenting metameric variation along the molar row within each species. Landmarks were collected along the marginal ridge that runs between adjacent dentine horns and around the circumference of the cervix. Our results suggest that the morphology of the EDJ can distinguish lower molars of these southern African hominins, and it can discriminate first, second, and third molars within each taxon. These results confirm previous findings that the EDJ preserves taxonomically valuable shape information in worn teeth. Mean differences in EDJ shape, in particular dentine horn height, crown height, and cervix shape, are more marked between adjacent molars within each taxon than for the same molar between the two taxa. PMID:18824253

  10. A crayfish molar tooth protein with putative mineralized exoskeletal chitinous matrix properties.

    PubMed

    Tynyakov, Jenny; Bentov, Shmuel; Abehsera, Shai; Yehezkel, Galit; Roth, Ziv; Khalaila, Isam; Weil, Simy; Berman, Amir; Plaschkes, Inbar; Tom, Moshe; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Sagi, Amir

    2015-11-01

    Some crustaceans possess exoskeletons that are reinforced with calcium carbonate. In the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, the molar tooth, which is part of the mandibular exoskeleton, contains an unusual crystalline enamel-like apatite layer. As this layer resembles vertebrate enamel in composition and function, it offers an interesting example of convergent evolution. Unlike other parts of the crayfish exoskeleton, which is periodically shed and regenerated during the molt cycle, molar mineral deposition takes place during the pre-molt stage. The molar mineral composition transforms continuously from fluorapatite through amorphous calcium phosphate to amorphous calcium carbonate and is mounted on chitin. The process of crayfish molar formation is entirely extracellular and presumably controlled by proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, low-molecular weight molecules and calcium salts. We have identified a novel molar protein termed Cq-M15 from C. quadricarinatus and cloned its transcript from the molar-forming epithelium. Its transcript and differential expression were confirmed by a next-generation sequencing library. The predicted acidic pI of Cq-M15 suggests its possible involvement in mineral arrangement. Cq-M15 is expressed in several exoskeletal tissues at pre-molt and its silencing is lethal. Like other arthropod cuticular proteins, Cq-M15 possesses a chitin-binding Rebers-Riddiford domain, with a recombinant version of the protein found to bind chitin. Cq-M15 was also found to interact with calcium ions in a concentration-dependent manner. This latter property might make Cq-M15 useful for bone and dental regenerative efforts. We suggest that, in the molar tooth, this protein might be involved in calcium phosphate and/or carbonate precipitation. PMID:26385331

  11. Radiographic findings on 3rd molars removed in 20-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Rajasuo, Ari; Peltola, Jaakko; Ventä, Irja; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2003-10-01

    In this study we assess radiographic findings characteristic of mandibular 3rd molars that had required either routine or surgical extraction. X-ray findings relating to acute pericoronitis were also examined. The material was collected by investigating patient records and rotational panoramic radiographs of 20-year-old Finnish male conscripts (n = 738) treated during military service because of 3rd-molar-related problems. The follicle around the crown of mandibular 3rd molars with acute pericoronitis was enlarged in 19% of cases and in 13% of chronic symptom-free pericoronitis cases (not statistically significant difference). Mandibular 3rd molars extracted surgically were more often mesially inclined than those extracted routinely (61% vs. 23%; P < 0.001), partially or totally intrabony impacted (92% vs. 66%; P < 0.001) and deep situated (on average 4.2 mm vs. 2.5 mm under the occlusal plane). Surgical extraction was also associated with the roots completely developed [92% vs. 84% of the teeth routinely extracted, odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.5] and with the absence of radiographic pericoronitis [around 27% vs. 39% of the teeth routinely extracted (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8)]. In 86% of cases the space between 2nd molar and ramus of the mandible was narrower than the 3rd molar extracted surgically, whereas this was 62% in routine extraction cases (P < 0.001). We conclude that there are some typical 3rd-molar findings in rotational panoramic radiographs that show a need for surgical extraction. PMID:14763776

  12. Comparison of K-loop Molar Distalization with that of Pendulum Appliance - A Prospective Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Shashidhar, Nagam Reddy; Reddy, S.Rama Koteswara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Molar distalization is the non extraction method of managing Class II malocclusions. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of maxillary molar distalization with K-loop appliance, and to compare these effects with that of pendulum group. Materials and Methods Class I and dental Class II malocclusions were divided into two groups of 15 each: In Group 1 (nine females and six males; mean age, 16.0±2.6 years) patients were treated with K-Loop molar distalization supported palatally by Nance button, while in Group 2 (seven females and eight males; mean age, 15.4±4.7 years), the patients were treated with conventional pendulum appliance. Standardized lateral cephalograms were taken at the beginning of treatment (T0) and at the end of molar distalization (T1) and the changes were statistically analyzed with paired t-test. Results The results showed no statistically significant difference in the amount of molar distalization in either of the appliance groups: the mean amount of molar distal movement of 5.1±0.8 mm and 4.93±1.68 mm was observed in the Group 1 and 2 respectively. The incisors moved mesially by 1.3±0.63 mm in Group 1 and 1.57±0.58 mm in Group 2. Conclusion K-Loop molar distalizing appliance has similar skeletal and dentoalveolar effects as that of pendulum appliance, with the advantages of simple yet efficient to control the moment-force ratio to produce all types of tooth movements and also requires minimal patient co-operation. PMID:27504403

  13. The Component Slope Linear Model for Calculating Intensive Partial Molar Properties: Application to Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Jacob G.

    2013-01-11

    Partial molar properties are the changes occurring when the fraction of one component is varied while the fractions of all other component mole fractions change proportionally. They have many practical and theoretical applications in chemical thermodynamics. Partial molar properties of chemical mixtures are difficult to measure because the component mole fractions must sum to one, so a change in fraction of one component must be offset with a change in one or more other components. Given that more than one component fraction is changing at a time, it is difficult to assign a change in measured response to a change in a single component. In this study, the Component Slope Linear Model (CSLM), a model previously published in the statistics literature, is shown to have coefficients that correspond to the intensive partial molar properties. If a measured property is plotted against the mole fraction of a component while keeping the proportions of all other components constant, the slope at any given point on a graph of this curve is the partial molar property for that constituent. Actually plotting this graph has been used to determine partial molar properties for many years. The CSLM directly includes this slope in a model that predicts properties as a function of the component mole fractions. This model is demonstrated by applying it to the constant pressure heat capacity data from the NaOH-NaAl(OH{sub 4}H{sub 2}O system, a system that simplifies Hanford nuclear waste. The partial molar properties of H{sub 2}O, NaOH, and NaAl(OH){sub 4} are determined. The equivalence of the CSLM and the graphical method is verified by comparing results detennined by the two methods. The CSLM model has been previously used to predict the liquidus temperature of spinel crystals precipitated from Hanford waste glass. Those model coefficients are re-interpreted here as the partial molar spinel liquidus temperature of the glass components.

  14. Evaluation of root canal morphology of human primary molars by using CBCT and comprehensive review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Gozde; Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Cantekin, Kenan; Aydinbelge, Mustafa; Dogan, Salih

    2016-05-01

    Objective Knowledge of primary tooth morphology is essential for clinical dentistry, especially for root canal treatment and dental traumatology. However, this has not been well documented to date with a large sample. This study was carried out to investigate the variation in number and morphology of the root canals of the primary molars, to study the applicability of cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) in assessing the same and to provide a comprehensive review of the literature. Materials and methods A total of 343 primary molars, without any root resorption, were divided into four main groups including the maxillary first molars, maxillary second molars, mandibular first molars and mandibular second molars. All of them were analysed in CBCT images in the axial, sagittal and coronal planes. Various parameters such as the number of roots, number of canals, the root canal type, diameter of root and root canal and root canal curvature were studied. Results Primary molars in all four groups showed variability in the number of roots and root canals. As far as length of the roots was concerned, the palatal root of the maxillary molar was found to be longest, while the distobuccal root was shortest. In mandibular molars, the mesial root was longer than the distal root. The length of distobuccal root canal of the maxillary molars and the distolingual canal of the mandibular molars was found to be shortest. The number of roots and root canals varied from two to four and three to four, respectively. The maxillary molars exhibited more one-canal than two-canal roots. Conclusion The present study provides comprehensive information to the existing literature concerning the variation in root canal morphology of the maxillary and mandibular primary molar teeth. These data may help clinicians in the root canal treatment of these teeth. PMID:26523502

  15. Analysis of anatomic variability in children with low mathematical skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhaoying; Fuchs, Lynn; Davis, Nikki; Cannistraci, Christopher J.; Anderson, Adam W.; Gore, John C.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2008-03-01

    Mathematical difficulty affects approximately 5-9% of the population. Studies on individuals with dyscalculia, a neurologically based math disorder, provide important insight into the neural correlates of mathematical ability. For example, cognitive theories, neuropsychological studies, and functional neuroimaging studies in individuals with dyscalculia suggest that the bilateral parietal lobes and intraparietal sulcus are central to mathematical performance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate morphological differences in a group of third grade children with poor math skills. We compare population averages of children with low math skill (MD) to gender and age matched controls with average math ability. Anatomical data were gathered with high resolution MRI and four different population averaging methods were used to study the effect of the normalization technique on the results. Statistical results based on the deformation fields between the two groups show anatomical differences in the bilateral parietal lobes, right frontal lobe, and left occipital/parietal lobe.

  16. 3D Modeling of Branching Structures for Anatomical Instruction

    PubMed Central

    Mattingly, William A.; Chariker, Julia H.; Paris, Richard; Chang, Dar-jen; Pani, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Branching tubular structures are prevalent in many different organic and synthetic settings. From trees and vegetation in nature, to vascular structures throughout human and animal biology, these structures are always candidates for new methods of graphical and visual expression. We present a modeling tool for the creation and interactive modification of these structures. Parameters such as thickness and position of branching structures can be modified, while geometric constraints ensure that the resulting mesh will have an accurate anatomical structure by not having inconsistent geometry. We apply this method to the creation of accurate representations of the different types of retinal cells in the human eye. This method allows a user to quickly produce anatomically accurate structures with low polygon counts that are suitable for rendering at interactive rates on commodity computers and mobile devices. PMID:27087764

  17. Anatomic femorotibial changes associated with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Jennifer A.; Allen, David A.; Bergman, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    This prospective study evaluated anatomic femorotibial changes utilizing the relationship between the intercondylar notch and the intercondylar eminence following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). We hypothesized that TPLO results in anatomic alteration of the femorotibial joint. Pre- and post-operative computed tomography (CT) scans of cranial cruciate deficient stifle joints treated with TPLO were performed on 25 client-owned dogs. Computed tomography scans were performed at 3 different stifle angles: extension, 135° walking angle, and 90° of flexion. Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy did not result in a significant medial or lateral shift of the intercondylar eminence relative to the intercondylar notch. There was a significant cranial shift of the intercondylar eminence with the stifle in extension following TPLO. In addition, TPLO resulted in a significantly narrowed femorotibial joint space. The biomechanical effects of TPLO and medial meniscal release need to be further defined. PMID:26345618

  18. A time dependent anatomically detailed model of cardiac conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxberg, B. E.; Grumbach, M. P.; Cohen, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to understand the determinants of transitions in cardiac electrical activity from normal patterns to dysrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation, we are constructing an anatomically and physiologically detailed finite element simulation of myocardial electrical propagation. A healthy human heart embedded in paraffin was sectioned to provide a detailed anatomical substrate for model calculations. The simulation of propagation includes anisotropy in conduction velocity due to fiber orientation as well as gradients in conduction velocities, absolute and relative refractory periods, action potential duration and electrotonic influence of nearest neighbors. The model also includes changes in the behaviour of myocardial tissue as a function of the past local activity. With this model, we can examine the significance of fiber orientation and time dependence of local propagation parameters on dysrhythmogenesis.

  19. Epididymal Polar Dissociation: A Previously Undescribed Anatomical Variant

    PubMed Central

    McCain, Stephen; McCain, Scott; Mark, David; Brown, Robin

    2014-01-01

    The normal male external genitalia include the testicles with the epididymis attached posteriorly and the vas deferens arising from this. This case describes an anatomical variation of this normal anatomy not previously reported in the literature. A 17-year-old boy presented with symptoms of intermittent testicular torsion and underwent scrotal exploration. On the left side there was a bell-clapper deformity with the epididymis separated into two parts with the lower pole high in the scrotum and attached to the tunica vaginalis. A normal vas deferens was seen to arise from the isolated lower pole of the epididymis. There was no connection between the vas deferens and the testis or upper pole of epidiymis. This case reminds us of the possibility of anatomical variations and the importance of keeping them in mind to prevent complications at time of surgery. PMID:24883220

  20. Cardiac Conduction System: Delineation of Anatomic Landmarks With Multidetector CT

    PubMed Central

    Saremi, Farhood; Torrone, Maria; Yashar, Nooshin

    2009-01-01

    Major components of the cardiac conduction system including the sinoatrial node (SAN), atrioventricular node (AVN), the His Bundle, and the right and left bundle branches are too small to be directly visualized by multidetector CT (MDCT) given the limited spatial resolution of current scanners. However, the related anatomic landmarks and variants of this system a well as the areas with special interest to electrophysiologists can be reliably demonstrated by MDCT. Some of these structures and landmarks include the right SAN artery, right atrial cavotricuspid isthmus, Koch triangle, AVN artery, interatrial muscle bundles, and pulmonary veins. In addition, MDCT has an imperative role in demarcating potential arrhythmogenic structures. The aim of this review will be to assess the extent at which MDCT can outline the described anatomic landmarks and therefore provide crucial information used in clinical practice. PMID:19898655

  1. Characterization of Capsicum species using anatomical and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Dias, G B; Gomes, V M; Moraes, T M S; Zottich, U P; Rabelo, G R; Carvalho, A O; Moulin, M; Gonçalves, L S A; Rodrigues, R; Da Cunha, M

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species are frequently described in terms of genetic divergence, considering morphological, agronomic, and molecular databases. However, descriptions of genetic differences based on anatomical characters are rare. We examined the anatomy and the micromorphology of vegetative and reproductive organs of several Capsicum species. Four Capsicum accessions representing the species C. annuum var. annuum, C. baccatum var. pendulum, C. chinense, and C. frutescens were cultivated in a greenhouse; leaves, fruits and seeds were sampled and their organ structure analyzed by light and scanning electronic microscopy. Molecular accession characterization was made using ISSR markers. Polymorphism was observed among tector trichomes and also in fruit color and shape. High variability among accessions was detected by ISSR markers. Despite the species studied present a wide morphological and molecular variability that was not reflected by anatomical features. PMID:23479174

  2. Ontological Labels for Automated Location of Anatomical Shape Differences

    PubMed Central

    Steinert-Threlkeld, Shane; Ardekani, Siamak; Mejino, Jose L.V.; Detwiler, Landon Todd; Brinkley, James F.; Halle, Michael; Kikinis, Ron; Winslow, Raimond L.; Miller, Michael I.; Ratnanather, J. Tilak

    2012-01-01

    A method for automated location of shape differences in diseased anatomical structures via high resolution biomedical atlases annotated with labels from formal ontologies is described. In particular, a high resolution magnetic resonance image of the myocardium of the human left ventricle was segmented and annotated with structural terms from an extracted subset of the Foundational Model of Anatomy ontology. The atlas was registered to the end systole template of a previous study of left ventricular remodeling in cardiomyopathy using a diffeomorphic registration algorithm. The previous study used thresholding and visual inspection to locate a region of statistical significance which distinguished patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy from those with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Using semantic technologies and the deformed annotated atlas, this location was more precisely found. Although this study used only a cardiac atlas, it provides a proof-of-concept that ontologically labeled biomedical atlases of any anatomical structure can be used to automate location-based inferences. PMID:22490168

  3. An anatomical evaluation of the serratus anterior plane block.

    PubMed

    Mayes, J; Davison, E; Panahi, P; Patten, D; Eljelani, F; Womack, J; Varma, M

    2016-09-01

    The serratus anterior plane block has been described for analgesia of the hemithorax. This study was conducted to determine the spread of injectate and investigate the anatomical basis of the block. Ultrasound-guided serratus anterior plane block was performed on six soft-fix embalmed cadavers. All cadavers received bilateral injections, on one side performed with 20 ml latex and on the other with 20 ml methylene blue. Subsequent dissection explored the extent of spread and nerve involvement. Photographs were taken throughout dissection. The intercostal nerves were involved on three occasions with dye, but not with latex. The lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerve contained dye and latex on all occasions. The serratus plane block appears to be mediated through blockade of the lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerves. Anatomically, serratus plane block does not appear to be equivalent to paravertebral block for rib fracture analgesia. PMID:27440171

  4. Segmentation of medical images using explicit anatomical knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Laurie S.; Brown, Stephen; Brown, Matthew S.; Young, Jeanne; Li, Rongxin; Luo, Suhuai; Brandt, Lee

    1999-07-01

    Knowledge-based image segmentation is defined in terms of the separation of image analysis procedures and representation of knowledge. Such architecture is particularly suitable for medical image segmentation, because of the large amount of structured domain knowledge. A general methodology for the application of knowledge-based methods to medical image segmentation is described. This includes frames for knowledge representation, fuzzy logic for anatomical variations, and a strategy for determining the order of segmentation from the modal specification. This method has been applied to three separate problems, 3D thoracic CT, chest X-rays and CT angiography. The application of the same methodology to such a range of applications suggests a major role in medical imaging for segmentation methods incorporating representation of anatomical knowledge.

  5. Anatomic femorotibial changes associated with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Jennifer A; Allen, David A; Bergman, Philip J

    2015-09-01

    This prospective study evaluated anatomic femorotibial changes utilizing the relationship between the intercondylar notch and the intercondylar eminence following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). We hypothesized that TPLO results in anatomic alteration of the femorotibial joint. Pre- and post-operative computed tomography (CT) scans of cranial cruciate deficient stifle joints treated with TPLO were performed on 25 client-owned dogs. Computed tomography scans were performed at 3 different stifle angles: extension, 135° walking angle, and 90° of flexion. Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy did not result in a significant medial or lateral shift of the intercondylar eminence relative to the intercondylar notch. There was a significant cranial shift of the intercondylar eminence with the stifle in extension following TPLO. In addition, TPLO resulted in a significantly narrowed femorotibial joint space. The biomechanical effects of TPLO and medial meniscal release need to be further defined. PMID:26345618

  6. A three dimensional heart model based on anatomically aligned trusses.

    PubMed

    Witman, S; Gefen, A; Barnea, O

    2007-01-01

    A new approach for modeling and simulating the contraction of the heart is presented. The model is based on anatomical images and accounts for cardiac muscle fibers and their orientation. The heart is modeled as a structure built of trusses, each representing a group of myofibers with calculated deformations using matrix structural analysis. Three elements are represented; these are the contractile cardiac muscle, the elastic passive collagen, and intracardiac blood interacting with the heart's preload and afterload. Incompressibility of each element is preserved. The conduction system is simulated in the model by transferring the activating signal from one element to another or by Purkinje fibers activation. The method was demonstrated using a three-dimensional one-layer geometrical ventricle with orthogonal fibers and with anatomically oriented fibers. PMID:18002551

  7. Anatomical, functional and molecular biomarker applications of magnetic resonance neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Christina H

    2015-01-01

    MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) along with computed tomography and PET are the most common imaging modalities used in the clinics to detect structural abnormalities and pathological conditions in the brain. MRI generates superb image resolution/contrast without radiation exposure that is associated with computed tomography and PET; MRS and spectroscopic imaging technologies allow us to measure changes in brain biochemistry. Increasingly, neurobiologists and MRI scientists are collaborating to solve neuroscience problems across sub-cellular through anatomical levels. To achieve successful cross-disciplinary collaborations, neurobiologists must have sufficient knowledge of magnetic resonance principles and applications in order to effectively communicate with their MRI colleagues. This review provides an overview of magnetic resonance techniques and how they can be used to gain insight into the active brain at the anatomical, functional and molecular levels with the goal of encouraging neurobiologists to include MRI/MRS as a research tool in their endeavors. PMID:25774094

  8. Comparison of Clinical Success of Applying a Kind of Fissure Sealant on the Lower Permanent Molar Teeth in Dry and Wet Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Eskandarian, Tahereh; Baghi, Saeid; Alipoor, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Fissure sealant therapy is among the most effective methods of preventing dental caries. However, it is lengthy and isolation of the teeth is difficult in this procedure especially in young children. Using new hydrophilic fissure sealant may reduce such problems. Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the clinical success of a hydrophilic fissure sealant on the lower permanent molar teeth in dry and wet conditions. Materials and Method This clinical trial assessed 31 patients (mean age 8.13±1.77 years) who needed fissure sealant therapy on their first or second mandibular permanent molar. Having performed dental prophylaxis, the teeth were etched and rinsed. Then one of the two was randomly selected and sealed with smartseal & loc in isolated and dry conditions; while, the other was wetted on the etched enamel by using a saliva-contaminated micro brush, and was then sealed with the same fissure as the first tooth. Six and 12 months later, two independent observers examined the clinical success of sealant through checking the marginal integrity, marginal discoloration, and anatomical form. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software, version 16. The bivariate Chi-square and Exact Fisher tests were used to compare the clinical success of the two treatment methods. Results There was a high interpersonal reliability between the two examiners (K= 0.713). After 12 months, 90.3% clinical success was observed in dry conditions and 83.9% in wet conditions for smartseal & loc; however, the difference was not statistically significant (p= 0.0707). Conclusion According to the results of this study, it seems that using new hydrophilic fissure sealant can reduce technical sensitivities and consequently decreases the apprehensions on saliva contamination of etched enamel during treatment procedures. PMID:26331144

  9. Efficacy of ultrasonic activation of NaOCl and orange oil in removing filling material from mesial canals of mandibular molars with and without isthmus

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Mirela Sangoi; da Rosa, Ricardo Abreu; Santini, Manuela Favarin; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Duarte, Marco Antônio Húngaro; Bier, Carlos Alexandre Souza; Só, Marcos Vinícius Reis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the volume of remaining filling material after passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and orange oil in mesial canals of mandibular molars, with and without isthmus. Material and Methods Thirty mesial roots of mandibular molars were divided according to the presence or absence of isthmus. Canals were prepared and filled (Micro-CT #1). Filling was removed using rotary instruments, and specimens were sub-divided into three groups according to the irrigation procedures: Conventional – conventional irrigation with NaOCl, PUI/NaOCl – PUI of NaOCl (three activations, 20 seconds each), and PUI/orange oil – PUI of orange oil (Micro-CT#2). Specimens were enlarged using the X2 and X3 ProTaper Next instruments and submitted to the same irrigation protocols (Micro-CT #3). Results No differences were found between the experimental groups in each stage of assessment (P>0.05). The volume of residual filling material was similar to those in Micro-CT #2 and Micro-CT #3, but lower than those observed in Micro-CT #1 (P<0.05). When groups were pooled according to the presence or absence of an isthmus, volume of residual filling material was higher in specimens presenting isthmus (P<0.05). Conclusions PUI of NaOCl or orange oil did not improve filling removal. Isthmus consists in an anatomical obstacle that impairs the removal of filling material. PMID:26200525

  10. Compositional dependent partial molar volume and compressibility of CO2 in rhyolite, phonolite and basalt glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, P.; Seifert, R.; Malfait, W. J.; Sanchez-Valle, C.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon dioxide is the second most abundant volatile in magmatic systems and plays an important role in many magmatic processes, e.g. partial melting, volatile saturation, outgassing. Despite this relevance, the volumetric properties of carbon-bearing silicates at relevant pressure and temperature conditions remain largely unknown because of considerable experimental difficulties associated with in situ measurements. Density and elasticity measurements on quenched glasses can provide an alternative source of information. For dissolved water, such measurements indicate that the partial molar volume is independent of compositions at ambient pressure [1], but the partial molar compressibility is not [2, 3]. Thus the partial molar volume of water may depend on melt composition at elevated pressure. For dissolved CO2, no such data is available. In order to constrain the effect of magma composition on the partial molar volume and compressibility of dissolved carbon, we determined the density and elasticity for three series of carbon-bearing basalt, phonolite and rhyolite glasses, quenched from 3.5 GPa and relaxed at ambient pressure. The CO2 content varies between 0 to 3.90 wt% depending on the glass composition. Glass densities were determined using the sink/float method in a diiodomethane (CH2I2) - acetone mixture. Brillouin measurements were conducted on relaxed and unrelaxed silicate glasses in platelet geometry to determine the compressional (VP) and shear (VS) wave velocities and elastic moduli. The partial molar volume of CO2 in rhyolite, phonolite and basalt glasses is 25.4 ± 0.9, 22.1 ± 0.6 and 26.6 ±1.8 cm3/mol, respectively. Thus, unlike for dissolved water, the partial molar volume of CO2 displays a resolvable compositional effect. Although the composition and CO2/carbonate speciation of the phonolite glasses is intermediate between that of the rhyolite and basalt glasses, the molar volume is not. Similar to dissolved water, the partial molar bulk modulus

  11. Pathological (late) fractures of the mandibular angle after lower third molar removal: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pathological (late) fracture of the mandibular angle after third molar surgery is very rare (0.005% of third molar removals). There are 94 cases reported in the literature; cases associated with osseous pathologies such as osteomyelitis or any local and systemic diseases that may compromise mandibular bone strength have not been included. We describe three new cases of pathological (late) fracture of the mandibular angle after third molar surgery. Case presentations The first patient was a 27-year-old Caucasian man who had undergone surgical removal of a 3.8, mesioangular variety, class II-C third molar 20 days before admission to our clinic. The fracture of his left mandibular angle, complete and composed, occurred during chewing. The second patient was a 32-year-old Caucasian man. He had undergone surgical removal of a 3.8, mesioangular variety, class II-B third molar 22 days before his admission. The fracture, which occurred during mastication, was studied by computed tomography that showed reparative tissue in the fracture site. The third patient was a 36-year-old Caucasian man who had undergone surgical removal of a 3.8, vertical variety, class II-C third molar 25 days before the observation. In this case the fracture of his mandibular angle was oblique (unfavorable), complete and composed. The fracture had occurred during chewing. We studied the fracture by optical projection tomography and computed tomography. All of the surgical removals of the 3.8 third molars, performed by the patients’ dentists who had more than 10 years of experience, were difficult. We treated the fractures with open surgical reduction, internal fixation by titanium miniplates and intermaxillary elastic fixation removed after 6 weeks. Conclusions The literature indicates that the risk of pathological (late) fracture of the mandibular angle after third molar surgery for total inclusions (class II-III, type C) is twice that of partial inclusions due to the necessity of

  12. Mandibular molar displacement secondary to the use of forces to retract the maxilla.

    PubMed

    Ben-Bassat, Y; Baumrind, S; Korn, E L

    1986-01-01

    Using previously described computer-aided techniques, we have been able to characterize quantitatively the displacements of the lower first molar associated with the use of several different therapeutic modalities that are conventionally employed to retract the maxilla in the treatment of Class II malocclusion. The total displacement of the molar has been partitioned into two components associated respectively with displacement of the entire mandible and with local interosseous migration (dental compensation) of the molar within the mandible. A further attempt has been made to partition treatment-associated effects from nontreatment-associated effects. While considerable variability in effect was observed within each sample on a case-by-case basis, some important normative trends did emerge. Contrary to our expectations, it was found that in each of the treatment groups, the mean local intraosseous rotational effect (Table IIB.2) was of greater magnitude than the mean effect of mandibular rotation (Table IIB.1). The character of the intraosseous rotation differed significantly (P less than 0.05) between the control group and each of the treatment groups. In the control group, a mean mesial crown tipping (that is, "proclination") was noted. In each of the treatment groups, a mean distal crown tipping ("uprighting") was noted. In both the cervical and intraoral groups, the lower molar tended to displace mesially more than in the control or high-pull groups. This mesial displacement derived from the mesial displacement of the mandible (Table IIC.3), rather than from displacement of the tooth within the bone (Table IIC.4). In both the high-pull and the intraoral groups, the lower molar erupted within the mandible significantly more than in the control and cervical groups (Table IIC.6). The statistically significant supereruption/extrusion of the upper molar in the cervical group (Table IIC.2) was not accompanied by an associated inhibition of the eruption of the lower

  13. Anatomical and functional brain abnormalities in unmedicated major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao; Ma, Xiaojuan; Li, Mingli; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Bin; Zhao, Liansheng; Deng, Wei; Li, Tao; Ma, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Background Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to explore the mechanism of brain structure and function in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Patients and methods Fifty patients with MDD and 50 matched healthy control participants free of psychotropic medication underwent high-resolution structural and rsfMRI scanning. Optimized diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra and the Data Processing Assistant for rsfMRI were used to find potential differences in gray-matter volume (GMV) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) between the two groups. A Pearson correlation model was used to analyze associations of morphometric and functional changes with clinical symptoms. Results Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD showed significant GMV increase in the left posterior cingulate gyrus and GMV decrease in the left lingual gyrus (P<0.001, uncorrected). In ReHo analysis, values were significantly increased in the left precuneus and decreased in the left putamen (P<0.001, uncorrected) in patients with MDD compared to healthy controls. There was no overlap between anatomical and functional changes. Linear correlation suggested no significant correlation between mean GMV values within regions with anatomical abnormality and ReHo values in regions with functional abnormality in the patient group. These changes were not significantly correlated with symptom severity. Conclusion Our study suggests a dissociation pattern of brain regions with anatomical and functional alterations in unmedicated patients with MDD, especially with regard to GMV and ReHo. PMID:26425096

  14. The Brain Atlas Concordance Problem: Quantitative Comparison of Anatomical Parcellations

    PubMed Central

    Bohland, Jason W.; Bokil, Hemant; Allen, Cara B.; Mitra, Partha P.

    2009-01-01

    Many neuroscientific reports reference discrete macro-anatomical regions of the brain which were delineated according to a brain atlas or parcellation protocol. Currently, however, no widely accepted standards exist for partitioning the cortex and subcortical structures, or for assigning labels to the resulting regions, and many procedures are being actively used. Previous attempts to reconcile neuroanatomical nomenclatures have been largely qualitative, focusing on the development of thesauri or simple semantic mappings between terms. Here we take a fundamentally different approach, discounting the names of regions and instead comparing their definitions as spatial entities in an effort to provide more precise quantitative mappings between anatomical entities as defined by different atlases. We develop an analytical framework for studying this brain atlas concordance problem, and apply these methods in a comparison of eight diverse labeling methods used by the neuroimaging community. These analyses result in conditional probabilities that enable mapping between regions across atlases, which also form the input to graph-based methods for extracting higher-order relationships between sets of regions and to procedures for assessing the global similarity between different parcellations of the same brain. At a global scale, the overall results demonstrate a considerable lack of concordance between available parcellation schemes, falling within chance levels for some atlas pairs. At a finer level, this study reveals spatial relationships between sets of defined regions that are not obviously apparent; these are of high potential interest to researchers faced with the challenge of comparing results that were based on these different anatomical models, particularly when coordinate-based data are not available. The complexity of the spatial overlap patterns revealed points to problems for attempts to reconcile anatomical parcellations and nomenclatures using strictly

  15. The central Onodi cell: A previously unreported anatomic variation

    PubMed Central

    Cherla, Deepa V.; Tomovic, Senja; Liu, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Preoperative recognition of the Onodi cell is necessary to avoid injury to closely associated structures, including the internal carotid artery and the optic nerve. This article describes the central Onodi cell, a variation in which a posterior ethmoid cell lies superior to the sphenoid sinus in a midline position with at least one optic canal bulge. To our knowledge, this anatomic variation has not been previously reported in the literature. Radiographic and endoscopic imaging of this unique variation is provided. PMID:23772328

  16. Thoracoscopic anatomical resection of congenital lung malformations in adults

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Lidia; Ojanguren, Amaia; Dahdah, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Congenital lung malformations (CLM) are a heterogeneous group of disorders that may require surgical resection to prevent complications. Thoracoscopic resection of CLM has been reported in infants. Our goal was to state whether it can also be a viable option in adults. Between 2007 and 2014, 11 patients had a thoracoscopic resection of a CLM (six lobectomies and five anatomic segmentectomies) with satisfactory results. Although being more challenging in adults due to infectious sequellae, this approach is safe. PMID:25922729

  17. Preparing the anatomical model for ablation of unresectable liver tumor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nowadays the best treatment of the primary and secondary hepatic tumor is surgical resection, but only 5–15% of all patient with hepatocellular carcinoma and 20–25% of all patients with liver metastases are indicated for resection. In these cases some kind of ablation and other technique could be used. Aim To present the methodology of preparing the anatomical model for ablation of unresectable liver tumor. Material and methods The presented method is based on abdomen computed tomography (CT) dynamic examination. Three methods of segmentation are used: rolling vector for liver volume, modified Frangi filter for liver vessels, and fuzzy expert system with initial region-of-interest anisotropic filtration for liver metastases. Segmentation results are the input data for creating 3D anatomical models in the form of B-spline curves and surfaces performing the surface global interpolation algorithm. A graphical user interface for presentation and evaluation of models, presented in color against DICOM images in grayscale, is designed and implemented. Results The proposed approach was tested on 20 abdominal CT obtained from the Department of Clinical Radiology of Silesian Medical University. The lack of a “gold standard” provides for the correction of the results. Conclusions Preparation of the anatomical model is one of the important early stages of the use of image-based navigation systems. This process could not take place in a fully automatic manner and verification of the results obtained is performed by the radiologist. Using the above anatomical model in surgical workflow is presented. PMID:25097694

  18. Containing the cost of third-molar extractions: a dilemma for health insurance.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, J W

    1983-01-01

    No known scientific studies support the extraction of third molars (wisdom teeth) to prevent future disease. Yet, third-molar surgery for this purpose has become so common that in at least one major U.S. health insurance plan, the cumulative cost exceeds that for every other kind of major surgery. Many third molars that are developing normally in adolescents are classified as impacted and removed before they erupt, a practice that results in large expenditures for unnecessary surgery. In addition, the difficulty of the extractions is frequently exaggerated, so that patients and insurance plans are overcharged. Third molar surgery is not without risk of iatrogenic injury. Fracture of the jaw, permanent numbness of the lip (paresthesia), and injury to other teeth may occur. This paper presents a mechanism for containing the cost of third-molar surgery by elimination of payment for nonessential extractions and of the related overcharges. Adoption of this policy by administrators of dental insurance plans would save millions of dollars each year, money that could be better used in providing care for more people with real dental disease. PMID:6611824

  19. Ectopic third molar in the mandibular condyle: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Martin, Fernando; Torres-Carranza, Eusebio; Prats-Golczer, Victoria-Eugenia; Garcia-Perla-Garcia, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, therapeutic options, and surgical approaches for removal of ectopic third molars in the mandibular condyle. Study design: MEDLINE search of articles published on ectopic third molars in the mandibular condyle from 1980 to 2011. 14 well-documented clinical cases from the literature were evaluated together with a new clinical case provided by the authors, representing a sample of 15 patients. Results: We found a mean age at diagnosis of 48.6 years and a higher prevalence in women. In 14 patients, associated radiolucent lesions were diagnosed on radiographic studies and confirmed histopathologically as odontogenic cysts. Clinical symptoms were pain and swelling in the jaw or preauricular region, trismus, difficulty chewing, cutaneous fistula and temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Treatment included conservative management in one case and in the other cases, surgical removal by intra- or extraoral approaches, the latter being the most common approach carried out. In most reported cases, serious complications were not outlined. Conclusions: The etiopathogenic theory involving odontogenic cysts in the displacement of third molars to the mandibular condyle seems to be the most relevant. They must be removed if they cause symptoms or are associated with cystic pathology. The surgical route must be planned according to the location and position of the ectopic third molar, and the possible morbidity associated with surgery. Key words:Third molar, ectopic tooth, condyle, mandible. PMID:22926463

  20. Prevalence of cysts and tumors around the retained and unerupted third molars in the Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh; Halgatti, Vishal; Khandelwal, Suneet; Santosh, B.S.; Maheshwari, Sneha

    2014-01-01

    Aim Tooth impaction is a frequent phenomena and surgical removal of these teeth are the commonest of the dental surgical procedures. The debate over the removal of asymptomatic impacted third molars still continues. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence of development of cysts and tumors around the retained and unerupted third molars in the Indian population. Material and methods 5486 impacted third molars of 4133 patients were studied through the panoramic radiographs for the presence of associated cysts and tumors. The ages of the patients ranged from 17 to 67 years, with a mean of 33.7 years. The results were evaluated using the Pearson chi-square test. P-values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results There were 134 cysts (2.24%) and 63 tumors (1.16%) found that were associated with impacted third molars, of which 3 were malignant (0.05%). 143 patients had symptoms such as swelling or pain due to cystic or neoplastic lesions. The remainder 54 patients had no symptoms suggestive of pathology. The most common cyst was dentigerous cyst and the most common tumor was ameloblastoma. Conclusion The results indicate that cysts and tumors do develop in a relatively small but still considerable minority of patients. The fact that a considerable number of patients had no signs or symptoms indicating pathology is certainly worth considering. Consultation should be sought from dental specialists if there are symptoms in the third molar region. PMID:25737923