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Sample records for molasses wastewater bio-hydrogen

  1. Bio-hydrogen production from molasses by anaerobic fermentation in continuous stirred tank reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Li, Yong-feng; Chen, Hong; Deng, Jie-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

    2010-11-01

    A study of bio-hydrogen production was performed in a continuous flow anaerobic fermentation reactor (with an available volume of 5.4 L). The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for bio-hydrogen production was operated under the organic loading rates (OLR) of 8-32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d (COD: chemical oxygen demand) with molasses as the substrate. The maximum hydrogen production yield of 8.19 L/d was obtained in the reactor with the OLR increased from 8 kg COD/m3 reactor/d to 24 kg COD/m3 d. However, the hydrogen production and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) drastically decreased at an OLR of 32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d. Ethanoi, acetic, butyric and propionic were the main liquid fermentation products with the percentages of 31%, 24%, 20% and 18%, which formed the mixed-type fermentation.

  2. Potential improvement to a citric wastewater treatment plant using bio-hydrogen and a hybrid energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Xiaohua; Yang, Haijun; Berthold, Sascha; Doetsch, Christian; Shen, Jianquan

    Treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater is characterized as cost-consuming. The conventional technology uses the anaerobic-anoxic-oxic process (A 2/O), which does not produce hydrogen. There is potential for energy saving using hydrogen utilization associated with wastewater treatment because hydrogen can be produced from organic wastewater using anaerobic fermentation. A 50 m 3 pilot bio-reactor for hydrogen production was constructed in Shandong Province, China in 2006 but to date the hydrogen produced has not been utilized. In this work, a technical-economic model based on hydrogen utilization is presented and analyzed to estimate the potential improvement to a citric wastewater plant. The model assesses the size, capital cost, annual cost, system efficiency and electricity cost under different configurations. In a stand-alone situation, the power production from hydrogen is not sufficient for the required load, thus a photovoltaic array (PV) is employed as the power supply. The simulated results show that the combination of solar and bio-hydrogen has a much higher cost compared with the A 2/O process. When the grid is connected, the system cost achieved is 0.238 US t -1 wastewater, which is lower than 0.257 US t -1 by the A 2/O process. The results reveal that a simulated improvement by using bio-hydrogen and a FC system is effective and feasible for the citric wastewater plant, even when compared to the current cost of the A 2/O process. In addition, lead acid and vanadium flow batteries were compared for energy storage service. The results show that a vanadium battery has lower cost and higher efficiency due to its long lifespan and energy efficiency. Additionally, the cost distribution of components shows that the PV dominates the cost in the stand-alone situation, while the bio-reactor is the main cost component in the parallel grid.

  3. Enhanced Bio-hydrogen Production from Protein Wastewater by Altering Protein Structure and Amino Acids Acidification Type

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Naidong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Aihui; Feng, Leiyu

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from protein wastewater by altering protein structure and amino acids acidification type via pH control was investigated. The hydrogen production reached 205.2 mL/g-protein when protein wastewater was pretreated at pH 12 and then fermented at pH 10. The mechanism studies showed that pH 12 pretreatment significantly enhanced protein bio-hydrolysis during the subsequent fermentation stage as it caused the unfolding of protein, damaged the protein hydrogen bonding networks, and destroyed the disulfide bridges, which increased the susceptibility of protein to protease. Moreover, pH 10 fermentation produced more acetic but less propionic acid during the anaerobic fermentation of amino acids, which was consistent with the theory of fermentation type affecting hydrogen production. Further analyses of the critical enzymes, genes, and microorganisms indicated that the activity and abundance of hydrogen producing bacteria in the pH 10 fermentation reactor were greater than those in the control. PMID:24495932

  4. Enhanced Bio-hydrogen Production from Protein Wastewater by Altering Protein Structure and Amino Acids Acidification Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Naidong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Aihui; Feng, Leiyu

    2014-02-01

    Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from protein wastewater by altering protein structure and amino acids acidification type via pH control was investigated. The hydrogen production reached 205.2 mL/g-protein when protein wastewater was pretreated at pH 12 and then fermented at pH 10. The mechanism studies showed that pH 12 pretreatment significantly enhanced protein bio-hydrolysis during the subsequent fermentation stage as it caused the unfolding of protein, damaged the protein hydrogen bonding networks, and destroyed the disulfide bridges, which increased the susceptibility of protein to protease. Moreover, pH 10 fermentation produced more acetic but less propionic acid during the anaerobic fermentation of amino acids, which was consistent with the theory of fermentation type affecting hydrogen production. Further analyses of the critical enzymes, genes, and microorganisms indicated that the activity and abundance of hydrogen producing bacteria in the pH 10 fermentation reactor were greater than those in the control.

  5. Integrated treatment of molasses distillery wastewater using microfiltration (MF).

    PubMed

    Basu, Subhankar; Mukherjee, Sangeeta; Kaushik, Ankita; Batra, Vidya S; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2015-08-01

    To achieve zero-liquid discharge, high pressure reverse osmosis (RO) of effluent is being employed by molasses based alcohol distilleries. Low pressure and thus less energy intensive microfiltration (MF) is well established for particulate separation but is not suitable for removal of dissolved organics and color. This work investigates two schemes incorporating MF for molasses distillery wastewater (a) chemical coagulation followed by treatment in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) using MF and (b) electrocoagulation followed by MF. The performance was assessed in terms of COD and color reduction; the conversion of the generated sludge into a zeolite desiccant was also examined. A comparison of the schemes indicates electrocoagulation followed by MF through a 0.1 μm membrane to be most effective. By hydrothermal treatment, electrocoagulated sludge can be transformed into a porous NaX zeolite with a surface area of 86 m(2)/g, which is comparable to commercial desiccants. PMID:25956444

  6. Effect of pH on the anaerobic acidogenesis of agroindustrial wastewaters for maximization of bio-hydrogen production: a lab-scale evaluation using batch tests.

    PubMed

    Dareioti, Margarita Andreas; Vavouraki, Aikaterini Ioannis; Kornaros, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of pH on the production of bio-hydrogen and end-products from a mixture of olive mill wastewater, cheese whey and liquid cow manure (with a ratio of 55:40:5, v/v/v). Batch experiments were performed under mesophilic conditions (37°C) at a range of pH from 4.5 to 7.5. The main end-products identified were acetic, propionic, butyric, lactic acid and ethanol. The highest hydrogen production yield was observed at pH 6.0 (0.642 mol H2/mol equivalent glucose consumed), whereas the maximum VFAs concentration (i.e. 13.43 g/L) was measured at pH 6.5. The composition of acidified effluent in acetic and butyric acid was similar at pH 6.0 and 6.5, albeit an increase of propionic acid was observed in higher pH. Lactic acid was identified as a major metabolite which presented an intense accumulation (up to 11 g/L) before its further bioconversion to butyric acid and hydrogen. PMID:24759638

  7. High organic loading treatment for industrial molasses wastewater and microbial community shifts corresponding to system development.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Kyohei; Chosei, Tomoaki; Nakahara, Nozomi; Hatamoto, Masashi; Wakabayashi, Takashi; Kawai, Toshikazu; Araki, Nobuo; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Molasses wastewater contains high levels of organic compounds, cations, and anions, causing operational problems for anaerobic biological treatment. To establish a high organic loading treatment system for industrial molasses wastewater, this study designed a combined system comprising an acidification tank, a thermophilic multi-stage (MS)-upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, mesophilic UASB reactor, and down-flow hanging sponge reactor. The average total chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand removal rates were 85%±3% and 95%±2%, respectively, at an organic loading rate of 42kgCODcrm(-3)d(-1) in the MS-UASB reactor. By installation of the acidification tank, the MS-UASB reactor achieved low H2-partial pressure. The abundance of syntrophs such as fatty acid-degrading bacteria increased in the MS-UASB and 2nd-UASB reactors. Thus, the acidification tank contributed to maintaining a favorable environment for syntrophic associations. This study provides new information regarding microbial community composition in a molasses wastewater treatment system. PMID:26241842

  8. Post-treatment of molasses wastewater by electrocoagulation and process optimization through response surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Tsioptsias, C; Petridis, D; Athanasakis, N; Lemonidis, I; Deligiannis, A; Samaras, P

    2015-12-01

    Molasses wastewater is a high strength effluent of food industry such as distilleries, sugar and yeast production plants etc. It is characterized by a dark brown color and exhibits a high content in substances of recalcitrant nature such as melanoidins. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was studied as a post treatment step for biologically treated molasses wastewater with high nitrogen content obtained from a baker's yeast industry. Iron and copper electrodes were used in various forms; the influence and interaction of current density, molasses wastewater dilution, and reaction time, on COD, color, ammonium and nitrate removal rates and operating cost were studied and optimized through Box Behnken's response surface analysis. Reaction time varied from 0.5 to 4 h, current density varied from 5 to 40 mA/cm(2) and dilution from 0 to 90% (v/v expressed as water concentration). pH, conductivity and temperature measurements were also carried out during each experiment. From preliminary experiments, it was concluded that the application of aeration and sample dilution, considerably influenced the kinetics of the process. The obtained results showed that COD removal varied between 10 and 54%, corresponding to an operation cost ranging from 0.2 to 33 euro/kg COD removed. Significant removal rates were obtained for nitrogen as nitrate and ammonium (i.e. 70% ammonium removal). A linear relation of COD and ammonium to the design parameters was observed, while operation cost and nitrate removal responded in a curvilinear function. A low ratio of electrode surface to treated volume was used, associated to a low investment cost; in addition, iron wastes could be utilized as low cost electrodes i.e. iron fillings from lathes, aiming to a low operation cost due to electrodes replacement. In general, electrocoagulation proved to be an effective and low cost process for biologically treated molasses-wastewater treatment for additional removal of COD and nitrogen content and

  9. Two-stage biogas production by co-digesting molasses wastewater and sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Yeol; Yun, Jeonghee; Kim, Tae Gwan; Wee, Daehyun; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of co-digesting molasses wastewater and sewage sludge in a two-stage hydrogen- and methane-producing system. The highest energy was recovered at the 21-h hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the first hydrogenic reactor and at 56-h HRT of the secondary methanogenic reactor. Hence, the two-stage system recovered 1,822 kJ from 1 L of the mixed wastes (19.7: hydrogenic reactor plus, 1,802 kJ L(-1): methanogenic reactor). Despite the overloaded VFA-run with a short HRT of 56 h, the GAC-CH4 reactor increased methane production rate and yields due to enhanced pH buffer capacity. An RNA-based community analysis showed that the Ethanoligenens and Methanosaeta dominated the hydrogen and methane bioreactor, respectively. The two-stage system of co-digesting molasses and sewage sludge is particularly cost-effective due to non-pretreatment of sewage sludge. PMID:24871275

  10. Design development of an electrocoagulation reactor for molasses process wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Gadd, A S; Ryan, D R; Kavanagh, J M; Barton, G W

    2010-01-01

    The impact of electrode corrosion behaviour, reactor geometry and current density on electrocoagulation efficiency were investigated for the treatment of molasses process wastewater. Two laboratory-scale vertical plate electrocoagulation reactors were used for this investigation: the first being a low aspect ratio bath reactor with a low specific electrode area, while the other was a high aspect ratio column reactor with a high specific electrode area. Anomalous anodic dissolution and cathodic corrosion of the aluminium electrodes both contributed significantly to overall metal consumption. Increasing specific electrode area and aspect ratio each led to improved treatment efficiency, whereas the impact of current density was more complicated involving the combined influences of several competing effects. The space-time yields of coagulant and bubbles (both functions of specific electrode area, current density and current efficiency) were found to influence mixing within the reactor and thus treatment efficiency. PMID:20555220

  11. [Phosphorus removal characteristics by aerobic granules in normal molasses wastewater after anaerobic treatment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Yu, Shui-Li; Shi, Wen-Xin; Bao, Rui-Ling; Yi, Xue-Song; Li, Jian-Zheng

    2012-04-01

    COD decreased obviously in normal molasses wastewater after anaerobic treatment, however, concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were still higher in the effluent which seriously damaged the ecological balance. In this study, aerobic granules cultivated in sequencing batch airlift reactor (SBAR) were carried out for treating the effluent; phosphorus removal processes and characteristics were discussed as well. The mean diameter of aerobic granules cultivated by multiple carbon sources (acetate, propionate and butyrate) was 1.7 mm. The average phosphorus removal efficiency was 90.9% and the level of phosphorus in effluent was only 1.3 mg x L(-1); TP released per COD consumed was 0.571 and the specific rate of TP released was 5.73 mg x (g x h)(-1). NO3(-) -N usage of phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) improved during denitrifying process because the concentration of propionate and butyrate increased in multiple carbon sources which means the phosphorus uptake efficiency increased when per NO3(-) -N consumed. Phosphorus content represented a stronger correlation with magnesium, calcium and ferrum contents in aerobic granules and their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the phosphorus adsorption by EPS could enhance phosphorus removal. 61.9% of phosphorus accumulating organisms were denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms in aerobic granules and TP uptake per NO3(-) -N consumed was 1.14 which was higher than that of aerobic granules only cultivated by acetate. PMID:22724155

  12. Performances of microbial fuel cells fed with rejected wastewater from BioCH4 and BioH2 processes treating molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Yeong; Kim, Tae G; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2016-01-01

    An integrated process involving conventional anaerobic digestion and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has attracted attention recently to produce sustainable energy and to treat wastewater efficiently. To evaluate the possibility of CH4-producing process (BioCH4)-MFC or H2-producing process (BioH2)-MFC integrating systems, the MFC performances were investigated using rejected wastewater from a BioCH4 reactor (RWCH4) or BioH2 reactor (RWH2) treating molasses wastewater. When RWCH4 or RWH2 was fed into a single-chamber MFC reactor (designated as AC-MFCCH4 and AC-MFCH2, respectively) at different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 1-7 d, both MFC systems showed maximum electricity production efficiencies at a HRT of 3 d. In the AC-MFCCH4 reactor, the average current density and average power density were 60.5 mA·m(-2) and 8.8 mW·m(-2), respectively. The AC-MFCH2 reactor generated an average current density of 71.4 mA·m(-2) and an average power density of 12.0 mW·m(-2). The COD removal rates were 45.7% in the AC-MFCCH4 reactor and 90.3% in the AC-MFCH2 reactor. There were no significant differences of the eubacterial community structures between the MFC systems, where Proteobacteria was remarkably dominant in both MFC systems. However, the archaeal community structures were significantly different where Methanothrix (89.3%) was remarkably dominant in the AC-MFCCH4 system, while Methanothrix (52.5%) and Methanosarcina (33.5%) were abundant in the AC-MFCH2 system. These findings demonstrate that the utilization of MFCs after the BioCH4 or BioH2 process is advantageous for energy recovery as well as COD removal from molasses wastewater. PMID:26756976

  13. Using pig manure to promote fermentation of sugarcane molasses alcohol wastewater and its effects on microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Shen, Peihong; Han, Fei; Su, Shuquan; Zhang, Junya; Chen, Zhineng; Li, Junfang; Gan, Jiayi; Feng, Bin; Wu, Bo

    2014-03-01

    Molasses alcohol wastewater (MAW) is difficult to be bio-treated and converted into biogas. In this study, MAW mixed with pig manure (PM) in different ratios was co-digested. Biogas production, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and the structure of microbial communities were monitored in the process. Our results showed that under the optimal COD ratio of PM:MAW (1.0:1.5), CODremoval and biogas yield were the highest. And in fermentation tanks with different PM to MAW ratios, the structure and composition of bacterial communities varied in the early and late stage. Furthermore, the type of main bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) have no differences, yet the relative abundance of OTUs varied. The current research showed that there was a good potential to the use of PM as a co-digested material to anaerobic treatment of MAW and provided references for further improving bio-treatment of MAW. PMID:24463412

  14. Changes in microbial community structure in two anaerobic systems to treat bagasse spraying wastewater with and without addition of molasses alcohol wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shen, Peihong; Zhang, Junya; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Chengjian; Tang, Xianlai; Li, Junfang; Zhang, Min; Wu, Bo

    2013-03-01

    This study investigates the microbial community and structure in the internal circulation (IC) reactors that treat wastewater from bagasse spraying, with (reactor B) and without (reactor A) addition of molasses alcohol wastewater (MAW). The V3 regions in the 16S rRNA of bacteria were sequenced using illumina sequencing to characterize the microbial community structures. The results showed that there were approximately 34.8% more microorganisms were reduced, while the proportions of the three most predominant bacterial populations especially some sulfate-reducing bacteria increased in reactor B. The archaeal community composition was measured by PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) analysis and sequencing some clones from the 16S rRNA gene library. The results showed that numerous, mostly uncharacterized, archaeal genera are present in reactors A and B; the genus Methanomethylovorans was only detected in the samples that received MAW. This study demonstrated the significant effect of MAW on microbial communities in the wastewater treatment bioreactor. PMID:23370216

  15. Biomethane production and microbial community response according to influent concentration of molasses wastewater in a UASB reactor.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jeonghee; Lee, Sang Don; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the interaction between methane production performance and active microbial community dynamics at different loading rates by increasing influent substrate concentration. The model system was an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor using molasses wastewater. The active microbial community was analyzed using a ribosomal RNA-based approach in order to reflect active members in the UASB system. The methane production rate (MPR) increased with an increase in organic loading rate (OLR) from 3.6 to 5.5 g COD·L(-1)·day(-1) and then it decreased with further OLR addition until 9.7 g COD·L(-1)·day(-1). The UASB reactor achieved a maximum methane production rate of 0.48 L·L(-1)·day(-1) with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 91.2 % at an influent molasses concentration of 16 g COD·L(-1) (OLR of 5.5 g COD·L(-1)·day(-1)). In the archaeal community, Methanosarcina was predominant irrespective of loading rate, and the relative abundance of Methanosaeta increased with loading rate. In the bacterial community, Firmicutes and Eubacteriaceae were relatively abundant in the loading conditions tested. The network analysis between operation parameters and microbial community indicated that MPR was positively associated with most methanogenic archaea, including the relatively abundant Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta, except Methanofollis. The most abundant Methanosarcina was negatively associated with Bifidobacterium and Methanosaeta, whereas Methanosaeta was positively associated with Bifidobacterium. PMID:26810080

  16. High salinity in molasses wastewaters shifts anaerobic digestion to carboxylate production.

    PubMed

    De Vrieze, Jo; Coma, Marta; Debeuckelaere, Matthias; Van der Meeren, Paul; Rabaey, Korneel

    2016-07-01

    Biorefinery wastewaters are often treated by means of anaerobic digestion to produce biogas. Alternatively, these wastewaters can be fermented, leading to the formation of carboxylates. Here, we investigated how lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors could be shifted to fermentation by changing organic loading rate, hydraulic retention time, pH, and salinity. A strong increase in volatile fatty acid concentration up to 40 g COD L(-1) was achieved through increasing salinity above 30 mS cm(-1), as well as a decrease in methane production by more than 90%, which could not be obtained by adjusting the other parameters, thus, indicating a clear shift from methane to carboxylate production. Microbial community analysis revealed a shift in bacterial community to lower evenness and richness values, following the increased salinity and VFA concentration during the fermentation process. A selective enrichment of the hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales took place upon the shift to fermentation, despite a severe decrease in methane production. Particle size distribution revealed a strong degranulation of the sludge in the reactor, related to the high salinity, which resulted in a wash-out of the biomass. This research shows that salinity is a key parameter enabling a shift from methane to carboxylate production in a stable fermentation process. PMID:27110885

  17. Enhanced production of ligninolytic enzymes and decolorization of molasses distillery wastewater by fungi under solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Pant, Deepak; Adholeya, Alok

    2007-10-01

    Selected isolates of fungi were grown on wheat straw and corncob in the presence of different moistening agents such as water, molasses, potato dextrose broth and distillery effluent. All the fungal isolates responded differently with respect to growth and ligninolytic enzyme production. Fungal growth on different substrates was checked by calculating ergosterol content, which varied widely within a single species when grown on different substrates. The maximum laccase production was obtained for Aspergillus flavus TERI DB9 grown on wheat straw with molasses. For manganese peroxidase, highest production was in Aspergillus niger TERI DB20 grown on corncob with effluent. Among the two isolates positive for lignin peroxidase, the highest production was in Fusarium verticillioides ITCC 6140. This immobilized fungal biomass was then used for decolorization of effluent from a cane molasses based distillery. Maximum decolorization (86.33%) was achieved in Pleurotus ostreatus (Florida) Eger EM 1303 immobilized on corncob with molasses in a period of 28 days. PMID:17177104

  18. A fuzzy-logic-based model to predict biogas and methane production rates in a pilot-scale mesophilic UASB reactor treating molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Turkdogan-Aydinol, F Ilter; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan

    2010-10-15

    A MIMO (multiple inputs and multiple outputs) fuzzy-logic-based model was developed to predict biogas and methane production rates in a pilot-scale 90-L mesophilic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating molasses wastewater. Five input variables such as volumetric organic loading rate (OLR), volumetric total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal rate (R(V)), influent alkalinity, influent pH and effluent pH were fuzzified by the use of an artificial intelligence-based approach. Trapezoidal membership functions with eight levels were conducted for the fuzzy subsets, and a Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system was used to implement a total of 134 rules in the IF-THEN format. The product (prod) and the centre of gravity (COG, centroid) methods were employed as the inference operator and defuzzification methods, respectively. Fuzzy-logic predicted results were compared with the outputs of two exponential non-linear regression models derived in this study. The UASB reactor showed a remarkable performance on the treatment of molasses wastewater, with an average TCOD removal efficiency of 93 (+/-3)% and an average volumetric TCOD removal rate of 6.87 (+/-3.93) kg TCOD(removed)/m(3)-day, respectively. Findings of this study clearly indicated that, compared to non-linear regression models, the proposed MIMO fuzzy-logic-based model produced smaller deviations and exhibited a superior predictive performance on forecasting of both biogas and methane production rates with satisfactory determination coefficients over 0.98. PMID:20609515

  19. Modeling the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse: extension of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) with sulfate reduction for a very high strength and sulfate rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Ernesto L; Spanjers, Henri; Solon, Kimberly; Amerlinck, Youri; Nopens, Ingmar; Dewulf, Jo

    2015-03-15

    This research presents the modeling of the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse, hereby extending the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 with sulfate reduction for a very high strength and sulfate rich wastewater. Based on a sensitivity analysis, four parameters of the original ADM1 and all sulfate reduction parameters were calibrated. Although some deviations were observed between model predictions and experimental values, it was shown that sulfates, total aqueous sulfide, free sulfides, methane, carbon dioxide and sulfide in the gas phase, gas flow, propionic and acetic acids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and pH were accurately predicted during model validation. The model showed high (±10%) to medium (10%-30%) accuracy predictions with a mean absolute relative error ranging from 1% to 26%, and was able to predict failure of methanogenesis and sulfidogenesis when the sulfate loading rate increased. Therefore, the kinetic parameters and the model structure proposed in this work can be considered as valid for the sulfate reduction process in the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse when sulfate and organic loading rates range from 0.36 to 1.57 kg [Formula: see text]  m(-3) d(-1) and from 7.66 to 12 kg COD m(-3) d(-1), respectively. PMID:25589435

  20. General Subject 4, Molasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A report is given on the lastest international trends in the analysis of molasses for trade and processing, as well as recommendations for methods to study. A new enzymatic method to measure reducing sugars in molasses still needs work to stabilize the enzymes. There is a strong concern, worldwide...

  1. Bio-hydrogen production from renewable organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Shihwu Sung

    2004-04-30

    Methane fermentation has been in practice over a century for the stabilization of high strength organic waste/wastewater. Although methanogenesis is a well established process and methane--the end-product of methanogenesis is a useful energy source; it is a low value end product with relatively less energy content (about 56 kJ energy/g CH{sub 4}). Besides, methane and its combustion by-product are powerful greenhouse gases, and responsible for global climate change. So there is a pressing need to explore alternative environmental technologies that not only stabilize the waste/wastewater but also generate benign high value end products. From this perspective, anaerobic bioconversion of organic wastes to hydrogen gas is an attractive option that achieves both goals. From energy security stand point, generation of hydrogen energy from renewable organic waste/wastewater could substitute non-renewable fossil fuels, over two-third of which is imported from politically unstable countries. Thus, biological hydrogen production from renewable organic waste through dark fermentation represents a critically important area of bioenergy production. This study evaluated both process engineering and microbial physiology of biohydrogen production.

  2. Sugarcane molasses-based bio-ethanol wastewater treatment by two-phase multi-staged up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) combination with up-flow UASB and down-flow hanging sponge.

    PubMed

    Choeisai, P; Jitkam, N; Silapanoraset, K; Yubolsai, C; Yoochatchaval, W; Yamaguchi, T; Onodera, T; Syutsubo, K

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate a treatment system for high strength wastewater (vinasse) from a sugarcane molasses-based bio-ethanol plant in Thailand. A laboratory-scale two-phase treatment system composed of a sulfate reducing (SR) tank and multi-staged up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (MS-UASB) reactor was used as the pre-treatment unit. Conventional UASB and down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactors were used as the post-treatment unit. The treatment system was operated for 300 days under ambient temperature conditions (24.6-29.6 °C). The hydraulic retention time (HRT) in each unit was kept at 25 h for the two-phase system and 23 h for the UASB&DHS. The influent concentration was allowed to reach up to 15,000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L. COD removal efficiency (based on influent COD) of the two-phase MS-UASB and the UASB&DHS was 54.9 and 18.7%, respectively. Due to the effective removal of sulfide in the SR tank, the MS-UASB achieved a high methane conversion ratio of up to 97%. In DHS, nitrification occurred at the outside portion of the sponge media while denitrification occurred at the inside. Consequently, 27% of the total nitrogen (TN) was removed. An amount of 32% of residual nitrogen (28 mgN/L) was in the form of nitrate, a better nitrogen state for fertilizer. PMID:24647181

  3. A palynostratigraphic approach to the SW Anatolian molasse basin: Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgün, Funda; Sözbilir, Hasan

    The study, explains stratigraphy of the Oligo-Miocene molasse around the Denizli province (SW Anatolia), based on the palynology which is also supported by the detailed mapping and correlation of the measured sections from the coal-bearing sequences of the molasse deposits. For this purpose, two huge depressions named as the Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse basins were examined. The Kale-Tavas molasse deposits has a basal unconformity with the underlying pre-Oligocene basement and begins with the Chattian Karadere and Mortuma formations which are covered unconformably by the Aquitanian Yenidere formation. An angular unconformity between the Chattian and the Burdigalian is only observed in the middle part of the basin, around Kale. In the Tavas section, the Aquitanian and the Burdigalian are absent. The Denizli molasse is characterized by Chattian-Aquitanian sequence consisting of distinctive sedimentary facies, alluvial fan and deltaic-shallow marine deposits with carbonate patch reefs. Palynostratigraphic studies, which have given the Chattian age, have been carried out from the coal lenses of alluvial fan and delta plain deposits. In addition to the palynological determinations, coral and foraminiferal content of the carbonate patch reefs which rest conformably on the coal-bearing sequences have yielded the Chattian-Aquitanian age. Two different palynomorph associations have been determined from the molasse deposits. The first palynomorph association which is established in the samples from the Sağdere and Mortuma formations, corresponds to the Chattian age, whilst the second is of the Aquitanian age. The Late Oligocene-Early Miocene which is claimed as the time of N-S-extensional tectonics in western Turkey, is related to the depositional time of the molasse sequences in the study area. Thus, the molasse is older than the basal deposits of the Gediz and Büyük Menderes grabens.

  4. Production of bioelectricity, bio-hydrogen, high value chemicals and bioinspired nanomaterials by electrochemically active biofilms.

    PubMed

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2013-11-01

    Microorganisms naturally form biofilms on solid surfaces for their mutual benefits including protection from environmental stresses caused by contaminants, nutritional depletion or imbalances. The biofilms are normally dangerous to human health due to their inherited robustness. On the other hand, a recent study suggested that electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) generated by electrically active microorganisms have properties that can be used to catalyze or control the electrochemical reactions in a range of fields, such as bioenergy production, bioremediation, chemical/biological synthesis, bio-corrosion mitigation and biosensor development. EABs have attracted considerable attraction in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, where they act as living bioanode or biocathode catalysts. Recently, it was reported that EABs can be used to synthesize metal nanoparticles and metal nanocomposites. The EAB-mediated synthesis of metal and metal-semiconductor nanocomposites is expected to provide a new avenue for the greener synthesis of nanomaterials with high efficiency and speed than other synthetic methods. This review covers the general introduction of EABs, as well as the applications of EABs in BESs, and the production of bio-hydrogen, high value chemicals and bio-inspired nanomaterials. PMID:23680192

  5. Effect of molasses supplementation on ruminal fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet summarizes the results of two continuous culture fermentor studies that evaluated the effects of molasses supplementation on ruminal fermentation of a pasture diet. The first study compared molasses with corn supplementation. Diets consisted of pasture only, molasses plus pasture, co...

  6. Bio-hydrogen production by biodiesel-derived crude glycerol bioconversion: a techno-economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Le Bihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Global biodiesel production is continuously increasing and it is proportionally accompanied by a huge amount of crude glycerol (CG) as by-product. Due to its crude nature, CG has very less commercial interest; although its pure counterpart has different industrial applications. Alternatively, CG is a very good carbon source and can be used as a feedstock for fermentative hydrogen production. Further, a move of this kind has dual benefits, namely it offers a sustainable method for disposal of biodiesel manufacturing waste as well as produces biofuels and contributes in greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction. Two-stage fermentation, comprising dark and photo-fermentation is one of the most promising options available for bio-hydrogen production. In the present study, techno-economic feasibility of such a two-stage process has been evaluated. The analysis has been made based on the recent advances in fermentative hydrogen production using CG as a feedstock. The study has been carried out with special reference to North American biodiesel market; and more specifically, data available for Canadian province, Québec City have been used. Based on our techno-economic analysis, higher production cost was found to be the major bottleneck in commercial production of fermentative hydrogen. However, certain achievable alternative options for reduction of process cost have been identified. Further, the process was found to be capable in reducing GHG emissions. Bioconversion of 1 kg of crude glycerol (70 % w/v) was found to reduce 7.66 kg CO(2) eq (equivalent) GHG emission, and the process also offers additional environmental benefits. PMID:22644063

  7. Melanoidin-containing wastewaters induce selective laccase gene expression in the white-rot fungus Trametes sp. I-62.

    PubMed

    González, Tania; Terrón, María Carmen; Yagüe, Susana; Junca, Howard; Carbajo, José María; Zapico, Ernesto Javier; Silva, Ricardo; Arana-Cuenca, Ainhoa; Téllez, Alejandro; González, Aldo Enrique

    2008-03-01

    Wastewaters generated from the production of ethanol from sugar cane molasses may have detrimental effects on the environment due to their high chemical oxygen demand and dark brown color. The color is mainly associated with the presence of melanoidins, which are highly recalcitrant to biodegradation. We report here the induction of laccases by molasses wastewaters and molasses melanoidins in the basidiomycetous fungus Trametes sp. I-62. The time course of effluent decolorization and laccase activity in the culture supernatant of the fungus were correlated. The expression of laccase genes lcc1 and lcc2 increased as a result of the addition of complete molasses wastewater and its high molecular weight fraction to fungal cultures. This is the first time differential laccase gene expression has been reported to occur upon exposure of fungal cultures to molasses wastewaters and their melanoidins. PMID:18248962

  8. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses...

  9. Optimizing the impact of temperature on bio-hydrogen production from food waste and its derivatives under no pH control using statistical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, C.; Sattar, A.; Ji, C.; Sattar, S.; Yousaf, K.; Hashim, S.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of temperature on bio-hydrogen production by co-digestion of sewerage sludge with food waste and its two derivatives, i.e. noodle waste and rice waste, was investigated by statistical modelling. Experimental results showed that increasing temperature from mesophilic (37 °C) to thermophilic (55 °C) was an effective mean for increasing bio-hydrogen production from food waste and noodle waste, but it caused a negative impact on bio-hydrogen production from rice waste. The maximum cumulative bio-hydrogen production of 650 mL was obtained from noodle waste under thermophilic temperature condition. Most of the production was observed during the first 48 h of incubation, which continued until 72 h of incubation. The decline in pH during this interval was 4.3 and 4.4 from a starting value of 7 under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. Most of the glucose consumption was also observed during 72 h of incubation and the maximum consumption was observed during the first 24 h, which was the same duration where the maximum pH drop occurred. The maximum hydrogen yields of 82.47 mL VS-1, 131.38 mL COD-1, and 44.90 mL glucose-1 were obtained from thermophilic food waste, thermophilic noodle waste and mesophilic rice waste, respectively. The production of volatile fatty acids increased with an increase in time and temperature in food waste and noodle waste reactors whereas they decreased with temperature in rice waste reactors. The statistical modelling returned good results with high values of coefficient of determination (R2) for each waste type and 3-D response surface plots developed by using models developed. These plots developed a better understanding regarding the impact of temperature and incubation time on bio-hydrogen production trend, glucose consumption during incubation and volatile fatty acids production.

  10. Optimizing the impact of temperature on bio-hydrogen production from food waste and its derivatives under no pH control using statistical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattar, A.; Arslan, C.; Ji, C.; Sattar, S.; Yousaf, K.; Hashim, S.

    2015-08-01

    The effect of temperature on bio-hydrogen production by co-digestion of sewerage sludge with food waste and its two derivatives, i.e. noodle waste and rice waste, was investigated by statistical modelling. Experimental results showed that increasing temperature from mesophilic (37 °C) to thermophilic (55 °C) was an effective mean for increasing bio-hydrogen production from food waste and noodle waste, but it caused a negative impact on bio-hydrogen production from rice waste. The maximum cumulative bio-hydrogen production of 650 mL was obtained from noodle waste under mesophilic temperature condition. Most of the production was observed during 48 h of incubation that continued till 72 h of incubation, and a decline in pH during this interval was 4.3 and 4.4 from a starting value of 7 under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. Most of glucose consumption was also observed during 72 h of incubation and the maximum consumption was observed during the first 24 h, which was the same duration where the maximum pH drop occurred. The maximum hydrogen yields of 82.47 mL VS-1, 131.38 mL COD-1, and 44.90 mL glucose-1 were obtained from mesophilic food waste, thermophilic noodle waste and mesophilic rice waste respectively. The production of volatile fatty acids increased with an increase in time and temperature from food waste and noodle waste reactors whereas it decreased with temperature in rice waste reactors. The statistical modelling returned good results with high values of coefficient of determination (R2) for each waste type when it was opted for the study of cumulative hydrogen production, glucose consumption and volatile fatty acid production. The 3-D response surface plots developed by the statistical models helped a lot in developing better understanding of the impact of temperature and incubation time.

  11. Evaluation and simultaneous optimization of bio-hydrogen production using 3 2 factorial design and the desirability function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuetos, M. J.; Gómez, X.; Escapa, A.; Morán, A.

    Various mixtures incorporating a simulated organic fraction of municipal solid wastes and blood from a poultry slaughterhouse were used as substrate in a dark fermentation process for the production of hydrogen. The individual and interactive effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), solid content in the feed (%TS) and proportion of residues (%Blood) on bio-hydrogen production were studied in this work. A central composite design and response surface methodology were employed to determine the optimum conditions for the hydrogen production process. Experimental results were approximated to a second-order model with the principal effects of the three factors considered being statistically significant (P < 0.05). The production of hydrogen obtained from the experimental point at conditions close to best operability was 0.97 L Lr -1 day -1. Moreover, a desirability function was employed in order to optimize the process when a second, methanogenic, phase is coupled with it. In this last case, the optimum conditions lead to a reduction in the production of hydrogen when the optimization process involves the maximization of intermediary products.

  12. Bio-hydrogen and bio-methane potentials of skim latex serum in batch thermophilic two-stage anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Jariyaboon, Rattana; O-Thong, Sompong; Kongjan, Prawit

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion by two-stage process, containing hydrogen-producing (acidogenic) first stage and methanogenic second stage, has been proposed to degrade substrates which are difficult to be treated by single stage anaerobic digestion process. This research was aimed to evaluate the bio-hydrogen and the bio-methane potentials (BHP and BMP) of skim latex serum (SLS) by using sequential batch hydrogen and methane cultivations at thermophilic conditions (55°C) and with initial SLS concentrations of 37.5-75.0% (v/v). The maximal 1.57 L H2/L SLS for BHP and 12.2L CH4/L SLS for BMP were both achieved with 60% (v/v) SLS. The dominant hydrogen-producing bacteria in the H2 batch reactor were Thermoanaerobacterium sp. and Clostrdium sp. Meanwhile, the CH4 batch reactor was dominated by the methanogens Methanosarcina mazei and Methanothermobacter defluvii. The results demonstrate that SLS can be degraded by conversion to form hydrogen and methane, waste treatment and bioenergy production are thus combined. PMID:26386423

  13. Evaluation of baker's yeast strains exhibiting significant growth on Japanese beet molasses and compound analysis of the molasses types.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroaki; Tamura, Masahiko; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2014-06-01

    Cane molasses, most of which is imported, is used as a raw material for production of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in Japan. On the other hand, beet molasses is scarcely used for this purpose, but it can be of great advantage to cane molasses because it is domestically produced in relatively high amounts as a by-product of beet sugar processing. However, the yield of baker's yeast is sometimes low with Japanese beet molasses compared to imported cane molasses. For the production of baker's yeast with Japanese beet molasses, we evaluated S. cerevisiae strains, including industrial and laboratory strains, to group them according to the growth profile on beet and cane molasses. To discuss the factors affecting growth, we further analyzed the major compounds in both types of molasses. Beet molasses seems to contain compounds that promote the growth of beet molasses-favoring strains rather than inhibit the growth of cane molasses-favoring strains. It was assumed that α-amino acid was one of the growth promotion factors for beet molasses-favoring strains. PMID:24333188

  14. Molasses versus grain: what the research says

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article summarizes the results of a three-tiered research approach (case study, two continuous culture fermenter studies, and two controlled research farm studies) to evaluate molasses as an alternative supplement source for grazing dairy cows. A two-year case study of a New York organic dairy ...

  15. Alkaline degradation of invert sugar from molasses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Byung Y; Montgomery, Rex

    2007-11-01

    Sugar beet and sugar cane molasses have been shown to be suitable starting materials for producing de-icer preparations. The sucrose in the molasses is hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose by invertase. The reducing sugars are then degraded by NaOH, the alkali being neutralized by the sugar acids produced, resulting in an increase of the ionic strength and consequently depression of the freezing point of the resulting solution. For the preparation of de-icers, the desired freezing point depression to a temperature of less than about -20 degrees C can be achieved by adjusting the amount and concentration of the alkali metal hydroxide used. The resulting products are biodegradable and eliminate the corrosive effects associated with the use of conventional chloride salts. Degradation of invert sugar by NaOH has been achieved without an external heat source. The reaction products showed the same freezing point depression as seen in the degradation products from pure glucose. PMID:17222551

  16. Utilization of beet molasses for riboflavin production by Mycobacterium phlei.

    PubMed

    Ghozlan, H A

    1994-01-01

    Mycobacterium phlei was tested for its ability to utilize beet molasses as the sole carbon source and produce riboflavin. The crude beet molasses was analyzed and treated in various ways to reduce its heavy element content and to remove the muddy residue. Promising amounts of riboflavin were produced when the organism was cultivated on decationized (resin-treated) beet molasses. The highest vitamin productivity was achieved by incubating the inoculated medium containing 9% molasses and initially adjusted to pH 6 under shacked condition for 6 days in the dark. PMID:8071802

  17. Enrichment of Methanosaetaceae on carbon felt and biochar during anaerobic digestion of a potassium-rich molasses stream.

    PubMed

    De Vrieze, Jo; Devooght, Arno; Walraedt, Diego; Boon, Nico

    2016-06-01

    Biorefineries allow the production of value-added chemicals, yet this also causes the formation of considerable amounts of wastewater that require suitable treatment. These biorefinery wastewaters often contain a high salinity, which inhibits methanogenesis. In this research, molasses were used to mimic these waste streams to evaluate their treatability by anaerobic digestion. Two different carrier materials, i.e., carbon felt and biochar, with similar surface properties were evaluated for their potential to stabilize anaerobic digestion of these wastewaters via active enrichment of the methanogenic community. Initial stable methane production values between 620 and 640 mL CH4 L(-1) day(-1) were reported in each treatment. At the end of the experiment, methane production decreased with more than 50 %, while VFA increased to values up to 20 g COD L(-1), indicating severe process failure, due to the high potassium concentration in these wastewaters, irrespective of the presence of carrier material. However, an increased relative abundance of Methanosaetaceae both on the biochar and carbon felt was observed. In conclusion, this research demonstrated that carbon felt and biochar are both suitable carrier materials for selective enrichment of Methanosaetaceae, yet this did not lead to stable anaerobic digestion of a potassium-rich molasses waste stream. The increased relative abundance of Methanosaetaceae on both carrier materials can, nonetheless, be considered valuable in terms of alternative applications and warrants further research. PMID:27063010

  18. Screening of different adjuvants for wastewater/wastewater sludge-based Bacillus thuringiensis formulations.

    PubMed

    Brar, Satinder K; Verma, M; Tyagi, R D; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2006-08-01

    Screening of different adjuvants, namely, suspending agents, phagostimulants, stickers, antimicrobial agents, and UV screens to develop aqueous biopesticidal suspensions of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) variety kurstaki HD-1 fermented broths, specifically, nonhydrolyzed sludge, hydrolyzed sludge, starch industry wastewater, and soya (commercial medium), were investigated. The selected suspending agents [20% (wt:vol)] included sorbitol, sodium monophosphate, and sodium metabisulfite with corresponding suspendibility of 74-92, 69-85, and 71-82%, respectively. Molasses [0.2% (wt:vol)] increased adherence by 84-90% for all fermented broths. The optimal phagostimulants [0.5% (wt:vol)], namely, soya and molasses, caused entomotoxicity increase of 3-13 and 7-13%, respectively. Sorbic and propionic acids showed high antimicrobial action [0.5% (wt:vol)], irrespective of fermentation medium. Sodium lignosulfonate, molasses, and Congo red, when used as UV screens [0.2% (wt:vol)], showed percent corresponding entomotoxicity losses of 3-5, 0.5-5 and 2-16, respectively. The Bt formulations, when exposed to UV radiation, showed higher half-lives (with and without UV screens) than the fermented broths or semisynthetic soya medium and commercial Bt formulation. UV screen-amended nonhydrolyzed, hydrolyzed, and starch industry wastewater formulations showed 1.3-1.5-fold higher half-lives than commercial Bt formulation. Thus, the recommended formulation comprises sorbitol, sodium monophosphate, sodium metabisulfite (suspending agents); molasses, soya flour (phagostimulants); molasses and skimmed milk powder (rainfasteners); sorbic and propionic acids (antimicrobial agents) and sodium lignosulfate; and molasses and Congo red (UV screens). These waste-based Bt formulations offer better UV resistance in comparison with commercial formulation. PMID:16937657

  19. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses §...

  20. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses §...

  1. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses §...

  2. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses §...

  3. 19 CFR 151.28 - Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into... Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.28 Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. (a) Plans of storage tank to be filed. When sirup or molasses is imported in bulk in tank vessels and is...

  4. 19 CFR 151.28 - Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into... Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.28 Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. (a) Plans of storage tank to be filed. When sirup or molasses is imported in bulk in tank vessels and is...

  5. 19 CFR 151.28 - Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into... Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.28 Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. (a) Plans of storage tank to be filed. When sirup or molasses is imported in bulk in tank vessels and is...

  6. 19 CFR 151.28 - Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into... Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.28 Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. (a) Plans of storage tank to be filed. When sirup or molasses is imported in bulk in tank vessels and is...

  7. 19 CFR 151.28 - Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into... Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.28 Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. (a) Plans of storage tank to be filed. When sirup or molasses is imported in bulk in tank vessels and is...

  8. [Synthesis of microbial exopolysaccharide ethapolan on ethanol and molasses mix].

    PubMed

    Pyroh, T P; Korzh, Iu V; Lashchuk, N V; Zborovs'ka, B M

    2006-01-01

    A possibility to change glucose, when cultivating exopolysaccharide (EPS) producer etapolan Acinetobacter sp. B-7005 on a mix of C2-C6-compounds, by the inexpensive substrate--molasses has been shown. The highest indices of EPS synthesis were observed under the conditions of preliminary hydrolysis of molasses, availability of growth factors (yeast autholisate and calcium pantothenate) in the medium, lack of the mineral source of nitrogen nutrition and use of inoculation material grown on acetate. In such conditions of cultivation of bacteria on the mix of ethanol (0.75% in volume) and molasses (0.75 wt. % as to carbohydrates) the amount of synthesized EPS reached 10 g/l, EPS-synthesizing capacity--5 g of EPS/g of biomass, the EPS yield from substrate--74% that is 1.3-1.5 times more than in cultivation on molasses. The increase of EPS synthesis on molasses, as well as on etanol and molasses mix with the use of inoculate grown on C2--substrates (compared with the use of inoculate obtained on the medium with molasses) is determined by the induction of gluconeogenesis that was evidenced by the decrease of isocytrate dehydrogenase activity, increase of activity of enzymes of glyoxylate cycle and key enzyme of gluconeogenesis of phosphoenolpyruvate synthetase. PMID:16869140

  9. Structural confirmation of oligosaccharides newly isolated from sugar beet molasses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugar beet molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar beets into sugar. The molasses is known to contain sucrose and raffinose, a typical trisaccharide, with a well-established structure. Although sugar beet molasses contains various other oligosaccharides as well, the structures of those oligosaccharides have not been examined in detail. The purpose of this study was isolation and structural confirmation of these other oligosaccharides found in sugar beet molasses. Results Four oligosaccharides were newly isolated from sugar beet molasses using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and carbon-Celite column chromatography. Structural confirmation of the saccharides was provided by methylation analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionaization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. Conclusion The following oligosaccharides were identified in sugar beet molasses: β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 6)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 <-> 1)-α-D-glucopyranoside (named β-planteose), α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 <-> 1)-α-D-glucopyranoside (named1-planteose), α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 6)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 <-> 2)-β-D-fructofuranoside (theanderose), and β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 3)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 <-> 2)-β-D-fructofuranoside (laminaribiofructose). 1-planteose and laminaribiofructose were isolated from natural sources for the first time. PMID:22925105

  10. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with food waste (FW): Enhancement of bio-hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Angeriz-Campoy, Rubén; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos J; Romero-García, Luis I

    2015-10-01

    Bio-hydrogen production from dry thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion (55°C and 20% total solids) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and food waste (FW) was studied. OFMSW coming from mechanical-biological treatment plants (MBT plants) presents a low organic matter concentration. However, FW has a high organic matter content but several problems by accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and system acidification. Tests were conducted using a mixture ratio of 80:20 (OFSMW:FW), to avoid the aforementioned problems. Different solid retention times (SRTs) - 6.6, 4.4, 2.4 and 1.9 days - were tested. It was noted that addition of food waste enhances the hydrogen production in all the SRTs tested. Best results were obtained at 1.9-day SRT. It was observed an increase from 0.64 to 2.51 L H2/L(reactor) day in hydrogen productivity when SRTs decrease from 6.6 to 1.9 days. However, the hydrogen yield increases slightly from 33.7 to 38 mL H2/gVS(added). PMID:26210142

  11. Production of bio-hydrogenated diesel by catalytic hydrotreating of palm oil over NiMoS2/γ-Al2O3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Srifa, Atthapon; Faungnawakij, Kajornsak; Itthibenchapong, Vorranutch; Viriya-Empikul, Nawin; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai

    2014-04-01

    Catalytic hydrotreating of palm oil (refined palm olein type) to produce bio-hydrogenated diesel (BHD) was carried out in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor over NiMoS2/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. Effects of dominant hydrotreating parameters: temperature: 270-420°C; H2 pressure: 15-80 bar; LHSV: 0.25-5.0 h(-1); and H2/oil ratio: 250-2000 N(cm(3)/cm(3)) on the conversion, product yield, and a contribution of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and decarbonylation/decarboxylation (DCO/DCO2) were investigated to find the optimal hydrotreating conditions. All calculations including product yield and the contribution of HDO and DCO/DCO2 were extremely estimated based on mole balance corresponding to the fatty acid composition in feed to fully understand deoxygenation behaviors at different conditions. These analyses demonstrated that HDO, DCO, and DCO2 reactions competitively occurred at each condition, and had different optimal and limiting conditions. The differences in the hydrotreating reactions, liquid product compositions, and gas product composition were also discussed. PMID:24583218

  12. Molasses as fermentation substrate for levan production by Halomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Küçükaşik, Faruk; Kazak, Hande; Güney, Dilvin; Finore, Ilaria; Poli, Annarita; Yenigün, Orhan; Nicolaus, Barbara; Oner, Ebru Toksoy

    2011-03-01

    Levan is a homopolymer of fructose with many outstanding properties like high solubility in oil and water, strong adhesiveness, good biocompatibility, and film-forming ability. However, its industrial use has long been hampered by costly production processes which rely on mesophilic bacteria and plants. Recently, Halomonas sp. AAD6 halophilic bacteria were found to be the only extremophilic species producing levan at high titers in semi-chemical medium containing sucrose, and in this study, pretreated sugar beet molasses and starch molasses were both found to be feasible substitutes for sucrose. Five different pretreatment methods and their combinations were applied to both molasses types. Biomass and levan concentrations reached by the Halomonas sp. AAD6 cells cultivated on 30 g/L of pretreated beet molasses were 6.09 g dry cells/L and 12.4 g/L, respectively. When compared with literature, Halomonas sp. was found to stand out with its exceptionally high levan production yields on available fructose. Molecular characterization and monosaccharide composition studies confirmed levan-type fructan structure of the biopolymers. Rheological properties under different conditions pointed to the typical characteristics of low viscosity and pseudoplastic behaviors of the levan polymers. Moreover, levan polymer produced from molasses showed high biocompatibility and affinity with both cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines. PMID:21161209

  13. Enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol from sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jian-Ying; Zhao, Pan; Cheng, Xiao-Long; Xiu, Zhi-Long

    2015-03-01

    2,3-Butanediol has been known as a platform green chemical, and the production cost is the key problem for its large-scale production in which the carbon source occupies a major part. Sugarcane molasses is a by-product of sugar industry and considered as a cheap carbon source for biorefinery. In this paper, the fermentation of 2,3-butanediol with sugarcane molasses was studied by reducing the medium ingredients and operation steps. The fermentation medium was optimized by response surface methodology, and 2,3-butanediol production was explored under the deficiency of sterilization, molasses acidification, and organic nitrogen source. Based on these experiments, the fermentation medium with sugarcane molasses as carbon source was simplified to five ingredients, and the steps of molasses acidification and medium sterilization were reduced; thus, the cost was reduced and the production of 2,3-butanediol was enhanced. Under fed-batch fermentation, 99.5 g/L of 2,3-butanediol and acetoin was obtained at 60 h with a yield of 0.39 g/g sugar. PMID:25586489

  14. Floating treatment wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Faulwetter, J L; Burr, M D; Cunningham, A B; Stewart, F M; Camper, A K; Stein, O R

    2011-01-01

    Floating islands are a form of treatment wetland characterized by a mat of synthetic matrix at the water surface into which macrophytes can be planted and through which water passes. We evaluated two matrix materials for treating domestic wastewater, recycled plastic and recycled carpet fibers, for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal. These materials were compared to pea gravel or open water (control). Experiments were conducted in laboratory scale columns fed with synthetic wastewater containing COD, organic and inorganic nitrogen, and mineral salts. Columns were unplanted, naturally inoculated, and operated in batch mode with continuous recirculation and aeration. COD was efficiently removed in all systems examined (>90% removal). Ammonia was efficiently removed by nitrification. Removal of total dissolved N was ∼50% by day 28, by which time most remaining nitrogen was present as NO(3)-N. Complete removal of NO(3)-N by denitrification was accomplished by dosing columns with molasses. Microbial communities of interest were visualized with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) by targeting specific functional genes. Shifts in the denitrifying community were observed post-molasses addition, when nitrate levels decreased. The conditioning time for reliable nitrification was determined to be approximately three months. These results suggest that floating treatment wetlands are a viable alternative for domestic wastewater treatment. PMID:22105133

  15. Proposal for a hybrid 2D MOT/molasses configuration for potassium-41

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, W. A.; Wrubel, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    We report a proposed design for a compact 2D MOT-optical molasses hybrid for potassium-41 atoms. Adding electromagnets to a previously-reported permanent-magnet based 2D MOT, we show it is possible to flatten the magnetic field at the trap's center, creating a region suitable for molasses. The remaining magnetic field at the fringes of the molasses provides a restoring force sufficient to keep the atoms trapped. This technique should reduce the rate of atom escape from the molasses and allow cooling times substantially longer than in a standard, un-trapped molasses. Research Corporation for Science Advancement, Cottrell College Science Award.

  16. The effects of Saccharum officinarium (sugar cane) molasses on cytokine secretion by human blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Rahiman, Farzana; Pool, Edmund John

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of sugar cane molasses on the immune system, using cytokines as biomarkers. Whole blood cultures, stimulated in vitro with endotoxin or PHA, were incubated with various concentrations of molasses. No cell death occurred in whole blood cultures incubated with molasses samples. The addition of molasses (800 microg/mL) to unstimulated whole blood cultures resulted in increased levels of the biomarker of inflammation, Interleukin-6 (P < 0.001) and also the biomarker of humoral immunity, Interleukin-10 (P < 0.001). Molasses addition (800 microg/mL) to unstimulated whole blood cultures has no effect on the cell mediated immunity biomarker, Interferon gamma secretion. Molasses has no effect on Interleukin-6, Interleukin-10 and Interferon gamma secretion in stimulated whole blood cultures. Immunostimulation by molasses requires further investigation as it may have potential health impacts. PMID:20391026

  17. Economical succinic acid production from cane molasses by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Peng; Zheng, Pu; Sun, Zhi-Hao; Ni, Ye; Dong, Jin-Jun; Zhu, Lei-Lei

    2008-04-01

    In this work, production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes CGMCC1593 using cane molasses as a low cost carbon source was developed. In anaerobic bottles fermentation, succinic acid concentration of 50.6+/-0.9 g l(-1) was attained at 60 h using an optimum medium containing molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid, resulting in a succinic acid yield of 79.5+/-1.1% and sugar utilization of 97.1+/-0.6%. When batch fermentation was carried out in a 5-l stirred bioreactor with pretreated molasses, 46.4 g l(-1) of succinic acid was attained at 48 h and faster cells growth was also observed. Fed batch fermentation was performed to minimize the substrate (sugar) inhibition effect, giving 55.2 g l(-1) of succinic acid and 1.15 g l(-1)h(-1) of productivity at 48 h. The present study suggests that the inexpensive cane molasses could be utilized for the economical and efficient production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes. PMID:17532626

  18. Structural confirmation of novel oligosaccharides isolated from sugar beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Abe, Tatsuya; Kikuchi, Hiroto; Aritsuka, Tsutomu; Takata, Yusuke; Fukushi, Eri; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Kawabata, Jun; Ueno, Keiji; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio

    2016-07-01

    Eleven oligosaccharides were isolated from sugar beet molasses using carbon-Celite column chromatography and HPLC. The constituent sugars and linkage positions were determined using methylation analysis, MALDI-TOF-MS, and NMR measurements. The configurations of isolated oligosaccharides were confirmed based on detailed NMR analysis. Based on our results, three of the 11 oligosaccharides were novel. PMID:26920296

  19. Ergosterol production from molasses by genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    He, Xiuping; Guo, Xuena; Liu, Nan; Zhang, Borun

    2007-05-01

    Ergosterol is an economically important metabolite produced by fungi. Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae YEH56(pHXA42) with increased capacity of ergosterol formation was constructed by combined overexpression of sterol C-24(28) reductase and sterol acyltransferase in the yeast strain YEH56. The production of ergosterol by this recombinant strain using cane molasses (CM) as an inexpensive carbon source was investigated. An ergosterol content of 52.6 mg/g was obtained with 6.1 g/l of biomass from CM medium containing 60 g/l of total sugar in 30 h in shake flask. The ergosterol yield was enhanced through the increasing cell biomass by supplementation of urea to a concentration of 6 g/l in molasses medium. Fermentation was performed in 5-l bioreactor using the optimized molasses medium. In batch fermentation, the effect of agitation velocity on ergosterol production was examined. The highest ergosterol yield was obtained at 400 rpm that increased 60.4 mg/l in comparison with the shake flask culture. In fed-batch fermentation, yeast cells were cultivated, firstly, in the starting medium containing molasses with 20 g/l of total sugar, 1.68 g/l of phosphate acid, and 6 g/l of urea (pH 5.4) for 5 h, then molasses containing 350 g/l of total sugar was fed exponentially into the bioreactor to keep the ethanol level in the broth below 0.5%. After 40 h of cultivation, the ergosterol yield reached 1,707 mg/l, which was 3.1-fold of that in the batch fermentation. PMID:17225097

  20. Effect of molasses, corn meal or a combination of molasses plus corn meal on ruminal fermentation of orchardgrass pasture in continuous culture fermenters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although molasses is being used by organic dairy farmers as a lower-cost energy alternative to corn, little research currently exists evaluating the effects of molasses as the sole supplement on ruminal fermentation of grazing dairy cows. This study evaluated the effects of pasture supplementation w...

  1. Sugar beet molasses as an ingredient to enhance the nutritional and functional properties of gluten-free cookies.

    PubMed

    Filipčev, Bojana; Mišan, Aleksandra; Šarić, Bojana; Šimurina, Olivera

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet molasses is a raw material with high potential to be a functional ingredient in baked goods. This paper investigated the nutritional and functional properties of gluten-free cookies enriched with sugar beet molasses. At all enrichment levels and forms tested (liquid and dry), the addition of beet molasses improved the micronutrient pattern and antioxidative status of gluten-free cookies. The cookies prepared with molasses were significantly higher in potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, betaine, total phenolics and DPPH radical scavenging abilities. Molasses contributed to wider spectra of phenolic compounds. The dominating phenolic compounds in the molasses-enriched cookies were catechin, ferulic, syringic and vanillic acid. Molasses also contributed to the presence of p-hydroxybenzoic acid in the cookies. Addition of molasses increased the content of hydroxymethyfurfural in the cookies, but not above values commonly reported for this product type. Molasses addition improved the overall acceptance of gluten-free cookies up to 30% enrichment level. PMID:26947667

  2. Treatment of melanoidin wastewater by anaerobic digestion and coagulation.

    PubMed

    Arimi, Milton M; Zhang, Yongjun; Götz, Gesine; Geißen, Sven-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Melanoidins are dark-coloured recalcitrant pollutants found in many industrial wastewaters including coffee-manufacturing effluent, molasses distillery wastewater (MDWW) and other wastewater with molasses as the raw material. The wastewaters are mostly treated with anaerobic digestion after some dilution to minimize the inhibition effect. However, the dark colour and recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon (DOC) mainly caused by melanoidin are not effectively removed. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of colour and remnant DOC by different coagulants from anaerobically digested MDWW. From the six coagulants tested, ferric chloride had the highest melanoidin (48%), colour (92.7%) and DOC (63.3%) removal at pH 5 and a dosage of 1.6 g/l. Both polymer and inorganic salt coagulants tested had optimal colour, melanoidin and DOC removal at acidic pH. The molecular size distribution of synthetic melanoidins by liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection indicated a preferential removal of high-molecular-weight melanoidins over low weight melanoidins by the coagulation. Further studies should focus on how to improve biodegradability of the treated effluent for it to be reused as dilution water for anaerobic digestion. PMID:25799161

  3. Sub-Doppler cooling of sodium atoms in gray molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colzi, Giacomo; Durastante, Gianmaria; Fava, Eleonora; Serafini, Simone; Lamporesi, Giacomo; Ferrari, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    We report on the realization of sub-Doppler laser cooling of sodium atoms in gray molasses using the D1 optical transition (3 s 1/2 2S →3 p 1/2 2P) at 589.8 nm. The technique is applied to samples containing 3 ×109 atoms, previously cooled to 350 μ K in a magneto-optical trap, and it leads to temperatures as low as 9 μ K and phase-space densities in the range of 10-4. The capture efficiency of the gray molasses is larger than 2/3, and we observe no density-dependent heating for densities up to 1011cm-3 .

  4. Microbial decolorization and bioremediation of melanoidin containing molasses spent wash.

    PubMed

    Singh, K D; Sharma, S; Dwivedi, A; Pandey, P; Thakur, R L; Kumar, V

    2007-07-01

    Molasses spent wash from cane-molasses based distilleries contains a brown coloured recalcitrantpolymer melanoidin, which if disposed untreated poses a great threat to environment. Microbial decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction was found to be dependent on specific carbon and nitrogen source. Under optimal condition of pH, carbon and nitrogen concentration for each treatment, it was found that Bacillus sp isolated from soil was capable of removing COD (85. 35%) and colour (81.10%) from distillery waste to the maximum extent after 9 days atpH 7 in the medium containing 0.5% peptone, 2% glucose and 10% (v/v), followed by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and lowest reduction was obtained by using native microbial consortium. PMID:18380094

  5. Screening of different fungi for decolorization of molasses

    PubMed Central

    Seyis, Isil; Subasioglu, Tugba

    2009-01-01

    The decolorization of molasses by 17 different fungi in 2 media was studied. Trichoderma viride showed the highest decolorization yield (53.5%) when cultivated at 30ºC for 7 days in Medium 1 which contained the molasses which was diluted to 40 g/L in distilled water. The other Trichoderma species and Penicillium sp. also gave similar results of 40-45%. Decolorization yield was increased by adding peptone and yeast extract to the production medium except Penicillium sp. Growth rate was not related to decolorization yet pH value was. When the pH decreased below 5.0 after the incubation, the decolorization yield increased. Although reducing sugar in culture broth decreased with decreasing color intensity, there was no connection between protein utilization and decolorizing activity. PMID:24031318

  6. Wastewater Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Invitro Digestion and Fermentation Characteristics of Temulose Molasses, a Co-Product of Fiberboard Production, and Select Temulose Fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is of interest to discover new fermentable carbohydrates sources that function as prebiotics. This study evaluated the hydrolytic digestibility, fermentative capacity, and microbiota modulating properties of temulose molasses, four hydrolyzed fractions of temulose molasses, short-chain fructooli...

  8. Decolorization of synthetic melanoidins-containing wastewater by a bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Jiranuntipon, Suhuttaya; Chareonpornwattana, Supat; Damronglerd, Somsak; Albasi, Claire; Delia, Marie-Line

    2008-11-01

    The presence of melanoidins in molasses wastewater leads to water pollution both due to its dark brown color and its COD contents. In this study, a bacterial consortium isolated from waterfall sediment was tested for its decolorization. The identification of culturable bacteria by 16S rDNA based approach showed that the consortium composed of Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia mercescens, Citrobacter sp. and unknown bacterium. In the context of academic study, prevention on the difficulties of providing effluent as well as its variations in compositions, several synthetic media prepared with respect to color and COD contents based on analysis of molasses wastewater, i.e., Viandox sauce (13.5% v/v), caramel (30% w/v), beet molasses wastewater (41.5% v/v) and sugarcane molasses wastewater (20% v/v) were used for decolorization using consortium with color removal 9.5, 1.13, 8.02 and 17.5%, respectively, within 2 days. However, Viandox sauce was retained for further study. The effect of initial pH and Viandox concentration on decolorization and growth of bacterial consortium were further determined. The highest decolorization of 18.3% was achieved at pH 4 after 2 day of incubation. Experiments on fresh or used medium and used or fresh bacterial cells, led to conclusion that the limitation of decolorization was due to nutritional deficiency. The effect of aeration on decolorization was also carried out in 2 L laboratory-scale suspended cell bioreactor. The maximum decolorization was 19.3% with aeration at KLa=2.5836 h(-1) (0.1 vvm). PMID:18712559

  9. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  10. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  11. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  12. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  13. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  14. Molasses as the primary energy supplement on an organic grazing dairy farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to increasing organic grain costs, organic dairy farmers are looking for less expensive ingredients that can be reasonably fed to lactating dairy cows. Molasses seems to be a less expensive source of supplemental energy and vitamins. Organic dairy farmers inquire about molasses as an alternative...

  15. Case study: molasses as the primary energy source on an organic grazing dairy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic dairies face many challenges, one of which is the high cost of purchased organic grains. Molasses may be a less expensive energy alternative. However, anecdotal results have been mixed for farms that used molasses as the sole energy source. This research project quantified animal performance...

  16. Current Research on Molasses as an Alternative Energy Source for Organic Dairy Herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As organic grain prices have increased and organic milk prices have decreased, dairy farmers are seeking lower-cost supplementation strategies. Sugarcane molasses, a rich source of sucrose, seems to be a viable option as a source of energy. Molasses frequently costs less per pound of dry matter than...

  17. Alpha-galactosidase Gene Expression for Fermentative Utilization of Soy Molasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy molasses is a carbohydrate-rich coproduct stream generated from the manufacturing of soy-protein concentrates and isolates. Our on-going research has demonstrated the potential of using soy molasses as a carbon source for the microbial production of poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (PHA). Optimal utili...

  18. A novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses for production of prebiotic and functional bioproducts.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manisha; Patel, Satya Narayan; Lata, Kusum; Singh, Umesh; Krishania, Meena; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, Sudhir P

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the sugar industry by-product cane molasses was investigated as feedstock for acceptor reactions by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 10508, leading to the biosynthesis of oligosaccharides. The starch industry corn fiber residue was used as a source for acceptor molecules, maltose, in the reaction. Production of approximately 124g oligosaccharides (DP3-DP6) per kg of fresh molasses was achieved. Further, cane molasses based medium was demonstrated as a sole carbon source for L. mesenteroides growth and dextransucrase production. d-Fructose released by dextransucrase activity as processing by-product was transformed into the functional monosaccharide with zero caloric value, d-psicose, by inducing its epimerization. Quantitative analysis approximated 37g d-psicose per kg of fresh molasses. Thus, the study established a novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses into prebiotic and functional food additives. PMID:27498012

  19. Production and Purification of Bioethanol from Molasses and Cassava

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryana, Roni; Wahono, Satriyo Krido

    2009-09-01

    This research aim to analysis bioethanol purification process. Bioethanol from cassava has been produced in previous research and the ethanol from molasses was taken from Bekonang region. The production of bioethanol from cassava was carried out through several processes such as homogenization, adding of α-amylase, β-amylase and yeast (Saccharomyces c). Two types of laboratory scale distillator have been used, the first type is 50 cm length and 4 cm diameter. The second type distillator is 30 cm length and 9 cm diameter. Both types have been used to distill bioethanol The initial concentration after the fermentation process is 15% for bioethanol from cassava and 20-30% ethanol from molasses. The results of first type distillator are 90% of bioethanol at 50° C and yield 2.5%; 70% of bioethanol at 60° C and yield 11.2%. 32% of bioethanol at 70° C and yield 42%. Meanwhile the second distillator results are 84% of bioethanol at 50° C with yield 12%; 51% of bioethanol at 60° C with yield 35.5%; 20% of bioethanol at 70° C with yield 78.8%; 16% of bioethanol at 80° C with yield 81.6%. The ethanol from molasses has been distillated once times in Bekonang after the fermentation process, the yield was about 20%. In this research first type distillator and the initial concentration is 20% has been used. The results are 95% of bioethanol at 75° C with yield 8%; 94% of bioethanol at 85° C with yield 13% when vacuum pump was used. And 94% of bioethanol at 90° C with yield 3.7% and 94% of bioethanol at 96° C with yield 10.27% without vacuum pump. The bioethanol purification use second type distillator more effective than first type distillator.

  20. Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. Photostabilization of Bacillus thuringiensis fermented wastewater and wastewater sludge based biopesticides using additives.

    PubMed

    Adjalle, K D; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2009-07-01

    Photoprotection (against UV-A and UV-B radiations) of the active components of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki obtained from the fermentation of various culture media was investigated. The culture media comprised: starch industry wastewater; secondary wastewater sludge (non-hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed) and soya (used as a reference). Photoprotection was carried out by using various UV-protection additives, namely, para-aminobenzoic acid, lignosulfonic acid and molasses at different concentrations (0.1%, 0.15% and 0.2%, w/w). In the absence of UV-protection agents, secondary sludge demonstrated natural UV protection with half-lives ranging from 3.25 to 3.4 d. The half-life for soya and starch industry wastewater was 1.9 and 1.8 d, respectively. Para-amino-benzoic acid as a UV-protection agent at 0.20% (w/w) gave excellent UV-protection for soya and starch industry wastewater with half-lives being 5.9 and 7 d, respectively. Likewise, lignosulfonic acid at 0.20% (w/w) was an effective photostabilizer for hydrolyzed and non-hydrolyzed secondary sludge with half-lives of 7.25 and 8 d, respectively. Hence, when similar concentration of the UV-protection additives was used, photoprotection was higher for the alternative media than the conventional soya medium, validating the technical feasibility of using three additives. PMID:19100704

  2. Microbial lipid production: screening with yeasts grown on Brazilian molasses.

    PubMed

    Vieira, J P F; Ienczak, J L; Rossell, C E V; Pradella, J G C; Franco, T T

    2014-12-01

    Rhodotorula glutinis CCT 2182, Rhodosporidium toruloides CCT 0783, Rhodotorula minuta CCT 1751 and Lipomyces starkeyi DSM 70296 were evaluated for the conversion of sugars from Brazilian molasses into single-cell oil (SCO) feedstock for biodiesel. Pulsed fed-batch fermentations were performed in 1.65 l working volume bioreactors. The maximum specific growth rate (µmax), lipid productivity (Pr) and cellular lipid content were, respectively, 0.23 h(-1), 0.41 g l(-1) h(-1), and 41% for Rsp. toruloides; 0.20 h(-1), 0.27 g l(-1) h(-1), and 36% for Rta. glutinis; 0.115 h(-1), 0.135 g l(-1) h(-1), and 27 % for Rta. minuta; and 0.11 h(-1), 0.13 g l(-1) h(-1), and 32% for L. starkeyi. Based on their microbial lipid productivity, content, and profile, Rsp. toruloides and Rta. glutinis are promising candidates for biodiesel production from Brazilian molasses. All the oils from the yeasts were similar to the composition of plant oils (rapeseed and soybean) and could be used as raw material for biofuels, as well as in food and nutraceutical products. PMID:25129045

  3. Fractionation of orange peel phenols in ultrafiltered molasses and mass balance studies of their antioxidant levels.

    PubMed

    Manthey, John A

    2004-12-15

    Orange peel molasses, a byproduct of juice production, contains high concentrations of phenols, including numerous flavanone and flavone glycosides, polymethoxylated flavones, hydroxycinnamates, and other miscellaneous phenolic glycosides and amines. Extensive fractionation of these phenols was achieved by adsorption, ion exchange, and size exclusion chromatography. Size exclusion chromatography effectively separated the different classes of flavonoids in ultrafiltered molasses, including the polymethoxylated flavones, flavanone-O-trisaccharides, flavanone- and flavone-O-disaccharides, and, finally, flavone-C-glycosides. Mass spectral analysis of the early-eluting flavonoid fractions off the size exclusion column revealed a broad collection of minor-occurring flavone glycosides, which included, in part, glycosides of limocitrin, limocitrol, and chrysoeriol. Most hydroxycinnamates in the molasses were recovered by ion exchange chromatography, which also facilitated the recovery of fractions containing many other miscellaneous phenols. Total antioxidant levels and total phenolic contents were measured for the separate categories of phenols in the molasses. Inhibition of the superoxide anion reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium showed that a significant amount of the total antioxidant activity in orange peel molasses was attributable to minor-occurring flavones. The miscellaneous phenolic-containing fractions, in which a large portion of the total phenolic content in molasses occurred, also constituted a major portion of the total antioxidants in ultrafiltered molasses. PMID:15675808

  4. Molasses as a possible cause of an "endocrine disruptive syndrome" in calves.

    PubMed

    Masgoret, M S; Botha, C J; Myburgh, J G; Naudé, T W; Prozesky, L; Naidoo, V; Van Wyk, J H; Pool, E J; Swan, G E

    2009-06-01

    During the mid 1990s a potentially serious, chronic syndrome was reported in well-managed beef and dairy herds from unrelated parts of South Africa. Farmers reported that it manifested as various combinations of decreased production, decreased weaning masses, apparent immune breakdown in previously immunocompetent animals, increased reproductive disorders, various mineral imbalances in non-deficient areas and goitre, noticeable as enlarged thyroid glands. The farmers associated this syndrome with certain batches of sugar cane molasses and molasses-based products. The syndrome was reminiscent of an "endocrine disruptive syndrome". The objective of this study was to evaluate the suspected endocrine disruptive effect of molasses included in cattle feed. Using existing in vitro assays, four batches of molasses syrup were screened for possible inclusion in a calf feeding trial. Two batches were selected for the trial. Thirty-two, 4- to 6-week-old, weaned Holstein bull calves were included in the single phase, three treatment, parallel design experiment. In two of the groups of calves, two different batches of molasses were included in their rations respectively. The control group was fed a ration to which no molasses was added, but which was balanced for energy and mineral content. The mass gain of the calves was recorded over the 6-month study period. The calves were clinically examined every week and clinical pathology parameters, immune responses and endocrine effects were regularly evaluated. Even though endocrine disrupting effects were detected with the in vitro screening assays, these could not be reproduced in the calves in the experiment. The two batches of molasses utilized in the calf feeding trial did not induce major differences in any of the parameters measured, with the exception of a lower mass gain in one of the molasses-fed groups (Group 1), which tended towards significance. The results of the study indicate that the two batches of molasses had no

  5. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathod, K. D.; Singh, P. K.; Natarajan, Vasant

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman Slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at $45^\\circ$ with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate selective deflection of the bosonic isotope $^{174}$Yb, and the fermionic isotope $^{171}$Yb. Using a transient measurement after the molasses beams are turned on, we find a longitudinal temperature of 41 mK.

  6. Grey-molasses cooling of an optically trapped Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Ryan; Jervis, Dylan; Edge, Graham; Anderson, Rhys; Trotzky, Stefan; Thywissen, Joseph

    2014-05-01

    Robust sub-Doppler cooling has recently been demonstrated at the D1 (nS1/2 to nP1/2) transition of potassium and lithium, atoms that are challenging to cool on the D2 cycling transition. Two mechanisms are at work: first, Sisyphus cooling in the standing-wave dipole potential, at least partially due to polarization gradients; second, velocity-selective coherent population trapping (VSCPT) in a superposition of the two hyperfine ground states. We extend this technique to the cooling of dense clouds in optical traps. Since the VSCPT dark state relies only on ground-state coherences, it is insensitive to optical shifts from far-detuned optical traps. We also observe that the molasses has sufficient cooling power to withstand light scattering on the 4S-5P transition. Together these observations indicate that D1 cooling is a promising approach to fluorescent imaging of single fermions in an optical lattice.

  7. Fermentation of molasses by Zymomonas mobilis: effects of temperature and sugar concentration on ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Cazetta, M L; Celligoi, M A P C; Buzato, J B; Scarmino, I S

    2007-11-01

    Fermentations utilizing strains of Zymomonas mobilis, in place of the traditional yeasts, have been proposed due their ethanol yields being close to theoretical. Ethanol production from sugar cane molasses was analyzed under different culture conditions using Z. mobilis in batch fermentation. The total reducing sugars (TRS) concentrations in the molasses, temperature, agitation and culture time effects were studied simultaneously through factorial design. The best conditions for ethanol production were 200 g L(-1) of total reducing sugars in the molasses, temperature of 30 degrees C and static culture and time of fermentation of 48 h, achieving 55.8 g L(-1). The pH of the medium was kept constant during the experiments, showing that molasses presents a buffering effect. PMID:17420121

  8. Sugar cane and sugar beet molasses, antioxidant-rich alternatives to refined sugar.

    PubMed

    Valli, Veronica; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Danesi, Francesca; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2012-12-26

    Molasses, the main byproduct of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. In this study sugar cane molasses (SCM) and sugar beet molasses (SBM) were investigated for their phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity and for their protective effect in human HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress. According to its higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity in vitro, SCM exhibited an effective protection in cells, comparable to or even greater than that of α-tocopherol. Data herein reported emphasize the potential health effects of molasses and the possibility of using byproducts for their antioxidant activity. This is particularly important for consumers in developing countries, as it highlights the importance of consuming a low-price, yet very nutritious, commodity. PMID:23190112

  9. Molasses enhanced phyto and bioremediation treatability study of explosives contaminated Hawaiian soils.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Krishna M; Babcock, Roger W; Turnbull, Steve J; Schenck, Susan

    2012-12-01

    A 15-week treatability study was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the potential effects of molasses on the bioremediation and phytoremediation potential of Guinea Grass (Panicum maximum) for treating energetic contaminated soil from the open burn/open detonation area of the Makua Military Reservation, Oahu, HI (USA). The energetics in the soil were royal demolition explosive (RDX) and high-melting explosive (HMX). Among the 6 treatments employed in this study, enhanced removal of RDX was observed from treatments that received molasses and went to completion. The RDX degradation rates in treatments with molasses diluted 1:20 and 1:40 were comparable suggesting that the lower dose worked as well as the higher dose. Treatments without molasses degraded RDX slowly and residuals remained after 15 weeks. The bacterial densities in molasses-treated units were much greater than those without molasses. Phytoremediation alone seems to have little effect on RDX disappearance. For HMX, neither bioremediation nor phytoremediation was found to be useful in reducing the concentration within the experimental period. The concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous in the soil did not change significantly during the experiment, however, a slight increase in soil pH was observed in all treatments. The study showed that irrigating with diluted molasses is effective at enhancing RDX degradation mainly in the root zone and just below it. The long term sustainability of active training ranges can be enhanced by bioremediation using molasses treatments to prevent RDX deposited by on-going operations from migrating through the soil to groundwater and off-site. PMID:23164624

  10. The last erosional stage of the Molasse Basin and the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Mosar, Jon

    2011-07-01

    We present a synoptic overview of the Miocene-present development of the northern Alpine foreland basin (Molasse Basin), with special attention to the pattern of surface erosion and sediment discharge in the Alps. Erosion of the Molasse Basin started at the same time that the rivers originating in the Central Alps were deflected toward the Bresse Graben, which formed part of the European Cenozoic rift system. This change in the drainage direction decreased the distance to the marine base level by approximately 1,000 km, which in turn decreased the average topographic elevation in the Molasse Basin by at least 200 m. Isostatic adjustment to erosional unloading required ca. 1,000 m of erosion to account for this inferred topographic lowering. A further inference is that the resulting increase in the sediment discharge at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary reflects the recycling of Molasse units. We consider that erosion of the Molasse Basin occurred in response to a shift in the drainage direction rather than because of a change in paleoclimate. Climate left an imprint on the Alpine landscape, but presumably not before the beginning of glaciation at the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary. Similar to the northern Alpine foreland, we do not see a strong climatic fingerprint on the pattern or rates of exhumation of the External Massifs. In particular, the initiation and acceleration of imbrication and antiformal stacking of the foreland crust can be considered solely as a response to the convergence of Adria and Europe, irrespective of erosion rates. However, the recycling of the Molasse deposits since 5 Ma and the associated reduction of the loads in the foreland could have activated basement thrusts beneath the Molasse Basin in order to restore a critical wedge. In conclusion, we see the need for a more careful consideration of both tectonic and climatic forcing on the development of the Alps and the adjacent Molasse Basin.

  11. Cauliflower waste incorporation into cane molasses improves ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 178.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh; Bansal, Sunil; Oberoi, Harinder Singh

    2007-12-01

    Diluted cane molasses having total sugar and reducing sugar content of 9.60 and 3.80% (w/v) respectively was subjected to ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 178. Incorporation of dried Cauliflower Waste (CW) in molasses at the level of 15 % increased ethanol production by nearly 36 % compared to molasses alone. Addition of 0.2 % yeast extract improved ethanol production by nearly 49 % as compared to molasses alone. When the medium containing diluted molasses and 0.2 % yeast extract was supplemented with 15 % CW, 29 % more ethanol was produced compared to molasses with 0.2 % yeast extract. Cell biomass, ethanol production, final ethanol concentration and fermentation efficiency of 2.65 mg mL(-1), 41.2 gL(-1), 0.358 gg(-1) and 70.11 % respectively were found to be best at 15% CW supplementation level besides reduction in fermentation time but further increase in CW level resulted in decline on account of all the above parameters. This is probably the first report to our knowledge, in which CW was used in enhancing ethanol production significantly using a small quantity of yeast extract. PMID:23100689

  12. Utilization of molasses sugar for lactic acid production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii mutant Uc-3 in batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Dumbrepatil, Arti; Adsul, Mukund; Chaudhari, Shivani; Khire, Jayant; Gokhale, Digambar

    2008-01-01

    Efficient lactic acid production from cane sugar molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii mutant Uc-3 in batch fermentation process is demonstrated. Lactic acid fermentation using molasses was not significantly affected by yeast extract concentrations. The final lactic acid concentration increased with increases of molasses sugar concentrations up to 190 g/liter. The maximum lactic acid concentration of 166 g/liter was obtained at a molasses sugar concentration of 190 g/liter with a productivity of 4.15 g/liter/h. Such a high concentration of lactic acid with high productivity from molasses has not been reported previously, and hence mutant Uc-3 could be a potential candidate for economical production of lactic acid from molasses at a commercial scale. PMID:17981933

  13. Dietary molasses increases ruminal pH and enhances ruminal biohydrogenation during milk fat depression.

    PubMed

    Martel, C A; Titgemeyer, E C; Mamedova, L K; Bradford, B J

    2011-08-01

    Feeding high-concentrate diets has the potential to cause milk fat depression, but several studies have suggested that dietary sugar can increase milk fat yield. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of dietary molasses to prevent milk fat depression in the presence of a 65% concentrate diet. In trial 1, molasses replaced corn grain at 0, 2.5, or 5% of diet dry matter in diets fed to 12 second-lactation Holstein cows (134±37 d in milk) in a 3×3 Latin square design. Trial 1 demonstrated that replacing up to 5% of dietary dry matter from corn with molasses had positive effects on de novo fatty acid synthesis, increasing the yield of short- and medium-chain fatty acids during diet-induced milk fat depression. Increasing inclusion rate of molasses increased milk fat concentration, but decreased milk yield and milk protein yield. Trial 2 used 7 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, late-lactation Holstein cows (220±18 d in milk) to evaluate effects of dietary molasses on ruminal parameters and milk composition, and also to assess whether increased metabolizable protein supply would alter these responses. Cows were randomly assigned to a dietary treatment sequence in a crossover split plot design with 0 and 5% molasses diets. Dietary treatments were fed for 28 d, with 16 d for diet adaptation, and the final 12 d for 2 abomasal infusion periods in a crossover arrangement. Abomasal infusions of water or AA (5 g of l-Met/d+15 g of l-Lys-HCl/d+5 g of l-His-HCl-H(2)O/d) were administered 3 times daily for 5 d, with 2 d between infusion periods. Administration of AA had no effect on concentration or yield of any milk components. Addition of molasses increased milk fat concentration (2.71 vs. 2.94±0.21%), but had no effect on yields of milk fat or protein. Dietary molasses decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration (141 vs. 133±4.6mM), decreased the molar proportion of propionate, and increased the molar proportion of butyrate in ruminal fluid

  14. [Microbial community structure in different wastewater treatment processes characterized by single-strand-conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang-guo; Wang, Ai-jie; Ren, Nan-qi; Zhao, Yan

    2006-07-01

    In order to investigate microbial community structures in different wastewater treatment processes and understand the relationship between the structures and the status of processes, the microbial community diversity, variety and distribution in five wastewater treatment processes were studied by a culture-independent genetic fingerprinting technique single-strand-conformation polymorphism (SSCP). The five processes included a denitrification and phosphorus removal bioreactor (N), Chinese traditional medicine wastewater treatment bioreactor (P), beer wastewater treatment bioreactor (W), fermentative biohydrogen production bioreactor (H) and sulfate-reduction bioreactor (S). The results indicate that the microbial community profiles in the same wastewater bioreactors are very similar. The diversity of microbial populations is correlated with the complexity of organic contaminants in wastewater. Chinese traditional medicine wastewater contains more complex organic components, so the population diversity is higher than that of simple nutrient bioreactors fed with molasses wastewater. Compared with the strain bands in a simulated community, the relative proportion of some functional microbial populations in bioreactors was not dominant, namely, fermentative biohydrogen producer Ethanologenbacterium sp. in the better condition bioreactor had only 5% band density, and the Desulfovibrio sp. in the sulfate-reducing bioreactor had less than 1.5% band density. SSCP profiles can define the difference in microbial community structures in wastewater treatment processes and monitor some of the functional microbes in these processes, providing useful guidance for improving its efficiency. PMID:16881324

  15. Influence of molasses lignin-hemicellulose fractions in rat nutrition.

    PubMed

    Fahey, G C; Williams, J E; McLaren, G A

    1976-10-01

    Previous reports have shown that fractionation of the non-sugar, non-dialyzable components of cane molasses yielded a fraction designated as a black phenolic-carbohydrate complex. Incorporation of 0.03% of this complex into diets fed weanling male rats significantly increased the growth rate above that of rats fed the basal diet alone. This study was conducted to determine the chemical nature and growth stimulating action of the black phenol-carbohydrate complex. Alkaline cleavage under nitrogen yielded a mixture of phenols and a carbohydrate fraction which was recovered by precipitation at pH 6 in four volumes of ethanol. The alkaline cleaved, free hemicellulose was non-diayzable and stimulated growth when incorporated into rat diets at the 0.03% levels. Acid hydrolysis of the complex yielded an insoluble product identified as lignin and found to represent 18% to 20% of the entire complex. The chemical nature of this ligninhemicellulose fraction and the previously reported growth-enhancing acid resistant hemicellulose fraction isolated from various plant sources were found to be similar. PMID:9493

  16. The last erosional stage of the Molasse Basin and the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Mosar, Jon

    2010-05-01

    The search for the controls on the Alpine increase in sediment discharge at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary has received much attention recently. Here, we present a synoptic overview of the Miocene to present development of the north Alpine foreland basin in view of the contemporaneous increase in sediment discharge. Inversion and erosion of the Molasse Basin started at the same time that the Alpine rivers were deflected towards the Rhone-Bresse Graben which is the southern continuation of the European rift system. This change in the dispersion direction decreased the distance to baselevel by approximately 1000 m, which in turn decreased the average topographic elevation in the Molasse Basin by at least 200 m. Isostatic adjustment to erosional unloading requires at least 1000 m of erosion to account for this inferred topographic lowering. A further implication is that the resulting increase in the sediment discharge at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary reflects the recycling of Molasse units. We consider that erosion and inversion of the Molasse Basin appears to have occurred in response to a shift in the drainage direction rather than because of a paleoclimate change. We do find, however, that climate has imprinted on the Alpine landscape, but presumably not earlier than at the initiation of glaciation at the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary. Similar to the foreland, we do not see a strong climate fingerprint on the pattern or rates of exhumation of the External Massifs. In particular, the initiation and acceleration of antiformal stacking due to underplating can be considered solely as a response to the convergence of Adria and Europe irrespective of erosion rates. However, the recycling of the Molasse deposits since 5 Ma and the associated reduction of the loads in the foreland could have activated basement thrusts beneath the Molasse Basin in order to restore the critical wedge. This mechanism could explain the deep-seated earthquakes beneath the Molasse Basin and the

  17. Utilization of molasses spentwash for production of bioplastics by waste activated sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Khardenavis, Anshuman A. Vaidya, Atul N.; Kumar, M. Suresh; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2009-09-15

    Present study describes the treatment of molasses spentwash and its use as a potential low cost substrate for production of biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by waste activated sludge. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of PHB granules in sludge biomass which was further confirmed by fourier transform-infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The processing of molasses spentwash was carried out for attaining different ratios of carbon and nitrogen (C:N). Highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and PHB accumulation of 60% and 31% respectively was achieved with raw molasses spentwash containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio = 28) followed by COD removal of 52% and PHB accumulation of 28% for filtered molasses containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio = 29). PHB production yield (Y{sub p/s}) was highest (0.184 g g{sup -1} COD consumed) for deproteinized spentwash supplemented with nitrogen. In contrast, the substrate consumption and product formation were higher in case of raw spentwash. Though COD removal was lowest from deproteinized spentwash, evaluation of kinetic parameters suggested higher rates of conversion of available carbon to biomass and PHB. Thus the process provided dual benefit of conversion of two wastes viz. waste activated sludge and molasses spentwash into value-added product-PHB.

  18. Production of L-ornithine from sucrose and molasses by recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Bu, Yi-Fan; Liu, Jian-Zhong

    2015-09-01

    Sucrose and molasses are attractive raw materials for industrial fermentation. Although Corynebacterium glutamicum shows sucrose-utilizing activity, sucrose or molasses is only a fraction of carbon source used in the fermentation medium in most works. An engineered C. glutamicum strain was constructed for producing L-ornithine with sucrose or molasses as a sole carbon source by transferring Mannheimia succiniciproducens β-fructofuranosidase gene (sacC). The engineered strain, C. glutamicum ΔAPE6937R42 (pEC-sacC), produced 22.0 g/L of L-ornithine with sucrose as the sole carbon source, which is on par with that obtained by the parent strain C. glutamicum ΔAPE6937R42 with glucose as the sole carbon. The resulting strain C. glutamicum ΔAPE6937R42 (pEC-sacC) produced 27.0 g/L of L-ornithine with molasses as the sole carbon source, which is higher than that obtained by the parent strain C. glutamicum ΔAPE6937R42 with glucose as the sole carbon. This strategy can be applied for developing sucrose- or molasses-utilizing industrial strains. PMID:25527174

  19. Collimation of a thulium atomic beam by two-dimensional optical molasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sukachev, D D; Kalganova, E S; Sokolov, A V; Savchenkov, A V; Vishnyakova, G A; Golovizin, A A; Akimov, A V; Kolachevsky, Nikolai N; Sorokin, Vadim N

    2013-04-30

    The number of laser cooled and trapped thulium atoms in a magneto-optical trap is increased by a factor of 3 using a two-dimensional optical molasses which collimated the atomic beam before entering a Zeeman slower. A diode laser operating at 410.6 nm was employed to form optical molasses: The laser was heated to 70 Degree-Sign C by a two-step temperature stabilisation system. The laser system consisting of a master oscillator and an injection-locked amplifier emitted more than 100 mW at 410 nm and had a spectral linewidth of 0.6 MHz. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  20. Collimation of a thulium atomic beam by two-dimensional optical molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukachev, D. D.; Kalganova, E. S.; Sokolov, A. V.; Savchenkov, A. V.; Vishnyakova, G. A.; Golovizin, A. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Kolachevsky, Nikolai N.; Sorokin, Vadim N.

    2013-04-01

    The number of laser cooled and trapped thulium atoms in a magneto-optical trap is increased by a factor of 3 using a two-dimensional optical molasses which collimated the atomic beam before entering a Zeeman slower. A diode laser operating at 410.6 nm was employed to form optical molasses: The laser was heated to 70 °C by a two-step temperature stabilisation system. The laser system consisting of a master oscillator and an injection-locked amplifier emitted more than 100 mW at 410 nm and had a spectral linewidth of 0.6 MHz.

  1. Response Surface Optimization of Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Molasses by Pichia veronae Strain HSC-22

    PubMed Central

    Hamouda, Hamed I.; Nassar, Hussein N.; Madian, Hekmat R.; Abu Amr, Salem S.; El-Gendy, Nour Sh.

    2015-01-01

    Pichia veronae strain HSC-22 (accession number KP012558) showed a good tolerance to relatively high temperature, ethanol and sugar concentrations. Response surface optimization based on central composite design of experiments predicted the optimal values of the influencing parameters that affect the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses to be as follows: initial pH 5, 25% (w : v) initial molasses concentration, 35°C, 116 rpm, and 60 h. Under these optimum operating conditions the maximum bioethanol production on a batch fermenter scale was recorded as 32.32 g/L with 44% bioethanol yield. PMID:26779347

  2. Fungal invertase as an aid for fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.K.; Sato, H.H.

    1982-10-01

    Comparative studies of the fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence or absence of fungal invertase were performed. When cane molasses was fermented by the yeast at 30 degrees Centigrade and pH 5.0, the presence of the enzyme had no effect on ethanol production. At pH 3.4, ethanol production was increased by the addition of invertase. At 40 degrees C, the addition of invertase increased ethanol production by 5.5% at pH 5.0 and by 20.9% at pH 3.5. (Refs. 8).

  3. Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

    2011-01-01

    During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

  4. Green Energy: Advancing Bio-Hydrogen (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Alber, D.

    2007-07-01

    Developing a model of metabolism linked to H2 production in green algae. Develop tools for parameter discovery and optimization at organism level and advance knowledge of hydrogen-producting photosynthetic organisms.

  5. A new and effective approach to boron removal by using novel boron-specific fungi isolated from boron mining wastewater.

    PubMed

    Taştan, Burcu Ertit; Çakir, Dilara Nur; Dönmez, Gönül

    2016-01-01

    Boron-resistant fungi were isolated from the wastewater of a boron mine in Turkey. Boron removal efficiencies of Penicillium crustosum and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were detected in different media compositions. Minimal Salt Medium (MSM) and two different waste media containing molasses (WM-1) or whey + molasses (WM-2) were tested to make this process cost effective when scaled up. Both isolates achieved high boron removal yields at the highest boron concentrations tested in MSM and WM-1. The maximum boron removal yield by P. crustosum was 45.68% at 33.95 mg l(-1) initial boron concentration in MSM, and was 38.97% at 42.76 mg l(-1) boron for R. mucilaginosa, which seemed to offer an economically feasible method of removing boron from the effluents. PMID:26877036

  6. Strategies for the development of a side stream process for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from sugar cane molasses.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, M G E; Eiroa, M; Torres, C; Nunes, B R; Reis, M A M

    2007-07-15

    A three-stage process was developed to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from sugar cane molasses. The process includes (1) molasses acidogenic fermentation, (2) selection of PHA-accumulating cultures, (3) PHA batch accumulation using the enriched sludge and fermented molasses. In the fermentation step, the effect of pH (5-7) on the organic acids profile and productivity was evaluated. At higher pH, acetic and propionic acids were the main products, while lower pH favoured the production of butyric and valeric acids. PHA accumulation using fermented molasses was evaluated with two cultures selected either with acetate or fermented molasses. The effect of organic acids distribution on polymer composition and yield was evaluated with the acetate selected culture. Storage yields varied from 0.37 to 0.50Cmmol HA/Cmmol VFA. A direct relationship between the type of organic acids used and the polymers composition was observed. Low ammonia concentration (0.1Nmmol/l) in the fermented molasses stimulated PHA storage (0.62Cmmol HA/Cmmol VFA). In addition, strategies of reactor operation to select a PHA-accumulating culture on fermented molasses were developed. The combination of low organic loading with high ammonia concentration selected a culture with a stable storage capacity and with a storage yield (0.59Cmmol HA/Cmmol VFA) similar to that of the acetate-selected culture. PMID:17602776

  7. Fermentative production of butanol from sorghum molasses as a potential agricultural fuel. Final report, June 26, 1981-September 25, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, L.T.

    1982-12-01

    A strain, Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 4259, suitable for butanol-acetone fermentation of sorghum molasses was selected from several strains of the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It was cultivated in the composition-optimized sorghum molasses medium. The microbial growth and sugar consumption pattern in the sorghum molasses medium exhibited a typical diauxie phenomenon. The results strongly suggest that the difficulty encountered by the Weizmann type of organisms in butanol-acetone fermentation of molasses is due to the diauxie phenomenon causing a significant decrease in the solvent production rate. Acid hydrolysis of sorghum molasses minimizes the occurrence of the phenomenon, thereby remarkably increasing the solvent yield. The final solvent concentrations in the inverted molasses medium were butanol, 1.0% (w/v); acetone, 0.37% (w/v); ethanol, 0.18% (w/v); and total solvent, 1.55% (w/v). The total solvent yield in the inverted sorghum molasses medium was 30.3% based on the weight of sugar consumed. Effects of the temperature, agitation and heat-shocking were also investigated.

  8. Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a Molasses Byproduct of Pine (Pinus taeda) Fiberboard Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Temulose” is the trade name for a water-soluble molasses produced on a large scale (300 - 400 tonnes per year) as a byproduct of the fiberboard industry. The feedstock for temulose is predominantly a single species of pine (Pinus taeda) grown and harvested in stands in southeastern Texas. Because...

  9. Influence of Ammonium Salts and Cane Molasses on Growth of Alcaligenes eutrophus and Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, M.; Beaulieu, Y.; Melinard, J.; Pandian, S.; Goulet, J.

    1995-01-01

    The production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Alcaligenes eutrophus DSM 545 was studied in a synthetic medium with 3% glucose at pH 7.0 supplemented with several ammonium substrates and cane molasses. Growth was measured by dry cell weight, and the PHB content was measured by gas chromatography. The effects of ammonium sources such as sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, and chloride salts and those of different ammonium sulfate concentrations were evaluated. The best growth and PHB production were obtained with ammonium sulfate; however, NH(inf4)(sup+) concentrations between 0.5 and 1.5 g/liter showed no significant difference. Ammonium sulfate was therefore used as the sole source of NH(inf4)(sup+) for experiments with cane molasses as the growth activator. Optimal growth and PHB production were obtained with 0.3% molasses. However, the yields of biomass (39 to 48%) and PHB (17 to 26%) varied significantly among the different ammonium substrates and cane molasses concentrations. PMID:16534900

  10. Effect of molasses in anaerobic soil disinfestation: Focus on the soil microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers in Florida have begun to apply molasses to increase the soil microbial biodiversity. Previous reports have indicated that a greater microbial diversity could cause disease suppressive soils. Furthermore, it has been shown that under moderate temperature, 15-20° C, an increase of carbon could...

  11. Water Footprints of Cassava- and Molasses-Based Ethanol Production in Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Mangmeechai, Aweewan; Pavasant, Prasert

    2013-12-15

    The Thai government has been promoting renewable energy as well as stimulating the consumption of its products. Replacing transport fuels with bioethanol will require substantial amounts of water and enhance water competition locally. This study shows that the water footprint (WF) of molasses-based ethanol is less than that of cassava-based ethanol. The WF of molasses-based ethanol is estimated to be in the range of 1,510-1,990 L water/L ethanol, while that of cassava-based ethanol is estimated at 2,300-2,820 L water/L ethanol. Approximately 99% of the water in each of these WFs is used to cultivate crops. Ethanol production requires not only substantial amounts of water but also government interventions because it is not cost competitive. In Thailand, the government has exploited several strategies to lower ethanol prices such as oil tax exemptions for consumers, cost compensation for ethanol producers, and crop price assurances for farmers. For the renewable energy policy to succeed in the long run, the government may want to consider promoting molasses-based ethanol production as well as irrigation system improvements and sugarcane yield-enhancing practices, since molasses-based ethanol is more favorable than cassava-based ethanol in terms of its water consumption, chemical fertilizer use, and production costs.

  12. Comparitive study of copper reduction, chromatographic and enymatic methods to determine reducing sugars in molasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With more processing of sugarcane or sugarbeet for fuel alcohol production, there is an increasing emphasis on the minimizing of losses from fermentable reducing sugars to improve alcohol yields. Consequently, methods to measure reducing sugars in molasses and other sugar products have become more ...

  13. Induction of bovine polioencephalomalacia with a feeding system based on molasses and urea.

    PubMed Central

    Mella, C M; Perez-Oliva, O; Loew, F M

    1976-01-01

    Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), a disease first described in the United States and related to intensive beef production, appeared in Cuba coincident with the use of a new, molasses-urea-based diet to fatten bulls. Because the only experimental means so far of reproducing PEM has been with amprolium, a structural analog of thiamin, the present study attempted to induce the disease using the molasses-urea-based diet. Six Holstein bulls (200-300 kg) were studied during consumption of three successive diets: 1) commercial molasses-urea-restricted forage diet of Cuban feedlots, 2) a period in which forage was gradually withdrawn and 3) a forage-free diet composed only of molasses, urea and fish meal. PEM was reproduced in this way. At ten-day intervals, blood concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and urea were measured, as well as when clinical signs of PEM appeared. The signs, clinical course and lesions of the experimentally induced disease were comparable to those of field cases. The biochemical results suggested a block in pyruvate oxidation as in PEM elsewhere in the world. No evidence existed of urea intoxication. In addition, brain and liver concentration of total thiamin from field cases and normal animals were found to be similar. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1000370

  14. Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a Molasses Byproduct of Pine (Pinus taeda) Fiberboard Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Temulose" is the trade name for a water-soluble molasses produced on a large scale (300 - 400 tonnes per year) as a byproduct of the fiberboard industry. The feedstock for temulose is predominantly a single species of pine (Pinus taeda) grown and harvested in stands in south-eastern Texas. Becaus...

  15. Improved welan gum production by Alcaligenes sp. ATCC31555 from pretreated cane molasses.

    PubMed

    Ai, Hongxia; Liu, Min; Yu, Pingru; Zhang, Shaozhi; Suo, Yukai; Luo, Ping; Li, Shuang; Wang, Jufang

    2015-09-20

    Welan gum production by Alcaligenes sp. ATCC31555 from cane molasses was studied in batch fermentation to reduce production costs and enhance gum production. The pretreatment of cane molasses, agitation speed and the addition of supplements were investigated to optimize the process. Sulfuric acid hydrolysis was found to be the optimal pretreatment, resulting in a maximum gum concentration of 33.5 g/L, which is 50.0% higher than those obtained from the molasses' mother liquor. Agitation at 600 rpm at 30°C and addition of 10% n-dodecane following fermentation for 36 h increased the maximum gum production up to 41.0 ± 1.41 g/L, which is 49.1% higher than the greatest welan gum concentration in the literature so far. The welan gum product showed an acceptable molecular weight, similar rheological properties and better thermal stability to that obtained from glucose. These results indicate that cane molasses may be a suitable and inexpensive substrate for cost-effective industrial-scale welan gum production. PMID:26050885

  16. Optimisation of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and anthocyanins from sugar beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Yi; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-04-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimise experimental conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of functional components from sugar beet molasses. The central composite design (CCD) was used for the optimisation of extraction parameters in terms of total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities and anthocyanins. Result suggested the optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from sugar beet molasses were as follows: HCl concentration 1.55-1.72 mol/L, ethanol concentration 57-63% (v/v), extraction temperature 41-48 °C, and extraction time 66-73 min. In the optimal conditions, the experimental total phenolic contents were 17.36 mg GAE/100mL, antioxidant activity was 16.66 mg TE/g, and total anthocyanins were 31.81 mg/100g of the sugar beet molasses extract, which were well matched the predicted values. Teen compounds, i.e. gallic acid, vanillin, hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, catechin, delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucuronide and ferulic acid were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS in sugar beet molasses. PMID:25442590

  17. Immobilized Sclerotinia sclerotiorum invertase to produce invert sugar syrup from industrial beet molasses by-product.

    PubMed

    Mouelhi, Refka; Abidi, Ferid; Galai, Said; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2014-03-01

    The fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum produces invertase activity during cultivation on many agroindustrial residues. The molasses induced invertase was purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated at 48 kDa. Optimal temperature was determined at 60 °C and thermal stability up to 65 °C. The enzyme was stable between pH 2.0 and 8.0; optimum pH was about 5.5. Apparent K(m) and V(max) for sucrose were estimated to be respectively 5.8 mM and 0.11 μmol/min. The invertase was activated by β-mercaptoethanol. Free enzyme exhibited 80 % of its original activity after two month's storage at 4 °C and 50 % after 1 week at 25 °C. In order to investigate an industrial application, the enzyme was immobilized on alginate and examined for invert sugar production by molasses hydrolysis in a continuous bioreactor. The yield of immobilized invertase was about 78 % and the activity yield was 59 %. Interestingly the immobilized enzyme hydrolyzed beet molasses consuming nearly all sucrose. It retained all of its initial activity after being used for 4 cycles and about 65 % at the sixth cycle. Regarding productivity; 20 g/l of molasses by-product gave the best invert sugar production 46.21 g/day/100 g substrate related to optimal sucrose conversion of 41.6 %. PMID:24142426

  18. Simplified soy molasses-based medium for reduced-cost production of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simplified medium containing only soy molasses and oleic acid as ingredients was developed for the production of sophorolipids (SLs) from Candida bombicola. We achieved a product yield of 53 plus/minus 3 g of purified sophorolipids per liter of starting culture volume, which is 71 plus/minus 4% o...

  19. Molasses-based growth and production of oil and astaxanthin by Chlorella zofingiensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Huang, Junchao; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Feng

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the industrial waste cane molasses as a carbon source for cell growth, lipid and astaxanthin production of Chlorella zofingiensis. Pretreated with cation exchange resin to remove the metal ions, cane molasses provided better productivities of biomass, lipid, and astaxanthin (1.55, 0.71 g L(-1)day(-1) and 1.7 mg L(-1)day(-1), respectively) than glucose. Using a strategy of semi-continuous cultures coupled with feeding at a low concentration, molasses without pretreatment has the same effect as pretreated one on supporting the algal cell growth, lipid and astaxanthin production. The efficient metabolism of molasses triggered the up-regulation of genes involved in fatty acid and also astaxanthin biosynthesis, leading to the very high production of the two metabolites. This study highlights the possibility of using C. zofingiensis to deal with industrial wastes and to produce profitable biodiesel as well as the high-value astaxanthin. PMID:22221991

  20. Industrial wastewater analysis: A toxicity-directed approach

    SciTech Connect

    Reemtsma, T.; Putschew, A.; Jekel, M.

    1999-06-01

    Methods of toxicity-directed analysis have been developed for the characterization and identification of toxic organic constituents in industrial wastewater. Sequential solid-phase extraction is followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation or by automated multiple development thin-layer chromatography fractionation (AMD-TLC) of the toxic extracts. Toxic fractions were finally analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Toxicity was detected before each of the analytical steps by the bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri, which was performed on microtiter plates and on the developed TLC plates. While sequential extraction broadens the polarity range of the procedure, the new variants of the luminescence test make the method very versatile and fast. The potential of this kind of toxicity-directed analysis with respect to resolution and polarity of analytes is discussed and applications to partial effluents of a tannery, to molasses wastewater and a spent dyeing bath are presented. A variety of benzothiazoles and more polar organics were identified as major toxic compounds in tannery effluents. It is shown that the procedures are well suited to detect individual toxic components in complex industrial wastewaters. The use of LC-MS is proposed to extend the polarity range of the final identification step.

  1. Molasses as a source of carbon dioxide for attracting the malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most odour baits for haematophagous arthropods contain carbon dioxide (CO2). The CO2 is sourced artificially from the fermentation of refined sugar (sucrose), dry ice, pressurized gas cylinders or propane. These sources of CO2 are neither cost-effective nor sustainable for use in remote areas of sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, molasses was evaluated as a potential substrate for producing CO2 used as bait for malaria mosquitoes. Methods The attraction of laboratory-reared and wild Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes to CO2 generated from yeast-fermentation of molasses was assessed under semi-field and field conditions in western Kenya. In the field, responses of wild Anopheles funestus were also assessed. Attraction of the mosquitoes to a synthetic mosquito attractant, Mbita blend (comprising ammonia, L-lactic acid, tetradecanoic acid and 3-methyl-1-butanol) when augmented with CO2 generated from yeast fermentation of either molasses or sucrose was also investigated. Results In semi-field, the release rate of CO2 and proportion of An. gambiae mosquitoes attracted increased in tandem with an increase in the quantity of yeast-fermented molasses up to an optimal ratio of molasses and dry yeast. More An. gambiae mosquitoes were attracted to a combination of the Mbita blend plus CO2 produced from fermenting molasses than the Mbita blend plus CO2 from yeast-fermented sucrose. In the field, significantly more female An. gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes were attracted to the Mbita blend augmented with CO2 produced by fermenting 500 g of molasses compared to 250 g of sucrose or 250 g of molasses. Similarly, significantly more An. funestus, Culex and other anopheline mosquito species were attracted to the Mbita blend augmented with CO2 produced from fermenting molasses than the Mbita blend with CO2 produced from sucrose. Augmenting the Mbita blend with CO2 produced from molasses was associated with high catches of blood-fed An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus

  2. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2

    PubMed Central

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production. PMID:25242924

  3. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2.

    PubMed

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production. PMID:25242924

  4. [Electricity generation performance of two-chamber microbial full cell in the treatment of simulated wastewater].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Juan; Li, Yong-Feng; Liu, Chun-Yan; Wang, Yi-Xuan; Li, Long; Wang, Zi-Ren; Dong, Yi-Xing

    2012-07-01

    The start-up procedures, the degradation efficiency of organics at the anode and the removal efficiency of Cu2+ at the cathode of the cell were studied, based on which the performance of MFC (microbial fuel cell) in electricity generation and wastewater treatment was evaluated. A simple two-chamber microbial fuel cell was established with simulated molasses wastewater as substrate at the anode and simulated electroplating wastewater as an electron acceptor at the cathode. The results from a batch of experiments showed that the highest voltage output of 417.00 mV was obtained at an external resistance of 800 Omega, and that the maximum power density of 44.17 mW x m(-2) was obtained with an internal resistance of 293 Omega based on the polarization curve. In addition, COD removal rate reached its highest value (47.31%) in the fifth cycle, and the maximum removal rate (59.76%) for Cu2+ was recorded in the fourth cycle. In summary, the application of MFC in the treatment of organic wastewater and electroplating wastewater is feasible. PMID:23002622

  5. Geometry, amount, and sequence of thrusting in the Subalpine Molasse of western Austria and southern Germany, European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortner, Hugo; Aichholzer, Silvia; Zerlauth, Michael; Pilser, Roland; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we review the structure of the most external thrust belt of the Alps between the Rhein valley and Salzburg based on a new tectonic map and the (re)interpretation of seismic sections. Specifically we address the correlation between deformation in the Subalpine Molasse and the Alpine thrust belt in general and focus on the control of sedimentary facies on the structural style. A dramatic change in architecture from a ramp-flat structure to buckle folding is related to a change from coarse-grained fans to fine-grained deposits within the Subalpine Molasse. Additionally the interaction of escape tectonics with postcollisional shortening controls the decrease of late Early Miocene and younger shortening within the Subalpine Molasse from 50 km near the Rhine valley to almost zero near Salzburg. Transfer of shortening into the hinterland, which is the zone of lateral escape, ended foreland propagation of the Alpine thrusts and initiated a general break-back sequence of thrusting. Throughout this time the thrusts remained active. In such a scenario, tectonic units on top of the Subalpine Molasse are expected to undergo clockwise rotation around vertical axes. As thrusting in the Subalpine Molasse is closely related to contemporaneous transport and shortening within the tectonically higher Helvetic thrust sheets, amounts of Miocene differential shortening and related clockwise vertical axis rotation are minimum amounts. True clockwise vertical axis rotation is probably larger than the 12° deduced from the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt.

  6. Enhanced L-lysine production from pretreated beet molasses by engineered Escherichia coli in fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    He, Xun; Chen, Kequan; Li, Yan; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Hong; Qian, Juan; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-08-01

    Faster sugar consumption rate and low-cost nitrogen source are required for the chemical biosynthesis using molasses. Five pretreatment methods were applied to beet molasses prior to fermentation through engineered Escherichia coli, respectively, and corn steep liquid was used as an organic nitrogen source to replace expensive yeast extract. Furthermore, the effects of different feeding strategy in fed-batch fermentation on L-lysine production were investigated. The experimental results showed that combined tricalcium phosphate, sulfuric acid, and activated carbon pretreatment method (TPSA) pretreatment could improve the sugar consumption rate most greatly, and the initial total sugar concentration of 35 g/L from TPSA-pretreated beet molasses gave the best results with respect to L-lysine production, dry cell weight concentration, and L-lysine yield in batch fermentation. Moreover, a mixture of low-cost corn steep liquid and yeast extract containing equal amount of nitrogen could be used as the organic nitrogen source for effective L-lysine fermentation, and constant speed feeding strategy of TPSA-pretreated beet molasses promoted L-lysine production by engineered E. coli. The TPSA-pretreated beet molasses had a sugar consumption rate of 1.75 g/(L h), and a L-lysine yield of 27.81% was achieved, compared with the theoretical yield of 62% by glucose. It was clarified that the pretreatment significantly enhanced the conversion of sugars in beet molasses to L-lysine. PMID:25899726

  7. Short communication: Effects of molasses supplementation on performance of lactating cows fed high-alfalfa silage diets.

    PubMed

    Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A

    2014-02-01

    Twelve Holstein cows were used in a replicated Latin square experiment to determine the effect of adding dried molasses to high-alfalfa silage diets on dairy cow performance. Three isonitrogenous diets were formulated with a 68:32 forage:concentrate ratio, with alfalfa silage as the only forage source. Dietary treatments were a control diet with no added molasses and 3 and 6% dried molasses diets. Three lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used to determine the effects of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation. Dietary treatments had no effect on dry matter (average 23.3 kg/d), crude protein (average 4.4 kg/d), or neutral detergent fiber (average 7.4 kg/d) intake. Milk yield, energy-corrected milk (average 35.4 kg/d), and 4% fat-corrected milk (average 33.8 kg/d) were not influenced by dietary treatments. Cows fed the control diet produced milk with less milk urea nitrogen concentration than those fed molasses-supplemented diets. Ruminal pH, NH3-N concentration, and total volatile fatty acids were not different among dietary treatments. The molar proportion of acetate linearly increased, whereas the molar proportion of propionate linearly decreased as the level of dried molasses increased. It was concluded that addition of dried molasses to high-alfalfa silage diets at 6% of the diet (dry matter basis) increased milk urea nitrogen but had no effect on animal performance. PMID:24315324

  8. Waste molasses alone displaces glucose-based medium for microalgal fermentation towards cost-saving biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dong; Lu, Yue; Chen, Yi-Feng; Wu, Qingyu

    2011-06-01

    The by-product of sugar refinery-waste molasses was explored as alternative to glucose-based medium of Chlorella protothecoides in this study. Enzymatic hydrolysis is required for waste molasses suitable for algal growth. Waste molasses hydrolysate was confirmed as a sole source of full nutrients to totally replace glucose-based medium in support of rapid growth and high oil yield from algae. Under optimized conditions, the maximum algal cell density, oil content, and oil yield were respectively 70.9 g/L, 57.6%, and 40.8 g/L. The scalability of the waste molasses-fed algal system was confirmed from 0.5L flasks to 5L fermenters. The quality of biodiesel from waste molasses-fed algae was probably comparable to that from glucose-fed ones. Economic analysis indicated the cost of oil production from waste molasses-fed algae reduced by 50%. Significant cost reduction of algal biodiesel production through fermentation engineering based on the approach is expected. PMID:21474303

  9. Engineering of Bacillus subtilis for the Production of 2,3-Butanediol from Sugarcane Molasses.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Apoorva Nandkumar; Nipanikar-Gokhale, Padmaja; Jain, Rishi

    2016-05-01

    2,3-butanediol is known to be a platform chemical with several potential industrial applications. Sustainable industrial scale production can be attained by using a sugarcane molasses based fermentation process using Bacillus subtilis. However, the accumulation of acetoin needs to be reduced to improve process efficiency. In this work, B. subtilis was genetically modified in order to increase the yield of 2,3-butanediol. Metabolic engineering strategies such as cofactor engineering and overexpression of the key enzyme butanediol dehydrogenase were attempted. Both the strategies individually led to a statistically significant increase in the 2,3-butanediol yields for sugarcane molasses based fermentation. Cofactor engineering led to a 26 % increase in 2,3-butanediol yield and overexpression of bdhA led to a 11 % increase. However, the combination of the two strategies did not lead to a synergistic increase in 2,3-butanediol yield. PMID:26825987

  10. Gray-molasses cooling of 39K to a high phase-space density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, G.; Fouché, L.; Wang, P.; Aspect, A.; Bouyer, P.; Bourdel, T.

    2013-12-01

    We present new techniques in cooling 39K atoms using laser light close to the D1 transition. First, a new compressed-MOT configuration is taking advantage of gray-molasses-type cooling induced by blue-detuned D1 light. It yields an optimized density of atoms. Then, we use pure D1 gray molasses to further cool the atoms to an ultra-low temperature of 6\\ \\mu\\text{K} . The resulting phase-space density is 2\\times 10^{-4} and will ease future experiments with ultracold potassium. As an example, we use it to directly load up to 3\\times 10^7 atoms in a far detuned optical trap, a result that opens the way to the all-optical production of potassium degenerate gases.

  11. Quantum-interference-enhanced deep sub-Doppler cooling of 39K atoms in gray molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Dipankar; Easwaran, R. Kollengode; Rajalakshmi, G.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    We report enhanced sub-Doppler cooling of the bosonic atoms of 39K facilitated by formation of dark states with the cooling and repumping lasers tuned to the Raman resonance in Λ configuration near the D1 transition. A temperature of about 12 μK and phase-space density >2×10-5 is achieved in the two-stage D2-D1 molasses and spans a very large parameter region where quantum interference persists robustly. We also present results on enhanced radiation heating with a subnatural linewidth (0.07Γ) and a signature Fano-like profile of a coherently driven three-level atomic system. The optical Bloch equations relevant for the three-level atom in a bichromatic light field are solved with the method of continued fractions to show that cooling occurs only for a small velocity class of atoms, emphasizing the need for precooling in the D2 molasses stage.

  12. Slab rollback orogeny in the Alps and evolution of the Swiss Molasse basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Kissling, Edi

    2015-10-01

    The stratigraphies of foreland basins have been related to orogeny, where continent-continent collision causes the construction of topography and the downwarping of the foreland plate. These mechanisms have been inferred for the Molasse basin, stretching along the northern margin of the European Alps. Continuous flexural bending of the subducting European lithosphere as a consequence of topographic loads alone would imply that the Alpine topography would have increased at least between 30 Ma and ca. 5-10 Ma when the basin accumulated the erosional detritus. This, however, is neither consistent with observations nor with isostatic mass balancing models because paleoaltimetry estimates suggest that the topography has not increased since 20 Ma. Here we show that a rollback mechanism for the European plate is capable of explaining the construction of thick sedimentary successions in the Molasse foreland basin where the extra slab load has maintained the Alpine surface at low, but constant, elevations.

  13. Slab rollback orogeny in the Alps and evolution of the Swiss Molasse basin

    PubMed Central

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Kissling, Edi

    2015-01-01

    The stratigraphies of foreland basins have been related to orogeny, where continent–continent collision causes the construction of topography and the downwarping of the foreland plate. These mechanisms have been inferred for the Molasse basin, stretching along the northern margin of the European Alps. Continuous flexural bending of the subducting European lithosphere as a consequence of topographic loads alone would imply that the Alpine topography would have increased at least between 30 Ma and ca. 5–10 Ma when the basin accumulated the erosional detritus. This, however, is neither consistent with observations nor with isostatic mass balancing models because paleoaltimetry estimates suggest that the topography has not increased since 20 Ma. Here we show that a rollback mechanism for the European plate is capable of explaining the construction of thick sedimentary successions in the Molasse foreland basin where the extra slab load has maintained the Alpine surface at low, but constant, elevations. PMID:26472498

  14. Escape tectonics and foreland basin evolution: The Austrian-German Molasse basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortner, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    The Alpine peripheral foreland basin formed during Eocene collision of the lower, European plate and the upper, Adriatic plate. Two marine to continental megasequences fill the basin. The transition form deep marine to continental deposits of the first megasequence at the Early - Late Oligocene boundary has been related to a change from predominant horizontal to vertical movements in the core of the orogenic wedge. The second megasequence is, however, poorly understood, and different models have been put forward. I present an alternative explanation for the development of this second megacycle, based on an analysis of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt east of the Rhine river (Ortner et al., 2015). The main characteristics of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt are: 1) A frontal anticline/thrust started to develop during deposition of the older, marine portion of the second megasequence. Structures continued to grow throughout deposition of the younger, continental part of the megasequence. Structural growth is documented by growth strata. 2) The thrusts in the Subalpine Molasse evolved in a break-back sequence. 3) The amount of shortening during depositon of the second megasequence reduces from 40-50 km near the Rhine valley to zero in the east in the Salzburg area. The onset of the second megasequence in the foreland north of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt is characterized by an angular unconformity documenting a tilt of the foreland toward the orogen, and therefore ongoing flexure of the lower plate. East of the eastern end of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt, the deposits of the second megasequence are in a horizontal position, lower plate flexure had stopped. In the internal part of the Alpine orogenic wedge, shortening, exhumation and E-directed stretching of the Tauern Window as a consequence of escape tectonics was active. Most probably shortening was transferred from the Alpine front into the zone of lateral escape, causing the break-back thrust sequence

  15. Betaine and Beet Molasses Enhance L-Lactic Acid Production by Bacillus coagulans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses. PMID:24956474

  16. Slab rollback orogeny in the Alps and evolution of the Swiss Molasse basin.

    PubMed

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Kissling, Edi

    2015-01-01

    The stratigraphies of foreland basins have been related to orogeny, where continent-continent collision causes the construction of topography and the downwarping of the foreland plate. These mechanisms have been inferred for the Molasse basin, stretching along the northern margin of the European Alps. Continuous flexural bending of the subducting European lithosphere as a consequence of topographic loads alone would imply that the Alpine topography would have increased at least between 30 Ma and ca. 5-10 Ma when the basin accumulated the erosional detritus. This, however, is neither consistent with observations nor with isostatic mass balancing models because paleoaltimetry estimates suggest that the topography has not increased since 20 Ma. Here we show that a rollback mechanism for the European plate is capable of explaining the construction of thick sedimentary successions in the Molasse foreland basin where the extra slab load has maintained the Alpine surface at low, but constant, elevations. PMID:26472498

  17. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens growing on molasses and its application in phenol degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryantia, Venty; Marliyana, Soerya Dewi; Wulandari, Astri

    2015-12-01

    A molasses based medium for the biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens was developed, where the effect of pre-treated of molasses and medium composition were evaluated. Biosurfactant production was followed by measuring optical density (OD), surface tension and emulsifying index (E24) over 12 days of fermentation. The optimum condition for the biosurfactant production was obtained when a medium containing of 8 g/L nutrient broth, 5 g/L NaCl, 1 g/L NH4NO3 and 5% v/v pre-treated molasses with centrifugation was used as media with 3 days of fermentation. The biosurfactant was identified as a rhamnolipid type biosurfactant which had critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 801 mg/L and was able to reduce the surface tension of the water from 80 mN/m to 51 mN/m. The biosurfactants had water in oil (w/o) emulsion type. Biosurfactant was able to emulsify various hydrocarbons, which were able to decrase the interfacial tension about 50-75% when benzyl chloride, anisaldehyde and palm oil were used as immiscible compounds. The biosurfactant exhibited the E24 value of about 50% and the stable emulsion was reached up to 30 days when lubricant was used as an immiscible compound. Up to 68% of phenol was degraded in the presence of biosurfactant within 15 days, whereas only 56% of phenol was degraded in the absence of biosurfactant. Overall, the results exhibited that molasses are recommended for the rhamnolipids production which possessed good surface-active properties and had potential application in the enhancement of phenol degradation.

  18. Single cell oil production on molasses by Yarrowia lipolytica strains overexpressing DGA2 in multicopy.

    PubMed

    Gajdoš, Peter; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Rossignol, Tristan; Čertík, Milan

    2015-10-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a promising platform for single cell oil production. It is well-known for its metabolism oriented toward utilization of hydrophobic substrates and accumulation of storage lipids. Multiple copies of DGA2 under constitutive promoter were introduced into the Q4 strain, a quadruple mutant deleted for the four acyltransferases (Δdga1, Δdga2, Δlro1, and Δare1) to improve lipid accumulation. The Q4-DGA2 x3 strain contains three copies of DGA2. Further increase in accumulation was accomplished by blocking the β-oxidation pathway through MFE1 gene deletion yielding Q4-Δmfe DGA2 x3. In order to use molasses as a substrate for single cell oil production, sucrose utilization was established by expressing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SUC2 gene yielding Q4-SUC2 DGA2 x3 and Q4-Δmfe SUC2 DGA2 x3. During cultivation on sucrose medium with a carbon to nitrogen ratio of 80, both strains accumulated more than 40 % of lipids, which was a 2-fold increase in lipid storage. Q4-Δmfe SUC2 DGA2 x3 accumulated more lipids than Q4-SUC2 DGA2 x3 (49 vs. 43 %) but yielded less biomass (13.7 vs. 15 g/L). When grown on 8 % (v/v) molasses, both strains accumulated more than 30 % of lipids after 3 days, while biomass yield was higher in Q4-SUC2 DGA2 x3 (16.4 vs. 14.4 g/L). Further addition of molasses at 72 h resulted in higher biomass yield, 26.6 g/L for Q4-SUC2 DGA2 x3, without modification of lipid content. This work presents genetically modified strains of Y. lipolytica as suitable tools for direct conversion of industrial molasses into value added products based on single cell oils. PMID:26078110

  19. Wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Casaday, J E

    1992-01-01

    Textile rental operators face tough wastewater cleanup challenges in many communities nationwide. Depending on the local POTW regulations and the textile rental company's customer base, wastewater pretreatment isn't always necessary. However, many plants must pretreat or risk being put out of business. In this article, eight manufacturers of wastewater treatment equipment explain their systems to help industry operators comply with POTW limits. PMID:10116442

  20. Steady, dynamic, creep/recovery, and textural properties of yoghurt/molasses blends: Temperature sweep tests and applicability of Cox-Merz rule.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Ali; Bayrambaş, Kadir; Eroglu, Zeynep; Toker, Omer S; Yilmaz, Mustafa T; Karaman, Safa; Dogan, Mahmut

    2016-01-01

    In this study, physicochemical, rheological (steady, dynamic, and creep/recovery), and textural properties of yoghurt/molasses blends (0, 5, 10, and 15% molasses) were investigated. The blends showed shear thinning behavior, as described by Ostwald de Waele model (R(2) ( )≥ 0.955). Consistency coefficient value (K) of the blends decreased with increasing molasses concentration in the sample. Storage modulus (G') of blends was higher than loss modulus (G″), exhibiting weak gel-like behavior. Molasses addition decreased G' and G″ values. Temperature sweep tests indicated that blends followed Arrhenius relationship. A modified Cox-Merz rule was applicable using shift factors. Compliance values (J(t)) increased as molasses concentration increased, revealing that deformation stability and internal viscosity (η1) decreased with concentration. Creep behavior was characterized using Burger model. Obtained J data as a function of time could be satisfactorily fitted to Burger model (R(2) ( )≥ 0.994). The final percentage recovery of blends remarkably decreased with the increase of molasses concentration. Firmness, consistency, cohesiveness, and viscosity index values decreased with molasses addition. According to the results of the current study, molasses amount to be added to the yoghurt should be determined regarding rheological properties since resistance of the sample to deformation decreased with increase in molasses concentration. PMID:25614154

  1. Molasses as an efficient low-cost carbon source for biological Cr(VI) removal.

    PubMed

    Michailides, Michail K; Tekerlekopoulou, Athanasia G; Akratos, Christos S; Coles, Sandra; Pavlou, Stavros; Vayenas, Dimitrios V

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, indigenous microorganisms from industrial sludge were used to reduce the activity of Cr(VI). Molasses, a by-product of sugar processing, was selected as the carbon source (instead of sugar used in a previous work) as it is a low-cost energy source for bioprocesses. Initially, experiments were carried out in suspended growth batch reactors for Cr(VI) concentrations of 1.5-110 mg/L. The time required for complete Cr(VI) reduction increased with initial Cr(VI) concentration. Initial molasses concentration was also found to influence the Cr(VI) reduction rate. The optimal concentration for all initial Cr(VI) concentrations tested was 0.8 gC/L. Experiments were also carried out in packed-bed reactors. Three different operating modes were used to investigate the optimal performance and efficiency of the filter, i.e. batch, continuous and SBR with recirculation. The latter mode with a recirculation rate of 0.5L/min lead to significantly high Cr(VI) reduction rates (up to 135 g/m(2)d). The results of this work were compared with those of a similar work using sugar as the carbon source and indicate that molasses could prove a feasible technological solution to a serious environmental problem. PMID:25160055

  2. Butyric acid fermentation in a fibrous bed bioreactor with immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum from cane molasses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jufang; Liang, Shizhong; Wang, Xiaoning; Cen, Peilin; Xu, Zhinan

    2009-07-01

    Butyrate fermentation by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum was successfully carried out in a fibrous bed bioreactor using cane molasses. Batch fermentations were conducted to investigate the influence of pH on the metabolism of the strain, and the results showed that the fermentation gave a highest butyrate production of 26.2 g l(-1) with yield of 0.47 g g(-1) and reactor productivity up to 4.13 g l(-1)h(-1) at pH 6.0. When repeated-batch fermentation was carried out, long-term operation with high butyrate yield, volumetric productivity was achieved. Several cane molasses pretreatment techniques were investigated, and it was found that sulfuric acid treatment gave better results regarding butyrate concentration (34.6+/-0.8 g l(-1)), yield (0.58+/-0.01 g g(-1)), and sugar utilization (90.8+/-0.9%). Also, fed-batch fermentation from cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was performed to further increase the concentration of butyrate up to 55.2 g l(-1). PMID:19297150

  3. Improvement of erythromycin production by Saccharopolyspora erythraea in molasses based medium through cultivation medium optimization.

    PubMed

    El-Enshasy, H A; Mohamed, N A; Farid, M A; El-Diwany, A I

    2008-07-01

    In the present work, erythromycin production was carried out in submerged culture using Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Different experiments were conducted to optimize the cultivation medium through the change of carbon and nitrogen sources to cheaper one in order to reduce the cost of medium and to utilize sugar cane molasses as one of major sugar industry by-products in Egypt. It was found that the addition of sugar cane molasses a sole carbon source at a concentration of 60 g/l accompanied by corn steep liquor (as organic N-source) in combination with ammonium sulphate (as inorganic N-source) gave the maximal erythromycin production. The antibiotic production in this medium reached about 600 mg/l which is about 33% higher than the value obtained in glucose based medium. On the other hand, the addition of n-propanol in concentration of 1% (v/v) increased the antibiotic production reaching about 720 mg/l after 144 h. Concluding, the new medium formulation based on cheap carbon source, sugar cane molasses, was a good alternative solution for the production of erythromycin economically. PMID:17936622

  4. Mutagenesis and analysis of mold Aspergillus niger for extracellular glucose oxidase production using sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Singh, O V

    2006-10-01

    Aspergillus niger ORS-4.410, a mutant of A. niger ORS-4, was generated by repeated ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Analysis of the UV treatment dose on wild-type (WT) A. niger ORS-4, conidial survival, and frequency of mutation showed that the maximum frequency of positive mutants (25.5%) was obtained with a 57% conidial survival rate after the second stage of UV irradiation. The level of glucose oxidase (GOX) production from mutant A. niger ORS-4.410 thus obtained was 149% higher than that for WT strain A. niger ORS-4 under liquid culture conditions using hexacyanoferrate (HCF)-treated sugarcane molasses (TM) as a cheaper carbohydrate source. When subcultured monthly for 24 mo, the mutant strain had consistent levels of GOX production (2.62 +/- 0.51 U/mL). Mutant A. niger ORS-4.410 was markedly different from the parent strain morphologically and was found to grow abundantly on sugarcane molasses. The mutant strain showed 3.43-fold increases in GOX levels (2.62 +/- 0.51 U/mL) using HCF-TM compared with the crude form of cane molasses (0.762 +/- 0.158 U/mL). PMID:17057255

  5. [Succinic acid production from sucrose and sugarcane molasses by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Ma, Jiangfeng; Wu, Mingke; Ji, Yaliang; Chen, Wufang; Ren, Xinyi; Jiang, Min

    2015-04-01

    Sugarcane molasses containing large amounts of sucrose is an economical substrate for succinic acid production. However, Escherichia coli AFP111 cannot metabolize sucrose although it is a promising candidate for succinic acid production. To achieve sucrose utilizing ability, we cloned and expressed cscBKA genes encoding sucrose permease, fructokinase and invertase of non-PTS sucrose-utilization system from E. coli W in E. coli AFP111 to generate a recombinant strain AFP111/pMD19T-cscBKA. After 72 h of anaerobic fermentation of the recombinant in serum bottles, 20 g/L sucrose was consumed and 12 g/L succinic acid was produced. During dual-phase fermentation comprised of initial aerobic growth phase followed by anaerobic fermentation phase, the concentration of succinic acid from sucrose and sugarcane molasses was 34 g/L and 30 g/L, respectively, at 30 h of anaerobic phase in a 3 L fermentor. The results show that the introduction of non-PTS sucrose-utilization system has sucrose-metabolizing capability for cell growth and succinic acid production, and can use cheap sugarcane molasses to produce succinic acid. PMID:26380410

  6. Optimization of lipids production by Cryptococcus laurentii 11 using cheese whey with molasses.

    PubMed

    Castanha, Rodrigo Fernandes; Mariano, Adriano Pinto; de Morais, Lilia Aparecida Salgado; Scramin, Shirlei; Monteiro, Regina Teresa Rosim

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed the optimization of culture condition and composition for production of Cryptococcus laurentii 11 biomass and lipids in cheese whey medium supplemented with sugarcane molasses. The optimization of pH, fermentation time, and molasses concentration according to a full factorial statistical experimental design was followed by a Plackett-Burman experimental design, which was used to determine whether the supplementation of the culture medium by yeast extract and inorganic salts could provide a further enhancement of lipids production. The following conditions and composition of the culture medium were found to optimize biomass and lipids production: 360 h fermentation, 6.5 pH and supplementation of (g L(-1)): 50 molasses, 0.5 yeast extract, 4 KH2PO4, 1 Na2HPO4, 0.75 MgSO4 · 7H2O and 0.002 ZnSO4 · H2O. Additional supplementation with inorganic salts and yeast extract was essential to optimize the production, in terms of product concentration and productivity, of neutral lipids by C. laurentii 11. Under this optimized condition, the production of total lipids increased by 133% in relation to control experiment (from 1.27 to 2.96 g L(-1)). The total lipids indicated a predominant (86%) presence of neutral lipids with high content of 16- and 18-carbon-chain saturated and monosaturated fatty acids. This class of lipids is considered especially suitable for the production of biodiesel. PMID:25242919

  7. Optimization of lipids production by Cryptococcus laurentii 11 using cheese whey with molasses

    PubMed Central

    Castanha, Rodrigo Fernandes; Mariano, Adriano Pinto; de Morais, Lilia Aparecida Salgado; Scramin, Shirlei; Monteiro, Regina Teresa Rosim

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed the optimization of culture condition and composition for production of Cryptococcus laurentii 11 biomass and lipids in cheese whey medium supplemented with sugarcane molasses. The optimization of pH, fermentation time, and molasses concentration according to a full factorial statistical experimental design was followed by a Plackett-Burman experimental design, which was used to determine whether the supplementation of the culture medium by yeast extract and inorganic salts could provide a further enhancement of lipids production. The following conditions and composition of the culture medium were found to optimize biomass and lipids production: 360 h fermentation, 6.5 pH and supplementation of (g L−1): 50 molasses, 0.5 yeast extract, 4 KH2PO4, 1 Na2HPO4, 0.75 MgSO4·7H2O and 0.002 ZnSO4·H2O. Additional supplementation with inorganic salts and yeast extract was essential to optimize the production, in terms of product concentration and productivity, of neutral lipids by C. laurentii 11. Under this optimized condition, the production of total lipids increased by 133% in relation to control experiment (from 1.27 to 2.96 g L−1). The total lipids indicated a predominant (86%) presence of neutral lipids with high content of 16- and 18-carbon-chain saturated and monosaturated fatty acids. This class of lipids is considered especially suitable for the production of biodiesel. PMID:25242919

  8. Oil removal from petroleum sludge using bacterial culture with molasses substrate at temperature variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni'matuzahroh, Puspitasari, Alvin Oktaviana; Pratiwi, Intan Ayu; Fatimah, Sumarsih, Sri; Surtiningsih, Tini; Salamun

    2016-03-01

    The study aims to reveal the potency of biosurfactant-producing bacterial culture with molasses as substrate growth in releasing oil from the petroleum sludge at temperature variations. Bacteria used consisted of (Acinetobacter sp. P2(1), Pseudomonas putida T1(8), Bacillus subtilis 3KP and Micrococcus sp. L II 61). The treatments were tested at 40°C, 50°C and 60 °C for 7 days of incubation. Synthetic surfactant (Tween 20) was used as a positive control and molasses as a negative control. Release of petroleum hydrocarbons from oil sludge was expressed in percentage of oil removal from oil sludge (%). Data were analyzed statistically using the Analysis of Variance (α = 0.05) and continued with Games-Howell test. The kinds of bacterial cultures, incubation temperature and combination of both affected the percentage of oil removal. The abilities of Bacillus subtilis 3KP and Micrococcus sp. LII 61cultures in oil removal from oil sludge at the temperature exposure of 60°C were higher than Tween 20. Both of bacterial cultures grown on molasses can be proposed as a replacement for synthetic surfactant to clean up the accumulation of oil sludge in a bottom of oil refinery tank.

  9. Seismic stratigraphy and stratigraphic modelling of the South-eastern German Molasse Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Aigner, T.; Jin, J.; Luterbacher, P.

    1995-08-01

    Although the German Molasse Basin can be regarded as a mature hydrocarbon province, no regional sequence stratigraphic analysis has been carried out so far. We have studied seismic lines and well data from the region between the Isar and Inn rivers (SE Germany) that have been generously supplied by German oil companies (DEE, BEB, Mobil, RWE-DEA and Wintershall). Initial work indicates that five major seismic sequences within three main depositional cycles are developed. The Alpine thrust belt to the south serves as the primary sediment source in the foreland basin. However, sedimentary infill mainly took place parallel to the basin axis. Our analysis suggests that the stratigraphic development of the Molasse Basin was mainly controlled by eustatic sea-level changes which caused the shoreline to shift in the W-E direction. The shifting of the depocenter axis in a N-S direction was controlled by the tectonic evolution of the thrust belt. The sea-level curve determined by seismic stratigraphy and well-derived subsidence curves have been used as input parameters for stratigraphic modelling, using the programs GeoMOD and PHIL. Basin-fill simulations with PHIL are in good agreement with the main features of the sequence stratigraphy and the distribution of the systems tracts observed in the study area. The qualitative sea-level curve for the German Molasse Basin derived from the seismostratigraphic analysis could be quantified by the stratigraphic exercises.

  10. Analysis of Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancy, K. H.; Weber, W. J., Jr.

    A comprehensive, documented discussion of certain operating principles useful as guidelines for the analysis of industrial wastewaters is presented. Intended primarily for the chemist, engineer, or other professional person concerned with all aspects of industrial wastewater analysis, it is not to be considered as a substitute for standard manuals…

  11. TEXTILE PLANT WASTEWATER TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study to provide chemical and toxicological baseline data on wastewater samples collected from 32 textile plants in the U.S. Raw waste and secondary effluent wastewater samples were analyzed for 129 consent decree priority pollutants, effluent guideli...

  12. Lipid Production of Heterotrophic Chlorella sp. from Hydrolysate Mixtures of Lipid-Extracted Microalgal Biomass Residues and Molasses.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongli; Ma, Xiaochen; Gao, Zhen; Wan, Yiqin; Min, Min; Zhou, Wenguang; Li, Yun; Liu, Yuhuan; Huang, He; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of lipid production of Chlorella sp. from waste materials. Lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) and molasses were hydrolyzed, and their hydrolysates were analyzed. Five different hydrolysate mixture ratios (w/w) of LMBRs/molasses (1/0, 1/1, 1/4, 1/9, and 0/1) were used to cultivate Chlorella sp. The results showed that carbohydrate and protein were the two main compounds in the LMBRs, and carbohydrate was the main compound in the molasses. The highest biomass concentration of 5.58 g/L, Y biomass/sugars of 0.59 g/g, lipid productivity of 335 mg/L/day, and Y lipids/sugars of 0.25 g/g were obtained at the hydrolysate mixture ratio of LMBRs/molasses of 1/4. High C/N ratio promoted the conversion of sugars into lipids. The lipids extracted from Chlorella sp. shared similar lipid profile of soybean oil and is therefore a potential viable biodiesel feedstock. These results showed that Chlorella sp. can utilize mixed sugars and amino acids from LMBRs and molasses to accumulate lipids efficiently, thus reducing the cost of microalgal biodiesel production and improving its economic viability. PMID:26234438

  13. Wastewater reuse in Italy.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, S; Cirelli, G L; Indelicato, S

    2001-01-01

    In many parts of Italy, particularly in the South, it has become ever more difficult to meet the water demand. The recent years of drought and the constant increase of water demand for the civil sector have made irrigation supply more problematic. Wastewater reuse could represent a viable solution to meet water demand. The focus of this paper is on the regulation problems, hampering the development of wastewater reuse for irrigation, and on the potentials for reuse, particularly in Southern Italy. Planned exploitation of municipal wastewater could help meeting the irrigation water demand particularly in Southern Italy, where farmers have been practising uncontrolled wastewater reuse for a long time. In Northern and Central Italy, where available water resources generally meet water needs for different purposes, wastewater reuse could play an important role in controlling the pollution of water bodies. Despite the fact that Italian legislation is extremely strict and outdated, for several years in some regions, such as Sicily, wastewater reuse systems have been in operation; furthermore, several projects of wastewater reuse are currently in progress. PMID:11436802

  14. Design and Optimization of a Process for Sugarcane Molasses Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh.; Madian, Hekmat R.; Amr, Salem S. Abu

    2013-01-01

    A statistical model was developed in this study to describe bioethanol production through a batch fermentation process of sugarcane molasses by locally isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y-39. Response surface methodology RSM based on central composite face centered design CCFD was employed to statistically evaluate and optimize the conditions for maximum bioethanol production and study the significance and interaction of incubation period, initial pH, incubation temperature, and molasses concentration on bioethanol yield. With the use of the developed quadratic model equation, a maximum ethanol production of 255 g/L was obtained in a batch fermentation process at optimum operating conditions of approximately 71 h, pH 5.6, 38°C, molasses concentration 18% wt.%, and 100 rpm. PMID:24222769

  15. Sweetpotato vines hydrolysate promotes single cell oils production of Trichosporon fermentans in high-density molasses fermentation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qi; Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Fan, Xiaoping; Yang, Yuyi; Zhao, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the co-fermentation of molasses and sweetpotato vine hydrolysate (SVH) by Trichosporon fermentans. T. fermentans showed low lipid accumulation on pure molasses; however, its lipid content increased by 35% when 10% SVH was added. The strong influence of SVH on lipid production was further demonstrated by the result of sensitivity analysis on effects of factors based on an artificial neural network model because the relative importance value of SVH dosage for lipid production was only lower than that of fermentation time. Scanning electron microscope observation and flow cytometry of yeast cells grown in culture with and without SVH showed that less deformation cells were involved in the culture with SVH. The activity of malic enzyme, which plays a key role in fatty acid synthesis, increased from 2.4U/mg to 3.7U/mg after SVH added. All results indicated SVH is a good supplement for lipid fermentation on molasses. PMID:25461010

  16. Molasses supplementation for dual-purpose cows during the dry season in subtropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Loreto, Isela; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Estrada-Flores, Julieta Gertrudis; Vicente-Mainar, Fernando; García-Martínez, Anastacio; Albarrán-Portillo, Benito

    2016-03-01

    The effect of including 9 % of molasses in supplements offered to dual purpose cows, during dry season in subtropical Mexico was determined. Forage availability in pastures during the dry season is reduced and of low quality. Molasses is a readily available source of energy that may improve forage utilization and could have a positive effect on cow's milk production and calves daily weight gain (CDWG). Twelve multiparous Brown Swiss cows (409 ± 33 kg of body weight and 136 ± 73 days in milk), and their calves were randomly assigned to two supplements (six cows per treatment). Control supplement (COS) consisted of cracked maize ears (CME), soybean meal and urea (14 % CP), and experimental supplement in which 9 % of CME was replaced by molasses (MOS). Cows received 4.5 kg/cow/day dry matter (DM) of supplement. Experiment lasted 10 weeks divided in five experimental periods (EP). Animal responses (milk yield, milk composition, body weight, body condition score and CDWG) were recorded at the end of every EP. A linear mixed model was used to analyse the data as a complete random design. Net profits from milk and beef due to supplements were estimated using partial budget approach. Average milk yield was 7 (kg/cow/day) with 30.6, 30.4 and 42.5 (g/kg milk) of fat, protein and lactose, respectively. Average cow weight was 422 kg and CDWG was 0.8 kg/day. No significant responses on animal production variables were found when 9 % of MOS was included in the supplement; however, total net income increased on 4 %, due to higher CDWG. PMID:26885986

  17. 3-D fault development in a geothermal system in the German Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziesch, Jennifer; Tanner, David C.; Wawerzinek, Britta; Lüschen, Ewald; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Buness, Hermann; Thomas, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    The southern German Molasse Basin is one of the most promising areas for geothermal exploration in Germany. We aim for an optimized reservoir exploration for deep geothermal facilities in the Bavarian realm. To do this, we analyse seismic faults to characterise potential pathways between the Malm and its overburden, which consists of Molasse sediments. A 3-D seismic survey (27 km_2) was interpreted as part of the research project GeoParaMoL (Geophysical Parameters for facies interpretation and Modelling of Long-term behaviour), in the study area at Unterhaching, Munich, Germany. GeoParaMoL is a partner project of GRAME, which aims to explore the hydrothermal Malm carbonate reservoir (at a depth of ca. 3 km) as a source for deep geothermal energy. First, we interpreted five seismic horizons and over 20 major faults. Here we present preliminary results of the derived 3-D structural model. We determined fault geometries and displacement profiles using isopach and juxtaposition maps. We observe two different tectonic events: The faults within the Molasse sediments are unrelated to the faults of the underlying Malm carbonate platform. The faults within the Malm carbonate platform propagated up to the Top Eocene horizon (Lithothamien carbonates). The faults within the younger Miocene sediments developed subsequently. They dip, in part, with opposing dip direction, but mostly with the same strike. This basic information will be further used to predict fluid pathways by carrying out retro-deformation in the study area to help understand the structural development and regional tectonics. This work will support exploration of geothermal reservoirs in general. This project is funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi).

  18. Electrocoagulation of industrial wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Dalrymple, C.W.

    1997-12-31

    A wide variety of contaminants (heavy metals, suspended solids, colloids, emulsified oils, organics, radionuclides) have been successfully removed from wastewater and groundwater using and electrocoagulation process. An innovative electrocoagulation system is described. This process involves a procedure which subjects dissolved and suspended wastewater contaminants to the simultaneous addition of metal ions in the presence of direct current. During the treatment process ionic and other charged particles in the wastewater are neutralized with oppositely charged ions generating the coagulation of contaminants. Several case studies are presented. The process is called CURE.

  19. Systematically investigating the polarization gradient cooling in an optical molasses of ultracold cesium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Zhong-Hua; Yuan, Jin-Peng; Zhao, Yan-Ting; Chang, Xue-Fang; Xiao, Lian-Tuan; Jia, Suo-Tang

    2014-11-01

    We systematically investigate the polarization gradient cooling (PGC) process in an optical molasses of ultracold cesium atoms. The SR mode for changing the cooling laser, which means that the cooling laser frequency is stepped to the setting value while its intensity is ramped, is found to be the best for the PGC, compared with other modes studied. We verify that the heating effect of the cold atoms, which appears when the cooling laser intensity is lower than the saturation intensity, arises from insufficient polarization gradient cooling. Finally, an exponential decay function with a statistical explanation is introduced to explain the dependence of the cold atom temperature on the PGC interaction time.

  20. Erosion processes in molassic cliffs: the role of the rock surface temperature and atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrea, Dario; Abellán, Antonio; Guerin, Antoine; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Voumard, Jérémie

    2014-05-01

    The morphology of the Swiss Plateau is modeled by numerous steep cliffs of Molasse. These cliffs are mainly composed of sub-horizontal alternated layers of sandstone, shale and conglomerates deposed in the Alps foreland basin during the Tertiary period. These Molasse cliffs are affected by erosion processes inducing numerous rockfall events. Thus, it is relevant to understand how different external factors influence Molasse erosion rates. In this study, we focus on analyzing temperature variation during a winter season. As pilot study area we selected a cliff which is formed by a sub-horizontal alternation of outcropping sandstone and shale. The westward facing test site (La Cornalle, Vaud, Switzerland), which is a lateral scarp of a slow moving landslide area, is currently affected by intense erosion. Regarding data acquisition, we monitored both in-situ rock and air temperatures at 15 minutes time-step since October 2013: (1) on the one hand we measured Ground Surface Temperature (GST) at near-surface (0.1 meter depth) using a GST mini-datalogger M-Log5W-Rock model; (2) On the other hand we monitored atmospheric conditions using a weather station (Davis Vantage pro2 plus) collecting numerous parameters (i.e. temperature, irradiation, rain, wind speed, etc.). Furthermore, the area was also seasonally monitored by Ground-Based (GB) LiDAR since 2010 and monthly monitored since September 2013. In order to understand how atmospheric conditions (such as freeze and thaw effect) influence the erosion of the cliff, we modeled the temperature diffusion through the rock mass. To this end, we applied heat diffusion and radiation equation using a 1D temperature profile, obtaining as a result both temperature variations at different depths together with the location of the 0°C isotherm. Our model was calibrated during a given training set using both in-situ rock temperatures and atmospheric conditions. We then carried out a comparison with the rockfall events derived from the

  1. Precise intensity correlation measurement for atomic resonance fluorescence from optical molasses.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Kazuyuki; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Hisatoshi; Torii, Yoshio; Kuga, Takahiro

    2010-03-29

    We measured the intensity correlation of true thermal light scattered from cold atoms in an optical molasses. Using a single-mode fiber as a transverse mode filter, measurement with maximally high spatial coherence was realized, allowing us to observe ideal photon bunching with unprecedented precision. The measured intensity correlation functions showed a definite bimodal structure with fast damped oscillation from the maximum value of 2.02(3) and slow monotonic decay toward unity. The oscillation can be understood as an interference between elastic and inelastic scattering fields in resonance fluorescence. PMID:20389684

  2. Slab rollback orogeny in the Alps inferred from the stratigraphic evolution of the Swiss Molasse basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Kissling, Edi

    2016-04-01

    The stratigraphic development of foreland basins have been related to orogenic processes, where continent- continent collision resulted in the construction of topography and the downwarping of the foreland plate. These mechanisms have been used to explain the Oligocene to Miocene evolution of the Molasse basin, situated on the northern side of the European Alps. Continuous flexural bending of the subducting European lithosphere as a consequence of topographic loads alone would imply that the Alpine topography would have increased at least between 30 Ma and ca. 5-10 Ma when the basin accumulated the erosional detritus. This, however, is neither consistent with observations nor with isostatic mass balancing models. In particular, the use of empirical relationships between the spacing of alluvial megafans, orogen width and morphometric properties of stream channels feeding the fans imply a general trend towards an increasing total fluvial relief until 1,900±1,000 m at ca. 20 Ma, followed by a prolonged period of time during which this variable has remained nearly constant. Accordingly, larger topographic loads cannot be invoked to explain the continuous deflection of the foreland plate. Alternatively, a scenario where horizontal forces cause a downward dragging of the foreland plate would offer a valuable explanation for the decoupling between basin depth and topographic loads. However, such a scenario would be associated with the occurrence of compressional forces within the foreland plate, which is not in agreement with observations in the Molasse Basin, at least for the present, where focal mechanisms of current seismic events imply the occurrence of extensional forces at work. We suggest that rollback orogeny, driven by the gravitational pull of the European slab, provides a mechanism to explain the increasing deflection of the foreland in the absence of larger topographic forcing, and it agrees with the geologic record that the subducting European plate did not

  3. Lipid accumulation inRhodotorula glutinis on sugar cane molasses in single-stage continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, R M; Rodríguez, B; Romano, J M; Díaz, A O; Gómez, E; Miró, D; Navarro, L; Saura, G; García, J L

    1992-03-01

    Microbial lipids produced byRhodotorula glutinis grown in continuous culture with molasses under nitrogen-limiting conditions were evaluated and the effects of growth rate on fatty acid composition were studied. As the growth rate decreased, cell biomass, lipid content and lipid yield gradually increased. The maximum lipid content recorded was 39% (w/w) of dry cell biomass at a dilution rate of 0.04 h(-1). The growth rate also affected fatty acid composition: oleic acid decreased with decreasing growth rate while stearic acid increased. PMID:24425415

  4. MIUS wastewater technology evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poradek, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A modular integrated utility system wastewater-treatment process is described. Research in the field of wastewater treatment is reviewed, treatment processes are specified and evaluated, and recommendations for system use are made. The treatment processes evaluated are in the broad categories of preparatory, primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment, physical-chemical processing, dissolved-solids removal, disinfection, sludge processing, and separate systems. Capital, operating, and maintenance costs are estimated, and extensive references are given.

  5. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  6. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  7. Adsorption studies of recalcitrant compounds of molasses spentwash on activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Figaro, S; Louisy-Louis, S; Lambert, J; Ehrhardt, J-J; Ouensanga, A; Gaspard, S

    2006-10-01

    Due to high levels of residual chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the effluent of molasses spentwash (MSW) after anaerobic treatment, acceptable COD levels for discharge cannot be achieved without some form of post-treatment. In this study, the particulate composition of molasses spentwash after anaerobic digestion (MSWD), is characterised as to its particle size distribution, using micro- and ultrafiltration and three activated carbons are characterised as to their ability to reduce significantly the COD of MSWD effluent. The activated carbons tested as adsorbent, were characterised by XPS spectroscopy, elemental analysis, surface area, pore size distribution, and acid-base titration using the Boehm's method. Adsorption of phenol, used here as a reference compound, and of some organic compounds contained in MSWD (gallic acid, tannic acid, and melanoidin, respectively), was studied. It was clearly demonstrated that an activated carbon with a significant distribution of both micropores and mesopores and a significant amount of macropores that are assumed to act as conduits providing access to micro- and mesopores, have a good adsorption efficiency for compounds such as tannic acid and melanoidins. It is a good adsorbent for melanoidin and coloured compounds of MSWD, which represents a large source of the aqueous pollution in sugar cane industries. PMID:16987542

  8. Butanol production from cane molasses by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864: batch and semicontinuous fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ye; Wang, Yun; Sun, Zhihao

    2012-04-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum strains used in most Chinese ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) plants favorably ferment starchy materials like corn, cassava, etc., rather than sugar materials. This is one major problem of ABE industry in China and significantly limits the exploitation of cheap waste sugar materials. In this work, cane molasses were utilized as substrate in ABE production by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864. Under optimum conditions, total solvent of 19.80 g/L (13.40 g/L butanol) was reached after 72 h of fermentation in an Erlenmeyer flask. In a 5-L bioreactor, total solvent of 17.88 g/L was attained after 36 h of fermentation, and the productivity and yield were 0.50 g/L/h and 0.33 g ABE/g sugar consumption, respectively. To further enhance the productivity, a two-stage semicontinuous fermentation process was steadily operated for over 8 days (205 h, 26 cycles) with average productivity (stage II) of 1.05 g/L/h and cell concentration (stage I) of 7.43 OD(660), respectively. The average batch fermentation time (stage I and II) was reduced to 21-25 h with average solvent of 15.27 g/L. This study provides valuable process data for the development of industrial ABE fermentation process using cane molasses as substrate. PMID:22362519

  9. Microbial production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 using molasses or sugar.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Chanto, A; Afschar, A S; Wagner, F

    1994-06-01

    With a cell concentration of 125 g dry biomass l-1 and a dilution rate of 0.1 h-1, Propionibacterium acidipropionici produces 30 g propionic acid l-1 from sugar with a productivity of 3 g l-1 h-1. The yield of propionic acid is approx. 0.36-0.45 g propionic acid g-1 sucrose and is independent of the dilution rate and cell concentration. Acetic acid is an unwanted by-product in the production of propionic acid. The concentration of acetic acid only increases slightly when the cell concentration is increased. A two-stage fermentation process was developed for the conversion of sugar or molasses of various types to propionic acid and vitamin B12. By fermentation of blackstrap molasses (from sugar beet and sugar cane) in the first fermentation stage 17.7 g propionic acid l-1 with a yield of 0.5 g propionic acid g-1 carbohydrate was produced with a dilution rate of 0.25 h-1. In the second stage 49 mg vitamin B12 1-1 was produced at a dilution rate of 0.03 h-1. PMID:7765100

  10. Production of succinic acid from sucrose and sugarcane molasses by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sitha; Kanchanatawee, Sunthorn; Jantama, Kaemwich

    2012-01-01

    Sucrose-utilizing genes (cscKB and cscA) from Escherichia coli KO11 were cloned and expressed in a metabolically engineered E. coli KJ122 to enhance succinate production from sucrose. KJ122 harboring a recombinant plasmid, pKJSUC, was screened for the efficient sucrose utilization by growth-based selection and adaptation. KJ122-pKJSUC-24T efficiently utilized sucrose in a low-cost medium to produce high succinate concentration with less accumulation of by-products. Succinate concentrations of 51 g/L (productivity equal to 1.05 g/L/h) were produced from sucrose in anaerobic bottles, and concentrations of 47 g/L were produced in 10L bioreactor within 48 h. Antibiotics had no effect on the succinate production by KJ122-pKJSUC-24T. In addition, succinate concentrations of 62 g/L were produced from sugarcane molasses in anaerobic bottles, and concentrations of 56 g/L in 10 L bioreactor within 72 h. These results demonstrated that KJ122-pKJSUC-24T would be a potential strain for bio-based succinate production from sucrose and sugarcane molasses. PMID:22023966

  11. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production by Bacillus cereus SPV using sugarcane molasses as the main carbon source.

    PubMed

    Akaraonye, Everest; Moreno, Catalina; Knowles, Jonathan C; Keshavarz, Tajalli; Roy, Ipsita

    2012-02-01

    The main hindrance in the use of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) as a replacement for existing petroleum-based plastics is their high production cost. The carbon source accounts for 50% of the cost for PHA production. Thus, increasing the yield and productivity of PHAs on cheap substrates is an important challenge for biotechnologists to support the commercialization and further applications of these polymers. In this study, we have investigated the use of an agricultural raw material, sugarcane molasses, as the main carbon source for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB)) production by Bacillus cereus SPV. These studies were carried out in both shaken flasks and 2 L bioreactors. Various conditions were evaluated for their effects on biomass and P(3HB) accumulation. A high polymer yield was obtained, 61.07% dry cell weight (DCW) in a 1 L shaken flask study and 51.37% DCW in a 2 L fermenter study. These yields are 50% higher than previously observed with Bacillus cereus SPV. Hence, the results are encouraging and show that sugarcane molasses are a promising carbon source for an economical and commercially viable production of P(3HB). PMID:22147642

  12. Production of oxalic acid from sugar beet molasses by formed nitrogen oxides.

    PubMed

    Gürü, M; Bilgesü, A Y; Pamuk, V

    2001-03-01

    Production of oxalic acid from sugar beet molasses was developed in a series of three reactors. Nitrogen oxides formed were used to manufacture oxalic acid in the second and third reactor. Parameters affecting the reaction were determined to be, air flow rate, temperature, the amount of V2O5 catalyst and the concentrations of molasses and H2SO4. The maximum yields in the second and third reactors were 78.9% and 74.6% of theoretical yield, respectively. Also, kinetic experiments were performed and the first-order rate constants were determined for the glucose consumption rate. Nitrogen oxides in off-gases from the final reactor were absorbed in water and concentrated sulphuric acid and reused in the following reactors giving slightly lower yields under similar conditions. In this novel way, it was possible to recover NO(x) and to prevent air pollution. Meanwhile, it was possible to reduce the unit cost of reactant for oxalic acid production. A maximum 77.5% and 74.1% of theoretical yield was obtained by using the absorption solutions with NO(x). PMID:11211079

  13. The fermentation of sugarcane molasses by Dekkera bruxellensis and the mobilization of reserve carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luciana Filgueira; Lucatti, Elisa; Basso, Luiz Carlos; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis is considered to be very well adapted to industrial environments, in Brazil, USA, Canada and European Countries, when different substrates are used in alcoholic fermentations. Our previous study described its fermentative profile with a sugarcane juice substrate. In this study, we have extended its physiological evaluation to fermentation situations by using sugarcane molasses as a substrate to replicate industrial working conditions. The results have confirmed the previous reports of the low capacity of D. bruxellensis cells to assimilate sucrose, which seems to be the main factor that can cause a bottleneck in its use as fermentative yeast. Furthermore, the cells of D. bruxellensis showed a tendency to deviate most of sugar available for biomass and organic acids (lactic and acetic) compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, when calculated on the basis of their respective yields. As well as this, the acetate production from molasses medium by both yeasts was in marked contrast with the previous data on sugarcane juice. Glycerol and ethanol production by D. bruxellensis cells achieved levels of 33 and 53 % of the S. cerevisiae, respectively. However, the ethanol yield was similar for both yeasts. It is worth noting that this yeast did not accumulate trehalose when the intracellular glycogen content was 30 % lower than in S. cerevisiae. The lack of trehalose did not affect yeast viability under fermentation conditions. Thus, the adaptive success of D. bruxellensis under industrial fermentation conditions seems to be unrelated to the production of these reserve carbohydrates. PMID:24370978

  14. Biohydrogen production from industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Andrade, Iván; Moreno, Gloria; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Buitrón, Germán

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of producing hydrogen from various industrial wastes, such as vinasses (sugar and tequila industries), and raw and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and toilet aircraft wastewater, was evaluated. The results showed that the tequila vinasses presented the maximum hydrogen generation potential, followed by the raw plastic industry wastewater, aircraft wastewater, and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and sugar vinasses, respectively. The hydrogen production from the aircraft wastewater was increased by the adaptation of the microorganisms in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor. PMID:25607676

  15. Metagenomic analysis of denitrifying wastewater enrichment cultures able to transform the explosive, 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO).

    PubMed

    Eberly, Jed O; Indest, Karl J; Hancock, Dawn E; Jung, Carina M; Crocker, Fiona H

    2016-06-01

    Removal of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) was investigated in conjunction with heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrifying growth conditions by a microbial consortium from a wastewater treatment plant. Microcosms were supplemented with molasses, methanol, or thiosulfate. Cultures were passaged twice by transferring 10 % of the culture volume to fresh media on days 11 and 21. Rates of NTO removal were 18.71 ± 0.65, 9.04 ± 2.61, and 4.34 ± 2.72 mg/L/day while rates of nitrate removal were 20.08 ± 1.13, 21.58 ± 1.20, and 24.84 ± 1.26 mg/L/day, respectively, for molasses, methanol, or thiosulfate. Metagenomic analysis showed that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the major phyla in the microbial communities. In molasses supplemented cultures, the community profile at the family level changed over time with Pseudomonadaceae the most abundant (67.4 %) at day 11, Clostridiaceae (65.7 %) at day 21, and Sporolactobacillaceae (35.4 %) and Clostridiaceae (41.0 %) at day 29. Pseudomonadaceae was the dominant family in methanol and thiosulfate supplemented cultures from day 21 to 29 with 76.6 and 81.6 % relative abundance, respectively. PMID:27033535

  16. Evolution of the eastern Austrian Molasse Basin: The Lower Miocene (Burdigalian) as a key to the understanding of the Eastern Alps - Molasse Basin system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palzer, Markus; Knierzinger, Wolfgang; Wagreich, Michael; Meszar, Maria E.; Gier, Susanne; Soliman, Ali; -Elena Kallanxhi, Mǎdǎlina

    2016-04-01

    The eastern Austrian Molasse Basin is situated between the Bohemian Massif, the Waschberg-Zone and the Alps. There, sands of the Lower Miocene (Upper Ottnangian) Traisen Formation represent a clastic interval at the top of pelitic Schlier successions, which is correlated with the global sea level drop Bur3 (Burdigalian). North of the Danube River, the continuation of the Traisen-Formation is overlain by the Karpatian Laa-Formation. Drill cores from OMV-wells predominantly from the continuation of the Traisen Formation in deep parts in the NE of the basin show hundreds of meters of pelites with intersections of sands. Contrary to the exposed, mainly brackish TF, a turbiditic and predominantly fully marine deep-water environment is inferred from the cores. Profiles of carbonate content, XRD, XRF, whole rock chemistry, clay minerals, calcareous nannoplankton and dinoflagellate cysts of 7 wells were investigated representing a NE-SW transect through the LAMB. Based on these data, a new stratigraphy for the Burdigalian distal parts of the LAMB can be defined and correlated with the proximal units. The Traisen Formation and its equivalents are characterized at their base by an increased clastic input in the south and by increasing mica content in the northern parts. The complete interval is characterized by the decreased carbonate content. The XRD data show strongly reduced calcite contents which goe hand in hand with the absence of nannoplankton. Whether the signal is related to a crisis in primary production or to carbonate dissolution remains unclear. The absence of dinoflagellate cysts and the chemical data (reduced B/Al* ratios indicate reduced salinity) are considered as an argument for an environmental crisis. However, the absence of resedimented Cretaceous to Paleocene nannofossils, which usually occur together with the autochthonous NN4-nannofossils, indicates carbonate dissolution. These results enable us to define a basinal interval as equivalent to the

  17. Effects of cornmeal or molasses supplemented with different protein sources on milk production and nitrogen utilization of organic dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen lactating organic Jersey cows were assigned to four replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to compare the effects of feeding cornmeal (CM) or molasses (MOL) with either flaxseed meal (Flax) or a protein mix [(PM = 11% soybean meal (SB) + 5% sunflower ...

  18. Efficient production of l-lactic acid using co-feeding strategy based on cane molasses/glucose carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-02-01

    L-Lactic acid is an important platform chemical, which ought to be produced under cost control to meet its huge demand. Cane molasses, a waste from sugar manufacturing processes, is hopeful to be utilized as a cheap carbon source for L-lactic acid fermentation. Considering that cane molasses contains nutrients and hazardous substances, efficient production of L-lactic acid was developed by using a co-feeding strategy based on the utilization of cane molasses/glucose carbon sources. Based on the medium optimization with response surface method, 168.3g/L L-lactic acid was obtained by a Bacillus coagulans strain H-1 after 78h fed-batch fermentation, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 0.88g/g. Since cane molasses is a feasible carbon source, the co-feeding fermentation might be a promising alternative for the economical production of L-lactic acid. PMID:24333698

  19. Effect of microbial inoculant or molasses on fermentative quality and aerobic stability of sawdust-based spent mushroom substrate.

    PubMed

    Kim, J S; Lee, Y H; Kim, Y I; Ahmadi, F; Oh, Y K; Park, J M; Kwak, W S

    2016-09-01

    In the first experiment, the effect of two novel Lactobacillus plantarum strains was studied on the fermentation of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) through 10d of ensiling. Based on lactic acid production and lactic acid bacteria population, L. plantarum KU5 was identified as the best strain for fermentation with a 5-L bag silo. Spent mushroom substrate was ensiled with 0.5% (v/w) L. plantarum KU5 without or with 5% molasses. Silages treated with microbial inoculant and molasses had the lowest pH and the highest fermentative odors. In a second set of experiments similar to the above 5-L silo study, the simultaneous application of L. plantarum KU5 inoculant and molasses to 80-L silos improved fermentability and aerobic stability of SMS silages. For similar treatment using ton-bag silos, aerobic stability decreased and NH3-N content increased dramatically. In conclusion, sawdust-based SMS for animal use was successfully ensiled with L. plantarum KU5 inoculant and molasses. PMID:27240234

  20. Molasses supplementation of grazing dairy cows: summary of case study, continuous culture fermenter trials, and controlled research farm study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet summarizes the results of a three-tiered research approach (case study, two continuous culture fermenter studies, and a controlled research farm study) to evaluate molasses as an alternative supplement source for grazing dairy cows. A two-year case study of a New York organic dairy f...

  1. A two-stage fermentation process of erythritol production by yeast Y. lipolytica from molasses and glycerol.

    PubMed

    Mirończuk, Aleksandra M; Rakicka, Magdalena; Biegalska, Anna; Rymowicz, Waldemar; Dobrowolski, Adam

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a two-stage fermentation process of erythritol production based on molasses and glycerol was investigated. During the first stage, the biomass of Yarrowia lipolytica was grown on medium containing sucrose as the sole carbon source. In the second stage, production of erythritol was initiated by glycerol addition. To use molasses as a substrate for erythritol synthesis, sucrose utilization was established by expressing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SUC2 gene. In this study, cultivation of yeast Y. lipolytica could produce 52-114 g/L of erythritol. The productivity was 0.58-1.04 g/L/h, and yield was 0.26-0.57 g/g; the final biomasses yield ranged 17-41 g/L. This is the first report describing erythritol production via industrial raw molasses and glycerol by Y. lipolytica. This work uses genetically modified strains of Y. lipolytica as tool for the direct conversion of affordable raw industrial molasses and glycerol into the value-added erythritol product. PMID:26409857

  2. An integrated anaerobic digestion and UV photocatalytic treatment of distillery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Apollo, Seth; Onyango, Maurice S; Ochieng, Aoyi

    2013-10-15

    Anaerobic up-flow fixed bed reactor and annular photocatalytic reactor were used to study the efficiency of integrated anaerobic digestion (AD) and ultraviolet (UV) photodegradation of real distillery effluent and raw molasses wastewater (MWW). It was found that UV photodegradation as a stand-alone technique achieved colour removal of 54% and 69% for the distillery and MWW, respectively, with a COD reduction of <20% and a negligible BOD reduction. On the other hand, AD as a single treatment technique was found to be effective in COD and BOD reduction with efficiencies of above 75% and 85%, respectively, for both wastewater samples. However, the AD achieved low colour removal efficiency, with an increase in colour intensity of 13% recorded when treating MWW while a colour removal of 51% was achieved for the distillery effluent. The application of UV photodegradation as a pre-treatment method to the AD process reduced the COD removal and biogas production efficiency. However, an integration in which UV photodegradation was employed as a post-treatment to the AD process achieved high COD removal of above 85% for both wastewater samples, and colour removal of 88% for the distillery effluent. Thus, photodegradation can be employed as a post-treatment technique to an AD system treating distillery effluent for complete removal of the biorecalcitrant and colour imparting compounds. PMID:23974530

  3. High strength distillery wastewater treatment by a PAC-MBR with low PAC dosage.

    PubMed

    Basu, Subhankar; Kaushik, Ankita; Saranya, P; Batra, Vidya S; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2016-01-01

    Augmentation of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with activated carbon is established to offer several operational advantages. This work investigates the influence of low dosing (2 g/L) of powdered activated carbons (PACs) with different characteristics on the performance of MBR treating high strength molasses distillery wastewater containing difficult-to-biodegrade recalcitrant components. Two MBRs, augmented with different PACs, were operated in parallel over a period of 240 days and their performance monitored in terms of biomass growth, reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD), sludge properties like extracellular polymeric substances content, filterability, and morphology. Removal of organics and coloring matter by adsorption, biodegradation and membrane filtration was estimated. Although adsorptive removal of color and COD is influenced by the properties of the PAC used, the performance of the PAC-MBRs was independent of PAC properties. Both PACs preferentially adsorbed the low molecular weight components in distillery wastewater. Retention by the membrane filter with the secondary cake layer contributed to reduction in color and COD of treated effluent. The findings indicate that low dosing with PAC adsorbing low molecular weight organics has a limited role in PAC-MBR treating distillery wastewater. PMID:26942533

  4. Efficacy of olive mill wastewater for protecting Bacillus thuringiensis formulation from UV radiations.

    PubMed

    Jallouli, Wafa; Sellami, Sameh; Sellami, Maissa; Tounsi, Slim

    2014-12-01

    The effectiveness of 10 low-cost UV-absorbers in protecting Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki BLB1 toxins against inactivation by UV-A and UV-B irradiation was evaluated in this study. Among them, two by-products, molasses and olive mill wastewater (OMW) were selected for further studies. They were tested at different concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2% using the para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as a common UV protectant. Interestingly, addition of PABA and OMW to BLB1 formulations was found to be most effective in protecting BLB1 spores at 90.8 and 76.4% respectively and in preserving delta-endotoxin concentration at a level of 81.7 and 72.2%, respectively when used at a concentration of 0.2%. The lowest preserved spores (46.3%) and delta-endotoxin level (12.4%) was found using molasses. In contrast, spore count and delta-endotoxin concentration were completely reduced after an exposure of unprotected Bt strain BLB1 to UV radiations up to 96h. SDS-PAGE analysis of protected and unprotected samples revealed that delta-endotoxin bands (130, 65-70kDa) were conserved until 96h of UV exposure in presence of PABA or OMW compared with their disappearance in presence of molasses after 72h of exposure and their dramatically decline from 8h of exposure in unprotected mixture. A complete loss of larvicidal toxicity against Ephestia kuehniella was found after 24h of exposure in absence of any UV-absorber. Addition of OMW or PABA offered the highest levels of insecticidal activity with 63.2 and 74.7% of residual toxicity, respectively. Whereas, molasses addition, as UV protectant retained only 26.3% of residual activity after 96h of exposure. Therefore, addition of OMW by-product to Bt formulation may be a suitable alternative to others synthetic chemical compounds. OMW may also provided added value, be environmentally friendly and less hazardous, when used at low concentration. PMID:25093915

  5. Improvement of cell growth and L-lysine production by genetically modified Corynebacterium glutamicum during growth on molasses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Junlan; Guo, Yanfeng; Zai, Yugui; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-12-01

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and fructokinase (ScrK) have important roles in regenerating glucose-6-phosphate in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), and thus increasing L-lysine production. This article focuses on the development of L-lysine high-producing strains by heterologous expression of FBPase gene fbp and ScrK gene scrK in C. glutamicum lysC (fbr) with molasses as the sole carbon source. Heterologous expression of fbp and scrK lead to a decrease of residual sugar in fermentation broth, and heterologous expression of scrK prevents the fructose efflux. Heterologous expression of fbp and scrK not only increases significantly the activity of corresponding enzymes but also improves cell growth during growth on molasses. FBPase activities are increased tenfold by heterologous expression of fbp, whereas the FBPase activity is only increase fourfold during co-expression of scrK and fbp. Compared with glucose, the DCW of heterologous expression strains are higher on molasses except co-expression of fbp and scrK strain. In addition, heterologous expression of fbp and scrK can strongly increase the L-lysine production with molasses as the sole carbon source. The highest increase (88.4 %) was observed for C. glutamicum lysC (fbr) pDXW-8-fbp-scrK, but the increase was also significant for C. glutamicum lysC (fbr) pDXW-8-fbp (47.2 %) and C. glutamicum lysC (fbr) pDXW-8-scrK (36.8 %). By-products, such as glycerol and dihydroxyacetone, are decreased by heterologous expression of fbp and scrK, whereas trehalose is only slightly increased. The strategy for enhancing L-lysine production by regeneration of glucose-6-phosphate in PPP may provide a reference to enhance the production of other amino acids during growth on molasses or starch. PMID:24029876

  6. Lithofacies Associations and Depositional Environments of the Neogene Molasse succession, Pishin Belt, northwestern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasi, A.; Kassi, A.; Friis, H.; Umar, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Pishin Belt is a NE-SW trending mixed flysch and molasse basin, situated at the northwestern part of Pakistan, bordered by Afghan Block of the Eurasian Plate in the west and Indian Plate in the east. Western boundary of the belt is marked by the well-known Chaman Transform Fault, whereas the Zhob Valley Thrust and Muslim Bagh-Zhob Ophiolite mark the eastern boundary. The Belt is divisible into six tectono-stratigraphic zones bounded by major thrusts. Muslim Bagh-Zhob Ophiolite is the base and Zone-I of this belt. Zone-II comprises shallow marine and flysch successions of the Eocene Nisai Formation and Oligocene Khojak Formation. The Early to Middle Miocene Dasht Murgha group comprises Zone-III, the Late Miocene-Pliocene Malthanai formation comprises Zone-IV, the Pleistocene Bostan Formation makes Zone-V, and the flat-laying Holocene deposits of the Zhob Valley comprise Zone-VI. The Neogene molasse successions of the Pishin Belt include the Dasht Murgha group, Malthanai formation and Bostan Formation; these are mostly composed of sandstone, claystone and conglomerate lithologies. Sandstones have been classified as lithic arenites and their QFL values suggest quartzolithic composition. Twelve distinct lithofacies have been recognized in the succession and thus grouped into four types of facies associations. Lithofacies include clast-supported massive gravel (Gcm), clast-supported crudely bedded gravel (Gh), cross-stratified conglomerate (Gt and Gp), trough cross-stratified sandstone (St), planar cross-stratified sandstone (Sp), ripple cross-laminated sandstone (Sr), horizontally stratified sandstone (Sh), low-angle cross-stratified sandstone (Sl), massive sandstones (Sm), massive mudstone and siltstone (Fm) and paleosol carbonate (P). The lithofacies associations include channel facies association (CHA), crevasse-splay facies association (CSA), natural-levee facies association (LVA) and floodplain facies association (FPA). The lithofacies associations suggest

  7. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gnaneswar Gude, Veera; Magbanua, Benjamin; Truax, Dennis D; Martin, James L

    2016-10-01

    An update on the current research and development of the treatment technologies, which utilize natural processes or passive components in wastewater treatment, is provided in this paper. The main focus is on wetland systems and their applications in wastewater treatment (as an advanced treatment unit or decentralized system), nutrient and pollutant removal (metals, industrial and emerging pollutants including pharmaceutical compounds). A summary of studies involving the effects of vegetation, wetland design and modeling, hybrid and innovative systems, storm water treatment and pathogen removal is also included. PMID:27620086

  8. Molasse of the Belskii depression of the Cis-Uralian foredeep: Modern data about provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizens, G. A.; Maslov, A. V.; Badida, L. V.; Vovna, G. M.; Kiselev, V. I.; Ronkin, Yu. L.; Hiller, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    The crystallochemical characteristics of Cr-spinels and tourmalines in combination with U-Pb isotope data on detrital zircons from the Upper Permian and Lower Triassic sandstones of the Belskii Depression showed that the main provenances of the molasse sequence in the southern part of the Cis-Uralian foredeep were Lower Paleozoic (Sakmara zone) and Precambrian (Uraltau zone) complexes. The absence of Late Paleozoic zircons in the Tatarian (Upper Permian) sandstones, as well as their small amount in the Lower Triassic psammites together with geochemical and petrographic data, suggest that granite massifs of the Main Granitic Axis of the Urals, as Middle-Upper Paleozoic magmatic complexes of the Magnitogorsk Megazone, were not involved in erosion. At the same time, the significant amount of Precambrian zircons is indicative of the presence of metamorphic complexes in the provenance of the Uraltau zone.

  9. Phenolic compounds from sugarcane molasses possessing antibacterial activity against cariogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Takara, Kensaku; Ushijima, Kenji; Wada, Koji; Iwasaki, Hironori; Yamashita, Masatsugu

    2007-01-01

    During the course of our research into the use of cane by-products from sugar manufacturing, we have studied the isolation and structural determination of bioactive compounds present in sugarcane molasses. In this study, dehydrodiconiferylalcohol-9'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and isoorientin-7, 3'-O-dimethyl ether (2) were isolated as antibacterial active compounds against cariogenic bacteria. Their structures were elucidated by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and ESI-MS. The activities of these isolated compounds against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus were assessed by a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test. The MICs of compounds 1 and 2 against both S. mutans and S. sobrinus were >4 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:17938552

  10. Stability of Molasse: TLS for structural analysis in the valley of Gotteron-Fribourg, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Hammouda, Mariam; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc Henri; Bouaziz, Samir; Mazotti, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    The marine molasses of Fribourg (Switzerland) is an area where the cliff collapses and rockfalls are quite frequent and difficult to predict due to this particular lithology, a poorly consolidated greywacke. Because of some recent rockfall events, the situation became critical especially in the valley of Gotteron where a big block has slightly moved down and might destroy a house in case of rupture. The cliff made of jointed sandstone and thin layers of clay and siltstone presents many fractures, joints and massive cross bedding surfaces which increases the possibility of slab failure. This paper presents a detailed structural analysis of the cliff and the identification of the potential failure mechanisms. The methodology is about combining field observation and terrestrial LiDAR scanning point cloud in order to assess the stability of potential slope instabilities of molasses. Three LiDAR scans were done i) to extract discontinuity families depending to the dip and the dip direction of joints and ii) to run kinematic tests in order to identify responsible sets for each potential failure mechanisms. Raw point clouds were processed using IMAlign module of Polyworks and CloudCompare software. The structural analysis based on COLTOP 3D (Jaboyedoff et al. 2007) allowed the identification of four discontinuity sets that were not measured in the field. Two different failure mechanisms have been identified as critical: i) planar sliding which is the main responsible mechanism of the present fallen block and ii) wedge sliding. The planar sliding is defined by the discontinuity sets J1 and J5 with a direction parallel to the slope and with a steep dip angle. The wedges, defined by couples of discontinuity sets, contribute to increase cracks' opening and to the detachment of slabs. The use of TLS combined with field survey provides us a first interpretation of instabilities and a very promising structural analysis.

  11. Use of sugarcane molasses "B" as an alternative for ethanol production with wild-type yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV-01 at high sugar concentrations.

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, C L; Torrestiana-Sánchez, B; Salgado-Cervantes, M A; García, P G Mendoza; Aguilar-Uscanga, M G

    2012-05-01

    Molasses "B" is a rich co-product of the sugarcane process. It is obtained from the second step of crystallization and is richer in fermentable sugars (50-65%) than the final molasses, with a lower non-sugar solid content (18-33%); this co-product also contains good vitamin and mineral levels. The use of molasses "B" for ethanol production could be a good option for the sugarcane industry when cane sugar prices diminish in the market. In a complex medium like molasses, osmotolerance is a desirable characteristic for ethanol producing strains. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of molasses "B" for ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV-01 (a wild-type yeast isolated from sugarcane molasses) using different initial sugar concentrations (70-291 g L(-1)), two inoculum sizes and the addition of nutrients such as yeast extract, urea, and ammonium sulphate to the culture medium. The results obtained showed that the strain was able to grow at 291 g L(-1) total sugars in molasses "B" medium; the addition of nutrients to the culture medium did not produce a statistically significant difference. This yeast exhibits high osmotolerance in this medium, producing high ethanol yields (0.41 g g(-1)). The best conditions for ethanol production were 220 g L(-1) initial total sugars in molasses "B" medium, pH 5.5, using an inoculum size of 6 × 10(6) cell mL(-1); ethanol production was 85 g L(-1), productivity 3.8 g L(-1 )h(-1) with 90% preserved cell viability. PMID:21971607

  12. Microalgae and wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

  13. WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY FACT SHEETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The CWA requires EPA to collect, evaluate, and disseminate technical information on various treatment technologies, management practices, and operating methods. Technical information has been/is/will be developed in such areas as wastewater treatment, wet ...

  14. WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of the wastewater collection systems in the United States were developed in the early part of the last century. Maintenance, retrofits, and rehabilitations since then have resulted in patchwork systems consisting of technologies from different eras. More advanced and cos...

  15. Improvement of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Production by Marine Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii Using Rapeseed Meal Hydrolysate and Waste Molasses as Feedstock

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yangmin; Liu, Jiao; Jiang, Mulan; Liang, Zhuo; Jin, Hu; Hu, Xiaojia; Wan, Xia; Hu, Chuanjiong

    2015-01-01

    Rapeseed meal and waste molasses are two important agro-industrial by-products which are produced in large quantities. In this study, solid state fermentation and fungal autolysis were performed to produce rapeseed meal hydrolysate (RMH) using fungal strains of Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium oxalicum and Neurospora crassa. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation feedstock for heterotrophic growth of microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii that produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The addition of waste molasses as a supplementary carbon source greatly increased the biomass and DHA yield. In the batch fermentations using media composed of diluted RMH (7%) and 1-9% waste molasses, the highest biomass concentration and DHA yield reached 3.43 g/L and 8.72 mg/L, respectively. The algal biomass produced from RMH and molasses medium also had a high percentage of DHA (22-34%) in total fatty acids similar to that of commercial algal biomass. RMH was shown to be rich in nitrogen supply comparable to the commercial nitrogen feedstock like yeast extract. Using RMH as sole nitrogen source, waste molasses excelled other carbon sources and produced the highest concentration of biomass. This study suggests that DHA production of the marine dinoflagellate C. cohnii could be greatly improved by concomitantly using the cheap by-products rapeseed meal hydrolysate and molasses as alternative feedstock. PMID:25942565

  16. Improvement of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Production by Marine Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii Using Rapeseed Meal Hydrolysate and Waste Molasses as Feedstock.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yangmin; Liu, Jiao; Jiang, Mulan; Liang, Zhuo; Jin, Hu; Hu, Xiaojia; Wan, Xia; Hu, Chuanjiong

    2015-01-01

    Rapeseed meal and waste molasses are two important agro-industrial by-products which are produced in large quantities. In this study, solid state fermentation and fungal autolysis were performed to produce rapeseed meal hydrolysate (RMH) using fungal strains of Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium oxalicum and Neurospora crassa. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation feedstock for heterotrophic growth of microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii that produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The addition of waste molasses as a supplementary carbon source greatly increased the biomass and DHA yield. In the batch fermentations using media composed of diluted RMH (7%) and 1-9% waste molasses, the highest biomass concentration and DHA yield reached 3.43 g/L and 8.72 mg/L, respectively. The algal biomass produced from RMH and molasses medium also had a high percentage of DHA (22-34%) in total fatty acids similar to that of commercial algal biomass. RMH was shown to be rich in nitrogen supply comparable to the commercial nitrogen feedstock like yeast extract. Using RMH as sole nitrogen source, waste molasses excelled other carbon sources and produced the highest concentration of biomass. This study suggests that DHA production of the marine dinoflagellate C. cohnii could be greatly improved by concomitantly using the cheap by-products rapeseed meal hydrolysate and molasses as alternative feedstock. PMID:25942565

  17. Comparative study of the effect of ferrocyanide and EDTA on the production of ethyl alcohol from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Oderinde, R.A.; Ngoka, L.C.; Adesogan, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of potassium ferrocyanide and EDTA on ethyl alcohol production from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated on simulated batch pilot-plant-scale conditions for alcoholic fermentation of molasses. Ethyl alcohol production was more sensitive to ferrocyanide than to EDTA. When ferrocyanide was introduced into the cultures at the time of inoculation, there was stimulation of ethyl alcohol production, with 261 ppm ferrocyanide producing the maximum effect, which was 3.0% more than n control cultures. When added during the propagation of the yeast, ferrocyanide depressed ethyl alcohol production by 4.0% maximum whereas EDTA stimulated ethyl alcohol production by 2.0%. Addition of ferrocyanide during the fermentation stage produced no significant effect on alcohol production, whereas over a wide range of EDTA concentration there was a steady increase in alcohol yield.

  18. Sub-Doppler laser cooling of fermionic 40K atoms in three-dimensional gray optical molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio Fernandes, D.; Sievers, F.; Kretzschmar, N.; Wu, S.; Salomon, C.; Chevy, F.

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate sub-Doppler cooling of 40K on the D1 atomic transition. Using a gray-molasses scheme, we efficiently cool a compressed cloud of 6.5 × 108 atoms from ˜4 mK to 20 μK in 8 ms. After transfer to a quadrupole magnetic trap, we measure a phase space density of ˜10-5. This technique offers a promising route for fast evaporation of fermionic 40K.

  19. The northern coast of the Ottnangian (middle Burdigalian, early Miocene) Molasse Sea in Germany: sediments, foraminiferal assemblages and biostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pippèrr, Martina; Reichenbacher, Bettina; Doppler, Gerhard; Hagmaier, Mischa; Jung, Dietmar

    2016-04-01

    This study provides new data on the litho- and biostratigraphy of the middle Burdigalian (Ottnangian) marine sediments at or close to the former northern coastline of the German Molasse Basin, based on cores from three boreholes (Burgau, Hamlar 2 and Lutzingen) and two outcrops (Haunsheim and Dattenhausen). Methods include quantitative analysis of benthic foraminiferal assemblages (90 samples), studies of planktonic foraminifers and ostracods and investigations of lithofacies. The data indicate that the transgressive-regressive marine sediments of the Upper Marine Molasse (OMM) at Burgau and Hamlar 2 can be subdivided into the well-known lower and middle Ottnangian sedimentation cycles, with the first cycle being represented by the "OMM-Basisschichten" and Kalkofen Formation and the second by the Baltringen and Steinhöfe Formations. We show for the first time that also the northernmost marginal-marine OMM facies (Lutzingen, Haunsheim and Dattenhausen) can be correlated with the lower and middle Ottnangian sedimentation cycles. Consequently, our results do not support the presence of a previously suggested third sedimentation cycle within the OMM sediments. Our micropaleontological data reveal regionally diverse depositional environments, reflecting different water depths and co-varying environmental variables. Significant differences in abundance, diversity and species composition of the benthic foraminiferal assemblages demonstrate marginal-marine facies for Lutzingen, Haunsheim and Dattenhausen, nearshore facies for Hamlar 2 and shallow marine basin facies for Burgau. The characteristic lower Ottnangian benthic foraminiferal species exhibit restricted ecological tolerances. Hence, the absence or scarcity of these species in nearshore to marginal-marine deposits has no stratigraphic significance. The presence of two sedimentation cycles in the western German Molasse Basin alone may have resulted from the interplay of regional tectonics and basin development that

  20. Quality of gingernut type biscuits as affected by varying fat content and partial replacement of honey with molasses.

    PubMed

    Filipčev, Bojana; Šimurina, Olivera; Bodroža-Solarov, Marija

    2014-11-01

    Gingernut type biscuits were prepared with varying fat content (10, 20, and 30 % w/w flour basis) and with sugar beet molasses replacing 0, 25, and 50 % w/w of the honey in the formulation. To evaluate the effects of these modifications, dough properties, and the physical, and sensory properties, and chemical composition of the biscuits were determined. Dough properties were significantly affected by the fat content; higher fat gave softer dough with reduced adhesiveness, cohesiveness and springiness. Biscuit height and diameter were also significantly affected only by the fat content. The tested biscuit variants showed no difference with respect to hardness and fracturability. During storage, hardness, fracturability and brittleness of the biscuits significantly increased but significant differences within the biscuits variants were observed after two months of storage in terms of fracturability which was least impaired in the biscuits with 30 % fat. Higher fat content also contributed to better flavour keeping during storage. Substitution of honey with molasses resulted in products with darker colour, less yellow and more red tone. Molasses also contributed to better nutritive value of biscuits by increasing significantly the content of proteins, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron. PMID:26396308

  1. The Effects of Freezing and Supplementation of Molasses and Inoculants on Chemical and Nutritional Composition of Sunflower Silage

    PubMed Central

    Konca, Y.; Beyzi, S. Buyukkilic; Ayaşan, T.; Kaliber, M.; Kiraz, A. Bozkurt

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of freezing and supplementation of molasses (M), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and LAB+enzyme mixture on chemical and nutritional composition of sunflower silage (SF). Sunflower crops were harvested (at about 29.2%±1.2% dry matter) and half of fresh sunflower was ensiled alone and half was frozen (F) at −20°C for 7 days. Silage additives were admixed into frozen SF material. All samples were ensiled in glass jars with six replicates for 90 days. The treatments were as follows: i) positive control (non-frozen and no additives, NF), ii) negative control (frozen, no additives, F), iii) F+5% molasses (FM), iv) F+LAB (1.5 g/tons, Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium, FLAB); v) F+LAB+enzyme (2 g/tons Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium and cellulase and amylase enzymes, FLEN). Freezing silage increased dry matter, crude ash, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin. The organic matter, total digestible nutrient, non-fiber carbohydrate, metabolizable energy and in vitro dry matter digestibility were negatively influenced by freezing treatments (p<0.05). In conclusion, freezing sunflower plants prior to ensiling may negatively affect silage quality, while molasses supplementation improved some quality traits of frozen silage. Lactic acid bacteria and LAB+enzyme inoculations did not effectively compensate the negative impacts of freezing on sunflower silage. PMID:26954197

  2. Continuous separation of sugarcane molasses with a simulated moving-bed adsorber. Adsorption equilibria, kinetics, and application

    SciTech Connect

    Saska, M.; Mei Di Wu; Clarke, S.J.; Iqbal, K. )

    1992-10-01

    Fundamental chromatographic properties are reported that are related to the industrial separation of sugarcane molasses in a simulated moving-bed adsorber. The distribution coefficients of KCL, sucrose, glucose, and fructose on XUS-40166.00 (K[sup +]) cation exchanger were determined by pulse testing to be 0.00, 0.22, 0.45, and 0.50 at infinite dilution at 70 C. The adsorption isotherm of KCl is quadratic; those of the sugars only slightly nonlinear and dependent on KCl concentration. HETP was found to be independent of fluid velocity for KCl in the range of the interstitial velocity of 5 to 35 cm/min, and increasing with v for sucrose. At high fluid velocities the broadening of the sucrose band in a packed bed comes primarily from intraparticle mass transfer, with axial dispersion and film diffusion playing minor roles. The process for separation of sugarcane molasses was demonstrated on a 47 liter, eight-column simulated moving-bed adsorber. A theoretical, staged model of the simulated moving-bed adsorber with one inert totally excluded and three linearly adsorbing components was found to give an excellent representation of the transient and steady-state behavior of the continuous separation of sugarcane molasses.

  3. The Effects of Freezing and Supplementation of Molasses and Inoculants on Chemical and Nutritional Composition of Sunflower Silage.

    PubMed

    Konca, Y; Beyzi, S Buyukkilic; Ayaşan, T; Kaliber, M; Kiraz, A Bozkurt

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of freezing and supplementation of molasses (M), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and LAB+enzyme mixture on chemical and nutritional composition of sunflower silage (SF). Sunflower crops were harvested (at about 29.2%±1.2% dry matter) and half of fresh sunflower was ensiled alone and half was frozen (F) at -20°C for 7 days. Silage additives were admixed into frozen SF material. All samples were ensiled in glass jars with six replicates for 90 days. The treatments were as follows: i) positive control (non-frozen and no additives, NF), ii) negative control (frozen, no additives, F), iii) F+5% molasses (FM), iv) F+LAB (1.5 g/tons, Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium, FLAB); v) F+LAB+enzyme (2 g/tons Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium and cellulase and amylase enzymes, FLEN). Freezing silage increased dry matter, crude ash, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin. The organic matter, total digestible nutrient, non-fiber carbohydrate, metabolizable energy and in vitro dry matter digestibility were negatively influenced by freezing treatments (p<0.05). In conclusion, freezing sunflower plants prior to ensiling may negatively affect silage quality, while molasses supplementation improved some quality traits of frozen silage. Lactic acid bacteria and LAB+enzyme inoculations did not effectively compensate the negative impacts of freezing on sunflower silage. PMID:26954197

  4. High Level Ethanol from Sugar Cane Molasses by a New Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain in Industrial Scale

    PubMed Central

    Fadel, M.; Keera, Abeer A.; Mouafi, Foukia E.; Kahil, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    A new local strain of S. cerevisiae F-514, for ethanol production during hot summer season, using Egyptian sugar cane molasses was applied in Egyptian distillery factory. The inouluum was propagated through 300 L, 3 m3, and 12 m3 fermenters charged with diluted sugar cane molasses containing 4%-5% sugars. The yeast was applied in fermentation vessels 65 m3 working volume to study the varying concentrations of urea, DAP, orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and its combinations as well as magnesium sulfate and inoculum size. The fermenter was allowed to stay for a period of 20 hours to give time for maximum conversion of sugars into ethanol. S. cerevisiae F-514 at molasses sugar level of 18% (w/v), inoculum size of 20% (v/v) cell concentration of 3.0 × 108/mL, and combinations of urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and magnesium sulfate at amounts of 20, 10, 5, and 10 kg/65 m3 working volume fermenters, respectively, supported maximum ethanol production (9.8%, v/v), fermentation efficiency (FE) 88.1%, and remaining sugars (RS) 1.22%. The fermentation resulted 13.4 g dry yeast/L contained 34.6% crude protein and 8.2% ash. By selecting higher ethanol yielding yeast strain and optimizing, the fermentation parameters both yield and economics of the fermentation process can be improved. PMID:24363937

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF A WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wastewater aerosol monitoring program was conducted at an advanced wastewater treatment facility using the activated sludge process. This plant was recently constructed next to an elementary school in Tigard, Oregon. Wastewater aerosols containing pathogenic organisms are gener...

  6. Biodenitrification of industrial wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, T.L.; Walker, J.F. Jr.; Helfrich, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    The Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), a US Department of Energy facility at Fernald, Ohio, is constructing a fluidized-bed biodenitrification plant based on pilot work conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the late 1970s and early 1980s. This plant is designed to treat approximately 600 to 800 L/min of wastewater having a nitrate concentration as high as 10 g/L. The effluent is to contain less than 0.1 g/L of nitrate. Since this new facility is an extrapolation of the ORNL work to significantly larger scale equipment and to actual rather than synthetic wastewater, design verification studies have been performed to reduce uncertainties in the scaleup. The results of these studies are summarized in this report. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Gaseous Emissions from Wastewater Facilities.

    PubMed

    Koh, Sock-Hoon; Shaw, Andrew R

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to gaseous emissions from wastewater facilities is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: odorant emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs); greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from WWTPs; gaseous emissions from wastewater collection systems; physiochemical odor/emissions control methods; biological odor/emissions control methods; odor characterization/monitoring; and odor impacts/ risk assessments. PMID:27620089

  8. Wastewater Collection Systems.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Srinivas

    2016-10-01

    This chapter presents a review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to wastewater collection systems. It presents noteworthy advances in research and industry experiences selected from major literature sources. This review is divided into the following sections: sewer system planning; sewer condition assessment/rehabilitation; pump stations/force mains/ system design; operation and maintenance; asset management; and regulatory issues/ integrated planning. PMID:27620080

  9. Improvement of whole crop rice silage nutritive value and rumen degradability by molasses and urea supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, Metha; Kang, Sungchhang; Khejornsart, Pichad; Pilajun, Ruangyote

    2013-11-01

    Whole crop rice was harvested 120 days after planting and chopped to 2-3-cm length for silage making. The whole crop rice silage (WCRS) was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study nutritive value and in situ rumen degradability. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 6 × 5 factorial arrangement, in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplementation at M0, M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5 %, and the second was urea (U) supplementation at U0, U0.5, U1.0, U1.5, and U2.0 % of the crop dry mater (DM), respectively. After 45 days of ensiling, temperature, pH, chemical composition, and fermentation end products of the silages were measured. Ten U and M treatment combinations of WCRS were subsequently selected to study rumen degradability by nylon bag technique. The results showed that temperature and pH of the silages linearly increased with U supplementation level, while total volatile fatty acid (TVFA), acetic acid (C2) and propionic acid (C3) decreased. In contrast, increasing level of M supplementation decreased WCRS temperature and pH, whereas TVFA, C2, and C3 concentrations increased dramatically. Both M and U supplementation increased concentration of butyric acid (C4). Dry matter, organic matter (OM), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of the silages were not influenced by either M or U supplementation. Increasing U supplementation increased crude protein (CP) content, while M level did not show any effect. Furthermore, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content in silage was decreased by both M and U supplementation. The results of the in situ study showed that M and U supplementation increased both ruminal DM and OM degradation. The water-soluble fraction (a) was the highest in WCRS U1.5M3 and lowest in U0M0. Increasing M and U supplementation levels increased the potentially degradable fraction (b) of both DM and OM. Total rumen degradable fraction (a + b) was highest in WCRS U1.5M3, whereas OM degradability was

  10. Biological nutrient removal from dairy wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Danalewich, J.R.; Papagiannis, T.G.; Gerards, R.; Vriens, L.; Belyea, R.; Tumbleson, M.E.; Raskin, L.

    1998-07-01

    The authors developed a synthetic wastewater which closely represents actual milk processing wastewater. The design of this synthetic wastewater was facilitated by the collection of composite wastewater samples from 15 milk processing plants in the Upper Midwest. These samples, milk, and milk products were analyzed for various chemical parameters. Based on these results, they diluted evaporated milk and cottage cheese, as well as a number of dry chemicals to create a synthetic wastewater. The concentrations in the resulting synthetic wastewater matched average concentrations of 15 composite wastewater samples. Four continuous-flow activated sludge treatment systems are currently being operated to evaluate biological nutrient removal using this synthetic wastewater as an influent.

  11. Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, K. E. M.

    This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

  12. Structural analysis of novel kestose isomers isolated from sugar beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Norio; Abe, Tatsuya; Kikuchi, Hiroto; Aritsuka, Tsutomu; Takata, Yusuke; Fukushi, Eri; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Kawabata, Jun; Ueno, Keiji; Onodera, Shuichi

    2016-04-01

    Eight kestose isomers were isolated from sugar beet molasses by carbon-Celite column chromatography and HPLC. GC-FID and GC-MS analyses of methyl derivatives, MALD-TOF-MS measurements and NMR spectra were used to confirm the structural characteristics of the isomers. The (1)H and (13)C NMR signals of each isomer saccharide were assigned using COSY, E-HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY, HMBC and H2BC techniques. These kestose isomers were identified as α-D-fructofuranosyl-(2- > 2)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 < ->2)-β-D-fructofuranoside, α-D-fructofuranosyl-(2- > 3)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 < ->1)-α-D-glucopyranoside, α-D-fructofuranosyl-(2- > 4)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 < ->1)-α-D-glucopyranoside, β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2- > 4)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 < ->1)-α-D-glucopyranoside, β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2- > 3)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 < ->2)-β-D-fructofuranoside, α-D-fructofuranosyl-(2- > 1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 < ->1)-α-D-glucopyranoside, α-D-fructofuranosyl-(2- > 6)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 < ->2)-β-D-fructofuranoside, and α-D-fructofuranosyl-(2- > 6)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 < ->1)-α-D-glucopyranoside. The former five compounds are novel saccharides. PMID:26918514

  13. Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Effects of Polyphenols from Sugar Beet Molasses on Colon Carcinoma Cells in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Zhengang; Yu, Shujuan

    2016-01-01

    Three polyphenols were isolated and purified from sugar beet molasses by ultrasonic-aid extraction and various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. Cytotoxicity and the molecular mechanism were measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, caspase-3 activity assay and Western blot assay. The results showed that gallic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride and epicatechin have cytotoxicity to the human colon, hepatocellular and breast cancer cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride showed its cytotoxicity against various tumor cell lines, particularly against colon cancer Caco-2 cells with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 23.21 ± 0.14 μg/mL in vitro. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride may be a potential candidate for the treatment of colon cancer. In the mechanism study, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride increased the ratio of cell cycle at G₀/G₁ phase and reduced cyclin D1 expression on Caco-2 cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride decreased mutant p21 expression, and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and the activation of caspase-3 to induce apoptosis. PMID:27347927

  14. Molasses melanoidin promotes copper uptake for radish sprouts: the potential for an accelerator of phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Ken-Ichi; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Tomura, Hiroki; Yamatsu, Takeshi; Tsunoda, Kin-Ichi; Kubota, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    Phytoextraction has been proposed as an alternative remediation technology for heavy metal contamination, and it is well known that chelators may alter the toxicity of heavy metals and the bioavailability in plants. Our previous work demonstrated that an adsorbent-column chromatography can effectively separate melanoidin-like product (MLP) from sugarcane molasses. The aim of this study was to examine the chelating property of MLP and to evaluate the facilitatory influence on the phytoextraction efficiency of Japanese radish. The result showed that MLP binds to all the metal ions examined and the binding capacity of MLP toward Cu(2+) seems to be the highest among them. The metal detoxification by MLP followed the order of Pb(2+) > Zn(2+) > Ni(2+) > Cu(2+) > Fe(2+) > Cd(2+) > Co(2+). Furthermore, in the phytoextraction experiment using copper sulfate, the application of MLP accelerated the detoxification of copper and the bioavailability in radish sprouts. Thus, these results suggest that MLP possesses the potential for an accelerator of phytoextraction in the copper-contaminated media. PMID:27239675

  15. Preliminary magnetostratigraphic dating of the South-Pyrenean Molasse (Uncastillo Fm, Oligocene-Miocene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva-Urcia, Belén; Beamud, Elisabet; Soto, Ruth; Arenas, Concha; Garcés, Miguel; Pueyo, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    The Uncastillo Fm crops out along the southern boundary of the External Sierras, which represents the southernmost limit of the Pyrenean Range. Three sedimentary units (genetic units) related to tectonic pulses have been previously differentiated in this formation. The sedimentary evolution of the Uncastillo Fm is mainly related to the tightening of the WNW-ESE Santo Domingo anticline in the External Sierras during Chattian-Aquitanian times and records the younger tectonic movement of the south Pyrenean sole thrust. These Oligocene-Miocene molasse deposits record the change to overall southward-flowing alluvial and fluvial systems (Uncastillo Fm) as an abrupt transition from overall west-northwest-flowing fluvial systems (Campodarbe Fm). Recent magnetostratigraphic results from the underlying Campodarbe Fm shift to younger ages (from chron 10r to 7r) the base of the Uncastillo Fm in the proximal area of the fluvial system (Luesia fan). In order to check that reassignment and refine the age of the Uncastillo Fm a new magnetostratigraphic study has been conducted in laterally equivalent deposits that represent middle-distal areas located to the east of the Luesia fan. These deposits consist of thick brown to orange mudstones with interbedded brown to grey sandstones. These finer grain size sediments allow for a magnetostratigraphic study. The ~ 1300m long Fuencalderas section comprises 130 new paleomagnetic sites. The new results will yield a complete chronostratigraphic frame to constrain the last tectonic pulses of the Pyrenean Mountain Range building.

  16. Community structure evolution and enrichment of glycogen-accumulating organisms producing polyhydroxyalkanoates from fermented molasses.

    PubMed

    Pisco, Ana R; Bengtsson, Simon; Werker, Alan; Reis, Maria A M; Lemos, Paulo C

    2009-07-01

    An open mixed culture was enriched with glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) by using a sequencing batch reactor and treating an agroindustrial waste (sugar cane molasses) under cyclic anaerobic-aerobic conditions. Over a 1-year operating period, the culture exhibited a very stable GAO phenotype with an average polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) content of 17% total suspended solids. However, the GAO microbial community evolved over the course of operation to a culture exhibiting unusual characteristics in producing PHAs comprised of short-chain-length monomers, namely, 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutyrate, 3-hydroxyvalerate, and 3-hydroxy-2-methylvalerate, and also, up to 31 mol% of the medium-chain-length (MCL) monomer 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx). Microbial community analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed a concurrent long-term drift in the GAO community balance, from mainly "Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis" to mainly Defluviicoccus vanus-related organisms. The production of 3HHx was confirmed by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and appeared to be related to the increased presence of D. vanus-related GAOs. These results suggest a broadened spectrum of material, chemical, and mechanical properties that can be achieved for biopolymers produced by open mixed cultures from fermented waste. The increased spectrum of polymer properties brings a wider scope of potential applications. PMID:19465533

  17. Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Effects of Polyphenols from Sugar Beet Molasses on Colon Carcinoma Cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Zhengang; Yu, Shujuan

    2016-01-01

    Three polyphenols were isolated and purified from sugar beet molasses by ultrasonic-aid extraction and various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. Cytotoxicity and the molecular mechanism were measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, caspase-3 activity assay and Western blot assay. The results showed that gallic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride and epicatechin have cytotoxicity to the human colon, hepatocellular and breast cancer cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride showed its cytotoxicity against various tumor cell lines, particularly against colon cancer Caco-2 cells with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 23.21 ± 0.14 μg/mL in vitro. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride may be a potential candidate for the treatment of colon cancer. In the mechanism study, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride increased the ratio of cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and reduced cyclin D1 expression on Caco-2 cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride decreased mutant p21 expression, and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and the activation of caspase-3 to induce apoptosis. PMID:27347927

  18. Secondary fermentation in the runen of a sheep given a diet based on molasses.

    PubMed

    Rowe, J B; Loughnan, M L; Nolan, J V; Leng, R A

    1979-03-01

    1. The extent of conversion of acetate-carbon to carbon dioxide in the rumen of a 40 kg wether consuming 1 kg molasses/d was estimated using isotope-tracer-dilution techniques. 2. There was a high rate of conversion of acetate to CO2 (6.0 g C/d) in the rumen. There were high concentrations in the rumen of Methanosarcina approximately 6 x 10(9)/ml which represents a significant proportion of the rumen bacterial biomass. These organisms are usually found in mud and sludge and are capable of oxidizing acetate. 3. The most likely explanation of these results was that there was an extensive secondary or sludge-type fermentation occurring in the rumen which results in volatile fatty acids being converted to CO2 and methane. In similar studies with sheep given lucerne (Medicago sativa) diets, conversion of acetate-C to CO2 within the rumen was not evident. 4. It is suggested that a major effect of the presence of secondary fermentation processes in the rumen may be to reduce availability of energy nutrients to the animal, and to alter the ratio protein:energy in the absorbed nutrients. PMID:427091

  19. Chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of potato-wheat straw silage treated with molasses and lactic acid bacteria and corn silage.

    PubMed

    Babaeinasab, Y; Rouzbehan, Y; Fazaeli, H; Rezaei, J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of molasses and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of an ensiled potato-wheat straw mixture in a completely randomized design with 4 replicates. Wheat straw was harvested at full maturity and potato tuber when the leaves turned yellowish. The potato-wheat straw (57:43 ratio, DM basis) mixture was treated with molasses, LAB, or a combination. Lalsil Fresh LB (Lallemand, France; containing NCIMB 40788) or Lalsil MS01 (Lallemand, France; containing MA18/5U and MA126/4U) were each applied at a rate of 3 × 10 cfu/g of fresh material. Treatments were mixed potato-wheat straw silage (PWSS) without additive, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01, PWSS + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01 + 5% molasses, and corn silage (CS). The compaction densities of PWSS treatments and CS were approximately 850 and 980 kg wet matter/m, respectively. After anaerobic storage for 90 d, chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, in vitro gas production (GP), estimated OM disappearance (OMD), ammonia-N, VFA, microbial CP (MCP) production, and cellulolytic bacteria count were determined. Compared to CS, PWSS had greater ( < 0.001) values of DM, ADL, water-soluble carbohydrates, pH, and ammonia-N but lower ( < 0.05) values of CP, ash free-NDF (NDFom), ash, nitrate, and lactic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids concentrations. When PWSS was treated with molasses, LAB, or both, the contents of CP and lactic and acetic acids increased, whereas NDFom, ammonia-N, and butyric acid decreased ( < 0.05). Based on in vitro ruminal experiments, PWSS had greater ( < 0.05) values of GP, OMD, and MCP but lower ( < 0.05) VFA and acetic acid compared to CS. With adding molasses alone or in combination with LAB inoculants to PWSS, the values of GP

  20. Wastewater Treatment I. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This instructor's manual provides an outline and guide for teaching Wastewater Treatment I. It consists of nine sections. An introductory note and a course outline comprise sections 1 and 2. Section 3 (the bulk of the guide) presents lesson outlines for teaching the ten chapters of the manual entitled "Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants."…

  1. Electrophoretic Process For Purifying Wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammons, David W.; Twitty, Garland E.; Sharnez, Rizwan; Egen, Ned B.

    1992-01-01

    Microbes, poisonous substances, and colloidal particles removed by combination of electric fields. Electrophoretic process removes pathogenicorganisms, toxins, toxic metals, and cooloidal soil particles from wastewater. Used to render domestic, industrial, and agricultural wastewater streams potable. Process also useful in bioregenerative and other closed systems like in space stations and submarines, where water must be recycled.

  2. Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Kanti L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

  3. WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY ARTIFICIAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies of artificial wetlands at Santee, California demonstrated the capacity of wetlands systems for integrated secondary and advanced treatment of municipal wastewaters. When receiving a blend of primary and secondary wastewaters at a blend ratio of 1:2 (6 cm per day: 12 cm pe...

  4. Co-digestion of molasses or kitchen waste with high-rate activated sludge results in a diverse microbial community with stable methane production.

    PubMed

    De Vrieze, Jo; Plovie, Kristof; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2015-04-01

    Kitchen waste and molasses are organic waste streams with high organic content, and therefore are interesting substrates for renewable energy production by means of anaerobic digestion. Both substrates, however, often cause inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process, when treated separately, hence, co-digestion with other substrates is required to ensure stable methane production. In this research, A-sludge (sludge harvested from a high rate activated sludge system) was used to stabilize co-digestion with kitchen waste or molasses. Lab-scale digesters were fed with A-sludge and kitchen waste or molasses for a total period of 105 days. Increased methane production values revealed a stabilizing effect of concentrated A-sludge on kitchen waste digestion. Co-digestion of molasses with A-sludge also resulted in a higher methane production. Volumetric methane production rates up to 1.53 L L(-1) d(-1) for kitchen waste and 1.01 L L(-1) d(-1) for molasses were obtained by co-digestion with A-sludge. The stabilizing effect of A-sludge was attributed to its capacity to supplement various nutrients. Microbial community results demonstrated that both reactor conditions and substrate composition determined the nature of the bacterial community, although there was no direct influence of micro-organisms in the substrate itself, while the methanogenic community profile remained constant as long as optimal conditions were maintained. PMID:25617871

  5. Effect of sugarcane molasses extract on the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in a model system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Di; Chen, Ming-Shun; Yu, Shu-Juan

    2016-04-15

    Molasses, the main by-product of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. In this study, sugarcane molasses extract was investigated for its total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant capacity. The experimental total phenolic content was 101.3 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) in 1 g of extract, IC50 of Trolox and sugarcane molasses extract were 125.33 μg/ml and 126.0 μg/ml, respectively. A chemical model system showed that the sugarcane molasses extract effectively reduced the formation of phenylacetaldehyde and the aldol condensation product, meanwhile, the amount of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) also decreased. This could be due to the reaction between the phenolic compounds of sugarcane molasses extract and the carbonyl group of phenylacetaldehyde inhibiting the aldol condensation product formation, and this would suppress the formation of PhIP. A pathway that phenolic compounds inhibited the formation of PhIP is proposed. This pathway also suggested a mechanism for how the sugarcane affects the formation of PHIP. PMID:26617035

  6. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1999-02-02

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  7. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  8. Simpler radioactive wastewater processing.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, José Canga; Luh, Volker

    2011-11-01

    José Canga Rodríguez, key account manager, Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences, EnviroChemie, and Volker Luh, CEO of EnviroDTS, describe the development, and recent successful application, of a new technology for dealing safely and effectively with the radioactive "wastewater" generated by patients who have undergone radiotherapy in nuclear medicine facilities. The BioChroma process provides what is reportedly not only a more flexible means than traditional "delay and decay" systems of dealing with this "by-product" of medical treatment, but also one that requires less plant space, affords less risk of leakage or cross-contamination, and is easier to install. PMID:22368885

  9. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yu, Ruoren; Li, Yuan; Falzone, Charles; Smith, Gregory; Ikehata, Keisuke

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to public and environmental health risks associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: wastewater management, microbial hazards, chemical hazards, wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, agricultural reuse in different regions, greywater reuse, wastewater disposal, hospital wastewater, industrial wastewater, and sludge and biosolids. PMID:27620110

  10. Profiling of Indigenous Microbial Community Dynamics and Metabolic Activity During Enrichment in Molasses-Supplemented Crude Oil-Brine Mixtures for Improved Understanding of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    PubMed

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Pedersen, Dorthe Skou; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Lantz, Anna Eliasson

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil-brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses, with or without nitrate to boost microbial growth. Growth of the indigenous microbes was stimulated by addition of molasses. Pyrosequencing showed that specifically Anaerobaculum, Petrotoga, and Methanothermococcus were enriched. Addition of nitrate favored the growth of Petrotoga over Anaerobaculum. The microbial growth caused changes in the crude oil-brine system: formation of oil emulsions, and reduction of interfacial tension (IFT). Reduction in IFT was associated with microbes being present at the oil-brine interphase. These findings suggest that stimulation of indigenous microbial growth by addition of molasses has potential as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) strategy in North Sea oil reservoirs. PMID:25894951

  11. Treatment of a molasses based distillery effluent in a constructed wetland in central India.

    PubMed

    Billore, S K; Singh, N; Ram, H K; Sharma, J K; Singh, V P; Nelson, R M; Dass, P

    2001-01-01

    A field-scale 4-celled, horizontal subsurface constructed wetland (CW) was installed to evaluate removal efficiencies of wastewater constituents in an industrial distillery effluent. Total and dissolved solids, NH4-N, TKN, P and COD were measured. This CW design provides four serial cells with synthetic liners and a river gravel base. The first two unplanted cells provide preliminary treatment. Specific gravel depths and ensuing biofilm growth provides anaerobic treatment in Cell 1 and anaerobic treatment in Cell 2. Cell 3 was planted with Typha latifolia with an inserted layer of brick rubble (for phosphorus removal). Locally grown reed, Phragmites karka was planted in Cell 4. COD was reduced from 8420 mg/l 3000 from Cell 1 to the outlet of Cell 4. Likewise other parameters: total and dissolved solids, ammonium and total nitrogen, and total P, indicated declining trends at the 4-celled CW effluent. This study reveals how high strength distillery wastewater strongly impacts morphology, aeration anatomy in the chiseled plant tissues, reed growth; and composition of the biofilm in the specialized substratum. The reliability of a CW for organic and nutrients reduction, in association with a poorly performing conventional system is discussed. There is an immense potential for appropriately designed constructed wetlands to improve high strength wastewaters in India. PMID:11804132

  12. Scalings at geothermal facilities exploring the Malm Aquifer (Bavarian Molasse Baisin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhl, Bernhard; Herbrich, Moritz; Baumann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Scalings at geothermal facilities exploring the Malm Aquifer (Bavarian Molasse Basin) (Herbrich, M., Köhl, B., Baumann, T.) Scalings are a widespread problem among geothermal plants which exploit the Malm Aquifer in the Bavarian Molasse Zone. They effect the technical and economic efficiency of geothermal plants and cause costly revisions of the geothermal cycle. Scalings observed at geothermal facilities exploring the Malm Aquifer mainly consist of different CaCO3 polymorphs and are found at the motor, in the pumps and pipes and throughout the groundlevel facilities including the heat exchangers. There are two main processes leading to a disruption of the carbonate equilibrium and causing these CaCO3 scalings: local temperature peaks and degassing of less soluble gases due to local pressure drops. While the increase of the temperature leads to a local supersaturation at the hot surface of e.g. the motor, the formation of gas bubbles strips all soluble gases from the solution according to the Henry equilibrum constants, thus shifting the carbonate-equilibrium towards less soluble CaCO3. In order to prevent the formation of scalings, these processes have to be quantified. Therefore, we investigated the scalings in all sections of the geothermal cycle at geothermal plants in the Malm Aquifer. So far, we have sampled scalings from the pumps and the production pipes after three exchanges of the pump, scalings collected in the particle filters, scalings from the ground level geothermal facilities, and scalings from the injection pipes. The samples were characterized by REM-EDX, XRD, and image processing to assess the mineralogical features and the elemental composition. The porosity and bulk density were measured to assess the mass of the deposits and to calculate the kinetics of the formation. All together, this generated a unique quantitative dataset with a spatial resolution of 9 m along the production tubes. The thickness of the scalings first decreases from the

  13. Thermal and exhumation histories from borehole thermochronometer samples in the Swiss Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillon, Charlotte; Ehlers, Todd; Enkelmann, Eva; Becker, Jens K.; Schnellmann, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, significant interest has emerged to better understand the links between the foreland basin evolution and the erosion history of the Alps. For this, the European Alps are indeed a well-suited study region since the hinterland and the Swiss Molasse basin erosion rates and timing were extensively studied using basin analysis, and low-temperature thermochronology 1-4,5,6. However, the driving mechanisms for the post-Miocene erosion of the Swiss Molasse basin remains controversial, and several papers discuss whether global climatic changes1 or local variations of base level7,8,9 have controlled the erosion of the basin. With this study, we add quantitative constraints on the late-stage history of the basin by presenting new AFT and AHe dataset (respectively 16 and 19 samples) from two boreholes located ~30 km apart from each other, one located close to the center (Sonnengarten, depth of 3500 m) and one located to the North (Benken, depth of 100 m) of the basin. The data are derived from Triassic to Pliocene sand deposits as well as the underlying gneissic basement rocks and both AFT and AHe results are ranging from Pliocene to Triassic ages. The two dataset present very different age patterns which make the direct interpretation difficult. Therefore, thermal models using the QTQt software10,11 have been performed. This software is capable to evaluate cooling rates and timing using multiple samples from a single borehole. To test the robustness of the simulations, several runs for each borehole based on different data sets were performed, and showed some discrepancies between the resulting thermal histories. We provide, based on the simulations results, the most probable erosion estimates which are in the same range as the ones proposed in previous studies in the basin. For the borehole Benken, we reproduce a long and slow erosion phase starting at 23 Ma, with an overall estimate of the amount of eroded sediments ranging between 1.2 to 2 km. For the

  14. Marine carbohydrates of wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Sudha, Prasad N; Gomathi, Thandapani; Vinodhini, P Angelin; Nasreen, K

    2014-01-01

    Our natural heritage (rivers, seas, and oceans) has been exploited, mistreated, and contaminated because of industrialization, globalization, population growth, urbanization with increased wealth, and more extravagant lifestyles. The scenario gets worse when the effluents or contaminants are discharged directly. So wastewater treatment is a very important and necessary in nowadays to purify wastewater before it enters a body of natural water, or it is applied to the land, or it is reused. Various methods are available for treating wastewater but with many disadvantages. Recently, numerous approaches have been studied for the development of cheaper and more effective technologies, both to decrease the amount of wastewater produced and to improve the quality of the treated effluent. Biosorption is an emerging technology, which uses natural materials as adsorbents for wastewater treatment. Low-cost adsorbents of polysaccharide-based materials obtained from marine, such as chitin, chitosan, alginate, agar, and carrageenan, are acting as rescue for wastewater treatment. This chapter reviews the treatment of wastewater up to the present time using marine polysaccharides and its derivatives. Special attention is paid to the advantages of the natural adsorbents, which are a wonderful gift for human survival. PMID:25300545

  15. Noteworthy Facts about a Methane-Producing Microbial Community Processing Acidic Effluent from Sugar Beet Molasses Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Chojnacka, Aleksandra; Szczęsny, Paweł; Błaszczyk, Mieczysław K.; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula; Detman, Anna; Salamon, Agnieszka; Sikora, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a complex process involving hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. The separation of the hydrogen-yielding (dark fermentation) and methane-yielding steps under controlled conditions permits the production of hydrogen and methane from biomass. The characterization of microbial communities developed in bioreactors is crucial for the understanding and optimization of fermentation processes. Previously we developed an effective system for hydrogen production based on long-term continuous microbial cultures grown on sugar beet molasses. Here, the acidic effluent from molasses fermentation was used as the substrate for methanogenesis in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor. This study focused on the molecular analysis of the methane-yielding community processing the non-gaseous products of molasses fermentation. The substrate for methanogenesis produces conditions that favor the hydrogenotrophic pathway of methane synthesis. Methane production results from syntrophic metabolism whose key process is hydrogen transfer between bacteria and methanogenic Archaea. High-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of total DNA isolated from the methanogenic microbial community and bioinformatic sequence analysis revealed that the domain Bacteria was dominated by Firmicutes (mainly Clostridia), Bacteroidetes, δ- and γ-Proteobacteria, Cloacimonetes and Spirochaetes. In the domain Archaea, the order Methanomicrobiales was predominant, with Methanoculleus as the most abundant genus. The second and third most abundant members of the Archaeal community were representatives of the Methanomassiliicoccales and the Methanosarcinales. Analysis of the methanogenic sludge by scanning electron microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that it was composed of small highly heterogeneous mineral-rich granules. Mineral components of methanogenic granules probably modulate syntrophic metabolism and methanogenic

  16. Thermal history of the westernmost Eastern Alps (Penninic Rhenodanubian Flysch nappes, Helvetic nappes, and Subalpine Molasse thrust sheets)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerlauth, Michael; Bertrand, Audrey; Rantitsch, Gerd; Groß, Doris; Ortner, Hugo; Pomella, Hannah; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    The frontal part of the westernmost Eastern Alps comprises from top to bottom of the Austroalpine and Penninic nappes, Ultrahelvetic slices, and two Helvetic thrust sheets, thrust upon the northern Alpine Molasse Basin. The thermal evolution of the Penninic Rhenodanubian Flysch nappes, the Helvetic nappes, and the allochthonous part of the Alpine Molasse Basin is constrained by vitrinite reflectance measurements and apatite fission track dating and implemented in a tectonic evolution scheme. Within the Helvetic nappes, vitrinite reflectance increases regionally from north to south and stratigraphically from the Campanian-Maastrichtian Wang Formation to the Toarcian Mols Member. Apatite fission track ages from Penninic and Subalpine Molasse units are consistently younger than the deposition age. They indicate therefore a post-depositional thermal overprint exceeding approximately 120 °C, the upper temperature limit of the apatite partial annealing zone. 1D thermal modelling suggests that the Penninic nappes attained deepest burial between the latest Cretaceous and Early Palaeocene with the Penninic basal thrust being located at approximately 8 km in the north compared to approximately 12 km in the south. Deepest burial of the upper Helvetic nappe occurred between the latest Eocene and Early Miocene. Its base was buried down to approximately 10.5 km in the north compared to 11.5 km in the south. Exhumation of the entire nappe stack started in the Early to Middle Miocene. For both Penninic and Helvetic models, a heatflow minimum during the Cenozoic deformation (max. 27-32 mW/m2), followed by an increase from the Middle Miocene onwards (up to 60 mW/m2), was assumed.

  17. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from fermented sugar cane molasses by a mixed culture enriched in glycogen accumulating organisms.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Simon; Pisco, Ana R; Reis, Maria A M; Lemos, Paulo C

    2010-02-01

    Batch production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under aerobic conditions by an open mixed culture enriched in glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) with fermented sugar cane molasses as substrate was studied. The produced polymers contained five types of monomers, namely 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV), 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutyrate (3H2MB), 3-hydroxy-2-methylvalerate (3H2MV) and the medium chain length monomer 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx). With fermented molasses as substrate, PHA was produced under concurrent consumption of stored glycogen with yields of 0.47-0.66 C-mol PHA per C-mol of total carbon substrate and with rates up to 0.65 C-mol/C-molX h. In order to investigate the role of glycogen during aerobic PHA accumulation in GAOs, synthetic single volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were used as substrates and it was found that the fate of glycogen was dependent on the type of VFA being consumed. Aerobic PHA accumulation occurred under concurrent glycogen consumption with acetate as substrate and under minor concurrent glycogen production with propionate as substrate. With butyrate and valerate as substrates, PHA accumulation occurred with the glycogen pool unaffected. The composition of the PHA was dependent on the VFA composition of the fermented molasses and was 56-70 mol-% 3HB, 13-43 mol-% 3HV, 1-23 mol-% 3HHx and 0-2 mol-% 3H2MB and 3H2MV. The high polymer yields and production rates suggest that enrichment of GAOs can be a fruitful strategy for mixed culture production of PHA from waste substrates. PMID:19958801

  18. High Level Ethanol from Sugar Cane Molasses by a New Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain in Industrial Scale.

    PubMed

    Fadel, M; Keera, Abeer A; Mouafi, Foukia E; Kahil, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    A new local strain of S. cerevisiae F-514, for ethanol production during hot summer season, using Egyptian sugar cane molasses was applied in Egyptian distillery factory. The inouluum was propagated through 300 L, 3 m(3), and 12 m(3) fermenters charged with diluted sugar cane molasses containing 4%-5% sugars. The yeast was applied in fermentation vessels 65 m(3) working volume to study the varying concentrations of urea, DAP, orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and its combinations as well as magnesium sulfate and inoculum size. The fermenter was allowed to stay for a period of 20 hours to give time for maximum conversion of sugars into ethanol. S. cerevisiae F-514 at molasses sugar level of 18% (w/v), inoculum size of 20% (v/v) cell concentration of 3.0 × 10(8)/mL, and combinations of urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and magnesium sulfate at amounts of 20, 10, 5, and 10 kg/65 m(3) working volume fermenters, respectively, supported maximum ethanol production (9.8%, v/v), fermentation efficiency (FE) 88.1%, and remaining sugars (RS) 1.22%. The fermentation resulted 13.4 g dry yeast/L contained 34.6% crude protein and 8.2% ash. By selecting higher ethanol yielding yeast strain and optimizing, the fermentation parameters both yield and economics of the fermentation process can be improved. PMID:24363937

  19. Development and application of a new biotechnology of the molasses in-situ method; detailed evaluation for selected wells in the Romashkino carbonate reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M.; Lungerhausen, D.; Murtada, H.; Rosenthal, G.

    1995-12-31

    On the basis of different laboratory studies, by which special strains of the type Clostridium tyrobutyricum were found, the application of molasses in-situ method for the enhanced recovery of oil in Romashkino oil field was executed. In an anaerobic, 6%-molasses medium the strains produce about 11,400 mg/l of organic acids (especially butyric acid), 3,200 mg/l ethanol, butanol, etc., and more than 350 ml/g of molasses biogas with a content of 80% C0{sub 2} and 20% H{sub 2}. The metabolics of Clostridium tyrobutyricum depress the growth of SRB, whereas methanogenic bacteria grow in an undiluted fermented molasses medium very well. In this way the dominant final fermentation process is methanogenesis. By laboratory studies with original cores under the conditions of the carbonate reservoir in Bashkir, the recovery of oil increased from 15% after waterflooding to 29% OOIP during the treatment with molasses and bacteria. We developed a new biotechnological method for a self-regulated, automatic continuous culture and constructed a special pilot plant with a high technical standard. The plant produced during the pilot on Romashkino field (September 1992 to August 1994) about 1,000 m{sup 3} of clean inoculum with a content of 3-4 billion cells per ml. This inoculum was injected in slugs together with 15,000 m{sup 3} of molasses medium, first in one, later in five wells. We will demonstrate for two example wells the complex microbiological and chemical changes in the oil, gas, and water phases, and their influences on the recover of oil.

  20. Simplified modeling of fed-batch alcoholic fermentation of sugarcane blackstrap molasses.

    PubMed

    Converti, Attilio; Arni, Saleh; Sato, Sunao; de Carvalho, João Carlos Monteiro; Aquarone, Eugênio

    2003-10-01

    Simplified modeling based on material balances for biomass, ethanol and substrate was used to describe the kinetics of fed-batch alcohol fermentation of sugarcane blackstrap molasses. Maintenance requirements were previously shown to be of particular significance in this system, owing to the use of massive inoculum to minimize inhibitions; therefore, they were taken into consideration for kinetic modeling. Average values of biomass and ethanol yields, productivities, and substrate consumption rates, calculated at the end of runs performed either at constant or exponentially varying flow rates, demonstrated that all of these parameters were influenced by the initial sugar-feeding rate, F(o)S(o). Under conditions of substrate shortage (F(o)S(o)

  1. Provenance Analysis of Lower Miocene Sediments in the Lower Austrian Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knierzinger, Wolfgang; Palzer, Markus; Wagreich, Michael

    2015-04-01

    In the Early Miocene (Late Ottnangian) a global drop of the sea level and the continuous rise of the Alps caused a regression of the Paratethys. During this time interval the Traisen Formation (formerly Oncophora beds) was deposited in the Lower Austrian Molasse Basin. These yellowish-brownish to greyish mica-rich and carbonate-free sands and silts with clayish interlayers were originally named after a brackish water bivalve ("Oncophora"- now Rzehakia). The southeastern part of the TF partly interfingers with finer sands of the Dietersdorf Formation (DF). The Pixendorf Group combines the TF and the DF [coarse sands, conglomerates, blocks] of the Upper Ottnangian lithostratigraphic units in Lower Austria. West to the Waschberg Zone a deeper-water environment (so called Oncophora beds in former literature, herein [informally] renamed to Wildendürnbach Member) with sediment gravity flows (turbidites, muddy/sandy slumps) is inferred from OMV well data. Examinations of these fine sandstones, silts and laminated pelites have been carried out on the basis of the Wildendürnbach-4 OMV drilling core. Analyses of the TF revealed rather homogenous heavy mineral assemblages, dominated by high amounts of garnet (~65%) and relatively high amounts of epidote/zoisite (~10%) and amphiboles (~10%). Conducted surveys point towards a primary influence of metamorphic (metapelitic) source rocks of Austroalpine Crystalline Complexes of the rising Eastern Alps. Heavy mineral analysis of the WDK-4 drilling core showed even higher amounts of garnet (~80%) combined with minor amounts of rutile, staurolite, apatite, epidote/zoisite, tourmalines, zircon and amphiboles. Consistent heavy mineral assemblages and chemical data (EMPA) suggest a stratigraphical correlation with the Křepice Formation and the Ždánice-Hustopeče Formation in the Czech Republic and sedimentary influence from the Western Carpathian Flysch Belt.

  2. The Tiddiline Formation: An Enigmatic Pan African Molasse of the Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hefferan, K. P.; Inglis, J. D.

    2010-12-01

    The Tiddiline Formation, once regarded as a post-Pan African Orogeny rift basin unit, is now recognized as a syn-collisional molasse unit recording important regional compression between the Bou Azzer ophiolite and the West African Craton. This coarsening upwards sequence records the uplift and unroofing of a foreland basin and cannabalization of those clasts in an intraformational conglomerate. Over the past ten years, precise U-Pb radiometric dates have provided constraints on the ages of plutonism and metamorphism in the Anti-Atlas Mountains. However, the age of the Tiddiline Formation - and the cessation of the Pan African Orogeny-- continues to elude researchers. Published reports suggest that the Tiddiline Formation may be >650 Ma (Saghro Group) or younger than 560 Ma (Ouarzazate Group). Basin development appears to post-date a regional metamorphism event traditionally associated with arc-continent collision, which is marked by an apparent unconformity between the Tiddiline and deformed metasediments and syn-tectonic intrusions. Subsequent folding and faulting of the Tiddiline Formation indicates that the region underwent renewed shortening after collisional metamorphism. Currently our understanding of the wider tectonic implications associated with the development of the Tiddiline basin and its subsequent deformation is limited. In particular, questions remain about whether the formation records i) a continuum of collision and exhumation of the colliding arc following regional metamorphism; or ii) extension, then, rejuvenation of shortening associated with final oblique suturing. Therefore, understanding the evolution and age of basin development and deformation is of critical importance to our understanding of Latest Neoproterozoic Pan African tectonic events. This study examines field mapping and geochronologic data and proposes that the Tiddiline Formation is a distinct rock Formation, the age of which must be verified through a careful U-Pb analysis of

  3. Controls of erosional denudation in the orogen on foreland basin evolution: The Oligocene central Swiss Molasse Basin as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Jordan, Teresa E.; Klaper, Eva Maria

    1997-10-01

    A high-resolution three-dimensional reconstruction of the 25-m.y.-old central Swiss Molasse Basin reveals two sedimentary domains separated by a ˜5-km-wide flood-plain. The proximal domain of the basin attained a width of 20 km, and its basement is steeply flexed (6°-7° dip). Petrographic data indicate that it was filled by sediment from the Rigi dispersal system derived from the central Alps of eastern Switzerland and by locally sourced bajadas. In contrast, the distal sedimentary domain, located farther north, was gently dipping (<2°) and was filled by the meandering Lac Léman and Honegg dispersal systems. Chronological data reveal that sedimentation in the northern proximal part of the basin started at ˜27 Ma, when sediment supply to the basin started to increase. Deflection of the foreland plate at ˜25 Ma is successfully simulated by flexural modeling of the thrust load and the sediment load. The model reveals that the Lac Léman and Honegg dispersal systems are located on a buried flexural bulge. Furthermore, it shows that burial and suppression of the flexural bulge at ˜27 Ma as well as an increase of the basin wavelength were controlled by the contemporaneous increase in the sediment supply rate of the Rigi system. The model presented suggests that the tectonic subsidence of the Molasse Basin was mainly controlled by tectonic events in the northern part of the orogen, within ˜70 km distance from the tip of the orogenic wedge. Crustal thickening in this part of the orogen is reflected in the proximal Molasse by sedimentary cycles characterized by an increase in the sediment accumulation rates up section and by the presence of locally sourced bajada fans at the top of each cycle. Although south vergent back thrusting along the Insubric Line ˜150 km south of the foreland basin contributed little to flexure, it resulted in an increase of the sediment supply to the foreland basin. This is reflected in the Molasse by coarsening and thickening upward

  4. Comparative Tertiary stratigraphy of the Rhine Graben, Bresse Graben and Molasse Basin: correlation of Alpine foreland events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sissingh, W.

    1998-12-01

    Comparative tectonostratigraphic analysis of the Tertiary (Middle Eocene-Pliocene) of the Rhine-Bresse graben system and the western Molasse Basin demonstrates the occurrence of eleven correlative sequences (CRF I-XI). These show a close relationship between intra-basinal tectonics and depositional history. Their punctuated sediment accumulation can be related to phases of extra-Alpine taphrogenesis and Alpine orogenesis, and to coeval eustatic changes in sea-level. Apparent simultaneity in rift and foredeep sequence development, structural deformation and global change in sea-level suggests a common causal control in which the development of the Alps played an important role.

  5. Beyond optical molasses: 3D raman sideband cooling of atomic cesium to high phase-space density

    PubMed

    Kerman; Vuletic; Chin; Chu

    2000-01-17

    We demonstrate a simple, general purpose method to cool neutral atoms. A sample containing 3x10(8) cesium atoms prepared in a magneto-optical trap is cooled and simultaneously spin polarized in 10 ms at a density of 1.1x10(11) cm (-3) to a phase space density nlambda(3)(dB) = 1/500, which is almost 3 orders of magnitude higher than attainable in free space with optical molasses. The technique is based on 3D degenerate Raman sideband cooling in optical lattices and remains efficient even at densities where the mean lattice site occupation is close to unity. PMID:11015933

  6. Engineered nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge - Evidence and impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Brar, Satinder K.; Verma, Mausam; Tyagi, R.D.; Surampalli, R.Y.

    2010-03-15

    Nanotechnology has widespread application in agricultural, environmental and industrial sectors ranging from fabrication of molecular assemblies to microbial array chips. Despite the booming application of nanotechnology, there have been serious implications which are coming into light in the recent years within different environmental compartments, namely air, water and soil and its likely impact on the human health. Health and environmental effects of common metals and materials are well-known, however, when the metals and materials take the form of nanoparticles - consequential hazards based on shape and size are yet to be explored. The nanoparticles released from different nanomaterials used in our household and industrial commodities find their way through waste disposal routes into the wastewater treatment facilities and end up in wastewater sludge. Further escape of these nanoparticles into the effluent will contaminate the aquatic and soil environment. Hence, an understanding of the presence, behavior and impact of these nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge is necessary and timely. Despite the lack of sufficient literature, the present review attempts to link various compartmentalization aspects of the nanoparticles, their physical properties and toxicity in wastewater and wastewater sludge through simile drawn from other environmental streams.

  7. Wastewater treatment with microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, W.J. )

    1992-01-01

    In locations where total solar energy inputs average 400 langeleys or more, microscopic algae, grown in properly designed ponds, can contribute significantly and economically to wastewater treatment. While growing, microalgae produce an abundance of oxygen for microbial and biochemical oxidation of organics and other reduced compounds and for odor control. Microalgae also accelerate the inactivation of disease bacteria and parasitic ova by increasing water temperature and pH. Microalgae remove significant amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus and adsorb most polyvalent metals, including those that are toxic. After growth in properly designed paddle wheel mixed high rate ponds, microalgae settle readily, leaving a supernatant free of most pollutants. Such effluents are suitable for irrigation of ornamental plants, crops not eaten raw, aquaculture, and grounwater recharge. The settled and concentrated microalgae may be used for fertilizer, for fermentation to methane, or, assuming no toxicity, for fish, bivalve, or animal feed.

  8. Choose appropriate wastewater treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Belhateche, D.H.

    1995-08-01

    Industrial wastewater treatment has been slow to develop, and in some respects has not kept up with advances in manufacturing technology. An earlier CEP article outlined a procedure for developing an effective wastewater treatment strategy. This article discusses the various wastewater treatment technologies in more detail and includes tables that compare their applications, advantages, and disadvantages. It also provides guidance on when to apply what type of treatment to which waste streams. This information can help bridge the gap between where the plant needs to be, in terms of effluent quality, and where it is, in terms of wastewater characteristics. Technologies include wet air oxidation, supercritical oxidation, incineration, activated sludge, aerated lagoons, stabilization ponds, trickling filters, fixed-film reactors, and anaerobic degradation.

  9. PAPERMILL WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY MICROSTRAINING

    EPA Science Inventory

    An original treatment system was designed, constructed, and operated for removal of suspended solids, turbidity, color, and BOD from the wastewaters of two paper mills which produce technical and other fine papers. The treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation follo...

  10. DESIGN MANUAL: MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER DISINFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual provides a comprehensive source of information to be used in the design of disinfection facilities for municipal wastewater treatment plants. he manual includes design information on halogenation/dehalogenation, ozonation, and ultraviolet radiation. he manual presents...

  11. Treating Wastewater With Immobilized Enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Clifford D.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show enzymes are immobilized on supporting materials to make biocatalyst beds for treatment of wastewater. With suitable combination of enzymes, concentrations of various inorganic and organic contaminants, including ammonia and urea, reduced significantly.

  12. RISK ASSESSMENT OF WASTEWATER DISINFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A risk assessment data base is presented for several waste-water disinfection alternatives, including chlorination, ozonation, chlorination/dechlorination, and ultraviolet radiation. The data base covers hazards and consequences related to onsite use and transportation of the dis...

  13. Methane emissions from wastewater management.

    PubMed

    El-Fadel, M; Massoud, M

    2001-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions in the form of methane and carbon dioxide are produced when municipal and industrial wastewater and their residual solid by-product (sludge) are handled under or subject to anaerobic conditions, thus contributing to the global warming potential or the greenhouse effect. This paper presents estimation methods used for determining methane emissions from the management of wastewater. Applications for estimating countrywide methane gas emissions from wastewater management are presented with the country of Lebanon as an example. The relative significance of these emissions is assessed in comparison with methane emissions from developing and developed countries. Uncertainty associated with the estimation process and mitigation measures to reduce potential impacts of methane emissions from wastewater management are also discussed. PMID:11504340

  14. Bacteriophage biocontrol in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Jassim, Sabah A A; Limoges, Richard G; El-Cheikh, Hassan

    2016-04-01

    Waterborne bacterial pathogens in wastewater remains an important public health concern, not only because of the environmental damage, morbidity and mortality that they cause, but also due to the high cost of disinfecting wastewater by using physical and chemical methods in treatment plants. Bacteriophages are proposed as bacterial pathogen indicators and as an alternative biological method for wastewater treatment. Phage biocontrol in large scale treatment requires adaptive and aggressive phages that are able to overcome the environmental forces that interfere with phage-host interactions while targeting unwanted bacterial pathogens and preventing biofilms and foaming. This review will shed light on aspects of using bacteriophage programming technology in wastewater plants to rapidly target and reduce undesirable bacteria without harming the useful bacteria needed for biodegradation. PMID:26941243

  15. Fischer-Tropsch Wastewater Utilization

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Lalit S.

    2003-03-18

    The present invention is generally directed to handling the wastewater, or condensate, from a hydrocarbon synthesis reactor. More particularly, the present invention provides a process wherein the wastewater of a hydrocarbon synthesis reactor, such as a Fischer-Tropsch reactor, is sent to a gasifier and subsequently reacted with steam and oxygen at high temperatures and pressures so as to produce synthesis gas. The wastewater may also be recycled back to a slurry preparation stage, where solid combustible organic materials are pulverized and mixed with process water and the wastewater to form a slurry, after which the slurry fed to a gasifier where it is reacted with steam and oxygen at high temperatures and pressures so as to produce synthesis gas.

  16. Prioritizing pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oral presentation at SETAC North America 32nd annual meeting, describing our prioritization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), based on estimates of risks posed by API residues originating from municipal wastewater. Goals of this project include prioritization of APIs f...

  17. Food-grade argan oil supplementation in molasses enhances fermentative performance and antioxidant defenses of active dry wine yeast.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Torrellas, Max; Rábena, María Teresa; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Aranda, Agustín; Matallana, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to desiccation is important for the use of this microorganism in the wine industry, since active dry yeast (ADY) is routinely used as starter for must fermentations. Both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress, therefore negatively affecting yeast performance. Protective treatments against oxidative damage, such as natural antioxidants, may have important biotechnological implications. In this study we analysed the antioxidant capacity of pure chemical compounds (quercetin, ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, oleic acid, and glutathione) added to molasses during biomass propagation, and we determine several oxidative damage/response parameters (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, protective metabolites and enzymatic activities) to assess their molecular effects. Supplementation with ascorbic, caffeic or oleic acids diminished the oxidative damage associated to ADY production. Based on these results, we tested supplementation of molasses with argan oil, a natural food-grade ingredient rich in these three antioxidants, and we showed that it improved both biomass yield and fermentative performance of ADY. Therefore, we propose the use of natural, food-grade antioxidant ingredients, such as argan oil, in industrial processes involving high cellular oxidative stress, such as the biotechnological production of the dry starter. PMID:26621111

  18. Lava Flow Hazard Assessment for the Idaho National Laboratory: A Probabilistic Approach to Modeling Lava Flow Inundation with MOLASSES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallant, E.; Connor, C.; Richardson, J. A.; Wetmore, P. H.; Connor, L.

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of a lava flow hazard assessment for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) using a new lava flow code, MOLASSES (MOdular LAva Simulation Software for Earth Science). INL is a nuclear research and development facility located on the eastern Snake River Plain with the potential for lava flow inundation from both monogenetic and polygenetic basaltic eruptions. Previously published inventories of observed surface vents and vents that are buried by younger lava flows and inferred from interpretation of borehole stratigraphy were used to created spatial density maps of vents within the INL region. Monte carlo simulations were run using the MOLASSES code to compare the difference between events initiated using only surface vents and events initiated using both the surface and the buried vents. We find that the inclusion of the buried vent locations drastically increases the number of site inundations and events initiating within INL boundaries. This highlights the need to seek out a more complete eruption record in an area of heavy prehistoric activity to better assess future hazard and associated risk.

  19. Eocene-Pliocene time scale and stratigraphy of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Jean-Pierre; Reichenbacher, Bettina; Becker, Damien; Grimm, Matthias; Grimm, Kirsten; Picot, Laurent; Storni, Andrea; Pirkenseer, Claudius; Schaefer, Andreas

    2005-09-01

    We present a general stratigraphic synthesis for the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB) from Eocene to Pliocene times. The stratigraphic data were compiled both from literature and from research carried out by the authors during the past 6 years ; an index of the stratigraphically most important localitites is provided. We distinguish 14 geographical areas from the Helvetic domain in the South to the Hanau Basin in the North. For each geographical area, we give a synthesis of the biostratigraphy, lithofacies, and chronostratigraphic ranges. The relationships between this stratigraphic record and the global sea-level changes are generally disturbed by the geodynamic (e.g., subsidence) evolution of the basins. However, global sea-level changes probably affected the dynamic of transgression regression in the URG (e.g., Middle Pechelbronn Beds and Serie Grise corresponding with sea-level rise between Ru1/Ru2 and Ru2/Ru3 sequences, respectively) as well as in the Molasse basin (regression of the UMM corresponding with the sea-level drop at the Ch1 sequence). The URGENT-project (Upper Rhine Graben evolution and neotectonics) provided an unique opportunity to carry out and present this synthesis. Discussions with scientists addressing sedimentology, tectonics, geophysics and geochemistry permitted the comparison of the sedimentary history and stratigraphy of the basin with processes controlling its geodynamic evolution. Data presented here back up the palaeogeographic reconstructions presented in a companion paper by the same authors (see Berger et al. in Int J Earth Sci 2005).

  20. Paleogeography of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB) from Eocene to Pliocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Jean-Pierre; Reichenbacher, Bettina; Becker, Damien; Grimm, Matthias; Grimm, Kirsten; Picot, Laurent; Storni, Andrea; Pirkenseer, Claudius; Derer, Christian; Schaefer, Andreas

    2005-09-01

    Twenty paleogeographic maps are presented for Middle Eocene (Lutetian) to Late Pliocene times according to the stratigraphical data given in the companion paper by Berger et al. this volume. Following a first lacustrine-continental sedimentation during the Middle Eocene, two and locally three Rupelian transgressive events were identified with the first corresponding with the Early Rupelian Middle Pechelbronn beds and the second and third with the Late Rupelian ≪ Serie Grise ≫ (Fischschiefer and equivalents). During the Early Rupelian (Middle Pechelbronn beds), a connection between North Sea and URG is clearly demonstrated, but a general connection between North Sea, URG and Paratethys, via the Alpine sea, is proposed, but not proved, during the late Rupelian. Whereas in the southern URG, a major hiatus spans Early Aquitanian to Pliocene times, Early and Middle Miocene marine, brackish and freshwater facies occur in the northern URG and in the Molasse Basin (OMM, OSM); however, no marine connections between these basins could be demonstrated during this time. After the deposition of the molasse series, a very complex drainage pattern developed during the Late Miocene and Pliocene, with a clear connection to the Bresse Graben during the Piacenzian (Sundgau gravels). During the Late Miocene, Pliocene and Quaternary sedimentation persisted in the northern URG with hardly any interruptions. The present drainage pattern of the Rhine river (from Alpine area to the lower Rhine Embayment) was not established before the Early Pleistocene.

  1. Quantification of heat mining in the Malm aquifer of the Bavarian Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafogler, Mark; Wenderoth, Frank; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Geothermal energy is a key technology for the transition from fossil ressources to renewable energy. The Bavarian Molasse Basin offers unique geological and hydrogeological conditions for district heating and heat and power generation. With 15 plants operating and another dozen in construction or planning, exploration is highly successful. However, detailed knowledge about the processes occuring in the aquifer which is crucial to run geothermal facilities efficiently and economically, still is scarce. After more than 10 years of operation there is a good record of the hydraulics and the hydrochemistry at the production well, including numerous data from pump failures and the development of precipitates. The injection well and its surrounding, however, is usually a black box which is not readily accessible. Here, not even the temperatures in the immediate vicinity have been measured. Nevertheless, the performance of the aquifer near the injection well controls the long-term operation of the geothermal system. Thanks to an extension of the Pullach geothermal facility with a third well in 2011 there was a unique opportunity to produce water from a former injection well after 5 years of operation. Since the start of the production from this well in 2012, we collected an extensive data set of hydraulic, thermal and hydrochemical data. Within the first two years after reverting the flow direction and at a production rate of 20 L/s, which is significantly lower than the injection rate of up to 35 L/s, the temperature at the well head increased with a rate of 10 K/a. These temperatures were compared with predictions from the initial heat mining model, which was then refined. From the data it was immediately obvious that a homogeneous treatment of the Malm aquifer is not applicable. Instead a heterogeneous flow regime has to be assumed to account for the fast initial increase of the temperatures which is caused by a higher effective exchange area. The results suggest that

  2. Effects of dietary electrolyte balance and molasses in diets with corn-based distiller's dried grains with solubles on growth performance in nursery and finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two assays were conducted to determine the effects of dietary electrolyte balance dEB) and molasses in diets with corn-based distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS, Sioux River Ethanol, Hudson, SD) on growth performance of nursery and finishing pigs. For the first experiment, 126 nursery pigs ...

  3. Economical production of poly(ε-l-lysine) and poly(l-diaminopropionic acid) using cane molasses and hydrolysate of streptomyces cells by Streptomyces albulus PD-1.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jun; Xu, Zhaoxian; Xu, Hong; Liang, Jinfeng; Li, Sha; Feng, Xiaohai

    2014-07-01

    Poly(ε-L-lysine) (ε-PL) and poly(L-diaminopropionic acid) (PDAP) co-production by Streptomyces albulus PD-1 from cane molasses and hydrolysate of strepyomyces cells (HSC) was investigated for the first time in this study. The optimal initial total sugar concentration of the cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was determined to be 20 g L(-1), and HSC could substitute for yeast extract for ε-PL and PDAP co-production. When fed-batch fermentation was performed in 1t fermentor with pretreated cane molasses and HSC, 20.6 ± 0.5 g L(-1) of ε-PL and 5.2 ± 0.6 g L(-1) of PDAP were obtained. The amount of strepyomyces cells obtained in one fed-batch fermentation is sufficient to prepare the HSC to satisfy the demand of subsequent fermentations, thus the self-cycling of organic nitrogen source becomes available. These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and HSC can be used for the economical production of ε-PL and PDAP by S. albulus PD-1. PMID:24861999

  4. Batch ethanol fermentation of molasses: a correlation between the time necessary to complete the fermentation and the initial concentrations of sugar and yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Borzani, W; Gerab, A; De La Higuera, G A; Pires, M H; Piplovic, R

    1993-03-01

    Batch fermentations of sugar-cane blackstrap molasses to ethanol, using pressed yeast as inoculum, demonstrated an exponential relationship between the time necessary to complete the fermentation and the initial concentrations of sugar and yeast cells. The parameters of the derived exponential equations depended on the experimental conditions. PMID:24419962

  5. Supplementation of herbage-based diets with corn meal or liquid molasses changes the milk fatty acids profile in grazing dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies showed that feeding carbohydrate sources with different NSC profiles (e.g., starch vs. sucrose) and rates of ruminal degradation altered the milk fatty acids (FA) profile in dairy cows. This study evalu¬ated the impact of corn meal (CM) or liquid molasses (MOL) on the milk FA profil...

  6. Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipal sanitary sewer collection systems play a critical role in protecting public health in our municipalities. They are designed to convey wastewater from their sources to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Collection systems consist of house service laterals, sewers, pu...

  7. Nitrifying Bacteria in Wastewater Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Abeliovich, Aharon

    1987-01-01

    Deep wastewater reservoirs are used throughout Israel to store domestic wastewater effluents for summer irrigation. These effluents contain high concentrations of ammonia (≤5 mM) that are frequently toxic to photosynthetic microorganisms and that lead to development of anoxic conditions. Population dynamics of nitrifying bacteria and rates of nitrification were studied in two wastewater reservoirs that differed in organic load and degree of oxygenation and in the laboratory under controlled conditions, both by serial dilutions in mineral medium and microscopically with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibodies prepared against local isolates. The difference in counts by the two methods was within 1 order of magnitude. In the laboratory, an O2 concentration of 0.2 mg liter−1 was close to optimal with respect to growth of NH3 oxidizers on domestic wastewater, while O2 concentrations of 0.05 mg liter−1 supported significant rates of nitrification. It was found that even hypertrophic anaerobic environments such as the anaerobic hypolimnion of the wastewater reservoir or the anaerobic settling ponds are capable of sustaining a viable, although not actively nitrifying, population of Nitrosomonas spp. and Nitrobacter spp., in contrast to their rapid decline when maintained anaerobically in mineral medium in the laboratory. Nitrification rates of NH3 in effluents during storage in the reservoirs were slower by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude compared with corresponding rates in water samples brought to the laboratory. The factors causing this inhibition were not identified. PMID:16347319

  8. Improvement of Nutritive Value and In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Leucaena Silage by Molasses and Urea Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Phesatcha, K; Wanapat, M

    2016-08-01

    Leucaena silage was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study its nutritive value and in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 3×3 factorial arrangement in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplement at 0%, 1%, and 2% of crop dry matter (DM) and the second was urea (U) supplement as 0%, 0.5%, and 1% of the crop DM, respectively. After 28 days of ensiling, the silage samples were collected and analyzed for chemical composition. All the nine Leucaena silages were kept for study of rumen fermentation efficiency using in vitro gas production techniques. The present result shows that supplementation of U or M did not affect DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber content in the silage. However, increasing level of U supplementation increased crude protein content while M level did not show any effect. Moreover, the combination of U and M supplement decreased the content of mimosine concentration especially with M2U1 (molasses 2% and urea 1%) silage. The result of the in vitro study shows that gas production kinetics, cumulation gas at 96 h and in vitro true digestibility increased with the increasing level of U and M supplementation especially in the combination treatments. Supplementation of M and U resulted in increasing propionic acid and total volatile fatty acid whereas, acetic acid, butyric acid concentrations and methane production were not changed. In addition, increasing U level supplementation increased NH3-N concentration. Result from real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed a significant effect on total bacteria, whereas F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens population while R. albus was not affected by the M and U supplementation. Based on this study, it could be concluded that M and urea U supplementation could improve the nutritive value of Leucaena silage and enhance in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. This study also suggested that

  9. Improvement of Nutritive Value and In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Leucaena Silage by Molasses and Urea Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Phesatcha, K.; Wanapat, M.

    2016-01-01

    Leucaena silage was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study its nutritive value and in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 3×3 factorial arrangement in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplement at 0%, 1%, and 2% of crop dry matter (DM) and the second was urea (U) supplement as 0%, 0.5%, and 1% of the crop DM, respectively. After 28 days of ensiling, the silage samples were collected and analyzed for chemical composition. All the nine Leucaena silages were kept for study of rumen fermentation efficiency using in vitro gas production techniques. The present result shows that supplementation of U or M did not affect DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber content in the silage. However, increasing level of U supplementation increased crude protein content while M level did not show any effect. Moreover, the combination of U and M supplement decreased the content of mimosine concentration especially with M2U1 (molasses 2% and urea 1%) silage. The result of the in vitro study shows that gas production kinetics, cumulation gas at 96 h and in vitro true digestibility increased with the increasing level of U and M supplementation especially in the combination treatments. Supplementation of M and U resulted in increasing propionic acid and total volatile fatty acid whereas, acetic acid, butyric acid concentrations and methane production were not changed. In addition, increasing U level supplementation increased NH3-N concentration. Result from real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed a significant effect on total bacteria, whereas F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens population while R. albus was not affected by the M and U supplementation. Based on this study, it could be concluded that M and urea U supplementation could improve the nutritive value of Leucaena silage and enhance in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. This study also suggested that

  10. Orientation to Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    Introductory-level material on municipal wastewater treatment facilities and processes is presented. Course topics include sources and characteristics of municipal wastewaters; objectives of wastewater treatment; design, operation, and maintenance factors; performance testing; plant staffing; and laboratory considerations. Chapter topics include…

  11. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  12. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  13. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  14. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 63.111 shall apply. (6) When Table 35 of subpart G of this part refers to 40 CFR 63.119(e)(1) or (e... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified...

  16. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 63.111 shall apply. (6) When Table 35 of subpart G of this part refers to 40 CFR 63.119(e)(1) or (e... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 63.111 shall apply. (6) When Table 35 of subpart G of this part refers to 40 CFR 63.119(e)(1) or (e... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified...

  19. Wastewater privatization: A beneficial alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, R.F.; Drewry, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    Municipalities with wastewater operations face increasing requirements to maximize efficiency, implement capital improvements, and ensure environmental compliance. Privatization is a relatively unused alternative offering benefits in the areas of cost-effective operations, flexible financing, technology access, and compliance assurance. Recent executive direction and tax code changes have opened new doors for mutually beneficial public-private partnerships. Wastewater privatization has historically consisted of short-term contract agreements for treatment operations, but looming infrastructure recapitalization and development requirements have catalyzed an exploration of non-traditional alternatives that include private sector financing, development, and operation of entire wastewater systems, The purpose of this paper is to show why privatization must be considered, evaluate the different levels available, and generate an analytical aid for communities taking their first look at privatization opportunities.

  20. Wastewater Treatment: The Natural Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc. is widely acclaimed for innovative work in natural water purification which involves use of aquatic plants to remove pollutants from wastewater at a relatively low-cost. Haughton, Louisiana, visited Wolverton's artificial marsh test site and decided to use this method of wastewater treatment. They built an 11 acre sewage lagoon with a 70 by 900 foot artificial marsh called a vascular aquatic plant microbial filter cell. In the cell, microorganisms and rooted aquatic plants combine to absorb and digest wastewater pollutants, thereby converting sewage to relatively clean water. Raw waste water, after a period in the sewage lagoon, flows over a rock bed populated by microbes that digest nutrients and minerals from the sewage thus partially cleaning it. Additional treatment is provided by the aquatic plants growing in the rock bed, which absorb more of the pollutants and help deodorize the sewage.

  1. Enhanced industrial wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nachabe, A.H.; Durlak, E.

    1997-12-31

    The sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate (SS/FS) process is a treatment technology for the reduction of hexavalent chromium and precipitation of heavy metals in industrial wastewater treatment plants (IWTP). When the ferrous ion, as ferrous sulfate, is mixed with sulfide, the hexavalent chromium is rapidly reduced to its trivalent state at a neutral pH and then precipitated. SS/FS technology can be used to replace the current hydroxide treatment chemistry in Navy IWTPs. This paper will present the results and lessons learned from full-scale implementation of SS/FS at Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Keyport, Washington. The SS/FS treatment process reduced the chemical cost by fifty nine percent and sludge disposal cost by thirty one percent. On an annual basis total cost savings amounted to $31,950 or thirty four percent. The SS/FS treatment process lowered the amount of treatment chemicals used in the IWTP. Furthermore, metal sulfides tend to be two to three orders of magnitude less soluble than their corresponding metal hydroxides. This allows for cleaner effluent, which will help the facility meet environmental discharge requirements. Further benefits include the removal from the shop area of the high pressure sulfur dioxide cylinder (used in the hydroxide process), a faster and more reliable chrome reduction method, neutral pH operation that extends tank and equipment life, and less acid and caustic chemicals stored on the shop floor. As Navy activities respond to the ever increasing pressures to do more with less, the SS/FS process can help them meet the increasingly stringent standards.

  2. Bioremediation of wastewater using microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalivendra, Saikumar

    Population expansion and industrial development has deteriorated the quality of freshwater reservoirs around the world and has caused freshwater shortages in certain areas. Discharge of industrial effluents containing toxic heavy metals such as Cd and Cr into the environment have serious impact on human, animal and aquatic life. In order to solve these problems, the present study was focused on evaluating and demonstrating potential of microalgae for bioremediation of wastewater laden with nitrogen (N) in the form of nitrates, phosphorous (P) in the form of phosphates, chromium (Cr (VI)) and cadmium (Cd (II)). After screening several microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and algae taken from Pleasant Hill Lake were chosen as candidate species for this study. The viability of the process was demonstrated in laboratory bioreactors and various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial metal concentration, algae concentration, pH and temperature that would affect remediation rates were studied. Based on the experimental results, correlations were developed to enable customizing and designing a commercial Algae based Wastewater Treatment System (AWTS). A commercial AWTS system that can be easily customized and is suitable for integration into existing wastewater treatment facilities was developed, and capital cost estimates for system including installation and annual operating costs were determined. The work concludes that algal bioremediation is a viable alternate technology for treating wastewater in an economical and sustainable way when compared to conventional treatment processes. The annual wastewater treatment cost to remove N,P is ~26x lower and to remove Cr, Cd is 7x lower than conventional treatment processes. The cost benefit analysis performed shows that if this technology is implemented at industrial complexes, Air Force freight and other Department of Defense installations with wastewater treatment plants, it could lead to millions of dollars in

  3. Efficient all-optical production of large Li6 quantum gases using D1 gray-molasses cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchianti, A.; Valtolina, G.; Seman, J. A.; Pace, E.; De Pas, M.; Inguscio, M.; Zaccanti, M.; Roati, G.

    2014-10-01

    We use a gray molasses operating on the D1 atomic transition to produce degenerate quantum gases of Li6 with a large number of atoms. This sub-Doppler cooling phase allows us to lower the initial temperature of 109 atoms from 500 to 40 μK in 2 ms. We observe that D1 cooling remains effective into a high-intensity infrared dipole trap where two-state mixtures are evaporated to reach the degenerate regime. We produce molecular Bose-Einstein condensates of up to 5 × 105 molecules and weakly interacting degenerate Fermi gases of 7×105 atoms at T /TF<0.1 with a typical experimental duty cycle of 11 s.

  4. Ethanol fermentation from molasses at high temperature by thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 and energy assessment for recovery.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Diptarka; Ghosh, Prasenjit; Ghosh, Debashish; Suman, Sunil Kumar; Khan, Rashmi; Agrawal, Deepti; Adhikari, Dilip K

    2014-10-01

    High temperature ethanol fermentation from sugarcane molasses B using thermophilic Crabtree-positive yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 was carried out in batch bioreactor system. Strain was found to have a maximum specific ethanol productivity of 0.688 g/g/h with 92 % theoretical ethanol yield. Aeration and initial sugar concentration were tuning parameters to regulate metabolic pathways of the strain for either cell mass or higher ethanol production during growth with an optimum sugar to cell ratio 33:1 requisite for fermentation. An assessment of ethanol recovery from fermentation broth via simulation study illustrated that distillation-based conventional recovery was significantly better in terms of energy efficiency and overall mass recovery in comparison to coupled solvent extraction-azeotropic distillation technique for the same. PMID:24682264

  5. Dewatering and incinerating wastewater solids

    SciTech Connect

    Shamat, N.; Hart, J.

    1992-10-01

    The solids processing and incineration-energy recovery system at the Metropolitan Waste Control Commission (MWCC) wastewater treatment plant in St. Paul, Minn., is unique in the wastewater treatment field. The system consists of innovative processes including two types of solids dewatering devices-twin-roll filter presses and plate-and-frame diaphragm filter presses, and two new and four rehabilitated multiple-hearth incinerators. Four of the incinerators are equipped with energy recovery boilers, an economizer, heat wheels, and rotary solids dryers. The plant scum and the odorous gases generated from the thermal solids conditioning process are destroyed by combustion in the incinerators.

  6. Short communication: Effects of molasses products on productivity and milk fatty acid profile of cows fed diets high in dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Siverson, A; Vargas-Rodriguez, C F; Bradford, B J

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that replacing up to 5% [of dietary dry matter (DM)] corn with cane molasses can partially alleviate milk fat depression when cows are fed high-concentrate, low-fiber rations containing dried distillers grains with solubles. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether dietary molasses alters milk fatty acid (FA) profile or improves solids-corrected milk yield in the context of a more typical lactation diet. A secondary objective was to assess production responses to increasing rumen-degradable protein supply when molasses was fed. Twelve primiparous and 28 multiparous Holstein cows (196 ± 39 d in milk) were blocked by parity and assigned to 4 pens. Pens were randomly allocated to treatment sequence in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, balanced for carryover effects. Treatment periods were 21 d, with 17 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for sample and data collection. Treatments were a control diet, providing 20% dried distillers grains with solubles (DM basis), 35% neutral detergent fiber, 30% starch, and 5% ether extract; a diet with 4.4% cane molasses replacing a portion of the corn grain; a diet with 2.9% molasses supplement containing 32% crude protein on a DM basis; and a diet with 5.8% (DM basis) molasses supplement. Animal-level data were analyzed using mixed models, including the fixed effect of treatment and the random effects of period, pen, period × pen interaction, and cow within pen to recognize pen as the experimental unit. Diets did not alter DM intake, milk production, milk component concentration or yield, feed efficiency (DM intake/milk yield), body weight change, or milk somatic cell count. Milk stearic acid content was increased by the diet containing 5.8% molasses supplement compared with the control diet and the diet containing 2.9% molasses supplement, but the magnitude of the effect was small (12.27, 11.75, and 11.69 ± 0.29 g/100g of FA). Production data revealed a dramatic effect of period on milk fat

  7. Interaction of molasses and monensin in alfalfa hay- or corn silage-based diets on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and milk production by Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Oelker, E R; Reveneau, C; Firkins, J L

    2009-01-01

    Sugar supplementation can stimulate rumen microbial growth and possibly fiber digestibility; however, excess ruminal carbohydrate availability relative to rumen-degradable protein (RDP) can promote energy spilling by microbes, decrease rumen pH, or depress fiber digestibility. Both RDP supply and rumen pH might be altered by forage source and monensin. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate interactions of a sugar source (molasses) with monensin and 2 forage sources on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and production and fatty acid composition of milk. Seven ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a 5 x 7 incomplete Latin square design with five 28-d periods. Four corn silage diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), 3) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea (MU), or 4) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea plus monensin sodium (Rumensin, at the intermediate dosage from the label, 16 g/909 kg of dry matter; MUR). Three chopped alfalfa hay diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), or 3) 2.6% molasses plus Rumensin (MR). Urea was added to corn silage diets to provide RDP comparable to alfalfa hay diets with no urea. Corn silage C and M diets were balanced to have 16.2% crude protein; and the remaining diets, 17.2% crude protein. Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment, but there was a trend for lower milk production in alfalfa hay diets compared with corn silage diets. Despite increased total volatile fatty acid and acetate concentrations in the rumen, total tract organic matter digestibility was lower for alfalfa hay-fed cows. Rumensin did not affect volatile fatty acid concentrations but decreased milk fat from 3.22 to 2.72% in corn silage diets but less in alfalfa hay diets. Medium-chain milk fatty acids (% of total fat) were lower for alfalfa hay compared with corn silage diets, and short-chain milk fatty acids tended to decrease when Rumensin was added. In whole rumen contents, concentrations of

  8. Near real-time imaging of molasses injections using time-lapse electrical geophysics at the Brandywine DRMO, Brandywine, Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteeg, R. J.; Johnson, T.; Major, B.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Lane, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Enhanced bioremediation, which involves introduction of amendments to promote biodegradation, increasingly is used to accelerate cleanup of recalcitrant compounds and has been identified as the preferred remedial treatment at many contaminated sites. Although blind introduction of amendments can lead to sub-optimal or ineffective remediation, the distribution of amendment throughout the treatment zone is difficult to measure using conventional sampling. Because amendments and their degradation products commonly have electrical properties that differ from those of ambient soil, time-lapse electrical geophysical monitoring has the potential to verify amendment emplacement and distribution. In order for geophysical monitoring to be useful, however, results of the injection ideally should be accessible in near real time. In August 2010, we demonstrated the feasibility of near real-time, autonomous electrical geophysical monitoring of amendment injections at the former Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) in Brandywine, Maryland. Two injections of about 1000 gallons each of molasses, a widely used amendment for enhanced bioremediation, were monitored using measurements taken with borehole and surface electrodes. During the injections, multi-channel resistance data were recorded; data were transmitted to a server and processed using a parallel resistivity inversion code; and results in the form of time-lapse imagery subsequently were posted to a website. This process occurred automatically without human intervention. The resulting time-lapse imagery clearly showed the evolution of the molasses plume. The delay between measurements and online delivery of images was between 45 and 60 minutes, thus providing actionable information that could support decisions about field procedures and a check on whether amendment reached target zones. This experiment demonstrates the feasibility of using electrical imaging as a monitoring tool both during amendment emplacement

  9. Covalently Immobilized Laccase for Decolourization of Glucose-Glycine Maillard Products as Colourant of Distillery Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nimisha; Basu, Subhankar; Vankelecom, Ivo F J; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2015-09-01

    Maillard reaction products like melanoidins are recalcitrant, high-molecular-weight compounds responsible for colour in sugarcane molasses distillery wastewater. Conventional biological treatment is unable to break down melanoidins, but extracellular laccase and manganese peroxidase of microbial origin can degrade these complex molecules. In this work, laccase was covalently immobilized on alumina pellets activated with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). The immobilization yield was 50-60 %, and the enzyme activity (886 U/L) was 5-fold higher compared to the soluble enzyme (176 U/L). The immobilized enzyme also showed higher tolerance to pH (4-6) and temperature (35-60 °C), as well as improved storage stability (49 days) and operational stability (10 cycles). Degradation of glucose-glycine Maillard products using immobilized laccase led to 47 % decolourization in 6 h at pH 4.5 and 28 °C. A comprehensive treatment scheme integrating enzymatic, microbial and membrane filtration steps resulted in 90 % decolourization. PMID:26164854

  10. Characterization of wastewater treatment by two microbial fuel cells in continuous flow operation.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Keiichi; Watanabe, Tomohide; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Syutsubo, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    A two serially connected single-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) was applied to the treatment of diluted molasses wastewater in a continuous operation mode. In addition, the effect of series and parallel connection between the anodes and the cathode on power generation was investigated experimentally. The two serially connected MFC process achieved 79.8% of chemical oxygen demand removal and 11.6% of Coulombic efficiency when the hydraulic retention time of the whole process was 26 h. The power densities were 0.54, 0.34 and 0.40 W m(-3) when electrodes were in individual connection, serial connection and parallel connection modes, respectively. A high open circuit voltage was obtained in the serial connection. Power density decreased at low organic loading rates (OLR) due to the shortage of organic matter. Power generation efficiency tended to decrease as a result of enhancement of methane fermentation at high OLRs. Therefore, high power density and efficiency can be achieved by using a suitable OLR range. PMID:26109271

  11. Electrochemical disinfection of toilet wastewater using wastewater electrolysis cell.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; Qu, Yan; Cid, Clément A; Finke, Cody; Hoffmann, Michael R; Lim, Keahying; Jiang, Sunny C

    2016-04-01

    The paucity of proper sanitation facilities has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases in many developing countries. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a wastewater electrolysis cell (WEC) for toilet wastewater disinfection. The treated wastewater was designed to reuse for toilet flushing and agricultural irrigation. Laboratory-scale electrochemical (EC) disinfection experiments were performed to investigate the disinfection efficiency of the WEC with four seeded microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, recombinant adenovirus serotype 5, and bacteriophage MS2). In addition, the formation of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) at the end of the EC treatment was also investigated. The results showed that at an applied cell voltage of +4 V, the WEC achieved 5-log10 reductions of all four seeded microorganisms in real toilet wastewater within 60 min. In contrast, chemical chlorination (CC) disinfection using hypochlorite [NaClO] was only effective for the inactivation of bacteria. Due to the rapid formation of chloramines, less than 0.5-log10 reduction of MS2 was observed in toilet wastewater even at the highest [NaClO] dosage (36 mg/L, as Cl2) over a 1 h reaction. Experiments using laboratory model waters showed that free reactive chlorine generated in situ during EC disinfection process was the main disinfectant responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals [OH], and other reactive oxygen species by the active bismuth-doped TiO2 anode were negligible under the same electrolytic conditions. The formation of THMs and HAA5 were found to increase with higher applied cell voltage. Based on the energy consumption estimates, the WEC system can be operated using solar energy stored in a DC battery as the sole power source. PMID:26854604

  12. Electrochemical disinfection of toilet wastewater using wastewater electrolysis cell

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao; Qu, Yan; Cid, Clément A.; Finke, Cody; Hoffmann, Michael R.; Lim, Keahying; Jiang, Sunny C.

    2016-01-01

    The paucity of proper sanitation facilities has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases in many developing countries. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a wastewater electrolysis cell (WEC) for toilet wastewater disinfection. The treated wastewater was designed to reuse for toilet flushing and agricultural irrigation. Laboratory-scale electrochemical (EC) disinfection experiments were performed to investigate the disinfection efficiency of the WEC with four seeded microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, recombinant adenovirus serotype 5, and bacteriophage MS2). In addition, the formation of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) at the end of the EC treatment was also investigated. The results showed that at an applied cell voltage of +4 V, the WEC achieved 5-log10 reductions of all four seeded microorganisms in real toilet wastewater within 60 min. In contrast, chemical chlorination (CC) disinfection using hypochlorite [NaClO] was only effective for the inactivation of bacteria. Due to the rapid formation of chloramines, less than 0.5-log10 reduction of MS2 was observed in toilet wastewater even at the highest [NaClO] dosage (36 mg/L, as Cl2) over a 1 h reaction. Experiments using laboratory model waters showed that free reactive chlorine generated in situ during EC disinfection process was the main disinfectant responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals [•OH], and other reactive oxygen species by the active bismuth-doped TiO2 anode were negligible under the same electrolytic conditions. The formation of THMs and HAA5 were found to increase with higher applied cell voltage. Based on the energy consumption estimates, the WEC system can be operated using solar energy stored in a DC battery as the sole power source. PMID:26854604

  13. Wastewater Treatment I. Student's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This student's guide is designed to provide students with the job skills necessary for the safe and effective operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment plants. It consists of three sections. Section 1 consists of an introductory note outlining course objectives and the format of the guide. A course outline constitutes the second section.…

  14. Green Systems for Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Plants found in marshlands and wetlands in many parts of the world may play an increasing part in a very new, yet very old approach to treatment of water and wastewater--the application of biological methods. Biological water pollution control methods being utilized around the world are examined. (BT)

  15. WINERY WASTEWATER CHARACTERISTICS AND TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report has been prepared to fulfill a Research, Development and Demonstration Grant. The grant was awarded to investigate a method of treatment for winery wastewaters. In brief - the grapes are harvested in the fall and are immediately pressed of their juice. The juice is fe...

  16. Measuring Thicknesses of Wastewater Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Davenport, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Sensor determines when thickness of film of electrically conductive wastewater on rotating evaporator drum exceeds preset value. Sensor simple electrical probe that makes contact with liquid surface. Made of materials resistant to chemicals in liquid. Mounted on shaft in rotating cylinder, liquid-thickness sensor extends toward cylinder wall so tip almost touches. Sensor body accommodates probe measuring temperature of evaporated water in cylinder.

  17. Pyrethroid insecticides in municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Weston, Donald P; Ramil, Heather L; Lydy, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    Pyrethroids are widely used insecticides, but minimal information has been published on their presence in municipal wastewater in the United States. Pyrethroids in wastewater from the Sacramento, California, USA, area consisted of permethrin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, and cyhalothrin, with a combined concentration of 200 ng/L to 500 ng/L. Sampling within the wastewater collection system leading to the treatment plant suggested pyrethroids did not originate primarily from urban runoff, but could be from any of several drain disposal practices. Wastewater from residential areas was similar in pyrethroid composition and concentration to that from the larger metropolitan area as a whole. Secondary treatment removed approximately 90% of pyrethroids, but those remaining exceeded concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive species. Toxicity to the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, was consistently evident in the final effluent. The large river into which this particular plant discharged provided sufficient dilution such that pyrethroids were undetected in the river, and there was only slight toxicity of unknown cause in 1 river sample, but effects in receiving waters elsewhere will be site-specific. PMID:23893650

  18. Imprinted Polymers in Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, Christopher; Goodrich, Scott; Gartner, Isabelle; Mueller, Anja

    2004-03-31

    In wastewater treatment, a method that specifically recognizes a variety of impurities in a flexible manner would be useful for treatment facilities with varying needs. Current purification techniques (i.e. bacteria, oxidation, reduction, precipitation and filtration) are nonspecific and difficult to control in complex mixtures. Heavy metal removal is particularly important in improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment, as they inhibit or even destroy the bacteria used for filtration. Imprinting polymerization is a technique that allows for the efficient removal of specific compounds and has been used in purification of enantiomers. It has potential to be applied in wastewater systems with the impurities acting as the template for the imprinting polymerization. The polymer with the bound impurities intact can then be removed via precipitation. After removal of the impurity the polymer can be reused. Data for the imprinting polymerization of polyacrylates and polyacrylamides for several metal complexes will be presented. Imprinting polymerization in combination with emulsion polymerization to improve the removal of hydrophobic contaminants will be described. Removal efficiencies will be presented and compared with conventional wastewater treatment methods.

  19. Handbook for Monitoring Industrial Wastewater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Associated Water & Air Resources Engineers, Inc., Nashville, TN.

    This manual for industrial wastewater monitoring covers the philosophy of monitoring needs, planning, sampling, measuring, and analysis. Sufficient detail is given for those who wish to explore more deeply some of the practical and theoretical aspects of any of the phases of a monitoring program. A logical procedure is suggested and direction…

  20. Along-strike variations of structural styles in the imbricated Molasse of Salzburg and Upper Austria: a 3-D seismic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsch, Ralph; Linzer, Hans-Gert

    2010-05-01

    At the southern border of the Northern Alpine Foreland Basin syntectonic deposits (Molasse Sediments) are partly incorporated into Alpine contractional deformation. Along the alpine chain style and timing of this deformation varies significantly. In this study we use one of the largest European on-shore 3-D seismic datasets, spanning the Molasse basin of Upper Austria and Salzburg states, to investigate the along-strike structural architecture of the alpine deformation front. In the Austrian Part of the Molasse basin, foredeep sedimentation started in Upper-Eocene times (Wagner, 1996). The sediments cover the European margin, consisting of a crystalline basement covered by variously thick Mesozoic sediments (Nachtmann und Wagner, 1987). In Oligocene to Lower Miocene times, syntectonic foredeep sedimentation took place in a deep marine environment, comprising an axial channel system (Linzer 2001, DeRuig and Hubbard, 2006). Parts of these syntectonic sediments are subsequently affected by the advancing thrust wedge. Within the study area, three distinct fold-and-thrust belt segments of different structural architecture can be defined. 1) The Perwang Imbricates are a promontory mostly situated in Salzburg at the border to Germany. Complexly deformed small thrust sheets evolve above a detachment horizon situated in Late Cretaceous shaly marls in Oligocene times. Syntectonic piggy-back and thrust top basins evolve (Covault et al. 2008), which are partly affected by subsequent Miocene overthrusting. 2) The Regau Segment is the area west of the Perwang lobe. It is dominated by few number of thrust sheets in the Molasse sediments. Instead, over-thrusting by the alpine wedge (pre-deformed Flysch and Helvetic thrust sheets) dominates. 3) The Sierning Imbricates segment is located further to the east, at the border of Upper Austria to Lower Austria. The structural inventory of this thrust belt is comprises varying numbers of thrust sheets along strike (1-5), ramp

  1. Solid-state fermentation for gluconic acid production from sugarcane molasses by Aspergillus niger ARNU-4 employing tea waste as the novel solid support.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit; Vivekanand, V; Singh, Rajesh P

    2008-06-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) was evaluated to produce gluconic acid by metal resistant Aspergillus niger (ARNU-4) strain using tea waste as solid support and with molasses based fermentation medium. Various crucial parameters such as moisture content, temperature, aeration and inoculum size were derived; 70% moisture level, 30 degrees C temperature, 3% inoculum size and an aeration volume of 2.5l min(-1) was suited for maximal (76.3 gl(-1)) gluconic acid production. Non-clarified molasses based fermentation media was utilized by strain ARNU-4 and maximum gluconic acid production was observed following 8-12 days of fermentation cycle. Different concentrations of additives viz. oil cake, soya oil, jaggary, yeast extract, cheese whey and mustard oil were supplemented for further enhancement of the production ability of microorganism. Addition of yeast extract (0.5%) was observed inducive for enhanced (82.2 gl(-1)) gluconic acid production. PMID:17881224

  2. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  3. Partitioning of the Taconic foreland basin: Middle to Late Ordovician flysch and molasse sub-basins of New York State and Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, D.; Brett, C.E.; Ingram, S.L. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of field and well data suggest that the foreland basin in New York and Ontario is divisible into two sub-basins containing siliciclastic fill which are separated by a moderately narrow, north/south oriented region of relatively thin siliciclastic strata. The eastern sub-basin contains a thick succession of late Middle and early Late Ordovician basinal black shales and turbiditic siltstones and sandstones (flysch). These strata thicken eastward to over 800 m beneath the thrust belt (Taconic allochthon) in the eastern most portion of the sub-basin. The flysch is, at least in part, time-correlative with ramp carbonates present in the western sub-basin. The western sub-basin contains a relatively thin succession of flysch deposits that overlie Upper Ordovician carbonates. The flysch deposits from the western sub-basin correlate with only the stratigraphically highest strata in the eastern sub-basin. In the western sub-basin, flysch deposits are overlain by Upper Ordovician shallow marine to non-marine mudstones and sandstones (molasse). The molasse is unconformably overlain by Lower Silurian strata. Due to the angularity of the unconformity surface, the molasse is stratigraphically most complete towards the western margin of the western sub-basin; thickest deposits in this sub-basin ([gt] 600 m) are not the most stratigraphically complete. The general sedimentary history of the New York portion of the Taconic siliciclastic wedge is bipartite: (1) rapid subsidence in the eastern sub-basin during the late Middle and early Late Ordovician accompanied by flysch-phase filling; (2) rapid subsidence in the western sub-basin during the middle to late Late Ordovician accompanied by molasse-phase filling.

  4. Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Anand R.; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2009-10-01

    Many biofuel standards, including California's recently adopted low carbon fuel standard, consider just one feedstock from one supplying country for the production of sugarcane ethanol: fresh mill-pressed cane juice from a Brazilian factory. While cane juice is the dominant feedstock for ethanol in most Brazilian factories, a large number of producers in Indonesia, India, and the Caribbean, and a significant number in Brazil, manufacture most of their ethanol from molasses, a low value co-product of raw sugar. Several producers in these countries have the capacity to export ethanol to California, but the GREET (from: greenhouse gas, regulated emissions and energy use in transportation) model, which is the LCA (lifecycle assessment) model of choice for most biofuel regulators including California, does not currently include this production pathway. We develop a modification to GREET to account for this pathway. We use the upstream and process lifecycle results from the existing GREET model for Brazilian ethanol to derive lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for ethanol manufactured from any combination of molasses and fresh cane juice. We find that ethanol manufactured with only molasses as a feedstock with all other processes and inputs identical to those of the average Brazilian mill has a lifecycle GHG (greenhouse gas) rating of 15.1 gCO2- eq MJ-1, which is significantly lower than the current California-GREET assigned rating of 26.6 gCO2- eq MJ-1. Our model can be applied at any level of granulation from the individual factory to an industry-wide average. We examine some ways in which current sugarcane producers could inaccurately claim this molasses credit. We discuss methods for addressing this in regulation.

  5. Effects of fat and/or methionine hydroxy analog added to a molasses-urea-based supplement on ruminal and postruminal digestion and duodenal flow of nutrients in beef steers consuming low-quality lovegrass hay.

    PubMed

    Lopez, R; Pulsipher, G D; Guerra-Liera, J E; Soto-Navarro, S A; Balstad, L A; Petersen, M K; Dhuyvetter, D V; Brown, M S; Krehbiel, C R

    2016-06-01

    Five crossbred beef steers (initial BW = 338.6 ± 7.8 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the effects of methionine hydroxy analog (MHA) and/or yellow grease (fat) added to a molasses-urea-based supplement on intake and characteristics of digestion. Steers were fed low-quality hay (long-stem lovegrass : 3.3% CP, 76.8% NDF; DM basis) ad libitum and supplemented with 0.91 kg/d (as fed) of 1 of 4 supplements in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments. Supplemental treatments were 1) control (no supplement, NC); 2) molasses-urea liquid supplement (U); 3) U containing (as-fed basis) 1.65% MHA (UM); 4) U containing (as-fed basis) 12% fat (UF); and 5) U containing (as-fed basis) 1.65% MHA and 12% fat (UMF). Total and forage OM intake (kg/d and as % of BW) increased ( < 0.01) with molasses-urea, decreased ( ≤ 0.04) with MHA, and were not affected ( = 0.61) with fat supplementation. Total tract NDF digestibility increased ( = 0.01) with molasses-urea supplementation, and was less ( = 0.01) for fat than for nonfat supplementation. Total and microbial N flowing to the duodenum increased ( = 0.01) with molasses-urea supplementation. Although, total N flowing to duodenum was not affected ( = 0.27), microbial N decreased ( = 0.01), and nonammonia nonmicrobial N (NANMN) increased ( = 0.01) with fat supplementation. Extent of in situ OM and NDF digestibility at 96 h increased ( = 0.01) with molasses-urea supplementation, but were not affected ( ≥ 0.14) by either MHA or fat supplementation. Duodenal flow of total AA, essential AA, and nonessential AA increased ( ≤ 0.02) with molasses-urea supplementation. Total and nonessential serum AA concentration decreased ( < 0.01) with molasses-urea supplementation. Total ruminal VFA concentration increased ( = 0.01) with molasses-urea supplementation, and was not affected ( ≥ 0.14) by MHA or fat supplementation. Fat can be used in molasses-urea liquid

  6. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1

    PubMed Central

    Veana, F.; Martínez-Hernández, J.L.; Aguilar, C.N.; Rodríguez-Herrera, R.; Michelena, G.

    2014-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

  7. High-Sensitivity In situ Fluorescence Imaging of Ytterbium Atoms in a Two-Dimensional Optical Lattice with Dual Optical Molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Ryuta; Takahashi, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    We developed a dual molasses technique which enabled us to perform high-sensitivity in situ fluorescence imaging of ytterbium (Yb) atoms in a two-dimensional optical lattice prepared in a thin glass cell. This technique successfully combines two different kinds of optical molasses for Yb atoms, that is, the one using the 1S0-1P1 transition which provides high-resolution in the in situ fluorescence imaging and the other using the 1S0-3P1 transition for cooling the atoms in the optical lattice. We performed in situ imaging of 174Yb atoms and could observe a Moiré pattern with a period of about 6 µm produced by the molasses beam with 556 nm and the optical lattice with 532 nm, which implies that the temperature was kept below the lattice depth during the fluorescence imaging. The number of photons per atom is estimated to be enough for single atom detection with our imaging system. This result is quite promising for the realization of an Yb quantum gas microscope.

  8. Production of thermo-alkali-stable xylanase by a novel polyextremophilic Bacillus halodurans TSEV1 in cane molasses medium and its applicability in making whole wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikash; Satyanarayana, T

    2014-06-01

    A high titre of thermo-alkali-stable xylanase was attained in cane molasses medium. When the culture variables for endoxylanase production were optimized [cane molasses 7 %, soluble alkaline extract of wheat bran (SAE-WB) 37 % and ammonium chloride 0.30 %], a 4.5-fold enhancement in xylanase production (69 U ml(-1)) was achieved as compared to that in the unoptimized medium (15 U ml(-1)). The enzyme titre attained in shake flasks could be sustained in a 7-l laboratory bioreactor. An activity band corresponding to 40 kDa was visualized on SDS-PAGE zymogram analysis. The enzyme has broad range of pH and temperature for activity with optima at 9.0 and 80 °C, and stable between pH 4.0 and 11.0 with 85 % retention of activity. It has T 1/2 of 40 and 15 min at 70 and 80 °C. The enzyme is halotolerant since it displays activity in the presence of salt up to 15 %, and remains 100 % active in the absence of salt. The supplementation of whole wheat dough with xylanase improves antistaling property, reducing sugar content, bread volume with prebiotic xylooligosaccharides in bread. This is the first report on xylanase production in cane molasses medium with SAE-WB as the inducer and its applicability in whole wheat bread making that improves human health. PMID:24297158

  9. Sugarcane molasses and yeast powder used in the Fructooligosaccharides production by Aspergillus japonicus-FCL 119T and Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611.

    PubMed

    Dorta, Claudia; Cruz, Rubens; de Oliva-Neto, Pedro; Moura, Danilo José Camargo

    2006-12-01

    Different concentrations of sucrose (3-25% w/v) and peptone (2-5% w/v) were studied in the formulation of media during the cultivation of Aspergillus japonicus-FCL 119T and Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611. Moreover, cane molasses (3.5-17.5% w/v total sugar) and yeast powder (1.5-5% w/v) were used as alternative nutrients for both strains' cultivation. These media were formulated for analysis of cellular growth, beta-Fructosyltransferase and Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) production. Transfructosylating activity (U ( t )) and FOS production were analyzed by HPLC. The highest enzyme production by both the strains was 3% (w/v) sucrose and 3% (w/v) peptone, or 3.5% (w/v) total sugars present in cane molasses and 1.5% (w/v) yeast powder. Cane molasses and yeast powder were as good as sucrose and peptone in the enzyme and FOS (around 60% w/w) production by studied strains. PMID:16835781

  10. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1.

    PubMed

    Veana, F; Martínez-Hernández, J L; Aguilar, C N; Rodríguez-Herrera, R; Michelena, G

    2014-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

  11. ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL SYSTEMS (1980 EDITION) AND ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS MANUAL (2002 EDITION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) first issued detailed guidance on the design, construction, and operation of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) in 1980. Design Manual: Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems (USEPA.1980) was the most comprehens...

  12. ACUTE TOXIC EFFECTS OF PETROLEUM REFINERY WASTEWATERS ON REDEAR SUNFISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Static bioassays of 24 hours' duration were performed on samples of wastewaters provided by 22 domestic petroleum refiners. These wastewaters represent three types of water discharges prevalent to this industry: process wastewaters prior to dilution with other streams; API separa...

  13. Wastewater treatment plant cogeneration options

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfield, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reviews municipal sewage cogeneration and digester gas utilization options available to wastewater treatment plants, and will focus on utilizing the digester gas in combustion turbines and engine-generator systems. Defining the digestion and gas generation process is crucial to understanding the best gas utilization system. In municipal wastewater treatment plants biosolids (sludge) reduction is accomplished using aerobic or anaerobic digestion. The basic process of treating sewage solids with digestion is not new and has been practiced as far back as the nineteenth century. High energy usage consumed by aerobic blow systems supplying air to the process and the potential ``free`` energy generated by anaerobic digesters sometimes sways designers to select anaerobic over aerobic digestion. The following areas will be covered in this paper: gas utilization and cogeneration; definition of digestion process; sizing the cogeneration system and reviewing the systems components; emissions requirements and options; and capital, and O and M cost analysis.

  14. FAILURE ANALYSIS: WASTEWATER DRUM BULGING

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-15

    A 55 gallon wastewater drum lid was found to be bulged during storage in a remote area. Drum samples were obtained for analysis. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  15. 3D model of the Bernese Part of the Swiss Molasse Basin: visualization of uncertainties in a 3D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, Samuel; Allenbach, Robin; Reynolds, Lance; Wehrens, Philip; Kurmann-Matzenauer, Eva; Kuhn, Pascal; Michael, Salomè; Di Tommaso, Gennaro; Herwegh, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The Swiss Molasse Basin comprises the western and central part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin. In recent years it has come under closer scrutiny due to its promising geopotentials such as geothermal energy and CO2 sequestration. In order to adress these topics good knowledge of the subsurface is a key prerequisite. For that matter, geological 3D models serve as valuable tools. In collaboration with the Swiss Geological Survey (swisstopo) and as part of the project GeoMol CH, a geological 3D model of the Swiss Molasse Basin in the Canton of Bern has been built. The model covers an area of 1810 km2and reaches depth of up to 6.7 km. It comprises 10 major Cenozoic and Mesozoic units and numerous faults. The 3D model is mainly based on 2D seismic data complemented by information from few deep wells. Additionally, data from geological maps and profiles were used for refinement at shallow depths. In total, 1163 km of reflection seismic data, along 77 seismic lines, have been interpreted by different authors with respect to stratigraphy and structures. Both, horizons and faults, have been interpreted in 2D and modelled in 3D using IHS's Kingdom Suite and Midland Valley's MOVE software packages, respectively. Given the variable degree of subsurface information available, each 3D model is subject of uncertainty. With the primary input data coming from interpretation of reflection seismic data, a variety of uncertainties comes into play. Some of them are difficult to address (e.g. author's style of interpretation) while others can be quantified (e.g. mis-tie correction, well-tie). An important source of uncertainties is the quality of seismic data; this affects the traceability and lateral continuation of seismic reflectors. By defining quality classes we can semi-quantify this source of uncertainty. In order to visualize the quality and density of the input data in a meaningful way, we introduce quality-weighted data density maps. In combination with the geological 3D

  16. Performance and Metabolism of Calves Fed Starter Feed Containing Sugarcane Molasses or Glucose Syrup as a Replacement for Corn.

    PubMed

    Oltramari, C E; Nápoles, G G O; De Paula, M R; Silva, J T; Gallo, M P C; Pasetti, M H O; Bittar, C M M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn grain for sugar cane molasses (MO) or glucose syrup (GS) in the starter concentrate on performance and metabolism of dairy calves. Thirty-six individually housed Holstein male calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth and assigned to one of the starter feed treatments, during an 8 week study: i) starter containing 65% corn with no MO or GS (0MO); ii) starter containing 60% corn and 5% MO (5MO); iii) starter containing 55% corn and 10% MO (10MO); and iv) starter containing 60% corn and 5% GS (5GS). Animals received 4 L of milk replacer daily (20 crude protein, 16 ether extract, 12.5% solids), divided in two meals (0700 and 1700 h). Starter and water were provided ad libitum. Starter intake and fecal score were monitored daily until animals were eight weeks old. Body weight and measurements (withers height, hip width and heart girth) were measured weekly before the morning feeding. From the second week of age, blood samples were collected weekly, 2 h after the morning feeding, for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate determination. Ruminal fluid was collected at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age using an oro-ruminal probe and a suction pump for determination of pH and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). At the end of the eighth week, animals were harvested to evaluate development of the proximal digestive tract. The composition of the starter did not affect (p>0.05) concentrate intake, weight gain, fecal score, blood parameters, and rumen development. However, treatment 5MO showed higher (p<0.05) total concentration of SCFAs, acetate and propionate than 0MO, and these treatments did not differ from 10MO and 5GS (p>0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that the replacement of corn by 5% or 10% sugar cane molasses or 5% GS on starter concentrate did not impact performance, however it has some positive effects on rumen fermentation which may be beneficial for calves with a developing rumen. PMID

  17. Performance and Metabolism of Calves Fed Starter Feed Containing Sugarcane Molasses or Glucose Syrup as a Replacement for Corn

    PubMed Central

    Oltramari, C. E.; Nápoles, G. G. O.; De Paula, M. R.; Silva, J. T.; Gallo, M. P. C.; Pasetti, M. H. O.; Bittar, C. M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn grain for sugar cane molasses (MO) or glucose syrup (GS) in the starter concentrate on performance and metabolism of dairy calves. Thirty-six individually housed Holstein male calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth and assigned to one of the starter feed treatments, during an 8 week study: i) starter containing 65% corn with no MO or GS (0MO); ii) starter containing 60% corn and 5% MO (5MO); iii) starter containing 55% corn and 10% MO (10MO); and iv) starter containing 60% corn and 5% GS (5GS). Animals received 4 L of milk replacer daily (20 crude protein, 16 ether extract, 12.5% solids), divided in two meals (0700 and 1700 h). Starter and water were provided ad libitum. Starter intake and fecal score were monitored daily until animals were eight weeks old. Body weight and measurements (withers height, hip width and heart girth) were measured weekly before the morning feeding. From the second week of age, blood samples were collected weekly, 2 h after the morning feeding, for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate determination. Ruminal fluid was collected at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age using an oro-ruminal probe and a suction pump for determination of pH and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). At the end of the eighth week, animals were harvested to evaluate development of the proximal digestive tract. The composition of the starter did not affect (p>0.05) concentrate intake, weight gain, fecal score, blood parameters, and rumen development. However, treatment 5MO showed higher (p<0.05) total concentration of SCFAs, acetate and propionate than 0MO, and these treatments did not differ from 10MO and 5GS (p>0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that the replacement of corn by 5% or 10% sugar cane molasses or 5% GS on starter concentrate did not impact performance, however it has some positive effects on rumen fermentation which may be beneficial for calves with a developing rumen. PMID

  18. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ggg of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 6 Table 6 to Subpart GGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.... GGG, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart GGG of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options for Wastewater...

  19. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  20. Bioenergy from anaerobically treated wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    Breweries and other processing plants including dairy cooperatives, sugar plants, grain mills, gasohol plants, etc., produce wastewater containing complex organic matter, either in solution or as volatile suspended solids, which can be treated anaerobically to effectively reduce the pollutants by 85-95% and generate a CH4 containing gas. An example anaerobic plant to serve a 10 to the power of 6-bbl brewery is discussed.

  1. Sustainability of wastewater treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Muga, Helen E; Mihelcic, James R

    2008-08-01

    A set of indicators that incorporate environmental, societal, and economic sustainability were developed and used to investigate the sustainability of different wastewater treatment technologies, for plant capacities of <5 million gallons per day (MGD) or 18.9 x 10(3) cubic meters (m(3)/day). The technologies evaluated were mechanical (i.e., activated sludge with secondary treatment), lagoon (facultative, anaerobic, and aerobic), and land treatment systems (e.g., slow rate irrigation, rapid infiltration, and overland flow). The economic indicators selected were capital, operation and management, and user costs because they determine the economic affordability of a particular technology to a community. Environmental indicators include energy use, because it indirectly measures resource utilization, and performance of the technology in removing conventional wastewater constituents such as biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, phosphorus, and pathogens. These indicators also determine the reuse potential of the treated wastewater. Societal indicators capture cultural acceptance of the technology through public participation and also measure whether there is improvement in the community from the specific technology through increased job opportunities, better education, or an improved local environment. While selection of a set of indicators is dependent on the geographic and demographic context of a particular community, the overall results of this study show that there are varying degrees of sustainability with each treatment technology. PMID:17467148

  2. Separation of Tritium from Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    JEPPSON, D.W.

    2000-01-25

    A proprietary tritium loading bed developed by Molecular Separations, Inc (MSI) has been shown to selectively load tritiated water as waters of hydration at near ambient temperatures. Tests conducted with a 126 {micro}C{sub 1} tritium/liter water standard mixture showed reductions to 25 {micro}C{sub 1}/L utilizing two, 2-meter long columns in series. Demonstration tests with Hanford Site wastewater samples indicate an approximate tritium concentration reduction from 0.3 {micro}C{sub 1}/L to 0.07 {micro}C{sub 1}/L for a series of two, 2-meter long stationary column beds Further reduction to less than 0.02 {micro}C{sub 1}/L, the current drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL), is projected with additional bed media in series. Tritium can be removed from the loaded beds with a modest temperature increase and the beds can be reused Results of initial tests are presented and a moving bed process for treating large quantities of wastewaters is proposed. The moving bed separation process appears promising to treat existing large quantities of wastewater at various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The enriched tritium stream can be grouted for waste disposition. The separations system has also been shown to reduce tritium concentrations in nuclear reactor cooling water to levels that allow reuse. Energy requirements to reconstitute the loading beds and waste disposal costs for this process appear modest.

  3. Complex hydrothermal alteration and illite K-Ar ages in Upper Visean molasse sediments and magmatic rocks of the Variscan Badenweiler-Lenzkirch suture zone, Black Forest, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockamp, Olaf; Schlegel, Andreas; Wemmer, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Post-collisional Upper Visean molasse sediments and magmatic rocks of the Badenweiler-Lenzkirch Zone reveal by microscopy of thin sections different degrees of hydrothermal illitization of feldspar and mica particles, and XRD, IR and XRF data of the <2 µm fractions show illitic material as the dominant clay mineral consisting of a mixture of 1M and 2M1 polytypes. Moreover, small amounts of illite/smectite mixed-layer minerals of R1-ordering are proved in the granites. In the separates, two illite mixing lines with different Fe + Mg contents are verified between authigenic illite from feldspar alteration and detrital illite in the molasse sediments, as well as between authigenic illite from feldspar alteration and altered mica flakes in the granites. Fe-rich detrital chlorite is present within the molasse sediments, while mixtures of high aluminous Fe-poor dioctahedral/di-trioctahedral chlorite with randomly interstratified chlorite/smectite mixed-layer minerals are formed from feldspar alteration in the granites. Illite K-Ar dating of the <2 and <0.63 µm fractions yields hydrothermal illitization of feldspar and partial resetting of the K-Ar system of detrital illite and mica flakes in the molasse sediments at ≥200 °C during Upper Permian to Middle Triassic times, while the granites in the eastern part of the study area were not altered contemporaneously. In contrast, hydrothermal activity at ≤200 °C during Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous times occurred in the granites, whereas these temperatures were too low for resetting the older `Permo-Triassic' illite K-Ar ages in the molasse rocks. Within both K-Ar age clusters, the data are seen to decrease with grain size and portion of illite 2M1 polytype. The alteration phenomena indicate multiple hydrothermal episodes in the study area, and they match those from the Central and Western European crust as fluid supply was controlled geodynamically by episodic break up of Pangea.

  4. Constructed wetland mesocosms for the treatment of diluted sugarcane molasses stillage from ethanol production using Pontederia sagittata.

    PubMed

    Olguín, Eugenia J; Sánchez-Galván, Gloria; González-Portela, Ricardo E; López-Vela, Melissa

    2008-08-01

    Sugarcane molasses stillage contains a very high concentration of organic matter and toxic/recalcitrant compounds. Its improper disposal has become a global problem and there is very scanty information about its treatment using phytotechnologies. This work aimed at evaluating the performance of subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs) mesocosms planted with Pontederia sagittata and operating at two hydraulic retention times (HRTs), compared to an unplanted SSF CWs, for the treatment of diluted stillage subjected to no pre-treatment apart from an adjustment to pH 6.0. CWs were fed with very high surface COD loading rates (i.e. 47.26 and 94.83gCOD/m(2)d). The planted CWs were able to remove COD in the range of 80.24-80.62%, BOD(5) in the range of 82.20-87.31%, TKN in the range of 73.42-76.07%, nitrates from 56-58.74% and sulfates from 68.58-69.45%, depending on the HRT. Phosphate and potassium were not removed. It was concluded that this type of CWs is a feasible option for the treatment of diluted stillage. PMID:18653207

  5. The utilization of sugar cane molasses with/without the presence of lignosulfonate for the production of bacterial cellulose.

    PubMed

    Keshk, Sherif; Sameshima, Kazuhiko

    2006-09-01

    Production of bacterial cellulose (BC) using sugar cane molasses (MO) with/without the presence of lignosulfonate (MOL) as a sole carbon source in a Hestrin-Schramm medium (HS) was investigated. Six strains of Acetobacter xylinum [American Type Culture Collection 10245 and Institute of Fermentation in Osaka (IFO) 13693, 13772, 13773, 14815, and 15237] were screened for their BC production. The yield of the BC among all the strains from both the MO and MOL media was much higher than that from the HS medium. Acetobacter xylinum IFO 13772 was the best BC producer for all media. Furthermore, physical properties of these BC from the HS, MO, and MOL media were studied using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer, and cross polarization/magic angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. There are no significant differences in the crystallinity and the recorded Ialpha fraction among the BC produced from the different media. A remarkable difference was only recorded in terms of viscosity. These results indicate that MO is a better carbon source than glucose for most of the strains investigated. PMID:16450110

  6. Immediate and delayed signal of slab breakoff in Oligo/Miocene Molasse deposits from the European Alps

    PubMed Central

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Castelltort, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution 32–20 Ma-old stratigraphic records from the Molasse foreland basin situated north of the Alps, and Gonfolite Lombarda conglomerates deposited on the southern Alpine margin, document two consecutive sedimentary responses - an immediate and delayed response - to slab breakoff beneath the central Alps c. 32–30 Ma ago. The first signal, which occurred due to rebound and surface uplift in the Alps, was a regional and simultaneous switch from basin underfill to overfill at 30 Ma paired with shifts to coarse-grained depositional environments in the foreland basin. The second signal, however, arrived several million years after slab breakoff and was marked by larger contributions of crystalline clasts in the conglomerates, larger clast sizes, larger sediment fluxes and shifts to more proximal facies. We propose that this secondary pulse reflects a delayed whiplash-type erosional response to surface uplift, where erosion and sediment flux became amplified through positive feedbacks once larger erosional thresholds of crystalline bedrock were exceeded. PMID:27510939

  7. Use of urea-molasses-multinutrient block and urea-treated rice straw for improving dairy cattle productivity in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vu, D D; Cuong, L X; Dung, C A; Hai, P H

    1999-01-27

    After conducting a preliminary survey, a feeding trial was carried out to determine the effect of urea-molasses-multinutrient block (UMMB) and urea-treated rice straw (UTRS) as a feed supplement on the productivity of dairy cows. Sixty Holstein-Friesian crossbred cows on 11 smallholder farms were divided equally into control, UMMB and UTRS supplementation groups. Milk yield and feed intake were recorded daily. Milk fat content, body weight and body condition score (BSC) of each cow were determined at two week intervals. Milk samples for progesterone analysis were collected once a week commencing one month after parturition. Data were recorded for date of onset of ovarian activity, estrus, insemination, and conception rate. Milk production increased by 10.3-11.9% and milk fat content increased by 3-5%, therefore, profit for farmers increased by US $0.55-0.73 per cow per day (exchange rate US $1 = VN $11,000). The intervals from calving to onset of ovarian activity (91-94 days), to estrus (110-114 days), to conception (121-122 days) and the calving interval (13.4-13.6 months) in the trial groups were significantly shorter than those in the control group (112, 135, 152 days and 14.4 months, respectively. PMID:10081798

  8. Immediate and delayed signal of slab breakoff in Oligo/Miocene Molasse deposits from the European Alps.

    PubMed

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Castelltort, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution 32-20 Ma-old stratigraphic records from the Molasse foreland basin situated north of the Alps, and Gonfolite Lombarda conglomerates deposited on the southern Alpine margin, document two consecutive sedimentary responses - an immediate and delayed response - to slab breakoff beneath the central Alps c. 32-30 Ma ago. The first signal, which occurred due to rebound and surface uplift in the Alps, was a regional and simultaneous switch from basin underfill to overfill at 30 Ma paired with shifts to coarse-grained depositional environments in the foreland basin. The second signal, however, arrived several million years after slab breakoff and was marked by larger contributions of crystalline clasts in the conglomerates, larger clast sizes, larger sediment fluxes and shifts to more proximal facies. We propose that this secondary pulse reflects a delayed whiplash-type erosional response to surface uplift, where erosion and sediment flux became amplified through positive feedbacks once larger erosional thresholds of crystalline bedrock were exceeded. PMID:27510939

  9. Pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry monitoring of fungal-biotreated distillery wastewater using Trametes sp. I-62 (CECT 20197).

    PubMed

    González, T; Terrón, M C; Yagüe, S; Zapico, E; Galletti, G C; González, A E

    2000-01-01

    Distillery wastewaters generated by ethanol production from fermentation of sugar-cane molasses, named vinasses, lead to important ecological impact due to their high content of soluble organic matter and their intense dark-brown color. Taking advantage of the well-known ability of white-rot fungi to degrade an extensive variety of organic pollutants, the capacity of Trametes sp. I-62 (CECT 20197) to detoxify this type of effluents was evaluated. In this work, pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was applied to the chemical characterization of several fractions of Cuban distillery wastewater as well as to monitoring the changes which occurred after fungal treatment with this white-rot basidiomycete. Maximum effluent decolorization values and chemical oxygen demand reduction attained after seven days of fungal treatment were 73.3 and 61.7%, respectively, when 20% (v/v) of distillery vinasses was added to the culture medium. Under these conditions a 35-fold increase in laccase production by Trametes sp. I-62 was measured, but no manganese peroxidase activity could be detected. The pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry results showed a decrease in a number of pyrolysis products after seven days of fungal treatment, mainly furan derivatives. The decrease in the relative areas of these compounds could be related to the vinasse color-removal associated with melanoidin degradation. All these results indicated the potential use ofTrametes sp. I-62 in the detoxification of recalcitrant distillery vinasses. PMID:10920364

  10. Removal of endotoxin from dairy wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of various treatments on removing endotoxin (ET) from wastewater was tested by using the treated water to induce a systemic reaction via intratracheal inoculation (20 ml/goat, 6 goats/group). Treatments (T1-T7) of wastewater were as follows: 1) autoclaved 15 min, centrifuged and contain...

  11. Persistence of Ebola Virus in Sterilized Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of the ongoing 2014/2015 Ebola virus outbreak, significant questions regarding the appropriate handling of Ebola virus-contaminated liquid waste remain, including the persistence of Ebola virus in wastewater. To address these uncertainties, we evaluated the persistence of Ebola virus spiked in sterilized domestic sewage. The viral titer decreased approximately 99% within the first test day from an initial viral titer of 106 TCID50 mL–1; however, it could not be determined if this initial rapid decrease was due to aggregation or inactivation of the viral particles. The subsequent viral titer decrease was less rapid, and infectious Ebola virus particles persisted for all 8 days of the test. The inactivation constant (k) was determined to be −1.08 (2.1 days for a 90% viral titer decrease). Due to experimental conditions, we believe these results to be an upper bound for Ebola virus persistence in wastewater. Wastewater composition is inherently heterogeneous; subsequently, we caution that interpretation of these results should be made within a holistic assessment, including the effects of wastewater composition, dilution, and potential exposure routes within wastewater infrastructure. While it remains unknown if Ebola virus may be transmitted via wastewater, these data demonstrate a potential exposure route to infectious Ebola virus via wastewater and emphasize the value of a precautionary approach to wastewater handling in an epidemic response. PMID:26523283

  12. GENOTOXIC PROPERTIES OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS IN OHIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewaters from six municipal wastewater treatment plants in Ohio were tested at different stages of treatment for mutagenicity in the Ames/Salmonella assay. The chlorinated secondary effluents were also evaluated for induction of sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ov...

  13. Operation and Maintenance of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Douglas D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment: (1) operators, training, and certification; (2) solutions to operating problems; (3) collection systems; (4) operations manuals; (5) wastewater treatment facility case histories; (5) land application; and (6) treatment of industrial wastes. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM)

  14. Swine wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the passive technologies being used for animal wastewater treatment is constructed wetlands. We have investigated swine lagoon wastewater treatment in both continuous marsh and marsh-pond-marsh (MPM) type constructed wetlands for their nitrogen treatment efficiency, ammonia volatilization, de...

  15. A Technology of Wastewater Sludge Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizatulin, R. A.; Senkus, V. V.; Valueva, A. V.; Baldanova, A. S.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2016-04-01

    At many communities, industrial and agricultural enterprises, treatment and recycling of wastewater sludge is an urgent task as the sludge is poured and stored in sludge banks for many years and thus worsens the ecology and living conditions of the region. The article suggests a new technology of wastewater sludge treatment using water-soluble binder and heat treatment in microwave ovens.

  16. ANTIMONY REMOVAL TECHNOLOGY FOR MINING INDUSTRY WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report assessed the current state-of-the-art of antimony removal technology for mining industry wastewaters. Through literature review and personal interviews, it was found that most mines and mills reporting significant quantities of antimony in their raw wastewater had app...

  17. PRODUCTION OF NATURAL PLASTICS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site Sourcing
    Locating our research on site at a wastewater plant proved less reasonable than simply shipping biosolids from the site to our lab. By not locating at one particular site, we were able to experiment with biosolids from several wastewater t...

  18. MANUAL - CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Constructed wetlands are man-made wastewater treatment systems. They usually have one or more cells less than 1 meter deep and are planted with aquatic greenery. Water outlet structures control the flow of wastewater through the system to keep detention times and water levels at ...

  19. Biological treatment of printing ink wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Shi, H; Qian, Y

    2003-01-01

    Printing ink wastewater is usually very difficult to treat biologically and its chemical oxygen demand (COD) far exceeds standards of discharge. The COD in wastewater is usually 3,000 to 8,000 mg/L after flocculation and sedimentation. Herein, a strain of bacterium was isolated from the sludge and identified as Bacillus sp. and utilized to treat printing ink wastewater. The application of bacteria to degrade printing ink in wastewater is discussed in this paper. The influence of N and P sources on COD removal, and COD removal in combination with glucose was also discussed. More than 85 per cent of the COD could be removed using the proposed biological process. A novel internal airlift loop bioreactor with bacteria immobilized onto ceramic honeycomb support was used for the wastewater treatment. PMID:12578205

  20. Hydrogen sulfide pollution in wastewater treatment facilities

    SciTech Connect

    AlDhowalia, K.H. )

    1987-01-01

    The hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) found in wastewater collection systems and wastewater treatment facilities results from the bacterial reduction of the sulfate ion (SO{sub 4}). Hydrogen sulfide is a gas that occurs both in the sewer atmosphere and as a dissolved gas in the wastewater. When raw wastewater first enters the wastewater treatment facility by gravity most of the hydrogen sulfide is in the gaseous phase and will escape into the atmosphere at the inlet structures. Also some of the dissolved hydrogen sulfide will be released at points of turbulance such as at drops in flow, flumes, or aeration chambers. Several factors can cause excessive hydrogen sulfide concentrations in a sewerage system. These include septic sewage, long flow times in the sewerage system, high temperatures, flat sewer grades, and poor ventilation. These factors are discussed in this paper.

  1. Freezing cleans food processing wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-01-01

    Snowfluent is a technology which atomizes wastewater effluent and sprays it into the air as ice crystals at cold temperatures. It has been found effective in treating municipal sewage and food processing wastes. This bulletin reviews pilot- and production-scale studies conducted at an Alberta malt producer to test whether the Snowfluent process has further applications for the treatment of food processing wastes. The study was designed to determine the percentage of nutrients removed by the technology, the point at which contaminants are reduced, the effect of the process on the shallow water table, and the health risk to operators involved.

  2. Freezing cleans food processing wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    Snowfluent is a technology which atomizes wastewater effluent and sprays it into the air as ice crystals at cold temperatures. It has been found effective in treating municipal sewage and food processing wastes. This bulletin reviews pilot- and production-scale studies conducted at an Alberta malt producer to test whether the Snowfluent process has further applications for the treatment of food processing wastes. The study was designed to determine the percentage of nutrients removed by the technology, the point at which contaminants are reduced, the effect of the process on the shallow water table, and the health risk to operators involved.

  3. Steel industry wastes. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Vachon, D.T.; Schmidt, J.W.; Schmidtke, N.W.

    1982-06-01

    A literature review dealing with waste processing of steel industry wastes is presented. The costs for the U.S. steel industry to comply with environmental standards are such that water reuse and recycling may be necessary. The review examines conventional coke plant wastewater treatments such as flotation, phenol extraction, ammonia stripping, and biological nitrification, and alternative treatment processes for blast furnace scrubber blowdown such as alkaline chlorination, ozonation, and reverse osmosis. A review of pickling operations and finishing processes is also included with their appropriate waste methods highlighted.

  4. 7 CFR 3201.98 - Wastewater systems coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wastewater systems coatings. 3201.98 Section 3201.98... Designated Items § 3201.98 Wastewater systems coatings. (a) Definition. Coatings that protect wastewater... procurement preference for qualifying biobased wastewater systems coatings. By that date, Federal...

  5. 7 CFR 3201.98 - Wastewater systems coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wastewater systems coatings. 3201.98 Section 3201.98... Designated Items § 3201.98 Wastewater systems coatings. (a) Definition. Coatings that protect wastewater... procurement preference for qualifying biobased wastewater systems coatings. By that date, Federal...

  6. 40 CFR 63.132 - Process wastewater provisions-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1 wastewater stream or residual removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream to an on-site treatment... residual, or to an off-site treatment operation. (1) The owner or operator transferring the wastewater... may not transfer the wastewater stream or residual to the treatment operation. (3) By providing...

  7. 40 CFR 63.132 - Process wastewater provisions-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1 wastewater stream or residual removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream to an on-site treatment... residual, or to an off-site treatment operation. (1) The owner or operator transferring the wastewater... may not transfer the wastewater stream or residual to the treatment operation. (3) By providing...

  8. 40 CFR 63.132 - Process wastewater provisions-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1 wastewater stream or residual removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream to an on-site treatment... residual, or to an off-site treatment operation. (1) The owner or operator transferring the wastewater... may not transfer the wastewater stream or residual to the treatment operation. (3) By providing...

  9. Modelling "reality" in tectonics: Simulation of the mechanical evolution of the Jura Mountains-Molasse Basin system, and routes to forward-inverse modelling of fold thrust belts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindle, David; Kley, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    The ultimate validation of any numerical model of any geological process comes when it can accurately forward model a case study from the geological record. However, as the example of the Jura-Molasse fold thrust belt demonstrates, geological information on even the most basic aspects of the present day state of such systems is highly incomplete and usually known only with large uncertainties. Fold thrust-belts are studied and understood by geologists in an iterative process of constructing their subsurface geometries and structures (folds, faults, bedding etc) based on limited subsurface information from boreholes, tunnels or seismic data where available, and surface information on outcrops of different layers and their dips. This data is usually processed through geometric models which involve conservation of line length of different beds over the length of an entire cross section. Constructing such sections is the art of cross section balancing. A balanced cross section can be easily restored to its pre-deformation state, assuming (usually) originally horizontal bedding to remove the effects of folding and faulting. Such a pre-deformation state can then form an initial condition for a forward mechanical model of the section. A mechanical model introduces new parameters into the system such as rock elasticity, cohesion, and frictional properties. However, a forward mechanical model can also potentially show the continuous evolution of a fold thrust belt, including dynamic quantities like stress. Moreover, a forward mechanical model, if correct in most aspects, should match in its final state, the present day geological cross section it is simulating. However, when attempting to achieve a match between geometric and mechanical models, it becomes clear that many more aspects of the geodynamic history of a fold thrust belt have to be taken into account. Erosion of the uppermost layers of an evolving thrust belt is the most obvious one of these. This can potentially

  10. Effect of Applying Molasses and Propionic Acid on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration Silage Prepared with Whole-plant Corn in Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Guo, Gang; Yuan, Xianjun; Shimojo, Masataka; Yu, Chengqun; Shao, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of molasses and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. TMR (354 g/kg DM) was ensiled with four different treatments: no additive (control), molasses (M), propionic acid (P), and molasses+propionic acid (PM), in laboratory silos (250 mL) and fermented for 45 d. Silos were opened and silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters of TMR silages were measured to determined the aerobic deterioration. After 45 d of ensiling, the four TMR silages were of good quality with low pH value and ammonia/total N (AN), and high lactic acid (LA) content and V-scores. M silage showed the highest (p<0.05) LA content and higher dry matter (DM) recovery than the control and P silages. P silage had lower (p<0.05) LA content than the control silage. During aerobic exposure, lactic acid contents decreased gradually in the control and M silages, while that of P and PM silages increased, and the peak values were observed after 9 d. M silage had similar yeast counts with the control silage (>105 cfu/g FM), however, it appeared to be more stable as indicated by a delayed pH value increase. P and PM silages showed fewer yeasts (<105 cfu/g FM) (p<0.05) and were more stable than the control and M silages during aerobic exposure. It was concluded that M application increased LA content and improved aerobic stability of TMR silage prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. P application inhibited lactic acid production during ensiling, and apparently preserved available sugars which stimulated large increases in lactic acid during aerobic exposure stage, which resulted in greater aerobic stability of TMR silage. PMID:25049961

  11. Mitigating ammonia nitrogen deficiency in dairy wastewaters for algae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qian; Zhou, Wenguang; Min, Min; Ma, Xiaochen; Ma, Yiwei; Chen, Paul; Zheng, Hongli; Doan, Yen T T; Liu, Hui; Chen, Chi; Urriola, Pedro E; Shurson, Gerald C; Ruan, Roger

    2016-02-01

    This study demonstrated that the limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewater was the ammonia nitrogen deficiency. Dairy wastewaters were mixed with a slaughterhouse wastewater that has much higher ammonia nitrogen content. The results showed the mixing wastewaters improved the nutrient profiles and biomass yield at low cost. Algae grown on mixed wastewaters contained high protein (55.98-66.91%) and oil content (19.10-20.81%) and can be exploited to produce animal feed and biofuel. Furthermore, algae grown on mixed wastewater significantly reduced nutrient contents remained in the wastewater after treatment. By mitigating limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewaters, the key issue of low biomass yield of algae grown on dairy wastewaters was resolved and the wastewater nutrient removal efficiency was significantly improved by this study. PMID:26623940

  12. Reservoir characterization of the Upper Jurassic geothermal target formations (Molasse Basin, Germany): role of thermofacies as exploration tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homuth, S.; Götz, A. E.; Sass, I.

    2015-06-01

    The Upper Jurassic carbonates of the southern German Molasse Basin are the target of numerous geothermal combined heat and power production projects since the year 2000. A production-orientated reservoir characterization is therefore of high economic interest. Outcrop analogue studies enable reservoir property prediction by determination and correlation of lithofacies-related thermo- and petrophysical parameters. A thermofacies classification of the carbonate formations serves to identify heterogeneities and production zones. The hydraulic conductivity is mainly controlled by tectonic structures and karstification, whilst the type and grade of karstification is facies related. The rock permeability has only a minor effect on the reservoir's sustainability. Physical parameters determined on oven-dried samples have to be corrected, applying reservoir transfer models to water-saturated reservoir conditions. To validate these calculated parameters, a Thermo-Triaxial-Cell simulating the temperature and pressure conditions of the reservoir is used and calorimetric and thermal conductivity measurements under elevated temperature conditions are performed. Additionally, core and cutting material from a 1600 m deep research drilling and a 4850 m (total vertical depth, measured depth: 6020 m) deep well is used to validate the reservoir property predictions. Under reservoir conditions a decrease in permeability of 2-3 magnitudes is observed due to the thermal expansion of the rock matrix. For tight carbonates the matrix permeability is temperature-controlled; the thermophysical matrix parameters are density-controlled. Density increases typically with depth and especially with higher dolomite content. Therefore, thermal conductivity increases; however the dominant factor temperature also decreases the thermal conductivity. Specific heat capacity typically increases with increasing depth and temperature. The lithofacies-related characterization and prediction of reservoir

  13. Effects of Rice Straw Supplemented with Urea and Molasses on Intermediary Metabolism of Plasma Glucose and Leucine in Sheep.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammad Khairul; Ogata, Yasumichi; Sato, Yukari; Sano, Hiroaki

    2016-04-01

    An isotope dilution method using [U-(13)C]glucose and [1-(13)C]leucine (Leu) was conducted to evaluate the effects of rice straw supplemented with urea and molasses (RSUM-diet) on plasma glucose and Leu turnover rates in sheep. Nitrogen (N) balance, rumen fermentation characteristics and blood metabolite concentrations were also determined. Four sheep were fed either mixed hay (MH-diet), or a RSUM-diet with a crossover design for two 21 days period. Feed allowance was computed on the basis of metabolizable energy at maintenance level. The isotope dilution method was performed as the primed-continuous infusion on day 21 of each dietary period. Nitrogen intake was lower (p = 0.01) for the RSUM-diet and N digestibility did not differ (p = 0.57) between diets. Concentrations of rumen total volatile fatty acids tended to be higher (p = 0.09) for the RSUM-diet than the MH-diet. Acetate concentration in the rumen did not differ (p = 0.38) between diets, whereas propionate concentration was higher (p = 0.01) for the RSUM-diet compared to the MH-diet. Turnover rates as well as concentrations of plasma glucose and Leu did not differ between diets. It can be concluded that kinetics of plasma glucose and Leu metabolism were comparable between the RSUM-diet and the MH-diet, and rumen fermentation characteristics were improved in sheep fed the RSUM-diet compared to the MH-diet. PMID:26949953

  14. 3-D seismic analysis of a carbonate platform in the Molasse Basin - reef distribution and internal separation with seismic attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hartmann, Hartwig; Buness, Hermann; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Schulz, Rüdiger

    2012-10-01

    Carbonate platforms differ from clastic sedimentary environments by a greater heterogeneity, so that key horizons for mapping and compartmentalisation of the reservoir are generally missing. We show that different seismic attributes help to compete with these difficulties and to identify different carbonate facies within the platform. The Upper Jurassic carbonate platform in Southern Germany in the Molasse Basin is a main exploration target for hydrogeothermal projects. Knowledge about the distribution of different carbonate facies within the platform, which is overprinted by faults, is important for a realistic reservoir simulation. The platform with an average thickness of 600 meters was artificially divided into four layers of equal thickness. Within each layer the characteristic seismic pattern was visualized by different attributes (travel time mapping, spectral decomposition), allowing additionally for further depositional classification. Within the uppermost layer the coral reef distribution could be mapped. The reefs form several complexes of up to 12 square kilometres in size. The surrounding slope and trough areas are identified as well. Within the platform , the distribution of sponge reefs could be visualized. They form either amalgamations in distinct areas, or are spread as small singular structures with diameters of approximately less than hundred meters. Comparing tectonic elements and reef distribution within the whole platform reveals that the early topography triggered the reef distribution, while these lithologic inhomogenities influenced later on the local shape of tectonic lineaments. The fault system which dominates the structural style in the area is visible in the different transformations but does not obscure the facies distribution, which hindered former interpretations of the data set. In this way a reservoir model can incorporate now the first time the reef distribution within an area.

  15. Effects of Rice Straw Supplemented with Urea and Molasses on Intermediary Metabolism of Plasma Glucose and Leucine in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Mohammad Khairul; Ogata, Yasumichi; Sato, Yukari; Sano, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    An isotope dilution method using [U-13C]glucose and [1-13C]leucine (Leu) was conducted to evaluate the effects of rice straw supplemented with urea and molasses (RSUM-diet) on plasma glucose and Leu turnover rates in sheep. Nitrogen (N) balance, rumen fermentation characteristics and blood metabolite concentrations were also determined. Four sheep were fed either mixed hay (MH-diet), or a RSUM-diet with a crossover design for two 21 days period. Feed allowance was computed on the basis of metabolizable energy at maintenance level. The isotope dilution method was performed as the primed-continuous infusion on day 21 of each dietary period. Nitrogen intake was lower (p = 0.01) for the RSUM-diet and N digestibility did not differ (p = 0.57) between diets. Concentrations of rumen total volatile fatty acids tended to be higher (p = 0.09) for the RSUM-diet than the MH-diet. Acetate concentration in the rumen did not differ (p = 0.38) between diets, whereas propionate concentration was higher (p = 0.01) for the RSUM-diet compared to the MH-diet. Turnover rates as well as concentrations of plasma glucose and Leu did not differ between diets. It can be concluded that kinetics of plasma glucose and Leu metabolism were comparable between the RSUM-diet and the MH-diet, and rumen fermentation characteristics were improved in sheep fed the RSUM-diet compared to the MH-diet. PMID:26949953

  16. Chitin and L(+)-lactic acid production from crab (Callinectes bellicosus) wastes by fermentation of Lactobacillus sp. B2 using sugar cane molasses as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Flores-Albino, Belem; Arias, Ladislao; Gómez, Jorge; Castillo, Alberto; Gimeno, Miquel; Shirai, Keiko

    2012-09-01

    Crab wastes are employed for simultaneous production of chitin and L(+)-lactic acid by submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus sp. B2 using sugar cane molasses as carbon source. Response surface methodology was applied to design the culture media considering demineralization. Fermentations in stirred tank reactor (2L) using selected conditions produced 88% demineralization and 56% deproteinization with 34% yield of chitin and 19.5 gL(-1) of lactic acid (77% yield). The chitin purified from fermentation displayed 95% degree of acetylation and 0.81 and 1 ± 0.125% of residual ash and protein contents, respectively. PMID:22367529

  17. Monitoring the effects of wastewater treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    de-la-Ossa-Carretero, J A; Del-Pilar-Ruso, Y; Giménez-Casalduero, F; Sánchez-Lizaso, J L

    2016-02-01

    Wastewater disposal in coastal waters causes widespread environmental problems. Secondary treatment is expected to reduce the adverse effects of insufficiently treated wastewater. The environmental impact of sewage disposal via 18 wastewater treatment plants was analysed using the benthic opportunistic polychaetes and amphipods (BOPA) index. In previous studies this index proved to be an effective tool for monitoring sewage pollution. The impact of these discharges was highly related to treatment level, which ranged from pre-treatment to biological, as well as to flow rates and outfall position. Locations affected by pre-treated wastewater showed environmental degradation, especially marked near outfalls with higher flow rates. At most locations, biologically treated wastewater did not cause a significant impact and an improvement in ecological integrity was detected after this secondary treatment had been implemented. The impact of discharge was highly related to chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids and nutrient concentrations, which are all lower in biologically treated wastewater. A 'moderate' ecological status was observed not only near sewage outfalls with high wastewater flow rates (>1,500,000 m(3)/month) with a COD over 200 mg/l but also near those with lower flow rates but with a COD over 400 mg/l. To reduce the impact of sewage disposal, it is necessary to carry out adequate treatment, have site outfalls deep enough, and implement water recycling. PMID:26801153

  18. Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, A.

    1996-12-31

    This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, while the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  19. Effects of Wastewater on Forested Wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2002-01-01

    Cycling nutrient-enriched wastewater from holding ponds through natural, forested wetlands is a practice that municipal waste treatment managers are considering as a viable option for disposing of wastewater. In this wastewater cycling process, sewer effluent that has been circulated through aerated ponds is discharged into neighboring wetland systems. To understand how wastewater cycling affects forest and species productivity, researchers at the USGS National Wetlands Research Center conducted dendroecological investigations in a swamp system and in a bog system that have been exposed to wastewater effluent for many decades. Dendroecology involves the study of forest changes over time as interpreted from tree rings. Tree-ring chronologies describe the pattern and history of growth suppression and release that can be associated with aging and disturbances such as hurricanes, floods, and fires. But because of limited monitoring, little is known about the potential for long-term effects on forested wetlands as a result of wastewater flooding. USGS researchers used tree rings to detect the effect of wastewater cycling on tree growth. Scientists expected to find that tree-ring width would be increased as a result of added nutrients.

  20. Treatment and Disposal of Unanticipated 'Scavenger' Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, W.L.

    2003-09-15

    The Savannah River Site often generates wastewater for disposal that is not included as a source to one of the site's wastewater treatment facilities that are permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. The techniques used by the SRS contract operator (Westinghouse Savannah River Company) to evaluate and treat this unanticipated 'scavenger' wastewater may benefit industries and municipalities who experience similar needs. Regulations require that scavenger wastewater be treated and not just diluted. Each of the pollutants that are present must meet effluent permit limitations and/or receiving stream water quality standards. if a scavenger wastewater is classified as 'hazardous' under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) its disposal must comply with RCRA regulations. Westinghouse Savannah River Company obtained approval from SCDHEC to dispose of scavenger wastewater under specific conditions that are included within the SRS National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit. Scavenger wastewater is analyzed in a laboratory to determine its constituency. Pollutant values are entered into spreadsheets that calculate treatment plant removal capabilities and instream concentrations. Disposal rates are computed, ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements and protection of treatment system operating units. Appropriate records are maintained in the event of an audit.

  1. Simulation of wastewater treatment plant within integrated urban wastewater models.

    PubMed

    Heusch, S; Kamradt, B; Ostrowski, M

    2010-01-01

    In the federal state of Hesse in Germany the application of an integrated software modelling framework is becoming part of the planning process to attain legal approval for the operation of combined sewer systems. The software allows for parallel simulation of flow and water quality routing in the sewer system and in receiving rivers. It combines existing pollution load model approaches with a simplified version of the River Water Quality Model No. 1 (RWQM1). Comprehensive simulation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is not considered yet. The paper analyses alternatives for the implementation of a WWTP module to model activated sludge plants. For both primary and secondary clarifiers as well as for the activated sludge process concepts for the integration into the existing software framework were developed. The activated sludge concept which uses a linearized version of the well known ASM1 model is presented in detail. PMID:20453339

  2. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of high strength wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegant, W.M.; Claassen, J.A.; Lettinga, G.

    1985-09-01

    Investigations on the thermophilic anaerobic treatment of high-strength wastewaters (14-65 kg COD/mT) are presented. Vinasse, the wastewater of alcohol distilleries, was used as an example of such wastewaters. Semicontinuously fed digestion experiments at high retention times revealed that the effluent quality of digestion at 55C is comparable with that at 30C at similar loading rates. The amount of methane formed per kilogram of vinasse drops almost linearly with increasing vinasse concentrations. The treatment of vinasse was also investigated using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors.

  3. Electrocoagulation of wastewater from almond industry.

    PubMed

    Valero, David; Ortiz, Juan M; García, Vicente; Expósito, Eduardo; Montiel, Vicente; Aldaz, Antonio

    2011-08-01

    This work was carried out to study the treatment of almond industry wastewater by the electrocoagulation process. First of all, laboratory scale experiments were conducted in order to determine the effects of relevant wastewater characteristics such as conductivity and pH, as well as the process variables such as anode material, current density and operating time on the removal efficiencies of the total organic carbon (TOC) and the most representative analytical parameters. Next, the wastewater treatment process was scaled up to pre-industrial size using the best experimental conditions and parameters obtained at laboratory scale. Finally, economic parameters such as chemicals, energy consumption and sludge generation have been discussed. PMID:21683427

  4. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal from wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, D. M.

    1985-06-11

    Wastewater is passed sequentially through an anaerobic treating zone and an oxic treating zone, followed by separation from the treated liquor of a dense sludge containing activated biomass, at least part of which is recycled to provide the activated biomass employed in treating the influent wastewater. Of the part of the sludge so recycled a minor portion is introduced into the anaerobic treating zone for admixture with the wastewater influent and the remaining major portion is introduced into the oxic treating zone, into which oxic zone oxygen-containing gas is admitted to effect oxygenation of the contents of that zone.

  5. Reusing rinse wastewater at a semiconductor plant

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, A.R.; Ploeser, J.H.

    1999-08-01

    Two pilot rinse wastewater reuse projects were developed as part of a long-term water conservation program for a Motorola semiconductor manufacturing site in Phoenix, Ariz. The conceptual designs for the projects grew out of a detailed wastewater reuse study that characterized wastewater streams at their generation points. Both treatment techniques were specifically researched, bench-tested, and adapted to further water conservation efforts while ensuring 100 percent compliance with appropriate effluent regulations and industrial discharge permit conditions. Together, the pilot projects save the city of Phoenix approximately 45 mil gal (17 {times} 10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) of water annually.

  6. Design manual: municipal wastewater stabilization ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Middlebrooks, E.J.; Reynolds, J.H.; Montgomery, J.M.; Middlebrooks, C.; Schneiter, R.W.

    1983-10-01

    The manual provides a concise overview of wastewater stabilization pond systems through discussion of factors affecting treatment, process design principles and applications, aspects of physical design and construction, suspended solids removal alternatives, and cost and energy requirements.

  7. DESIGN MANUAL: MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER STABILIZATION PONDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual provides a concise overview of wastewater stabilization pond systems through discussion of factors affecting treatment, process design principles and applications, aspects of physical design and construction, suspended solids removal alternatives, and cost and energy r...

  8. Wastewater Disinfectants: Many Called--Few Chosen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Gives a comparative study of disinfectants used to rid wastewater of pathogens. Concentrates on the effects of chlorine and ozone, with some mention of ultra-violet irradiation, bromine chloride, and chlorine dioxide. (MA)

  9. VIRUSES IN WATER AND RECLAIMED WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was initiated to determine the occurrence and concentration of viruses in high quality wastewater treatment plant effluents from two treatment plants in California. Disinfected secondary effluent was compared to disinfected and filtered secondary effluents. Biweekly quant...

  10. TEXTILE DYEING WASTEWATERS: CHARACTERIZATION AND TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of the biological, chemical, and physical treatability of wastewaters from selected typical dye baths. Twenty systems providing a broad cross section of dye classes, fibers, and application techniques, were examined. Wastes, produced usi...

  11. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE MANUFACTURING WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preliminary survey information on the organophosphorus pesticide industry wastewater streams and analytical methods to monitor levels of organic compounds present in these streams are presented. The identification and quantification of organophosphorus compounds was emphasized, b...

  12. Hungry microbes eat away wastewater sludge problem

    SciTech Connect

    Kratch, K.

    1995-09-01

    Accumulations of diluted resin solids and sludge in an equalization pond were reducing a White City, Ore., chemical plant`s wastewater treatment capacity by 90%. Dyno Polymers, a division of Norway-based Dyno Industries, manufacturers formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde and phenol-formaldehyde resins for the wood products industry. High-solids and biosolids bulking in the plant`s aeration pond overloaded the clarifier, and an overabundance of solids in the excess-wastewater holding pond made pumping nearly impossible. The plant`s drains carry production wastewater, truck washout water and equipment rinsewater flows to a central sump. The wastewater is pumped to the facility`s biological treatment system, where it enters an equalization pond and flows to an aeration pond equipped with two 50-horsepower aerators. The water then flows to a clarifier, where solids are settled out and removed before the water is reused or discharged to a public sewer system.

  13. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF HIGH STRENGTH PETROCHEMICAL WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological treatment of a complex petrochemical wastewater containing high concentrations of organic chlorides, nitrates, and amines was initially studied using a sequence of anaerobic methanogenesis and oxygen activated sludge. Bench-scale and pilot-plant treatability studie...

  14. WASTEWATER RENOVATION AND RETRIEVAL ON CAPE COD

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapidly increasing population on maritime Cape Cod has generated considerable interest in alternative wastewater disposal techniques which promise to maintain high groundwater quality and promote its conservation. The authors undertake an assessment of agricultural spray-irriga...

  15. WASTEWATER SAMPLING, TRANSFER AND CONDITIONING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the construction and field evaluation of an automatic on-line hardware system for reliably sampling, transferring, and conditioning various wastewater-treatment process streams such that the resulting transferred and conditioned samples are suitable for inte...

  16. HEALTH RISKS OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this research was to determine the health effects, if any, associated with occupational exposure to biological agents present in municipal wastewater. An additional objective was to determine the sensitivity of the methodology for detecting potential heal...

  17. RAPID INFILTRATION WASTEWATER TREATMENT FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapid infiltration treatment performance of three infiltration basins receiving primary treated municipal wastewater is evaluated for optimum total nitrogen control using a series of manual operational techniques and by remote control computer operation of a sprinkler system. Thr...

  18. Water/Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water and Sewage Works, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This article summarizes in tabular form the U.S. and Canadian programs for classification of water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Included are main characteristics of the programs, educational and experience requirements, and indications of requirement substitutions. (CS)

  19. ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technology assessment provides an introduction to the use of several alternative energy sources at wastewater treatment plants. The report contains fact sheets (technical descriptions) and data sheets (cost and design information) for the technologies. Cost figures and schema...

  20. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: ZENOGEM™ WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zenon Environmental System's ZenoGem™ Wastewater Treatment Process treats aqueous media contaminated with volatile/semi-volatile organic compounds. This technology combines aerobic biological treatment to remove biodegradable organic compounds with ultrafiltration to separate res...

  1. Betaine removal during thermo- and mesophilic aerobic batch biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse: influence of temperature and pH on the progress and efficiency of the process.

    PubMed

    Cibis, Edmund; Ryznar-Luty, Agnieszka; Krzywonos, Małgorzata; Lutosławski, Krzysztof; Miśkiewicz, Tadeusz

    2011-07-01

    The key issue in achieving a high extent of biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse is to establish the conditions for the assimilation of betaine, which is the main pollutant in this high-strength industrial effluent. In the present study, aerobic batch biodegradation was conducted over the temperature range of 27-63°C (step 9°C), at a pH of 6.5 and 8.0, using a mixed culture of bacteria of the genus Bacillus. Betaine was assimilated at 27-54°C and the pH of 8.0, as well as at 27-45°C and the pH of 6.5. The processes where betaine was assimilated produced a high BOD(5) removal, which exceeded 99.40% over the temperature range of 27-45°C at the pH of 8.0, as well as at 27°C and the pH of 6.5. Maximal COD removal (88.73%) was attained at 36°C and the pH of 6.5. The results indicate that the process can be applied on an industrial scale as the first step in the treatment of beet molasses vinasse. PMID:21367516

  2. Biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse by a mixed culture of micro organisms: effect of aeration conditions and pH control.

    PubMed

    Lutosławski, Krzysztof; Ryznar-Luty, Agnieszka; Cibis, Edmund; Krzywonos, Małgorzata; Miśkiewicz, Tadeusz

    2011-01-01

    The effect of aeration conditions and pH control on the progress and efficiency of beet molasses vinasse biodegradation was investigated during four batch processes at 38 degrees C with the mixed microbial culture composed of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Rhodopseudomonas, and Saccharomyces. The four processes were carried out in a shake flask with no pH control, an aerobic bioreactor without mixing with no pH control, and a stirred-tank reactor (STR) with aeration with and without pH control, respectively. All experiments were started with an initial pH 8.0. The highest efficiency of biodegradation was achieved through the processes conducted in the STR, where betaine (an organic pollutant occurring in beet molasses in very large quantities) was completely degraded by the microorganisms. The process with no pH control carried out in the STR produced the highest reduction in the following pollution measures: organic matter expressed as chemical oxygen demand determined by the dichromatic method + theoretical COD of betaine (COD(sum), 85.5%), total organic carbon (TOC, 78.8%) and five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5, 98.6%). The process conditions applied in the shake flask experiments, as well as those used in the aerobic bioreactor without mixing, failed to provide complete betaine assimilation. As a consequence, reduction in COD(sum), TOC and BOD5 was approximately half that obtained with STR. PMID:22432306

  3. Filtered molasses concentrate from sugar cane: natural functional ingredient effective in lowering the glycaemic index and insulin response of high carbohydrate foods.

    PubMed

    Wright, Alison G; Ellis, Timothy P; Ilag, Leodevico L

    2014-12-01

    An aqueous filtered molasses concentrate (FMC) sourced from sugar cane was used as a functional ingredient in a range of carbohydrate-containing foods to reduce glycaemic response. When compared to untreated controls, postprandial glucose responses in the test products were reduced 5-20%, assessed by accredited glycaemic index (GI) testing. The reduction in glucose response in the test foods was dose-dependent and directly proportional to the ratio of FMC added to the amount of available carbohydrate in the test products. The insulin response to the foods was also reduced with FMC addition as compared to untreated controls. Inclusion of FMC in test foods did not replace any formulation ingredients; it was incorporated as an additional ingredient to existing formulations. Filtered molasses concentrate, made by a proprietary and patented process, contains many naturally occurring compounds. Some of the identified compounds are known to influence carbohydrate metabolism, and include phenolic compounds, minerals and organic acids. FMC, sourced from a by-product of sugar cane processing, shows potential as a natural functional ingredient capable of modifying carbohydrate metabolism and contributing to GI reduction of processed foods and beverages. PMID:25373842

  4. Ethanol fermentation of sugarcane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis MTCC 92 immobilized in Luffa cylindrica L. sponge discs and Ca-alginate matrices.

    PubMed

    Behera, Shuvashish; Mohanty, Rama C; Ray, Ramesh C

    2012-10-01

    Bio-ethanol production from cane molasses (diluted to 15 % sugar w/v) was studied using the bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis MTCC 92 entrapped in luffa (Luffa cylindrica L.) sponge discs and Ca-alginate gel beads as the immobilizing matrices. At the end of 96 h fermentation, the final ethanol concentrations were 58.7 ± 0.09 and 59.1 ± 0.08 g/l molasses with luffa and Ca-alginate entrapped Z. mobilis cells, respectively exhibiting 83.25 ± 0.03 and 84.6 ± 0.02 % sugar conversion. There was no statistical significant difference (Fischer's LSD) in sugar utilization (t = 0.254, p<0.801) and ethanol production (t =-0.663, p<0.513) between the two immobilization matrices used. Further, the immobilized cells in both the matrices were physiologically active for three more cycles of operation with less than 15 % decrease in ethanol yield in the 4(th) cycle, which was due to some leakage of cells. In conclusion, luffa sponge was found to be equally good as Ca-alginate as a carrier material for bacterial (Z. mobilis) cell immobilization for ethanol production. Further, it has added advantages such as it is cheap, non-corrosive and has no environmental hazard. PMID:24031981

  5. Optimization of process parameters for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Bodhisatta; Rathore, Ankita; Srivastava, Saurav; Shekhawat, Mitali; Srivastava, Pradeep

    2011-04-01

    Ethanol is a potential energy source and its production from renewable biomass has gained lot of popularity. There has been worldwide research to produce ethanol from regional inexpensive substrates. The present study deals with the optimization of process parameters (viz. temperature, pH, initial total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration in sugar cane molasses and fermentation time) for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using Box-Behnken experimental design and genetic algorithm (GA). An empirical model was developed through response surface methodology to analyze the effects of the process parameters on ethanol production. The data obtained after performing the experiments based on statistical design was utilized for regression analysis and analysis of variance studies. The regression equation obtained after regression analysis was used as a fitness function for the genetic algorithm. The GA optimization technique predicted a maximum ethanol yield of 59.59 g/L at temperature 31 °C, pH 5.13, initial TRS concentration 216 g/L and fermentation time 44 h. The maximum experimental ethanol yield obtained after applying GA was 58.4 g/L, which was in close agreement with the predicted value. PMID:21336926

  6. Ethanol fermentation of sugarcane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis MTCC 92 immobilized in Luffa cylindrica L. sponge discs and Ca-alginate matrices

    PubMed Central

    Behera, Shuvashish; Mohanty, Rama C.; Ray, Ramesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Bio-ethanol production from cane molasses (diluted to 15 % sugar w/v) was studied using the bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis MTCC 92 entrapped in luffa (Luffa cylindrica L.) sponge discs and Ca-alginate gel beads as the immobilizing matrices. At the end of 96 h fermentation, the final ethanol concentrations were 58.7 ± 0.09 and 59.1 ± 0.08 g/l molasses with luffa and Ca-alginate entrapped Z. mobilis cells, respectively exhibiting 83.25 ± 0.03 and 84.6 ± 0.02 % sugar conversion. There was no statistical significant difference (Fischer’s LSD) in sugar utilization (t = 0.254, p<0.801) and ethanol production (t =-0.663, p<0.513) between the two immobilization matrices used. Further, the immobilized cells in both the matrices were physiologically active for three more cycles of operation with less than 15 % decrease in ethanol yield in the 4th cycle, which was due to some leakage of cells. In conclusion, luffa sponge was found to be equally good as Ca-alginate as a carrier material for bacterial (Z. mobilis) cell immobilization for ethanol production. Further, it has added advantages such as it is cheap, non-corrosive and has no environmental hazard. PMID:24031981

  7. Assessment of the isostatic state and the load distribution of the European Molasse basin by means of lithospheric-scale 3D structural and 3D gravity modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybycin, Anna M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Schneider, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The European Molasse basin is a foreland basin situated at the northern front of the European Alps and has formed as a consequence of the Euro-Adriatic continental collision since the Tertiary. Today, it is underlain by Mesozoic sedimentary successions on top of a Paleozoic crust. To investigate the deep structure, the isostatic state, as well as the load distribution in the basin and the adjacent Alpine area, we constructed a lithospheric-scale 3D structural model by implementing available surface, well and seismic data. Subsequently, the structure of the model was constrained by means of 3D gravity modelling. Complementary, the isostatic state has been assessed based on the calculation of the 3D load distribution. Our results show that the Molasse basin is not in isostatic equilibrium and that the gravity field of the area is strongly controlled by the configuration of the crystalline crust. Furthermore, we show that the area is influenced by significant lateral load variations down to a depth of -150 km, which are considerably larger than commonly assumed for this level. Furthermore, our results allow a first-order assessment of the minimum compensating horizontal stress required to prevent gravitational collapse.

  8. Electrocoagulation treatment of oil-containing wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Pazenko, T.Ya.; Khalturina, T.I.; Kolova, A.F.; Rubailo, I.S.

    1986-05-10

    A high degree of purification is achieved by the use of electrolysis for removing emulsified oils from wastewaters. Purification during electrolysis of oil-containing wastewaters occurs as the result of electroflotation, electrocoagulation, and electrophoresis. It is reported by Kharlamova and Tedoradze that most of the oil is removed by electrocoagulation. The authors have therefore studied the influence of various factors on electrocoagulation treatment and determined the kinetic parameters of anodic behavior of aluminum during removal and emulsified oils.

  9. [Impact of proportion of adding raw wastewater on post-treatment of digested piggery wastewater].

    PubMed

    Deng, Liang-Wei; Cao, Wei-Ping; Sun, Xin; Li, Shu-Lan; Chen, Zi-Ai

    2007-03-01

    Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used to treat digested piggery wastewater, in order to investigate the impact of proportion of adding raw wastewater. In consecutive experiments, the reactor with adding 30% raw wastewater could get low ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), usually less than 10 mg/L in the effluent, while the reactors with adding 10% or 20% raw wastewater, concentration of NH3-N increased by degrees until reached 300 mg/L or 80 mg/L respectively at end of experiment. These can be explained by the facts that the reactor with adding 30% raw wastewater could maintain stable pH (about 7.7), whereas pH in the reactors with adding 10% or 20% raw wastewater decreased gradually until to below 5.5. Performance monitoring of a cycle of SBR indicate that the peak value of nitrite nitrogen (NO2(-)-N) and valley value of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) occur in the fourth, third and second hour after aeration beginning for the reactors with adding 10%, 20% and 30% raw wastewater respectively, which imply that the more is the proportion of adding raw wastewater, the fast does the ammonia oxidized. These results can be attributed to the facts the higher proportion of adding raw wastewater brought better denitrification resulting in stable and high pH. The batch experiment shows that the rate of denitrification has positive correlation with ratio of BOD5 to TN in influent. The consecutive and batch experiment all prove the proportion of adding raw wastewater must reach more than 30% for normal operation of post-treatment of digested piggery wastewater. PMID:17633638

  10. Wastewater heat recovery method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  11. Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acids composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the interactions of molasses or corn meal [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) sources] with flaxseed meal or a soybean-sunflower meal protein mix [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) sources] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in organic Jersey cows fed...

  12. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  13. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  14. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  15. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  16. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  17. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ggg of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 6 Table 6 to Subpart GGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  18. Presence of Pharmaceuticals in Groundwater Down Gradient from Wastewater Lagoons Receiving Partially Treated Wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater can contain traces of the pharmaceutical compounds that are used within a given household or community. These chemicals can act as markers of the wastewater, and their presence can help determine potential sources of contamination of water resources. For this study, gr...

  19. A California Winery Wastewater Survey: Assessing the Salinity Challenge for Wastewater Reuse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing scarcity of water and tighter regulations for discharge make onsite wastewater reuse an attractive prospect for the California wine industry. This study reports winery wastewater (WW) data from eighteen Northern California (Northern CA) wineries. The current study provides a baseline ...

  20. Wastewater garden--a system to treat wastewater with environmental benefits to community.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jaya

    2008-01-01

    Many communities and villages around the world face serious problems with lack of sanitation especially in disposing of the wastewater-black water and grey water from the houses, or wash outs from animal rearing sheds. Across the world diverting wastewater to the surroundings or to the public spaces are not uncommon. This is responsible for contaminating drinking water sources causing health risks and environmental degradation as they become the breeding grounds of mosquitoes and pathogens. Lack of collection and treatment facilities or broken down sewage systems noticed throughout the developing world are associated with this situation. Diverting the wastewater to trees and vegetable gardens was historically a common practice. However the modern world has an array of problems associated with such disposal such as generation of large quantity of wastewater, unavailability of space for onsite disposal or treatment and increase in population. This paper considers the wastewater garden as a means for wastewater treatment and to improve the vegetation and biodiversity of rural areas. This can also be implemented in urban areas in association with parks and open spaces. This also highlights environmental safety in relation to the nutrient, pathogen and heavy metal content of the wastewater. The possibilities of different types of integration and technology that can be adopted for wastewater gardens are also discussed. PMID:18701794

  1. OCCURRENCE OF PATHOGENS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AND THEIR SURVIVAL DURING WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pathogens can enter municipal wastewaters from several sources including homes, hospitals and slaughter houses. They are identified, typical levels found in sludges are given along with infectious doses, and their survival on crops and in the soil presented. As wastewater is clea...

  2. 40 CFR 63.133 - Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks. 63.133 Section 63.133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for...

  3. Increasing wastewater system performance--the importance of interactions between sewerage and wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Langeveld, J G; Clemens, F H L R; van der Graaf, J H J M

    2002-01-01

    The necessity to assess sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as integral parts of the wastewater system has been well known for several years and discussed in many conferences. Until recently, sewer systems and WWTPs were improved (or optimised) separately or independently, which resulted in suboptimal solutions. Nowadays, in The Netherlands as well as in other European countries, a trend can be recognised towards more integral solutions. Nevertheless, due to a lack of knowledge on the interactions between the sewer systems and the WWTPs the implementation of this way of thinking in practice takes a long time. This paper describes the results of two cases in which the interactions between sewerage and wastewater treatment are incorporated within the optimisation of a wastewater system. The first case illustrates the importance of taking the interactions into account, while the second case shows how to deal with the interactions within a wastewater system optimisation study. It is concluded that the combination of total wastewater system analysis, incorporating the interactions within the wastewater system, with efficient search algorithms is expected to be very valuable in future wastewater system optimisation studies. PMID:11905443

  4. 40 CFR 63.133 - Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks. 63.133 Section 63.133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for...

  5. Fluorescence spectroscopy for wastewater monitoring: A review.

    PubMed

    Carstea, Elfrida M; Bridgeman, John; Baker, Andy; Reynolds, Darren M

    2016-05-15

    Wastewater quality is usually assessed using physical, chemical and microbiological tests, which are not suitable for online monitoring, provide unreliable results, or use hazardous chemicals. Hence, there is an urgent need to find a rapid and effective method for the evaluation of water quality in natural and engineered systems and for providing an early warning of pollution events. Fluorescence spectroscopy has been shown to be a valuable technique to characterize and monitor wastewater in surface waters for tracking sources of pollution, and in treatment works for process control and optimization. This paper reviews the current progress in applying fluorescence to assess wastewater quality. Studies have shown that, in general, wastewater presents higher fluorescence intensity compared to natural waters for the components associated with peak T (living and dead cellular material and their exudates) and peak C (microbially reprocessed organic matter). Furthermore, peak T fluorescence is significantly reduced after the biological treatment process and peak C is almost completely removed after the chlorination and reverse osmosis stages. Thus, simple fluorometers with appropriate wavelength selectivity, particularly for peaks T and C could be used for online monitoring in wastewater treatment works. This review also shows that care should be taken in any attempt to identify wastewater pollution sources due to potential overlapping fluorophores. Correlations between fluorescence intensity and water quality parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total organic carbon (TOC) have been developed and dilution of samples, typically up to ×10, has been shown to be useful to limit inner filter effect. It has been concluded that the following research gaps need to be filled: lack of studies on the on-line application of fluorescence spectroscopy in wastewater treatment works and lack of data processing tools suitable for rapid correction and extraction of

  6. [Aqueous Fingerprint of Printing and Dyeing Wastewater].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-feng; Wu, Jing; Cheng, Cheng; Yang, Lin; Zhao, Yu-fei; Lü, Qing; Fu, Xin-mei

    2015-12-01

    Aqueous fingerprint has an advantage to represent the organic components of water samples as compared to traditional parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). Printing and dyeing wastewater is one of the major types of industrial wastewater in China. It is of huge volume and heavy pollution, containing large numbers of luminescent components and being difficult to be degraded. In this study the aqueous fingerprint of printing and dyeing wastewater was investigated with the fluorescent spectrometry. The experimental results showed that there existed two peaks in the aqueous fingerprint of the printing and dyeing wastewater, locating at the excitation/emission wavelength around 230/340 nm and 280/310 nm respectively. The intensity of the excitation/emission wavelength at 230/340 nm was higher than that of 280/310 nm. The locations and intensities of peaks varied within small range. The intensities of the two peaks linearly correlated with coefficient of 0.910 8 and slope of 1.506. The intensity ratio of Peak at 280/310 nm to Peak at 230/340 nm averagely was 0.777, ranging between 0.712 and 0.829. It was found that the aqueous fingerprints of sewage and aniline compounds were significantly different from that of the printing and dyeing wastewater, but the aqueous fingerprints of several types of widely-used dye were similar to that of the printing and dyeing wastewater. Thus dye may be the main luminescent components in the wastewater. The aqueous fingerprint can be used as a novel tool of early warning of waterbodies. PMID:26964226

  7. NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL/ENERGY WORKFORCE ASSESSMENT. WASTEWATER PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume describes 28 post-secondary education/training programs which emphasize the environmental area of wastewater pollution control and abatement. The programs represent 16 states. Program areas of concentration include: water resources; wastewater pollution; plant operatio...

  8. EVALUATION OF ON-SITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A literature review of published and unpublished data was conducted to identify all conceivable alternative on-site systems, including wastewater manipulation, treatment and disposal options. Wastewater manipulation options included flow reduction, wasteload reduction and waste s...

  9. DISINFECTION OF WATER: DRINKING WATER, RECREATIONAL WATER, AND WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes and categorizes the methodology used for disinfection of drinking water, recreational water and wastewater including wastewater sludges. It largely is a literature summary and references articles covering the years of 1939 through 1999, with a few reference...

  10. Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Treatment Technology Evaluation and Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will assess the effectiveness of a Biomass Concentrator Reactor (BCR) to remove endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from wastewater. This technology could provide an alternative to traditional wastewater treatment methods.

  11. Balance in Training for Latin American Water and Wastewater Utilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carefoot, Neil F.

    1977-01-01

    Using a Peru case study, this article examines the problem of training imbalance for water and wastewater operators. Guidelines towards achieving adequate training for all water and wastewater personnel are suggested. (Author/MA)

  12. Current Status of On-Site Wastewater Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Charles L.

    1978-01-01

    Wastewater management is becoming an important environmental issue nationally. This article reports the history and current status of wastewater management. Regulatory programs are discussed with specific state examples. Needs assessment is also included. (MA)

  13. TREATABILITY STUDIES OF PESTICIDE MANUFACTURING WASTEWATERS: ETHYLENEBISDITHIOCARBAMATE FUNGICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of laboratory and pilot studies on the biological treatability of wastewaters from the manufacture of ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicide. At concentration levels representative of EBDC production units and total plant wastewaters discharged to pu...

  14. USEPA Research on Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipal sanitary sewer collection systems play a critical role in protecting public health in our municipalities. They are designed to convey wastewater from their sources to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Collection systems consist of house service laterals, sewers, pu...

  15. A new approach to implementing decentralized wastewater treatment concepts.

    PubMed

    van Afferden, Manfred; Cardona, Jaime A; Lee, Mi-Yong; Subah, Ali; Müller, Roland A

    2015-01-01

    Planners and decision-makers in the wastewater sector are often confronted with the problem of identifying adequate development strategies and most suitable finance schemes for decentralized wastewater infrastructure. This paper research has focused on providing an approach in support of such decision-making. It is based on basic principles that stand for an integrated perspective towards sustainable wastewater management. We operationalize these principles by means of a geographic information system (GIS)-based approach 'Assessment of Local Lowest-Cost Wastewater Solutions'--ALLOWS. The main product of ALLOWS is the identification of cost-effective local wastewater management solutions for any given demographic and physical context. By using universally available input data the tool allows decision-makers to compare different wastewater solutions for any given wastewater situation. This paper introduces the ALLOWS-GIS tool. Its application and functionality are illustrated by assessing different wastewater solutions for two neighboring communities in rural Jordan. PMID:26606085

  16. IMPROVING INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS RELIABILITY TO ENHANCE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable development includes the recovery of resources from industrial manufacturing processes. One valuable resource that can often be purified and reused is process wastewater. Typically, pollutants are removed from process wastewater using physical, chemical, and biologica...

  17. THE EFFECT OF OZONATION OF ORGANICS IN WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of ozone treatment of domestic wastewater and various model compounds has been determined with respect to trace organic components. Organic constituents were identified in wastewater that was treated with ozone at the Upper Thompson Sanitation District Treatment Plant,...

  18. Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    MedlinePlus

    Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants Hazard Alert During construction and maintenance of sewage and ... Careful work habits can help protect you. Some Biological Hazards That May Be in Sewage Or Wastewater ...

  19. Wilsonville wastewater sampling program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-10-01

    As part of its contrast to design, build and operate the SRC-1 Demonstration Plant in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) was required to collect and evaluate data related to wastewater streams and wastewater treatment procedures at the SRC-1 Pilot Plant facility. The pilot plant is located at Wilsonville, Alabama and is operated by Catalytic, Inc. under the direction of Southern Company Services. The plant is funded in part by the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE. ICRC contracted with Catalytic, Inc. to conduct wastewater sampling. Tasks 1 through 5 included sampling and analysis of various wastewater sources and points of different steps in the biological treatment facility at the plant. The sampling program ran from May 1 to July 31, 1982. Also included in the sampling program was the generation and analysis of leachate from SRC product using standard laboratory leaching procedures. For Task 6, available plant wastewater data covering the period from February 1978 to December 1981 was analyzed to gain information that might be useful for a demonstration plant design basis. This report contains a tabulation of the analytical data, a summary tabulation of the historical operating data that was evaluated and comments concerning the data. The procedures used during the sampling program are also documented.

  20. Coal fired powerhouse wastewater pressure filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Savannah River Site`s permit for construction of an industrial wastewater treatment facility to remove solids from the boiler blow-down and wet ash scrubber effluent of the A-Area coal fired powerhouse was rejected. Conventional clarification technology would not remove arsenic from the combined effluent sufficient to achieve human health criteria in the small receiving surface stream. Treatability studies demonstrated that an existing facility, which will no longer be needed for metal finishing wastewater, can very efficiently process the powerhouse wastewater to less than 35 {mu}g/L arsenic. Use of cationic and anionic polymers to flocculate both the wastewater and filter aid solids formed a ``bridged cake`` with exceptionally low resistance to flow. This will double the capacity of the Oberlin pressure filters with the Tyvek T-980 sub micron filter media. The affects of high sheer agitation and high temperature in the raw wastewater on the filtration process were also studied and adequate controls were demonstrated.

  1. Redesigning wastewater infrastructure to improve resource efficiency.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Tove A

    2011-01-01

    Resource efficiency of wastewater management is a question of optimizing at the same time the management of resources in wastewater (e.g. water), the resources spent on treatment and transport (e.g. energy), the natural resources to protect (e.g. the receiving waters), and the anthropogenic resources (e.g. capital). For instance, wastewater can be treated to any given quality, but only at the expense of energy and investment costs. Today, many up-coming problems are solved incrementally, leading to resource consuming solutions optimized for water pollution control in well off countries, whereas large parts of the world have at the best very simple wastewater treatment. From a global point of view, a system change is necessary in order to solve the immense problems arising from global population growth, urban development and climate change. Source separation is a promising concept for resource efficient wastewater management, but a more concerted effort is necessary from the international community in order to develop competitive technologies and overcome the inflexibility of the present end-of-pipe technology. Much more research and development are necessary, not only in the area of engineering, but also with respect to the socio-economic dimensions, especially in the area of regulation, suitable governance and management models, and concerning the involvement of industrial partners. PMID:22049745

  2. Microbial Community Profiles in Wastewaters from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Technology

    PubMed Central

    Jałowiecki, Łukasz; Chojniak, Joanna Małgorzata; Dorgeloh, Elmar; Hegedusova, Berta; Ejhed, Helene; Magnér, Jörgen; Płaza, Grażyna Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the potential of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) methodology as an assay for characterization of the metabolic diversity of wastewater samples and to link the metabolic diversity patterns to efficiency of select onsite biological wastewater facilities. Metabolic fingerprints obtained from the selected samples were used to understand functional diversity implied by the carbon substrate shifts. Three different biological facilities of onsite wastewater treatment were evaluated: fixed bed reactor (technology A), trickling filter/biofilter system (technology B), and aerated filter system (the fluidized bed reactor, technology C). High similarities of the microbial community functional structures were found among the samples from the three onsite wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), as shown by the diversity indices. Principal components analysis (PCA) showed that the diversity and CLPPs of microbial communities depended on the working efficiency of the wastewater treatment technologies. This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of investigated samples in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and technologies of onsite WWTPs used. The results obtained confirmed that metabolic profiles could be used to monitor treatment processes as valuable biological indicators of onsite wastewater treatment technologies efficiency. This is the first step toward understanding relations of technology types with microbial community patterns in raw and treated wastewaters. PMID:26807728

  3. Microbial Community Profiles in Wastewaters from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Technology.

    PubMed

    Jałowiecki, Łukasz; Chojniak, Joanna Małgorzata; Dorgeloh, Elmar; Hegedusova, Berta; Ejhed, Helene; Magnér, Jörgen; Płaza, Grażyna Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the potential of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) methodology as an assay for characterization of the metabolic diversity of wastewater samples and to link the metabolic diversity patterns to efficiency of select onsite biological wastewater facilities. Metabolic fingerprints obtained from the selected samples were used to understand functional diversity implied by the carbon substrate shifts. Three different biological facilities of onsite wastewater treatment were evaluated: fixed bed reactor (technology A), trickling filter/biofilter system (technology B), and aerated filter system (the fluidized bed reactor, technology C). High similarities of the microbial community functional structures were found among the samples from the three onsite wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), as shown by the diversity indices. Principal components analysis (PCA) showed that the diversity and CLPPs of microbial communities depended on the working efficiency of the wastewater treatment technologies. This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of investigated samples in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and technologies of onsite WWTPs used. The results obtained confirmed that metabolic profiles could be used to monitor treatment processes as valuable biological indicators of onsite wastewater treatment technologies efficiency. This is the first step toward understanding relations of technology types with microbial community patterns in raw and treated wastewaters. PMID:26807728

  4. Sulphur, Molasses, Purple Ditto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatch, Jean

    1978-01-01

    Homework, like grandmother's spring tonic, is a useless and hated ritual that is continued only because everyone seems to expect it. The best way to make homework enriching and personal is to prepare idea cards for each study unit, allowing each student to select a suitable project. (SJL)

  5. Developing a Program for Water/Wastewater Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Ivan E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a water/wastewater technician program that provides: (1) entry-level skills for individuals seeking employment as water/wastewater technicians, (2) upgrading courses for operators and technicians already employed, and (3) instruction for those who are preparing for Colorado state water/wastewater certification. (LRA)

  6. 40 CFR 63.105 - Maintenance wastewater requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance wastewater requirements. 63... § 63.105 Maintenance wastewater requirements. (a) Each owner or operator of a source subject to this... wastewaters containing those organic HAP's listed in table 9 of subpart G of this part. (b) The owner...

  7. 40 CFR 63.147 - Process wastewater provisions-recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... a record of the notice sent to the treatment operator stating that the wastewater stream or residual... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.147...

  8. 40 CFR 63.147 - Process wastewater provisions-recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a record of the notice sent to the treatment operator stating that the wastewater stream or residual... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.147...

  9. 40 CFR 63.146 - Process wastewater provisions-reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.146 Process wastewater provisions—reporting. (a) For each waste management unit, treatment process, or control device... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process wastewater...

  10. Treatment of Aquaculture Wastewater Using Floating Vegetated Mats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods are needed for treating aquaculture wastewater. The goal is to improve wastewater quality sufficiently for it to be recycled to production ponds. One potential method for improving aquaculture wastewater is to use floating vegetation in treatment tanks. Alternatively, potential exists for ...

  11. Feeding strategies for the improved biosynthesis of canthaxanthin from enzymatic hydrolyzed molasses in the fed-batch fermentation of Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1.

    PubMed

    Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Mousavi, Mohammad

    2014-02-01

    The effect of two enzymatic hydrolyzed molasses (EHM)-feeding strategies including constant-(CFR) and exponential-(EFR) feeding rate on canthaxanthin (CTX) biosynthesis by Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1 fed-batch fermentation was studied. The results showed that the CFR of 7 ml/h with an EHM content of 45 g/l led to the highest values of specific growth rate (0.127 h(-1)), biomass dry weight (17.66 g/l), total carotenoid (16.31 mg/l) and CTX (14.67 mg/l). A significant decrease in the kinetic growth and production parameters by the increasing EHM concentration from 30 to 60 g/l during EFR fed-batch bioprocess was observed (p<0.01). This study concluded that EHM alone can displace glucose-based medium towards improved CTX biosynthesis from D. natronolimnaea HS-1 using a CFR strategy during fed-batch culture. PMID:24384310

  12. Wastewater purification in the potato starch industry

    SciTech Connect

    Wijbenga, D.J.; Meiberg, J.B.M.; Brunt, K.

    1984-01-01

    Deproteinized and protein-containing wastewater from the potato starch industry was purified by anaerobic digestion followed by aerobic treatment. Inhibition of methanation by NH3 in concentrated deproteinized wastewater can be prevented by lowering the pH. SO32- was removed by reduction in an acidification-reactor. SO42- reduction was hydraulic retention time-dependent during acidification. Further elimination of SO42- can take place in the CH4 reactor. With both deproteinized and protein-containing wastewater, high CH4 production rates were obtained (more than or equal to 26 kg COD/cubic m-day). Aerobic treatment of the anaerobic effluent resulted in extensive deodorization and concomitant elimination of BOD and PO4(-3).

  13. Fibre Optic Sensors for Selected Wastewater Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Su Sin; Abdul Aziz, A. R.; Harun, Sulaiman W.

    2013-01-01

    Demand for online and real-time measurements techniques to meet environmental regulation and treatment compliance are increasing. However the conventional techniques, which involve scheduled sampling and chemical analysis can be expensive and time consuming. Therefore cheaper and faster alternatives to monitor wastewater characteristics are required as alternatives to conventional methods. This paper reviews existing conventional techniques and optical and fibre optic sensors to determine selected wastewater characteristics which are colour, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). The review confirms that with appropriate configuration, calibration and fibre features the parameters can be determined with accuracy comparable to conventional method. With more research in this area, the potential for using FOS for online and real-time measurement of more wastewater parameters for various types of industrial effluent are promising. PMID:23881131

  14. Simultaneous stack gas scrubbing wastewater purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Variations of a process for removing sulfur dioxide from stack gases and using it to treat municipal waste water are described. The once-through system lowers the pH of the scrubbing water from minor depressions to a pH of about 2.5 under certain conditions. A recycle system uses iron for catalytic oxidation of sulfurous acid to sulfuric acid allowing very large amounts of sulfur dioxide to be absorbed in a small portion of water. The partial recycle system uses municipal wastewater and iron as a scrubbing medium, followed by neutralization of the wastewater with lime to produce an iron hydroxide precipitation which, when removed, produces tertiary quality treated wastewater. The SO2 scrubber is described, test results are analyzed, and a preliminary capital cost estimate for the three processes is included.

  15. Aquatic Plants and Wastewater Treatment (an Overview)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    The technology for using water hyacinth to upgrade domestic sewage effluent from lagoons and other wastewater treatment facilities to secondary and advanced secondary standards has been sufficiently developed to be used where the climate is warm year round. The technology of using emergent plants such as bulrush combined with duckweed is also sufficiently developed to make this a viable wastewater treatment alternative. This system is suited for both temperate and semi-tropical areas found throughout most of the U.S. The newest technology in artificial marsh wastewater treatment involves the use of emergent plant roots in conjunction with high surface area rock filters. Smaller land areas are required for these systems because of the increased concentration of microorganisms associated with the rock and plant root surfaces. Approximately 75 percent less land area is required for the plant-rock system than is required for a strict artificial wetland to achieve the same level of treatment.

  16. Coke dust enhances coke plant wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Burmistrz, Piotr; Rozwadowski, Andrzej; Burmistrz, Michał; Karcz, Aleksander

    2014-12-01

    Coke plant wastewater contain many toxic pollutants. Despite physico-chemical and biological treatment this specific type of wastewater has a significant impact on environment and human health. This article presents results of research on industrial adsorptive coke plant wastewater treatment. As a sorbent the coke dust, dozen times less expensive than pulverized activated carbon, was used. Treatment was conducted in three scenarios: adsorptive after full treatment with coke dust at 15 g L(-1), biological treatment enhanced with coke dust at 0.3-0.5 g L(-1) and addition of coke dust at 0.3 g L(-1) prior to the biological treatment. The enhanced biological treatment proved the most effective. It allowed additional removal of 147-178 mg COD kg(-1) of coke dust. PMID:25113994

  17. A method for treating wastewater containing formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Lotfy, Hesham R; Rashed, I G

    2002-02-01

    Many industrial activities utilise formaldehyde as a key chemical in organic synthesis including: synthesis of special chemicals such as pentaerythritol and ethylene glycol, synthetic resins, paper products, medicinal products and drugs and others, too numerous to mention. Therefore, effluents arising from these applications may contain significant amounts of formaldehyde. In a biodegradation experiments of a wastewater sample containing formaldehyde ranging from 31.5 to 125 mg/l, residual formalin (a solution of formaldehyde gas in water) ranging from 40% to 85%, respectively, was found at the end of the run (16 d) showing the inhibition effect of formalin which increased with the increase in formalin concentration. The biodegradation of formalin decreased significantly at concentrations higher than 300 mg/l. A method to convert formaldehyde to an easily biodegradable substance is herein described. In the commercial manufacture of resins from phenol and formalin the reaction is never completely quantitative. As a result during the dehydration stage phenol and formalin are distilled from the wastewater. Phenol is toxic to several biochemical reactions. However, biological transformation of phenol to a non-toxic entity is possible through specialized microbes. Transformation of phenol is inhibited by the presence of formaldehyde. Biotransformation of phenol in a wastewater containing high concentrations of formaldehyde started shortly after treating the wastewater with calculated amounts of sodium sulphite. Sodium sulphite is believed to react with formaldehyde forming sodium formaldehyde bisulphite, which is not only non-toxic to microorganisms but also a biodegradable substance. From the DO measurements before and after the addition of sodium sulphite, the authors noticed that the dissolved oxygen in a wastewater containing formaldehyde is not affected by the addition of the calculated amount of sodium sulphite, which is just enough to consume the measured amount

  18. Oxidation pond for municipal wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Erick; Hung, Yung-Tse; Suleiman Al Ahmad, Mohammed; Yeh, Ruth Yu-Li; Liu, Robert Lian-Huey; Fu, Yen-Pei

    2015-04-01

    This literature review examines process, design, and cost issues related to using oxidation ponds for wastewater treatment. Many of the topics have applications at either full scale or in isolation for laboratory analysis. Oxidation ponds have many advantages. The oxidation pond treatment process is natural, because it uses microorganisms such as bacteria and algae. This makes the method of treatment cost-effective in terms of its construction, maintenance, and energy requirements. Oxidation ponds are also productive, because it generates effluent that can be used for other applications. Finally, oxidation ponds can be considered a sustainable method for treatment of wastewater.

  19. Catalytic Wastewater Treatment Using Pillared Clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    After introduction on the use of solid catalysts in wastewater treatment technologies, particularly advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), this review discussed the use of pillared clay (PILC) materials in three applications: (i) wet air catalytic oxidation (WACO), (ii) wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) on Cu-PILC and Fe-PILC, and (iii) behavior of Ti-PILC and Fe-PILC in the photocatalytic or photo-Fenton conversion of pollutants. Literature data are critically analyzed to evidence the main direction to further investigate, in particularly with reference to the possible practical application of these technologies to treat industrial, municipal, or agro-food production wastewater.

  20. Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Brito, A F; Petit, H V; Pereira, A B D; Soder, K J; Ross, S

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the interactions of corn meal or molasses [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) supplements] with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) supplements] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay diets. Eight multiparous and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 135±49d in milk and 386±61kg of body weight in the beginning of the study were randomly assigned to 4 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each period lasted 19d with 14d for diet adaptation and 5d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed diets composed of mixed-mostly grass hay plus 1 of the following 4 concentrate blends: (1) corn meal plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; (2) corn meal plus flaxseed meal; (3) liquid molasses plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; or (4) liquid molasses plus flaxseed meal. Data were analyzed for main effects of NSC and RDP supplements, and the NSC × RDP supplement interactions. Significant NSC × RDP supplement interactions were observed for milk urea N, milk N efficiency, and the sums of milk saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. No effect of NSC supplements was observed for nutrient intake and milk yield. However, 4% fat-corrected milk (-0.70kg/d) and energy-corrected milk (-0.60kg/d) were significantly reduced in cows fed liquid molasses due to a trend to decreased concentration of milk fat (-0.17%). Diets with liquid molasses resulted in increased (+35%) concentration and yield of milk enterolactone, indicating that this mammalian lignan can be modulated by supplements with different NSC profiles. Overall, NSC and RDP supplements profoundly changed the milk fatty acid profile, likely because of differences in fatty acids intake, Δ(9)-desaturase indices, and ruminal biohydrogenation pathways. Feeding liquid molasses significantly reduced plasma

  1. Carbon and nitrogen removal from glucose-glycine melanoidins solution as a model of distillery wastewater by catalytic wet air oxidation.

    PubMed

    Phuong Thu, Le; Michèle, Besson

    2016-06-01

    Sugarcane molasses distillery wastewater contains melanoidins, which are dark brown recalcitrant nitrogenous polymer compounds. Studies were carried out in batch mode to evaluate Pt and Ru supported catalysts in the Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation (CWAO) process of a synthetic melanoidins solution, prepared by stoichiometric reaction of glucose with glycine. The addition of a catalyst slightly improved TOC removal compared with the non-catalytic reaction, and especially promoted the conversion of ammonium produced from organically-bound nitrogen in melanoidins to molecular nitrogen and nitrate. The selectivity to N2 attained 89% in the presence of the Pt catalysts in the reaction conditions used (TOC=2200mgL(-1), TN=280mgL(-1), 0.5g catalyst loaded with 3% metal, 210°C, 70bar total air pressure). To avoid leaching of the active metal by organically-bound nitrogen, the reaction was very efficiently performed in a two-step reaction consisting in WAO to convert nitrogen into ammonium, before the introduction of a catalyst. PMID:26900982

  2. Isolation and identification of pathogenic microorganisms at wastewater-irrigated fields: ratios in air and wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Teltsch, B.; Kedmi, S.; Bonnet, L.; Borenzstajn-Rotem, Y.; Katzenelson, E.

    1980-06-01

    Samples of air and corresponding wastewater samples were taken at wastewater spray-irrigated fields. The concentrations of salmonellae and enteroviruses present in these samples were determined and compared with those of coliforms, and the ratios between them were calculated. The most common Salmonella serotype in the air was Salmonella ohio, whereas in the wastewater, Salmonella anatum was the most common. Enteroviruses isolated and identified were poliovirus, echovirus, and coxsackievirus type B. From the ratios of salmonellas to coliforms and enteroviruses to coliforms in the air, as compared to these ratios in the wastewater, it was concluded that the suitability of coliforms as an indication of airborne contamination caused by spray irrigation is questionable.

  3. Wastewater reclamation and reuse in China: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Sidan; Chen, Weiping; Zhang, Weiling; Fan, Yupeng; Jiao, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    The growing water stress both in terms of water scarcity and quality deterioration promotes the development of reclaimed water as a new water resource use. This paper reviewed wastewater reuse practices in China, and the opportunities and challenges of expanding reclaimed water use were analyzed. Rapid urbanization with the increasing of water demand and wastewater discharge provides an opportunity for wastewater reuse. The vast amount of wastewater discharge and low reclaimed water production mean that wastewater reuse still has a great potential in China. Many environmental and economic benefits and successful reclamation technologies also provide opportunities for wastewater reuse. In addition, the overall strategy in China is also encouraging for wastewater reuse. In the beginning stage of wastewater reclamation and reuse, there are many significant challenges to expand wastewater reuse in China including slow pace in adopting urban wastewater reuse programs, the establishment of integrated water resources management framework and guidelines for wastewater reuse programs, incoherent water quality requirements, the limited commercial development of reclaimed water and the strengthening of public awareness and cooperation among stakeholders. PMID:26899648

  4. The impact of advanced wastewater treatment technologies and wastewater strength on the energy consumption of large wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, Timothy

    Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process often requiring the use of advanced treatment technologies. Stricter effluent standards have resulted in an increase in the number of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with advanced treatment over time. Accordingly, associated energy consumption has also increased. Concerns about lowering operating costs for WWTPs and reducing associated greenhouse gas generation present an incentive to investigate energy use in WWTPs. This research investigated the impact of wastewater strength and the introduction of advanced treatment technologies, to replace traditional technologies on energy use to treat wastewater in WWTPs. Major unit processes were designed for a 100 MGD plant and variables controlling energy were identified and used to compute energy consumption. Except for primary clarification and plate and frame press dewatering, energy consumption computed using fundamental equations are within values in the literature. Results show that energy consumption for dissolved air flotation thickeners, centrifuges, gravity thickeners, and aeration basins are heavily influence by wastewater strength. Secondary treatment and tertiary treatment require a significant amount of energy. Secondary treatment requires 104 times the energy of preliminary treatment, 17 times the energy of solids processing, and 2.5 times the energy of tertiary treatment. Secondary treatment requires 41 times the energy of preliminary treatment, and 7 times the energy of solids processing. The results of this research provide a means of estimating energy consumption in the design and operation phase of a WWTP. By using the fundamental equations and methodology presented, alternative technologies can be compared or targeted for future energy savings implementation. Limitations of the methodology include design assumptions having to be made carefully, as well as assumptions of motor and equipment efficiencies.

  5. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina in municipal wastewater or digester centrate.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bingfeng; Ho, Nam; Ogden, Kimberly L; Arnold, Robert G

    2014-05-01

    Meaningful use of biofuels for transportation depends on utilization of water from non-traditional, non-potable resources. Here it is hypothesized that (i) reclaimed wastewater or nutrient-rich side streams derived from municipal wastewater treatment are suitable for that purpose and (ii) use of those waters for algal growth can promote water quality through nutrient management. Experiments showed that metals levels in municipal wastewaters are unlikely to inhibit algal growth and lipid production, at least by metals tolerant microalgae like Nannochloropsis salina. Cells grew without inhibition in treated municipal wastewater or centrate derived from wastewater treatment at additions up to 75 percent v/v in their normal growth medium minus nitrogen and phosphorus. Although wastewater provides a suitable nutrient source for algal growth, not enough municipal wastewater is available to support a meaningful biofuels industry without efficient water recycling and nutrient recovery/reuse from spent algae. PMID:24565931

  6. Bacillus thuringiensis fermentation of wastewater and wastewater sludge--presence and characterization of chitinases.

    PubMed

    Brar, S K; Verma, M; Tyagi, R D; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2008-02-01

    This study investigated the presence of chitinases in Bacillus thuringiensis ssp kurstaki HD-1 (Bt) fermented broths of wastewater sludge (non-hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed); starch industry wastewater and soyameal. Chitinase activity was absent in soyameal and present in others. Chitinase demonstrated peaks at pH 4.0 and temperatures 40 and 50 degrees C with higher activity between pH 4-5 and 10-11. The chitinase band on SDS-PAGE was found to be between 36 and 45 kDa for non-hydrolyzed (NH) and hydrolyzed sludge (TH) and starch industry wastewater. The chitinase profile during fermentation showed peaks at 15 and 30 h for non-hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed sludge and 15 and 24 h for starch industry wastewater. Chitinase retained 96-99 % activity after two weeks incubation at room temperature and pH 4. Bioassays with supplementation of Bt chitinases showed 1.2 fold increase in entomotoxicity of wastewater sludge and a small increase in starch industry wastewater. This study sheds light on production of Bt chitinases in alternative media which will have a long term effect on entomotoxicity of these formulations. PMID:18613615

  7. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity assessment of industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Masood, Farhana; Malik, Abdul

    2013-10-01

    The genotoxicity of industrial wastewaters from Jajmau (Kanpur), was carried out by Ames Salmonella/microsome test, DNA repair-defective mutants, and Allium cepa anaphase-telophase test. Test samples showed maximum response with TA98 strain with and without metabolic activation. Amberlite resins concentrated wastewater samples were found to be more mutagenic as compared to those of liquid-liquid extracts (hexane and dichloromethane extracts). The damage in the DNA repair defective mutants in the presence of Amberlite resins concentrated water samples were found to be higher to that of liquid-liquid-extracted water samples at the dose level of 20 μl/ml culture. Among all the mutants, polA exhibited maximum decline with test samples. Mitotic index (MI) of root tip meristematic cells of A. cepa treated with 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 % (v/v) wastewaters were significantly lower than the control. Complementary to the lower levels of MI, the wastewaters showed higher chromosomal aberration levels in all cases investigated. PMID:23640391

  8. HEALTH EFFECTS OF A WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data obtained as part of a comprehensive community health study conducted during 1965-1971 were utilized to examine the incidence of acute illness in a population surrounding an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant and a control location in Tecumseh, Michigan. Study partic...

  9. CHLORINE DISINFECTION OF BLENDED WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During wet weather events collected water can exceed the capacity of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and alternate flow management techniques must be employed. One technique is to treat influent flows through primary clarification and limit the flow to the secondary treatmen...

  10. CHLORINE DISINFECTION OF BLENDED WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS I

    EPA Science Inventory

    During wet weather events collected water can exceed the capacity of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and alternate flow management techniques must be employed. One technique is to treat influent flows through primary clarification and limit the flow to the secondary treatmen...

  11. Humic substance formation during wastewater infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L. ); Hildmann-Smed, R.; Filip, Z.K. , Langen . Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene); Jenssen, P.D. . Centre for Soil and Environmental Research)

    1991-01-01

    Soil infiltration of wastewater effluents is a widely practiced method of treatment and disposal/reuse throughout the world. Renovation of the wastewater results from a wide variety of complex physicochemical and biological processes. One set of processes is speculated to involve the accumulation of organic matter by filtration and sorption followed by formation of humic substances. This humic substance formation can effect the performance of soil treatment systems by contributing to soil pore clogging and reduction in hydraulic capacity, and by yielding reactive substances and an enhancement of purification processes. While there has been a wealth of research into the nature and genesis of humic substances in terrestrial environments, there has been limited research of humic substance formation during soil infiltration of wastewater. The purpose of the research reported herein was to determine if humic substances can form under conditions typical of those present during wastewater infiltration into natural soil systems. This work was conducted during 1989 to 1990 as a collaborative effort between the Centre for Soil and Environmental Research, located in Aas, Norway and the Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene located in Langen, West Germany. 11 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Emergency Planning for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, R. A.; And Others

    This manual for the development of emergency operating plans for municipal wastewater treatment systems was compiled using information provided by over two hundred municipal treatment systems. It covers emergencies caused by natural disasters, civil disorders and strikes, faulty maintenance, negligent operation, and accidents. The effects of such…

  13. WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICTS: U.S. EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite extensive Federal programs that have dramatically increased the number of people served by public sewers over the past few decades, local governments will face the challenge to maximize the service lives of existing onsite wastewater disposal systems. In 1978, the U.S. En...

  14. Programmed Training for Water/Wastewater Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This manual is aimed at the water and wastewater technician who has the responsibility for monitoring the water environment. The televised programmed training stresses the interaction of three components: the program production and operation; group leaders; and operators, including distribution and collection system personnel. The academic…

  15. Denitrification enzyme activity in swine wastewater lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic lagoons are typically used for treatment of swine wastewater. Although these anaerobic lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple in their physical, chemical, and biological processes, they are actually very sophisticated. Recent reports of high levels of di-nitrogen emissions and h...

  16. DETERMINATION OF DITHIOCARBAMATE PESTICIDES IN WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was modified and validated for the determination of dithiocarbamate pesticides in wastewaters. The developed method consists of sample pH adjustment to pH 12.2; removal of indigenous CS2 by purging in a vortex evaporator; acidification of the sample to hydrolyze dithioca...

  17. Catalytic thermal treatment of desizing wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Prasad, B; Mishra, I M; Chand, Shri

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, catalytic thermal treatment (thermolysis) was investigated for the reduction of COD and color of the desizing wastewater under moderate temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions using various catalysts. The experimental runs were performed in a glass reactor equipped with a vertical condenser. The homogeneous copper sulfate catalyst was found to be the most active in comparison to other catalysts under similar operating conditions. A removal of about 71.6% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 87.2% color of desizing wastewater was obtained with a catalyst concentration of 4 kg/m(3) at pH 4. The initial pH value of the wastewater showed a pronounced effect on the precipitation process. During the thermolysis, copper gets leached to the aqueous phase, the residue obtained after the treatment is rich in copper and it can be blended with organic manure for use in agricultural fields. The thermogravimetric analysis showed that the thermal oxidation of the solid residue obtained after thermolysis gets oxidized at a higher temperature range than that of the residue obtained from the desizing wastewater. The results lead to the conclusion that thermochemical precipitation is a very fast (instantaneous) process and would need a very small reactor vessel in comparison to other processes. PMID:17459578

  18. Wastewater Sampling Methodologies and Flow Measurement Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Daniel J.; Keffer, William J.

    This document provides a ready source of information about water/wastewater sampling activities using various commercial sampling and flow measurement devices. The report consolidates the findings and summarizes the activities, experiences, sampling methods, and field measurement techniques conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),…

  19. Physics for Water and Wastewater Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koundakjian, Philip

    This physics course covers the following main subject areas: (1) liquids; (2) pressure; (3) liquid flow; (4) temperature and heat; and (5) electric currents. The prerequisites for understanding this material are basic algebra and geometry. The lessons are composed mostly of sample problems and calculations that water and wastewater operators have…

  20. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart... CFR part 61, subpart FF, § 61.341. (c) Each owner or operator required under subpart FF of 40 CFR part... specified in subpart FF of 40 CFR part 61 shall constitute a violation of the standard....

  1. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart... CFR part 61, subpart FF, § 61.341. (c) Each owner or operator required under subpart FF of 40 CFR part... specified in subpart FF of 40 CFR part 61 shall constitute a violation of the standard....

  2. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart... CFR part 61, subpart FF, § 61.341. (c) Each owner or operator required under subpart FF of 40 CFR part... specified in subpart FF of 40 CFR part 61 shall constitute a violation of the standard....

  3. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart... CFR part 61, subpart FF, § 61.341. (c) Each owner or operator required under subpart FF of 40 CFR part... specified in subpart FF of 40 CFR part 61 shall constitute a violation of the standard....

  4. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart... CFR part 61, subpart FF, § 61.341. (c) Each owner or operator required under subpart FF of 40 CFR part... specified in subpart FF of 40 CFR part 61 shall constitute a violation of the standard....

  5. MATERIALS FOR OXYGENATED WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT CONSTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research study was initiated to identify resistant materials for construction of wastewater treatment plants using the oxygen activated sludge process. In this investigation, samples of a broad range of construction materials were exposed for periods up to 28 months in the a...

  6. INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER RECIRCULATION SYSTEM: PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report details the preliminary engineering work done at Owens-Corning's (O-C's) Anderson, South Carolina, fibrous glass plant. The purpose of the work was to test, on a pilot plant scale, various technologies to be used to clean up industrial wastewater for a closed-loop syst...

  7. Wetlands -- our natural partners in wastewater management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This video documents research in Michigan and Florida, where swamps, peatlands, marshes, and bogs (wetlands) are being used for advanced (third and final stage) wastewater treatment. Through interviews with biologists, researchers, users, city officials, and engineering firms involved with these experimental projects, one begins to discover the financial and environmental advantages of this type of treatment over dry land treatment.

  8. Wetlands -- our natural partners in wastewater management

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This video documents research in Michigan and Florida, where swamps, peatlands, marshes, and bogs (wetlands) are being used for advanced (third and final stage) wastewater treatment. Through interviews with biologists, researchers, users, city officials, and engineering firms involved with these experimental projects, one begins to discover the financial and environmental advantages of this type of treatment over dry land treatment.

  9. SOURCES OF TOXIC COMPOUNDS IN HOUSEHOLD WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of a literature search into the occurrence of EPA's selected 129 priority pollutants in household wastewater. The study identifies consumer product categories and general types of products containing the toxic compounds used in and around the home...

  10. Beneficial Biofilms: Wastewater and Other Industrial Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the use of beneficial biofilms for the production of industrial chemicals such as ethanol, butanol, lactic acid, acetic acid/vinegar, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. It also emphasizes application of biofilm reactors for treatment of dairy industry wastewater, oily sea water...

  11. Stormwater and Wastewater Infrastructure Monitoring Test Bed

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growing application of stormwater and wastewater management in urban and urbanizing environments is increasing the demand for monitoring technologies and systems that can provide reliable performance data, in real-time or near real-time, for operation and maintenance decision...

  12. DESIGN MANUAL: DEWATERING MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual discusses the many factors involved in selecting and designing dewatering equipment for organic sludges produced during primary and secondary municipal wastewater treatment. ive-step approach is outlined for the selection and design of the dewatering equipment for eit...

  13. Characteristics and biodegradability of olive mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Karahan Özgün, Özlem; Pala Özkök, İlke; Kutay, Can; Orhon, Derin

    2016-05-01

    Olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) are mostly characterized by their high-organic content and complex organic compounds in addition to the phenolic compounds. European olive oil manufacturers have to cope up with the same wastewater treatment problem and the applied conventional treatment technologies for OMW were not proved to be very successful in each case. Olive mills are mostly small and medium-sized installations and OMW is generated during the three-four-month-long manufacturing season. The problem is not only the complex wastewater to be treated but also the scattered positioning of the olive mills, the seasonal wastewater generation and the size of the manufacturing facilities. The aim of the study is to identify the organic content of OMW and to assess the biological and chemical treatability of OMWs, in order to assist the development of integrated chemical-biological treatment schemes for best appropriate techniques implementation. The experimental studies show that separation of the particulate fraction improved the biodegradability or reduced the refractory and inhibitory effects of particulate organics. PMID:26507588

  14. Biokinetic study for SRC-I wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    Biooxidation is an important part of the overall wastewater treatment system for the proposed SRC-I Demonstration Plant in Newman, Kentucky. After the completion of a Baseline Design for the plant in April 1982, various refinements were evaluated. One of these was the inclusion of a process for phenol recovery from four sour-water streams. As part of this evaluation, an extensive laboratory treatability study was conducted on wastewaters both with and without this phenol recovery step. The purpose of the study was to compare the results of different treatment schemes on different wastewaters and did not include the development of the kinetic coefficients that govern the biooxidation process. Additional treatability testing documented herein, has been performed to establish the kinetic coefficients for biooxidation of the SRC-I wastewaters. This will provide a rational basis for any subsequent changes in design. The wastewater feed used in this study was process recycle water from the Fort Lewis, Washington, pilot plant. Prior to biooxidation, it was pretreated by solvent extraction for removal of phenolics and by steam stripping for removal of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. Two, 2-stage bench scale bioreactors were operated for approximately eight months, during which time they were stabilized at various steady-state conditions. Kinetic coefficients were evaluated according to the Lawrence and McCarty model, based on BOD, COD, and TOC. Nitrification, oxygen utilization, and solids settling velocities were also studied. The results showed that BOD is a poor basis for the model mainly because almost all BOD/sub 5/ was removed at all steady-state conditions. Also, the model was more accurate for steady-state conditions of lower solids retention times. The bulk of both organic and ammonia reductions occurred in the first stage reactors.

  15. [Source identification of toxic wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Yu, Yin; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Chen, Xue-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Miao

    2014-12-01

    Petrochemical wastewaters have toxic impacts on the microorganisms in biotreatment processes, which are prone to cause deterioration of effluent quality of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the inhibition effects of activated sludge's oxygen consumption were tested to evaluate the toxicity of production wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park. The evaluation covered the wastewaters from not only different production units in the park, but also different production nodes in each unit. No direct correlation was observed between the toxicity effects and the organic contents, suggesting that the toxic properties of the effluents could not be predicted by the organic contents. In view of the variation of activated sludge sensitivity among different tests, the toxicity data were standardized according to the concentration-effect relationships of the standard toxic substance 3, 5-dichlorophenol on each day, in order to improve the comparability among the toxicity data. Furthermore, the Quality Emission Load (QEL) of corresponding standard toxic substance was calculated by multiplying the corresponding 3, 5-dichlorophenol concentration and the wastewater flow quantity, to indicate the toxicity emission contribution of each wastewater to the wastewater treatment plant. According to the rank list of the toxicity contribution of wastewater from different units and nodes, the sources of toxic wastewater in the petrochemical industrial park were clearly identified. This study provides effective guidance for source control of wastewater toxicity in the large industrial park. PMID:25826928

  16. Source apportionment of wastewater pollutants using multivariate analyses.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Menka; Tripathi, B D

    2014-07-01

    A faster and cost-effective methodology has been developed to estimate the spatial and seasonal variations in wastewater quality and apportion the influencing sources through multivariate statistical techniques, cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). Partially treated or untreated wastewater is released into the river from various industrial and domestic sources, which poses a serious threat to human health. Wastewater samples were collected from five stations along the river bank. PCA performed on overall wastewater samples revealed that in present study all the five sampling stations were influenced by sewage and industrial effluents mixed together. However, the pollutant levels were significantly different in the three groups of wastewater samples, which were confirmed by univariate analysis of principal component (PC) scores. Based on wastewater similarities, cluster analysis identified three groups (central, upstream and downstream) of sampling stations, which further confirmed univariate analysis of PCs scores. Spatial variations in wastewater quality reveled that the highest pollutant concentration was noted for group 1 and lowest for group 2. Seasonal variations in the wastewater quality revealed that highest values of pollutants were observed in low flow and lowest in high flow. Results of the present study obtained through multivariate analyses may be used to classify wastewater and identify the influencing sources of pollutants. The present study may be useful in reducing 11 % of the cost in future investigations. Thus, in future quality estimation of the representative wastewater samples would be faster as well as cost-effective approach. PMID:24599147

  17. The Levels of Trace Elements in Honey and Molasses Samples That Were Determined by ICP-OES After Microwave Digestion Method.

    PubMed

    Altundag, Huseyin; Bina, Emel; Altıntıg, Esra

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is determining the amount of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in samples of molasses and honey which were gathered from the Sakarya and Istanbul regions. In this study, trace elements in 8 honey and 20 molasses samples with different botanic features were evaluated. The sample preparation phase was performed via wet decomposition method and microwave digestion system. The accuracy of the method was checked by the standard reference material; tea leaves (INCY-TL-1) and NIST-SRM 1515-apple. The concentrations of essential trace elements (TEs) were observed in the range of 1.61 ± 0.01-287.03 ± 1.07; 0.21 ± 0.01-11.04 ± 0.12; 0.35 ± 0.03-21.71 ± 0.02 and 1.19 ± 0.01-60.90 ± 1.09 μg g(-1) for iron, copper, manganese and zinc ions, respectively, while the toxic element contents were observed in the range of 0.82 ± 0.17-3.06 ± 0.03; 0.04 ± 0.05-1.96 ± 0.03 and 0.62 ± 0.01-120.52 ± 0.10 μg g(-1) for lead, nickel and aluminum ions, respectively. The concentrations of basic TEs iron, copper, manganese and zinc were determined as 3.87 ± 0.04-16.76 ± 0.06; 0.45 ± 0.03-2.15 ± 0.01; 0.13 ± 0.01-15.02 ± 0.14 and 0.80 ± 0.09-12.03 ± 0.19 for honey samples. Also, toxic metal, lead, nickel and aluminum values in the honey samples were determined as 1.21 ± 0.12-2.46 ± 0.21; 0.28 ± 0.14-0.88 ± 0.43 and 2.11 ± 0.02-8.04 ± 0.08. A comparison between gathered data and literature values has performed and it is determined that such findings are suitable with the literature. PMID:26335573

  18. Efficient centrifugal recovery of Bacillus thuringiensis biopesticides from fermented wastewater and wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Brar, Satinder K; Verma, M; Tyagi, R D; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2006-03-01

    Studies were conducted on harvesting of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-based biopesticides from fermented broths of starch industry wastewater (SIW), wastewater sludge (raw and hydrolyzed-NH and TH, respectively) and semi-synthetic soyameal to enhance entomotoxicity (Tx) by centrifugation. Pertinent factors influencing Tx, solids concentration, pH, temperature and centrifugal force were investigated. The centrifugate solids concentration beyond 100 g/l did not enhance Tx, instead caused pellet formation. Centrifugation efficiency (Tx recovery) was higher at pH 4, and temperature 20 degrees C for starch wastewater (98%), wastewater sludge (98% and 97.8% for non-hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed, respectively) and soya broth (83%). For maximum Tx recovery (SIW-95%; NH-90%; TH-98% and soya-78%), the centrifugal force and time required was 48,000 g and 30 min, respectively. Losses in recovery efficiency were lower for SIW and wastewater sludge in comparison to soya on adopting commercially recommended centrifugal force of 9000 g. The settling velocity computations for different fermented broths enabled calculation of Sigma factor for continuous commercial centrifuge of a given capacity and hence simulation of power requirements. It was established that power requirements for a given Tx recovery efficiency were highest for conventional medium (soya) in comparison to other waste-based fermented broths. PMID:16515801

  19. Effects of ionizing radiation on struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tak-Hyun; Nam, Yun-Ku; Joo Lim, Seung

    2014-04-01

    Livestock wastewater is generally very difficult to be treated by conventional wastewater treatment techniques because it contains high-strength organics (COD), ammonium (NH4+), phosphate (PO43-) and suspended solids. Struvite crystallization has been recently studied for the simultaneous removal of NH4+ and PO43-. In this study, gamma ray irradiation was carried out prior to struvite crystallization of the anaerobically digested livestock wastewater. The effects of gamma ray irradiation on the struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater were investigated. As a result, gamma ray irradiation can decrease the concentration of COD, NH4+ and PO43- contained in the livestock wastewater. This results in not only an enhancement of the struvite crystallization efficiency but also a decrease in the chemical demands for the struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater.

  20. Potential contribution of the wastewater sector to energy supply.

    PubMed

    Heubeck, S; de Vos, R M; Craggs, R

    2011-01-01

    The biological treatment of wastewater could yield high energy fuels such as methane and alcohols, however most conventional treatment systems do not recover this energy potential. with a simple model of the energy yields of various wastewater treatment technologies it is possible to demonstrate how minor shifts in technology selection can lead the industry from being identified as predominantly energy intensive, to being recognised as a source of energy resources. The future potential energy yield is estimated by applying energy yield factors to alternative use scenarios of the same wastewater loads. The method for identifying the energy potential of wastewater was demonstrated for the New Zealand wastewater sector, but can equally be applied to other countries or regions. The model suggests that by using technologies that maximise the recovery of energy from wastewater, the potential energy yield from this sector would be substantially increased (six fold for New Zealand). PMID:21866779

  1. DISINFECTION EFFICIENCY AND RESIDUAL TOXICITY OF SEVERAL WASTEWATER DISINFECTANTS. VOLUME I. GRANDVILLE, MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of chlorine, bromine chloride, and ozone as wastewater disinfectants, and to determine any residual toxicity associated with wastewater disinfection with these agents or with chlorinated wastewater which had been...

  2. Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1 : 2 (effluent : biomass) at 200 rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32 mg/L, 8 mg/L, 162 mg/L, and 190 mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants. PMID:22272181

  3. Reduce oil and grease content in wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Capps, R.W. ); Matelli, G.N.; Bradford, M.L. )

    1993-06-01

    Poor water quality is often blamed on biological oxidation unit malfunction. However, poorly treated water entering the bio-unit is more often the problem. At the microscopic level, oil/water-separation dynamics are influenced by pH, fluid velocity, temperature, and unit volumes. Oily water's physical and chemical properties affect pretreatment systems such as API separators, corrugated plate interception (CPI) separators, air flotation and equalization systems. A better understanding of pretreatment systems' limits and efficiencies can improve wastewater quality before it upsets the biological oxidation (BIOX). Oil contamination in refinery wastewater originates from desalting, steam stripping, product treating, tank drains, sample drains and equipment washdown. The largest volumetric contributors are cooling tower blowdowns and contaminated stormwater. The paper describes the BIOX process; oil/water separation; oil/water emulsions and colloidal solutions; air flotation; surfactants; DAF (dissolved air flotation) process; IAF (induced air flotation) process; equalization; load factors; salts; and system design.

  4. L AREA WASTEWATER STORAGE DRUM EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P; Cynthia Foreman, C; Zane Nelson, Z; David Hathcock, D; Dennis Vinson, D

    2007-11-30

    This report documents the determination of the cause of pressurization that led to bulging deformation of a 55 gallon wastewater drum stored in L-Area. Drum samples were sent to SRNL for evaluation. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  5. Coupling of Algal Biofuel Production with Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Amit; Bisht, Tara Singh; Tamta, Sushma

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area. PMID:24982930

  6. Co-combusting municipal and wastewater solids

    SciTech Connect

    Kunio Nojuchi )

    1992-12-01

    In the face of difficulties securing adequate landfill sites, Kyoto City, Japan, built an incineration system to co-combust its municipal refuse and wastewater solids. The system consists of two plants: the Ishida Wastewater Treatment Plant and the Higashi Incineration Plant (see Diagram). The merits of the co-combustion system lie in the heat content of the solids. The Higashi plant's design incineration capacity is 400 Mg/d, which can produce 135,456 kWh/d. Sixty-two percent of the steam produced by solids incineration is used for electrical power generation at Higashi and 25% is used at Ishida. The power supplied to Ishida meets 92% of the electrical consumption needs of the plant, of which 16% is used to dry and dewater solids.

  7. Freshwater wetlands for wastewater management: environmental assessment handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The Freshwater Wetlands Handbook provides institutional, scientific and engineering guidance for the use of natural, freshwater wetlands for wastewater management. Wetlands have long been recognized for their pollutant removal capabilities and many have been used for wastewater management for some time. Little technical or institutional guidance currently exists for regulating these systems or for planning new systems. This Handbook provides guidance for state and federal regulatory agencies and potential dischargers evaluating wetlands for wastewater disposal or pollutant removal.

  8. Lagoons and oxidation ponds. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    George, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A review of the literature on waste stabilization pond systems is presented. Factors such as wastewater temperature, and levels of heavy metals that affect the stability of the lagoons and oxidation ponds, and methods to upgrade stabilization pond effluent to meet state and federal effluent requirements are discussed. Model simulations utilized to predict the treatment efficiency of various waste stabilization pond geometries, and inlet and outlet configurations are reviewed. (KRM)

  9. 'Bugs' used to treat FGD wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Blankinship, S.

    2009-09-15

    Tough regulation of heavy metals may justify a bioreactor approach in addition to chemical treatment of FGD wastewater. Two of Duke Energy' coal-fired plants, Belews Creek and Allen (in North Carolina) have installed new biological reactor systems to increase selenium removal to levels not achievable by existing scrubber waste water systems. The ABMet system removes nitrate and selenium in a single step. Progress Energy has installed the system at Roxboro and Mayo Stations, also in North Carolina. 1 fig., 2 photos.

  10. Shale gas wastewater management under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Sun, Alexander Y; Duncan, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an optimization framework for evaluating different wastewater treatment/disposal options for water management during hydraulic fracturing (HF) operations. This framework takes into account both cost-effectiveness and system uncertainty. HF has enabled rapid development of shale gas resources. However, wastewater management has been one of the most contentious and widely publicized issues in shale gas production. The flowback and produced water (known as FP water) generated by HF may pose a serious risk to the surrounding environment and public health because this wastewater usually contains many toxic chemicals and high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS). Various treatment/disposal options are available for FP water management, such as underground injection, hazardous wastewater treatment plants, and/or reuse. In order to cost-effectively plan FP water management practices, including allocating FP water to different options and planning treatment facility capacity expansion, an optimization model named UO-FPW is developed in this study. The UO-FPW model can handle the uncertain information expressed in the form of fuzzy membership functions and probability density functions in the modeling parameters. The UO-FPW model is applied to a representative hypothetical case study to demonstrate its applicability in practice. The modeling results reflect the tradeoffs between economic objective (i.e., minimizing total-system cost) and system reliability (i.e., risk of violating fuzzy and/or random constraints, and meeting FP water treatment/disposal requirements). Using the developed optimization model, decision makers can make and adjust appropriate FP water management strategies through refining the values of feasibility degrees for fuzzy constraints and the probability levels for random constraints if the solutions are not satisfactory. The optimization model can be easily integrated into decision support systems for shale oil/gas lifecycle

  11. Dynamic Membrane Technology for Printing Wastewater Reuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lin; Lu, Xujie; Chen, Jihua

    As environmental regulations become rigid and the cost of freshwater increases, wastewater is considered as a major resource in China. The paper presented a study on the implementation of the advanced treatment process using dynamic membrane (DM) in reusing of printing wastewater. The DM was well formed by circulating 1.5g/L of PAC in 20 minutes, the trans-membrane pressure of 200 kPa and the cross-flow velocity of 0.75m/s. The printing effluents were treated in effluent treatment plants comprising a physicochemical option followed by biological process. The treated effluent contained chemical oxygen demand (COD), color and turbidity in the range of 45-60 mg/L, 0.030-0.045 (absorbance at 420 nm) and 3-5 NTU. The results showed that the COD, color and turbidity removal efficiencies of the DM permeate were 84%, 85% and 80%, respectively. The wastewater treated by DM was reused as process water and the final concentrated retentate could be discharged directly into sewage treatment works with no additional treatments. Cleaning and regeneration of DM were very convenient if necessary. The proper process was that the polluted DM was cleaned with tap water at high cross-flow velocity. When irreversible pollutants accumulate, it would be rinsed with chemicals tested and the membrane flux would be restored up to 95%. The result showed that DM was considered as a promising method for purification aimed at reuse of printing wastewater, resulting in direct environmental and economic benefits.

  12. Biological treatment of shrimp production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, Raj

    2009-07-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been an increase in consumer demand for shrimp, which has resulted in its worldwide aquaculture production. In the United States, the stringent enforcement of environmental regulations encourages shrimp farmers to develop new technologies, such as recirculating raceway systems. This is a zero-water exchange system capable of producing high-density shrimp yields. The system also produces wastewater characterized by high levels of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, and organic carbon, which make waste management costs prohibitive. Shrimp farmers have a great need for a waste management method that is effective and economical. One such method is the sequencing batch reactor (SBR). A SBR is a variation of the activated sludge biological treatment process. This process uses multiple steps in the same reactor to take the place of multiple reactors in a conventional treatment system. The SBR accomplishes equalization, aeration, and clarification in a timed sequence in a single reactor system. This is achieved through reactor operation in sequences, which includes fill, react, settle, decant, and idle. A laboratory scale SBR was successfully operated using shrimp aquaculture wastewater. The wastewater contained high concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. By operating the reactors sequentially, namely, aerobic and anoxic modes, nitrification and denitrification were achieved as well as removal of carbon. Ammonia in the waste was nitrified within 4 days. The denitrification of nitrate was achieved by the anoxic process, and 100% removal of nitrate was observed within 15 days of reactor operation. PMID:19396482

  13. Preparation of polyelectrolytes for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Radoiu, Marilena T; Martin, Diana I; Calinescu, Ioan; Iovu, Horia

    2004-01-01

    Liquid-phase polymerisation of acrylamide-acrylic acid to form polyelectrolytes used in wastewater cleaning was examined using accelerated electron beam and microwave irradiation methods. Polymerisation was carried out in aqueous solutions at temperatures approximately 60 degrees C. Monomers total concentration was established at 40% (36% acrylamide and 4% acrylic acid). Only using the features of simultaneous radiation-induction and microwave heating can result in the formation of linear polymer chains with good water solubility and low residual monomer concentration. The flocculation capacity of the obtained polymers was tested using two wastewaters, one sampled from a slaughterhouse and the other from a vegetable oil plant. Quality indicators such as total suspended matters (TSM), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and fat, oils and grease (FOG) were measured before and after the treatment with polymeric flocculants and compared with the results obtained in classical treatment with Al(2)(SO(4))(3). It was found that the combined treatment with polymers and Al(2)(SO(4))(3) increases the degree of purification of both wastewaters up to 99%. PMID:14693435

  14. Dewatering in biological wastewater treatment: A review.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Jørgensen, Mads Koustrup

    2015-10-01

    Biological wastewater treatment removes organic materials, nitrogen, and phosphorus from wastewater using microbial biomass (activated sludge, biofilm, granules) which is separated from the liquid in a clarifier or by a membrane. Part of this biomass (excess sludge) is transported to digesters for bioenergy production and then dewatered, it is dewatered directly, often by using belt filters or decanter centrifuges before further handling, or it is dewatered by sludge mineralization beds. Sludge is generally difficult to dewater, but great variations in dewaterability are observed for sludges from different wastewater treatment plants as a consequence of differences in plant design and physical-chemical factors. This review gives an overview of key parameters affecting sludge dewatering, i.e. filtration and consolidation. The best dewaterability is observed for activated sludge that contains strong, compact flocs without single cells and dissolved extracellular polymeric substances. Polyvalent ions such as calcium ions improve floc strength and dewaterability, whereas sodium ions (e.g. from road salt, sea water intrusion, and industry) reduce dewaterability because flocs disintegrate at high conductivity. Dewaterability dramatically decreases at high pH due to floc disintegration. Storage under anaerobic conditions lowers dewaterability. High shear levels destroy the flocs and reduce dewaterability. Thus, pumping and mixing should be gentle and in pipes without sharp bends. PMID:25959073

  15. Nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment processes

    PubMed Central

    Law, Yingyu; Ye, Liu; Pan, Yuting; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from wastewater treatment plants vary substantially between plants, ranging from negligible to substantial (a few per cent of the total nitrogen load), probably because of different designs and operational conditions. In general, plants that achieve high levels of nitrogen removal emit less N2O, indicating that no compromise is required between high water quality and lower N2O emissions. N2O emissions primarily occur in aerated zones/compartments/periods owing to active stripping, and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, rather than heterotrophic denitrifiers, are the main contributors. However, the detailed mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated, despite strong evidence suggesting that both nitrifier denitrification and the chemical breakdown of intermediates of hydroxylamine oxidation are probably involved. With increased understanding of the fundamental reactions responsible for N2O production in wastewater treatment systems and the conditions that stimulate their occurrence, reduction of N2O emissions from wastewater treatment systems through improved plant design and operation will be achieved in the near future. PMID:22451112

  16. Occurrence and treatment of wastewater-derived organic nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baiyang; Kim, Youngil; Westerhoff, Paul

    2011-10-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) derived from wastewater effluent can participate in reactions that lead to formation of nitrogenous chlorination by-products, membrane fouling, eutrophication, and nitrification issues, so management of DON is important for both wastewater reuse applications and nutrient-sensitive watersheds that receive discharges from treated wastewater. This study documents DON occurrence in full-scale water/wastewater (W/WW) treatment plant effluents and assesses the removal of wastewater-derived DON by several processes (biodegradation, coagulation, softening, and powdered activated carbon [PAC] adsorption) used for advanced treatment in wastewater reuse applications. After varying levels of wastewater treatment, the dominant aqueous nitrogenous species shifts from ammonia to nitrate after aerobic processes and nitrate to DON in tertiary treatment effluents. The fraction of DON in total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) accounts for at most 52% in tertiary treated effluents (median=13%) and 54% in surface waters impacted by upstream wastewater discharges (median=31%). The 5-day biodegradability/bioavailability of DON (39%) was higher, on average, than that of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, 26%); however, upon chlorination, the DON removal (3%) decreased significantly. Alum coagulation (with ≥8 mg/L alum per mg/L DOC) and lime softening (with pH 11.3-11.5) removed<25% of DON and DOC without selectivity. PAC adsorption preferentially removed more DOC than DON by 10% on average. The results provided herein hence shed light on approaches for reducing organic nitrogen content in treated wastewater. PMID:21741064

  17. Emergy evaluations for constructed wetland and conventional wastewater treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J. B.; Jiang, M. M.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.

    2009-04-01

    Based on emergy synthesis, this study presents a comparative study on constructed wetland (CW) and conventional wastewater treatments with three representative cases in Beijing. Accounting the environmental and economic inputs and treated wastewater output based on emergy, different characteristics of two kinds of wastewater treatments are revealed. The results show that CWs are environment-benign, less energy-intensive despite the relatively low ecological waste removal efficiency (EWRE), and less cost in construction, operation and maintenance compared with the conventional wastewater treatment plants. In addition, manifested by the emergy analysis, the cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) has the merit of higher ecological waste elimination efficiency.

  18. Performance of organics and nitrogen removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems by intermittent aeration and shunt distributing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing; Yuan, Fang; Yu, Long; Huang, Linli; Fei, Hexin; Cheng, Fan; Zhang, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Organics and nitrogen removal in four subsurface wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs), named SWIS A (without intermittent aeration and shunt distributing wastewater), SWIS B (with intermittent aeration), SWIS C (with shunt distributing wastewater) and SWIS D (with intermittent aeration and shunt distributing wastewater) was investigated. High average removal rates of 92.3% for COD, 90.2% for NH4-N and 88.1% for TN were achieved simultaneously in SWIS D compared with SWIS A, B and C. The excellent TN removal of SWIS D was due to intermittent aeration provided sufficient oxygen for nitrification in upper matrix and the favorable anoxic or anaerobic environment for denitrification in subsequent matrix, and moreover, shunt distributing wastewater provided sufficient carbon source for denitrification process. The results indicated that intermittent artificial aeration combined with shunt distributing wastewater could achieve high organics and nitrogen removal in SWISs. PMID:27039353

  19. Synergetic effect of copper-plating wastewater as a catalyst for the destruction of acrylonitrile wastewater in supercritical water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young Ho; Lee, Hong-shik; Lee, Young-Ho; Kim, Jaehoon; Kim, Jae-Duck; Lee, Youn-Woo

    2009-08-15

    A new supercritical water oxidation process for the simultaneous treatment of mixed wastewater containing wastewater from acrylonitrile manufacturing processes and copper-plating processes was investigated using a continuous tubular reactor system. Experiments were carried out at temperatures ranging from 400 to 600 degrees C and a pressure of 25 MPa. The residence time was fixed at 2s by changing the flow rates of feeds, depending on reaction temperature. The initial total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the wastewaters and the O(2) concentration at the reactor inlet were kept constant at 0.49 and 0.74 mol/L. It was confirmed that the copper-plating wastewater accelerated the TOC conversion of acrylonitrile wastewater from 17.6% to 67.3% at a temperature of 450 degrees C. Moreover, copper and copper oxide nanoparticles were generated in the process of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) of mixed wastewater. 99.8% of copper in mixed wastewater was recovered as solid copper and copper oxides at a temperature of 600 degrees C, with their average sizes ranging from 150 to 160 nm. Our study showed that SCWO provides a synergetic effect for simultaneous treatment of acrylonitrile and copper-plating wastewater. During the reaction, the oxidation rate of acrylonitrile wastewater was enhanced due to the in situ formation of nano-catalysts of copper and/or copper oxides, while the exothermic decomposition of acrylonitrile wastewater supplied enough heat for the recovery of solid copper and copper oxides from copper-plating wastewater. The synergetic effect of wastewater treatment by the newly proposed SCWO process leads to full TOC conversion, color removal, detoxification, and odor elimination, as well as full recovery of copper. PMID:19231072

  20. Study of Sugarcane Pieces as Yeast Supports for Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Juice and Molasses Using Newly Isolated Yeast from Toddy Sap

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, Botcha; Balakrishnan, Kesavapillai; Raghava Rao, Tamanam; Seshagiri Rao, Gudapaty

    2012-01-01

    A repeated batch fermentation system was used to produce ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (NCIM 3640) immobilized on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) pieces. For comparison free cells were also used to produce ethanol by repeated batch fermentation. Scanning electron microscopy evidently showed that cell immobilization resulted in firm adsorption of the yeast cells within subsurface cavities, capillary flow through the vessels of the vascular bundle structure, and attachment of the yeast to the surface of the sugarcane pieces. Repeated batch fermentations using sugarcane supported biocatalyst were successfully carried out for at least ten times without any significant loss in ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses. The number of cells attached to the support increased during the fermentation process, and fewer yeast cells leaked into fermentation broth. Ethanol concentrations (about 72.65~76.28 g/L in an average value) and ethanol productivities (about 2.27~2.36 g/L/hr in an average value) were high and stable, and residual sugar concentrations were low in all fermentations (0.9~3.25 g/L) with conversions ranging from 98.03~99.43%, showing efficiency 91.57~95.43 and operational stability of biocatalyst for ethanol fermentation. The results of the work pertaining to the use of sugarcane as immobilized yeast support could be promising for industrial fermentations. PMID:22783132