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1

Assessing Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) genetic diversity and population structure using RAPD and microsatellite molecular markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two molecular marker systems, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and microsatellites, were used to evaluate population diversity and differentiation in four northern Nevada Bromus tectorum populations. We found 16 RAPD primers that yielded 165 strong repeatable bands. Of those bands, 60 (35.8%...

2

IDENTIFICATION OF SEX CHROMOSOME MOLECULAR MARKERS USING RAPDS AND FLUORESCENT IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION IN RAINBOW TROUT  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this work is to identify molecular markers associated with the sex chromosomes in rainbow trout to study the mode of sex determination mechanisms in this species. Using the RAPD assay and bulked segregant analysis, two markers were identified that generated polymorphi...

3

Fruit plant germplasm characterisation using molecular markers generated in RAPD and ISSR-PCR.  

PubMed

The genotypes of the strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa), apple (Malus domestica) and Ribes species (R. nigrum, R. rubrum and R. glossularia), maintained in our Institute's collection and used in breeding programs, were screened for DNA markers. Twenty primers for RAPD (among 60 tested) and seven for ISSR (among 10 tested) were chosen as creating polymorphic DNA bands differentiating the investigated genotypes. Based on those identity markers, the genetic distance between genotypes was determined, and their relatedness was estimated. In many cases, both RAPD- and ISSR-based genetic similarity confirmed relatedness connected with biological origin and with the place where the cultivar was developed. However, some diversity connected with the technique used for molecular marker generation was observed. Generally, the similarity values based on ISSR data were higher than those based on RAPD. Parallel study using two data sets seems to enable a reduction in the number of potential mistakes connected with each method's, technical limitations and ensures more precise relatedness determination. PMID:12378239

Korbin, Ma?gorzata; Kuras, Anita; Zurawicz, Edward

2002-01-01

4

Isolation of molecular markers for tomato ( L. esculentum ) using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new DNA polymorphism assay was developed in 1990 that is based on the amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of random DNA segments, using single primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequence. The amplified DNA fragments, referred to as RAPD markers, were shown to be highly useful in the construction of genetic maps (“RAPD mapping”). We have now adapted the

R. M. Klein-Lankhorst; A. Vermunt; R. Weide; T. Liharska; P. Zabel

1991-01-01

5

Patterns of inheritance with RAPD molecular markers reveal novel types of polymorphism in the honey bee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to generate random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) from honey bee DNA samples in order to follow the patterns of inheritance of RAPD markers in a haplodiploid insect. The genomic DNA samples from two parental bees, a haploid drone and a diploid queen, were screened for polymorphism with 68 different tennucleotide primers of random

Greg J. Hunt; Robert E. Page

1992-01-01

6

Diversity Analysis of Tomato Cultivars Based on Coefficient of Parentage and RAPD Molecular Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity analysis provides information on the genetic base of the gene pool of released genotypes. The objectives of this study were to assess the diversity of tomato cultivars and breeding lines released from North Carolina State University based on their coefficient of parentage (COP) and RAPD markers, and to estimate the contribution of ancestors to these tomato cultivars and

Bal K. Joshi; Randy G. Gardner; Dilip R. Panthee

2012-01-01

7

Molecular Characterization of Selected Local and Exotic Cattle Using RAPD Marker  

PubMed Central

In order to develop specific genetic markers and determine the genetic diversity of Bangladeshi native cattle (Pabna, Red Chittagong) and exotic breeds (Sahiwal), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed using 12 primers. Genomic DNA was extracted from 20 cattle (local and exotic) blood samples and extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Among the random primers three were matched and found to be polymorphic. Genetic relations between cattle’s were determined by RAPD polymorphisms from a total of 66.67%. Statistical analysis of the data, estimating the genetic distances between cattle and sketching the cluster trees were estimated by using MEGA 5.05 software. Comparatively highest genetic distance (0.834) was found between RCC-82 and SL-623. The lowest genetic distance (0.031) was observed between M-1222 and M-5730. The genetic diversity of Red Chittagong and Sahiwal cattle was relatively higher for a prescribed breed. Adequate diversity in performance and adaptability can be exploited from the study results for actual improvement accruing to conservation and development of indigenous cattle resources. PMID:25049622

Khatun, M. Mahfuza; Hossain, Khondoker Moazzem; Mahbubur Rahman, S. M.

2012-01-01

8

Comparison between RAPD and SSR molecular markers in detecting genetic variation in kiwifruit ( Actinidia deliciosa A. Chev)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different DNA-based techniques, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, were used for fingerprinting kiwifruit genotypes and for detecting undesirable genetic variation in micropropagated plants. The fragments were scored as present (1) or absent (0), and those readings were entered in a computer file as a binary matrix (one for each marker). Two cluster analyses

M. A. Palombi; C. Damiano

2002-01-01

9

Short Communication Molecular variation in melon (Cucumis melo L.) as revealed by RFLP and RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA polymorphism among Cucumis melo accessions was assessed using RFLPs and RAPDs. Thirteen varieties that represent diverse melon-types were surveyed using 18 RAPD primers. Cluster analysis indicated that the largest divergence among melon-types occurred between C. melo var. momordica from India and the North American and European muskmelon cultivars. The latter were also well-diverged from vars. conomon, chito and dudaim

Leah Silberstein; Irina Kovalski; Ruguo Huang; Kostas Anagnostou; Molly M. Kyle Jahn; Rafael Perl-Treves

10

Studies on the genetic variation of the green unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae) obtained from different geographical locations using ISSR and RAPD molecular marker.  

PubMed

Haematococcus pluvialis (Flotow) is a unicellular green alga, which is considered to be the best astaxanthin-producing organism. Molecular markers are suitable tools for the purpose of finding out genetic variations in organisms; however there have been no studies conducted on ISSR or RAPD molecular markers for this organism. The DNA of 10 different strains of H. pluvialis (four strains from Iran, two strains from Finland, one strain from Switzerland and three strains from the USA) was extracted. A genetic similarity study was carried out using 14 ISSR and 12 RAPD primers. Moreover, the molecular weights of the bands produced ranged from 0.14 to 3.4 Kb. The PCA and dendrogram clustered the H. pluvialis strains into various groups according to their geographical origin. The lowest genetic similarity was between the Iran2 and USA2 strains (0.08) and the highest genetic similarity was between Finland1 and Finland2 (0.64). The maximum numbers of bands produced by the ISSR and RAPD primers were 35 and 6 bands, respectively. The results showed that ISSR and RAPD markers are useful for genetic diversity studies of Haematococcus as they showed geographical discrimination. PMID:21441863

Mostafa, Noroozi; Omar, Hishamuddin; Tan, Soon Guan; Napis, Suhaimi

2011-01-01

11

RAPD markers associated with quercetin accumulation in Psidium guajava  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) amplification method to identify molecular markers associated with high\\u000a quercetin accumulation in the leaves of Psidium guajava L. trees, selected from four different Mexican agronomic regions. We identified six polymorphic RAPD fragments of 620, 590,\\u000a 370, 690, 480 and 460 bp among individuals of P. guajava. Genetic linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed that

I. A. Feria-Romero; H. Astudillo-de la Vega; M. A. Chavez-Soto; E. Rivera-Arce; M. López; H. Serrano; X. Lozoya

2009-01-01

12

Screening and Characterization of RAPD Markers in Viscerotropic Leishmania Parasites  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is mainly due to the Leishmania donovani complex. VL is endemic in many countries worldwide including East Africa and the Mediterranean region where the epidemiology is complex. Taxonomy of these pathogens is under controversy but there is a correlation between their genetic diversity and geographical origin. With steady increase in genome knowledge, RAPD is still a useful approach to identify and characterize novel DNA markers. Our aim was to identify and characterize polymorphic DNA markers in VL Leishmania parasites in diverse geographic regions using RAPD in order to constitute a pool of PCR targets having the potential to differentiate among the VL parasites. 100 different oligonucleotide decamers having arbitrary DNA sequences were screened for reproducible amplification and a selection of 28 was used to amplify DNA from 12 L. donovani, L. archibaldi and L. infantum strains having diverse origins. A total of 155 bands were amplified of which 60.65% appeared polymorphic. 7 out of 28 primers provided monomorphic patterns. Phenetic analysis allowed clustering the parasites according to their geographical origin. Differentially amplified bands were selected, among them 22 RAPD products were successfully cloned and sequenced. Bioinformatic analysis allowed mapping of the markers and sequences and priming sites analysis. This study was complemented with Southern-blot to confirm assignment of markers to the kDNA. The bioinformatic analysis identified 16 nuclear and 3 minicircle markers. Analysis of these markers highlighted polymorphisms at RAPD priming sites with mainly 5? end transversions, and presence of inter– and intra– taxonomic complex sequence and microsatellites variations; a bias in transitions over transversions and indels between the different sequences compared is observed, which is however less marked between L. infantum and L. donovani. The study delivers a pool of well-documented polymorphic DNA markers, to develop molecular diagnostics assays to characterize and differentiate VL causing agents. PMID:25313833

Mkada–Driss, Imen; Talbi, Chiraz; Guerbouj, Souheila; Driss, Mehdi; Elamine, Elwaleed M.; Cupolillo, Elisa; Mukhtar, Moawia M.; Guizani, Ikram

2014-01-01

13

A review of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers in fish research  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 15 years, molecular markers have entered the scene of genetic improvement in different fields of agricultural research. The ease and simplicity of RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) techniques make it ideal for genetic mapping, plant and animal breeding programs, and DNA fingerprinting, with particular utility in the field of population genetics. This review summarizes the use of RAPD

Bahy A. Ali; Tian-Hua Huang; Da-Nian Qin; Xiao-Mei Wang

2004-01-01

14

Characterization of Some Italian Common Bean ( Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) Landraces by RAPD, Semi-random and ISSR Molecular Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and a semi-random PCR system were used to analyze the genetic diversity of 16 Italian common bean landraces and their relationship to four commercial cultivars. Of the primers tested, 8 ISSR, 6 RAPD and 7 semi-random primers produced polymorphic and reproducible DNA fragments. A higher proportion of polymorphic bands were observed

Ilaria Marotti; Alessandra Bonetti; Maurizio Minelli; Pietro Catizone; Giovenni Dinelli

2007-01-01

15

A genetic linkage map of crested wheatgrass based on AFLP and RAPD markers.  

PubMed

Using a population of 105 interspecific F(2) hybrids derived from a cross between Agropyron mongolicum Keng and Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. 'Fairway' as a mapping population, a genetic linkage map of crested wheatgrass was constructed based on AFLP and RAPD molecular markers. A total of 175 markers, including 152 AFLP and 23 RAPD markers, were ordered in seven linkage groups. The map distance was 416 cM, with a mean distance of 2.47 cM between markers. The number of markers ranged from 13 to 46 in each linkage group and the length of groups ranged from 18 to 104 cM. The research found that 30 out of 175 molecular markers showed segregation distortion, accounting for 17% of all markers. This is the first genetic linkage map of crested wheatgrass. This map will facilitate gene localization, cloning, and molecular marker-assisted selection in the future. PMID:22462407

Yu, Xiaoxia; Li, Xiaolei; Ma, Yanhong; Yu, Zhuo; Li, Zaozhe

2012-03-30

16

Comparing AFLP, RAPD and RFLP markers for measuring genetic diversity in melon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different types of molecular markers, RAPD, AFLP and RFLP were used to measure genetic diversity among six genotypes\\u000a of Cucumis melo L. Each line represented a different melon genotype: Piel de Sapo, Ogen, PI161375, PI414723, Agrestis and C105. A number\\u000a of polymorphic RAPD, AFLP and RFLP bands were scored on all materials and the genetic similarity measured. Clustering analysis

J. Garcia-Mas; M. Oliver; H. Gómez-Paniagua; M. C. de Vicente

2000-01-01

17

A method to measure genetic distance between allogamous populations of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) using RAPD molecular markers.  

PubMed

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a forage legume of world-wide importance whose both allogamous and autotetraploid nature maximizes the genetic diversity within natural and cultivated populations. This genetic diversity makes difficult the discrimination between two related populations. We analyzed this genetic diversity by screening DNA from individual plants of eight cultivated and natural populations of M. sativa and M. ?falcata using the RAPD method. A high level of genetic variation was found within and between populations. Using five primers, 64 intense bands were scored as present or absent across all populations. Most of the loci were revealed to be highly polymorphic whereas very few population-specific polymorphisms were identified. From these observations, we adopted a method based on the Roger's genetic distance between populations using the observed frequency of bands to discriminate populations pairwise. Except for one case, the between-population distances were all significantly different from zero. We have also determined the minimal number of bands and individuals required to test for the significance of between-population distances. PMID:24710879

Ghérardi, M; Mangin, B; Goffinet, B; Bonnet, D; Huguet, T

1998-03-01

18

Miscanthus: genetic diversity and genotype identification using ISSR and RAPD markers.  

PubMed

Due to the limited number of molecular studies focused on European gene pool investigation, it is necessary to perform plant material recognition. Eighteen accessions of three Miscanthus species, namely, M. × giganteus, M. sinensis, M. sacchariflorus were evaluated with the use of molecular marker systems such as: inter simple sequence repeats (ISSRs), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and by estimation of ploidy level based on flow cytometry. As a result, only one ISSR primer (ISSR1) and three RAPD primers (RAPD1, RAPD2, RAPD4) were required to identify all genotypes. Moreover, the use of the above mentioned molecular markers enable the proper species recognition of the interspecific hybrid M. × giganteus "Floridulus," which has been previously mislabeled as M. floridulus. The highest genetic similarity coefficient (0.94) was observed between M. × giganteus clones, which indicates that the genetic diversity within this species was very low. Whereas M. sinensis genotypes represented a relatively wide diversity with similarity coefficient of 0.58. Cluster analysis using UPGMA grouped the 18 accessions in three clusters according to species affiliation including relabeled M. × giganteus "Floridulus," which proved to be closely related to M.  × giganteus. Similar groupings were evident in the PCoA analysis. PMID:24880640

Cichorz, Sandra; Go?ka, Maria; Litwiniec, Anna

2014-10-01

19

Diversity among populations of switchgrass based on RAPD markers  

SciTech Connect

Information on the amount of genetic diversity in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is necessary to enhance the effectiveness of breeding programs and germplasm conservation efforts. This study characterized and assessed genetic diversity by means of RAPD markers among 14 populations representing upland and lowland switchgrass ecotypes. Forty-five of 128 primers produced polymorphic markers among sets of genomic DNA pooled from individual genotypes of each population. Five primers were selected to amplify a total of 91 polymorphic loci among genotypes. The RAPD markers were scored for presence or absence of bands to generate distance matrices for cluster analysis. Overall similarity was 65% among population compared to 81% within populations. Blackwell and Caddo were the most similar populations (78%) based on RAPD markers, whereas Alamo and Forestburg were the most divergent (53%). Cluster analysis clearly segregated populations into two main groups (putatively based on ecotype) and united individual genotypes within a population into discrete groups within the larger clusters. Although the relationship between ploidy level and ecotype remained unclear, RAPD profiles can be used to identify switchgrass populations and may be useful in predicting relationship between experimental germplasm sources and released populations. 50 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Gunter, L.E.; Tuskan, G.A.; Wullschleger, S.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-07-01

20

RAPD-SCAR marker and genetic relationship analysis of three Demodex species (Acari: Demodicidae).  

PubMed

For a long time, classification of Demodex mites has been mainly based on their hosts and phenotype characteristics. The study was the first to conduct molecular identification and genetic relationship analysis for six isolates of three Demodex species by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Totally, 239 DNA fragments were amplified from six Demodex isolates with 10 random primers in RAPD, of which 165 were polymorphic. Using a single primer, at least five fragments and at most 40 in the six isolates were amplified, whereas within a single isolate, a range of 35-49 fragments were amplified. DNA fingerprints of primers CZ 1-9 revealed intra- and interspecies difference in six Demodex isolates, whereas primer CZ 10 only revealed interspecies difference. The genetic distance and dendrogram showed the intraspecific genetic distances were closer than the interspecific genetic distances. The interspecific genetic distances of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex canis (0.7931-0.8140) were shorter than that of Demodex brevis and D. canis (0.8182-0.8987). The RAPD-SCAR marker displayed primer CZ 10 could be applied to identify the three Demodex species. The 479-bp fragment was specific for D. brevis, and the 261-bp fragment was specific for D. canis. The conclusion was that the RAPD-SCAR multi-marker was effective in molecular identification of three Demodex species. The genetic relationship between D. folliculorum and D. canis was nearer than that between D. folliculorum and D. brevis. PMID:22205351

Zhao, Ya-E; Wu, Li-Ping

2012-06-01

21

Comparison of RFLP and RAPD markers to estimating genetic relationships within and among cruciferous species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers are being used widely for evaluating genetic relationships of crop germplasm. Differences in the properties of these two markers could result in different estimates of genetic relationships among some accessions. Nuclear RFLP markers detected by genomic DNA and cDNA clones and RAPD markers were compared for evaluating genetic

C. E. Thormann; M. E. Ferreira; L. E. A. Camargo; J. G. Tivang; T. C. Osborn

1994-01-01

22

Predicting quantitative variation within rice germplasm using molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diverse Asian rice (Oryza sativa) germplasm has been used to identify associations between various quantitative traits and RAPD molecular markers using multiple regression analysis. This has allowed us to predict for other samples of germplasm their performance for traits such as culm length and number, days to flowering, grain width, and panicle and leaf length using only RAPD marker data.

Parminder S Virk; Brian V Ford-Lloyd; Michael T Jackson; Harpal S Pooni; Tomas P Clemeno; H John Newbury

1996-01-01

23

Use of RAPD and AFLP markers to identify inter- and intraspecific hybrids of Mentha.  

PubMed

Three controlled crosses were carried out involving Mentha arvensis and Mentha spicata [M. spicata CIMAP/C30 x M. spicata CIMAP/C33 (cv. Neera); M. arvensis CIMAP/C18 x CIMAP/C17 (cv. Kalka); and M. arvensis CIMAP/C17 x M. spicata CIMAP/C33]. The parents were subjected to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with 80 primers, and polymorphic primers were tested for detecting coinherited RAPD profiles among the progeny of these crosses. Of 50 seedlings tested from each intraspecific cross, all demonstrated dominant profiles with the selected RAPD primers except the detected hybrid from respective crosses. Coinherited markers could be detected with the primers OPJ 01, MAP 06, OPT 08, and OPO 20 for M. arvensis; OPJ 05, OPJ 14, OPO 19, and OPT 09 for M. spicata; and OPJ 07, OPJ 10, OPJ 11, OPJ 14, and OPO 02 for the cross M. arvensis x M. spicata. In our amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, 40 coinherited marker fragments were identified for the cross involving M. arvensis, 32 for the cross involving M. spicata, and 41 for the interspecific cross between M. arvensis and M. spicata. In all crosses, similarity values between the parents were less than those between the parents and the hybrids. Although RAPD markers are generally considered dominant, it is possible to identify a few codominant markers that behave like restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. This molecular marker system may be helpful in rapidly screening out hybrids in crops where cross-pollination is a problem. PMID:16135712

Shasany, A K; Darokar, M P; Dhawan, S; Gupta, A K; Gupta, S; Shukla, A K; Patra, N K; Khanuja, S P S

2005-01-01

24

Analysis of genetic diversity in Larix gmelinii (Pinaceae) with RAPD and ISSR markers.  

PubMed

Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii), a deciduous conifer, is the northernmost tree, native to eastern Siberia and nearby regions of China. We used growth traits and molecular markers to assess genetic variation in different L. gmelinii growing regions; 105 individual samples were collected from seven regions of the Qingshan Forestry Centre, Heilongjiang Province, China. The greatest genetic regional variation was seen in the Youhao area, based on coefficients of variation for tree height, diameter and volume (14.73, 28.25, and 55.27%, respectively). Analysis using molecular markers showed rich genetic diversity. The RAPD and ISSR methods both indicated that most variation came from within populations. The seven regions were divided into two groups (Daxing'an and Xiaoxing'an Mountain ranges) by RAPD cluster analysis: Tianchi, Xiaojiuya, Yuanjiang, and Taiping regions were placed in the first group at a genetic distance of 0.08; while the other regions were in the second group. The correlation between RAPD markers and geographical distance was significant, with a correlation coefficient of 0.752. PMID:23408406

Zhang, L; Zhang, H G; Li, X F

2013-01-01

25

Analysis of annual Medicago species using RAPD markers.  

PubMed

Annual species of the genus Medicago have attracted interest as green manure and temporary forage crops. This study was conducted to determine if randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers could be used to assess the variability within and among species. Several accessions of each six species (M. scutellata Mill., M. disciformis DC., M. murex Willd., M. truncatula Gaertn., M. polymorpha L., and M. rugosa Desr.) were studied. A phylogeny reconstructed with the computer program Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (PAUP) showed the same relationships as traditional taxonomy. Variation was present among accessions of all species. Several accessions were considerably different from others within the species (one of each M. scutellata and M. polymorpha) and four accessions of M. murex were differentiated by both morphology and RAPD banding patterns from the other accessions. These accessions may be useful to include in a core collection. Variation within accessions was present. Although the species are autogamous, the original seed collections may have been made from a number of plants in the same area. Also, some outcrossing or seed mixing may have occurred. Finally, at least 10 RAPD primers appear to be necessary in order to develop reliable estimates of relatedness among annual Medicago accessions. PMID:7774803

Brummer, E C; Bouton, J H; Kochert, G

1995-04-01

26

Genetic relationships between Lolium (Poaceae) species revealed by RAPD markers.  

PubMed

The genus Lolium is one of the most important groupings of temperate forage grasses, including about eight recognized species that are native to some temperate and subtropical regions of the northern hemisphere. We examined genetic relationships among 18 accessions representing all Lolium species using RAPD markers. Among 50 random primers that we screened, 13 gave reproducible amplification banding patterns. Each of these 13 primers generated 19-43 scorable fragments. A total of 367 RAPD fragments were detected, of which 95.9% were polymorphic across all the Lolium accessions. Dice's coefficient of dissimilarity ranged from 0.016 to 0.622, which is indicative of substantial genetic variations in these Lolium accessions. A neighbor-joining cluster analysis, with bootstrap permutation, produced an unrooted dendrogram, which grouped 18 accessions into two main clades, supporting high bootstrap values (98 and 96%). The first clade included the self-pollinated species, L. persicum, L. temulentum, L. remotum, and L. subulatum. The cross-pollinated species, i.e., L. multiflorum, L. perenne, L. rigidum, and L. canariense, composed the second clade, in which L. canariense formed a distinct subclade, indicating its higher genetic separation from other allogamous species. The value of r = 0.97 in the Mantel test for cophenetic correlation applied to the cluster analysis indicated the high degree of fit of the accessions to a group. A principal coordinate analysis, whose first three coordinates explained 72.6% of the variation, showed similar groupings as in the cluster analysis. The genetic relationships estimated by the polymorphism of RAPD markers are basically in agreement with those previously inferred with other genetic markers. PMID:23546973

Ma, X; Gu, X-Y; Chen, T-T; Chen, S-Y; Huang, L-K; Zhang, X-Q

2013-01-01

27

Linkage map of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, based on RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A linkage map was constructed for the honey bee based on the segregation of 365 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers in haploid male progeny of a single female bee. The X locus for sex determination and genes for black body color and malate dehydrogenase were mapped to separate linkage groups. RAPD markers were very efficient for mapping, with an

Greg J. Hunt; Robert E. Page

1995-01-01

28

Evidence for RAPD heteroduplex formation in cranberry: implications for pedigree and genetic-relatedness studies and a source of co-dominant RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver-stained random amplified polymorphic DNA (ssRAPD) markers have been identified that are always jointly present or absent in the ssRAPD profiles of cranberry varieties. On the basis of segregation data and the ability to re-create these “associated ssRAPDs” through the intermixing of amplified DNA from individuals lacking them, five of the six pairs of associated ssRAPDs analyzed were shown to

R. G. Novy; N. Vorsa

1996-01-01

29

Assessing evolutionary relationships of pines in the Oocarpae and Australes subsections using RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

RAPD marker technology was used to assessevolutionary relationships among species classified inthe Oocarpae and Australes subsections. A total of 127 RAPD markers was assessed across 10taxa in Oocarpae and 8 taxa in Australes. A phylogenetic tree was constructed byneighbor-joining analysis of a p-distance matrixgenerated from the marker data. Results indicate thattaxa in the California Oocarpae are distinctfrom Mesoamerican Oocarpae and

W. S. Dvorak; A. P. Jordon; G. P. Hodge; J. L. Romero

2000-01-01

30

Evaluation of RAPD markers for taxonomic relationships in some aquatic species of Utricularia L. (Lentibulariaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to assess relationship across nine aquatic species of Utricularia. The highest numbers of RAPD bands were detected in Utricularia bremii and U. intermedia. The highest genetic similarity was observed between U. australis and U. dimorphantha; between U. australis and U. vulgaris; and between U. dimorphantha and U. macrorhiza indicating that these species

Mohammad Oliur Rahman

2006-01-01

31

The development of RAPD and microsatellite markers in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var.  

E-print Network

The development of RAPD and microsatellite markers in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) have been developed. We detected 52 decameric oligonucleotides polymorphism, RAPD, microsatellite, SSR, Pinus contorta var. latifolia. Résumé : Deux types de marqueurs

Macdonald, Ellen

32

RAPD markers reveal polymorphism among some Iranian pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study RAPD markers were used to determine the diversity level among 24 Iranian pomegranate genotypes. One hundred decamer random primers were used for PCR reactions, among which 16 showed reliable polymorphic patterns. These primers produced 178 bands, of which 102 were polymorphic. Cluster analysis of the genotypes was performed based on data from polymorphic RAPD bands, using Jaccard's

A. Sarkhosh; Z. Zamani; R. Fatahi; A. Ebadi

2006-01-01

33

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers readily distinguish cryptic mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae: Anopheles )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was examined as a potential tool to differen- tiate cryptic mosquito species. It proved to be a quick, effective means of finding genetic markers to separate two laboratory populations of morphologically indis- tinguishable African malaria vectors, Anopheles gam- biae and An. arabiensis. In an initial screening of fifty- seven RAPD primers, 377

R. C. Wilkerson; T. J. Parsons; D. G. Albright; T. A. Klein; M. J. Braun

1993-01-01

34

Genetic structure and inter-generic relationship of closed colony of laboratory rodents based on RAPD markers.  

PubMed

Molecular genetic analysis was performed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) on three commonly used laboratory bred rodent genera viz. mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus) and guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) as sampled from the breeding colony maintained at the Animal Facility, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow. In this study, 60 samples, 20 from each genus, were analyzed for evaluation of genetic structure of rodent stocks based on polymorphic bands using RAPD markers. Thirty five random primers were assessed for RAPD analysis. Out of 35, only 20 primers generated a total of 56.88% polymorphic bands among mice, rats and guinea pigs. The results revealed significantly variant and distinct fingerprint patterns specific to each of the genus. Within-genera analysis, the highest (89.0%) amount of genetic homogeneity was observed in mice samples and the least (79.3%) were observed in guinea pig samples. The amount of genetic homogeneity was observed very high within all genera. The average genetic diversity index observed was low (0.045) for mice and high (0.094) for guinea pigs. The inter-generic distances were maximum (0.8775) between mice and guinea pigs; and the minimum (0.5143) between rats and mice. The study proved that the RAPD markers are useful as genetic markers for assessment of genetic structure as well as inter-generic variability assessments. PMID:25074272

Kumar, Mahadeo; Kumar, Sharad

2014-11-01

35

Detection of Low Genetic Variation in a Critically Endangered Chinese Pine, Pinus squamata , Using RAPD and ISSR Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

With only 32 individuals in the northeastern corner of Yunnan Province, China, Pinus squamata is one of the most endangered conifers in the world. Using two classes of molecular markers, RAPD and ISSR, its very low\\u000a genetic variation was revealed. Shannon's index of phenotypic diversity (I) was 0.030, the mean effective number of alleles per locus (Ae) was 1.032, the

Zhi-Yong Zhang; Yong-Yan Chen; De-Zhu Li

2005-01-01

36

Evaluation of genetic diversity in Turkish melons ( Cucumis melo L.) based on phenotypic characters and RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic relationships among 56 melon (Cucumis melo L.) genotypes collected from various parts of Turkey were determined by comparing their phenotypic and molecular traits with\\u000a those of 23 local and foreign melon genotypes to investigate the taxonomic relationships and genetic variation of Turkish\\u000a melon germplasm. Sixty-one phenotypic characters and 109 polymorphic RAPD markers obtained from 33 primers were used

Suat Sensoy; Saadet Büyükalaca; Kazim Abak

2007-01-01

37

Classification of Iranian Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Ecotypes Using RAPD Marker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Garlic is a valuable medicinal plant with variability in desirable morphological and physiological characteristics. The analysis of genetic diversity plays an important role in breeding programs. The RAPD technique could be very effective in detecting genetic variation in garlic. Objective: The objective of the present work was to detect molecular polymorphism among Iranian garlic ecotypes by RAPD technique. Methods:

Baghalian K

2009-01-01

38

Identification of RAPD and SCAR markers associated with yield traits in the Indian tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta drury  

PubMed Central

The tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, is a semi-domesticated vanya silk-producing insect of high economic importance. To date, no molecular marker associated with cocoon and shell weights has been identified in this species. In this report, we identified a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker and examined its inheritance, and also developed a stable diagnostic sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Silkworms were divided into groups with high (HCSW) and low (LCSW) cocoon and shell weights, and the F2 progeny of a cross between these two groups were obtained. DNA from these silkworms was screened by PCR using 34 random primers and the resulting RAPD fragments were used for cluster analysis and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The clustering pattern in a UPGMA-based dendogram and DFA clearly distinguished the HCSW and LCSW groups. Multiple regression analysis identified five markers associated with cocoon and shell weights. The marker OPW16905 bp showed the most significant association with cocoon and shell weights, and its inheritance was confirmed in F2 progeny. Cloning and sequencing of this 905 bp fragment showed 88% identity between its 134 nucleotides and the Bmc-1/Yamato-like retroposon of A. mylitta. This marker was further converted into a diagnostic SCAR marker (SCOPW 16826 bp). The SCAR marker developed here may be useful in identifying the right parental stock of tasar silk-worms for high cocoon and shell weights in breeding programs designed to enhance the productivity of tasar silk. PMID:23271934

Dutta, Suhrid R.; Kar, Prasanta K.; Srivastava, Ashok K.; Sinha, Manoj K.; Shankar, Jai; Ghosh, Ananta K.

2012-01-01

39

Application of ISSR, RAPD, and cytological markers to the certification of Picea mariana, P. glauca, and P. engelmannii trees, and their putative hybrids.  

PubMed

Picea glauca (white spruce) and P. engelmannii (Engelmann spruce) are so similar and integrated that it is impossible to distinguish between them and their hybrids using morphological characteristics. Although natural hybrids between P. glauca and P. mariana (black spruce) do not generally occur, even though the 2 species are sympatric in North America, a first-generation hybrid, called the Rosendahl spruce, has been reported in the literature. In this study, several inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were developed, as were randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, to certify spruce trees and their hybrids. ISSR fingerprinting was more efficient than RAPD assay; it detected 70% polymorphic DNA markers among the spruce species analyzed, whereas RAPD fingerprinting detected only 53%. Species-diagnostic ISSR and RAPD markers differentiating P. glauca from P. engelmannii and P. mariana were cloned and sequenced. Molecular certification of the spruce samples analyzed confirmed that all the seeds from interior spruce populations were true hybrids of P. glauca and P. engelmannii. But the analysis of seeds derived from the putative Rosendahl spruce indicated that this tree is likely a pure P. glauca genotype, rather than a hybrid of P. glauca and P. mariana. These data were confirmed by cytological analyses. Further analysis, using a more sensitive DNA amplification method with designed primers flanking the species-diagnostic ISSR and RAPD markers, revealed that such sequences are not generally species-specific because they are present in other spruce species. PMID:15838553

Nkongolo, K K; Michael, P; Demers, T

2005-04-01

40

The comparison of RFLP, RAPD, AFLP and SSR (microsatellite) markers for germplasm analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utility of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism), RAPD (random-amplified polymorphic DNA), AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) and SSR (simple sequence repeat, microsatellite) markers in soybean germplasm analysis was determined by evaluating information content (expected heterozygosity), number of loci simultaneously analyzed per experiment (multiplex ratio) and effectiveness in assessing relationships between accessions. SSR markers have the highest expected heterozygosity (0.60),

Wayne Powell; Michele Morgante; Chaz Andre; Michael Hanafey; Julie Vogel; Scott Tingey; Antoni Rafalski

1996-01-01

41

Detection of DNA Polymorphisms in Sugarbeet Bulks by SRAP and RAPD Markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker system has been used in many different applications involving the detection of DNA sequence polymorphism, but most often in construction of linkage maps and in bulk segregant analysis (BSA) for identification of markers linked to genes of interest....

42

Identification and mapping on chromosome 9 of RAPD markers linked to Sw5 in tomato by bulked segregant analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulked segregant analysis was used to identify random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to the Sw-5 gene for resistance to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in tomato. Using two pools of phenotyped individuals from one segregating population, we identified four RAPD markers linked to the gene of interest. Two of these appeared tightly linked to Sw-5, whereas another, linked

V. Chagué; J. C. Mercier; M. Guénard; A. de Courcel; F. Vedel

1996-01-01

43

Mapping of avirulence genes in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea, with RFLP and RAPD markers.  

PubMed

Three genetically independent avirulence genes, AVR1-Irat7, AVRI-MedNoi; and AVR1-Ku86, were identified in a cross involving isolates Guy11 and 2/0/3 of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea. Using 76 random progeny, we constructed a partial genetic map with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers revealed by probes such as the repeated sequences MGL/MGR583 and Pot3/MGR586, cosmids from the M. grisea genetic map, and a telomere sequence oligonucleotide. Avirulence genes AVR1-MedNoi and AVR1-Ku86 were closely linked to telomere RFLPs such as marker TelG (6 cM from AVR1-MedNoi) and TelF (4.5 cM from AVR1-Ku86). Avirulence gene AVR1-Irat7 was linked to a cosmid RFLP located on chromosome 1 and mapped at 20 cM from the avirulence gene AVR1-CO39. Using bulked segregant analysis, we identified 11 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers closely linked (0 to 10 cM) to the avirulence genes segregating in this cross. Most of these RAPD markers corresponded to junction fragments between known or new transposons and a single-copy sequence. Such junctions or the whole sequences of single-copy RAPD markers were frequently absent in one parental isolate. Single-copy sequences from RAPD markers tightly linked to avirulence genes will be used for positional cloning. PMID:10659712

Dioh, W; Tharreau, D; Notteghem, J L; Orbach, M; Lebrun, M H

2000-02-01

44

Diversity analysis of Aegilops species from Morocco using RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of 51 representative populations of the 5 Aegilops species from Moroccan collection was analyzed using 22 RAPD primers. We investigated the associations among these 5 Aegilops species (A. geniculata Roth (UUMM), A. triuncialis L. (UUCC), A. ventricosa Tausch (DDNN), A. peregrina (Hackel) Maire et Weiller (UUMM) and A. neglecta Req. ex Bert. subsp. recta (Zhuk.) K. Hammer (UUMMNN));

B. Belkadi; N. Assali; A. Filali-Maltouf; O. Benlhabib

2011-01-01

45

Fingerprinting of alfalfa meiotic mutants using RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with single ten-base-long nucleotide primers, was used to amplify random regions of genomic DNA from eleven diploid meiotic mutants (2n egg, 2n pollen and jumbo pollen producers) of the Medicago sativa-coerulea-falcata complex. Electrophoretic patterns of the resulting random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fragments were evaluated to develop a graphical representation of amplification products from which conserved

G. Barcaccia; S. Tavoletti; M. Pezzotti; M. Falcinelli; F. Veronesi

1994-01-01

46

Genetic variation analysis in the genus Lathyrus using RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

RAPD analysis was applied to five species belonging to the genusLathyrus (Fabaceae): L.sativus, L.cicera, L.ochrus, L.sylvestris and L.latifolius. All the species under study belong to thesection Lathyrus except L.ochrus which is in section Clymenum.Nine populations representing these species were used and ten random10-mer primers were sampled. A total of 129 amplification products,ranging in size from 0.3 to 3 Kb, were

N. Chtourou-Ghorbel; B. Lauga; N. Ben Brahim; D. Combes; M. Marrakchi

2002-01-01

47

Identification of RAPD marker linked to fruit skin color in Japanese pear ( Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japanese pear, fruit skin color is a very important trait for growers because the russet skin protects the fruit against external stress caused by disease, insects, bad weather, and shipping. This report describes the development of a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker linked to major genes controlling the fruit skin color in Japanese pear. Two F1 progenies from

Eiichi Inoue; Masakazu Kasumi; Fumio Sakuma; Hiroyuki Anzai; Katsuki Amano; Hiromichi Hara

2006-01-01

48

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers for genetic analysis in micropropagated plants of Populus deltoides Marsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

RAPD markers were used to assess genetic fidelity of 23 micropropagated plants of a single clone (L34) of Populus deltoides. Eleven arbitrary 10-base primers were successfully used to amplify DNA from in vivo and in vitro material. Of these, 5 distinguished a total of 13 polymorphisms common across 6 micropropagated plants. Apart from these 6 plants, the amplification products were

Vijay Rani; Ajay Parida; S. N. Raina

1995-01-01

49

Genetic relationships among melon breeding lines revealed by RAPD markers and agronomic traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

RAPD} markers and agronomic traits were used to determine the genetic relationships among 32 breeding, lines of melon belonging to seven varietal types. Most of the breeding lines were Galia and Piel de Sapo genotypes, which are currently being used in breeding programmes to develop new hybrid combinations. A total of 115 polymorphic reliable bands from 43 primers and 24

E. Garcia; M. Jamilena; J. I. Alvarez; T. Arnedo; J. L. Oliver; R. Lozano

1998-01-01

50

Analysis of hybrids of durum wheat with Thinopyrum junceiforme using RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to detect the presence of alien chromatin in intergeneric hybrids of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum, 2n=4x=28; AABB genomes) with the perennial grass Thinopyrum junceiforme (2n=4x=28; J1J1J2J2) using RAPD markers. The first step was to identify amplification of species-specific DNA markers in the parental grass species\\u000a and durum wheat cultivars. Initially, the genomic DNA of

V. R. Bommineni; P. P. Jauhar; T. S. Peterson; R. N. Chibbar; A. B. Almouslem

1997-01-01

51

A genetic map of Maritime pine based on AFLP, RAPD and protein markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

TheAFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) technique was adapted to carry out genetic analysis in maritime pine, a species\\u000a characterized by a large genome size (24 pg\\/C). A genetic linkage map was constructed for one F1 individual based on 239 AFLP and 127 RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) markers. Markers were scored on megagametophytes\\u000a (1n) from 200 germinated F2 seedlings. Polymorphism

P. Costa; D. Pot; C. Dubos; J. M. Frigerio; C. Pionneau; C. Bodenes; E. Bertocchi; M.-T. Cervera; D. L. Remington; C. Plomion

2000-01-01

52

A male and hermaphrodite specific RAPD marker for papaya ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to determine the sex of a dioecious species, Carica papaya L., with three sex types, male, female and hermaphrodite. A 450 bp marker fragment, named PSDM(Papaya Sex Determination Marker),\\u000a exists in all male and hermaphrodite plants but not in the female plants so far analyzed. The DNA sequence of PSDM exhibited

N. Urasaki; M. Tokumoto; K. Tarora; Y. Ban; T. Kayano; H. Tanaka; H. Oku; I. Chinen; R. Terauchi

2002-01-01

53

A genetic map of melon ( Cucumis melo L.) with RFLP, RAPD, isozyme, disease resistance and morphological markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and ten markers were analysed for linkage in 218 F2 plants derived from two divergent cultivars (Védrantais and Songwhan Charmi) of Cucumis melo (L.). Thirty-four RFLPs, 64 RAPDs, one isozyme, four disease resistance markers and one morphological marker were used to construct a genetic map spanning 14 linkage groups covering 1390 cM of the melon genome. RAPD and

S. Baudracco-Arnas; M. Pitrat

1996-01-01

54

Estimation of the Genetic Diversity in Tetraploid Alfalfa Populations Based on RAPD Markers for Breeding Purposes  

PubMed Central

Alfalfa is an autotetraploid, allogamous and heterozygous forage legume, whose varieties are synthetic populations. Due to the complex nature of the species, information about genetic diversity of germplasm used in any alfalfa breeding program is most beneficial. The genetic diversity of five alfalfa varieties, involved in progeny tests at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, was characterized based on RAPD markers. A total of 60 primers were screened, out of which 17 were selected for the analysis of genetic diversity. A total of 156 polymorphic bands were generated, with 10.6 bands per primer. Number and percentage of polymorphic loci, effective number of alleles, expected heterozygosity and Shannon’s information index were used to estimate genetic variation. Variety Zuzana had the highest values for all tested parameters, exhibiting the highest level of variation, whereas variety RSI 20 exhibited the lowest. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 88.39% of the total genetic variation was attributed to intra-varietal variance. The cluster analysis for individual samples and varieties revealed differences in their population structures: variety Zuzana showed a very high level of genetic variation, Banat and Ghareh were divided in subpopulations, while Pecy and RSI 20 were relatively uniform. Ways of exploiting the investigated germplasm in the breeding programs are suggested in this paper, depending on their population structure and diversity. The RAPD analysis shows potential to be applied in analysis of parental populations in semi-hybrid alfalfa breeding program in both, development of new homogenous germplasm, and identification of promising, complementary germplasm. PMID:21954370

Nagl, Nevena; Taski-Ajdukovic, Ksenija; Barac, Goran; Baburski, Aleksandar; Seccareccia, Ivana; Milic, Dragan; Katic, Slobodan

2011-01-01

55

Assessment of diversity in Harpagophytum with RAPD and ISSR markers provides evidence of introgression.  

PubMed

The genus Harpagophytum has two species: H. procumbens which is an important medicinal plant in southern Africa, and H. zeyheri. Genetic diversity in 96 samples, obtained by germinating seeds collected from Botswana, was assessed using six inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and 10 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. These DNA markers yielded a total of 138 polymorphic bands. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.06 to 0.39 for ISSR primers, and from 0.09 to 0.43 for RAPD primers. Jaccard's similarity coefficients were highest when seedlings derived from the same fruit capsule were compared, while seedlings from different fruits on the same plant had intermediate values. The lowest values were recorded among seedlings from different plants. These results were consistent with an outcrossing breeding system in Harpagophytum. Analysis of molecular variance revealed significant differentiation (P<0.01) between taxonomic units within Harpagophytum. About 39% of the variability occurred between the two species, H. procumbens and H. zeyheri. Plants with an intermediate morphology, i.e. putative hybrids (PH), showed 21% differentiation when compared with H. procumbens ssp. procumbens (PP), and 19% when compared with H. procumbens ssp. transvaalense (PT) or with H. zeyheri (ZZ). In addition, a deviating variant of PT was identified, here termed 'procumbens new variety' (PN). PN showed only 9% differentiation when compared with PT, 22% when compared with PP or with PH, and 41% when compared with ZZ. Considerable differentiation between the two Harpagophytum species was revealed also by a cluster analysis. Introgression was, however, suggested by the intermediate position of the putative hybrid plants in a principal component analysis while inter-specific gene flow was shown by a Bayesian genetic structure analysis. PMID:25363276

Muzila, Mbaki; Werlemark, Gun; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Sehic, Jasna; Fatih, Moneim; Setshogo, Moffat; Mpoloka, Wata; Nybom, Hilde

2014-10-01

56

Genetic variation within and among 22 accessions of three tall larkspur species ( Delphinium spp.) based on RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to assess genetic diversity in three species of toxic larkspurs (Delphinium spp). A total of 184 plants from 22 accessions in five western states were analyzed by 23 RAPD primers that amplified 188 reproducible bands. There were 144 polymorphic bands; 10 shared by Delphinium glaucum and Delphinium occidentale, eight shared by Delphinium

X Li; M. H Ralphs; D. R Gardner; R. R.-C Wang

2002-01-01

57

Molecular markers for sex determination in papaya ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed molecular markers tightly linked to Sex1, the gene that determines plant sex in papaya (Carica papaya L.). Three RAPD products have been cloned and a portion of their DNA sequenced. Based on these sequences SCAR primers were synthesized. SCAR T12 and SCAR W11 produce products in hermaphrodite and male plants and only rarely in females. SCAR T1

J. C. Deputy; R. Ming; H. Ma; Z. Liu; M. M. M. Fitch; M. Wang; R. Manshardt; J. I. Stiles

2002-01-01

58

Rapid identification of white-Engelmann spruce species by RAPD markers.  

PubMed

Fragments of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs) were used as markers to distinguish Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce) and Picea engelmannii Parry (Engelmann spruce). These species and their putative hybrids are difficult to differentiate morphologically and are collectively known as interior spruce. Four oligodeoxynucleotide decamer primers showed species-specific amplification products between white spruce and Engelmann spruce. These fragments are highly conserved among seed lots and individual trees of each species from diverse geographic origins. The consistency and reproducibility of these species-specific amplification products were tested in more than two amplification reactions. Therefore, RAPD markers can provide genetic markers for easy and rapid identification of the specific genetic entry of these spruce species and their reported putative hybrids. According to the frequencies of the species-specific RAPD markers, it is possible to estimate the hybrid fraction, indicative of true introgression between the two species. These results are useful for quick identification of both species and their hybrid swarms at any stage in the sporophyte phase of the life cycle, for determining the occurrence and the magnitude of introgressive hybridization in an overlap zone between the two species, and for certification purposes in operational re-forestation and tree-improvement programs. PMID:24166115

Khasa, P D; Dancik, B P

1996-01-01

59

Genetic diversity of Pistachio ( Pistacia vera , Anacardiaceae) Germplasm based on Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to examine patterns of relatedness among 29 pistachio (Pistacia\\u000a vera L.) cultivars and accessions. These included 13 cultivars that we had previously described, and an additional 16 items\\u000a from the USDA National Clonal Germplasm Repository\\/Davis comprising cultivars and land races originating further east of the\\u000a cultivars described previously, and material from wild

J. I. Hormaza; K. Plnney; V. S. Polito

1998-01-01

60

Linkage of RAPD markers to NESTUR, a stem growth index in radiata pine seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Needle-to-stem unit rate (NESTUR) is a stem growth index of conifer seedlings that measures the efficiency of stemwood production\\u000a per unit of foliage growth. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was applied to haploid DNA from the megagametophytes\\u000a of a full-sib radiata pine cross to find markers linked to factors controlling the NESTUR trait. Using the bulked segregant\\u000a analysis

L. C. Emebiri; M. E. Devey; A. C. Matheson; M. U. Slee

1997-01-01

61

Analysis of genetic diversity in Agave tequilana var. Azul using RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

By federal law in Mexico, A. tequilana Weber var. Azul is the only variety of agave permitted for the production of any tequila. Our objective was to assay levels\\u000a of genetic variation in field populations of A. tequilana var. Azul using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Ten plants were collected from each of four different\\u000a fields, with two fields

Katia Gil Vega; Mario González Chavira; Octavio Martínez de la Vega; June Simpson; George Vandemark

2001-01-01

62

Analysis of phylogenetic relationships in the genus Solanum (Solanaceae) as revealed by RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic relationships and genetic variation were examined in the genus Solanum based on the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Genetic distances were estimated for 42 accessions from five\\u000a subgenera [Archaesolanum, Minon (Syn. Brevantherum), Leptostemonum, Potatoe, and Solanum]. This investigation provided new information and reinforced some suggestions from previous phylogenetic studies. Analysis\\u000a with random markers from the total genome clearly

P. Poczai; J. Taller; I. Szabó

2008-01-01

63

Genome-specific repetitive DNA and RAPD markers for genome identification in Elymus and Hordelymus.  

PubMed

We have developed RFLP and RAPD markers specific for the genomes involved in the evolution of Elymus species, i.e., the St, Y, H, P, and W genomes. Two P genome specific repetitive DNA sequences, pAgc1 (350 bp) and pAgc30 (458 bp), and three W genome specific sequences, pAuv3 (221 bp), pAuv7 (200 bp), and pAuv13 (207 bp), were isolated from the genomes of Agropyron cristatum and Australopyrum velutinum, respectively. Attempts to find Y genome specific sequences were not successful. Primary-structure analysis demonstrated that pAgc1 (P genome) and pAgc30 (P genome) share 81% similarity over a 227-bp stretch. The three W genome specific sequences were also highly homologous. Sequence comparison analysis revealed no homology to sequences in the EMBL-GenBank databases. Three to four genome-specific RAPD markers were found for each of the five genomes. Genome-specific bands were cloned and demonstrated to be mainly low-copy sequences present in various Triticeae species. The RFLP and RAPD markers obtained, together with the previously described H and St genome specific clones pHch2 and pP1Taq2.5 and the Ns genome specific RAPD markers were used to investigate the genomic composition of a few Elymus species and Hordelymus europaeus, whose genome formulas were unknown. Our results demonstrate that only three of eight Elymus species examined (the tetraploid species Elymus grandis and the hexaploid species Elymus caesifolius and Elymus borianus) really belong to Elymus. PMID:9549065

Svitashev, S; Bryngelsson, T; Li, X; Wang, R R

1998-02-01

64

RAPD markers linked to a clubroot-resistance locus in Brassica rapa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linkage of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers with resistance genes to clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor.)\\u000a in Brassica rapa L. was studied in a doubled haploid (DH population obtained by microspore culture. Thirty-six DH lines were\\u000a obtained from F1 plants from a cross between susceptible ‘Homei P09’ and resistant ‘Siloga S2’ plants. ‘Homei P09’ was a DH line obtained\\u000a by

Yasuhisa Kuginuki; Hidetoshi Ajisaka; Mamiko Yui; Hiroaki Yoshikawa; Ken-ichi Hida; Masashi Hirai

1997-01-01

65

In Silico RAPD Priming Sites in Expressed Sequences and iSCAR Markers for Oil Palm  

PubMed Central

RAPD is a simple dominant marker system widely used in biology. Effectiveness of RAPD can be improved by selecting and redesigning primers whose priming sites occur in target sequence(s) of gene or organism at optimum distance. We developed software that uses sequences of random decamer primers and nucleotide sequence(s) as two input files. It locates the priming sites in input sequences and generates output files listing frequency and distance between priming sites. When the priming sites of a single primer occur more than once in a sequence with a distance of 200 to 2000?bp, the software also designs pairs of iSCAR primers. An input of 387 RAPD primers and 42,432 expressed sequences of oil palm are used as test. Wet-lab PCR results from a publication that used the same set of primers were compared with software output on priming sites. In the test sequences of oil palm covering 1.4% of genome, we found that at least 60% the primers chosen using software are sure of giving PCR amplification. We designed 641 iSCAR primers suitable for amplification of oil palm DNA. The software successfully predicted 92% (67 out of 73) of published polymorphic RAPD primers in oil palm. PMID:22474414

Premkrishnan, Balakrishnan Vasanthakumari; Arunachalam, Vadivel

2012-01-01

66

Screening for resistance to cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus, gummy stem blight, and monosporascus root rot and detection of RAPD markers associated with QLT for soluble solids, sugars, and vitamin C in melon (Cucumis melo l.)  

E-print Network

random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL) for each trait. Out of 500 primers, fifteen RAPD markers were found to be significantly associated with fruit quality QTL. These markers could be useful in a...

Sinclair, Jonathan Walker

2005-02-17

67

Identification of RAPD markers linked to A and B genome sequences in Musa L.  

PubMed

Plantains and bananas (Musa spp. sect. eumusa) originated from intra- and interspecific hybridization between two wild diploid species, M. acuminata Colla. and M. balbisiana Colla., which contributed the A and B genomes, respectively. Polyploidy and hybridization have given rise to a number of diploid, triploid, and tetraploid clones with different permutations of the A and B genomes. Thus, dessert and highland bananas are classified mainly as AAA, plantains are AAB, and cooking bananas are ABB. Classification of Musa into genomic groups has been based on morphological characteristics. This study aimed to identify RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers for the A and B genomes. Eighty 10-mer Operon primers were used to amplify DNA from M. acuminata subsp. burmannicoides clone 'Calcutta 4' (AA genomes) and M. balbisiana clone 'Honduras' (BB genomes). Three primers (A17, A18, and D10) that produced unique genome-specific fragments in the two species were identified. These primers were tested in a sample of 40 genotypes representing various genome combinations. The RAPD markers were able to elucidate the genome composition of all the genotypes. The results showed that RAPD analysis can provide a quick and reliable system for genome identification in Musa that could facilitate genome characterization and manipulations in breeding lines. PMID:11081965

Pillay, M; Nwakanma, D C; Tenkouano, A

2000-10-01

68

Genetic Diversity and Taxonomic Implication of Cordyceps sinensis as Revealed by RAPD Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markersare used to investigate genetic variation andevolutionary relationships of 29 samples of Cordycepssinensis from different geographical populations on theQinghai–Tibet plateau. Out of 137 RAPDbands scored, 100 are polymorphic. A correlation isrevealed between geographical distance and geneticdistance. The molecular phylogenetic tree suggests thatthe 29 samples are divided into three notableclusters, corresponding to the geographical populations,i.e., the

Yongjiu Chen; Ya-Ping Zhang; Yuexiong Yang; Darong Yang

1999-01-01

69

Linkage map of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, based on RAPD markers  

SciTech Connect

A linkage map was constructed for the honey bee based on the segregation of 365 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers in haploid male progeny of a single female bee. The X locus for sex determination and genes for black body color and malate dehydrogenase were mapped to separate linkage groups. RAPD markers were very efficient for mapping, with an average of about 2.8 loci mapped for each 10-nucleotide primer that was used in polymerase chain reactions. The mean interval size between markers on the map was 9.1 cM. The map covered 3110 cM of linked markers on 26 linkage groups. We estimate the total genome size to be {approximately}3450 cM. The size of the map indicated a very high recombination rate for the honey bee. The relationship of physical to genetic distance was estimated at 52 kb/cM, suggesting that map-based cloning of genes will be feasible for this species. 71 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Hunt, G.J.; Page, R.E. Jr. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1995-03-01

70

Relating Morphologic and RAPD Marker Varlation to Collection Site Environment in wild Populations of Red Clover (Trifolium Pratense L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although genotypic and phenotypic markers are used to describe genetic diversity, describing patterns of variationattributable to geographic differentiation is complex.We examined concordance between morphologic and RAPDmarker classification of 33 wild red clover populations collected from the Caucasus Mountains, Russia andcompared how morphologic and RAPD markers differed in their correspondence to collection site attributes.Wealso examined if wild red clover populations collected

S. L. Greene; M. Gritsenko; G. Vandemark

2004-01-01

71

Analysis of a Detailed Genetic Linkage Map of Lactuca sativa (Lettuce) Constructed From RFLP and RAPD Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed genetic map has been constructed from the F, population of a single intraspecific cross of Lactuca sativa (n = 9). It comprises 319 loci, including 152 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), 130 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), 7 isozyme, 19 disease resistance, and 11 morphological markers. Thirteen major, four minor linkage groups and several unlinked markers are identified

Rick V. Kesseli; Pt Ilan Parant; Richard W. Michelmore

72

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF EGYPTIAN DATE PALM: 11.RAPD FINGERPRINTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

RAPD fingerprints were performed on DNA extracted trom the internal leaves of the offshoots of five date palm cultivars (Samanie, Seaweae, Hyeane, Amhat and Zaghlool). Two random primers (OPC2 and OPD16) out of ten were selected on the basis of the number and frequency of polymorphic bands produced. Distinguishable RAPD fingerprints among the different varieties were obtainable if suitable primers

Mahmoud M. Saker; Hamdy A. Moursy

73

Testing Taxonomic and Biogeographical Relationships in a Narrow Mediterranean Endemic Complex (Hippocrepis balearica) using RAPD Markers  

PubMed Central

Analyses of RAPD profiles from 17 populations of the Hippocrepis balearica complex revealed a highly structured geographic pattern, not only among continental–insular areas but also within the eastern Balearic islands. In marked contrast to previous morphometric results, a clear separation between continental and insular samples was found, and intermediates between H. balearica and H. valentina samples were not detected. Molecular data indicated that western and eastern Balearic populations of the complex (H. grosii and H. balearica) were more closely related to each other than to continental populations (H. valentina). Multivariate analyses of the RAPD data clearly indicated that the similarities between continental and eastern Balearic samples of the H. balearica complex recovered by morphometric methods are due either to parallel evolution or to retention of plesiomorphic features. PMID:12096744

ROSSELLÓ, JOSEP A.; CEBRIÁN, M. CARMEN; MAYOL, MARIA

2002-01-01

74

RAPD markers linked to a gene for resistance to pine needle gall midge in Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linkage of RAPD markers to a single dominant gene for resistance to pine needle gall midge was investigated in Japanese black\\u000a pine (Pinus thunbergii). Three primers that generated linked markers were found after 1160 primers were screened by bulked segregant analysis. The\\u000a distances between the resistance gene, R, and the marker genes OPC06580, OPD01700, and OPAX192100 were 5.1 cM, 6.7

T. Kondo; K. Terada; E. Hayashi; N. Kuramoto; M. Okamura; H. Kawasaki

2000-01-01

75

Assessment of genetic diversity through RAPD, ISSR and AFLP markers in Podophyllum hexandrum: a medicinal herb from the Northwestern Himalayan region.  

PubMed

Total synthesis of podophyllotoxin is an expensive process and availability of the compound from the natural resources is an important issue for pharmaceutical companies that manufacture anticancer drugs. In order to facilitate reasoned scientific decisions on its management and conservation for selective breeding programme, genetic analysis of 28 populations was done with 19 random primers, 11 ISSR primers and 13 AFLP primer pairs. A total of 92.37 %, 83.82 % and 84.40 % genetic polymorphism among the populations of Podophyllum were detected using RAPD, ISSR and AFLP makers, respectively. Similarly the mean coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst) were 0.69, 0.63 and 0.51, indicating that 33.77 %, 29.44 % and 26 % of the genetic diversity resided within the population. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 53 %, 62 % and 64 % of the genetic diversity among the studied populations was attributed to geographical location while 47 %, 38 % and 36 % was attributed to differences in their habitats using RAPD, ISSR and AFLP markers. An overall value of mean estimated number of gene flow (Nm) were 0.110, 0.147 and 0.24 from RAPD, ISSR and AFLP markers indicating that there was limited gene flow among the sampled populations. PMID:23572963

Naik, Pradeep Kumar; Alam, Md Afroz; Singh, Harvinder; Goyal, Vinod; Parida, Swarup; Kalia, Sanjay; Mohapatra, T

2010-04-01

76

Genetic variation among cultivars of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) detected by RAPD markers amplified from bulk genomic DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers obtained from bulked samples was investigated for cultivar identification in red clover. Pooled samples were examined in order to minimize variation within cultivars. To determine the appropriate number of individuals to include in the bulked samples representing each cultivar, DNA samples from two, three, four, five, ten and twenty individuals were

Prasert Kongkiatngam; Bruce E. Coulman; Marc G. Fortin

1996-01-01

77

Genetic variation within and between two cultivars of red clover ( Trifolium pratense L.): Comparisons of morphological, isozyme, and RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Morphological, isozyme and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to estimate genetic variation within and between cultivars of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), an important temperate forage legume. Two cultivars of red clover, Essi from Europe and Ottawa from Canada, were evaluated. Six monogenic morphological characters were observed for 80 plants from each of these two cultivars.

P. Kongkiatngam; M. G. Fortin; B. E. Coulman

1995-01-01

78

Megagametophyte-derived linkage maps of white spruce ( Picea glauca ) based on RAPD, SCAR and ESTP markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed linkage maps for two parents of white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss]. Haploid megagametophytes from 92 and 96 seeds of parents M2 and 80132, respectively, were analysed with RAPD, SCAR and ESTP markers. Fragments segregating in a 1:1 Mendelian ratio were classified and mapped using MAPMAKER, GMENDEL and JOINMAP. For M2, the analysis with JOINMAP resulted in

I. Gosselin; Y. Zhou; J. Bousquet; N. Isabel

2002-01-01

79

Implications of ITS sequences and RAPD markers for the taxonomy and biogeography of the Oxytropis campestris and O. arctica (Fabaceae) complexes in Alaska.  

PubMed

Taxonomic consensus is lacking on the Oxytropis arctica and O. campestris species complexes, two polyploid complexes found in the interior and arctic areas of Alaska. One classification has emphasized flower size, whereas flower color is considered a key diagnostic character in another classification. Our analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers provided no support for either classification system. The trees generated from ITS sequences and the phenogram derived from RAPD markers suggest that most recognized taxa in the two complexes are probably polyphyletic, including O. arctica var. barnebyana, which is listed as threatened in Alaska. The only consistent pattern detected by both types of molecular markers was a geographic split dividing the northeastern arctic populations from most other populations (48.60-55.03% in AMOVA analyses). This genetic subdivision probably reflects a Pleistocene barrier formed by the northern coastal ice shield. Our molecular data, in conjunction with the previously reported variation of ploidy levels in these groups, suggest a scenario of recent and multiple origins of polyploidy. It is possible that most Alaskan populations of these two complexes are best referred to as a single taxonomic species despite morphological differentiation within the complexes. PMID:21659099

Jorgensen, Janet L; Stehlik, Ivana; Brochmann, Christian; Conti, Elena

2003-10-01

80

Genetic stability of micropropagated almond plantlets, as assessed by RAPD and ISSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almond shoots produced by axillary branching from clone VII derived from a seedling of cultivar Boa Casta were evaluated for somaclonal variation using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) analysis. To verify genetic stability we compared RAPD and ISSR patterns of plantlets obtained after 4 and 6 years of in vitro multiplication. A total of 64 RAPD

M. Martins; D. Sarmento; M. M. Oliveira

2004-01-01

81

Molecular genetic differentiation of avian Escherichia coli by RAPD-PCR  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli is one of the most important bacterial avian pathogens and a common inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract of animals. Most pathogenic E. coli can not be differentiated biochemically or by classic microbiologic methods. Molecular typing methods, particularly PCR, facilitated epidemiological and ecological studies of bacteria. Here we describe the application of a random amplified polymorphic DNA- polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) for molecular genetic differentiation of E. coli isolates in Iran. In this study 58 E. coli isolates including 4 standard strains, 3 food originated isolates, 33 avian isolates, 8 isolates form diarrheic calves and 10 isolates from unweaned diarrheic lambs were analyzed by RAPD-PCR using primer 1247(5/-AAG AGC CCG T-3/). The RAPD analysis showed that these isolates could be grouped into 33 RAPD types and avian isolates were discriminated into 29 genotypes. It was shown that the primer could not differentiate E. coli isolated from lambs. Discriminatory index for entire isolates was 0.912 and for avian isolates was 0.990. We concluded that RAPD-PCR can be used as a method for molecular differentiation of E. coli isolates. PMID:24031252

Salehi, Taghi Zahraei; Madani, Seyed Ahmad; Karimi, Vahid; Khazaeli, Fatemeh Arab

2008-01-01

82

[Genetic analysis of mutant genes and RAPD marker of mutant gene of narrow leaflet in soybean].  

PubMed

Mutant E182 with "narrow leaflet-4 seeded pod" was selected from descendents of EMS-treated seeds of soybean variety Lu Dou No. 4 (LD4) with "ovate leaflet-without 4 seeded pod". Genetic analyses of F2 individuals of crossing between mutant E182 and parent LD4 indicated that segregation ratio between ovate and narrow leaflet was 3:1, so was segregation ratio between "without 4 seeded pod" and "4 seeded pod". Segregation ratios of four character types in F2 population of 1,654 individuals were beyond 9:3:3:1 of two pairs of independent gene, showing linkage inheritance. Reccmbinant ratio between mutant genes of narrow leaflet and 4 seeded pod was 11.24% +/- 0.81%. On the other hand, mutant E182, parent LD4 and F2, F3 individuals of their hybrids were analyzed by means of RAPD technique. The marker OPY6-1300 linked with the mutant gene of narrow leaflet was generated, and genetic distance of the marker and mutant gene was 8 cent Morgan (cM), being 10 cM nearer than RFLP marker of narrow leaflet generated by shoemaker. PMID:11209714

Zhu, B G; Bai, H X; Zhang, Y

2001-01-01

83

[Reticulate evolution of parthenogenetic species of the Lacertidae rock lizards: inheritance of CLsat tandem repeats and anonymous RAPD markers].  

PubMed

The genetic relatedness of several bisexual and of four unisexual "Lacerta saxicola complex" lizards was studied, using monomer sequences of the complex-specific CLsat tandem repeats and anonymous RAPD markers. Genomes of parthenospecies were shown to include different satellite monomers. The structure of each such monomer is specific for a certain pair of bisexual species. This fact might be interpreted in favor of co-dominant inheritance of these markers in bisexual species hybridogenesis. This idea is supported by the results obtained with RAPD markers; i.e., unisexual species genomes include only the loci characteristic of certain bisexual species. At the same time, in neither case parthenospecies possess specific, autoapomorphic loci that were not present in this or that bisexual species. PMID:11969091

Chobanu, D; Rudykh, I A; Riabinina, N L; Grechko, V V; Kramerov, D A; Darevski?, I S

2002-01-01

84

Molecular typing of Bacillus thuringiensis serovars by RAPD-PCR.  

PubMed

One hundred and twenty-six strains of Bacillus thuringiensis representing 57 serovars were allocated to 58 genomic types using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR patterns. Serovars darmstadiensis, israelensis, kenyae, kumamotoensis, kurstaki, morrisoni, pakistani, sotto, thuringiensis and tolworthi each encompassed identical or closely related strains. Despite this genomic homogeneity, most of these serovars also included at least one variant strain. Serovars aizawai, canadensis, entomocidus and sotto biotype dendrolimus, on the other hand, were genomically heterogeneous. Of the 57 serovars examined, 31 contained at least one strain with a closely related or identical RAPD pattern to a strain from a different serovar. We conclude that while the species is genomically diverse, the homogeneous serovars represent clonal lineages of successful insect pathogens. PMID:12866852

Gaviria Rivera, Adelaida M; Priest, Fergus G

2003-06-01

85

[Molecular identification and the features of genetic diversity in interspecific hybrids of Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii x A. baerii, A. baerii x A. schrenckii, A. schrenckii x A. ruthenus, and A. ruthenus x A. schrenckii) based on variability of multilocus RAPD markers].  

PubMed

The method of polymerase chain reaction with random primers (RAPD PCR) was used to identify the progeny of the crosses between three sturgeon species, Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii Brandt, 1869), Siberian sturgeon (A. baerii Brandt, 1869), and sterlet (A. ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758). Using ten primers, genetic variation in 70 yearlings, produced in seven individual crosses: Acipenser schrenckii x A. schrenckii, A. baerii x A. baerii, A. ruthenus x A. ruthenus, A. schrenckii x A. baerii, A. baerii x A. schrenckii, A. schrenckii x A. ruthenus, and A. ruthenus x A. schrenckii was described and evaluated. It was demonstrated that the samples composed of hybrids from individual crosses were more variable than the samples of parental species. On the other hand, pooled samples of hybrids from two cross directions were genetically less variable than the pooled samples of their parents. The three main features of the hybrid RAPD profiles identified included: (1) preservation of marker DNA fragments of both parents in one genome; (2) presence of specific DNA fragments, absent from both parents; and (3) dependence of the frequency of some DNA fragments from the cross direction. Multidimensional scaling clearly distinguishes in the space of three coordinates the individuals of original species and the hybrid progeny with differentiation in the groups of direct and backcross hybrids. Analysis of relationships (UPGMA and NJ) pointed to substantial differentiation between the species, as well as between the species and hybrid progeny. Close genetic relationships between direct and backcross hybrids were demonstrated. Multilocus RAPD markers in association with statistical methods are considered to be the useful tool for discrimination of interspecific hybrids of sturgeon. Possible reasons for the differences in the hybrid RAPD profiles are discussed. PMID:19137727

Rozhkovan, K V; Chelomina, G N; Rachek, E I

2008-11-01

86

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs) markers for genetic analysis in micropropagated plants of Robinia pseudoacacia L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four years' old micropropagated plants regenerated by enhanced axillary branching from shoot buds of a single genotype of\\u000a Robinia pseudoacacia were characterized by RAPDs. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis was carried outusing 19 random 10-mer DNA primers\\u000a and 286 RAPD bands were examined which showed 30% polymorphism. Similarity indices ranged from 0.86 to 0.96 among different\\u000a plants based on RAPD

K. Kanwar; K. Bindiya

2003-01-01

87

Identification of RAPD markers linked to a locus involved in quantitative resistance to TYLCV in tomato by bulked segregant analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tomato, Bulked Segregant Analysis was used to identify random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to a quantitative\\u000a trait locus (QTL) involved in the resistance to the Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus. F4 lines were distributed into two pools, each consisting of the most resistant and of the most susceptible individuals, respectively.\\u000a Both pools were screened using 600 random

V. Chagué; J. C. Mercier; M. Guénard; A. de Courcel; F. Vedel

1997-01-01

88

Identification and genetic diversity analysis of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties from Morocco using RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation among 43 date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) accessions, including 37 accessions from Morocco and 6 cultivars\\u000a from Iraq and Tunisia, was studied using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The pre-screening of 123 primers\\u000a on four genotypes allowed selection of 19 primers which revealed polymorphism and gave reproducible results. All 43 analysed\\u000a genotypes were distinguishable by their band

My. Hassan Sedra; Philippe Lashermes; Pierre Trouslot; Marie-Christine Combes

1998-01-01

89

A study of genetic diversity of sesame ( Sesamum indicum L.) in Vietnam and Cambodia estimated by RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is a traditional oil crop cultivated throughout South East Asia. To estimate the genetic diversity of this crop in parts\\u000a at the region, 22 sesame accessions collected in Vietnam and Cambodia were analyzed using 10 RAPD markers. The 10 primers\\u000a generated 107 amplification products of which 88 were polymorphic fragments (83%). Genetic diversity of all populations

Toan Duc Pham; Tri Minh Bui; Gun Werlemark; Tuyen Cach Bui; Arnulf Merker; Anders S. Carlsson

2009-01-01

90

Determination of genetic stability in long-term micropropagated shoots of Pinus thunbergii Parl. using RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to determine the genetic stability of long-term (more than 10 years)\\u000a micropropagated shoots of Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.). Thirty-six shoots consisting of three morphotypes (short, medium, and long needles) were randomly chosen from about\\u000a 4,000 micropropagated shoots regenerated from the explants of a single nematode-resistant mother plant. Out of 126

S. Goto; R. C. Thakur; K. Ishii

1998-01-01

91

RAPD Markers to Evaluate Callus Tissue of Cereus peruvianus Mill. (Cactaceae) Maintained in Different Growth Regulator Combinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

RAPD markers were used to detect DNA polymorphisms in callus tissues maintained at different auxin and cytokinin combinations. There is a higher level of genetic variablity in callus tissue maintained with the highest kinetin versus2, 4-D concentration. Callus tissues subcultured in a 4.0 mg\\/L 2,4-D and 4.0 mg\\/L kinetin combination showed high similarity and can be recommended as more suitable

Claudete A. Mangolin; Laura M. M. Ottoboni; Maria de Fátima P. S. Machado

2002-01-01

92

A molecular marker-based linkage map of diploid bananas ( Musa acuminata )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partial molecular linkage map of the Musa acuminata diploid genome is presented. This map is based on 58 RFLP, four isozyme and 28 RAPD markers segregating in an F2 population of 92 individuals. A total of 90 loci was detected, 77 of which were placed on 15 linkage groups while 13 segregated independently. Segregation distortions were shown by 36%

S. Fauré; J. L. Noyer; J. P. Horry; F. Bakry; C. Lanaud; D. Go?zalez de León

1993-01-01

93

Use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers in the discrimination and verification of genotypes in Eucalyptus.  

PubMed

We carried out four separate studies using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to analyse samples of Eucalyptus supplied by several different organisations. The objective was to examine the reproducibility of the RAPD technique and its ability to discriminate between individual genotypes for verification of clonal identities. We found that RAPD profiles that are unique to a genotype can be generated reliably and simply and that even closely related genotypes can be distinguished. In addition, in each of the four studies, we detected cases where the plant material studied had been mis-sampled or mis-labelled (i.e. the RAPD profiles were not consistent with the identification numbers): (1) ramets of a Eucalyptus grandis clone were found to be derived from 2 different clones; (2) ramets labelled as 2 different Eucalyptus hybrid clones were found to be the same clone, owing to a mis-planted clonal hedge; (3) samples supplied as a single progeny of a controlled E. nitens cross were derived from two crosses involving different pairs of parents; (4) mis-labelling was detected for ramets of 4 of a set of 10 clones of E. grandis and E. camaldulensis. For three of the four studies, the detection of genotype mis-identifications was unexpected, suggesting that labelling or sampling errors during the handling of plant material are a frequent occurrence, with potentially serious economic consequences. PMID:24177893

Keil, M; Griffin, A R

1994-10-01

94

The use of RAPD markers to distinguish among juniper and cedar cultivars  

E-print Network

. and Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. (Cupressaceae) were subjected to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis Huang Abstract: Two species of Chamaecyparis and six cultivars each of Juniperus chinensis L Juni- perus scopulorum Sarg. (Cupressaceae) respectivement, à l'analyse RAPD, à l'aide de sept amorces

Hsiang, Tom

95

Identification of molecular markers associated with mite resistance in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.).  

PubMed

Coconut mite (Aceria guerreronis 'Keifer') has become a major threat to Indian coconut (Coçcos nucifera L.) cultivators and the processing industry. Chemical and biological control measures have proved to be costly, ineffective, and ecologically undesirable. Planting mite-resistant coconut cultivars is the most effective method of preventing yield loss and should form a major component of any integrated pest management stratagem. Coconut genotypes, and mite-resistant and -susceptible accessions were collected from different parts of South India. Thirty-two simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 7 RAPD primers were used for molecular analyses. In single-marker analysis, 9 SSR and 4 RAPD markers associated with mite resistance were identified. In stepwise multiple regression analysis of SSRs, a combination of 6 markers showed 100% association with mite infestation. Stepwise multiple regression analysis for RAPD data revealed that a combination of 3 markers accounted for 83.86% of mite resistance in the selected materials. Combined stepwise multiple regression analysis of RAPD and SSR data showed that a combination of 5 markers explained 100% of the association with mite resistance in coconut. Markers associated with mite resistance are important in coconut breeding programs and will facilitate the selection of mite-resistant plants at an early stage as well as mother plants for breeding programs. PMID:17546069

Shalini, K V; Manjunatha, S; Lebrun, P; Berger, A; Baudouin, L; Pirany, N; Ranganath, R M; Prasad, D Theertha

2007-01-01

96

[Discrimination of interspecific hybrids in natural populations of Amur sturgeon fishes using multilocus RAPD-PCR markers].  

PubMed

RAPD-PCR analysis of 46 individuals of sturgeons from Amur River has been carried out. Genetic status of Amur sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii Brandt, 1869 and kaluga Huso dauricus Georgi, 1775 native populations has been estimated. Genetic evidences of hybrid origin for two phenotypical hybrids were obtained; estimations of genetic distances between species and hybrids appeared to be at interspecific level. The exact test for differentiation of populations (Exact test) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis were estimated to be the most effective for species and hybrid discrimination, respectively. According to data obtained populations of sturgeon fishes which inhabit Amur River maintained an essential level of genetic variability; the presence of hybrids is regarded as one of risk factors. Multilocus RAPD-PCR markers admit as the convenient and reliable tool for genetic monitoring of Amur River sturgeons to preserve their gene pool. PMID:19140442

Chelomina, G N; Rozhkovan, K V; Ivanov, S A

2008-01-01

97

Utility of RAPD marker for genetic diversity analysis in gamma rays and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS)-treated Jatropha curcas plants.  

PubMed

The presence of important chemical and physical properties in Jatropha curcas makes it a valuable raw material for numerous industrial applications, including the production of biofuel. Hence, the researcher's interest is diversified to develop more and better varieties with outstanding agronomic characteristics using conventional breeding. Among these, mutation breeding is one of the best approaches to bring genetic changes in plant species. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diversity and genetic relationship among J. curcas mutants, which were obtained from different doses of gamma rays (control, 5Kr, 10Kr, 15Kr, 20Kr and 25Kr) and EMS (1%, 2%, 3% and 4%), using RAPD marker. Among the 21 random primers, 20 produced polymorphic bands. The primers, OPM-14 and OPAW-13, produced a minimum number of bands (3) each across the ten mutants, while the primer OPF-13 produced the maximum number of bands (10), followed by the primers OPU-13, OPAM-06, OPAW-09 and OPD-05, which produced 9 bands each. The number of amplicons varied from 3 to 10, with an average of 7 bands, out of which 4.57 were polymorphic. The percentage of polymorphism ranged from 0.00 to 100 with an average of 57%. In the present study, RAPD markers were found most polymorphic, with an average polymorphism information content (PIC) value of 0.347, effective multiplex ratio (EMR) of 35.14, marker index (MI) of 14.19, resolution power (Rp) of 11.19, effective marker index (EMI) of 8.21 and genotype index (GI) of 0.36, indicating that random primers are useful in studies of genetic characterization in J. curcas mutant plants. In a dendrogram constructed based on Jaccard's similarity coefficients, the mutants were grouped into three main clusters viz., (a) control, 10Kr, 15Kr, 20Kr, 2% EMS, and 3% EMS, (b) 5Kr and 1% EMS, and (c) 25Kr and 4% EMS mutants. Based on the attributes of the random primers and polymorphism studied, it is concluded that RAPD analysis offers a useful molecular marker for the identification of the mutants in gamma rays and EMS treated plants. PMID:25557365

Dhakshanamoorthy, Dharman; Selvaraj, Radhakrishnan; Chidambaram, Alagappan

2015-02-01

98

Estimation of between and within accession variation in selected Spanish melon germplasm using RAPD and SSR markers to assess strategies for large collection evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population structure of 15 Spanish melon (C. melo L.)accessions, mostly of Group Inodorus, was assessed by the analysis of 16individuals of each accession using 100 random\\u000a amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) bands produced by 36 primers, and allelic variation at 12microsatellite (SSR) loci (23 alleles).\\u000a A relatively high level of polymorphism (25.6%) was detected using RAPD markers, and eight SSR

Ana Isabel López-Sesé; Jack Staub; Nurit Katzir; María Luisa Gómez-Guillamón

2002-01-01

99

Conservation genetics of endangered Brasenia schreberi based on RAPD and AFLP markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brasenia schreberi J.F. Gmelin is a declared endangered species found in the lakes and ponds of South Korea. For planning its conservation strategy,\\u000a we examined the genetic diversity within and among six populations, using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified\\u000a fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Polymorphisms were more frequently detected per loci with AFLP (69.3%) than RAPD (36.8%).\\u000a High genetic

Changkyun Kim; Hye Ryun Na; Hong-Keun Choi

2008-01-01

100

Assessing Genetic Diversity of Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) Populations from China by RAPD Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity and differentiation of nine populations of Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) from China were evaluated using RAPD. Of 47 clear and repeatable RAPD bands, 46 were polymorphic (overall polymorphism = 97.9%). A ranged from 1.57 to 1.83 with a mean of 1.75. Mean He was 0.3159 (0.2429–0.3603). The Shannon index ranged from 0.3432 to 0.5119 with a mean of

Xiao-Xia Fan; Lang Shen; Xin Zhang; Xiao-Yong Chen; Cheng-Xin Fu

2004-01-01

101

The use of RAPD markers to distinguish among juniper and cedar cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Two species of Chamaecyparis,and six cultivars each of Juniperus chinensis L. and Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. (Cupressaceae) were,subjected to random,amplified polymorphic,DNA (RAPD) analysis using seven primers. Un- weighted,pair group method,with averages (UPGMA) and principal component,analyses of genetic distances between cultivars showed,that 42 polymorphic,RAPD bands could distinguish among,all cultivars and properly group them,by species and genera. Where the origin of a

Tom Hsiang; Junbin Huang

2000-01-01

102

Development of AFLP and RAPD markers linked to a locus associated with twisted growth in corkscrew willow (Salix matsudana 'Tortuosa').  

PubMed

Salix matsudana Koidz. cultivar 'Tortuosa' (corkscrew willow) is characterized by extensive stem bending and curling of leaves. To investigate the genetic basis of this trait, controlled crosses were made between a corkscrew female (S. matsudana 'Tortuosa') and a straight-stemmed, wild-type male (Salix alba L. Clone 99010). Seventy-seven seedlings from this family (ID 99270) were grown in the field for phenotypic observation. Among the progeny, 39 had straight stems and leaves and 38 had bent stems and curled leaves, suggesting that a dominant allele at a single locus controls this phenotype. As a first step in characterizing the locus, we searched for amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to the tortuosa allele using bulked segregant analysis. Samples of DNA from 10 corkscrew individuals were combined to produce a corkscrew pool, and DNA from 10 straight progeny was combined to make a wild-type pool. Sixty-four AFLP primer combinations and 640 RAPD primers were screened to identify marker bands amplified from the corkscrew parent and progeny pool, but not from the wild-type parent or progeny pool. An AFLP marker and a RAPD marker linked to and flanking the tortuosa locus were placed on a preliminary linkage map constructed based on segregation among the 77 progeny. Sectioning and analysis of shoot tips revealed that the corkscrew phenotype is associated with vascular cell collapse, smaller cell size in regions near the cambium and less developed phloem fibers than in wild-type progeny. Identification of a gene associated with this trait could lead to greater understanding of the control of normal stem development in woody plants. PMID:17669747

Lin, Juan; Gunter, Lee E; Harding, Scott A; Kopp, Richard F; McCord, Rachel P; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Tuskan, Gerald A; Smart, Lawrence B

2007-11-01

103

Development and use of molecular markers: past and present.  

PubMed

Abstract Molecular markers, due to their stability, cost-effectiveness and ease of use provide an immensely popular tool for a variety of applications including genome mapping, gene tagging, genetic diversity diversity, phylogenetic analysis and forensic investigations. In the last three decades, a number of molecular marker techniques have been developed and exploited worldwide in different systems. However, only a handful of these techniques, namely RFLPs, RAPDs, AFLPs, ISSRs, SSRs and SNPs have received global acceptance. A recent revolution in DNA sequencing techniques has taken the discovery and application of molecular markers to high-throughput and ultrahigh-throughput levels. Although, the choice of marker will obviously depend on the targeted use, microsatellites, SNPs and genotyping by sequencing (GBS) largely fulfill most of the user requirements. Further, modern transcriptomic and functional markers will lead the ventures onto high-density genetic map construction, identification of QTLs, breeding and conservation strategies in times to come in combination with other high throughput techniques. This review presents an overview of different marker technologies and their variants with a comparative account of their characteristic features and applications. PMID:25430893

Grover, Atul; Sharma, P C

2014-11-28

104

High gene flow and genetic diversity in three economically important Zanthoxylum Spp. of Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone of NE India using molecular markers  

PubMed Central

The genetic diversity in Zanthoxylum species viz.  Zanthoxylum nitidum, Zanthoxylum oxyphyllum and Zanthoxylum rhesta collected from the Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone of Assam (NE India) was amplified using 13 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and 9 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. RAPD markers were able to detect 81.82% polymorphism whereas ISSR detected 98.02% polymorphism. The genetic similarities were analyzed from the dendrogram constructed by RAPD and ISSR fingerprinting methods which divided the 3 species of Zanthoxylum into 3 clear different clusters. The principle component analysis (PCA) was carried out to confirm the clustering pattern of RAPD and ISSR analysis. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the presence of significant variability between different Zanthoxylum species and within the species by both RAPD and ISSR markers. Z. nitidum was found to be sharing a high degree of variation with the other two Zanthoxylum species under study. The Nei's gene diversity (h), Shannon's information index (I), observed number of alleles (na) and effective number of alleles (ne) were also found to be higher in ISSR markers (0.3526, 0.5230, 1.9802 and 1.6145) than in RAPD markers (0.3144, 0.4610, 1.8182 and 1.5571). The values for total genotype diversity for among population (HT), within population diversity (Hs) and gene flow (Nm) were more in ISSR (0.3491, 0.2644 and 1.5610) than RAPD (0.3128, 0.2264 and 1.3087) but the mean coefficient of gene differentiation (GST) was more in RAPD (0.2764) than ISSR (0.2426). A comparison of this two finger printing methods was done by calculating MR, EMI and MI. The correlation coefficient between data matrices of RAPD and ISSR based on Mantel test was found to be significant (r = 0.65612). PMID:25606454

Medhi, K.; Sarmah, D.K.; Deka, M.; Bhau, B.S.

2014-01-01

105

High gene flow and genetic diversity in three economically important Zanthoxylum Spp. of Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone of NE India using molecular markers.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity in Zanthoxylum species viz.  Zanthoxylum nitidum, Zanthoxylum oxyphyllum and Zanthoxylum rhesta collected from the Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone of Assam (NE India) was amplified using 13 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and 9 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. RAPD markers were able to detect 81.82% polymorphism whereas ISSR detected 98.02% polymorphism. The genetic similarities were analyzed from the dendrogram constructed by RAPD and ISSR fingerprinting methods which divided the 3 species of Zanthoxylum into 3 clear different clusters. The principle component analysis (PCA) was carried out to confirm the clustering pattern of RAPD and ISSR analysis. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the presence of significant variability between different Zanthoxylum species and within the species by both RAPD and ISSR markers. Z. nitidum was found to be sharing a high degree of variation with the other two Zanthoxylum species under study. The Nei's gene diversity (h), Shannon's information index (I), observed number of alleles (na) and effective number of alleles (ne) were also found to be higher in ISSR markers (0.3526, 0.5230, 1.9802 and 1.6145) than in RAPD markers (0.3144, 0.4610, 1.8182 and 1.5571). The values for total genotype diversity for among population (HT), within population diversity (Hs) and gene flow (Nm) were more in ISSR (0.3491, 0.2644 and 1.5610) than RAPD (0.3128, 0.2264 and 1.3087) but the mean coefficient of gene differentiation (GST) was more in RAPD (0.2764) than ISSR (0.2426). A comparison of this two finger printing methods was done by calculating MR, EMI and MI. The correlation coefficient between data matrices of RAPD and ISSR based on Mantel test was found to be significant (r = 0.65612). PMID:25606454

Medhi, K; Sarmah, D K; Deka, M; Bhau, B S

2014-12-01

106

RAPD markers to evaluate callus tissue of Cereus peruvianus Mill. (Cactaceae) maintained in different growth regulator combinations.  

PubMed

RAPD markers were used to detect DNA polymorphisms in callus tissues maintained at different auxin and cytokinin combinations. There is a higher level of genetic variablity in callus tissue maintained with the highest kinetin versus 2, 4-D concentration. Callus tissues subcultured in a 4.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 4.0 mg/L kinetin combination showed high similarity and can be recommended as more suitable sources for industrial procedures of extraction of natural products such as secondary metabolites since extraction protocols can be easily standardized using genetically uniform materials. The higher genetic diversity in callus tissues of C. peruvianus cultured at 4.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 8.0 mg/L kinetin indicates this tissue as a matrix for in vitro selection of cell lines for higher natural products production. RAPD markers are, therefore, effective tools useful for detecting DNA polymorphism in callus tissue as well as in the DNA identification of callus tissues maintained in different auxin and cytokinin combinations. PMID:12392172

Mangolin, Claudete A; Ottoboni, Laura M M; Machado, Maria de Fátima P S

2002-10-01

107

Development of RAPD markers for authentication of medicinal plant Cuscuta reflexa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuscuta reflexa (Convolvulaceae) is a holoparasitic vine that attacks the aerial parts of many shrubs, trees, and is used immensely in the Indian system of medicine. In this study, the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was employed for authentication of Cuscuta reflexa and its adulterant Cuscuta chinensis. Thirty two decamer oligonucleotide primers were used to amplify the genomic DNA

Salim KHAN; Khanda Jabeen MIRZA; Malik Zainul ABDIN

2010-01-01

108

Genetic Diversity Among Wheat Cultivars Using Molecular Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to compare amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) marker systems for estimating genetic diversity among 13 Iranian wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars through average expected heterozygosity (Hav), sum of effective number of alleles (SENA), and marker index (MI). The AFLP markers had the highest values

Babak Abdollahi Mandoulakani; Ali-Akbar Shahnejat-Bushehri; Badredin Ebrahim Sayed Tabatabaei; Sepideh Torabi; Alireza Mohammadi Hajiabad

2010-01-01

109

Genetic analysis of Spanish melon ( Cucumis melo L.) germplasm using a standardized molecular-marker array and geographically diverse reference accessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic relationships among 125 Spanish melon ( Cucumis melo L.) accessions from a Spanish germplasm collection were assessed using a standard molecular-marker array consisting of 34 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers bands (19 primers) and 72 reference accessions drawn from previous studies. The reference accession array consisted of a broad range [Japanese (19) Crete (17), African (15), and USA

A. I. López-Sesé; J. E. Staub; M. L. Gómez-Guillamón

2003-01-01

110

IMPLICATIONS OF ITS SEQUENCES AND RAPD MARKERS FOR THE TAXONOMY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF THE OXYTROPIS CAMPESTRIS AND O. ARCTICA (FABACEAE) COMPLEXES IN ALASKA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxonomic consensus is lacking on the Oxytropis arctica and O. campestris species complexes, two polyploid complexes found in the interior and arctic areas of Alaska. One classification has emphasized flower size, whereas flower color is considered a key diagnostic character in another classification. Our analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and random amplified poly- morphic DNA (RAPD) markers provided

JANET L. JORGENSEN; IVANA STEHLIK; CHRISTIAN BROCHMANN; ELENA CONTI

111

Identification of RAPD markers linked to a fertility restorer gene for the Ogura radish cytoplasmic male sterility of rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulked segregant analysis was employed to identify random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to the restorer gene (Rfo) used in theOgura radish cytoplasmic male sterility of rapeseed. A total of 138 arbitrary 10-mer oligonucleotide primers were screened on the DNA of three pairs of bulks, each bulk corresponding to homozygous restored and male sterile plants of three segregating populations.

R. Delourme; A. Bouchereau; N. Hubert; M. Renard; B. S. Landry

1994-01-01

112

Inheritance of plant regeneration from maize ( Zea mays L.) shoot meristem cultures derived from germinated seeds and the identification of associated RAPD and SSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inheritance of shoot regeneration through shoot-tip meristem culture derived from maize seedling was evaluated, and the markers (RAPD and SSR) associated with this regeneration character were identified both in a group of North American maize inbreds and a crossing population. A discrete distribution of percent regeneration and no. of shoots per explant was observed in the inbred group and

W. Li; G. Sun; J. Liu; P. Masilamany; J. H. Taylor; W. Yan; K. J. Kasha; K. P. Pauls

2004-01-01

113

Detection of genetic variation between and within populations of Gliricidia sepium and G. maculata using RAPD markers.  

PubMed

Gliricidia sepium and G. maculata are multi-purpose leguminous trees native to Central America and Mexico. Research programmes have been initiated to define the native distribution of Gliricidia and sample the spectrum of genetic variation. To date, there has been little systematic assessment of genetic variability in multi-purpose tree species. Accurate estimates of diversity between- and within-populations are considered a prerequisite for the optimization of sampling and breeding strategies. We have used a PCR-based polymorphic assay procedure (RAPDs) to monitor genetic variability in Gliricidia. Extensive genetic variability was detected between species and the variability was partitioned into between- and within-population components. On average, most (60 per cent) of the variation occurs between G. sepium populations but oligonucleotide primers differed in their capacity to detect variability between and within populations. Population-specific genetic markers were identified. RAPDs provide a cost-effective method for the precise and routine evaluation of variability and may be used to identify areas of maximum diversity. The approaches outlined have general applicability to a range of organisms and are discussed in relation to the exploitation of multi-purpose tree species of the tropics. PMID:1385362

Chalmers, K J; Waugh, R; Sprent, J I; Simons, A J; Powell, W

1992-11-01

114

Molecular marker-based characterization in candidate plus trees of Pongamia pinnata, a potential biodiesel legume  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Pongamia pinnata, a legume tree, has many traditional uses and is a potential biodiesel plant. Despite its importance and the availability of appropriate molecular genetic tools, the full potential of Pongamia is yet to be realized. The objective of this study was to assess genetic diversity among 10 systematically characterized candidate plus trees (CPTs) of P. pinnata from North Guwahati. Methodology The application and informativeness of polymerase chain reaction-based molecular markers [random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)] to assess the genetic variability and relatedness among 10 CPTs of P. pinnata were investigated. Principal results Polymorphism rates of 10.48, 10.08 and 100 % were achieved using 18 RAPD, 12 ISSR and 4 AFLP primer combinations, respectively. Polymorphic information content (PIC) varied in the range 0.33–0.49, 0.18–0.49 and 0.26–0.34 for RAPD, ISSR and AFLP markers, respectively, whereas the corresponding average marker index (MI) values for the above markers were 7.48, 6.69 and 30.75. Based on Nei's gene diversity and Shannon's information index, inter-population diversity (hsp) was highest when compared with intra-population diversity (hpop) and the gene flow (Nm) ranged from a moderate value of 0.607 to a high value of 6.287 for the three DNA markers. Clustering of individuals was not similar when RAPD- and ISSR-derived dendrogram analyses were compared with that of AFLP. The Mantel test cophenetic correlation coefficient was higher for AFLP (r = 0.98) than for ISSR (r = 0.73) and RAPD (r = 0.84). Molecular markers discriminated the individuals efficiently and generated a high similarity in dendrogram topologies derived using unweighted pair-group arithmetic average, although some differences were observed. The three-dimensional scaling by principal coordinate analysis supported the result of clustering. Conclusions Comparing the results obtained with the three DNA markers, AFLP indicated higher efficiency for estimating the levels of genetic diversity and proved to be reliable for fingerprinting, mapping and diversity studies in Pongamia in view of their suitability for energy production purposes. PMID:22476075

Kesari, Vigya; Madurai Sathyanarayana, Vinod; Parida, Ajay; Rangan, Latha

2010-01-01

115

MOLECULAR MARKERS Our lab started to develop molecular markers linked to economic traits in beans in 1990 when Dr.  

E-print Network

tag a gene in the absence of a saturated genetic map. Other approaches such as segregant bulk analysis greatly limited the use of MAS in bean breeding except for major gene traits. Most mapping studies at that time was RAPD marker(s) and we were able to `tag' the first gene for rust resistance in common bean

116

Genetic structuring of boll weevil populations in the US based on RAPD markers.  

PubMed

Abstract Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed to infer the magnitude and pattern of genetic differentiation among boll weevil populations from eighteen locations across eight US states and north-east Mexico. Sixty-seven reproducible bands from six random primers were analysed for genetic variation within and between weevil populations. Genetic and geographical distances among all populations were positively correlated, reflecting a pattern of isolation by distance within a larger metapopulation. Gene flow between south-central, western and eastern regions is limited, but migration between locations within regions appears to be relatively frequent up to distances of approximately 300-400 km. However, estimates of effective migration were much lower than those estimated from mtDNA-RFLP data reported previously. PMID:15157230

Kim, K S; Sappington, T W

2004-06-01

117

A composite genetic map of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma brassicae based on RAPD markers.  

PubMed Central

Three linkage maps of the genome of the microhymenopteran Trichogramma brassicae were constructed from the analysis of segregation of random amplified polymorphic DNA markers in three F2 populations. These populations were composed of the haploid male progeny of several virgin F1 females, which resulted from the breeding of four parental lines that were nearly fixed for different random amplified polymorphic DNA markers and that were polymorphic for longevity and fecundity characters. As the order of markers common to the three mapping populations was found to be well conserved, a composite linkage map was constructed. Eighty-four markers were organized into five linkage groups and two pairs. The mean interval between two markers was 17.7 cM, and the map spanned 1330 cM. PMID:9725846

Laurent, V; Wajnberg, E; Mangin, B; Schiex, T; Gaspin, C; Vanlerberghe-Masutti, F

1998-01-01

118

Estimation of the number of full sibling families at an oviposition site using RAPD-PCR markers: applications to the mosquito Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many species in which groups of individuals encountered in the field are known to consist of mixtures of full-sibling families. We describe a statistical technique, based on the use of random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) markers, that allows for the estimation of the number of families contained in these groups. We test the technique on full-sibling

B. L. Apostol; W. C. Black; B. R. Miller; P. Reiter; B. J. Beaty

1993-01-01

119

Species-diagnostic markers in Larix spp. based on RAPDs and nuclear, cpDNA, and mtDNA gene sequences, and their phylogenetic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic markers from the nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes were developed to distinguish unambiguously among\\u000a four larch species [Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch, Larix decidua (Mill.), Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Sarg., and Larix sibirica (Ledeb.)] used in intensive forestry in eastern North America. Nine random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fragments had\\u000a good diagnostic value, and 3 out of 12 nuclear

Marie-Claude Gros-Louis; Jean Bousquet; Luc E. Pâques; Nathalie Isabel

2005-01-01

120

Identification and characterization of RAPD-SCAR markers linked to glyphosate-susceptible and -resistant biotypes of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.  

PubMed

Eleusine indica is one of the most common weed species found in agricultural land worldwide. Although herbicide-glyphosate provides good control of the weed, its frequent uses has led to abundant reported cases of resistance. Hence, the development of genetic markers for quick detection of glyphosate-resistance in E. indica population is imperative for the control and management of the weed. In this study, a total of 14 specific random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were identified and two of the markers, namely S4R727 and S26R6976 were further sequence characterized. Sequence alignment revealed that marker S4R727 showing a 12-bp nucleotides deletion in resistant biotypes, while marker S26R6976 contained a 167-bp nucleotides insertion in the resistant biotypes. Based on these sequence differences, three pairs of new sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers were developed. The specificity of these primer pairs were further validated with genomic DNA extracted from ten individual plants of one glyphosate-susceptible and five glyphosate-resistant (R2, R4, R6, R8 and R11) populations. The resulting RAPD-SCAR markers provided the basis for assessing genetic diversity between glyphosate-susceptible and -resistant E. indica biotypes, as well for the identification of genetic locus link to glyphosate-resistance event in the species. PMID:24374894

Cha, Thye San; Anne-Marie, Kaben; Chuah, Tse Seng

2014-02-01

121

Micropropagation of annatto (Bixa orellana L.) from mature tree and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants with RAPD markers.  

PubMed

An in vitro propagation technique based on axillary bud proliferation was developed for the first time to mature annatto (Bixa orellana L.) tree. Nodal segments cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 ?M benzyl adenine (BA) and tender coconut water (10 %) showed significantly high (P?RAPD marker system revealed the genetic stability among the micropropagated plants. The present protocol in brief, can be used for the clonal propagation of the superior genotype and preservation of germplasm. PMID:24381446

Siril, E A; Joseph, Nisha

2013-01-01

122

In vitro clonal propagation and genetic fidelity of the regenerants of Spilanthes calva DC. using RAPD and ISSR marker.  

PubMed

An efficient in vitro protocol has been established for clonal propagation of elite plant of Spilanthes calva DC., an important source of spilanthol, an antimalarial larvicidal compound. Nodal explants excised from field grown plant of S. calva DC. when reared on Murashige and Skoog's medium augmented with different cytokinins, viz. N(6)-Benzyladenine (BA), N(6)-(2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP) and 6-furfuryl aminopurine (Kn), differentiated multiple shoots from the axils. BA at 10 ?M proved optimum for elicitation of multiple shoots in 91.6 % cultures with an average of 7.12 shoots per explant within 6 weeks. The excised shoots rooted on half strength Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with 0.1 ?M IBA. Micropropagated plants were hardened and transferred to field for acclimatization, where 95 % plants survived and were phenotypically similar to the donor plant. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to evaluate the genetic fidelity amongst the regenerants. Eleven individuals, randomly chosen amongst a population of 120 regenerants were compared with the donor plant. A total of 71 scorable bands, ranging in size from 100 bp to 1,100 bp were generated by a combination of the two markers in the aforesaid plants. All banding profiles from micropropagated plants were monomorphic and similar to those of mother plant. The similarity values amongst the aforesaid plants varied from 0.967 to 1.000. The dendrogram generated through UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with arithmetic mean) analysis revealed 98 % similarity amongst them, thus confirming the genetic fidelity of the in vitro clones. PMID:24431493

Razaq, Mohd; Heikrujam, Monika; Chetri, Siva K; Agrawal, Veena

2013-04-01

123

Identification of co-dominant RAPD markers tightly linked to fruit skin color in apple  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple genetic basis for the red\\/yellow skincolor polymorphism in apple was verified using DNA markers. Bulked segregant analysis identified one 10-base oligomer that generated different fragments in each of the bulks. After testing the primer in four populations, two fragments were found to be associated with red skin color and another two fragments associated with yellow skin color. Three

F. S. Cheng; N. F. Weeden; S. K. Brown

1996-01-01

124

Utilization of RAPD marker to analyze natural genetic variation in Calligonum polygonoides L. - A key stone species of Thar desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species Calligonum polygonoides L. of Polygonaceae is one of the most economically important resources of the Indian desert, playing an important role in the lives of local population. A great range of genetic diversity could be seen in diverse populations of this species which are spread all over western Rajasthan. DNA-based molecular markers are playing increasingly important role in

Sangeeta Bewal; Santosh Kumar Sharma; Ajay Parida; Sadha Shivam; Satyawada Rama Rao; Arun Kumar

125

A Pseudoautosomal Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Marker for the Sex Chromosomes of Silene dioica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The segregation pattern of an 810-bp random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) band in the F1 and backcross generations of a Silene dioica (L.) Clairv. family provides evidence that this molecular marker is located in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of the X and Y chromosomes. The marker was found through a combination of bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and RAPD techniques. Recombination

Veronica S. Di Stilio; Richard V. Kesseli; David L. Mulcahy

1998-01-01

126

Identification of RAPD markers, in situ DNA content and structural chromosomal diversity in some legumes of the mangrove flora of Orissa.  

PubMed

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, karyotypes and 4C DNA content were analyzed in five legume mangroves belonging to the sub-family Papilinoideae (Dalbergia spinosa, Derris heterophylla and D. indica) and Caesalpinioideae (Caesalpinia crista, Cynometra ramiflora) of the family Fabaceae to establish the genetic variability and phylogenetic affinities. Somatic chromosome numbers were reported for the first time in D. spinosa (2n = 20), C. ramiflora (2n = 26) and D. heterophylla (2n = 24) with reconfirmation of the somatic chromosome number in D. indica (2n = 22) and C. crista (2n = 24). Significant intergeneric and interspecific variation of 4C DNA content was observed and that varied from 8.970 pg in C. ramiflora to 28.730 pg in D. indica. From the RAPD analysis, the dendogram showed clustering of Caesalpinia crista and Cynomitra ramiflora into one group (81.80). In the second groups Derris indica and Derris heterophylla were more similar (83.10) than Dalbergia spinosa (85.80). Species-specific DNA markers (900 bp) obtained in D. spinosa from OPN15; 700 and 2000 bp in C. ramiflora from OPN4 and 400 and 800 bp in D. heterophylla and 500 bp DNA fragment in C. crista obtained from OPN-11 were found characteristic RAPD markers of these species. C. crista found more closer affinity to C. ramiflora of the sub-family Caesalpinioideae [genetic distance (1-F) = 0.847]. Derris indica showed closer genetic relation with D. heterophylla [genetic distance (1-F) = 0.856] than D. spinosa [genetic distance (1-F) = 0.876] where Derris and Dalbergia belongs to the sub-family Papilionoideae. By employing these markers the present study has helped to resolve the relationship between the taxonomically diverse leguminous mangroves and study their ability to coexist with mangroves that would shed light on the evolution of mangroves from terrestrial species. PMID:15609544

Jena, S; Sahoo, P; Mohanty, S; Das, A B

2004-11-01

127

RAPD-based screening of genomic libraries for positional cloning.  

PubMed

RAPD markers are frequently used for positional cloning. However, RAPD markers often contain repeated sequences which prevent genomic library screening by hybridisation. We have developed a simple RAPD analysis of genomic libraries based on the identification of cosmid pools and clones amplifying the RAPD marker of interest. Our method does not require the cloning or characterisation of the RAPD marker as it relies on the analysis of cosmid pools or clones using a simple RAPD protocol. We applied this strategy using four RAPD markers composed of single copy or repeated sequences linked to avirulence genes of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea . Cosmids containing these RAPD markers were easily and rapidly identified allowing the construction of physical contigs at these loci. PMID:9396827

Dioh, W; Tharreau, D; Lebrun, M H

1997-12-15

128

(ISEA) MOLECULAR MARKER ANALYSIS OF DEARS SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Source apportionment based on organic molecular markers provides a promising approach for meeting the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) objective of comparing source contributions between community air monitoring stations and various neighborhoods. Source appor...

129

MOLECULAR MARKER ANALYSIS OF DEARS SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Source apportionment based on organic molecular markers provides a promising approach for meeting the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) objective of comparing source contributions between community air monitoring stations and various neighborhoods. Source appor...

130

Identification of co-dominant RAPD markers tightly linked to fruit skin color in apple.  

PubMed

A simple genetic basis for the red/yellow skincolor polymorphism in apple was verified using DNA markers. Bulked segregant analysis identified one 10-base oligomer that generated different fragments in each of the bulks. After testing the primer in four populations, two fragments were found to be associated with red skin color and another two fragments associated with yellow skin color. Three of the fragments (1160, 1180, and 1230 bp) were partly sequenced and found to share high sequence homology, suggesting these were generated from the same locus. A pair of universal primers were designed to amplify the fragments. In the 'Rome Beauty' x 'White Angel' population, two fragments were associated with red skin color; one fragment designated as A(1) (1160 bp) was from 'Rome Beauty' and another fragment (A(2), 1180 bp) was from 'White Angel'. Progeny possessing both fragments, or either one, had red fruit. Both parents displayed an alternate fragment, a(1) (1230 bp), associated with yellowskinned fruit. In three other crosses tested, only fragment A(1) co-segregated with red skin color; two fragments, a(1) and a(2) (1230 bp and 1320 bp), were associated with yellow skin color. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the red/yellow dimorphism is controlled by a monogenic system with the presence of the red anthocyanin pigmentation being dominant. There was no indication that other modifier genes could reverse the effect of the locus (R f ) linked to the markers. Examination of amplification products in 56 apple cultivars and advanced breeding selections demonstrated that the universal primers could be used to correctly predict fruit skin color in most cases. PMID:24162221

Cheng, F S; Weeden, N F; Brown, S K

1996-07-01

131

Varijabilnost germplazme lucerne (Medicago spp.) procijenjena RAPD markerima  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to analyse the level of genetic variability and germplasm diversity of 17 alfalfa (Medicago spp.) cultivars\\/populations with different geographic origin by RAPD markers. 93 polymorphic markers were found across 340 individual plants by six primers. Genetic distance within germplasm varied from 0.28 to 0.42. Variability within cultivars and populations estimated by analysis of molecular

Marijana TUCAK

132

Mycelial Propagation and Molecular Phylogenetic Relationships of Commercially Cultivated Agrocybe cylindracea based on ITS Sequences and RAPD  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the optimal vegetative growth conditions and molecular phylogenetic relationships of eleven strains of Agrocybe cylindracea collected from different ecological regions of Korea, China and Taiwan. The optimal temperature and pH for mycelial growth were observed at 25? and 6. Potato dextrose agar and Hennerberg were the favorable media for vegetative growth, whereas glucose tryptone was unfavorable. Dextrin, maltose, and fructose were the most effective carbon sources. The most suitable nitrogen sources were arginine and glycine, whereas methionine, alanine, histidine, and urea were least effective for the mycelial propagation of A. cylindracea. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA were amplified using PCR. The sequence of ITS2 was more variable than that of ITS1, while the 5.8S sequences were identical. The reciprocal homologies of the ITS sequences ranged from 98 to 100%. The strains were also analyzed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) using 20 arbitrary primers. Fifteen primers efficiently amplified the genomic DNA. The average number of polymorphic bands observed per primer was 3.8. The numbers of amplified bands varied based on the primers and strains, with polymorphic fragments ranging from 0.1 to 2.9 kb. The results of RAPD analysis were similar to the ITS region sequences. The results revealed that RAPD and ITS techniques were well suited for detecting the genetic diversity of all A. cylindracea strains tested. PMID:23956633

Alam, Nuhu; Kim, Jeong Hwa; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, U Youn

2010-01-01

133

DISPERSAL PATTERN OF BLACK-BILLED MAGPIES (PICA HUDSONIA) MEASURED BY MOLECULAR GENETIC (RAPD) ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black-billed Magpies (Pica hudsonia) are a relatively sedentary corvid, with greater dispersal of females than males. To genetically confirm that dispersal pattern, 29 reproductively active adults were captured over two years and were scored for primer-spe- cific random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) bands (53 polymorphic bands in 1996 and 104 in 1997). In both years, we captured more previously banded

XIAO-HONG WANGAND; Charles H. Trost

2001-01-01

134

Molecular characterization and marker based chemotaxonomic studies of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle.  

PubMed

Detailed chemical studies and RAPD analysis were done in different populations of Podophyllum hexandrum collected from high altitude regions of North Western Himalayas. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis revealed a high degree of genetic diversity among the 12 collected accessions, attributed to their geographical and climatic conditions. HPLC analysis also revealed variation in the concentration of two major marker compounds which lead to the identification of a chemotype. The study demonstrated that RAPD and chemical markers are very useful tools to compare the genetic relationship and pattern of variation among such prioritized and endangered medicinal plants. PMID:19788918

Sultan, Phalisteen; Shawl, A S; Rehman, Suriya; Ahmed, S Fayaz; Ramteke, P W

2010-06-01

135

Glioma biology and molecular markers.  

PubMed

The tumors classified as gliomas include a wide variety of histologies including the more common (astrocytoma, glioblastoma), as well as the less common histologies (oligodendroglioma, mixed oligoastrocytoma, pilocytic astrocytoma). Recent efforts at comprehensive genetic characterization of various primary brain tumor types have identified a number of common alterations and pathways common to multiple tumor types. Common pathways in glioma biology include growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases and their downstream signaling via the MAP kinase cascade or PI3K signaling, loss of apoptosis through p53, cell cycle regulation, angiogenesis via VEGF signaling, and invasion. However, in addition to these common general pathway alterations, a number of specific alterations have been identified in particular tumor types, and a number of these have direct therapeutic implications. These include mutations or fusions in the BRAF gene seen in pilocytic astrocytomas (and gangliogliomas). In oligodendrogliomas, mutations in IDH1 and codeletion of chromosomes 1p and 19q are associated with improved survival with upfront use of combined chemotherapy and radiation, and these tumors also have unique mutations of CIC and FUBP1 genes. Low grade gliomas are increasingly seen to be divided into two groups based on IDH mutation status, with astrocytomas developing through IDH mutation followed by p53 mutation, while poor prognosis low grade gliomas and primary glioblastomas (GBMs) are characterized by EGFR amplification, loss of PTEN, and loss of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. GBMs can be further characterized based on gene expression and gene methylation patterns into three or four distinct subgroups. Prognostic markers in diffuse gliomas include IDH mutation, 1p/19q codeletion, and MGMT methylation, and MGMT is also a predictive marker in elderly patients with glioblastoma treated with temozolomide monotherapy. PMID:25468223

Cohen, Adam L; Colman, Howard

2015-01-01

136

Molecular markers in pediatric neuro-oncology  

PubMed Central

Pediatric molecular neuro-oncology is a fast developing field. A multitude of molecular profiling studies in recent years has unveiled a number of genetic abnormalities unique to pediatric brain tumors. It has now become clear that brain tumors that arise in children have distinct pathogenesis and biology, compared with their adult counterparts, even for those with indistinguishable histopathology. Some of the molecular features are so specific to a particular type of tumors, such as the presence of the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion gene for pilocytic astrocytomas or SMARCB1 mutations for atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, that they could practically serve as a diagnostic marker on their own. Expression profiling has resolved the existence of 4 molecular subgroups in medulloblastomas, which positively translated into improved prognostication for the patients. The currently available molecular markers, however, do not cover all tumors even within a single tumor entity. The molecular pathogenesis of a large number of pediatric brain tumors is still unaccounted for, and the hierarchy of tumors is likely to be more complex and intricate than currently acknowledged. One of the main tasks of future molecular analyses in pediatric neuro-oncology, including the ongoing genome sequencing efforts, is to elucidate the biological basis of those orphan tumors. The ultimate goal of molecular diagnostics is to accurately predict the clinical and biological behavior of any tumor by means of their molecular characteristics, which is hoped to eventually pave the way for individualized treatment. PMID:23095836

Ichimura, Koichi; Nishikawa, Ryo; Matsutani, Masao

2012-01-01

137

Molecular characterization of Aspergillus infections in an Iranian educational hospital using RAPD-PCR method  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): The nosocomial infections by Aspergillus species are associated with constructions and increased dust loads in hospital indoors. Our main object was to find the environmental sources of Aspergillus species causing hospital acquired infections. Materials and Methods: The clinical and environmental samplings were performed during 18 months from spring 2010 to summer 2011 in Imam educational hospital, Urmia, Iran. A morphological diagnosis was performed including microscopic characterization of isolated aspergillus from cultured specimens and polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for the identification in the level of species. Random amplified polymorphic DNA - PCR RAPD-PCR using random primers for rDNA gene was performed to compare Aspergillus isolates of clinical cases with the relevant environmental sources. Results: Use of RAPD method resulted various differential patterns, so that some Aspergillus isolates from the clinical and hospital indoor were completely matched (matched pairs) and some other Aspergillus isolates were not matched. In the case of matched pairs, Aspergillus niger and A. flavus isolated from broncoalveolar lavage and sinus discharge were relevant to those of air conditioner and walls surfaces, respectively. Conclusion: The hospital sources for the Aspergillus clinical isolates included air condition and walls. RAPD-PCR analysis can play a trivial role to find the hospital sources of Aspergillus clinical isolates.

Diba, Kambiz; Makhdoomi, Khadijeh; Mirhendi, Hossein

2014-01-01

138

Application of RAPD for molecular characterization of plant species of medicinal value from an arid environment.  

PubMed

The use of highly discriminatory methods for the identification and characterization of genotypes is essential for plant protection and appropriate use. We utilized the RAPD method for the genetic fingerprinting of 11 plant species of desert origin (seven with known medicinal value). Andrachne telephioides, Zilla spinosa, Caylusea hexagyna, Achillea fragrantissima, Lycium shawii, Moricandia sinaica, Rumex vesicarius, Bassia eriophora, Zygophyllum propinquum subsp migahidii, Withania somnifera, and Sonchus oleraceus were collected from various areas of Saudi Arabia. The five primers used were able to amplify the DNA from all the plant species. The amplified products of the RAPD profiles ranged from 307 to 1772 bp. A total of 164 bands were observed for 11 plant species, using five primers. The number of well-defined and major bands for a single plant species for a single primer ranged from 1 to 10. The highest pair-wise similarities (0.32) were observed between A. fragrantissima and L. shawii, when five primers were combined. The lowest similarities (0) were observed between A. telephioides and Z. spinosa; Z. spinosa and B. eriophora; B. eriophora and Z. propinquum. In conclusion, the RAPD method successfully discriminates among all the plant species, therefore providing an easy and rapid tool for identification, conservation and sustainable use of these plants. PMID:21064026

Arif, I A; Bakir, M A; Khan, H A; Al Farhan, A H; Al Homaidan, A A; Bahkali, A H; Al Sadoon, M; Shobrak, M

2010-01-01

139

Combining molecular-marker and chemical analysis of Capparis decidua (Capparaceae) in the Thar Desert of Western Rajasthan (india).  

PubMed

The Thar Desert, a very inhospitable place, accommodates only plant species that survive acute drought, unpredictable precipitation, and those can grow in the limited moisture of sandy soils. Capparis decidua is among one of the few plants able to grow well under these conditions. This species is highly exploited and has been naturally taken, as local people use it for various purposes like food, timber and fuel, although, no management or conservation efforts have been established. The present study was conducted in this arid area of Western Rajasthan (India) with the aim to obtain preliminary molecular information about this group of plants. We evaluated diversity among 46 samples of C. decidua using chemical parameters and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Fourteen chemical parameters and eight minerals (total 22 variables) of this species fruits were estimated. A total of 14 RAPD primers produced 235 band positions, of which 81.27% were polymorphic. Jaccard's similarity coefficients for RAPD primers ranged from 0.34 to 0.86 with a mean genetic similarity of 0.50. As per observed coefficient of variation, NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber) content was found to be the most variable trait followed by starch and soluble carbohydrate. The Manhattan dissimilarity coefficient values for chemical parameters ranged between 0.02-0.31 with an average of 0.092. The present study revealed a very low correlation (0.01) between chemical parameters and RAPD-based matrices. The low correlation between chemical- and RAPD-based matrices indicated that the two methods were different and highly variable. The chemical-based diversity will assist in selection of nutritionally rich samples for medicinal purpose, while genetic diversity to face natural challenges and find sustainable ways to promote conservation for future use. PMID:23894984

Kumar, Sushil; Sharma, Ramavtar; Kumar, Vinod; Vyas, Govind K; Rathore, Abhishek

2013-03-01

140

Citrus phylogeny and genetic origin of important species as investigated by molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus phylogeny was investigated using RAPD, SCAR and cpDNA markers. The genotypes analyzed included 36 accessions belonging\\u000a to Citrus together with 1 accession from each of the related genera Poncirus, Fortunella, Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Phylogenetic analysis with 262 RAPDs and 14 SCARs indicated that Fortunella is phylogenetically close to Citrus while the other three related genera are distant from Citrus

E. Nicolosi; Z. N. Deng; A. Gentile; S. La Malfa; G. Continella; E. Tribulato

2000-01-01

141

Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers: A potential resource for studies in plant molecular biology1  

PubMed Central

In the past few decades, many investigations in the field of plant biology have employed selectively neutral, multilocus, dominant markers such as inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to address hypotheses at lower taxonomic levels. More recently, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers have been developed, which are used to amplify coding regions of DNA with primers targeting open reading frames. These markers have proven to be robust and highly variable, on par with AFLP, and are attained through a significantly less technically demanding process. SRAP markers have been used primarily for agronomic and horticultural purposes, developing quantitative trait loci in advanced hybrids and assessing genetic diversity of large germplasm collections. Here, we suggest that SRAP markers should be employed for research addressing hypotheses in plant systematics, biogeography, conservation, ecology, and beyond. We provide an overview of the SRAP literature to date, review descriptive statistics of SRAP markers in a subset of 171 publications, and present relevant case studies to demonstrate the applicability of SRAP markers to the diverse field of plant biology. Results of these selected works indicate that SRAP markers have the potential to enhance the current suite of molecular tools in a diversity of fields by providing an easy-to-use, highly variable marker with inherent biological significance. PMID:25202637

Robarts, Daniel W. H.; Wolfe, Andrea D.

2014-01-01

142

Nuclear DNA diversity, population differentiation, and phylogenetic relationships in the California closed-cone pines based on RAPD and allozyme markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied nuclear gene diversity and population differentiation using 91-98 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) loci in the California closed-cone pines knobcone (Pinus attenuata Lemm.), bishop (P. muricata D. Don), and Monterey (P. radiata D. Don) pines. A total of 384 trees from 13 populations were analyzed for RAPDs and another sample of 242 trees from 12 of these 13

J. Wu; K. V. Krutovskii; S. H. Strauss

1999-01-01

143

Low Genetic Differentiation of and Close Evolutionary Relationships between Anas platyrhynchos and Anas poecilorhyncha : RAPD–PCR Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using RAPD–PCR, we examined genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in two groups of river ducks: Anas platyrhynchos, A. poecilorhyncha, A. streperaand A. crecca, A. formosa, A. querquedula. Molecular taxon-specific markers were found for teals (A. crecca, A. formosa, A. querquedula) and gadwall (A. strepera). Each of the species examined was shown to exhibit high genetic diversity. The mean levels of

I. V. Kulikova; G. N. Chelomina; Yu. N. Zhuravlev

2003-01-01

144

Genetic relationship among 19 accessions of six species of Chenopodium L., by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA fragments (RAPD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RAPD technique was used to identify genetic relationships in 19 accessions, including six species of the genus Chenopodium. A dendrogram was constructed using UPGMA from 399 DNA markers. The molecular data clustered species and accessions into five different groups. Group 1 with three cultivated varieties of C. nuttalliae, Group 2 included eight cultivars and two wild varieties of C.

Paulo M. Ruas; Alejandro Bonifacio; Claudete F. Ruas; Daniel J. Fairbanks; William R. Andersen

1999-01-01

145

Molecular Marker Systems for Oenothera Genetics  

PubMed Central

The genus Oenothera has an outstanding scientific tradition. It has been a model for studying aspects of chromosome evolution and speciation, including the impact of plastid nuclear co-evolution. A large collection of strains analyzed during a century of experimental work and unique genetic possibilities allow the exchange of genetically definable plastids, individual or multiple chromosomes, and/or entire haploid genomes (Renner complexes) between species. However, molecular genetic approaches for the genus are largely lacking. In this study, we describe the development of efficient PCR-based marker systems for both the nuclear genome and the plastome. They allow distinguishing individual chromosomes, Renner complexes, plastomes, and subplastomes. We demonstrate their application by monitoring interspecific exchanges of genomes, chromosome pairs, and/or plastids during crossing programs, e.g., to produce plastome–genome incompatible hybrids. Using an appropriate partial permanent translocation heterozygous hybrid, linkage group 7 of the molecular map could be assigned to chromosome 9·8 of the classical Oenothera map. Finally, we provide the first direct molecular evidence that homologous recombination and free segregation of chromosomes in permanent translocation heterozygous strains is suppressed. PMID:18791241

Rauwolf, Uwe; Golczyk, Hieronim; Meurer, Jörg; Herrmann, Reinhold G.; Greiner, Stephan

2008-01-01

146

Contrasting genetic diversity relationships are revealed in rice (Oryza sativa L.) using different marker types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation between samples of Oryza sativa from 19 localities in Bangladesh and Bhutan was assessed using two PCR-based molecular marker systems: RAPD (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) and ISSR-PCR (inter-simple sequence repeat polymerase chain reaction). Employing RAPD, a set of 14 decanucleotides of arbitrary sequence directed the amplification of 94 reproducible marker bands, 47 (50%) of which were polymorphic.

Beverley J. Parsons; H. John Newbury; Michael T. Jackson; Brian V. Ford-Lloyd

1997-01-01

147

Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Several molecular and cellular markers of genotoxicity were adapted for measurement in the Medaka (Oryzias latipes), and were used to describe the effects of treatment of the organism with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). NO{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts were detected, and a slight statistically significant, increase in DNA strand breaks was observed. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to high levels of DEN induced alkyltransferase activity which enzymatically removes any O{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts but does not result in strand breaks or hypomethylation of the DNA such as might be expected from excision repair of chemically modified DNA. Following a five week continuous DEN exposure with 100 percent renewal of DEN-water every third day, the F values (DNA double strandedness) increased considerably and to similar extent in fish exposed to 25, 50, and 100 ppM DEN. This has been observed also in medaka exposed to BaP.

Shugart, L.R.; D'Surney, S.J.; Gettys-Hull, C.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.

1991-12-15

148

Molecular differentiation of nocturnally periodic and diurnally sub-periodic Wuchereria bancrofti by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD).  

PubMed

Wuchereria bancrofti, a nematode parasite, is responsible for causing 90% of lymphatic filariasis infection in the world. In India, W. bancrofti exists in two physiological forms, nocturnally periodic in the main land and diurnally sub-periodic in Car Nicobar group of islands. Differentiation of these two parasitic forms by conventional microscopic methods difficult requiring good skill and hence tedious. Therefore, we developed a simple and rapid Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay to differentiate these parasitic forms. Also, the phylogenetic relationship between periodic and sub-periodic W. bancrofti and also Brugia malayi populations was analyzed using RAPD profile generated. Distinct RAPD profiles were observed among the three parasites with the formation of three distinct clusters in the phylogenetic tree. Substantial genetic diversity (Nei's genetic diversity H) was observed among periodic (H = 0.0577) and sub-periodic (H = 0.1415) W. bancrofti populations. PMID:25187153

Das, M K; Dhamodharan, R; Hoti, S L; Dash, A P

2011-06-01

149

In vitro plant propagation of Catharanthus roseus and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants by RAPD marker assay.  

PubMed

An investigation was carried out to develop an efficient micropropagation protocol for Catharanthus roseus. Experiments were conducted to optimize suitable media for in vitro shoot multiplication and root induction. Out of the different media compared for in vitro shoot multiplication, Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1 mg/l of 6-benzylaminopurine and 0.2 mg/l ?-naphthaleneacetic acid showed better response in terms of the emergence of shoots from axillary buds as well as proliferation and multiplication of shoots. The shoots when placed on half strength of MS medium having 1 mg/l indole 3-butyric acid and 0.25 % charcoal showed cent percent root induction with maximum number of roots per shoot (4.2) as well as maximum root length (1.72 cm). Further, clonal fidelity of the in vitro-raised plants was carried out using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA marker and results indicated that all the tissue culture-derived plants are true-to-type and there were no somaclonal variations among these plants. PMID:23292901

Kumar, Ajay; Prakash, Krishna; Sinha, Rajesh Kumar; Kumar, Nitish

2013-02-01

150

Comparative Genome Analysis of Molecular Markers Pierre Peterlongo1  

E-print Network

c-GAMMA: Comparative Genome Analysis of Molecular Markers Pierre Peterlongo1 , Jacques Nicolas1 be observed in details with low cost genomic sequences produced by new generation of sequencers. A method power of candidate markers. First results are presented on a set of microbial genomes. The importance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

151

RAPD analysis reveals a low rate of outcrossing in burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L.) is commonly considered a self-pollinating species, intrapopulational variation for morphological, biochemical and molecular markers is relatively high. To investigate whether part of this variation is the result of outcrossing, we designed RAPD analysis experiments to reveal both inter- and intra-accession crossing. No cases of inter-accession hybrids were documented, but an intra-accessional crossing rate of

Maria Vitale; Fulvio Pupilli; Paola Labombarda; Sergio Arcioni

1998-01-01

152

SCAR markers for discriminating species of two genera of medicinal plants, Liriope and Ophiopogon.  

PubMed

The development of DNA markers that can closely discriminate between Liriope and Ophiopogon species is vital for efficient and accurate identification of these species, and to ensure the quality, safety, and efficacy of medicines made from these plants. We developed species-specific molecular markers for these two genera. Forty RAPD primers were tested to detect polymorphism; species-specific RAPD bands were gel-purified, cloned, and sequenced. Primers for sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCARs) were then designed, based on nucleotide sequences of specific RAPD primers. SCAR markers SA06 and SB05, specific to Ophiopogon japonicus, amplified 460- and 553-bp DNA fragments, respectively. The marker SA12 amplified a 485-bp fragment specific to Liriope platyphylla. This is the first report of a species-specific SCAR marker for this group. These markers will be useful for rapid identification of closely related Liriope and Ophiopogon species. PMID:22653648

Li, G; Park, Y-J

2012-01-01

153

Patterns of Genetic Variation in in and ex situ Populations of the Threatened Chilean Vine Berberidopsis corallina , Detected Using RAPD Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berberidopsis corallina Hook. f. (Berberidopsidaceae) is a threatened vine, endemic to the temperate rainforests of southern Chile. A RAPD analysis was carried out to assess the extent of genetic variation in remaining wild populations and in British cultivated plants, to assess the value of the latter for ex situ conservation. A total of 90 individuals (54 wild, 35 cultivated) were

M. Etisham-Ul-Haq; T. R. Allnutt; C. Smith-Ram??rez; M. F. Gardner; J. J. Armesto; A. C. Newton

2001-01-01

154

Analyzing Pathogen Populations Using Molecular Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA probes are useful markers for studying pathogen population genetics. Repetitive probes may produce characteristic “fingerprints”\\u000a that identify strains or lineages of asexually-reproducing pathogens. Relatedness among strains can be inferred, giving insight\\u000a into the processes of race evolution, gene flow, and other aspects of pathogen population biology. Information about pathogen\\u000a population dynamics may be useful in designing improved strategies for

Rebecca J. Nelson

155

Genetic Analysis and Estimation of Genetic Diversity in East-European Breeds of Windhounds (Canis familiaris L.) Based on the Data of Genomic Studies Using RAPD Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of polymerase chain reaction with a set of arbitrary primers (RAPD–PCR) was used to describe genetic variation and to estimate genetic diversity in East-European windhounds, Russian Borzoi and Russian Chortai. For comparison, windhounds of two West-European breeds (Whippet and Greyhound) and single dogs of other breed types (shepherd, terriers, mastiffs, and bird dogs) were examined. For all dog

S. K. Semyenova; N. A. Illarionova; V. A. Vasil'ev; A. V. Shubkina; A. P. Ryskov

2002-01-01

156

Construction of a linkage map and QTL analysis of horticultural traits for watermelon [ Citrullus lanatus (THUNB.) MATSUM & NAKAI] using RAPD, RFLP and ISSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been constructing linkage maps for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) on the basis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) and isozymes using an F2 population derived from a crossing between a cultivated inbred line (H-7; C. lanatus) and an African wild form (SA-1; C. lanatus). A total of 120 F2 plants

T. Hashizume; I. Shimamoto; M. Hirai

2003-01-01

157

Genetic diversity of F1 and F2 interspecific hybrids between dwarf birch (Betula nana L.) and Himalayan birch (B. utilis var. jacquemontii (Spach) Winkl. 'Doorenbos') using RAPD-PCR markers and ploidy analysis.  

PubMed

Crosses between Betula nana and B. utilis 'Doorenbos' were undertaken in order to obtain interspecific hybrids which could be characterized by wide spreading stems, strong branching habit, decorative clear white bark and an interesting shape of purple leaves. The research purpose was to examine genetic diversity of the 16 F1 and F2 putative progenies by using the RAPD-PCR method and the ploidy analysis. A total of 242 RAPD markers were scored with 24 primers and 220 (90.9%) polymorphic bands were found. In the NJ dendrogram, cluster I consisted of the female parent--B. nana and 12 hybrids and cluster II grouped the male parent--B. utilis 'Doorenbos' with 4 hybrids (F2/2, F1/8, F1/7 and F2/1). The 2-D scaling by PCoA was in agreement with the similarity index, i.e. two hybrids (F1/8, F2/2) grouped with the male parent while others with female parent. Classification of the hybrid plants by chromosome counting demonstrated that 13 hybrids were confirmed with accurate chromosome counts as being diploid (2n=2x=28) and 3 plants (F1/7, F1/8, F2/2) as triploid with 42 chromosomes. PMID:24904928

Czernicka, Ma?gorzata; P?awiak, Jaros?aw; Muras, Piotr

2014-01-01

158

A consensus linkage map for molecular markers and Quantitative Trait Loci associated with economically important traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.)  

PubMed Central

Background A number of molecular marker linkage maps have been developed for melon (Cucumis melo L.) over the last two decades. However, these maps were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making comparative analysis among maps difficult. In order to solve this problem, a consensus genetic map in melon was constructed using primarily highly transferable anchor markers that have broad potential use for mapping, synteny, and comparative quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, increasing breeding effectiveness and efficiency via marker-assisted selection (MAS). Results Under the framework of the International Cucurbit Genomics Initiative (ICuGI, http://www.icugi.org), an integrated genetic map has been constructed by merging data from eight independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines. The consensus map spans 1150 cM across the 12 melon linkage groups and is composed of 1592 markers (640 SSRs, 330 SNPs, 252 AFLPs, 239 RFLPs, 89 RAPDs, 15 IMAs, 16 indels and 11 morphological traits) with a mean marker density of 0.72 cM/marker. One hundred and ninety-six of these markers (157 SSRs, 32 SNPs, 6 indels and 1 RAPD) were newly developed, mapped or provided by industry representatives as released markers, including 27 SNPs and 5 indels from genes involved in the organic acid metabolism and transport, and 58 EST-SSRs. Additionally, 85 of 822 SSR markers contributed by Syngenta Seeds were included in the integrated map. In addition, 370 QTL controlling 62 traits from 18 previously reported mapping experiments using genetically diverse parental genotypes were also integrated into the consensus map. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in separate studies mapped to similar genomic positions. For example, independently identified QTL controlling fruit shape were mapped on similar genomic positions, suggesting that such QTL are possibly responsible for the phenotypic variability observed for this trait in a broad array of melon germplasm. Conclusions Even though relatively unsaturated genetic maps in a diverse set of melon market types have been published, the integrated saturated map presented herein should be considered the initial reference map for melon. Most of the mapped markers contained in the reference map are polymorphic in diverse collection of germplasm, and thus are potentially transferrable to a broad array of genetic experimentation (e.g., integration of physical and genetic maps, colinearity analysis, map-based gene cloning, epistasis dissection, and marker-assisted selection). PMID:21797998

2011-01-01

159

EST-PCR markers developed for Highbush Blueberry are also useful for genetic fingerprinting and relationship studies in Rabbiteye Blueberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Up until now, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) has been the only type of molecular marker used extensively in rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum). Here we have tested whether a type of sequence-tagged site (STS) marker which utilizes specific ~20-mer primers from Expressed Sequence Tag...

160

Estimation of coancestry in Iberian pigs using molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic markers provide a useful tool toestimate pairwise coancestry betweenindividuals in the absence of a known pedigree. Inthe present work 62 pigs from two relatedstrains of Iberian breed, Guadyerbas andTorbiscal, belonging to a conservationprogramme with completely known pedigrees since1945, have been genotyped for 49microsatellites. Four coefficients thatsummarise molecular resemblance betweenindividuals together with eightestimators of coancestry have been calculatedfrom this information.

Miguel Toro; Carmen Barragán; Cristina Óvilo; Jaime Rodrigañez; Carmen Rodriguez; Luis Silió

2002-01-01

161

Acceleration of peanut breeding programs by molecular marker assisted selection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut breeding has played a significant role in yield increases and disease control. Conventional breeding focuses on field selection and phenotypic analysis and it typically takes 12-15 years before a new cultivar can be released. Molecular markers developed from sequencing data can be of great ...

162

Phylogenetic study of some Aporrectodea species based on molecular markers  

E-print Network

in "Advances in Earthworm Taxonomy V (Annelida: Oligochaeta), T. Pavlicek, P. Cardet, C. Csuzdi, R.C. Le Bayon earthworms play as key organisms in terrestrial ecosystems functioning, the lack of knowledge in phylogenetic earthworm taxonomy has only recently started. Molecular markers, mitochondrial and nucle- ar, are thus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

163

RESEARCH Open Access Prevalence of molecular markers of Plasmodium  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Prevalence of molecular markers of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance on the susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to anti-malarial drugs. To estimate the prevalence of resistance isolates at the military hospital of Dakar. Methods: The prevalence of genetic polymorphisms in genes

Boyer, Edmond

164

RESEARCH ARTICLE Uncloaking a cryptic, threatened rail with molecular markers  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Uncloaking a cryptic, threatened rail with molecular markers: origins Black Rail lives under dense marsh vegetation, is rarely observed, flies weakly and has a highly disjunct distribution. The largest population of rails is found in 8­10 large wetlands in San Francisco Bay

Beissinger, Steven R.

165

Modeling the Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits With Molecular Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the genetic control of quantitatively inherited traits is fundamental to agricultural, evolutionary and biomedical genetic research. A detailed picture of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits can be elucidated with a well-saturated genetic map of molecular markers. The parameters that quantify the genetic architecture of a trait include the number of individual quantitative trait loci (QTL), their genomic positions,

Rongling Wu; Wei Hou; Yuehua Cui; Hongying Li; Tian Liu; Song Wu; Chang-Xing Ma; Yanru Zeng

2007-01-01

166

MOLECULAR MARKERS OF EARLY CERVICAL NEOPLASIA  

PubMed Central

Pure morphological distinction of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) from their mimics can be challenging. Diagnosis can be difficult with nonconventional HSILs associated with a metaplastic phenotype, squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) that defy precise classification such as “eosinophilic dysplasias”, and those that overlap with columnar neoplasms, including stratified variants of adenocarcinoma in situ (“SMILE”). Gene expression and protein profiling have identified biomarkers with the potential to decrease diagnostic variability and increase specificity of histological and cytological analysis. Among the ones clinically useful for HSIL detection are p16INK4A and MIB-1 which complement each other, differentiating SIL from normal/atrophic (MIB-1 low) or reactive/immature metaplastic (p16INK4A scattered) epithelium. Additional markers, including ProExTM C, have been proposed but their added value is yet to be established. In the final analysis, biomarkers are most helpful for distinguishing benign immature or atrophic proliferations from HSIL. The distinction of LSIL from HSIL must be made on the hematoxylin and eosin-stained section and should be made with care, given the potential consequences of a diagnosis of CIN2 or CIN3. PMID:21076641

Pinto, Alvaro P.; Crum, Christopher P.; Hirsch, Michelle S.

2010-01-01

167

Molecular pathology in adult gliomas: diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive markers.  

PubMed

Over the past 10 years, there has been an increasing use of molecular markers in the assessment and management of adult malignant gliomas. Some molecular signatures are used diagnostically to help pathologists classify tumours, whereas others are used to estimate prognosis for patients. Most crucial, however, are those markers that are used to predict response to certain therapies, thereby directing clinicians to a particular treatment while avoiding other potentially deleterious therapies. Recently, large-scale genome-wide surveys have been used to identify new biomarkers that have been rapidly developed as diagnostic and prognostic tools. Given these developments, the pace of discovery of new molecular assays will quicken to facilitate personalised medicine in the setting of malignant glioma. PMID:20610347

Jansen, Michael; Yip, Stephen; Louis, David N

2010-07-01

168

Predictive markers in bladder cancer: do we have molecular markers ready for clinical use?  

PubMed

Bladder cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease. Approximately 75% of patients present with non-muscle-invasive BC (NMIBC), which has a high recurrence rate and a low but unpredictable progression rate. Conversely, patients with muscle-invasive BC (MIBC) are at high risk for progression and cancer-specific mortality, but, again, disease behavior is unpredictable. To date, risk assessment for tumor recurrence and progression is based on clinico-pathological factors only. A risk assessment calculator that is based on several such parameters is available for NMIBC, but it has been reported to have potential flaws. In the last two decades, great effort has been made to evaluate the prognostic and predictive role of several molecular markers in MIBC and, even more so, in NMIBC, where the need for more precise risk stratification is urgently needed. This review addresses current evidence for the role of several molecular markers easily assessable by immunohistochemical techniques in prognosticating/predicting the outcome of NMIBC and MIBC. To date, because of divergent results among the many studies, no molecular marker has yet entered routine clinical practice; however, some of them (e.g., p53, pRb, p21, and survivin) have proved their predictive value in studies that included a homogeneous patient population on standardized treatment, and, therefore, are probably ready for clinical validation on a larger scale. Even more interesting is the possibility of constructing multimarker panels that could be used in routine clinical practice, as all these markers can easily be evaluated by immunohistochemistry on routine surgical pathology specimens. The molecular markers described herein hold promise for becoming widely available and cost-effective tools for reliable risk assessment, which would represent a great advancement in counseling patients, in selecting them for neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatments, and in determining their eligibility for clinical trials. PMID:25036341

Sanguedolce, Francesca; Bufo, Pantaleo; Carrieri, Giuseppe; Cormio, Luigi

2014-10-01

169

DNA marker applications to molecular genetics and genomics in tomato  

PubMed Central

Tomato is an important crop and regarded as an experimental model of the Solanaceae family and of fruiting plants in general. To enhance breeding efficiency and advance the field of genetics, tomato has been subjected to DNA marker studies as one of the earliest targets in plants. The developed DNA markers have been applied to the construction of genetic linkage maps and the resultant maps have contributed to quantitative trait locus (QTL) and gene mappings for agronomically important traits, as well as to comparative genomics of Solanaceae. The recently released whole genome sequences of tomato enable us to develop large numbers of DNA markers comparatively easily, and even promote new genotyping methods without DNA markers. In addition, databases for genomes, DNA markers, genetic linkage maps and other omics data, e.g., transcriptome, proteome, metabolome and phenome information, will provide useful information for molecular breeding in tomatoes. The use of DNA marker technologies in conjunction with new breeding techniques will promise to advance tomato breeding. PMID:23641178

Shirasawa, Kenta; Hirakawa, Hideki

2013-01-01

170

Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of the small aquarium fish, Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes), as a predictor of potential genotoxicity following exposure to carcinogens. This will be accomplished by quantitatively investigating the early molecular events associated with genotoxicity of various tissues of Medaka subsequent to exposure of the organism to several known carcinogens, such as diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Because of the often long latent period between initial contact with certain chemical and physical agents in our environment and subsequent expression of deleterious health or ecological impact, the development of sensitive methods for detecting and estimating early exposure is needed so that necessary interventions can ensue. A promising biological endpoint for detecting early exposure to damaging chemicals is the interaction of these compounds with cellular macromolecules such as Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA). This biological endpoint assumes significance because it can be one of the critical early events leading eventually to adverse effects (neoplasia) in the exposed organism.

Shugart, L.R.

1990-10-01

171

Molecular Markers for Breast Cancer: Prediction on Tumor Behavior  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers with greater than 1,300,000 cases and 450,000 deaths each year worldwide. The development of breast cancer involves a progression through intermediate stages until the invasive carcinoma and finally into metastatic disease. Given the variability in clinical progression, the identification of markers that could predict the tumor behavior is particularly important in breast cancer. The determination of tumor markers is a useful tool for clinical management in cancer patients, assisting in diagnostic, staging, evaluation of therapeutic response, detection of recurrence and metastasis, and development of new treatment modalities. In this context, this review aims to discuss the main tumor markers in breast carcinogenesis. The most well-established breast molecular markers with prognostic and/or therapeutic value like hormone receptors, HER-2 oncogene, Ki-67, and p53 proteins, and the genes for hereditary breast cancer will be presented. Furthermore, this review shows the new molecular targets in breast cancer: CXCR4, caveolin, miRNA, and FOXP3, as promising candidates for future development of effective and targeted therapies, also with lower toxicity. PMID:24591761

Banin Hirata, Bruna Karina; Oda, Julie Massayo Maeda; Losi Guembarovski, Roberta; Ariza, Carolina Batista; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Coral; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara

2014-01-01

172

Prognostication in MF: from CBC to cytogenetics to molecular markers.  

PubMed

Myelofibrosis (MF) is a clonal stem cell disorder characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis and extramedullary hematopoiesis leading to progressive bone marrow failure, severe anemia, constitutional symptoms, hepatosplenomegaly, and thrombosis. MF can arise following a history of polycythemia vera (PV) or essential thrombocythemia (ET), or can present de novo as primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The disease course is variable with median survival ranging from months to years. Clinical and biological features such as advanced age, leukocytosis, anemia, transfusion dependence, and elevated inflammatory markers can impact prognosis in patients with PMF. Cytogenetic abnormalities and molecular markers such as JAK2 V617F, ASXL1, and CALR mutations have also been identified as prognostic variables. Several different scoring systems have been developed based on these prognostic factors. In this review, we will discuss the clinical, biological, molecular, and cytogenetic prognostic factors that have been identified in PMF, and the current prognostic models that have been developed to guide treatment decisions. PMID:25189726

Zhou, Amy; Oh, Stephen T

2014-06-01

173

Identification of early molecular markers for breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the mammary gland represents an early, pre-invasive stage in the development of invasive breast carcinoma. Since DCIS is a curable disease, it would be highly desirable to identify molecular markers that allow early detection. Mice transgenic for the WAP-SV40 early genome region were used as a model for DCIS development. Gene expression

Céline Kretschmer; Anja Sterner-Kock; Friederike Siedentopf; Winfried Schoenegg; Peter M Schlag; Wolfgang Kemmner

2011-01-01

174

[Immunochemical and molecular-genetic markers in gastric cancer diagnostics].  

PubMed

Studies of molecular mechanisms of neoplastic transfromation are being under the thorough investigation, reveal the new genes involved into the tumor development. These genes and their products are potential tumor markers and levels of their expression can be detected using modem assays characterized by high specificity and sensitivity. The review highlights the current status of the molecular diagnostics of gastric cancer, including protein and nucleic acids biomarkers. The genetic and epigenetic changes, which are detected in the malignant and nonmalignant tumor tissue DNA and in the blood plasma DNA from tumor bearing patients, are summarized. PMID:19351030

Elistratova, E P; Laktionov, P P; Shelestiuk, P I; Tuzikov, S A; Vlasov, V V; Rykova, E Iu

2009-01-01

175

Potential of marker-assisted selection in hemp genetic improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The development and applications of molecular markers to hemp breeding are recent, dating back only to the mid-1990s. The main achievements in this field are reviewed. The analysis of Cannabis germplasm by RAPD, AFLP and microsatellites is discussed, with its consequence for the still debated species concept in Cannabis. DNA-based markers have also been exploited in the field of forensic

G. Mandolino; A. Carboni

2004-01-01

176

Genetic diversity analysis with RAPD linked to sex identification in the sugar cane borer Diatraea saccharalis.  

PubMed

Diatraea saccharalis is an insect that causes considerable losses in the sugar cane crop. Our aim was to contribute to the knowledge of the biology of D. saccharalis, with the report of DNA fragments involved in the differentiation between the male and female of this species using the RAPD sex molecular marker GyakuU-13, which is specific for the W chromosome of Bombyx mori. Another point evaluated in this study was the genetic diversity of a D. saccharalis population maintained by inbreeding in a laboratory culture. The profile of sex-specific fragments was analyzed, and the genetic variability of this population was estimated. An analysis of the molecular markers showed only one fragment, of approximately 700 bp, that could be considered as a female sex marker in D. saccharalis. PMID:21128215

Heideman, C; Munhoz, R E F; Pattaro Júnior, J R; Fernandez, M A

2010-01-01

177

The Promise of Novel Molecular Markers in Bladder Cancer  

PubMed Central

Bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the US and is associated with the highest cost per patient. A high likelihood of recurrence, mandating stringent surveillance protocols, has made the development of urinary markers a focus of intense pursuit with the hope of decreasing the burden this disease places on patients and the healthcare system. To date, routine use of markers is not recommended for screening or diagnosis. Interests include the development of a single urinary marker that can be used in place of or as an adjunct to current screening and surveillance techniques, as well identifying a molecular signature for an individual’s disease that can help predict progression, prognosis, and potential therapeutic response. Markers have shown potential value in improving diagnostic accuracy when used as an adjunct to current modalities, risk-stratification of patients that could aid the clinician in determining aggressiveness of surveillance, and allowing for a decrease in invasive surveillance procedures. This review discusses the current understanding of emerging biomarkers, including miRNAs, gene signatures and detection of circulating tumor cells in the blood, and their potential clinical value in bladder cancer diagnosis, as prognostic indicators, and surveillance tools, as well as limitations to their incorporation into medical practice. PMID:25535079

Miremami, Jahan; Kyprianou, Natasha

2014-01-01

178

Characterization of alien chromosomes in backcross derivatives of Triticum aestivum x Elymus rectisetus hybrids using molecular markers and sequential multi-color FISH/GISH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild Triticeae grasses serve as important gene pools for forage and cereal crops. Based on DNA sequences of genome-specific RAPD markers, sequence tagged site (STS) markers specific for W and Y genomes have been obtained. Coupling with the use of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), these STS mar...

179

Genetic fidelity of long-term micropropagated shoot cultures of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) as assessed by molecular markers.  

PubMed

Occurrence of genetic variants during micropropagation is occasionally encountered when the cultures are maintained in vitro for long period. Therefore, the micropropagated multiple shoots of Vanilla planifolia Andrews developed from axillary bud explants established 10 years ago were used to determine somaclonal variation using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and intersimple sequence repeats markers (ISSR). One thousand micro-plants were established in soil of which 95 plantlets (consisting of four phenotypes) along with the mother plant were subjected to genetic analyses using RAPD and ISSR markers. Out of the 45 RAPD and 20 ISSR primers screened, 30 RAPD and 7 ISSR primers showed 317 clear, distinct and reproducible band classes resulting in a total of 30 115 bands. However, no difference was observed in banding patterns of any of the samples for a particular primer, indicating the absence of variation among the micropropagated plants. Our results allow us to conclude that the micropropagation protocol that we have used for in vitro proliferation of vanilla plantlets for the last 10 years might be applicable for the production of clonal plants over a considerable period of time. PMID:17427995

Sreedhar, Reddampalli V; Venkatachalam, Lakshmanan; Bhagyalakshmi, Neelwarne

2007-08-01

180

Pyrogenic molecular markers: Linking PAH with BPCA analysis.  

PubMed

Molecular characterization of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) is of great interest to understand the formation and behavior of these increasingly abundant materials in the environment. Two molecular marker methods have often been used to characterize and trace PyOM: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and benzenepolycarboxylic acid (BPCA) analysis. Since both methods target pyrogenic polycyclic compounds, we investigated the linkages between the two approaches using chars that were produced under controlled conditions. Rye and maize straws and their analogues charred at 300, 400 and 500°C, respectively, were thus analyzed with both methods. Moreover, we also measured BPCAs directly on the lipid extracts, on which PAHs were analyzed, and on the respective extraction residues, too. Both methods revealed important features of the chars, in particular the increasing degree of aromatic condensation with increasing highest heating temperature (HTT). The overlap between the two methods was identified in the lipid fraction, where the proportion of benzenetricarboxylic acids (B3CAs) correlated with PAH abundance. The results confirmed the validity and complementarity of the two molecular marker methods, which will likely continue to play a crucial role in PyOM research due to the recent developments of compound-specific PAH and BPCA stable carbon (?(13)C) and radiocarbon ((14)C) isotope methods. PMID:25084061

Wiedemeier, Daniel B; Brodowski, Sonja; Wiesenberg, Guido L B

2015-01-01

181

Molecular markers of endometrial carcinoma detected in uterine aspirates.  

PubMed

Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most frequent of the invasive tumors of the female genital tract. Although usually detected in its initial stages, a 20% of the patients present with advanced disease. To date, no characterized molecular marker has been validated for the diagnosis of EC. In addition, new methods for prognosis and classification of EC are needed to combat this deadly disease. We thus aimed to identify new molecular markers of EC and to evaluate their validity on endometrial aspirates. Gene expression screening on 52 carcinoma samples and series of real-time quantitative PCR validation on 19 paired carcinomas and normal tissue samples and on 50 carcinoma and noncarcinoma uterine aspirates were performed to identify and validate potential biomarkers of EC. Candidate markers were further confirmed at the protein level by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. We identified ACAA1, AP1M2, CGN, DDR1, EPS8L2, FASTKD1, GMIP, IKBKE, P2RX4, P4HB, PHKG2, PPFIBP2, PPP1R16A, RASSF7, RNF183, SIRT6, TJP3, EFEMP2, SOCS2 and DCN as differentially expressed in ECs. Furthermore, the differential expression of these biomarkers in primary endometrial tumors is correlated to their expression level in corresponding uterine fluid samples. Finally, these biomarkers significantly identified EC with area under the receiver-operating-characteristic values ranging from 0.74 to 0.95 in uterine aspirates. Interestingly, analogous values were found among initial stages. We present the discovery of molecular biomarkers of EC and describe their utility in uterine aspirates. These findings represent the basis for the development of a highly sensitive and specific minimally invasive method for screening ECs. PMID:21207424

Colas, Eva; Perez, Cristina; Cabrera, Silvia; Pedrola, Nuria; Monge, Marta; Castellvi, Josep; Eyzaguirre, Fernando; Gregorio, Jesus; Ruiz, Anna; Llaurado, Marta; Rigau, Marina; Garcia, Marta; Ertekin, Tugçe; Montes, Melania; Lopez-Lopez, Rafael; Carreras, Ramon; Xercavins, Jordi; Ortega, Alicia; Maes, Tamara; Rosell, Elisabet; Doll, Andreas; Abal, Miguel; Reventos, Jaume; Gil-Moreno, Antonio

2011-11-15

182

Molecular marker from pancreatic 'juices' helps identify pancreatic cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at Mayo Clinic have developed a promising method to distinguish between pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis — two disorders that are difficult to tell apart. A molecular marker obtained from pancreatic "juices" can identify almost all cases of pancreatic cancer, their study shows. The findings were being presented at Digestive Disease Week 2013 in Orlando, Fla. Pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis both produce the same signs of disease in the pancreas, such as inflammation, but cancer in the organ is a life-threatening disorder that must be treated immediately and aggressively.

183

An analysis of 14 molecular markers for monitoring osteoarthritis: segregation of the markers into clusters and distinguishing osteoarthritis at baseline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the relationships between serum and urinary molecular markers (MM) used to monitor osteoarthritis.Design Forty osteoarthritis patients had blood and urine collected at baseline and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months later. Specimens from 20 controls were obtained twice at a one month interval. The concentration of 14 different markers was determined at each time point and the

I. G Otterness; A. C Swindell; R. O Zimmerer; A. R Poole; M Ionescu; E Weiner

2000-01-01

184

A molecular marker of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives in southeast Asia threatens malaria control and elimination activities worldwide. To monitor the spread of artemisinin resistance, a molecular marker is urgently needed. Here, using whole-genome sequencing of an artemisinin-resistant parasite line from Africa and clinical parasite isolates from Cambodia, we associate mutations in the PF3D7_1343700 kelch propeller domain (`K13-propeller') with artemisinin resistance in vitro and in vivo. Mutant K13-propeller alleles cluster in Cambodian provinces where resistance is prevalent, and the increasing frequency of a dominant mutant K13-propeller allele correlates with the recent spread of resistance in western Cambodia. Strong correlations between the presence of a mutant allele, in vitro parasite survival rates and in vivo parasite clearance rates indicate that K13-propeller mutations are important determinants of artemisinin resistance. K13-propeller polymorphism constitutes a useful molecular marker for large-scale surveillance efforts to contain artemisinin resistance in the Greater Mekong Subregion and prevent its global spread.

Ariey, Frédéric; Witkowski, Benoit; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Beghain, Johann; Langlois, Anne-Claire; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Duru, Valentine; Bouchier, Christiane; Ma, Laurence; Lim, Pharath; Leang, Rithea; Duong, Socheat; Sreng, Sokunthea; Suon, Seila; Chuor, Char Meng; Bout, Denis Mey; Ménard, Sandie; Rogers, William O.; Genton, Blaise; Fandeur, Thierry; Miotto, Olivo; Ringwald, Pascal; Le Bras, Jacques; Berry, Antoine; Barale, Jean-Christophe; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Benoit-Vical, Françoise; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Ménard, Didier

2014-01-01

185

A molecular marker of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria.  

PubMed

Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives in southeast Asia threatens malaria control and elimination activities worldwide. To monitor the spread of artemisinin resistance, a molecular marker is urgently needed. Here, using whole-genome sequencing of an artemisinin-resistant parasite line from Africa and clinical parasite isolates from Cambodia, we associate mutations in the PF3D7_1343700 kelch propeller domain ('K13-propeller') with artemisinin resistance in vitro and in vivo. Mutant K13-propeller alleles cluster in Cambodian provinces where resistance is prevalent, and the increasing frequency of a dominant mutant K13-propeller allele correlates with the recent spread of resistance in western Cambodia. Strong correlations between the presence of a mutant allele, in vitro parasite survival rates and in vivo parasite clearance rates indicate that K13-propeller mutations are important determinants of artemisinin resistance. K13-propeller polymorphism constitutes a useful molecular marker for large-scale surveillance efforts to contain artemisinin resistance in the Greater Mekong Subregion and prevent its global spread. PMID:24352242

Ariey, Frédéric; Witkowski, Benoit; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Beghain, Johann; Langlois, Anne-Claire; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Duru, Valentine; Bouchier, Christiane; Ma, Laurence; Lim, Pharath; Leang, Rithea; Duong, Socheat; Sreng, Sokunthea; Suon, Seila; Chuor, Char Meng; Bout, Denis Mey; Ménard, Sandie; Rogers, William O; Genton, Blaise; Fandeur, Thierry; Miotto, Olivo; Ringwald, Pascal; Le Bras, Jacques; Berry, Antoine; Barale, Jean-Christophe; Fairhurst, Rick M; Benoit-Vical, Françoise; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Ménard, Didier

2014-01-01

186

Genetic analysis of the cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum L. Phureja Group using RAPDs and nuclear SSRs.  

PubMed

The Solanum tuberosum L. Phureja Group consists of potato landraces widely grown in the Andes from western Venezuela to central Bolivia, and forms an important breeding stock due to their excellent culinary properties and other traits for developing modern varieties. They have been distinguished by short-day adaptation, diploid ploidy (2n = 2x = 24), and lack of tuber dormancy. This nuclear simple sequence repeat (nSSR or microsatellite) study complements a prior random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) study to explore the use of these markers to form a core collection of cultivar groups of potatoes. Like this prior RAPD study, we analyzed 128 accessions of the Phureja Group using nuclear microsatellites (nSSR). Twenty-six of the 128 accessions were invariant for 22 nSSR markers assayed. The nSSR data uncovered 25 unexpected triploid and tetraploid accessions. Chromosome counts of the 102 accessions confirmed these nSSR results and highlighted seven more triploids or tetraploids. Thus, these nSSR markers (except 1) are good indicators of ploidy for diploid potatoes in 92% of the cases. The nSSR and RAPD results: (1) were highly discordant for the remaining 70 accessions that were diploid and variable in nSSR, (2) show the utility of nSSRs to effectively uncover many ploidy variants in cultivated potato, (3) support the use of a cultivar-group (rather than a species) classification of cultivated potato, (4) fail to support a relationship between genetic distance and geographic distance, (5) question the use of any single type of molecular marker to construct core collections. PMID:16972060

Ghislain, M; Andrade, D; Rodríguez, F; Hijmans, R J; Spooner, D M

2006-11-01

187

Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships among worldwide collections of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), inferred from allozyme and RAPD-PCR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic analyses were conducted on Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) populations collected from wheat, barley and other grasses from various countries throughout the world. These collections had been found to contain clones that differed in virulence from various cultivars, cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and life cycle characters. Discrete genetic markers analysed in this study included allozymes and arbitrary regions of the genome amplified

G J Puterka; W C Black; W M Steiner; R L Burton

1993-01-01

188

Identification of RAPD markers linked to a Rhynchosporium secalis resistance locus in barley using near-isogenic lines and bulked segregant analysis.  

PubMed

Three hundred random sequence 10-mer primers were used to screen a pair of near-isogenic lines of barley and their donor parent for markers linked to genes conferring resistance to Rhynchosporium secalis. One primer was identified which reproducibly generated a product, SC10-65-H400, from the donor parent and the Rhynchosporium-resistant near-isogenic line but not from the recurrent parent. Segregation analysis on a barley doubled haploid population and examination of a further three near-isogenic lines, their donor and recurrent parents confirmed that this marker was linked to the Rhynchosporium resistance locus (Rh) on chromosome 3L. The presence or absence of SC10-65-H400 was subsequently used along with the resistance phenotype to identify two groups of individuals in the doubled haploid population which possessed alternative alleles at both loci and defined a genetic interval between these two markers. Based on that information two bulked DNA samples were constructed by combining equal amounts of DNA from five individuals from each group. The two bulks and doubled haploid parental lines were screened with 700 10-mer primers. Seven products were identified which were present in the 'resistant' bulk and parent and were absent in the susceptible samples. Segregation analysis established their association with Rh. In addition co-segregation of the linked markers with a set of chromosome arm specific RFLPs confirmed the location of the Rh locus on the long arm of barley chromosome 3. PMID:8376177

Barua, U M; Chalmers, K J; Hackett, C A; Thomas, W T; Powell, W; Waugh, R

1993-08-01

189

Molecular Marker Applications in Oat (Avena Sativa L.) Breeding and Germplasm Diagnostics .  

E-print Network

??The ability to identify germplasm and select traits accurately is fundamental to successful plant breeding. Pedigrees and molecular markers facilitate these processes; however misleading experimental… (more)

Benazir Katarina, Marquez

2014-01-01

190

RAPD polymorphisms in spring wheat cultivars and lines with different level of Fusarium resistance.  

PubMed

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers have been used to characterize the genetic diversity among 35 spring wheat cultivars and lines with different levels of Fusarium resistance. The objectives of this study were to determine RAPD-based genetic similarity between accessions and to derive associations between Fusarium head blight (FHB) and RAPD markers. Two bulked DNA from either highly resistant lines or susceptible lines were used to screen polymorphic primers. Out of 160 screened primers, 17 primers generated reproducible and polymorphic fragments. Genetic similarity calculated from the RAPD data ranged from 0.64 to 0.98. A dendrogram was prepared on the basis of a similarity matrix using the UPGMA algorithm, which corresponded well with the results of principal component analysis and separated the 35 genotypes into two groups. Association analysis between RAPD markers and the FHB index detected three RAPD markers, H19(1000), F2(500) and B1(2400), significantly associated with FHB-resistant genotypes. These results suggest that a collection of unrelated genotypes can be used to identify markers linked to an agronomically important quantitative trait like FHB. These markers will be useful for marker-assistant breeding and can be used as candidate markers for further gene mapping and cloning. PMID:12671754

Sun, G; Bond, M; Nass, H; Martin, R; Dong, Z

2003-04-01

191

Molecular evidence for the hybrid origin of Paulownia Taiwaniana based on RAPD markers and RFLP of chloroplast DNA.  

PubMed

Genomic DNA of Paulownia fortunei, P. kawakamii and P. taiwaniana were amplified with 10-base primers of arbitrary sequences using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 351 DNA fragments were amplified from 23 primers and of these 265 fragments (75.5%) were polymorphic. Almost all of the PCR-amplified products of P. taiwaniana were shared by either P. fortunei or P. kawakamii, or both, and the number of polymorphic fragments shared by P. taiwaniana and P. fortunei was about equivalent to those shared by P. taiwaniana and P. kawakamii. Restriction fragments of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) purified from Paulownia species and from reciprocal crosses between P. fortunei and P. kawakamii were analyzed. Restriction enzyme SalI-digested cpDNA showed an identical pattern in both P. kawakamii and P. taiwaniana. These results further support the hypothesis that P. taiwaniana is the natural hybrid between P. fortunei and P. kawakamii and that the maternal parent of P. taiwaniana is P. kawakamii. PMID:24177840

Wang, W Y; Pai, R C; Lai, C C; Lin, T P

1994-10-01

192

Genetic characterization of Salix alba L. and Salix fragilis L. by means of different PCR-derived marker systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salix alba L. and Salix fragilis L. are two closely related willow species whose phenotypic features, showing a large and continuous variation, have a low diagnostic value for identifying pure species and interspecific hybrids. In this paper, the effectiveness of different multilocus PCR-based molecular markers, such as I-SSRs, RAPDs and AFLPs in detecting genetic polymorphisms able to discriminate the two

S. Meneghetti; G. Barcaccia; P. Paiero; M. Lucchin

2007-01-01

193

[Multilocus sequence typing: the molecular marker of the Internet era].  

PubMed

Global or longer term epidemiology track the spread of clonal lineages, associated with hipervirulence or resistance or multi-resistance to antimicrobial agents. Therefore, the application of a molecular typing system for this purpose should produce data easily shared by different and geographically distant laboratories, as well as distinguish those clonal lineages even with low levels of variability accumulated in the genome.A marker based on the DNA sequence will produce objective results easily organized in data bases accessible by Internet. The application of a similar strategy that was used in the analysis of isoenzymes, by sequencing variable fragments of selected housekeeping genes, will allow obtaining a general view of the distribution of the clonal lineages and tracking their spread. PMID:14756994

Vázquez, Julio A; Berrón, Sonsoles

2004-02-01

194

New models and molecular markers in evaluation of developmental toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Mammalian and non-mammalian embryos and embryonic stem cells may be used as models in mechanistic studies and in testing embryotoxicity of compounds. In addition to conventional culture methods, genetic modifications and use of molecular markers offer significant advantages in mechanistic studies as well as in developing new test methods for embryotoxicity. Zebrafish model has been used for a long time and at present several applications are available. It is an easy vertebral non-mammalian model, whose genome is largely known and several genetic modifications are easily constructed to study gene expression or knocked down genes. Fluorescent marker proteins can be used also in zebrafish to indicate gene activation in transgenic models. Chemical genetics approach has been developed using zebrafish model. This is a new approach to screen small molecules that regulate signaling pathways. Embryonic stem cells have been used in mechanistic studies and mouse embryonic stem cell test has been validated to study embryotoxicity in vitro. This method has been improved using quantitative measurements of molecular endpoints by real-time RT-PCR or fluorescent activated cell sorting methods (FACS). Methods facilitating differentiation to several different cell types are available. We have studied preimplantation mouse embryos as a possible model for in vitro testing. In this method, superovulated and in vivo fertilized preimplantation embryos were collected at morula stage and cultured up to blastocysts. The mouse preimplantation culture test was improved by quantitative gene expression measurement using two-step real-time RT-PCR methods. New endpoints improve the tests of in vitro embryotoxicity because subjective assessments are replaced by objective measurements. In addition, automation is possible and less time is needed for analysis. Thus, high throughput screening will come possible to test large numbers of compounds.

Huuskonen, Hannele [National Product Control Agency for Welfare and Health, Chemicals Department, STTV c/o National Public Health Institute, P.O. Box 95, FIN-70701 Kuopio (Finland)]. E-mail: hannele.huuskonen@sttv.fi

2005-09-01

195

Genetic Diversity and Differentiation of Colletotrichum spp. Isolates Associated with Leguminosae Using Multigene Loci, RAPD and ISSR.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity and differentiation of 50 Colletotrichum spp. isolates from legume crops studied through multigene loci, RAPD and ISSR analysis. DNA sequence comparisons by six genes (ITS, ACT, Tub2, CHS-1, GAPDH, and HIS3) verified species identity of C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporiodes and identity C. capsici as a synonym of C. truncatum. Based on the matrix distance analysis of multigene sequences, the Colletotrichum species showed diverse degrees of intera and interspecific divergence (0.0 to 1.4%) and (15.5-19.9), respectively. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis clustered Colletotrichum spp. isolates into 3 well-defined clades, representing three distinct species; C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides. The ISSR and RAPD and cluster analysis exhibited a high degree of variability among different isolates and permitted the grouping of isolates of Colletotrichum spp. into three distinct clusters. Distinct populations of Colletotrichum spp. isolates were genetically in accordance with host specificity and inconsistent with geographical origins. The large population of C. truncatum showed greater amounts of genetic diversity than smaller populations of C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides species. Results of ISSR and RAPD markers were congruent, but the effective maker ratio and the number of private alleles were greater in ISSR markers. PMID:25288981

Mahmodi, Farshid; Kadir, J B; Puteh, A; Pourdad, S S; Nasehi, A; Soleimani, N

2014-03-01

196

Genetic Diversity and Differentiation of Colletotrichum spp. Isolates Associated with Leguminosae Using Multigene Loci, RAPD and ISSR  

PubMed Central

Genetic diversity and differentiation of 50 Colletotrichum spp. isolates from legume crops studied through multigene loci, RAPD and ISSR analysis. DNA sequence comparisons by six genes (ITS, ACT, Tub2, CHS-1, GAPDH, and HIS3) verified species identity of C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporiodes and identity C. capsici as a synonym of C. truncatum. Based on the matrix distance analysis of multigene sequences, the Colletotrichum species showed diverse degrees of intera and interspecific divergence (0.0 to 1.4%) and (15.5–19.9), respectively. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis clustered Colletotrichum spp. isolates into 3 well-defined clades, representing three distinct species; C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides. The ISSR and RAPD and cluster analysis exhibited a high degree of variability among different isolates and permitted the grouping of isolates of Colletotrichum spp. into three distinct clusters. Distinct populations of Colletotrichum spp. isolates were genetically in accordance with host specificity and inconsistent with geographical origins. The large population of C. truncatum showed greater amounts of genetic diversity than smaller populations of C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides species. Results of ISSR and RAPD markers were congruent, but the effective maker ratio and the number of private alleles were greater in ISSR markers. PMID:25288981

Mahmodi, Farshid; Kadir, J. B.; Puteh, A.; Pourdad, S. S.; Nasehi, A.; Soleimani, N.

2014-01-01

197

Molecular markers for identifying municipal, domestic and agricultural sources of organic matter in natural waters.  

PubMed

Molecular markers can be used to determine the sources of organic pollution in water. This review summarizes progress made during the last two decades in identifying reliable molecular markers to distinguish pollution from sewage, animal production, and other sources. Two artificial sweeteners, sucralose and acesulfame-K, are sufficiently stable to be molecular markers and easily associated with domestic wastewater. Waste from different animal species may be distinguished by profiling fecal sterols and bile acids. Other markers which have been evaluated, including caffeine, detergent components, and compounds commonly leached from landfills are discussed. PMID:24200048

Harwood, John J

2014-01-01

198

Molecular Evolution and Diversity inBacillus anthracisas Detected by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus anthraciscauses anthrax and represents one of the most molecularly monomorphic bacteria known. We have used AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) DNA markers to analyze 78 B. anthracis isolates and six relatedBacillusspecies for molecular variation. AFLP markers are extremely sensitive to even small sequence variation, using PCR and high-resolution electrophoresis to examine restriction fragments. Using this approach, we examined ca.

PAUL KEIM; ABDULAHI KALIF; JAMES SCHUPP; KAREN HILL; STEVEN E. TRAVIS; KARA RICHMOND; DEBRA M. ADAIR; MARTIN HUGH-JONES; CHERYL R. KUSKE; ANDPAUL JACKSON

1997-01-01

199

Genetic diversity analysis of common beans based on molecular markers  

PubMed Central

A core collection of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), representing genetic diversity in the entire Mexican holding, is kept at the INIFAP (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agricolas y Pecuarias, Mexico) Germplasm Bank. After evaluation, the genetic structure of this collection (200 accessions) was compared with that of landraces from the states of Oaxaca, Chiapas and Veracruz (10 genotypes from each), as well as a further 10 cultivars, by means of four amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) +3/+3 primer combinations and seven simple sequence repeats (SSR) loci, in order to define genetic diversity, variability and mutual relationships. Data underwent cluster (UPGMA) and molecular variance (AMOVA) analyses. AFLP analysis produced 530 bands (88.5% polymorphic) while SSR primers amplified 174 alleles, all polymorphic (8.2 alleles per locus). AFLP indicated that the highest genetic diversity was to be found in ten commercial-seed classes from two major groups of accessions from Central Mexico and Chiapas, which seems to be an important center of diversity in the south. A third group included genotypes from Nueva Granada, Mesoamerica, Jalisco and Durango races. Here, SSR analysis indicated a reduced number of shared haplotypes among accessions, whereas the highest genetic components of AMOVA variation were found within accessions. Genetic diversity observed in the common-bean core collection represents an important sample of the total Phaseolus genetic variability at the main Germplasm Bank of INIFAP. Molecular marker strategies could contribute to a better understanding of the genetic structure of the core collection as well as to its improvement and validation. PMID:22215964

Gill-Langarica, Homar R.; Muruaga-Martínez, José S.; Vargas-Vázquez, M.L. Patricia; Rosales-Serna, Rigoberto; Mayek-Pérez, Netzahualcoyotl

2011-01-01

200

Evaluation of molecular markers for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) comprises a group of bacteria that have a high degree of genetic similarity. Two species in this group, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis, are the main cause of human and bovine tuberculosis, respectively. M. bovis has a broader host range that includes humans; thus, the differentiation of mycobacterium is of great importance for epidemiological and public health considerations and to optimize treatment. The current study aimed to evaluate primers and molecular markers described in the literature to differentiate M. bovis and M. tuberculosis by PCR. Primers JB21/22, frequently cited in scientific literature, presented in our study the highest number of errors to identify M. bovis or M. tuberculosis (73%) and primers Mb.400, designed to flank region of difference 4 (RD4), were considered the most efficient (detected all M. bovis tested and did not detect any M. tuberculosis tested). Although also designed to flank RD4, primers Mb.115 misidentified eight samples due to primer design problems. The results showed that RD4 is the ideal region to differentiate M. bovis from other bacteria classified in MTC, but primer design should be considered carefully. PMID:24744007

Sales, Mariana Lázaro; Fonseca, Antônio Augusto; Sales, Erica Bravo; Cottorello, Ana Cláudia Pinto; Issa, Marina Azevedo; Hodon, Mikael Arrais; Soares Filho, Paulo Martins; Ramalho, Alberto Knust; Silva, Marcio Roberto; Lage, Andrey Pereira; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan

2014-09-01

201

A pseudoautosomal random amplified polymorphic DNA marker for the sex chromosomes of Silene dioica.  

PubMed

The segregation pattern of an 810-bp random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) band in the F1 and backcross generations of a Silene dioica (L.) Clairv. family provides evidence that this molecular marker is located in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of the X and Y chromosomes. The marker was found through a combination of bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and RAPD techniques. Recombination rates between this pseudoautosomal marker and the differentiating portion of the Y chromosome are 15% in both generations. Alternative explanations involving nondisjunction or autosomal inheritance are presented and discussed. Chromosome counts provide evidence against the nondisjunction hypothesis, and probability calculations argue against the possibility of autosomal inheritance. This constitutes the first report of a pseudoautosomal DNA marker for plant sex chromosomes. PMID:9691057

Di Stilio, V S; Kesseli, R V; Mulcahy, D L

1998-08-01

202

Construction of a genetic map of melon with molecular markers and horticultural traits, and localization of genes associated with ZYMV resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: A partial linkage map of melon was constructed from a cross between PI414723 and Dulce. Twenty-two SSR, 46RAPD,\\u000a 2 ISSR markers and four horticultural markers [female flower form (a), Fusarium resistance, striped epicarp (st), and fruit flesh pH (pH)] were analyzed in an F2\\/F3 population to produce a map spanning 14 linkage groups. We report for the first time

Yael Danin-Poleg; Yaakov Tadmor; Galil Tzuri; Noa Reis; Joseph Hirschberg; Nurit Katzir

2002-01-01

203

Estimating ancestry and heterozygosity of hybrids using molecular markers  

PubMed Central

Background Hybridization, genetic mixture of distinct populations, gives rise to myriad recombinant genotypes. Characterizing the genomic composition of hybrids is critical for studies of hybrid zone dynamics, inheritance of traits, and consequences of hybridization for evolution and conservation. Hybrid genomes are often summarized either by an estimate of the proportion of alleles coming from each ancestral population or classification into discrete categories like F1, F2, backcross, or merely “hybrid” vs. “pure”. In most cases, it is not realistic to classify individuals into the restricted set of classes produced in the first two generations of admixture. However, the continuous ancestry index misses an important dimension of the genotype. Joint consideration of ancestry together with interclass heterozygosity (proportion of loci with alleles from both ancestral populations) captures all of the information in the discrete classification without the unrealistic assumption that only two generations of admixture have transpired. Methods I describe a maximum likelihood method for joint estimation of ancestry and interclass heterozygosity. I present two worked examples illustrating the value of the approach for describing variation among hybrid populations and evaluating the validity of the assumption underlying discrete classification. Results Naively classifying natural hybrids into the standard six line cross categories can be misleading, and false classification can be a serious problem for datasets with few molecular markers. My analysis underscores previous work showing that many (50 or more) ancestry informative markers are needed to avoid erroneous classification. Conclusion Although classification of hybrids might often be misleading, valuable inferences can be obtained by focusing directly on distributions of ancestry and heterozygosity. Estimating and visualizing the joint distribution of ancestry and interclass heterozygosity is an effective way to compare the genetic structure of hybrid populations and these estimates can be used in classic quantitative genetic methods for assessing additive, dominant, and epistatic genetic effects on hybrid phenotypes and fitness. The methods are implemented in a freely available package “HIest” for the R statistical software ( http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/HIest/index.html). PMID:22849298

2012-01-01

204

Molecular Markers of Lung Cancer in MAYAK Workers  

SciTech Connect

The molecular mechanisms that result in the elevated risk for lung cancer associated with exposure to radiation have not been well characterized. Workers from the MAYAK nuclear enterprise are an ideal cohort in which to study the molecular epidemiology of cancer associated with radiation exposure and to identify the genes targeted for inactivation that in turn affect individual risk for radiation-induced lung cancer. Epidemiology studies of the MAYAK cohort indicate a significantly higher frequency for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in workers than in a control population and a strong correlation between these tumor types and plutonium exposure. Two hypotheses will be evaluated through the proposed studies. First, radiation exposure targets specific genes for inactivation by promoter methylation. This hypothesis is supported by our recent studies with the MAYAK population that demonstrated the targeting of the p16 gene for inactivation by promoter methylation in adenocarcinomas from workers (1). Second, genes inactivated in tumors can serve as biomarkers for lung cancer risk in a cancer-free population of workers exposed to plutonium. Support for this hypothesis is based on exciting preliminary results of our nested, case-control study of persons from the Colorado cohort. In that study, a panel of methylation markers for predicting lung cancer risk is being evaluated in sputum samples from incident lung cancer cases and controls. The first hypothesis will be tested by determining the prevalence for promoter hypermethylation of a panel of genes shown to play a critical role in the development of either adenocarcinoma and/or SCC associated with tobacco. Our initial studies on adenocarcinoma in MAYAK workers will be extended to evaluate methylation of the PAX5 {alpha}, PAX5 {beta}, H-cadherin, GATA5, and bone morphogenesis 3B (BMP3B) genes in the original sample set described under Preliminary studies. In addition, studies will be initiated in SCC from workers and controls to identify genes targeted for inactivation by plutonium in this other common histologic form of lung cancer. We will examine methylation of the p16, O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyl-transferase (MGMT), and death associated protein kinase genes ([DAP-K], evaluated previously in adenocarcinomas) as well as the new genes being assessed in the adenocarcinomas. The second hypothesis will be tested in a cross-sectional study of cancer-free workers exposed to plutonium and an unexposed population. A cohort of 700 cancer-free workers and 700 unexposed persons is being assembled, exposures are being defined, and induced sputum collected at initial entry into the study and approximately 1-year later. Exposed and unexposed persons will be matched by 5-year age intervals and smoking status (current and former). The frequency for methylation of four genes that show the greatest difference in prevalence in tumors from workers and controls will be determined in exfoliated cells within sputum. These studies will extend those in primary tumors to determine whether difference in prevalence for individual or multiple genes are detected in sputum samples from high-risk subjects exposed to plutonium. Follow-up of this cohort offers the opportunity to validate these endpoints and future biomarkers as true markers for lung cancer risk.

Steven A. Belinsky, PhD

2007-02-15

205

Isotopic and molecular fractionation in combustion; three routes to molecular marker validation, including direct molecular 'dating' (GC/AMS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The identification of unique isotopic, elemental, and molecular markers for sources of combustion aerosol has growing practical importance because of the potential effects of fine particle aerosol on health, visibility and global climate. It is urgent, therefore, that substantial efforts be directed toward the validation of assumptions involving the use of such tracers for source apportionment. We describe here three independent routes toward carbonaceous aerosol molecular marker identification and validation: (1) tracer regression and multivariate statistical techniques applied to field measurements of mixed source, carbonaceous aerosols; (2) a new development in aerosol 14C metrology: direct, pure compound accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) by off-line GC/AMS ('molecular dating'); and (3) direct observation of isotopic and molecular source emissions during controlled laboratory combustion of specific fuels. Findings from the combined studies include: independent support for benzo( ghi)perylene as a motor vehicle tracer from the first (statistical) and second (direct 'dating') studies; a new indication, from the third (controlled combustion) study, of a relation between 13C isotopic fractionation and PAH molecular fractionation, also linked with fuel and stage of combustion; and quantitative data showing the influence of both fuel type and combustion conditions on the yields of such species as elemental carbon and PAH, reinforcing the importance of exercising caution when applying presumed conservative elemental or organic tracers to fossil or biomass burning field data as in the first study.

Currie, L. A.; Klouda, G. A.; Benner, B. A.; Garrity, K.; Eglinton, T. I.

206

Molecular Markers of Radiation-related Normal Tissue Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Over the past five decades, those interested in markers of radiation effect have focused primarily on tumor response. More recently, however, the view has broadened to include irradiated normal tissues—markers that predict unusual risk of side-effects, prognosticate during the prodromal and therapeutic phases, diagnose a particular toxicity as radiation-related, and, in the case of bioterror, allow for tissue-specific biodosimetry. Currently, there are few clinically useful radiation-related biomarkers. Notably, levels of some hormones such as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) have been used successfully as markers of dysfunction, indicative of the need for replacement therapy, and for prevention of cancers. The most promising macromolecular markers are cytokines: TGF?, IL-1, IL-6, and TNF? being lead molecules in this class as both markers and targets for therapy. Genomics and proteomics are still in nascent stages and are actively being studied and developed. PMID:18506399

Okunieff, Paul; Chen, Yuhchyau; Maguire, David J.; Huser, Amy K.

2009-01-01

207

Molecular markers of spermatogonial stem cells in the domestic cat.  

PubMed

Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) represent an exciting new avenue for assisted reproduction in endangered and genetically valuable species. Before this technology can be applied to wildlife, species-specific markers are required to evaluate SSC enrichment strategies and monitor subsequent in vitro culture. This study was designed to evaluate six conserved SSC markers (THY1, GPR125, GFRalpha1, PLZF, UCHL1 and OCT4) in the cat. Testes from three juveniles and three adults were obtained following routine castrations and processed for mRNA extraction. RT-PCR of whole testis and cell suspensions enriched for SSCs by differential plating confirmed that all six SSC markers are expressed in both the whole testis and SSC-enriched cell fractions. The expression of all six putative SSC marker genes in the cat testis suggests conservation of SSC markers, and perhaps self-renewal mechanisms, in felids. PMID:23279513

Vansandt, L M; Pukazhenthi, B S; Keefer, C L

2012-12-01

208

Development of new candidate gene and EST-based molecular markers for Gossypium species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New source of molecular markers accelerates the efforts in improving cotton fiber traits and aid in developing high-density integrated genetic maps. We developed new markers based on candidate genes and G. arboreum expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences, and validated them through amplification, ge...

209

Rules of evidence for cancer molecular-marker discovery and validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to some claims, molecular markers are set to revolutionize the process of evaluating prognosis and diagnosis for cancer. Research about cancer markers has, however, been characterized by inflated expectations, followed by disappointment when original results can not be reproduced. Even now, disappointment might be expected, in part because rules of evidence to assess the validity of studies about diagnosis

David F. Ransohoff

2004-01-01

210

Genetic diversity in Indonesian shallot ( Allium cepa var. ascalonicum ) and Allium × wakegi revealed by RAPD markers and origin of A. × wakegi identified by RFLP analyses of amplified chloroplast genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

RAPD and PCR-RFLP analyses were conducted to establish the phylogenetic relationships among collected accessions of shallot and Allium × wakegi, and to assess the origin of A. × wakegi. Twenty out of 100 primers were amplified with 112 scorable bands for cluster analysis. Two main cluster groups consisting of one group for shallot and another group for A. × wakegi

Noor Sugiharto Arifin; Yukio Ozaki; Hiroshi Okubo

2000-01-01

211

Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants  

PubMed Central

In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops. PMID:25320561

Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

2014-01-01

212

Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants.  

PubMed

In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops. PMID:25320561

Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

2014-09-01

213

Variability of red rot-resistant somaclones of sugarcane genotype S97US297 assessed by RAPD and SSR.  

PubMed

Sugarcane breeding under climatic conditions of Pakistan is very difficult due to unavailability of viable fuzz (seed). Somaclonal variation can provide an alternative for improvement of existing genotypes. Six hundred and twenty-seven somaclones were developed from sugarcane genotype S97US297, and protocols for callogenesis and organogenesis were developed using Murashige and Skoog medium. Two types of explants, leaf and pith, and two auxins, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid, were tested to optimize callogenesis for root establishment. Leaves as explants with 3.0 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid gave the best results, both for callus induction and proliferation. Half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with 1.5 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid proved to be the best for rooting. Red rot-resistant somaclones of the R(2) generation along with the parent were assessed for genetic variability at the molecular level using RAPD and SSR markers. Polymorphism based on RAPD and SSR was 32 and 67%, respectively. Polymorphic information content ranged from 0.06-0.45 for RAPD and 0.06-0.47 for SSR. We conclude that somaclonal variation of sugarcane varieties is sufficient to allow selection. PMID:21948747

Shahid, M T H; Khan, F A; Saeed, A; Fareed, I

2011-01-01

214

Molecular tools for marker-assisted breeding of buffelgrass  

E-print Network

11 grass species and covers approximately 80-85% of the buffelgrass genome. Two RFLPs from the buffelgrass genome map were converted to PCR-based markers for both the identification of hybrids and quantification of sexual versus apomictic reproduction...

Jessup, Russell William

2005-11-01

215

[Molecular-genetic markers in lung cancer diagnostics].  

PubMed

The major approaches to different lung cancer marker development are outlined in the review, including genetic, epigenetic, protein, transcryptomic, proteomic, metabolic, and miRNA markers. As far as epigenetic changes are among the earliest events in malignant transformation, methylated markers are thoroughly discussed. Special attention is given to minimally invasive tumor markers, which could be detected in easily accessible biological fluids, because they can be useful for screening and early diagnostics of cancer (before its clinical manifestation) as well as for verification of standard methods of diagnostics. Extracellular nucleic acids, circulating in blood (cirNA), are highlighted as the potential source of material for the early lung cancer diagnostics, prediction of antitumor treatment efficiency, post-treatment monitoring and disease prognosis. PMID:21634110

Ponomareva, A A; Rykova, E Iu; Cherdyntseva, N V; Cho?nzonov, E L; Laktionov, P P; Vlasov, V V

2011-01-01

216

Markers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dry erase whiteboards come with toxic dry erase markers and toxic cleaning products. Dry erase markers labeled "nontoxic" are not free of toxic chemicals and can cause health problems. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental health hazards; moreover, schools commonly have problems with indoor air pollution, as they are more densely…

Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

2011-01-01

217

[Non-small cell lung cancer. Subtyping and predictive molecular marker investigations in cytology].  

PubMed

The diagnosis and treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been revolutionized over the last few years. Requirements for cytopathologists in lung cancer diagnosis have therefore changed. The general diagnostic category of NSLC is no longer sufficient. In addition cytological specimens need to be evaluated for adequacy regarding predictive marker analyses. Accurate NSCLC subtyping with a distinction of adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma is crucial for treatment decisions as the subtype will decide on the chemotherapy regimen and the choice of predictive marker analyses for targeted treatment. In the majority of cases, the subtype can be diagnosed by morphology alone. Cytology is equally well suited as biopsy specimens for the assessment of molecular predictive markers. The best results are achieved when both cytology and biopsy specimens are compared to choose the most appropriate specimen for morphological subtyping and molecular testing. In this paper, we discuss special issues of NSCLC subtyping and currently recommended predictive molecular marker analyses. PMID:22711372

Savic, S; Bihl, M P; Bubendorf, L

2012-07-01

218

Predictive molecular markers: has the time come for routine use in lung cancer?  

PubMed

Although some evidence exists to support the use of clinical factors such as performance status and weight loss to predict response and toxicity to therapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, researchers have shown little prospective data on the use of molecular markers to facilitate selection of specific chemotherapy or new molecularly targeted agents in this patient population. Breast cancer exemplifies the growing role that molecular markers are playing, not only as prognostic factors, but also in predicting response to targeted treatments such as hormonal therapy, and more recently, trastuzumab (Herceptin). Although several studies have examined molecular markers in lung cancer and have shown promising potential value, these studies were retrospective and require prospective validation. To identify molecular markers that reliably predict response and to be able to individualize cytotoxic and targeted therapy for NSCLC patients are the ultimate goals of future trials. This article focuses on a selected number of promising markers under study in lung cancer, including those thought to play roles in response to DNA damaging chemotherapy (excision repair cross-complementing [ERCC1], xeroderma pigmentosum group D [XPD]), taxane resistance (beta-tubulin III), antimetabolite therapy (RRM1), irinotecan metabolism (UGT1A1) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway inhibition. To date, none of these markers can be recommended for routine use in clinical practice. PMID:19777702

Davies, Angela M; Mack, Philip C; Lara, Primo N; Lau, Derick H; Danenberg, Kathleen; Gumerlock, Paul H; Gandara, David R

2004-03-01

219

Genetic variation of Tunisian Myrtus communis L. (Myrtaceae) populations assessed by isozymes and RAPDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic variation of six Tunisian Myrtus communis L. (Myrtaceae) populations was assessed using nine isozymes coding for 17 putative loci and 79 RAPD markers, amplified by\\u000a five decamer random primers. The analysed populations belonged to three bioclimatic zones (lower humid, sub-humid and upper\\u000a semi-arid). A high genetic diversity within populations was detected both by isozymes and RAPDs. The level

Chokri Messaoud; Makrem Afif; Abdennacer Boulila; Mohamed Nejib Rejeb; Mohamed Boussaid

2007-01-01

220

Use of random amplified polymorphic DNA markers to estimate heterosis and combining ability in tomato hybrids.  

PubMed

Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPD) were used to estimate genetic distances and determine the correlation between genetic distance and hybrid performance of 29 tomato lines that were the parents in a diallel mating design. Among 97 observed bands, 69 showed polymorphism and were used for establishing genetic distances based on the Nei coefficient between parents. A UPGMA dendrogram and Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis based on Nei genetic distances clearly clustered each group, confirming the variation at a molecular level. Correlations between genetic distances of the parents and performances of hybrids were established for various quantitative traits. Significant correlations were found between RAPD markers estimated genetic distances and MPH, HPH, SCA for some traits. The low correlation between parental genetic distances and hybrid performances for some quantitative traits suggested that RAPD markers have low linkage to Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) or have inadequate genome coverage for these traits. The results indicated that RAPD markers can be used as a tool for determining the extent of genetic diversity among tomato lines, for allocating genotypes into different groups and also to aid in the choice of the superior crosses to be made among tomato lines, so reducing the number of crosses required under field evaluation. PMID:18817118

Mirshamsi, A; Farsi, M; Shahriari, F; Nemati, H

2008-02-15

221

The Effects of Water Matrix on Decay of Human Fecal Molecular Markers and Campylobacter spp.  

EPA Science Inventory

Although molecular source tracking for human fecal contamination is used on a wide range of sample types, little is known about comparative decay of proposed molecular markers under different conditions, or correlation with pathogen decay. Our purpose was to measure correlations ...

222

RAPD typing in microbiology—a technical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many biochemical and molecular techniques can be used for distinguishing isolates of a given bacterial species. Traditional typing techniques based on phenotypic characteristics such as serotyping are being increasingly challenged by the use of DNA-based methods. The introduction of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has led to typing techniques based on DNA amplification. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) typing (also

E. G. M. Power

1996-01-01

223

MOLECULAR MARKER ASSISTED BREEDING FOR DISEASE RESISTANCE IN COMMON BEAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There have been 40 sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers (http://www.usda.prosser.wsu.edu/miklas/Scartable3.pdf) generated across laboratories that are available for indirect selection of 27 qualitatively and 8 quantitatively expressed genes conditioning resistance to bacterial, fun...

224

Applications and Implications of Neutral versus Non-neutral Markers in Molecular Ecology  

PubMed Central

The field of molecular ecology has expanded enormously in the past two decades, largely because of the growing ease with which neutral molecular genetic data can be obtained from virtually any taxonomic group. However, there is also a growing awareness that neutral molecular data can provide only partial insight into parameters such as genetic diversity, local adaptation, evolutionary potential, effective population size, and taxonomic designations. Here we review some of the applications of neutral versus adaptive markers in molecular ecology, discuss some of the advantages that can be obtained by supplementing studies of molecular ecology with data from non-neutral molecular markers, and summarize new methods that are enabling researchers to generate data from genes that are under selection. PMID:21747718

Kirk, Heather; Freeland, Joanna R.

2011-01-01

225

Designing a SCAR molecular marker for monitoring Trichoderma cf. harzianum in experimental communities.  

PubMed

Several species of the fungal genus Trichoderma establish biological interactions with various micro- and macro-organisms. Some of these interactions are relevant in ecological terms and in biotechnological applications, such as biocontrol, where Trichoderma could be considered as an invasive species that colonizes a recipient community. The success of this invasion depends on multiple factors, which can be assayed using experimental communities as study models. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a species-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker to monitor the colonization and growth of T. cf. harzianum when it invades experimental communities. For this study, 16 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers of 10-mer were used to generate polymorphic patterns, one of which generated a band present only in strains of T. cf. harzianum. This band was cloned, sequenced, and five primers of 20-23 mer were designed. Primer pairs 2F2/2R2 and 2F2/2R3 successfully and specifically amplified fragments of 278 and 448 bp from the T. cf. harzianum BpT10a strain DNA, respectively. Both primer pairs were also tested against the DNA from 14 strains of T. cf. harzianum and several strains of different fungal genera as specificity controls. Only the DNA from the strains of T. cf. harzianum was successfully amplified. Moreover, primer pair 2F2/2R2 was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using fungal DNA mixtures and DNA extracted from fungal experimental communities as templates. T. cf. harzianum was detectable even when as few as 100 copies of the SCAR marker were available or even when its population represented only 0.1% of the whole community. PMID:25367789

Pérez, Gabriel; Verdejo, Valentina; Gondim-Porto, Clarissa; Orlando, Julieta; Carú, Margarita

2014-11-01

226

Designing a SCAR molecular marker for monitoring Trichoderma cf. harzianum in experimental communities* #  

PubMed Central

Several species of the fungal genus Trichoderma establish biological interactions with various micro- and macro-organisms. Some of these interactions are relevant in ecological terms and in biotechnological applications, such as biocontrol, where Trichoderma could be considered as an invasive species that colonizes a recipient community. The success of this invasion depends on multiple factors, which can be assayed using experimental communities as study models. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a species-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker to monitor the colonization and growth of T. cf. harzianum when it invades experimental communities. For this study, 16 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers of 10-mer were used to generate polymorphic patterns, one of which generated a band present only in strains of T. cf. harzianum. This band was cloned, sequenced, and five primers of 20–23 mer were designed. Primer pairs 2F2/2R2 and 2F2/2R3 successfully and specifically amplified fragments of 278 and 448 bp from the T. cf. harzianum BpT10a strain DNA, respectively. Both primer pairs were also tested against the DNA from 14 strains of T. cf. harzianum and several strains of different fungal genera as specificity controls. Only the DNA from the strains of T. cf. harzianum was successfully amplified. Moreover, primer pair 2F2/2R2 was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using fungal DNA mixtures and DNA extracted from fungal experimental communities as templates. T. cf. harzianum was detectable even when as few as 100 copies of the SCAR marker were available or even when its population represented only 0.1% of the whole community. PMID:25367789

Pérez, Gabriel; Verdejo, Valentina; Gondim-Porto, Clarissa; Orlando, Julieta; Carú, Margarita

2014-01-01

227

Maintaining genetic diversity using molecular coancestry: the effect of marker density and effective population size  

PubMed Central

Background The most efficient method to maintain genetic diversity in populations under conservation programmes is to optimize, for each potential parent, the number of offspring left to the next generation by minimizing the global coancestry. Coancestry is usually calculated from genealogical data but molecular markers can be used to replace genealogical coancestry with molecular coancestry. Recent studies showed that optimizing contributions based on coancestry calculated from a large number of SNP markers can maintain higher levels of diversity than optimizing contributions based on genealogical data. In this study, we investigated how SNP density and effective population size impact the use of molecular coancestry to maintain diversity. Results At low SNP densities, the genetic diversity maintained using genealogical coancestry for optimization was higher than that maintained using molecular coancestry. The performance of molecular coancestry improved with increasing marker density, and, for the scenarios evaluated, it was as efficient as genealogical coancestry if SNP density reached at least 3 times the effective population size. However, increasing SNP density resulted in reduced returns in terms of maintained diversity. While a benefit of 12% was achieved when marker density increased from 10 to 100 SNP/Morgan, the benefit was only 2% when it increased from 100 to 500 SNP/Morgan. Conclusions The marker density of most SNP chips already available for farm animals is sufficient for molecular coancestry to outperform genealogical coancestry in conservation programmes aimed at maintaining genetic diversity. For the purpose of effectively maintaining genetic diversity, a marker density of around 500 SNPs/Morgan can be considered as the most cost effective density when developing SNP chips for new species. Since the costs to develop SNP chips are decreasing, chips with 500 SNPs/Morgan should become available in a short-term horizon for non domestic species. PMID:24088414

2013-01-01

228

Molecular and cellular markers of toxicity in the Japanese Medaka @  

SciTech Connect

The Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes) has been recommended for use as a model organism to detect carcinogenic, teratogenic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic compounds in aquatic systems. Because a long latent period often occurs between initial contact with deleterious chemicals and subsequent expression of the pathology, we are investigating early biologically-relevant responses that can be used as genotoxicity markers of exposure and effect. This project focuses on the development of genotoxic bioassays and experimental protocols for exposing Japanese Medaka to genotoxic compounds. 21 refs., 8 figs, 2 tabs.

Shugart, L.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; D'Surney, S.J.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hull, C.G.

1990-01-01

229

Molecular imaging of rheumatoid arthritis: emerging markers, tools, and techniques  

PubMed Central

Early diagnosis and effective monitoring of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are important for a positive outcome. Instant treatment often results in faster reduction of inflammation and, as a consequence, less structural damage. Anatomical imaging techniques have been in use for a long time, facilitating diagnosis and monitoring of RA. However, mere imaging of anatomical structures provides little information on the processes preceding changes in synovial tissue, cartilage, and bone. Molecular imaging might facilitate more effective diagnosis and monitoring in addition to providing new information on the disease pathogenesis. A limiting factor in the development of new molecular imaging techniques is the availability of suitable probes. Here, we review which cells and molecules can be targeted in the RA joint and discuss the advances that have been made in imaging of arthritis with a focus on such molecular targets as folate receptor, F4/80, macrophage mannose receptor, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, phosphatidylserine, and matrix metalloproteinases. In addition, we discuss a new tool that is being introduced in the field, namely the use of nanobodies as tracers. Finally, we describe additional molecules displaying specific features in joint inflammation and propose these as potential new molecular imaging targets, more specifically receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B and its ligand, chemokine receptors, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, ?V?3 integrin, P2X7 receptor, suppression of tumorigenicity 2, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein, and osteoclast-stimulatory transmembrane protein. PMID:25099015

2014-01-01

230

Integration genetic linkage map construction and several potential QTLs mapping of Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) based on three types of molecular markers.  

PubMed

In this study, totally 54 selected polymorphic SSR loci of Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis), in addition with the previous linkage map of AFLP and RAPD markers, were used in consolidated linkage maps that composed of SSR, AFLP and RAPD markers of female and male construction, respectively. The female linkage map contained 236 segregating markers, which were linked in 44 linkage groups, and the genome coverage was 63.98%. The male linkage map contained 255 segregating markers, which were linked in 50 linkage groups, covering 63.40% of F. chinensis genome. There were nine economically important traits and phenotype characters of F. chinensis were involved in QTL mapping using multiple-QTL mapping strategy. Five potential QTLs associated with standard length (q-standardl-01), with cephalothorax length (q-cephal-01), with cephaloghorax width (q-cephaw-01), with the first segment length (q-firsel-01) and with anti-WSSV (q-antiWSSV-01) were detected on female LG1 and male LG44 respectively with LOD> 2.5. The QTL q-firsel-01 was at 73.603 cM of female LG1. Q-antiWSSV-01 was at 0 cM of male LG44. The variance explained of these five QTLs was from 19.7-33.5% and additive value was from -15.9175 to 7.3675. The closest markers to these QTL were all SSR, which suggested SSR marker was superior to AFLP and RAPD in the QTL mapping. PMID:22730771

Wang, W; Tian, Y; Kong, J; Li, X; Liu, X; Yang, C

2012-04-01

231

Volatility of organic molecular markers used for source apportionment analysis: measurements and implications for atmospheric lifetime.  

PubMed

Molecular markers are organic species used to define fingerprints for source apportionment of ambient fine particulate matter. Traditionally, these markers have been assumed to be stable in the atmosphere. This work investigates the gas-particle partitioning of eight organic species used as molecular markers in receptor models for biomass burning (levoglucosan), motor vehicles (5?-cholestane, n-hexacosane, n-triacontane, 1,2-benz[a]anthracene, coronene), and meat cooking (cholesterol, oleic acid). Experiments were conducted using a thermodenuder to measure the evaporation of single component particles. The data were analyzed using the integrated volume method to determine saturation concentrations and enthalpies of vaporization for each compound. The results indicate that appreciable quantities (>10%) of most of these markers exist in the gas phase under typical atmospheric conditions. Therefore, these species should be considered semivolatile. Predictions from a chemical kinetics model indicate that gas-particle partitioning has important effects on the atmospheric lifetime of these species. The atmospheric decay of semivolatile compounds proceeds much more rapidly than nonvolatile compounds because gas-phase oxidation induces evaporation of particle-phase material. Therefore, both gas-particle partitioning and chemical reactions need to be accounted for when semivolatile molecular markers are used for source apportionment studies. PMID:23013599

May, Andrew A; Saleh, Rawad; Hennigan, Christopher J; Donahue, Neil M; Robinson, Allen L

2012-11-20

232

Molecular Markers and Cotton Genetic Improvement: Current Status and Future Prospects  

PubMed Central

Narrow genetic base and complex allotetraploid genome of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is stimulating efforts to avail required polymorphism for marker based breeding. The availability of draft genome sequence of G. raimondii and G. arboreum and next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies facilitated the development of high-throughput marker technologies in cotton. The concepts of genetic diversity, QTL mapping, and marker assisted selection (MAS) are evolving into more efficient concepts of linkage disequilibrium, association mapping, and genomic selection, respectively. The objective of the current review is to analyze the pace of evolution in the molecular marker technologies in cotton during the last ten years into the following four areas: (i) comparative analysis of low- and high-throughput marker technologies available in cotton, (ii) genetic diversity in the available wild and improved gene pools of cotton, (iii) identification of the genomic regions within cotton genome underlying economic traits, and (iv) marker based selection methodologies. Moreover, the applications of marker technologies to enhance the breeding efficiency in cotton are also summarized. Aforementioned genomic technologies and the integration of several other omics resources are expected to enhance the cotton productivity and meet the global fiber quantity and quality demands. PMID:25401149

Malik, Waqas; Iqbal, Muhammad Zaffar; Ali Khan, Asif; Qayyum, Abdul; Ali Abid, Muhammad; Noor, Etrat; Qadir Ahmad, Muhammad; Hasan Abbasi, Ghulam

2014-01-01

233

Abstract--Molecular markers have A Bayesian method for identification ofbeen demonstrated to be useful for  

E-print Network

to be useful for the estimation of stock mixture pro- stock mixtures from molecular marker data portions where han- Stock mixture analysis using multi- propriate estimates. First, in the dling data where only are suc- number of stock sources to represent cessively simulated from the corre- a particular data set

234

An Educational Software for Simulating the Sample Size of Molecular Marker Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We developed educational software to show graduate students how to plan molecular marker experiments. These computer simulations give the students feedback on the precision of their experiments. The objective of the software was to show students using a hands-on approach how: (1) environmental variation influences the range of the estimates of the…

Helms, T. C.; Doetkott, C.

2007-01-01

235

Study of genetic diversity in Chamomile ( Matricaria chamomilla) based on morphological traits and molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chamomile is one of the most important medicinal plants in the world trade that has many applications in drug and sanitary industrials. In order to evaluate the genetic diversity of different chamomile landraces based on morphological and molecular markers, 20 landraces were collected from different area of Iran. In addition to that, five populations imported from European were examined. The

M. Solouki; H. Mehdikhani; H. Zeinali; A. A. Emamjomeh

2008-01-01

236

Molecular genetic diversity of Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) as revealed by microsatellite DNA markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known edible fruits and more and more it arouse interest of scientific community given its numerous biological activities. However, information about its genetic resources and characterization using reliable molecular markers are still scarce. In...

237

Effectiveness of SSR molecular markers in evaluating the phylogenetic relationships among eight Actinidia species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study is to evaluate a set of microsatellites and their effectiveness in determining the phylogenetic relationships among Actinidia species. A set of 14 genotypes belonging to eight Actinidia species were subjected to PCR using SSRs as molecular markers. The PCR products were analyzed on denaturing polyacrylamide gels. The discriminating ability of SSRs was based on

A. E. Korkovelos; A. G. Mavromatis; W. G. Huang; M. Hagidimitriou; A. Giakoundis; C. K. Goulas

2008-01-01

238

MOLECULAR DNA MARKERS UTILIZED TO DISCERN ALFALFA FALL DORMANCY CHECK CULTIVARS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alfalfa cultivars are difficult to distinguish based upon morphological traits. Only a few morphological traits have been used to describe alfalfa. Molecular markers especially simple sequence repeats (SSR) have not been utilized in alfalfa to characterize alfalfa cultivars. This study was conduct...

239

Analysis of genetic diversity in Ganoderma population with a novel molecular marker SRAP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic marker technology designed to detect naturally occurring polymorphisms at the DNA level had become an invaluable and revolutionizing tool for both applied and basic studies of fungi. To eliminate the confusion on the taxonomy of Ganoderma strains, in this study, a collection of 31 accessions representative of morphotypes and some unclassified types was used for analyzing molecular diversity using

Shu-Jing Sun; Wei Gao; Shu-Qian Lin; Jian Zhu; Bao-Gui Xie; Zhi-Bin Lin

2006-01-01

240

Progression of Hair Cell Ejection and Molecular Markers of Apoptosis in the  

E-print Network

Progression of Hair Cell Ejection and Molecular Markers of Apoptosis in the Avian Cochlea following-dependent apoptotic death in inner ear sensory hair cells. The timing of apoptotic signaling in sensory hair cells- nocytochemical techniques to document the following responses in affected hair cells: T-cell restricted

241

Predicting the sites of metastases from lung cancer using molecular biologic markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The use of molecular markers in staging non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been supported in retrospective prognostic models but has not been evaluated in predicting sites of metastases.Methods. Pathologic specimens were collected from 202 patients after complete resection for stage I NSCLC, who were subsequently found to have no metastases at 5 years (n = 108), isolated brain

Thomas A D’Amico; Thomas A Aloia; Mary-Beth H Moore; Debbi H Conlon; James E Herndon; Michael S Kinch; David H Harpole

2001-01-01

242

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, black carbon, and molecular markers in soils of Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were analysed in 23 soil samples (0–10 cm layer) from the Swiss soil monitoring network (NABO) together with total organic carbon (TOC) and black carbon (BC) concentration, as well as some PAH source diagnostic ratios and molecular markers. The concentrations of the sum of 16 EPA priority PAHs ranged from 50 to 619 ?g\\/kg dw. Concentrations

Thomas D. Bucheli; Franziska Blum; André Desaules; Örjan Gustafsson

2004-01-01

243

DEVELOPMENT OF MOLECULAR MARKERS OF RESPONSE TO ASSESS THE SENSITIVITY OF CHILDREN TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Development of Molecular Markers of Response to Assess the Sensitivity of Children to Environmental Chemicals J.Allen, C. Blackman, M. Blaze, D. Delker, D. DeMarini, C. Doerr, R. Grindstaff, S. Hester, C. Jones, A. Kligerman, G. Knapp, M. Kohan, C. Nelson, R. Owen, J. P...

244

Correlation between molecular markers and adaptively significant genetic variation in Bromus tectorum (Poaceae), an inbreedingannual grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) molecular marker genotypes in cheatgrass ( Bromus tectorum) were compared to published data on phenotypic variation in seed dormancy, vernalization requirement, and resistance to the pathogen Ustilago bullata. Several features of cheatgrass facilitated this study: it is a recent invader in the western United States, has considerable phenotypic polymorphism, and

A. P. Ramakrishnan; SUSAN E. MEYER; JENNIFER WATERS; MIKEL R. STEVENS; CRAIG E. COLEMAN; DANIEL J. FAIRBANKS

2004-01-01

245

Detecting Molecular Signatures of Life on Mars: the Life Marker Chip (lmc) Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the rise of interest in planetary exploration and the emergence of Astrobiology as a promising field of research have lead to a number of programmes aiming to develop sensitive instruments for the detection of the molecular signatures of life in extreme environments. An antibody assay-based life detection instrument, the Life Marker Chip (LMC), is currently under development

Mariliza Derveni

2010-01-01

246

Development of molecular genetic markers from a cDNA subtraction library of Frosty Pod inoculated cacao  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have been employing a candidate gene approach to identify molecular markers associated with disease resistance in Theobroma cacao. Candidate genes can be turned into molecular markers using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. As a novel approach to identifying genes associa...

247

Characterization of Erwinia amylovora strains using random amplified polymorphic DNA fragments (RAPDs).  

PubMed

The genetic diversity among 16 strains of Erwinia amylovora, chosen to represent different host plant origins and geographical regions, was investigated by RAPD analysis. One strain of Erwinia herbicola and one of Agrobacterium vitis were used as outgroups. Ninety-eight different RAPD fragments were produced by polymerase chain reaction amplification with six different 10-mer primers. RAPD banding profiles were found that enabled the Erw. amylovora strains to be distinguished from one another. Cluster analysis based on the number of RAPD fragments shared between strains showed that strains of Erw. amylovora isolated from subfamily Pomoideae formed a single group, whereas two strains from Rubus (subfamily Rosoideae) formed a second group. Two strains isolated from Asian pear on Hokkaido, Japan, formed a third group. Sets of RAPD fragments were identified that enabled each of the two host-range groups and one geographical region (Hokkaido) of Erw. amylovora strains to be unambiguously distinguished from one another and from the outgroups. This study shows that strains of Erw. amylovora exhibit genetic diversity detectable by RAPD analysis, and that molecular and statistical analysis of RAPD fragments can be used both to distinguish between strains and to determine relatedness between them. PMID:12455904

Momol, M T; Momol, E A; Lamboy, W F; Norelli, J L; Beer, S V; Aldwinckle, H S

1997-03-01

248

Effects of reforestation methods on genetic diversity of lodgepole pine: an assessment using microsatellite and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of different methods of forest regeneration on the genetic diversity of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var ‘latifolia’) using two different DNA-based molecular markers [randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs) and microsatellites\\u000a or simple sequence repeats (SSRs)]. Genetic diversity was estimated for 30 individuals in each of four populations for the\\u000a following three stand types: (1)?mature lodgepole pine

B. R. Thomas; S. E. Macdonald; M. Hicks; D. L. Adams; R. B. Hodgetts

1999-01-01

249

Highly isotopically depleted isoprenoids: Molecular markers for ancient methane venting  

SciTech Connect

The authors propose that organic compounds found in a Miocene limestone from Marmorito (Northern Italy) are source markers for organic matter present in ancient methane vent systems (cold seeps). The limestone contains high concentrations of the tail-to-tail linked, acyclic C{sub 20} isoprenoid 2,6,11,15-tetramethylhexadecane (crocetane), a C{sub 25} homolog 2,6,10,15,19-pentamethylicosane (PME), and a distinctive glycerol ether lipid containing 3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecyl (phytanyl-) moieties. The chemical structures of these biomarkers indicate a common origin from archaea. Their extremely {sup 13}C-depleted isotope compositions ({delta}{sup 13}C {approximately} {minus}108 to {minus}115.6% PDB) suggest that the respective archaea have directly or indirectly introduced isotopically depleted, methane-derived carbon into their biomass. The authors postulate that a second major cluster of biomarkers showing heavier isotope values ({delta}{sup 13}C {approximately} {minus}88%) is derived from sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The observed biomarkers sustain the idea that methanogenic bacteria, in a syntrophic community with SRB, are responsible for the anaerobic oxidation of methane in marine sediments. Marmorito may thus represent a conceivable ancient scenario for methane consumption performed by a defined, two-membered bacterial consortium: (1) archaea that perform reversed methanogenesis by oxidizing methane and producing CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}; and (2) SRB that consume the resulting H{sub 2}. Furthermore, the respective organic molecules are, unlike other compounds, tightly bound to the crystalline carbonate phase. The Marmorito carbonates can thus be regarded as cold seep microbialites rather than mere antigenic carbonates.

Thiel, V.; Peckmann, J.; Seifert, R.; Wehrung, P.; Reitner, J.; Michaelis, W.

1999-12-01

250

Transposable elements and two other molecular markers as typing tools for the genus Paracoccidioides.  

PubMed

Studies comparing Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii have shown that these fungi have significant genomic differences that may have implications in the clinical manifestation, diagnosis, and treatment of paracoccidioidomycosis caused by them. Thus, molecular typing methods are required that can distinguish between various species of Paracoccidioides. The aim of this study was to explore the potential use as molecular markers of the transposable elements Trem A-H recently identified and characterized in the genus Paracoccidioides as a means of differentiating the species. We take advantage of the abundance and distribution of these transposons in the Paracoccidioides genomes to develop a simple and highly reproducible polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique. Furthermore we compare the performance of this test with two other molecular markers already in use to identify these fungi. PMID:25541559

Alves, Fernanda Lourenço; Ribeiro, Mariceli Araújo; Hahn, Rosane Christine; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Cisalpino, Patrícia Silva; Marini, Marjorie Mendes

2015-02-01

251

Molecular markers of influenza B lineages and clades.  

PubMed

Co-circulation of two influenza B virus lineages, B/Yamagata and B/Victoria, has been recognized since the late 1980s. The assessment of the prevalent lineage and the group of viruses in circulation is of importance in order to decide on the vaccine composition and evaluate its efficacy. The molecular characterization of influenza B viruses in circulation has been the aim of this study; this was approached by identifying and locating nucleotide substitutions in the influenza B virus hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), specific for the lineage and/or clade. By the alignment of 3456 sequences from the influenza GISAID EpiFlu database, a high number of lineage- and group-specific nucleotide positions have been observed in the HA gene, but not in the NA gene. Additionally, an RT-PCR method has been developed, applicable directly to clinical specimens, which amplifies a short HA region that includes a group of unique molecular signatures. Twenty eight influenza B virus-positive respiratory specimens, collected in Tuscany in the seasons 2012-2013 and 2013-2014, were analyzed. The results revealed two clearly distinguishable patterns: one, more frequent, was characterized by all of the nucleotide changes associated with the B/Yamagata lineage (in most cases of Group 2), whereas the other exhibited all of the changes associated with the B/Victoria lineage. It can be concluded that the analysis of this short HA sequence can permit a rapid, highly sensitive determination of influenza B virus lineages and clades. PMID:25412364

Arvia, Rosaria; Corcioli, Fabiana; Pierucci, Federica; Azzi, Alberta

2014-11-01

252

Molecular Markers of Influenza B Lineages and Clades  

PubMed Central

Co-circulation of two influenza B virus lineages, B/Yamagata and B/Victoria, has been recognized since the late 1980s. The assessment of the prevalent lineage and the group of viruses in circulation is of importance in order to decide on the vaccine composition and evaluate its efficacy. The molecular characterization of influenza B viruses in circulation has been the aim of this study; this was approached by identifying and locating nucleotide substitutions in the influenza B virus hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), specific for the lineage and/or clade. By the alignment of 3456 sequences from the influenza GISAID EpiFlu database, a high number of lineage- and group-specific nucleotide positions have been observed in the HA gene, but not in the NA gene. Additionally, an RT-PCR method has been developed, applicable directly to clinical specimens, which amplifies a short HA region that includes a group of unique molecular signatures. Twenty eight influenza B virus-positive respiratory specimens, collected in Tuscany in the seasons 2012–2013 and 2013–2014, were analyzed. The results revealed two clearly distinguishable patterns: one, more frequent, was characterized by all of the nucleotide changes associated with the B/Yamagata lineage (in most cases of Group 2), whereas the other exhibited all of the changes associated with the B/Victoria lineage. It can be concluded that the analysis of this short HA sequence can permit a rapid, highly sensitive determination of influenza B virus lineages and clades. PMID:25412364

Arvia, Rosaria; Corcioli, Fabiana; Pierucci, Federica; Azzi, Alberta

2014-01-01

253

Immune Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Identification of Molecular Markers of Disease  

PubMed Central

The complex molecular events that occur within the host during the establishment of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection are poorly defined, thus preventing identification of predictive markers of disease progression and state. To identify such molecular markers during M. tuberculosis infection, global changes in transcriptional response in the host were assessed using mouse whole genome arrays. Bacterial load in the lungs, the lesions associated with infection, and gene expression profiling was performed by comparing normal lung tissue to lungs from mice collected at 20, 40, and 100 days after aerosol infection with the H37Rv strain of M. tuberculosis. Quantitative, whole lung gene expression identified signature profiles defining different signaling pathways and immunological responses characteristic of disease progression. This includes genes representing members of the interferon-associated gene families, chemokines and cytokines, MHC, and NOS2, as well as an array of cell surface markers associated with the activation of T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells that participate in immunity to M. tuberculosis infection. More importantly, several gene transcripts encoding proteins that were not previously associated with the host response to M. tuberculosis infection, and unique molecular markers associated with disease progression and state, were identified. PMID:18787176

Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Kingry, Luke C.; Ordway, Diane J.; Henao-Tamayo, Marcela; Harton, Marisa; Basaraba, Randall J.; Hanneman, William H.; Orme, Ian M.; Slayden, Richard A.

2009-01-01

254

Anthropogenic Molecular Markers: Tools to Identify the Sources and Transport Pathways of Pollutants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The activities of modern civilization have released to the oceans a wide variety of both mobilized natural compounds and synthetic compounds not found prior to modern times. Many of these compounds provide a means of identifying sources of inputs and pathways of movement of chemicals through oceanic ecosystems and serve as molecular markers of human activities. A coastal ocean (Tokyo Bay) and a deep ocean (Deep Water Dump Site 106 in the Western North Atlantic Ocean) example are presented. In the deep ocean study, the correlation between potential sewage marker, i.e. linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations indicates a contribution of sewage sludge PCBs to the dump site sediments.

Takada, H.; Satoh, F.; Bothner, Michael H.; Tripp, B.W.; Johnson, C.G.; Farrington, J.W.

1997-01-01

255

Prognostic Histopathological and Molecular Markers on Prostate Cancer Needle-Biopsies: A Review  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is diverse in clinical presentation, histopathological tumor growth patterns, and survival. Therefore, individual assessment of a tumor's aggressive potential is crucial for clinical decision-making in men with prostate cancer. To date a large number of prognostic markers for prostate cancer have been described, most of them based on radical prostatectomy specimens. However, in order to affect clinical decision-making, validation of respective markers in pretreatment diagnostic needle-biopsies is essential. Here, we discuss established and promising histopathological and molecular parameters in diagnostic needle-biopsies. PMID:25243131

Hoogland, A. Marije; Kweldam, Charlotte F.; van Leenders, Geert J. L. H.

2014-01-01

256

Molecular phylogeny of elasmobranchs inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear markers.  

PubMed

The elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates) being the extant survivors of one of the earliest offshoots of the vertebrate evolutionary tree are good model organisms to study the primitive vertebrate conditions. They play a significant role in maintaining the ecological balance and have high economic value. Due to over-exploitation and illegal fishing worldwide, the elasmobranch stocks are being decimated at an alarming rate. Appropriate management measures are necessary for restoring depleted elasmobranch stocks. One approach for restoring stocks is implementation of conservation measures and these measures can be formulated effectively by knowing the evolutionary relationship among the elasmobranchs. In this study, a total of 30 species were chosen for molecular phylogeny studies using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, 12S ribosomal RNA gene and nuclear Internal Transcribed Spacer 2. Among different genes, the combined dataset of COI and 12S rRNA resulted in a well resolved tree topology with significant bootstrap/posterior probabilities values. The results supported the reciprocal monophyly of sharks and batoids. Within Galeomorphii, Heterodontiformes (bullhead sharks) formed as a sister group to Lamniformes (mackerel sharks): Orectolobiformes (carpet sharks) and to Carcharhiniformes (ground sharks). Within batoids, the Myliobatiformes formed a monophyly group while Pristiformes (sawfishes) and Rhinobatiformes (guitar fishes) formed a sister group to all other batoids. PMID:24293104

Pavan-Kumar, A; Gireesh-Babu, P; Babu, P P Suresh; Jaiswar, A K; Hari Krishna, V; Prasasd, K Pani; Chaudhari, Aparna; Raje, S G; Chakraborty, S K; Krishna, Gopal; Lakra, W S

2014-01-01

257

Candidate markers for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in low-molecular weight fraction of serum  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents an important public health problem in Egypt where up to 90% of HCC cases are attributable to hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection. Serum alpha-fetoprotein is elevated in only ~60% of HCC patients. The development of effective markers for the detection of HCC could have an impact on cancer mortality and significant public health implications worldwide. The objective of our study was to assess six candidate markers for detection of HCC identified by mass spectrometric analysis of enriched serum. The study examined 78 HCC cases and 72 age- and gender-matched cancer-free controls recruited from the Egyptian population. Matrix-assisted laser desorption–ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis of enriched low-molecular weight fraction of serum was used for identification of the candidate markers. Our analyses show that all six candidate markers are associated with HCC after adjustment for important covariates including HCV and hepatitis B viral infections. The marker candidates are independently predictive of HCC with areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AuROC) curve ranging from 63–93%. A combination of the six markers improves prediction accuracy to 100% sensitivity, 91% specificity and 98% AuROC curve in an independent test set of 50 patients. Two of the candidate markers were identified by sequencing as fragments of complement C3 and C4. In conclusion, a set of six peptides distinguished with high prediction accuracy HCC from controls in an Egyptian population with a high rate of chronic HCV infection. Further evaluation of these marker candidates for the diagnosis of HCC is needed. PMID:17724376

Goldman, Radoslav; Ressom, Habtom W.; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed; Goldman, Lenka; Wang, Antai; Varghese, Rency S.; An, Yanming; Loffredo, Christopher A.; Drake, Steven K.; Eissa, Sohair A.; Gouda, Iman; Ezzat, Sameera; Moiseiwitsch, Francoise Seillier

2008-01-01

258

DNA marker technologies and their applications in aquaculture genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of DNA-based genetic markers has had a revolutionary impact on animal genetics. With DNA markers, it is theoretically possible to observe and exploit genetic variation in the entire genome. Popular genetic markers in the aquaculture community include allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, microsatellite, SNP, and EST markers. The application of DNA markers has allowed rapid progress in

Z. J. Liu; J. F. Cordes

2004-01-01

259

Transferability of molecular markers from major legumes to Lathyrus spp. for their application in mapping and diversity studies.  

PubMed

Lathyrus cicera L. (chickling pea) and L. sativus L. (grass pea) have great potential among grain legumes due to their adaptability to inauspicious environments, high protein content and resistance to serious diseases. Nevertheless, due to its past underused, further activities are required to exploit this potential and to capitalise on the advances in molecular biology that enable improved Lathyrus spp. breeding programmes. In this study we evaluated the transferability of molecular markers developed for closely related legume species to Lathyrus spp. (Medicago truncatula, pea, lentil, faba bean and lupin) and tested the application of those new molecular tools on Lathyrus mapping and diversity studies. Genomic and expressed sequence tag microsatellite, intron-targeted amplified polymorphic, resistance gene analogue and defence-related gene markers were tested. In total 128 (27.7 %) and 132 (28.6 %) molecular markers were successfully cross-amplified, respectively in L. cicera and L. sativus. In total, the efficiency of transferability from genomic microsatellites was 5 %, and from gene-based markers, 55 %. For L. cicera, three cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers and one derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence marker based on the cross-amplified markers were also developed. Nine of those molecular markers were suitable for mapping in a L. cicera recombinant inbred line population. From the 17 molecular markers tested for diversity analysis, six (35 %) in L. cicera and seven (41 %) in L. sativus were polymorphic and discriminate well all the L. sativus accessions. Additionally, L. cicera accessions were clearly distinguished from L. sativus accessions. This work revealed a high number of transferable molecular markers to be used in current genomic studies in Lathyrus spp. Although their usefulness was higher on diversity studies, they represent the first steps for future comparative mapping involving these species. PMID:24203465

Almeida, Nuno Felipe; Trindade Leitão, Susana; Caminero, Constantino; Torres, Ana Maria; Rubiales, Diego; Vaz Patto, Maria Carlota

2014-01-01

260

Extracellular space determination in rat small intestine by using markers of different molecular weights.  

PubMed

The apparent extracellular space (ECS) of rat jejunum, everted and cannulated "in vitro", has been measured by using extracellular markers of different molecular weights. The markers used were two polyethyleneglycols, 14C and 3H labelled (14C-PEG MW 4000 and 3H-PEG MW 900) and 3H-sucrose. The ECSs for the mucosal and serosal sides have been separately determined throughout the time course, and it has been found that the two spaces are identical when PEG 4000 was used but the serosal ECS is almost the double when using PEG 900. The serosal ECS determined with sucrose is four times as big as the mucosal ECS. It seems reasonable to conclude that the best marker for the measure of total apparent ECS is sucrose, placed in the serosal compartment, taking into account that the mucosal ECS is four times smaller than the serosal one. All the markers used reach equilibrium with ECS, more rapidly in the mucosal than in the serosal ECS. Finally, by comparing cell water and cell Na concentrations, one observes that there is a statistical difference between the results obtained by using PEG 4000 as an extracellular marker and those obtained with sucrose. PMID:574940

Esposito, G; Faelli, A; Tosco, M; Burlini, N; Capraro, V

1979-10-01

261

Forensic soil DNA analysis using high-throughput sequencing: a comparison of four molecular markers.  

PubMed

Soil analysis, such as mineralogy, geophysics, texture and colour, are commonly used in forensic casework to link a suspect to a crime scene. However, DNA analysis can also be applied to characterise the vast diversity of organisms present in soils. DNA metabarcoding and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) now offer a means to improve discrimination between forensic soil samples by identifying individual taxa and exploring non-culturable microbial species. Here, we compare the small-scale reproducibility and resolution of four molecular markers targeting different taxa (bacterial 16S rRNA, eukaryotic18S rRNA, plant trnL intron and fungal internal transcribed spacer I (ITS1) rDNA) to distinguish two sample sites. We also assess the background DNA level associated with each marker and examine the effects of filtering Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) detected in extraction blank controls. From this study, we show that non-bacterial taxa in soil, particularly fungi, can provide the greatest resolution between the sites, whereas plant markers may be problematic for forensic discrimination. ITS and 18S markers exhibit reliable amplification, and both show high discriminatory power with low background DNA levels. The 16S rRNA marker showed comparable discriminatory power post filtering; however, presented the highest level of background DNA. The discriminatory power of all markers was increased by applying OTU filtering steps, with the greatest improvement observed by the removal of any sequences detected in extraction blanks. This study demonstrates the potential use of multiple DNA markers for forensic soil analysis using HTS, and identifies some of the standardisation and evaluation steps necessary before this technique can be applied in casework. PMID:25151602

Young, Jennifer M; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

2014-11-01

262

Multilocus microsatellite signature and identification of specific molecular markers for Leishmania aethiopica  

PubMed Central

Background Leishmaniasis is a clinically and epidemiologically diverse zoonotic disease caused by obligatory, intracellular protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most widely distributed form of the disease characterized by skin lesions. Leishmania aethiopica is considered the predominant etiological agent in Ethiopia. The current study was aimed at developing multilocus microsatellite markers for L. aethiopica isolated from human cutaneous leishmaniasis patients in Ethiopia. Results L. aethiopica parasites for the study were obtained from Ethiopia and laboratory analysis was conducted at The Ohio State University. DNA was extracted from cultured parasites and an internal transcribed spacer located at the ribosomal region of L. aethiopica genomic DNA was PCR amplified for species identification. Microsatellite markers were identified using multilocus microsatellite typing. We generated an enriched genomic library, and using Primer3 software, designed PCR primers to amplify sequences flanking the detected microsatellites. Subsequent screening of the amplified markers for length variations was performed by gel electrophoresis. Using a variety of molecular methods, 22 different microsatellite markers were identified and tested for typing L. aethiopica strains using a number of clinical isolates. Of the 22 markers tested, 5 were polymorphic and showed distinctive multilocus genotypes, classifying them into four clusters. One marker was found to be specific for L. aethiopica, discriminating it from other species of Leishmania. Conclusion Multilocus microsatellite typing using the markers developed in this study could be useful for epidemiological and population genetic studies of strains of L. aethiopica in order to investigate the structure and dynamics of the corresponding natural foci. It could also help to answer specific clinical questions, such as the occurrence of local and diffuse lesions, strain correlates of parasite persistence after subclinical infection and lesion comparisons from patients suffering from L. aethiopica infections. PMID:23734874

2013-01-01

263

Gemcitabine chemoresistance and molecular markers associated with gemcitabine transport and metabolism in human pancreatic cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify predictive molecular markers for gemcitabine resistance, we investigated changes in the expression of four genes associated with gemcitabine transport and metabolism during the development of acquired gemcitabine resistance of pancreatic cancer cell lines. The expression levels of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (hENT1), deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), RRM1, and RRM2 mRNA were analysed by real-time light cycler-PCR in various subclones

Y Nakano; S Tanno; K Koizumi; T Nishikawa; K Nakamura; M Minoguchi; T Izawa; Y Mizukami; T Okumura; Y Kohgo

2007-01-01

264

Genetic analysis of apomixis in Citrus and Poncirus by molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propagation of citrus rootstocks depends upon the production of clonal plants from nucellar seedlings. This makes apomixis\\u000a one of the host important traits in breeding programs for citrus rootstocks. The genetic control of apomixis was studied in\\u000a a 50-tree progeny derived from the cross C. volkameriana?P. trifoliata using 69 molecular markers and bulked segregant analysis. The proportion of nucellar seedlings

R. García; M. J. Asíns; J. Forner; E. A. Carbonell

1999-01-01

265

Phylogenetic relationships and differentiation among and within populations of Chaenomeles Lindl. (Rosaceae) estimated with RAPDs and isozymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

RAPD and isozyme analyses based on numerous markers have been used for the first time to investigate patterns of phenetic\\u000a and genetic differentiation among and within nine wild populations of the genus Chaenomeles represented by the species C. japonica, C. speciosa, C. cathayensis and C. thibetica. Highly significant correlations were found between the two different marker systems for both phenetic

I. V. Bartish; L. P. Garkava; K. Rumpunen; H. Nybom

2000-01-01

266

Nucleotide divergence between populations of trembling aspen ( Populus tremuloides ) estimated with RAPDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, a total of 142 trees sampled from five populations of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) in Alberta was analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with five random oligonucleotide primers. Null-allele frequencies of 28 putative RAPD loci were estimated using the given departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (FIS) previously estimated with isozyme markers for the same population.

Daniel K. X. Chong; Rong-Cai Yang; Francis C. Yeh

1994-01-01

267

RAPDs identify varietal misclassification and regional divergence in cranberry [ Vaccinium macrocarpon (Ait.) Pursh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of cultivated cranberry varieties were selected from native populations in the 1800s and early 1900s from sites in Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Wisconsin. Since their initial selections 100–150 years ago, varietal identities have become increasingly confused; primarily the result of there being a paucity of qualitative markers to effectively distinguish among varieties. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technology

R. G. Novy; N. Vorsa; C. Kobak; J. Goffreda

1994-01-01

268

Genetic variation in the vulnerable and endemic Monkey Puzzle tree, detected using RAPDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Araucaria araucana (Monkey Puzzle), a southern South American tree species of exceptional cultural and economic importance, is of conservation concern owing to extensive historical clearance and current human pressures. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to characterise genetic heterogeneity within and among 13 populations of this species from throughout its natural range. Extensive genetic variability was detected and

S A Bekessy; T R Allnutt; A C Premoli; A Lara; R A Ennos; M A Burgman; M Cortes; A C Newton

2002-01-01

269

Analysis of molecular marker expression reveals neuronal homology in distantly related arthropods.  

PubMed

Morphological studies suggest that insects and crustaceans of the Class Malacostraca (such as crayfish) share a set of homologous neurons. However, expression of molecular markers in these neurons has not been investigated, and the homology of insect and malacostracan neuroblasts, the neural stem cells that produce these neurons, has been questioned. Furthermore, it is not known whether crustaceans of the Class Branchiopoda (such as brine shrimp) or arthropods of the Order Collembola (springtails) possess neurons that are homologous to those of other arthropods. Assaying expression of molecular markers in the developing nervous systems of various arthropods could resolve some of these issues. Here, we examine expression of Even-skipped and Engrailed, two transcription factors that serve as insect embryonic CNS markers, across a number of arthropod species. This molecular analysis allows us to verify the homology of previously identified malacostracan neurons and to identify additional homologous neurons in malacostracans, collembolans and branchiopods. Engrailed expression in the neural stem cells of a number of crustaceans was also found to be conserved. We conclude that despite their distant phylogenetic relationships and divergent mechanisms of neurogenesis, insects, malacostracans, branchiopods and collembolans share many common CNS components. PMID:10225992

Duman-Scheel, M; Patel, N H

1999-06-01

270

Molecular markers in ambient aerosol in the Mahanadi Riverside Basin of eastern central India during winter.  

PubMed

Organic molecular markers are important atmospheric constituents. Their formation and sources are important aspects of the study of urban and rural air quality. We collected PM10 aerosol samples from the Mahanadi Riverside Basin (MRB), a rural part of eastern central India, during the winter of 2011. PM10 aerosols were characterized for molecular markers using ion chromatography. The concentration of PM10 ranged from 208.8 to 588.3 ?g m(-3) with a mean concentration of 388.9 ?g m(-3). Total concentration of anhydrosugars, sugar alcohols, primary sugars, and oxalate were found to be 3.25, 5.60, 10.52, and 0.37 ?g m(-3), respectively, during the study period. Glucose was the most abundant species followed by levoglucosan and mannitol. Significant positive correlation between the molecular markers, anhydrosugars, sugar alcohols, primary sugars, and oxalic acid confirmed that biomass burning, biogenic activity, and re-suspension of soil particles were the main sources of aerosol in the eastern central India study area. PMID:25131681

Nirmalkar, Jayant; Deb, Manas K; Deshmukh, Dhananjay K; Tsai, Ying I; Verma, Santosh K

2015-01-01

271

Biological pathways, candidate genes and molecular markers associated with quality-of-life domains: an update  

PubMed Central

Background There is compelling evidence of a genetic foundation of patient-reported QOL. Given the rapid development of substantial scientific advances in this area of research, the current paper updates and extends reviews published in 2010. Objectives The objective is to provide an updated overview of the biological pathways, candidate genes and molecular markers involved in fatigue, pain, negative (depressed mood) and positive (well-being/happiness) emotional functioning, social functioning, and overall QOL. Methods We followed a purposeful search algorithm of existing literature to capture empirical papers investigating the relationship between biological pathways and molecular markers and the identified QOL domains. Results Multiple major pathways are involved in each QOL domain. The inflammatory pathway has the strongest evidence as a controlling mechanism underlying fatigue. Inflammation and neurotransmission are key processes involved in pain perception and the COMT gene is associated with multiple sorts of pain. The neurotransmitter and neuroplasticity theories have the strongest evidence for their relationship with depression. Oxytocin-related genes and genes involved in the serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways play a role in social functioning. Inflammatory pathways, via cytokines, also play an important role in overall QOL. Conclusions Whereas the current findings need future experiments and replication efforts, they will provide researchers supportive background information when embarking on studies relating candidate genes and/or molecular markers to QOL domains. The ultimate goal of this area of research is to enhance patients’ QOL. PMID:24604075

Sprangers, Mirjam A.G.; Thong, Melissa S.Y.; Bartels, Meike; Barsevick, Andrea; Ordoñana, Juan; Shi, Qiuling; Wang, Xin Shelley; Klepstad, Pål; Wierenga, Eddy A.; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Sloan, Jeff A.

2014-01-01

272

[Low genetic differentiation and close evolutionary connection between Anas platyrhynchos and Anas poecilorhyncha: data from RAPD-PCR analysis].  

PubMed

Using RAPD-PCR, we examined genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in two groups of river ducks: Anas platyrhynchos, A. poecilorhyncha, A. strepera and A. crecca, A. formosa, A. querquedula. Molecular taxon-specific markers were found for teals (A. crecca, A. formosa, A. querquedula) and gadwall (A. strepera). Each of the species examined was shown to exhibit high genetic diversity. The mean levels of intraspecific genetic polymorphism in the groups of mallards (P = 77%) and teals (P = 74.5%) were approximately equal whereas the mean interspecific genetic distances in teals were significantly higher than in mallards (D = 0.432 and D = 0.336, respectively). The levels of interspecific genetic differentiation in the species groups were also different. The genetic distances between the teal species and between gadwall and mallards were equal to 0.668-0.971 while the genetic distance between mallard A. platyrhynchos and spot-billed duck A. poecilorhyncha was 0.401, which slightly exceeds the intraspecific values for mallards (0.356-0.377). The RAPD patterns for this species pair showed high variability and a lack of fixed differences. This was adequately reflected on both intra- and interspecific differences and on phylogenetic constructions in which the morphological species did not form their own clusters but were intermixed. In contrast to mallards, the other species, which showed high genetic variability, were reliably separated in phenogenetic and phylogenetic reconstructions. The possible explanations of the low genetic differentiation of A. platyrhynchos and A. poecilorhyncha are discussed. PMID:14658340

Kulikova, I V; Chelomina, G N; Zhuravlev, Iu N

2003-10-01

273

Molecular markers linked to the blast resistance gene pi-z in oryza sativa for use in marker assisted selection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have identified DNA markers that cosegregate with the blast resistance gene Pi-z using microsatellite markers found in public databases and degenerate primer pairs based on the P-loop, nucleotide binding site and kinase domain motifs of previously cloned resistance genes. These markers are ploym...

274

Evaluation of Pakistan wheat germplasms for stripe rust resistance using molecular markers.  

PubMed

Wheat production in Pakistan is seriously constrained due to rust diseases and stripe rust (yellow) caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, which could limit yields. Thus development and cultivation of genetically diverse and resistant varieties is the most sustainable solution to overcome these diseases. The first objective of the present study was to evaluate 100 Pakistan wheat cultivars that have been grown over the past 60 years. These cultivars were inoculated at the seedling stage with two virulent stripe rust isolates from the United States and two from Pakistan. None of the wheat cultivars were resistant to all tested stripe rust isolates, and 16% of cultivars were susceptible to the four isolates at the seedling stage. The data indicated that none of the Pakistan wheat cultivars contained either Yr5 or Yr15 genes that were considered to be effective against most P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates from around the world. Several Pakistan wheat cultivars may have gene Yr10, which is effective against isolate PST-127 but ineffective against PST-116. It is also possible that these cultivars may have other previously unidentified genes or gene combinations. The second objective was to evaluate the 100 Pakistan wheat cultivars for stripe rust resistance during natural epidemics in Pakistan and Washington State, USA. It was found that a higher frequency of resistance was present under field conditions compared with greenhouse conditions. Thirty genotypes (30% of germplasms) were found to have a potentially high temperature adult plant (HTAP) resistance. The third objective was to determine the genetic diversity in Pakistan wheat germplasms using molecular markers. This study was based on DNA fingerprinting using resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) marker analysis. The highest polymorphism detected with RGAP primer pairs was 40%, 50% and 57% with a mean polymorphism of 36%. A total of 22 RGAP markers were obtained in this study. RGAP, simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence tagged site (STS) markers were used to determine the presence and absence of some important stripe rust resistance genes, such as Yr5, Yr8, Yr9, Yr15 and Yr18. Of the 60 cultivars analyzed, 17% of cultivars showed a RGAP marker band for Yr9 and 12% of cultivars exhibited the Yr18 marker band. No marker band was detected for Yr5, Yr8 and Yr15, indicating a likely absence of these genes in the tested Pakistan wheat cultivars. Cluster analysis based on molecular and stripe rust reaction data is useful in identifying considerable genetic diversity among Pakistan wheat cultivars. The resistant germplasms identified with 22 RGAP markers and from the resistance evaluations should be useful in developing new wheat cultivars with stripe rust resistance. PMID:21104373

Sobia, Tabassum; Muhammad, Ashraf; Chen, XianMing

2010-09-01

275

Molecular markers, genetic maps, and QTLs for peanut molecular breeding in peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Integration of plant breeding, genetics and genomics promises to foster genetic enhancement leading to increased productivity, oil quality and resistance/tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent advances have resulted in the development of genomic resources such as SSR markers, and genetic m...

276

TRACKING FECAL CONTAMINATION WITH BACTEROIDALES MOLECULAR MARKERS: AN ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMICS OF FECAL CONTAMINATION IN THE TILLAMOOK BASIN, OREGON  

EPA Science Inventory

Although amplification of source-specific molecular markers from Bacteroidales fecal bacteria can identify several different kinds of fecal contamination in water, it remains unclear how this technique relates to fecal indicator measurements in natural waters. The objectives of t...

277

Trend of different molecular markers in the last decades for studying human migrations.  

PubMed

Anatomically modern humans are known to have widely migrated throughout history. Different scientific evidences suggest that the entire human population descended from just several thousand African migrants. About 85,000 years ago, the first wave of human migration was out of Africa, that followed the coasts through the Middle East, into Southern Asia via Sri Lanka, and in due course around Indonesia and into Australia. Another wave of migration between 40,000 and 12,000 years ago brought humans northward into Europe. However, the frozen north limited human expansion in Europe, and created a land bridge, "Bering land bridge", connecting Asia with North America about 25,000 years ago. Although fossil data give the most direct information about our past, it has certain anomalies. So, molecular archeologists are now using different molecular markers to trace the "most recent common ancestor" and also the migration pattern of modern humans. In this study, we have studied the trend of molecular markers and also the methodologies implemented in the last decades (2003-2014). From our observation, we can say that D-loop region of mtDNA and Y chromosome based markers are predominant. Nevertheless, mtDNA, especially the D-loop region, has some unique features, which makes it a more effective marker for tracing prehistoric footprints of modern human populations. Although, natural selection should also be taken into account in studying mtDNA based human migration. As per technology is concerned, Sanger sequencing is the major technique that is being used in almost all studies. But, the emergence of different cost-effective-and-easy-to-handle NGS platforms has increased its popularity over Sanger sequencing in studying human migration. PMID:25510397

Kundu, Sharbadeb; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

2015-02-10

278

Predictive Gene Signatures: Molecular Markers Distinguishing Colon Adenomatous Polyp and Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Cancers exhibit abnormal molecular signatures associated with disease initiation and progression. Molecular signatures could improve cancer screening, detection, drug development and selection of appropriate drug therapies for individual patients. Typically only very small amounts of tissue are available from patients for analysis and biopsy samples exhibit broad heterogeneity that cannot be captured using a single marker. This report details application of an in-house custom designed GenomeLab System multiplex gene expression assay, the hCellMarkerPlex, to assess predictive gene signatures of normal, adenomatous polyp and carcinoma colon tissue using archived tissue bank material. The hCellMarkerPlex incorporates twenty-one gene markers: epithelial (EZR, KRT18, NOX1, SLC9A2), proliferation (PCNA, CCND1, MS4A12), differentiation (B4GANLT2, CDX1, CDX2), apoptotic (CASP3, NOX1, NTN1), fibroblast (FSP1, COL1A1), structural (ACTG2, CNN1, DES), gene transcription (HDAC1), stem cell (LGR5), endothelial (VWF) and mucin production (MUC2). Gene signatures distinguished normal, adenomatous polyp and carcinoma. Individual gene targets significantly contributing to molecular tissue types, classifier genes, were further characterised using real-time PCR, in-situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry revealing aberrant epithelial expression of MS4A12, LGR5 CDX2, NOX1 and SLC9A2 prior to development of carcinoma. Identified gene signatures identify aberrant epithelial expression of genes prior to cancer development using in-house custom designed gene expression multiplex assays. This approach may be used to assist in objective classification of disease initiation, staging, progression and therapeutic responses using biopsy material. PMID:25423035

Drew, Janice E.; Farquharson, Andrew J.; Mayer, Claus Dieter; Vase, Hollie F.; Coates, Philip J.; Steele, Robert J.; Carey, Francis A.

2014-01-01

279

Y chromosome specific markers and the evolution of dioecy in the genus Silene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex determination in plants has been most thoroughly investigated in Silene latifolia, a dioecious species possessing heteromorphic sex chromosomes. We have identified several new Y chromosome linked RAPD markers and converted these to more reliable sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers by cloning the RAPD fragments and developing longer primers. Of the primer pairs for seven SCARs, five amplify a

Y. Hi Zhang; Veronica S. Stilio; Farah Rehman; Amy Avery; David Mulcahy; Rick Kesseli

1998-01-01

280

Evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products as water-soluble molecular markers of sewage.  

PubMed

We examined the utility of 13 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as molecular markers of sewage contamination in riverine, groundwater, and coastal environments. The PPCPs were crotamiton, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, fenoprofen, mefenamic acid, thymol, triclosan, propyphenazone, carbamazepine, diethyltoluamide, ethenzamide, and caffeine. Measurements in 37 Japanese rivers showed positive correlations of riverine flux of crotamiton (r2 = 0.85), carbamazepine (r2 = 0.84), ibuprofen (r2 = 0.73), and mefenamic acid (r2 = 0.67) with the population in the catchments. In three surveys in the Tamagawa estuary, crotamiton, carbamazepine, and mefenamic acid behaved conservatively across seasons within a salinity range of 0.4-29 per thousand, suggesting their utility as molecular markers in coastal environments. Removal of ketoprofen and naproxen in the estuary was ascribed to photodegradation. Ibuprofen and thymol were removed from estuarine waters in summer by microbial degradation. Triclosan was removed by a combination of microbial degradation, photodegradation, and adsorption. These results were consistent with those of river water incubated for 8 d at 25 degrees C in the dark in order to examine the effects of biodegradation and photodegradation. Crotamiton was detected in groundwater from the Tokyo metropolitan area (12 out of 14 samples), suggesting wastewater leakage from decrepit sewers. Carbamazepine, ketoprofen, and ibuprofen (5/14), caffeine (4/14), and diethyltoluamide (3/14) were also detected in the groundwater, whereas the other carboxylic and phenolic PPCPs were not detected and were thought to be removed during their passage through soil. All the data demonstrated the utility of crotamiton and carbamazepine as conservative markers in freshwater and coastal environments. We recommend combining these conservative markers with labile PPCPs to detect inputs of poorly treated sewage. PMID:18800500

Nakada, Norihide; Kiri, Kentaro; Shinohara, Hiroyuki; Harada, Arata; Kuroda, Keisuke; Takizawa, Satoshi; Takada, Hideshige

2008-09-01

281

Determination of specific molecular markers of biomass burning in lake sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire influences regional to global atmospheric chemistry and climate. Molecular markers of biomass burning archived in lake sediments are becoming increasingly important in paleoenvironmental reconstruction and may help determine interactions between climate and fire activity. One group of these molecular markers is the monosaccharide anhydrides levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan. Several aerosol studies and recent ice core research use these compounds as a marker for biomass burning, but studies from lake sediment cores are rare. Previous sediment methods used gas chromatography - mass spectrometry and required derivatization of samples. Here, we present a high performance anion exchange chromatography-mass spectrometry method to allow separation and detection of the three monosaccharide anhydrides in lake sediments with implications for reconstructing past biomass burning events. We validated the method by quantifying levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan in selected sediment core samples from Lake Kirkpatrick, New Zealand. The freeze-dried, milled and homogenized sediment samples were first extracted with methanol by pressurized solvent extraction, pre-concentrated and finally separated and analyzed by high performance anion exchange chromatography-mass spectrometry. We compared these isomers with macroscopic charcoal concentrations, as charcoal is a well-known proxy for biomass burning. In addition, we applied the method to a sediment core from Lake Petén Itzá, Guatemala to prove the suitability of these markers for reconstructing biomass burning history over the entire Holocene. In the Lake Kirkpatrick samples, levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan concentrations significantly correlate with macroscopic charcoal concentrations. The three isomers are present in samples without any macroscopic charcoal, and may reflect the presence of microscopic charcoal. Levoglucosan/mannosan and levoglucosan/(mannosan+galactosan) ratios differ between samples with high macroscopic charcoal concentrations and samples without any charcoal. These ratios may help determine not only when fires occurred, but also past changes in the primary burned vegetation. However, the possibility that these isomer ratios help differentiate changes in burned vegetation needs further evaluation. The preliminary results of the Lake Petén Itzá samples demonstrate the occurrence of all three molecular markers in the entire core, covering the past approximately 10,000 years. The three monosaccharide anhydrides levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan may be an additional tool for reconstructing past fire events over decadal to millennial time scales in sediment cores.

Kirchgeorg, Torben; Schüpbach, Simon; Kehrwald, Natalie; McWethy, David; Barbante, Carlo

2014-05-01

282

Molecular Markers Predict Distant Metastases After Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Rectal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The outcomes of adjuvant chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer are nonuniform among patients with matching prognostic factors. We explored the role of molecular markers for predicting the outcome of adjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The study included 68 patients with stages II to III rectal adenocarcinoma who were treated with total mesorectal excision and adjuvant chemoradiation. Chemotherapy based on 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin was intravenously administered each month for 6-12 cycles. Radiation therapy consisted of 54 Gy delivered in 30 fractions. Immunostaining of surgical specimens for COX-2, EGFR, VEGF, thymidine synthase (TS), and Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) was performed. Results: The median follow-up was 65 months. Eight locoregional (11.8%) and 13 distant (19.1%) recurrences occurred. Five-year locoregional failure-free survival (LRFFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates for all patients were 83.9%, 78.7%, 66.7%, and 73.8%, respectively. LRFFS was not correlated with TNM stage, surgical margin, or any of the molecular markers. VEGF overexpression was significantly correlated with decreased DMFS (P=.045), while RKIP-positive results were correlated with increased DMFS (P=.025). In multivariate analyses, positive findings for COX-2 (COX-2+) and VEGF (VEGF+) and negative findings for RKIP (RKIP-) were independent prognostic factors for DMFS, DFS, and OS (P=.035, .014, and .007 for DMFS; .021, .010, and <.0001 for DFS; and .004, .012, and .001 for OS). The combination of both COX-2+ and VEGF+ (COX-2+/VEGF+) showed a strong correlation with decreased DFS (P=.007), and the combinations of RKIP+/COX-2- and RKIP+/VEGF- showed strong correlations with improved DFS compared with the rest of the patients (P=.001 and <.0001, respectively). Conclusions: Molecular markers can be valuable in predicting treatment outcome of adjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer patients.

Kim, Jun Won; Kim, Yong Bae [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jun Jeong [Department of Pathology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Pathology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koom, Woong Sub [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hoguen [Department of Pathology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Pathology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam-Kyu [Department of Surgery, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Surgery, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Joong Bae [Department of Medical Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ikjae; Cho, Jae Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Keum, Ki Chang, E-mail: kckeum@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-12-01

283

Identification and authentication of Rosa species through development of species-specific SCAR marker(s).  

PubMed

Roses (Rosa indica) belong to one of the most crucial groups of plants in the floriculture industry. Rosa species have special fragrances of interest to the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. The genetic diversity of plants based on morphological characteristics is difficult to measure under natural conditions due to the influence of environmental factors, which is why a reliable fingerprinting method was developed to overcome this problem. The development of molecular markers will enable the identification of Rosa species. In the present study, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was done on four Rosa species, Rosa gruss-an-teplitz (Surkha), Rosa bourboniana, Rosa centifolia, and Rosa damascena. A polymorphic RAPD fragment of 391 bp was detected in R. bourboniana, which was cloned, purified, sequenced, and used to design a pair of species-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers (forward and reverse). These SCAR primers were used to amplify the specific regions of the rose genome. These PCR amplifications with specific primers are less sensitive to reaction conditions, and due to their high reproducibility, these species-specific SCAR primers can be used for marker-assisted selection and identification of Rosa species. PMID:24938705

Bashir, K M I; Awan, F S; Khan, I A; Khan, A I; Usman, M

2014-01-01

284

Mitochondrial Telomeres as Molecular Markers for Identification of the Opportunistic Yeast Pathogen Candida parapsilosis  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have demonstrated that a large number of organisms carry linear mitochondrial DNA molecules possessing specialized telomeric structures at their ends. Based on this specific structural feature of linear mitochondrial genomes, we have developed an approach for identification of the opportunistic yeast pathogen Candida parapsilosis. The strategy for identification of C. parapsilosis strains is based on PCR amplification of specific DNA sequences derived from the mitochondrial telomere region. This assay is complemented by immunodetection of a protein component of mitochondrial telomeres. The results demonstrate that mitochondrial telomeres represent specific molecular markers with potential applications in yeast diagnostics and taxonomy. PMID:11923346

Nosek, Jozef; Tomáška, L'ubomír; Ry?ovská, Adriana; Fukuhara, Hiroshi

2002-01-01

285

RAPD of controlled crosses and clones from the field suggests that hybrids are rare in the Salix alba-Salix fragilis complex.  

PubMed

The polyploid Salix alba-Salix fragilis hybrid complex is rather difficult to study when using only morphological characters. Most of the features have a low diagnostic value for unambiguously identifying the hybrids, introgression patterns and population structures, though morphological traits have proved to be useful in making a hybrid index. Morphology and molecular variation from RAPDs were investigated in several case studies on willows from Belgium. A thorough screening of full-sib progenies of interspecific controlled crosses was made to select homologous amplification products. The selected amplified products proved to be useful in a principal coordinate analysis for the estimation of variability of hybrid progenies. On the basis of genetic similarities and ordination analysis, a method for the identification of clones in the field was established using presumed pure species and presumed introgressants. The chosen reference clones were checked against additional European samples of putative pure species to ensure the reliability of the method beyond a regional scale. The RAPDs suggested that both species have kept their gene pools well separated and that hybridization actually does not seem to be a dominating process. The observation that molecular markers do not always follow the morphological traits or allozyme data is discussed. PMID:10849080

Triest, L; De Greef, B; De Bondt, R; Van Slycken, J

2000-05-01

286

Genetic Relationships among Orobanche Species as Revealed by RAPD Analysis  

PubMed Central

RAPD markers were used to study variation among 20 taxa in the genus Orobanche: O. alba, O. amethystea, O. arenaria, O. ballotae, O. cernua, O. clausonis, O. cumana, O. crenata, O. densiflora, O. foetida, O. foetida var. broteri, O. gracilis, O. haenseleri, O. hederae, O. latisquama, O. mutelii, O. nana, O. ramosa, O. rapum?genistae and O. santolinae. A total of 202 amplification products generated with five arbitrary RAPD primers was obtained and species?specific markers were identified. The estimated Jaccard’s differences between the species varied between 0 and 0·864. The pattern of interspecific variation obtained is in general agreement with previous taxonomic studies based on morphology, and the partition into two different sections (Trionychon and Orobanche) is generally clear. However, the position in the dendrogram of O. clausonis did not fit this classification since it clustered with members of section Trionychon. Within this section, O. arenaria was relatively isolated from the other members of the section: O. mutelii, O. nana and O. ramosa. Within section Orobanche, all O. ramosa populations showed a similar amplification pattern, whereas differences among O. crenata populations growing on different hosts were found. Orobanche foetida and O. densiflora clustered together, supporting the morphological and cytological similarities and the host preferences of these species. PMID:12714362

ROMÁN, B.; ALFARO, C.; TORRES, A. M.; MORENO, M. T.; SATOVIC, Z.; PUJADAS, A.; RUBIALES, D.

2003-01-01

287

Molecular markers to predict clinical outcome and radiation induced toxicity in lung cancer  

PubMed Central

The elucidation of driver mutations involved in the molecular pathogenesis of cancer has led to a surge in the application of novel targeted therapeutics in lung cancer. Novel oncologic research continues to lead investigators towards targeting personalized tumor characteristics rather than applying targeted therapy to broad patient populations. Several driver genes, in particular epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ALK fusions, are the earliest to have made their way into clinical trials. The avant-garde role of genomic profiling has led to important clinical challenges when adapting current standard treatments to personalized oncologic care. This new frontier of medicine requires newer biomarkers for toxicity that will identify patients at risk, as well as, new molecular markers to predict and assess clinical outcomes. Thus far, several signature genes have been developed to predict outcome as well as genetic factors related to inflammation to predict toxicity. PMID:24688783

Zaorsky, Nicholas G.; Witek, Matthew; Lu, Bo

2014-01-01

288

Molecular Markers for Prostate Cancer in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed type of cancer in developed countries. The decisive method of diagnosis is based on the results of biopsies, morphologically evaluated to determine the presence or absence of cancer. Although this approach leads to a confident diagnosis in most cases, it can be improved by using the molecular markers present in the tissue. Both miRNAs and proteins are considered excellent candidates for biomarkers in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, due to their stability over long periods of time. In the last few years, a concerted effort has been made to develop the necessary tools for their reliable measurement in these types of samples. Furthermore, the use of these kinds of markers may also help in establishing tumor grade and aggressiveness, as well as predicting the possible outcomes in each particular case for the different treatments available. This would aid clinicians in the decision-making process. In this review, we attempt to summarize and discuss the potential use of microRNA and protein profiles in FFPE tissue samples as markers to better predict PCa diagnosis, progression, and response to therapy. PMID:24371818

García, Marta; Montes, Melania; Oliván, Mireia; Rigau, Marina; Colás, Eva; de Torres, Inés; Morote, Juan; Reventós, Jaume

2013-01-01

289

Molecular characterization of Anthurium genotypes by using DNA fingerprinting and SPAR markers.  

PubMed

We characterized single primer amplification reaction (SPAR) molecular markers from 20 genotypes of Anthurium andraeanum Lind., including 3 from commercial varieties and 17 from 2 communities in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Twenty-four SPAR, consisting of 7 random amplified polymorphic DNA and 17 inter-simple sequence repeat markers were used to estimate the genetic diversity of 20 Anthurium accessions. The set of SPAR markers generated 288 bands and showed an average polymorphism percentage of 93.39%, ranging from 71.43 to 100%. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of the random amplified polymorphic DNA primers averaged 0.364 and ranged from 0.258 to 0.490. Primer OPF 06 showed the lowest PIC, while OPAM 14 was the highest. The average PIC of the inter-simple sequence repeat primers was 0.299, with values ranging from 0.196 to 0.401. Primer UBC 845 had the lowest PIC (0.196), while primer UCB 810 had the highest (0.401). By using the complement of Jaccard's similarity index and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering, 5 clusters were formed with a cophenetic correlation coefficient of 0.8093, indicating an acceptable clustering consistency. However, no genotype clustering patterns agreed with the morphological data. The Anthurium genotypes investigated in this study are a germplasm source for conservational research and may be used in improvement programs for this species. PMID:25062412

Souza Neto, J D; Soares, T C B; Motta, L B; Cabral, P D S; Silva, J A

2014-01-01

290

Delimitation of Russula Subgenus Amoenula in Korea Using Three Molecular Markers  

PubMed Central

Distinguishing individual Russula species has been difficult due to extensive phenotypic plasticity and obscure morphological and anatomical discontinuities. Due to highly similar macroscopic features, such as the presence of a red-cap, species identification within the Russula subgenus Amoenula is particularly difficult. Three species of the subgenus Amoneula have been reported in Korea. We used a combination of morphology and three molecular markers, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 28S nuclear ribosomal large subunit (LSU), and RNA polymerase II gene (RPB2), for identification and study of the genetic diversity of Russula subgenus Amoenula in Korea. We identified only two species in Korea (R. mariae and R. violeipes); these two species were indistinguishable according to morphology and LSU, but were found to be reciprocally monophyletic species using ITS and RPB2. The markers, ITS, LSU, and RPB2, have been tested in the past for use as DNA barcoding markers, and findings of our study suggest that ITS and RPB2 had the best performance for the Russula subgenus Amoneula. PMID:24493939

Park, Myung Soo; Fong, Jonathan J.; Lee, Hyun; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Jung, Paul Eunil; Min, Young Ju; Seok, Soon Ja

2013-01-01

291

Molecular markers in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma: towards an integrated clinicobiological approach.  

PubMed

Of the most frequent malignancies in the United States, cancers of the larynx and of the uterine corpus are the only ones not to show an increase in 5-year survival rates over the last 30 years. The increasing use of chemo- and radiotherapy and conservative surgery to preserve organs and their functions has probably led to a better quality of life in patients with laryngeal cancer, but has definitely failed to improve survival, which remains the primary aim. In our opinion, to reduce laryngeal cancer-related mortality, a change in clinical approach is required. We have reviewed the literature on the potential role of molecular markers in the clinical management of laryngeal cancer. We believe that some of the most significant biological markers might be integrated with the evaluation of behavioural risk factors, clinical TNM staging and histopathological grading for a novel clinicomolecular approach to laryngeal cancer. We foresee the use of the most promising biological markers in the phases of prevention, diagnosis, prognostic assessment and drug design. PMID:15763643

Almadori, Giovanni; Bussu, Francesco; Cadoni, Gabriella; Galli, Jacopo; Paludetti, Gaetano; Maurizi, Maurizio

2005-03-01

292

New strategies in personalized medicine for solid tumors: molecular markers and clinical trial designs.  

PubMed

The delineation of signaling pathways to understand tumor biology combined with the rapid development of technologies that allow broad molecular profiling and data analysis has led to a new era of personalized medicine in oncology. Many academic institutions now routinely profile patients and discuss their cases in meetings of personalized medicine tumor boards before making treatment recommendations. Clinical trials initiated by pharmaceutical companies often require specific markers for enrollment or at least explore multiple options for future markers. In addition to the still small number of targeted agents that are approved for the therapy of patients with histological and molecularly defined tumors, a broad range of novel targeted agents in development are undergoing clinical studies with companion profiling to determine the best-responding patient population. Although the present focus of profiling lies in genetic analyses, additional tests of RNA, protein, and immune parameters are being developed and incorporated in clinical research, and these methods are likely to contribute significantly to future patient selection and treatment approaches. As the advances in tumor biology and human genetics have identified promising tumor targets, the ongoing clinical evaluation of novel agents will now need to show if the promise can be translated into benefit for patients. PMID:25183480

Jürgensmeier, Juliane M; Eder, Joseph P; Herbst, Roy S

2014-09-01

293

Noninvasive detection and imaging of molecular markers in live cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

Raman microspectroscopy (RMS) was used to detect and image molecular markers specific to cardiomyocytes (CMs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). This technique is noninvasive and thus can be used to discriminate individual live CMs within highly heterogeneous cell populations. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the Raman spectra was used to build a classification model for identification of individual CMs. Retrospective immunostaining imaging was used as the gold standard for phenotypic identification of each cell. We were able to discriminate CMs from other phenotypes with >97% specificity and >96% sensitivity, as calculated with the use of cross-validation algorithms (target 100% specificity). A comparison between Raman spectral images corresponding to selected Raman bands identified by the PCA model and immunostaining of the same cells allowed assignment of the Raman spectral markers. We conclude that glycogen is responsible for the discrimination of CMs, whereas myofibril proteins have a lesser contribution. This study demonstrates the potential of RMS for allowing the noninvasive phenotypic identification of hESC progeny. With further development, such label-free optical techniques may enable the separation of high-purity cell populations with mature phenotypes, and provide repeated measurements to monitor time-dependent molecular changes in live hESCs during differentiation in vitro. PMID:21190678

Pascut, Flavius C; Goh, Huey T; Welch, Nathan; Buttery, Lee D; Denning, Chris; Notingher, Ioan

2011-01-01

294

Management of endocrine disease: clinicopathological classification and molecular markers of pituitary tumours for personalized therapeutic strategies.  

PubMed

Pituitary tumours, the most frequent intracranial tumour, are historically considered benign. However, various pieces of clinical evidence and recent advances in pathological and molecular analyses suggest the need to consider these tumours as more than an endocrinological disease, despite the low incidence of metastasis. Recently, we proposed a new prognostic clinicopathological classification of these pituitary tumours, according to the tumour size (micro, macro and giant), type (prolactin, GH, FSH/LH, ACTH and TSH) and grade (grade 1a, non-invasive; 1b, non-invasive and proliferative; 2a, invasive; 2b, invasive and proliferative and 3, metastatic). In addition to this classification, numerous molecular prognostic markers have been identified, allowing a better characterisation of tumour behaviour and prognosis. Moreover, clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated that pituitary tumours could be treated by some chemotherapeutic drugs or new targeted therapies. Our improved classification of these tumours should now allow the identification of prognosis markers and help the clinician to propose personalised therapies to selected patients presenting tumours with a high risk of recurrence. PMID:24431196

Raverot, Gerald; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Trouillas, Jacqueline

2014-04-01

295

Molecular phylogenetics of New Caledonian Diospyros (Ebenaceae) using plastid and nuclear markers?  

PubMed Central

To clarify phylogenetic relationships among New Caledonian species of Diospyros, sequences of four plastid markers (atpB, rbcL, trnK–matK and trnS–trnG) and two low-copy nuclear markers (ncpGS and PHYA) were analysed. New Caledonian Diospyros species fall into three clades, two of which have only a few members (1 or 5 species); the third has 21 closely related species for which relationships among species have been mostly unresolved in a previous study. Although species of the third group (NC clade III) are morphologically distinct and largely occupy different habitats, they exhibit little molecular variability. Diospyros vieillardii is sister to the rest of the NC clade III, followed by D. umbrosa and D. flavocarpa, which are sister to the rest of this clade. Species from coastal habitats of western Grande Terre (D. cherrieri and D. veillonii) and some found on coralline substrates (D. calciphila and D. inexplorata) form two well-supported subgroups. The species of NC clade III have significantly larger genomes than found in diploid species of Diospyros from other parts of the world, but they all appear to be diploids. By applying a molecular clock, we infer that the ancestor of the NC clade III arrived in New Caledonia around 9 million years ago. The oldest species are around 7 million years old and the youngest ones probably much less than 1 million years. PMID:23850609

Turner, Barbara; Munzinger, Jérôme; Duangjai, Sutee; Temsch, Eva M.; Stockenhuber, Reinhold; Barfuss, Michael H.J.; Chase, Mark W.; Samuel, Rosabelle

2013-01-01

296

Molecular phylogenetics of New Caledonian Diospyros (Ebenaceae) using plastid and nuclear markers.  

PubMed

To clarify phylogenetic relationships among New Caledonian species of Diospyros, sequences of four plastid markers (atpB, rbcL, trnK-matK and trnS-trnG) and two low-copy nuclear markers (ncpGS and PHYA) were analysed. New Caledonian Diospyros species fall into three clades, two of which have only a few members (1 or 5 species); the third has 21 closely related species for which relationships among species have been mostly unresolved in a previous study. Although species of the third group (NC clade III) are morphologically distinct and largely occupy different habitats, they exhibit little molecular variability. Diospyros vieillardii is sister to the rest of the NC clade III, followed by D. umbrosa and D. flavocarpa, which are sister to the rest of this clade. Species from coastal habitats of western Grande Terre (D. cherrieri and D. veillonii) and some found on coralline substrates (D. calciphila and D. inexplorata) form two well-supported subgroups. The species of NC clade III have significantly larger genomes than found in diploid species of Diospyros from other parts of the world, but they all appear to be diploids. By applying a molecular clock, we infer that the ancestor of the NC clade III arrived in New Caledonia around 9 million years ago. The oldest species are around 7 million years old and the youngest ones probably much less than 1 million years. PMID:23850609

Turner, Barbara; Munzinger, Jérôme; Duangjai, Sutee; Temsch, Eva M; Stockenhuber, Reinhold; Barfuss, Michael H J; Chase, Mark W; Samuel, Rosabelle

2013-12-01

297

At3g08030 transcript: a molecular marker of seed ageing  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Prolonged storage generally reduces seed viability and vigour, although the rate of deterioration varies among species and environmental conditions. Here, we suggest a possible ageing molecular marker: At3g08030 mRNA. At3g08030 is a member of the DUF642 highly conserved family of cell-wall-associated proteins that is specific for spermatophytes. Methods At3g08030 expression was performed by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analysis in seed samples differing in their rate of germination and final germination following a matrix priming and/or controlled deterioration (rapid ageing) treatment. Key Results The At3g08030 gene transcript was present during the entire Arabidopsis thaliana plant life cycle and in seeds, during maturation, the ripening period and after germination. Matrix priming treatment increased the rate of germination of control seeds and seeds aged by controlled deterioration. Priming treatments also increased At3g08030 expression. To determine whether the orthologues of this gene are also age markers in other plant species, At3g08030 was cloned in two wild species, Ceiba aesculifolia and Wigandia urens. As in A. thaliana, the At3g08030 transcript was not present in aged seeds of the tested species but was present in recently shed seeds. A reduction in germination performance of the aged seeds under salt stress was determined by germination assays. Conclusions At3g08030 mRNA detection in a dry seed lot has potential for use as a molecular marker for germination performance in a variety of plant species. PMID:22975286

Garza-Caligaris, Luz Elena; Avendaño-Vázquez, Aida Odette; Alvarado-López, Sandra; Zúñiga-Sánchez, Esther; Orozco-Segovia, Alma; Pérez-Ruíz, Rigoberto V.; Gamboa-deBuen, Alicia

2012-01-01

298

Status of potential PfATP6 molecular markers for artemisinin resistance in Suriname  

PubMed Central

Background Polymorphisms within the PfATP6 gene have been indicated as potential molecular markers for artemisinin efficacy. Since 2004, the use of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) was introduced as first-line treatment of the uncomplicated malaria cases in Suriname. The aim of this research was to determine changes in Suriname in the status of the polymorphic markers in the PfATP6 gene before and after the adoption of the ACT-regimen, particularly of the S769N mutation, which was reported to be associated with in vitro Artemether resistance in the neighboring country French Guiana. Methods The PfATP6 gene from Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Suriname was investigated in 28 samples using PCR amplification and restriction enzyme analysis, to assess and determine the prevalence of potentially interesting single nucleotide polymorphisms. The polymorphisms [L263E; A623E; S769N], which may be associated with the artemisinin resistant phenotype were characterized in parasites from three endemic regions before and after the adoption of the ACT-regimen. In addition, the status of these molecular markers was compared in paired P. falciparum isolates from patients with recurring malaria after controlled ACT. Results All the investigated samples exhibit the wild-type genotype at all three positions; L263, A623, S769. Conclusion All investigated isolates before and after the adoption of the ACT-regimen and independent of endemic region harbored the wild-type genotype for the three investigated polymorphisms. The study revealed that decreased artemisinin susceptibility could occur independent from PfATP6 mutations, challenging the assumption that artemisinin resistance is associated with these mutations in the PfATP6 gene. PMID:22966810

2012-01-01

299

Isolation of Ty1-copia retrotransposon in myrtle genome and development of S-SAP molecular marker.  

PubMed

Long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements that are ubiquitous in plants and constitute a major portion of their nuclear genomes. LTR- retrotransposons possess unique properties that make them appropriate for investigating relationships between populations, varieties and closely related species. Myrtus communis L. is an evergreen shrub growing spontaneously throughout the Mediterranean area. Accessions show significant variations for agriculturally important traits, so the development of specific molecular markers for conservation and characterization of myrtle germplasm is desirable to conserve biodiversity. In this study, we isolated the first retrotransposon Ty1-copia-like element (Tmc1) in Myrtus communis L. genome and used this as a molecular marker. We successfully employed the S-SAP marker system to specifically characterize four myrtle accessions belonging to different areas in the province of Caserta (Italy). The high level of polymorphism detected in isolated LTRs, make Tmc1 a good molecular marker for this species. Our findings confirm that retrotransposon-based molecular markers are particularly valuable tools for plant molecular characterization studies. PMID:21725640

Woodrow, Pasqualina; Pontecorvo, Giovanni; Ciarmiello, Loredana F

2012-04-01

300

Utilization of molecular markers for the conservation of blood cockles, Anadara granosa (Arcidae).  

PubMed

We examined genetic variation in blood cockles in an effort to obtain information useful for the sustainability, management, and the stability of this species as a major commodity in the fisheries sector. Ten populations of cockles were sampled from the north to the south of the west coast of peninsular Malaysia. The cockles were collected in collaboration with the Fisheries Research Institute, Penang. The population genetic analysis of the cockles were studied via RAPD-PCR and mtDNA sequencing. Three hundred individuals were analyzed with RAPD-PCR experiments. High gene diversity over all loci was observed (Shannon index = 0.549 ± 0.056 and Nei's gene diversity = 0.4852 ± 0.0430 among 35 loci). The second method, mtDNA sequencing, was employed to complement the information obtained from RAPD-PCR. The gene selected for mtDNA sequencing was cytochrome c oxidase I (COI). One hundred and fifty individuals were sequenced, yielding a partial gene of 585 bp. Statistical analysis showed homogeneity in general but did reveal some degree of variability between the populations in Johor and the rest of the populations. The Mantel test showed a positive but nonsignificant correlation between geographic and genetic distances (r = 0.2710, P = 0.622), as in the RAPD analysis. We propose that the homogeneity between distant populations is caused by two factors: 1) the translocation of the spats; 2) larvae are carried by current movement from the north of the peninsula to the south. The different genetic composition found in Johor could be due to pollution, mutagenic substances or physical factors such as the depth of the water column. This population genetic study is the first for this species in peninsular Malaysia. The data from this study have important implications for fishery management, conservation of blood cockles and translocation policies for aquaculture and stock enhancement programs. PMID:21732289

Chee, S Y; Azizah, M N S; Devakie, M N

2011-01-01

301

A linkage map of sweet cherry based on RAPD analysis of a microspore-derived callus culture population.  

PubMed

A partial linkage map was constructed for the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivar Emperor Francis from a population of 56 microspore-derived callus culture individuals. The callus cultures were genotyped for two allozymes and 90 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers using 79 random decanucleotide DNA primers and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eighty-nine markers mapped to 10 linkage groups totaling 503.3 cM. DNA blot and hybridization analysis using five cloned RAPDs as probes demonstrated that one of the decanucleotide primers amplified a region of the Emperor Francis genome containing a unique sequence, whereas the other four decanucleotide primers amplified regions of the Emperor Francis genome containing repeated sequences. The five cloned RAPD probes also recognized putative homologous regions in ground cherry, P.fruticosa Pall., and sour cherry, P. cerasus L., a naturally occurring allopolyploid between P.fruticosa and P.avium. PMID:8683097

Stockinger, E J; Mulinix, C A; Long, C M; Brettin, T S; Iezzoni, A F

1996-01-01

302

Prostate cancer molecular markers GSTP1 and hTERT in expressed prostatic secretions as predictors of biopsy results  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo develop noninvasive diagnostic tools for the early detection of prostate cancer (PCa). Current screening for PCa lacks sensitivity and specificity. Two molecular markers, telomerase activity and aberrant methylation of the glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) promoter, are found in more than 90% of PCa specimens. Additionally, these markers can be detected in bodily fluids such as urine and postprostatic massage

Laura E. Crocitto; Darlynn Korns; Leo Kretzner; Taras Shevchuk; Sarah L. Blair; Timothy G. Wilson; Soroush A. Ramin; Mark H. Kawachi; Steven S. Smith

2004-01-01

303

Use of RAPD for the study of diversity within plant germplasm collections  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the development of a molecular toolkit for the study of diversity within large plant germplasm collections, RAPD technology has been applied to accessions of rice (Oryza sativa) obtained from the major world collection held at IRRI (the International Rice Research Institute) which supplies germplasm to breeders. Methods for the speedy extraction of DNA representative of a rice

Parminder S Virk; Brian V Ford-Lloyd; Michael T Jackson; H John Newbury

1995-01-01

304

Targeted pathways in breast cancer: molecular and protein markers guiding therapeutic decisions.  

PubMed

Breast carcinoma is currently considered as a group of diseases, differing not only in histopathologic phenotype, as indicated by histologic type and grade, but also in their protein, genetic and epigenetic molecular profile. The standard of care indicates that the core information for patient management includes data on Estrogen Receptor (ER), Progesterone Receptor (PgR) and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2), while there is an emerging role for the proliferation marker Ki67. These indices can be provided even in low resource settings and are indispensable for prognostication and therapeutic patient management. With the progress in molecular and translational research, there is a growing body of information on the molecular subtypes of breast carcinoma and their significance, and multigene signature assays are used to dictate prognosis and guide therapeutics in high resource settings. In addition, several cellular pathways involved in tumor growth and spread are dissected and targeted in clinical trials. Among these are the p53, RB, PI3K/Akt/mTOR and Ras/MAPK pathways, alterations associated with genetic instability and epigenetic alterations including histone methylation and acetylation, DNA methylation and microRNAs expression. The tumor immune microenvironment, including the tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is attracting significant research interest. This review summarizes the mechanisms of function of the above factors in breast tumorigenesis with emphasis on their prognostic and predictive value and their use as therapeutic targets. PMID:25563853

Kourea, Helen P; Zolota, Vassiliki; Scopa, Chrisoula D

2015-01-01

305

Improving the reliability of molecular sexing of birds using a W-specific marker.  

PubMed

Molecular techniques for identifying sex of birds utilize length differences between CHD-Z and CHD-W introns, but in some cases these methods can lead to sexing errors. Here we show that an additional W-specific primer can be used in conjunction with a pre-existing sexing primer pair to dramatically improve the reliability of molecular sexing methods. We illustrate the approach with American coots (Fulica americana), a species with CHD-Z polymorphism that could not be accurately sexed using traditional methods. We developed a reverse primer GWR2 designed to sit within the intron of the W chromosome and amplify a distinctively small DNA fragment that serves as a W-specific marker. Analysis of known-sex individuals indicates that this W-specific primer provides an efficient and reliable protocol to identify the sex of F. americana. The development of such sex-specific primers will likely increase the reliability of molecular sexing methods in other birds as well. Comparisons between CHD-Z alleles of coots and common moorhens (Gallinula chloropus) revealed that CHD-Z polymorphism evolved separately in these two closely related species. We discuss the implications of repeated evolution of CHD-Z polymorphisms among birds. PMID:21586012

Shizuka, Daizaburo; Lyon, Bruce E

2008-11-01

306

Identification and characterization of high-molecular-weight glutenin genes in Polish triticale cultivars by PCR-based DNA markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular markers were used to identify the allele\\/gene composition of complex lociGlu-A1 andGlu-B1 of high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits in triticale cultivars. Forty-six Polish cultivars of both winter and spring\\u000a triticale were analysed with 7 PCR-based markers. Amplified DNA fragments of HMW gluteninGlu-1 genes were separated by agarose slab-gel electrophoresis. Differences between all 3 alleles at the locusGlu-A1 [Glu-A1a (encoding Ax1),1b

Boles?aw P. Salmanowicz; Monika Dylewicz

2007-01-01

307

Molecular marker analysis as a guide to the sources of fine organic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

The molecular composition of fine particulate (D[sub p] [ge] 2 [mu]m) organic aerosol emissions from the most important sources in the Los Angeles area has been determined. Likewise, ambient concentration patterns for more than 80 single organic compounds have been measured at four urban sites (West Los Angeles, Downtown Los Angeles, Pasadena, and Rubidoux) and at one remote offshore site (San Nicolas Island). It has been found that cholesterol serves as a marker compound for emissions from charbroilers and other meat cooking operations. Vehicular exhaust being emitted from diesel and gasoline powered engines can be traced in the Los Angeles atmosphere using fossil petroleum marker compounds such as steranes and pentacyclic triterpanes (e.g., hopanes). Biogenic fine particle emission sources such as plant fragments abraded from leaf surfaces by wind and weather can be traced in the urban atmosphere. Using distinct and specific source organic tracers or assemblages of organic compounds characteristic for the sources considered it is possible to estimate the influence of different source types at any urban site where atmospheric data are available.

Rogge, W.F.; Cass, G.R. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States)); Hildemann, L.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Mazurek, M.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Simoneit, B.R.T. (College of Oceanography, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States) Environmental Geochemistry Group)

1992-07-01

308

Molecular marker analysis as a guide to the sources of fine organic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

The molecular composition of fine particulate (D{sub p} {ge} 2 {mu}m) organic aerosol emissions from the most important sources in the Los Angeles area has been determined. Likewise, ambient concentration patterns for more than 80 single organic compounds have been measured at four urban sites (West Los Angeles, Downtown Los Angeles, Pasadena, and Rubidoux) and at one remote offshore site (San Nicolas Island). It has been found that cholesterol serves as a marker compound for emissions from charbroilers and other meat cooking operations. Vehicular exhaust being emitted from diesel and gasoline powered engines can be traced in the Los Angeles atmosphere using fossil petroleum marker compounds such as steranes and pentacyclic triterpanes (e.g., hopanes). Biogenic fine particle emission sources such as plant fragments abraded from leaf surfaces by wind and weather can be traced in the urban atmosphere. Using distinct and specific source organic tracers or assemblages of organic compounds characteristic for the sources considered it is possible to estimate the influence of different source types at any urban site where atmospheric data are available.

Rogge, W.F.; Cass, G.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Hildemann, L.M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Mazurek, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Simoneit, B.R.T. [College of Oceanography, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States) Environmental Geochemistry Group

1992-07-01

309

Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity. Final report, September 15, 1988--September 14, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Several molecular and cellular markers of genotoxicity were adapted for measurement in the Medaka (Oryzias latipes), and were used to describe the effects of treatment of the organism with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). NO{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts were detected, and a slight statistically significant, increase in DNA strand breaks was observed. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to high levels of DEN induced alkyltransferase activity which enzymatically removes any O{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts but does not result in strand breaks or hypomethylation of the DNA such as might be expected from excision repair of chemically modified DNA. Following a five week continuous DEN exposure with 100 percent renewal of DEN-water every third day, the F values (DNA double strandedness) increased considerably and to similar extent in fish exposed to 25, 50, and 100 ppM DEN. This has been observed also in medaka exposed to BaP.

Shugart, L.R.; D`Surney, S.J.; Gettys-Hull, C.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.

1991-12-15

310

A multi-marker molecular signature approach for treatment-specific subgroup identification with survival outcomes.  

PubMed

Delivering on the promise of personalized medicine has become a focus of the pharmaceutical industry as the era of the blockbuster drug is fading. Central to realizing this promise is the need for improved analytical strategies for effectively integrating information across various biological assays (for example, copy number variation and targeted protein expression) toward identification of a treatment-specific subgroup-identifying the right patients. We propose a novel combination of elastic net followed by a maximal ?(2) and semiparametric bootstrap. The combined approaches are presented in a two-stage strategy that estimates patient-specific multi-marker molecular signatures (MMMS) to identify and directly test for a biomarker-driven subgroup with enhanced treatment effect. This flexible strategy provides for incorporation of business-specific needs, such as confining the search space to a subgroup size that is commercially viable, ultimately resulting in actionable information for use in empirically based decision making. PMID:24637498

Li, L; Guennel, T; Marshall, S; Cheung, L W-K

2014-10-01

311

Triazole-based Zn²?-specific molecular marker for fluorescence bioimaging.  

PubMed

Fluorescence bioimaging potential, both in vitro and in vivo, of a yellow emissive triazole-based molecular marker has been investigated and demonstrated. Three different kinds of cells, viz Bacillus thuringiensis, Candida albicans, and Techoma stans pollen grains were used to investigate the intracellular zinc imaging potential of 1 (in vitro studies). Fluorescence imaging of translocation of zinc through the stem of small herb, Peperomia pellucida, having transparent stem proved in vivo bioimaging capability of 1. This approach will enable in screening cell permeability and biostability of a newly developed probe. Similarly, the current method for detection and localization of zinc in Gram seed sprouts could be an easy and potential alternative of the existing analytical methods to investigate the efficiency of various strategies applied for increasing zinc-content in cereal crops. The probe-zinc ensemble has efficiently been applied for detecting phosphate-based biomolecules. PMID:24725748

Sinha, Sougata; Mukherjee, Trinetra; Mathew, Jomon; Mukhopadhyay, Subhra K; Ghosh, Subrata

2014-04-25

312

Identification of the sources of primary organic aerosols at urban schools: a molecular marker approach.  

PubMed

Children are particularly susceptible to air pollution and schools are examples of urban microenvironments that can account for a large portion of children's exposure to airborne particles. Thus this paper aimed to determine the sources of primary airborne particles that children are exposed to at school by analyzing selected organic molecular markers at 11 urban schools in Brisbane, Australia. Positive matrix factorization analysis identified four sources at the schools: vehicle emissions, biomass burning, meat cooking and plant wax emissions accounting for 45%, 29%, 16% and 7%, of the organic carbon respectively. Biomass burning peaked in winter due to prescribed burning of bushland around Brisbane. Overall, the results indicated that both local (traffic) and regional (biomass burning) sources of primary organic aerosols influence the levels of ambient particles that children are exposed at the schools. These results have implications for potential control strategies for mitigating exposure at schools. PMID:24842381

Crilley, Leigh R; Qadir, Raeed M; Ayoko, Godwin A; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Orasche, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf; Morawska, Lidia

2014-08-01

313

Prediction of hybrid performance in maize using molecular markers and joint analyses of hybrids and parental inbreds.  

PubMed

The identification of superior hybrids is important for the success of a hybrid breeding program. However, field evaluation of all possible crosses among inbred lines requires extremely large resources. Therefore, efforts have been made to predict hybrid performance (HP) by using field data of related genotypes and molecular markers. In the present study, the main objective was to assess the usefulness of pedigree information in combination with the covariance between general combining ability (GCA) and per se performance of parental lines for HP prediction. In addition, we compared the prediction efficiency of AFLP and SSR marker data, estimated marker effects separately for reciprocal allelic configurations (among heterotic groups) of heterozygous marker loci in hybrids, and imputed missing AFLP marker data for marker-based HP prediction. Unbalanced field data of 400 maize dent x flint hybrids from 9 factorials and of 79 inbred parents were subjected to joint analyses with mixed linear models. The inbreds were genotyped with 910 AFLP and 256 SSR markers. Efficiency of prediction (R (2)) was estimated by cross-validation for hybrids having no or one parent evaluated in testcrosses. Best linear unbiased prediction of GCA and specific combining ability resulted in the highest efficiencies for HP prediction for both traits (R (2) = 0.6-0.9), if pedigree and line per se data were used. However, without such data, HP for grain yield was more efficiently predicted using molecular markers. The additional modifications of the marker-based approaches had no clear effect. Our study showed the high potential of joint analyses of hybrids and parental inbred lines for the prediction of performance of untested hybrids. PMID:19916002

Schrag, Tobias A; Möhring, Jens; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Kusterer, Barbara; Dhillon, Baldev S; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Frisch, Matthias

2010-01-01

314

Clinicopathologic factors and molecular markers related to lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze predictive factors for lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer. METHODS: We analyzed 1104 patients with early gastric cancer (EGC) who underwent a gastrectomy with lymph-node dissection from May 2003 through July 2011. The clinicopathologic factors and molecular markers were assessed as predictors for lymph node metastasis. Molecular markers such as microsatellite instability, human mutL homolog 1, p53, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) were included. The ?2 test and logistic regression analysis were used to determine clinicopathologic parameters. RESULTS: Lymph node metastasis was observed in 104 (9.4%) of 1104 patients. Among 104 cases of lymph node positive patients, 24 patients (3.8%) were mucosal cancers and 80 patients (16.7%) were submucosal. According to histologic evaluation, the number of lymph node metastasis found was 4 (1.7%) for well differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, 45 (11.3%) for moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, 36 (14.8%) for poorly differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, and 19 (8.4%) for signet ring cell carcinoma. Of 690 EGC cases, 77 cases (11.2%) showed EGFR overexpression. HER2 overexpression was present in 110 cases (27.1%) of 406 EGC patients. With multivariate analysis, female gender (OR = 2.281, P = 0.009), presence of lymphovascular invasion (OR = 10.950, P < 0.0001), diameter (? 20 mm, OR = 3.173, P = 0.01), and EGFR overexpression (OR = 2.185, P = 0.044) were independent risk factors for lymph node involvement. CONCLUSION: Female gender, tumor size, lymphovascular invasion and EGFR overexpression were predictive risk factors for lymph node metastasis in EGC. PMID:25593477

Jin, Eun Hyo; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Sung-Ae; Shim, Ki-Nam; Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Nayoung; Shin, Cheol Min; Yoon, Hyuk; Jung, Hyun Chae

2015-01-01

315

DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers.  

PubMed Central

Molecular genetic maps are commonly constructed by analyzing the segregation of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) among the progeny of a sexual cross. Here we describe a new DNA polymorphism assay based on the amplification of random DNA segments with single primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequence. These polymorphisms, simply detected as DNA segments which amplify from one parent but not the other, are inherited in a Mendelian fashion and can be used to construct genetic maps in a variety of species. We suggest that these polymorphisms be called RAPD markers, after Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Images PMID:1979162

Williams, J G; Kubelik, A R; Livak, K J; Rafalski, J A; Tingey, S V

1990-01-01

316

Highly variable microsatellite markers for the fungal and algal symbionts of the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria and challenges in developing biont-specific molecular markers for fungal associations.  

PubMed

The availability of highly variable markers for the partners of a fungal symbiosis enables the integrated investigation of ecological and evolutionary processes at the symbiotic level. In this article we analyze the specificity of the first and to date only microsatellite markers that had been developed for an epiphytic lichen (Lobaria pulmonaria). We used DNA extracts from cultures of the fungal and of the green algal symbionts of L. pulmonaria as well as total DNA extracts from related Lobaria species associated with the same algal partner, and got evidence that five of the previously described microsatellite markers, proposed to be fungus-specific, are indeed alga-specific. Hence, highly variable microsatellite primer sets available for both, the algal and the fungal symbionts of L. pulmonaria are now at our hands, which allow us to investigate so far unexplored biological processes of lichen symbionts, such as codispersal and coevolution. In a broader sense, our work evaluates and discusses the challenges in developing biont-specific molecular markers for fungi forming close associations with other organisms. PMID:20943165

Widmer, Ivo; Dal Grande, Francesco; Cornejo, Carolina; Scheidegger, Christoph

2010-07-01

317

Molecular analysis of expansion, differentiation, and growth factor treatment of human chondrocytes identifies differentiation markers and growth-related genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is intended to optimise expansion and differentiation of cultured human chondrocytes by growth factor application and to identify molecular markers to monitor their differentiation state. We dissected the molecular consequences of matrix release, monolayer, and 3D-alginate culture, growth factor optimised expansion, and re-differentiation protocols by gene expression analysis. Among 19 common cartilage molecules assessed by cDNA array, six

Karin Benz; Stephen Breit; Martin Lukoschek; Hans Mau; Wiltrud Richter

2002-01-01

318

Determination of relatedness and geographical movements of Pistacia vera (Pistachio; Anacardiaceae) germplasm by RAPD analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pistachio tree (Pistacia vera) has long been cultivated in south-central Asia and throughout the Mediterranean region of southern Europe, north Africa\\u000a and the Middle East. We examined genetic diversity and patterns of relatedness amongfifteen P. vera cultivars, representing\\u000a germplasm originating from throughout this range, by using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The resulting\\u000a data were used to construct

J. I. Hormaza; L. Dollo; V. S. Polito

1994-01-01

319

Application of rapd in the determination of genetic fidelity in micropropagated Drosera plantlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to verify the clonal fidelity of two micropropagated Drosera species, D. anglica and D. binata, which were regenerated by adventitious budding from leaf explants and shoot tips, respectively. Twenty arbitrary decamers\\u000a were used to screen 15 randomly selected plantlets of each species. No genetic variation was detected among D. binata regenerants, whereas

Anna Kawiak; Ewa ?ojkowska

2004-01-01

320

Molecular Marker For Predicting Treatment Response in Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma: Does the Promise Fulfill Clinical Need?  

PubMed Central

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is largely diagnosed incidentally on imaging taken for unrelated reasons. The management of localized lesions is primarily extirpative with excellent results. Treatment of advanced RCC has evolved over recent years with the use of targeted therapies such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, and antibody-mediated therapies. The treatment response to these targeted therapies is highly variable, with no clear clinical method of identifying patients who will benefit from or not tolerate therapy. The field of molecular markers has evolved significantly in the last decade, with a multitude of markers identified that predict treatment response and drug toxicity. The following review critically evaluates those molecular markers that have been assessed for their utility in predicting treatment response in patients with advanced/metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Identifying the ideal treatment for these patients will improve responses to therapy, minimize morbidity, and save significant healthcare dollars. PMID:24337833

Garcia-Roig, Michael; Ortiz, Nicolas; Lokeshwar, Vinata

2014-01-01

321

2.1 MOLECULAR MARKERS AND STOCK STRUCTURE IN FISHES Since the development of allozyme electrophoresis in the 1960's,  

E-print Network

2.1 MOLECULAR MARKERS AND STOCK STRUCTURE IN FISHES Since the development of allozyme genetic stocks of fishes (Utter 1991). Genetic traits useful for detecting stock structure are those the presence and degree of reproductive isolation and hence stock structure. While there are many definitions

Heist, Edward J.

322

Molecular mapping of QTLs for fiber qualities in three diverse lines in Upland cotton using SSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The improvement of cotton fiber quality is extremely important because of changes in spinning technology. The identification of the stable QTLs affecting fiber traits across different generations will be greatly helpful to be used effectively in molecular marker-assisted selection to improve fiber quality of cotton cultivars in the future. Using three elite fiber lines of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

Xinlian Shen; Wangzhen Guo; Xiefei Zhu; Youlu Yuan; John Z. Yu; Russell J. Kohel; Tianzhen Zhang

2005-01-01

323

Molecular tagging of a major QTL for fiber strength in Upland cotton and its marker-assisted selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiber is a basic raw material in the textile industry. The changes in spinning technology have in common the requirement of unique and often greater cotton fiber quality, especially strength, for processing. We used a Gossypium anomalum introgression line, 7235, characterized by good fiber quality properties, to identify molecular markers linked to fiber-strength QTLs. By the use of F2 and

Tianzhen Zhang; Youlu Yuan; John Yu; Wangzhen Guo; Russell J. Kohel

2003-01-01

324

Identification of Genetic Factors Contributing to Heterosis in a Hybrid From Two Elite Maize Inbred Lines Using Molecular Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of molecular markers to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting agriculturally important traits has become a key approach in plant genetics-both for understanding the genetic basis of these traits and to help design novel plant improvement programs. In the study reported here, we mapped QTLs (and evaluated their phenotypic effects) associated with seven major traits (including grain yield)

Charles W. Stuber; Stephen E. Lincoln; David W. Wolff; Tim Helentjarisn; Eric S. Lander

325

Molecular markers of early Parkinson's disease based on gene expression in blood  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) progresses relentlessly and affects five million people worldwide. Laboratory tests for PD are critically needed for developing treatments designed to slow or prevent progression of the disease. We performed a transcriptome-wide scan in 105 individuals to interrogate the molecular processes perturbed in cellular blood of patients with early-stage PD. The molecular multigene marker here identified is associated with risk of PD in 66 samples of the training set comprising healthy and disease controls [third tertile cross-validated odds ratio of 5.7 (P for trend 0.005)]. It is further validated in 39 independent test samples [third tertile odds ratio of 5.1 (P for trend 0.04)]. Insights into disease-linked processes detectable in peripheral blood are offered by 22 unique genes differentially expressed in patients with PD versus healthy individuals. These include the cochaperone ST13, which stabilizes heat-shock protein 70, a modifier of ?-synuclein misfolding and toxicity. ST13 messenger RNA copies are lower in patients with PD (mean ± SE 0.59 ± 0.05) than in controls (0.96 ± 0.09) (P = 0.002) in two independent populations. Thus, gene expression signals measured in blood can facilitate the development of biomarkers for PD. PMID:17215369

Scherzer, Clemens R.; Eklund, Aron C.; Morse, Lee J.; Liao, Zhixiang; Locascio, Joseph J.; Fefer, Daniel; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Schlossmacher, Michael G.; Hauser, Michael A.; Vance, Jeffery M.; Sudarsky, Lewis R.; Standaert, David G.; Growdon, John H.; Jensen, Roderick V.; Gullans, Steven R.

2007-01-01

326

Widespread utility of highly informative AFLP molecular markers across divergent shark species.  

PubMed

Population numbers of many shark species are declining rapidly around the world. Despite the commercial and conservation significance, little is known on even the most fundamental aspects of their population biology. Data collection that relies on direct observation can be logistically challenging with sharks. Consequently, molecular methods are becoming increasingly important to obtain knowledge that is critical for conservation and management. Here we describe an amplified fragment length polymorphism method that can be applied universally to sharks to identify highly informative genome-wide polymorphisms from 12 primer pairs. We demonstrate the value of our method on 15 divergent shark species within the superorder Galeomorphii, including endangered species which are notorious for low levels of genetic diversity. Both the endangered sand tiger shark (Carcharodon taurus, N = 18) and the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias, N = 7) displayed relatively high levels of allelic diversity. A total of 59 polymorphic loci (H(e) = 0.373) and 78 polymorphic loci (H(e) = 0.316) were resolved in C. taurus and C. carcharias, respectively. Results from other sharks (e.g., Orectolobus ornatus, Orectolobus sp., and Galeocerdo cuvier) produced remarkably high numbers of polymorphic loci (106, 94, and 86, respectively) from a limited sample size of only 2. A major constraint to obtaining much needed genetic data from sharks is the time-consuming process of developing molecular markers. Here we demonstrate the general utility of a technique that provides large numbers of informative loci in sharks. PMID:17150982

Zenger, Kyall R; Stow, Adam J; Peddemors, Victor; Briscoe, David A; Harcourt, Robert G

2006-01-01

327

Comparative analysis of seeded and vegetative biotype buffalograsses based on phylogenetic relationship using ISSRs, SSRs, RAPDs, and SRAPs.  

PubMed

Buffalograss [ Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Englem.] is the only native grass that is being used extensively as a turfgrass in the Great Plains region. Its low-growth habit, drought resistance, and low-maintenance requirement make it attractive as a turfgrass species. Our objective was to obtain an overview on the genetic relatedness among and within seeded and vegetative biotype buffalograsses using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs), sequence-related amplified polymorphisms (SRAPs), and simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers that were derived from related species (maize, pearl millet, sorghum, and sugarcane). Twenty individuals per cultivar were genotyped using 30 markers from each marker system. All buffalograss cultivars were uniquely fingerprinted by all four marker systems. Mean genetic similarities were estimated at 0.52, 0.51, 0.62, and 0.57 using SSRs, ISSRs, SRAPs, and RAPDs, respectively. Two main clusters separating the seeded-biotype from the vegetative-biotype cultivars were produced using UPGMA analysis. Further subgroupings were unequivocal. The Mantel test resulted in a very good fit (SRAP=0.92, ISSR=0.90) to good fit (RAPD=0.86, SSR=0.88) of cophenetic values. Comparing the four marker systems to each other, RAPD and SRAP similarity indices were highly correlated ( r=0.73), while Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between RAPDs and SSRs was r=0.24 and between ISSRs and SSRs was r=0.66. A genotype-assignment analytical approach might be useful for cultivar identification and property rights protection. Polymorphic SRAPs were abundant and demonstrated genetic diversity among closely related cultivars. PMID:15024466

Budak, H; Shearman, R C; Parmaksiz, I; Dweikat, I

2004-07-01

328

Assessment of diversity in Podophyllum hexandrum by genetic and phytochemical markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

For successful conservation and domestication of a species, evaluation of its genetic diversity by different markers is important. Morphological characteristics, phytochemical variation and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles were generated in different accessions of Podophyllum hexandrum in order to determine the genetic diversity. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis revealed a high degree of genetic diversity among the accessions

P. Sultan; A. S. Shawl; P. W. Ramteke; A. Kour; P. H. Qazi

2008-01-01

329

Molecular analysis of East Anatolian traditional plum and cherry accessions using SSR markers.  

PubMed

We conducted SSR analyses of 59 accessions, including 29 traditional plum (Prunus domestica), 24 sweet cherry (Prunus avium), and 1 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) selected from East Anatolian gene sources and 3 plum and 2 cherry reference accessions for molecular characterization and investigation of genetic relationships. Eight SSR loci [1 developed from the apricot (UDAp-404), 4 from the peach (UDP96-010, UDP96-001, UDP96-019, Pchgms1) and 3 from the cherry (UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31) genome] for plum accessions and 9 SSR loci [5 developed from the cherry (PS12A02, UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31, UCD-CH21), 3 from the peach (Pchgms1, UDP96-001, UDP96-005) and 1 from the plum (CPSCT010) genome] for cherry accessions were used for genetic identification. A total of 66 and 65 alleles were obtained in the genetic analyses of 31 plum and 28 cherry accessions, respectively. The number of alleles revealed by SSR analysis ranged from 4 to 14 alleles per locus, with a mean value of 8.25 in plum accessions, and from 5 to 10 alleles per locus with a mean value of 7.2 in cherry accessions. Only one case of synonym was identified among the cherry accessions, while no case of synonym was observed among the plum accessions. Genomic SSR markers used in discrimination of plum and cherry accessions showed high cross-species transferability in the Prunus genus. Because of their appreciable polymorphism and cross species transferability, the SSR markers that we evaluated in this study will be useful for studies involving fingerprinting of cherry and plum cultivars. PMID:24301792

Öz, M H; Vurgun, H; Bakir, M; Büyük, ?; Yüksel, C; Ünlü, H M; Çukadar, K; Karado?an, B; Köse, Ö; Ergül, A

2013-01-01

330

Genetic Rearrangements of Six Wheat–Agropyron cristatum 6P Addition Lines Revealed by Molecular Markers  

PubMed Central

Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n?=?4x?=?28, PPPP) not only is cultivated as pasture fodder but also could provide many desirable genes for wheat improvement. It is critical to obtain common wheat–A. cristatum alien disomic addition lines to locate the desired genes on the P genome chromosomes. Comparative analysis of the homoeologous relationships between the P genome chromosome and wheat genome chromosomes is a key step in transferring different desirable genes into common wheat and producing the desired alien translocation line while compensating for the loss of wheat chromatin. In this study, six common wheat–A. cristatum disomic addition lines were produced and analyzed by phenotypic examination, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), SSR markers from the ABD genomes and STS markers from the P genome. Comparative maps, six in total, were generated and demonstrated that all six addition lines belonged to homoeologous group 6. However, chromosome 6P had undergone obvious rearrangements in different addition lines compared with the wheat chromosome, indicating that to obtain a genetic compensating alien translocation line, one should recombine alien chromosomal regions with homoeologous wheat chromosomes. Indeed, these addition lines were classified into four types based on the comparative mapping: 6PI, 6PII, 6PIII, and 6PIV. The different types of chromosome 6P possessed different desirable genes. For example, the 6PI type, containing three addition lines, carried genes conferring high numbers of kernels per spike and resistance to powdery mildew, important traits for wheat improvement. These results may prove valuable for promoting the development of conventional chromosome engineering techniques toward molecular chromosome engineering. PMID:24595330

Su, Junji; Zhang, Jinpeng; Song, Liqiang; Gao, Ainong; Yang, Xinming; Li, Xiuquan; Liu, Weihua; Li, Lihui

2014-01-01

331

Genetic rearrangements of six wheat-agropyron cristatum 6P addition lines revealed by molecular markers.  

PubMed

Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n?=?4x?=?28, PPPP) not only is cultivated as pasture fodder but also could provide many desirable genes for wheat improvement. It is critical to obtain common wheat-A. cristatum alien disomic addition lines to locate the desired genes on the P genome chromosomes. Comparative analysis of the homoeologous relationships between the P genome chromosome and wheat genome chromosomes is a key step in transferring different desirable genes into common wheat and producing the desired alien translocation line while compensating for the loss of wheat chromatin. In this study, six common wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition lines were produced and analyzed by phenotypic examination, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), SSR markers from the ABD genomes and STS markers from the P genome. Comparative maps, six in total, were generated and demonstrated that all six addition lines belonged to homoeologous group 6. However, chromosome 6P had undergone obvious rearrangements in different addition lines compared with the wheat chromosome, indicating that to obtain a genetic compensating alien translocation line, one should recombine alien chromosomal regions with homoeologous wheat chromosomes. Indeed, these addition lines were classified into four types based on the comparative mapping: 6PI, 6PII, 6PIII, and 6PIV. The different types of chromosome 6P possessed different desirable genes. For example, the 6PI type, containing three addition lines, carried genes conferring high numbers of kernels per spike and resistance to powdery mildew, important traits for wheat improvement. These results may prove valuable for promoting the development of conventional chromosome engineering techniques toward molecular chromosome engineering. PMID:24595330

Han, Haiming; Bai, Li; Su, Junji; Zhang, Jinpeng; Song, Liqiang; Gao, Ainong; Yang, Xinming; Li, Xiuquan; Liu, Weihua; Li, Lihui

2014-01-01

332

Molecular rotors: what lies behind the high sensitivity of the thioflavin-T fluorescent marker.  

PubMed

Thioflavin-T (ThT) can bind to amyloid fibrils and is frequently used as a fluorescent marker for in vitro biomedical assays of the potency of inhibitors for amyloid-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyloidosis. Upon binding to amyloid fibrils, the steady-state (time-integrated) emission intensity of ThT increases by orders of magnitude. The simplicity of this type of measurement has made ThT a common fluorescent marker in biomedical research over the last 50 years. As a result of the remarkable development in ultrafast spectroscopy measurements, researchers have made substantial progress in understanding the photophysical nature of ThT. Both ab initio quantum-mechanical calculations and experimental evidence have shown that the electronically excited-state surface potential of ThT is composed of two regimes: a locally excited (LE) state and a charge-transfer (CT) state. The electronic wave function of the excited state changes from the initial LE state to the CT state as a result of the rotation around a single C-C bond in the middle of the molecule, which connects the benzothiazole moiety to the dimethylanilino ring. This twisted-internal-CT (TICT) is responsible for the molecular rotor behavior of ThT. This Account discusses several factors that can influence the LE-TICT dynamics of the excited state. Solvent, temperature, and hydrostatic pressure play roles in this process. In the context of biomedical assays, the binding to amyloid fibrils inhibits the internal rotation of the molecular segments and as a result, the electron cannot cross into the nonradiative "dark" CT state. The LE state has high oscillator strength that enables radiative excited-state relaxation to the ground state. This process makes the ThT molecule light up in the presence of amyloid fibrils. In the literature, researchers have suggested several models to explain nonradiative processes. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various nonradiative models while focusing on the model that was initially proposed by Glasbeek and co-workers for auramine-O to be the best suited for ThT. We further discuss the computational fitting of the model for the nonradiative process of ThT. PMID:22738376

Amdursky, Nadav; Erez, Yuval; Huppert, Dan

2012-09-18

333

Molecular Linkage Mapping and Marker-Trait Associations with NlRPT, a Downy Mildew Resistance Gene in Nicotiana langsdorffii  

PubMed Central

Nicotiana langsdorffii is one of two species of Nicotiana known to express an incompatible interaction with the oomycete Peronospora tabacina, the causal agent of tobacco blue mold disease. We previously showed that incompatibility is due to the hypersensitive response (HR), and plants expressing the HR are resistant to P. tabacina at all stages of growth. Resistance is due to a single dominant gene in N. langsdorffii accession S-4-4 that we have named NlRPT. In further characterizing this unique host-pathogen interaction, NlRPT has been placed on a preliminary genetic map of the N. langsdorffii genome. Allelic scores for five classes of DNA markers were determined for 90 progeny of a “modified backcross” involving two N. langsdorffii inbred lines and the related species N. forgetiana. All markers had an expected segregation ratio of 1:1, and were scored in a common format. The map was constructed with JoinMap 3.0, and loci showing excessive transmission distortion were removed. The linkage map consists of 266 molecular marker loci defined by 217 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), 26 simple-sequence repeats (SSRs), 10 conserved orthologous sequence markers, nine inter-simple sequence repeat markers, and four target region amplification polymorphism markers arranged in 12 linkage groups with a combined length of 1062?cM. NlRPT is located on linkage group three, flanked by four AFLP markers and one SSR. Regions of skewed segregation were detected on LGs 1, 5, and 9. Markers developed for N. langsdorffii are potentially useful genetic tools for other species in Nicotiana section Alatae, as well as in N. benthamiana. We also investigated whether AFLPs could be used to infer genetic relationships within N. langsdorffii and related species from section Alatae. A phenetic analysis of the AFLP data showed that there are two main lineages within N. langsdorffii, and that both contain populations expressing dominant resistance to P. tabacina. PMID:22936937

Zhang, Shouan; Gao, Muqiang; Zaitlin, David

2012-01-01

334

Screening of Molecular Virulence Markers in Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Clinical Infections  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and Pseudomonas (Ps.) aeruginosa are two of the most frequently opportunistic pathogens isolated in nosocomial infections, responsible for severe infections in immunocompromised hosts. The frequent emergence of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa strains has determined the development of new strategies in order to elucidate the different mechanisms used by these bacteria at different stages of the infectious process, providing the scientists with new procedures for preventing, or at least improving, the control of S. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa infections. The purpose of this study was to characterize the molecular markers of virulence in S. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa strains isolated from different clinical specimens. We used multiplex and uniplex PCR assays to detect the genes encoding different cell-wall associated and extracellular virulence factors, in order to evaluate potential associations between the presence of putative virulence genes and the outcome of infections caused by these bacteria. Our results demonstrate that all the studied S. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa strains synthesize the majority of the investigated virulence determinants, probably responsible for different types of infections. PMID:21614207

Cotar, Ani-Ioana; Chifiriuc, Mariana-Carmen; Dinu, Sorin; Bucur, Marcela; Iordache, Carmen; Banu, Otilia; Dracea, Olguta; Larion, Cristina; Lazar, Veronica

2010-01-01

335

Molecular markers for identifying a new selected variety of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective breeding of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during the last decade has produced new varieties exhibiting high growth rates and disease resistance. However, the identification of new varieties of shrimps from their phenotypic characters is difficult. This study introduces a new approach for identifying varieties of shrimps using molecular markers of microsatellites and mitochondrial control region sequences. The method was employed to identify a new selected variety, Kehai No. 1 (KH-1), from three representative stocks (control group): Zhengda; Tongwei; and a stock collected from Fujian Province, which is now cultured in mainland China. By pooled genotyping of KH-1 and the control group, five microsatellites showing differences between KH-1 and the control group were screened out. Individual genotyping data confirmed the results from pooled genotyping. The genotyping data for the five microsatellites were applied to the assignment analysis of the KH-1 group and the control group using the partial Bayesian assignment method in GENECLASS2. By sequencing the mitochondrial control regions of individuals from the KH-1 and control group, four haplotypes were observed in the KH-1 group, whereas 14 haplotypes were obtained in the control group. By combining the microsatellite assignment analysis with mitochondrial control region analysis, the average accuracy of identification of individuals in the KH-1 group and control group reached 89%. The five selected microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control region sequences were highly polymorphic and could be used to distinguish new selected varieties of L. vannamei from other populations cultured in China.

Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Jingwen; Li, Fuhua; Huang, Hao; Li, Yijun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-10-01

336

Molecular markers and imaging tools to identify malignant potential in Barrett's esophagus  

PubMed Central

Due to its rapidly rising incidence and high mortality, esophageal adenocarcinoma is a major public health concern, particularly in Western countries. The steps involved in the progression from its predisposing condition, gastroesophageal reflux disease, to its premalignant disorder, Barrett’s esophagus, and to cancer, are incompletely understood. Current screening and surveillance methods are limited by the lack of population-wide utility, incomplete sampling of standard biopsies, and subjectivity of evaluation. Advances in endoscopic ablation have raised the hope of effective therapy for eradication of high-risk Barrett’s lesions, but improvements are needed in determining when to apply this treatment and how to follow patients clinically. Researchers have evaluated numerous potential molecular biomarkers with the goal of detecting dysplasia, with varying degrees of success. The combination of biomarker panels with epidemiologic risk factors to yield clinical risk scoring systems is promising. New approaches to sample tissue may also be combined with these biomarkers for less invasive screening and surveillance. The development of novel endoscopic imaging tools in recent years has the potential to markedly improve detection of small foci of dysplasia in vivo. Current and future efforts will aim to determine the combination of markers and imaging modalities that will most effectively improve the rate of early detection of high-risk lesions in Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:25400987

Bennett, Michael; Mashimo, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

337

Glutamine synthetase sequence evolution in the mycobacteria and their use as molecular markers for Actinobacteria speciation  

PubMed Central

Background Although the gene encoding for glutamine synthetase (glnA) is essential in several organisms, multiple glnA copies have been identified in bacterial genomes such as those of the phylum Actinobacteria, notably the mycobacterial species. Intriguingly, previous reports have shown that only one copy (glnA1) is essential for growth in M. tuberculosis, while the other copies (glnA2, glnA3 and glnA4) are not. Results In this report it is shown that the glnA1 and glnA2 encoded glutamine synthetase sequences were inherited from an Actinobacteria ancestor, while the glnA4 and glnA3 encoded GS sequences were sequentially acquired during Actinobacteria speciation. The glutamine synthetase sequences encoded by glnA4 and glnA3 are undergoing reductive evolution in the mycobacteria, whilst those encoded by glnA1 and glnA2 are more conserved. Conclusion Different selective pressures by the ecological niche that the organisms occupy may influence the sequence evolution of glnA1 and glnA2 and thereby affecting phylogenies based on the protein sequences they encode. The findings in this report may impact the use of similar sequences as molecular markers, as well as shed some light on the evolution of glutamine synthetase in the mycobacteria. PMID:19245690

Hayward, Don; van Helden, Paul D; Wiid, Ian JF

2009-01-01

338

Intraspecific chromosomal and genetic polymorphism in Brassica napus L. detected by cytogenetic and molecular markers.  

PubMed

The application of DNA intercalator 9-aminoacridine allowed us to increase the resolution of chromosome C-banding and DAPI-banding patterns and to investigate chromosomal polymorphism in karyotypes of seven spring and six winter rape varieties. It was shown that the pericentromeric and intercalary C-bands of most of the chromosomes in spring rape were smaller in size and less polymorphic than those of winter rape. More 26S and 5S rDNA sites were found in the winter rape karyotypes than the spring varieties. Separate or colocalized 26S and 5S rDNA sites were revealed on chromosomes 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 14, 15, 16 and 18. Intervarietal and intravarietal polymorphism of the number and chromosomal localization of rDNA sites were detected. The generalized idiogram of chromosomes of 13 Brassica napus varieties with account of all possibilities of C-banding patterns as well as localization of 26S and 5S rDNA sites were constructed. Polymorphism of the examined molecular and cytogenetic markers as well as the heterozygosis level of FAE1.1 gene controlling erucic acid synthesis in rapeseed was higher in the winter varieties than in the spring ones. The obtained data were in a atisfactory agreement with increased tolerance to environmental stress conditions of winter rape. PMID:24840830

Amosova, Alexandra V; Zemtsova, Lyudmila V; Grushetskaya, Zoya E; Samatadze, Tatiana E; Mozgova, Galina V; Pilyuk, Yadviga E; Volovik, Valentina T; Melnikova, Natalia V; Zelenin, Alexandr V; Lemesh, Valentina A; Muravenko, Olga V

2014-04-01

339

Molecular markers for identifying a new selected variety of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective breeding of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during the last decade has produced new varieties exhibiting high growth rates and disease resistance. However, the identification of new varieties of shrimps from their phenotypic characters is difficult. This study introduces a new approach for identifying varieties of shrimps using molecular markers of microsatellites and mitochondrial control region sequences. The method was employed to identify a new selected variety, Kehai No. 1 (KH-1), from three representative stocks (control group): Zhengda; Tongwei; and a stock collected from Fujian Province, which is now cultured in mainland China. By pooled genotyping of KH-1 and the control group, five microsatellites showing differences between KH-1 and the control group were screened out. Individual genotyping data confirmed the results from pooled genotyping. The genotyping data for the five microsatellites were applied to the assignment analysis of the KH-1 group and the control group using the partial Bayesian assignment method in GENECLASS2. By sequencing the mitochondrial control regions of individuals from the KH-1 and control group, four haplotypes were observed in the KH-1 group, whereas 14 haplotypes were obtained in the control group. By combining the microsatellite assignment analysis with mitochondrial control region analysis, the average accuracy of identification of individuals in the KH-1 group and control group reached 89%. The five selected microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control region sequences were highly polymorphic and could be used to distinguish new selected varieties of L. vannamei from other populations cultured in China.

Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Jingwen; Li, Fuhua; Huang, Hao; Li, Yijun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiang, Jianhai

2015-01-01

340

Conservation of wild animals by assisted reproduction and molecular marker technology.  

PubMed

Wild animals are an integral component of the ecosystem. Their decimation due to abrupt natural calamities or due to gradual human intervention would be disastrous to the ecosystem and would alter the balance in nature between various biotic components. Such an imbalance could have an adverse effect on the ecosystem. Therefore, there is an urgent need to put an end to the ever increasing list of endangered species by undertaking both in situ and ex situ conservation using tools of modern biology, to ascertain the degree of genetic variation and reproductive competence in these animals. This review highlights the development and use of molecular markers such as microsatellites, minisatellites, mitochondrial control region, cytochrome b and MHC loci to assess the genetic variation in various Indian wild animals such as the lion, tiger, leopard and deer. The review also presents data on the semen profile of the big cats of India. Reproductive technologies such as cryopreservation of semen and artificial insemination in big cats are also highlighted. PMID:15255374

Shivaji, S; Kholkute, S D; Verma, S K; Gaur, Ajay; Umapathy, G; Singh, Anju; Sontakke, Sadanand; Shailaja, K; Reddy, Anuradha; Monika, S; Sivaram, V; Jyotsna, B; Bala, Satyare; Ahmed, M Shakeel; Bala, Aruna; Chandrashekar, B V N; Gupta, Sandeep; Prakash, Surya; Singh, Lalji

2003-07-01

341

Tumor Heterogeneity: Mechanisms and Bases for a Reliable Application of Molecular Marker Design  

PubMed Central

Tumor heterogeneity is a confusing finding in the assessment of neoplasms, potentially resulting in inaccurate diagnostic, prognostic and predictive tests. This tumor heterogeneity is not always a random and unpredictable phenomenon, whose knowledge helps designing better tests. The biologic reasons for this intratumoral heterogeneity would then be important to understand both the natural history of neoplasms and the selection of test samples for reliable analysis. The main factors contributing to intratumoral heterogeneity inducing gene abnormalities or modifying its expression include: the gradient ischemic level within neoplasms, the action of tumor microenvironment (bidirectional interaction between tumor cells and stroma), mechanisms of intercellular transference of genetic information (exosomes), and differential mechanisms of sequence-independent modifications of genetic material and proteins. The intratumoral heterogeneity is at the origin of tumor progression and it is also the byproduct of the selection process during progression. Any analysis of heterogeneity mechanisms must be integrated within the process of segregation of genetic changes in tumor cells during the clonal expansion and progression of neoplasms. The evaluation of these mechanisms must also consider the redundancy and pleiotropism of molecular pathways, for which appropriate surrogate markers would support the presence or not of heterogeneous genetics and the main mechanisms responsible. This knowledge would constitute a solid scientific background for future therapeutic planning. PMID:22408433

Diaz-Cano, Salvador J.

2012-01-01

342

Comparison of algorithms to infer genetic population structure from unlinked molecular markers.  

PubMed

Identifying population genetic structure (PGS) is crucial for breeding and conservation. Several clustering algorithms are available to identify the underlying PGS to be used with genetic data of maize genotypes. In this work, six methods to identify PGS from unlinked molecular marker data were compared using simulated and experimental data consisting of multilocus-biallelic genotypes. Datasets were delineated under different biological scenarios characterized by three levels of genetic divergence among populations (low, medium, and high FST) and two numbers of sub-populations (K=3 and K=5). The relative performance of hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering, as well as model-based clustering (STRUCTURE) and clustering from neural networks (SOM-RP-Q). We use the clustering error rate of genotypes into discrete sub-populations as comparison criterion. In scenarios with great level of divergence among genotype groups all methods performed well. With moderate level of genetic divergence (FST=0.2), the algorithms SOM-RP-Q and STRUCTURE performed better than hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering. In all simulated scenarios with low genetic divergence and in the experimental SNP maize panel (largely unlinked), SOM-RP-Q achieved the lowest clustering error rate. The SOM algorithm used here is more effective than other evaluated methods for sparse unlinked genetic data. PMID:24964261

Peña-Malavera, Andrea; Bruno, Cecilia; Fernandez, Elmer; Balzarini, Monica

2014-08-01

343

Gene Expression Profiles in Cells of Peripheral Blood Identify New Molecular Markers of Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Blood leukocytes play a major role in mediating local and systemic inflammation during acute pancreatitis. We hypothesize that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in circulation exhibit unique changes in gene expression, and could provide a “reporter” function that reflects the inflammatory response in pancreas of acute pancreatitis. Methods To determine specific changes in blood leukocytes during acute pancreatitis, we studied gene transcription profile of in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in a rat model of experimental pancreatitis (sodium taurocholate). Normal rats, saline controls and a model of septic shock were used as a controls. cRNA obtained from PBMC of each group (n = 3) were applied to Affymetrix rat genome DNA Gene Chip Arrays. Results From the 8,799 rat genes analyzed, 140 genes showed unique significant changes in their expression in PBMC during the acute phase of pancreatitis, but not in sepsis. Among the 140 genes, 57 were upregulated, while 69 were downregulated. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor, prostaglandin E2 receptor and phospholipase D1 are among the top upregulated genes. Others include genes involved in G protein-coupled receptor and TGF-?-mediated signaling pathways, while genes associated with apoptosis, glucocorticoid receptors and even the cholecystokinin receptor are downregulated. Conclusions Microarray analysis in transcriptional profiling of PBMC showed that genes that are uniquely related to molecular and pancreatic function display differential expression in acute pancreatitis. Profiling genes obtained from an easily accessible source during severe pancreatitis may identify surrogate markers for disease severity. PMID:18347268

Bluth, Martin; Lin, Yin-yao; Zhang, Hong; Viterbo, Dominick; Zenilman, Michael

2009-01-01

344

Current Status of Molecular Markers for Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly lethal malignancy with near 100% mortality. This is in part due to the fact that most patients present with metastatic or locally advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. Significantly, in nearly 95% of PC patients there is neither an associated family history of PC nor of diseases known to be associated with an increased risk of PC. These groups of patients who comprise the bulk of PC cases are termed as “sporadic PC” in contrast to the familial PC cases that comprise only about 5% of all PCs. Given the insidious onset of the malignancy and its extreme resistance to chemo and radiotherapy, an abundance of research in recent years has focused on identifying biomarkers for the early detection of PC, specifically aiming at the sporadic PC cohort. However, while several studies have established that asymptomatic individuals with a positive family history of PC and those with certain heritable syndromes are candidates for PC screening, the role of screening in identifying sporadic PC is still an unsettled question. The present review attempts to assess this critical question by investigating the recent advances made in molecular markers with potential use in the early diagnosis of sporadic PC- the largest cohort of PC cases worldwide. It also outlines a novel yet simple risk-factor based stratification system that could be potentially employed by clinicians to identify those individuals who at an elevated-risk for the development of sporadic PC and therefore candidates for screening. PMID:20888394

Chakraborty, Subhankar; Baine, Michael J.; Sasson, Aaron R.; Batra, Surinder K.

2010-01-01

345

Microsatellites and RFLP probes from maize are efficient sources of molecular markers for the biomass energy crop Miscanthus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of Gramineae markers was carried out with the aim of developing cost-effective methods for the molecular analysis\\u000a of Miscanthus species. Ten out of twenty Gramineae RFLP probes from ”anchor” sets hybridized well to Miscanthus DNA while all 15 maize probes tested cross-hybridized successfully, showing similar patterns in both species. Cross-taxa\\u000a amplification of maize microsatellite primers was then tested.

P. Hernández; G. Dorado; D. A. Laurie; A. Martín; J. W. Snape

2001-01-01

346

Assessments of Biodiversity Based on Molecular Markers and Morphological Traits among West-Bank, Palestine Fig Genotypes (Ficus carica L.)  

E-print Network

American Journal of Plant Sciences, 2012, 3, 1241-1251 http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2012.39150 Published Online September 2012 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/ajps) 1241 Assessments of Biodiversity Based on Molecular Markers and Morphological...- turae, Vol. 107, No. 4, 2006, pp. 347-351. doi:10.1016/j.scienta.2005.11.006 [8] G. R. Rout and A. Mohapatra, “Use of Molecular Mark- ers in Ornamental Plants: A Critical Reappraisal,” Euro- pean Journal of Horticultural Science, Vol. 71, No. 2, 2006...

Basheer-Salimia, Rezq; Awad, Murad; Ward, Joy K.

2012-09-26

347

Comparisons of DNA marker-based genetic diversity with phenotypic estimates in maize grown in Pakistan.  

PubMed

We compared DNA-based genetic diversity estimates with conventional estimates by investigating agronomically important traits in maize grown in the northwestern region of Pakistan. RAPD markers were used to characterize 10 commonly cultivated maize genotypes. The same material was tested for phenotypic variation of quantitative traits using replicated field trials. The genetic distances between pairs of genotypes using RAPD data were used to generate a similarity matrix and to construct a phenogram. Statistical analyses were carried out on the data obtained from field trials of all maize genotypes for days to 50% tasseling, days to 50% silking, plant height, ear height, grain yield, grain weight per cob, and ear length. Analysis of variance and single degree of freedom contrasts were performed on morphological data to examine the relationship between molecular-based clusters and agronomic traits. A molecular marker-based phenogram led to the grouping of all genotypes into four major clusters, some of which were distantly related. These clusters contained one to four genotypes. Analysis of variance showed significant variations among all genotypes for agronomic traits. The single degree of freedom contrasts between groups of genotypes indicated significant differences for most traits. Pair-wise comparisons between clusters were also significant. The two types of data correlated well, providing an opportunity for better choices for selection. PMID:20882490

Shah, M M; Hassan, S W; Maqbool, K; Shahzadi, I; Pervez, A

2010-01-01

348

Subtracted Diversity Array Identifies Novel Molecular Markers Including Retrotransposons for Fingerprinting Echinacea Species  

PubMed Central

Echinacea, native to the Canadian prairies and the prairie states of the United States, has a long tradition as a folk medicine for the Native Americans. Currently, Echinacea are among the top 10 selling herbal medicines in the U.S. and Europe, due to increasing popularity for the treatment of common cold and ability to stimulate the immune system. However, the genetic relationship within the species of this genus is unclear, making the authentication of the species used for the medicinal industry more difficult. We report the construction of a novel Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA) for Echinacea species and demonstrate the potential of this array for isolating highly polymorphic sequences. In order to selectively isolate Echinacea-specific sequences, a Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) was performed between a pool of twenty-four Echinacea genotypes and a pool of other angiosperms and non-angiosperms. A total of 283 subtracted genomic DNA (gDNA) fragments were amplified and arrayed. Twenty-seven Echinacea genotypes including four that were not used in the array construction could be successfully discriminated. Interestingly, unknown samples of E. paradoxa and E. purpurea could be unambiguously identified from the cluster analysis. Furthermore, this Echinacea-specific SDA was also able to isolate highly polymorphic retrotransposon sequences. Five out of the eleven most discriminatory features matched to known retrotransposons. This is the first time retrotransposon sequences have been used to fingerprint Echinacea, highlighting the potential of retrotransposons as based molecular markers useful for fingerprinting and studying diversity patterns in Echinacea. PMID:23940565

Olarte, Alexandra; Mantri, Nitin; Nugent, Gregory; Pang, Edwin C. K.

2013-01-01

349

GALNT11 as a new molecular marker in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

Aberrant mucin O-glycosylation often occurs in different cancers and is characterized by immature expression of simple mucin-type carbohydrates. At present, there are some controversial reports about the Tn antigen (GalNAc?-O-Ser/Thr) expression and there is a great lack of information about the [UDP-N-acetyl-?-d-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GalNAc-Ts)] expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To gain insight in these issues we evaluated the Tn antigen expression in CLL patient samples using two Tn binding proteins with different fine specificity. We also studied the expression from 14 GalNAc-Ts genes in CLL patients by RT-PCR. Our results have provided additional information about the expression level of the Tn antigen, suggesting that a low density of Tn residues is expressed in CLL cells. We also found that GALNT11 was expressed in CLL cells and normal T cell whereas little or no expression was found in normal B cells. Based on these results, GALNT11 expression was assessed by qPCR in a cohort of 50 CLL patients. We found significant over-expression of GALNT11 in 96% of B-CLL cells when compared to normal B cells. Moreover, we confirmed the expression of this enzyme at the protein level. Finally we found that GALNT11 expression was significantly associated with the mutational status of the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV), [?(2)(1)=18.26; P<0.0001], lipoprotein lipase expression [?(2)(1)=13.72; P=0.0002] and disease prognosis [?(2)(1)=15.49; P<0.0001]. Our evidence suggests that CLL patient samples harbor aberrant O-glycosylation highlighted by Tn antigen expression and that the over-expression of GALNT11 constitutes a new molecular marker for CLL. PMID:24076351

Libisch, M G; Casás, M; Chiribao, Ml; Moreno, P; Cayota, A; Osinaga, E; Oppezzo, P; Robello, C

2014-01-01

350

Molecular markers of yolk sac fry development in nine families of lake trout.  

PubMed

Salmonids in certain areas of North America and northern Europe suffer from reproductive disturbances manifested through the death of yolk sac fry. These disturbances are referred to as early mortality syndrome (EMS) in the Great Lakes region and M74 in the Baltic Sea. Both of these syndromes have been associated with reduced concentrations of thiamine in affected females and their eggs. However, large variations in signs and mortality, both within and between the individual syndromes, have been reported. Yolk sac fry mortality (M74) in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar has been shown to be associated with reduced DNA binding of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1 (HIF-1), reduced production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein, decreased capillary density, and down-regulation of adult-type globin gene transcription (which is responsible for the protein part of adult hemoglobin). One of the main effects of all of these changes is reduced oxygen transport to the tissues of affected fry. In this study, the developmental patterns of HIF-1 DNA binding, VEGF protein expression, and adult-type globin gene transcription were analyzed in nine family groups of Lake Michigan lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. The results indicate that HIF-1 DNA binding and globin gene transcription increase from hatch to the end of yolk sac stage. Interindividual and between-family biological variations were detected, especially in VEGF protein expression and globin gene transcription. Our results demonstrate the possibility of using these molecular markers in investigating the etiology of EMS and making comparisons between the mechanisms of different salmonid yolk sac fry mortalities. PMID:20218502

Vuori, Kristiina A; Paavilainen, Tiia; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Czesny, Sergiusz; Rinchard, Jacques

2009-12-01

351

A single molecular marker to distinguish between strains of Trichogramma cacoeciae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single microsatellite marker was used to distinguish between strains of Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal collected from the carob moth (Ectomyelois ceratoniae) in Tunisia and from the grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) and a hawk moth in France. This marker can be used as an identification and monitoring tool in pest management programs.

J. Pizzol; O. Khoualdia; A. Ferran; P. Chavigny; F. Vanlerberghe-Masutti

2005-01-01

352

The genome of the Mediterranean fruitfly ceratitis capitata : Localization of molecular markers by in situ hybridization to salivary gland polytene chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hybridized cloned DNA segments to salivary gland polytene chromosomes of the medfly,Ceratitis capitata, and thus established molecular markers for 24 sites on 6 out of 10 autosomal arms. An additional marker identified a medfly repetitive element that hybridizes to approximately 100 autosomal sites as well as a granular network that is thought to represent theX chromosome. Some of the

A. Zacharopoulou; M. Frisardi; C. Savakis; A. S. Robinson; P. Tolias; M. Konsolaki; K. Komitopoulou; F. C. Kafatos

1992-01-01

353

DEVELOPMENT OF MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTIC MARKERS FOR GLASSY-WINGED AND SMOKE-TREE SHARPSHOOTERS FOR USE IN PREDATOR GUT CONTENT EXAMINATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To aid in identifying key predators of Proconiini sharpshooter species present in California, we developed and tested molecular diagnostic markers for the glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca coagulata (Say) and smoke-tree sharpshooter Homalodisca liturata (Ball) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae: Proconii...

354

MARKER-ASSISTED SELECTION FOR DISEASE RESISTANCE IN COMMON BEAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marker-assisted selection (MAS) can provide an effective and efficient breeding tool for maintaining and enhancing disease resistance. For common bean, PCR-based RAPD and SCAR markers linked with more than 20 major genes conditioning resistance to angular leaf spot, anthracnose, ashy stem blight, be...

355

Hybridization in staminate and pistillate Salix alba and S. fragilis (Salicaceae): morphology versus RAPDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?The polyploid Salix alba–Salix fragilis hybrid complex is rather difficult to study when using only morphological characters. Most of the characters have a low diagnostic\\u000a value for unambiguously identifying the hybrids, introgression patterns and population structures. Morphology and molecular\\u000a variation determined with random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) were investigated in a set of staminate and pistillate\\u000a willows from Belgium. A

L. Triest

2001-01-01

356

Making the most of mitochondrial genomes--markers for phylogeny, molecular ecology and barcodes in Schistosoma (Platyhelminthes: Digenea).  

PubMed

An increasing number of complete sequences of mitochondrial (mt) genomes provides the opportunity to optimise the choice of molecular markers for phylogenetic and ecological studies. This is particularly the case where mt genomes from closely related taxa have been sequenced; e.g., within Schistosoma. These blood flukes include species that are the causative agents of schistosomiasis, where there has been a need to optimise markers for species and strain recognition. For many phylogenetic and population genetic studies, the choice of nucleotide sequences depends primarily on suitable PCR primers. Complete mt genomes allow individual gene or other mt markers to be assessed relative to one another for potential information content, prior to broad-scale sampling. We assess the phylogenetic utility of individual genes and identify regions that contain the greatest interspecific variation for molecular ecological and diagnostic markers. We show that variable characters are not randomly distributed along the genome and there is a positive correlation between polymorphism and divergence. The mt genomes of African and Asian schistosomes were compared with the available intraspecific dataset of Schistosoma mansoni through sliding window analyses, in order to assess whether the observed polymorphism was at a level predicted from interspecific comparisons. We found a positive correlation except for the two genes (cox1 and nad1) adjoining the putative control region in S. mansoni. The genes nad1, nad4, nad5, cox1 and cox3 resolved phylogenies that were consistent with a benchmark phylogeny and in general, longer genes performed better in phylogenetic reconstruction. Considering the information content of entire mt genome sequences, partial cox1 would not be the ideal marker for either species identification (barcoding) or population studies with Schistosoma species. Instead, we suggest the use of cox3 and nad5 for both phylogenetic and population studies. Five primer pairs designed against Schistosoma mekongi and Schistosoma malayensis were tested successfully against Schistosoma japonicum. In combination, these fragments encompass 20-27% of the variation amongst the genomes (average total length approximately 14,000bp), thus providing an efficient means of encapsulating the greatest amount of variation within the shortest sequence. Comparative mitogenomics provides the basis of a rational approach to molecular marker selection and optimisation. PMID:17570370

Zarowiecki, M Z; Huyse, T; Littlewood, D T J

2007-10-01

357

Genetic Variability of Beauveria bassiana and a DNA Marker for Environmental Monitoring of a Highly Virulent Isolate Against Cosmopolites sordidus.  

PubMed

The banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) is one of a number of pests that attack banana crops. The use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana as a biological control agent for this pest may contribute towards reducing the application of chemical insecticides on banana crops. In this study, the genetic variability of a collection of Brazilian isolates of B. bassiana was evaluated. Samples were obtained from various geographic regions of Brazil, and from different hosts of the Curculionidae family. Based on the DNA fingerprints generated by RAPD and AFLP, we found that 92 and 88 % of the loci were polymorphic, respectively. The B. bassiana isolates were attributed to two genotypic clusters based on the RAPD data, and to three genotypic clusters, when analyzed with AFLP. The nucleotide sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA intergenic spacers confirmed that all isolates are in fact B. bassiana. Analysis of molecular variance showed that variability among the isolates was not correlated with geographic origin or hosts. A RAPD-specific marker for isolate CG 1024, which is highly virulent to C. sordidus, was cloned and sequenced. Based on the sequences obtained, specific PCR primers BbasCG1024F (5'-TGC GGC TGA GGA GGA CT-3') and BbasCG1024R (5'-TGC GGC TGA GTG TAG AAC-3') were designed for detecting and monitoring this isolate in the field. PMID:24293712

Ferri, D V; Munhoz, C F; Neves, P M O; Ferracin, L M; Sartori, D; Vieira, M L C; Fungaro, M H P

2012-12-01

358

[Influence of pre-analytical storage conditions on four plasma coagulation molecular markers measured using a STACIA automatic coagulation analyzer].  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of specimen storage conditions on the analysis of the coagulation molecular markers, soluble fibrin (SF), thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), thrombomodulin (TM) and tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex (total PAI-1: tPAI). Marker levels were measured using a STACIA automatic coagulation analyzer. Among these four markers in blood from healthy subjects, only tPAI increased gradually with time, and the differences were especially marked when blood samples were stored at room temperature. Patient blood samples were stored for 4 hours under three different conditions: whole blood storage on ice, storage on ice after centrifugation, and refrigerated storage after centrifugation. Analytical results were compared between the three sets of samples. There were no significant differences in TAT or TM after 4 hours' storage under the different conditions. However, SF was decreased in several samples. In 11 of 14 samples with >20 microg/ml SF, SF levels were reduced by >10 microg/ml when whole blood without centrifugation was stored on ice. tPAI levels increased slightly after storage for 4 hours under all three conditions. These results suggest that centrifugation followed by refrigeration is the optimal storage method for blood samples when all four markers are to be measured simultaneously in the same sample. PMID:23427695

Yae, Masataka; Sueishi, Machiko; Mikami, Yoko; Kinoshita, Misae; Hirano, Sumiko; Nakamura, Kiyoko; Futata, Yuko; Kawashima, Hironobu; Ohkubo, Kumiko; Ishikura, Hiroyasu; Matsunaga, Akira

2012-12-01

359

Development of user-friendly functional molecular markers for VvDXS gene conferring muscat flavor in grapevine.  

PubMed

High fruit and wine quality combined with good climatic adaptation and disease resistance are essential objectives of grape breeding. While several molecular markers are available for pyramiding resistance to fungal pathogens, molecular tools for predicting fruit composition are still scarce. Muscat flavor, caused by the accumulation of monoterpenoids in the berry, is an important target trait for breeding, sought after in both table grapes and wine. Four missense mutations in the VvDXS gene in grape germplasm have been shown to be tightly linked to muscat flavor. Here we present highly reproducible and breeder-friendly functional markers for each of the targeted polymorphisms developed by using either the multiplexed minisequencing SNaPshot™ method, the high-resolution melting (HRM) assay or the cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence system. A total of 242 grapevine accessions were analyzed to optimize these different genotyping methods and to provide allele-specific markers for accurate selection of muscat flavor at early stages of grape breeding programs. The HRM and the minisequencing SNaPshot multiplex assays allow for high-throughput automated screening and are suitable for large-scale breeding programs and germplasm characterization. PMID:24482604

Emanuelli, F; Sordo, M; Lorenzi, S; Battilana, J; Grando, M S

2014-01-01

360

Characterization of the Miiuy Croaker (Miichthys miiuy) Transcriptome and Development of Immune-Relevant Genes and Molecular Markers  

PubMed Central

Background The miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy) is an important species of marine fish that supports capture fisheries and aquaculture. At present commercial scale aquaculture of this species is limited due to diseases caused by pathogens and parasites which restrict production and limit commercial value. The lack of transcriptomic and genomic information for the miiuy croaker limits the ability of researchers to study the pathogenesis and immune system of this species. In this study we constructed a cDNA library from liver, spleen and kidney which was sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing to enable gene discovery and molecular marker development. Principal Findings In our study, a total of 69,071 unigenes with an average length of 572 bp were obtained. Of these, 45,676 (66.13%) were successfully annotated in public databases. The unigenes were also annotated with Gene Ontology, Clusters of Orthologous Groups and KEGG pathways. Additionally, 498 immune-relevant genes were identified and classified. Furthermore, 14,885 putative simple sequence repeats (cSSRs) and 8,510 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified from the 69,071 unigenes. Conclusion The miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy) transcriptome data provides a large resource to identify new genes involved in many processes including those involved in the response to pathogens and diseases. Furthermore, the thousands of potential cSSR and SNP markers found in this study are important resources with respect to future development of molecular marker assisted breeding programs for the miiuy croaker. PMID:24714210

Che, Rongbo; Sun, Yueyan; Sun, Dianqiao; Xu, Tianjun

2014-01-01

361

Copyright 1999 by the Genetics Society of America Estimation of Pairwise Relatedness With Molecular Markers  

E-print Network

Applications of quantitative genetics and conservation genetics often require measures of pairwise marker-field of conservation genetics. For example, in captive based estimators for wCopyright © 1999 by the Genetics Society of America Estimation of Pairwise Relatedness

Lynch, Michael

362

Application of ISSR Markers to Analyze Molecular Relationships in Iranian Jasmine (Jasminum spp.) Accessions.  

PubMed

There are many species of jasmines in different regions of Iran in natural or cultivated form, and there is no information about their genetic status. Therefore, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was used to evaluate genetic variations of the 53 accessions representing eight species of Jasminum collected from different regions of Iran. A total of 21 ISSR primers were used which generated 981 bands of different sizes. Mean percentage of polymorphic bands was 90.64 %. Maximum resolving power, polymorphic information content average, and marker index values were 21.55, 0.35, and 14.42 for primers of 3, 4, and 3 respectively. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram based on Jaccard's coefficients indicated that 53 accessions were divided into two major clusters. The first major cluster was divided into two subclusters; the subcluster A included Jasminum grandiflorum L., J. officinale L., and J. azoricum L. and the subcluster B consisted of three forms of J. sambac L. (single, semi-double, and double flowers). The second major cluster was divided into two subclusters; the first subcluster (C) included J. humile L., J. primulinum Hemsl., J. nudiflorum Lindl. and the second subcluster (D) consisted of J. fruticans L. At the species level, the highest percentage of polymorphism (34.05 %), numbers of effective alleles (1.16), Shannon index (0.151), and Nei's genetic diversity (0.098) were observed in J. officinale. The lowest values of percentage polymorphism (0.011), number of effective alleles (1.009), Shannon index (0.007), and Nei's genetic diversity (0.005) were obtained for J. nudiflorum. Based on pairwise population matrix of Nei's unbiased genetic identity, the highest identity (0.85) was found between J.officinale and J. azoricum and the lowest identity (0.69) was between J. grandiflorum and J. perimulinum. Based on analysis of molecular variance, the amount of genetic variations among the eight populations was 83 %. This study demonstrated that the ISSR is an useful tool in jasmine genomic diversity studies and to detect their relationships. PMID:25189463

Ghasemi Ghehsareh, Masood; Salehi, Hassan; Khosh-Khui, Morteza; Niazi, Ali

2014-09-01

363

Size distribution of particle-phase molecular markers during a severe winter pollution episode.  

PubMed

Airborne particulate matter was collected using filter samplers and cascade impactors in six size fractions below 1.8 microm during a severe winter air pollution event at three sites in the Central Valley of California. The smallest size fraction analyzed was 0.056 < Dp <0.1 microm particle diameter, which accounts for the majority of the mass in the ultrafine (PM0.1) size range. Separate samples were collected during the daytime (10 a.m. to 6 p.m. PST) and nighttime (8 p.m. to 8 a.m. PST) to characterize diurnal patterns. Each sample was extracted with organic solvents and analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry for molecular markers that can be used for size-resolved source apportionment calculations. Colocated impactor and filter measurements were highly correlated (R8 > 0.8) for retene, benzo[ghi]flouranthene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, coronene, MW302 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), 17beta(H)-21alpha(H)-30-norhopane, 17alpha(H)-21beta(H)-hopane, alphabetabeta-20R-C29-ethylcholestane, levoglucosan, and cholesterol. Of these compounds, levoglucosan was present in the highest concentration (60-2080 ng m(-3)) followed by cholesterol (6-35 ng m(-3)), PAHs (2-38 ng m(-3)), and hopanes and steranes (0-2 ng m(-3)). Nighttime concentrations were higher than daytime concentrations in all cases. Organic compound size distributions were generally similar to the total carbon size distributions during the nighttime but showed greater variability during the daytime. This may reflect the dominance of fresh emission in the stagnant surface layer during the evening hours and the presence of aged organic aerosol at the surface during the daytime when the atmosphere is better mixed. All of the measured organic compound particle size distributions had a single mode that peaked somewhere between 0.18 and 0.56 microm, but the width of each distribution varied by compound. Cholesterol generally had the broadest particle size distribution, while benzo[ghi]perylene and 17alpha(H)-21beta(H)-29-norhopane generally had sharper peaks. The difference between the size distributions of the various particle-phase organic compounds reflects the fact that these compounds exist in particles emitted from different sources. The results of the current study will prove useful for size-resolved source apportionment exercises. PMID:18800516

Kleeman, Michael J; Riddle, Sarah G; Jakober, Chris A

2008-09-01

364

[RAPD analysis of plant pathogenic coryneform bacteria].  

PubMed

RAPD analysis was used for the taxonomy of plant pathogenic coryneform bacteria, especially for the classification of two new pathogens (Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. basellae pv. nov. and Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. beticola pv. nov.). 20 random primers were screened from 50 ones to detect polymorphism among the total strains used. 80.4% were polymorphic bands among the 225 ones produced. The results of pairwise similarity and UPGMA cluster analysis suggest that the two new pathovars of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera) and malabar spinach (Basella rubra) are genetically close related with Curtobacterium flacumfaciens, and the minimal similarity coefficient is 0.6511. According to the RAPD analysis and previous research, some newly made taxonomic changes of the plant pathogenic coryneform bacteria are discussed. PMID:16496687

Yin, Yan-Ni; Chen, Yong-Fang; Li, Shi-Mo; Guo, Jian-Hua

2005-12-01

365

Identification of Single-Copy Orthologous Genes between Physalis and Solanum lycopersicum and Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Physalis Using Molecular Markers  

PubMed Central

The genus Physalis includes a number of commercially important edible and ornamental species. Its high nutritional value and potential medicinal properties leads to the increased commercial interest in the products of this genus worldwide. However, lack of molecular markers prevents the detailed study of genetics and phylogeny in Physalis, which limits the progress of breeding. In the present study, we compared the DNA sequences between Physalis and tomato, and attempted to analyze genetic diversity in Physalis using tomato markers. Blasting 23180 DNA sequences derived from Physalis against the International Tomato Annotation Group (ITAG) Release2.3 Predicted CDS (SL2.40) discovered 3356 single-copy orthologous genes between them. A total of 38 accessions from at least six species of Physalis were subjected to genetic diversity analysis using 97 tomato markers and 25 SSR markers derived from P. peruviana. Majority (73.2%) of tomato markers could amplify DNA fragments from at least one accession of Physalis. Diversity in Physalis at molecular level was also detected. The average Nei’s genetic distance between accessions was 0.3806 with a range of 0.2865 to 0.7091. These results indicated Physalis and tomato had similarity at both molecular marker and DNA sequence levels. Therefore, the molecular markers developed in tomato can be used in genetic study in Physalis. PMID:23166835

Wei, Jingli; Hu, Xiaorong; Yang, Jingjing; Yang, Wencai

2012-01-01

366

Genetic structure of an endangered plant, Antirrhinum microphyllum (Scrophulariaceae): allozyme and RAPD analysis.  

PubMed

Thirteen allozyme loci and 68 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were analyzed to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of threatened Antirrhinum microphyllum (Scrophulariaceae), a narrow endemic of central Spain known from only four populations. According to allozyme data, species genetic diversity (p = 46.15%, A = 2.61, and H(e) = 0.218), as well as within-population genetic diversity (p = 44.23%, A = 2.10, and H(e) = 0.204), were high when compared to average estimates for other narrowly distributed plant species. Ninety-four percent of species genetic diversity corresponded to within-population genetic diversity. Nevertheless, significant differences were found among populations in allele frequencies of four of the six polymorphic loci, and three private alleles were detected. Inbreeding coefficients (F(IS)) suggest that populations are structured in genetic neighborhoods. The RAPDs also showed high levels of genetic diversity (p = 89.71% and H(e) = 0.188 at the species level, and p = 67.65% and H(e) = 0.171 at the population level). Nei's genetic distances estimated both from allozymes and RAPDs indicated low differentiation among populations. In spite of this, the low frequencies of certain alleles and the presence of private alleles indicate that efforts should be made to conserve all four remaining populations. PMID:21659083

Torres, Elena; Iriondo, José M; Pérez, César

2003-01-01

367

Molecular mapping of genes for opposite leafing in maize using simple-sequence repeat markers.  

PubMed

Maize with opposite phyllotaxy (OP) and also initiating ears in opposite pairs is an aberrant mutant and also precious material for maize breeding and plant evolution studies. Mapping and identifying the markers closely linked to genes for the OP trait are essential for cloning the gene and marker-assisted selection in breeding. We established H14D, a near-isogenic line of the OP trait with H53 genetic background. We found that the OP trait is regulated by two independent dominant genes with mutually complementary relations, named Opp-1 and Opp-2. Screening of seven simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers among the 105 pairs of SSR primers showed polymorphism between the inbred lines H14D and H53. The polymorphic SSR markers were then used to determine linkage with the trait in an F(2) population with 441 progeny, suggesting that SSR marker umc2094 in the Bin2.01 region is linked with Opp-1 at 6.7 cM, and bnlg1831 in Bin2.06 is linked with Opp-2 at 6.1 cM. Further investigation showed that bnlg1092 and umc1028 are linked to Opp-1 and Opp-2 genes, with genetic distances of 12.2 and 1.9 cM. It was also found that the four SSR markers flank the two OP genes, respectively. These results will be useful for marker-assisted selection breeding of OP maize and will also strengthen the basis for cloning of the opposite leafing gene. PMID:22179993

Tan, Y Q; Xie, C X; Jiang, H Y; Ye, H; Xiang, Y; Zhu, S W; Cheng, B J

2011-01-01

368

Analysis of gene expression profiles in normal and neoplastic ovarian tissue samples identifies candidate molecular markers of epithelial ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Epithelial ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic cancer, in part because of the lack of effective early detection methods. Although alterations of several genes, such as c-erb-B2, c-myc, and p53, have been identified in a significant fraction of ovarian cancers, none of these mutations are diagnostic of malignancy or predictive of tumor behavior over time. Here, we used oligonucleotide microarrays with probe sets complementary to >6,000 human genes to identify genes whose expression correlated with epithelial ovarian cancer. We extended current microarray technology by simultaneously hybridizing ovarian RNA samples in a highly parallel manner to a single glass wafer containing 49 individual oligonucleotide arrays separated by gaskets within a custom-built chamber (termed “array-of-arrays”). Hierarchical clustering of the expression data revealed distinct groups of samples. Normal tissues were readily distinguished from tumor tissues, and tumors could be further subdivided into major groupings that correlated both to histological and clinical observations, as well as cell type-specific gene expression. A metric was devised to identify genes whose expression could be considered ideal for molecular determination of epithelial ovarian malignancies. The list of genes generated by this method was highly enriched for known markers of several epithelial malignancies, including ovarian cancer. This study demonstrates the rapidity with which large amounts of expression data can be generated. The results highlight important molecular features of human ovarian cancer and identify new genes as candidate molecular markers. PMID:11158614

Welsh, John B.; Zarrinkar, Patrick P.; Sapinoso, Lisa M.; Kern, Suzanne G.; Behling, Cynthia A.; Monk, Bradley J.; Lockhart, David J.; Burger, Robert A.; Hampton, Garret M.

2001-01-01

369

Insights into the phylogeny of sporadotrichid ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora: Hypotricha) based on genealogical analyses of multiple molecular markers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sporadotrichid ciliates are an especially diverse group. A number of investigators have studied the morphological, morphogenetic, and molecular relationships among members of this group. Despite this, a consistent classification is still lacking and several important questions about the phylogenetic relationships within this group remain unsolved. To improve our understanding of these relationships, we constructed phylogenetic trees using the nucleotide sequences of the small-subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene and amino acid sequences of actin I and ?-tubulin. Analyses of SSrRNA gene sequences indicated that: 1) the Sporadotrichida sensu Lynn (2008) and the Oxytrichidae are polyphyletic; 2) the Uroleptus species, which are classified to urostylids, formed a sister group with the oxytrichids; 3) Halteria grandinella, which is grouped morphologically with oligotrich species, clustered within the oxytrichids. These results are congruent with previous studies based on SSrRNA gene sequences. However, the amino acid sequences of actin I and ?-tubulin yielded different topologies. The main results are: 1) in all phylogenetic trees, the genus Oxytricha was paraphyletic; 2) Uroleptus was sister to a subset of Urostyla and Holosticha, albeit with low supporting values; 3) Halteria grandinella was separated distantly from the Oxytrichidae in trees inferred from actin I amino acid sequences but clustered with oligotrichids in the ?-tubulin analysis. The inconsistency among the trees inferred from these different molecular markers may be caused by rapidly accumulated genetic characterizations of ciliates. Further studies with additional molecular markers and sampling of more taxa are expected to better address the relationships among sporadotrichids.

Hu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Xiaozhong; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.; Al-Farraj, Saleh A.; Song, Weibo

2011-01-01

370

Consistency of population genetics parameters estimated from isozyme and RAPDs dataset in species of genus Prosopis (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variability, population structure and differentiation among 17 populations of 5 species and 2 natural interspecific\\u000a hybrids of section Algarobia of genus Prosopis were analyzed from data of 23 isozyme and 28 RAPD loci. Both markers indicated that the studied populations are highly variable.\\u000a P. alba populations in average showed lower values of genetic variability estimates from isozyme data, but

Laura Inés Ferreyra; Cecilia Bessega; Juan C. Vilardi; Beatriz O. Saidman

2007-01-01

371

Genetic diversity and population differentiation of chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica , in China as revealed by RAPD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen Cryphonectria parasitica populations sampled from six regions in China were investigated using RAPD. Across all 169 isolates from the 17 populations\\u000a evaluated, 52 of the 71 markers (73%) were polymorphic, total genetic diversity (h) was 0.1463, and Shannon’s index was 0.2312. Diversity within populations accounted for 74% of total genetic diversity, and\\u000a genetic differentiation among populations was 0.26 (G

Boqian Yan; Zuozhou Li; Hongwen Huang; Ling Qin

2007-01-01

372

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) detection of dwarf off-types inmicropropagated Cavendish (Musa spp. AAA) bananas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A RAPD marker specific to the dwarf off-type (hereafter known as dwarf) from micropropagation of Cavendish banana (Musa spp. AAA) cultivars New Guinea Cavendish and Williams was identified following an analysis of 57 normal (true-to-type) and 59 dwarf plants generated from several different micropropagation events. Sixty-six random decamer primers were used in the initial screen, of which 19 (28.8%) revealed

Olivia P. Damasco; Glenn C. Graham; Robert J. Henry; Steve W. Adkins; Mike K. Smith; Ian D Godwin

1996-01-01

373

Differences in the apportionment of molecular and morphological variation in North American strawberry and the consequences for genetic resource management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation for 24 morphological traits measured in a greenhouse environment and 36 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers was assessed among 318 wild octoploid strawberry (Fragariaspp.) genotypes from diverse habitats across the northern USA. RAPD marker frequencies and certain leaf and flower morphology traits (petiole color, leaf mass\\/area ratio, leaflet length and width, flower and receptacle diameter, petal width, flowers\\/inflorescence)

Richard E. Harrison; James J. Luby; Glenn R. Furnier; James F. Hancock

2000-01-01

374

Molecular markers linked to the apple scab resistance gene Vbj derived from Malus baccata jackii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding for scab-resistant apple cultivars by pyramiding several resistance genes in the same genetic background is a promising way to control apple scab caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis. To achieve this goal, DNA markers linked to the genes of interest are required in order to select seedlings with the desired resistance allele combinations. For several apple scab resistance genes,

M Gygax; L Gianfranceschi; M Kellerhals; C Gessler; A Patocchi

2004-01-01

375

GLOBAL EXPRESSION PROFILING AS A ROOL TO DEVELOP MOLECULAR MARKERS LINKED TO HERBICIDE STRESS IN ARABIDOPSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Herbicide drift (unintentional physical movement from target to off-target plants) is a cause of crop loss in US. Low-dose, high-potency herbicides that have short environmental persistence times constrain efforts to develop or identify metabolite or biochemical markers of exposu...

376

Identification of molecular markers associated with low chill/heat tolerance in raspberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New genetic markers were developed which are linked to cold and heat tolerant raspberries. Raspberry is a cool season crop, and as such, cannot tolerate the high temperatures of the South during the normal growing season. Expanding the commercial growth range of raspberry production to the southern...

377

Use of molecular markers in breeding for soluble solids content in tomato — a re-examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through earlier breeding efforts, portions of the genome of the wild species Lycopersicon chmielewskii have been introgressed into the cultivated tomato (Rick 1974). These introgressed chromosomal segments have been reported to increase soluble solids in fruit of certain tomato varieties (Rick 1974). Recently, two of the introgressed segments have been identified with RFLP markers and tested for effects on soluble

S. D. Tanksley; J. Hewitt

1988-01-01

378

A clinical, cytogenetic, FISH and molecular study of supernumerary marker 15 chromosomes  

SciTech Connect

We studied 17 patients with supernumerary marker chromosomes shown by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with the 15-centromere specific probe pTRA-25 to be 15-derived. Genetic constitution of the marker chromosomes was investigated using FISH, Southern blot analysis and PCR for proximal and distal loci on 15q as well as conventional cytogenetics. Eight of the 17 patients were mentally retarded. Six of the eight carried a de novo marker 15 containing one or two doses of loci known to be in or near the Prader-Willi/Angelman (PWS/AS) region, whereas none of the nine non-retarded patients had duplications of this region, and only two of the eight whose parents were available had a de novo marker. None of the mentally retarded patients had PWS or AS. In two retarded patients (one de novo, one familial) there was no duplication of the PWS/AS region. Uniparental disomy affecting the normal 15 homologs was excluded in 10 of the patients, including all eight with mental retardation.

Dennis, N.R. [Princess Anne Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom); Crolla, J.A.; Harvey, J.F. [Salisbury District Hospital (United Kingdom)

1994-09-01

379

Molecular genetic characterization of lasquerella new industrial crop using DArTseq markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

DArTseq, a new SNP-based marker platform, was developed and used to analyze the genetic diversity of the US germplasm collection of lesquerella. Lesquerella is a new oilseed crop in the Brassica family found native in the American Southwest. The potential of the species as a domestic source of indu...

380

Molecular markers discriminate closely related species Encarsia diaspidicola and Encarsia berlesei (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): biocontrol candidate agents for white peach scale in Hawaii.  

PubMed

We genetically characterized Encarsia diapsidicola Silvestri and Encarsia berlesei Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) by two molecular methods: phylogenetic analysis of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) and intersimple sequence repeat-polymerase chain reaction (ISSR-PCR) DNA fingerprinting. These two closely related endoparasitoids are candidate biological control agents for the white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozetti (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), in Hawaii. We developed species-specific COI molecular markers that discriminated the two species, and we tested the utility of the E. diaspidicola-specific COI marker to detect parasitism of white peach scale. The COI sequence data uncovered 46-bp differences between the two Encarsia spp. The level of COI genetic divergence between the two species was 9.7%, and the two clustered into their own clade on a parismonious phylogram. ISSR-PCR readily discriminated the two Encarsia spp. because each was observed with fixed species-specific banding patterns. The COI molecular markers were specific for each species because cross-reactivity was not observed with nontarget species. The E. diaspidicola-specific COI markers were successful at detecting parasitism of white peach scale by E. diaspidicola by 24 h. Both molecular marker types successfully discriminated the two Encarsia spp., whereas the COI markers will be useful as tools to assess levels of parasitism in the field and to study competitive interactions between parasitoids. PMID:20568638

De León, Jesse H; Neumann, Gabor; Follett, Peter A; Hollingsworth, Robert G

2010-06-01

381

Molecular mapping of rsp1, rsp2, and rsp3 genes conferring resistance to septoria speckled leaf blotch in barley.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Septoria speckled leaf blotch (SSLB) caused by Septoria passerinii is a common disease in barley. SSLB resistance genes Rsp1, Rsp2, and Rsp3 have previously been identified in the United States Department of Agriculture National Small Grains collection accessions CIho 14300, CIho 4780, and CIho 10644, respectively. Populations of 100 to 120 F(2) individuals were evaluated for SSLB resistance in the greenhouse. Inheritance was evaluated in F(2:3)-derived families in the field. Partial molecular maps for three Rsp genes were constructed on F(2) and F(2:3) families derived from crosses between Robust and the resistant accessions CIho 14300, CIho 4780, and CIho 10644. The resistant locus Rsp1 was mapped to the short arm of chromosome 3H with two flanking diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers, bPb-6978 (8.9 cM) and bPb-9945 (16.3 cM), and two random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, OPC2(441R) (3.0 cM) and UBC285(158R) (4.3 cM). The genes Rsp2 and Rsp3 were positioned on the short arm of barley chromosome 1H with two restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), six DArT, and three RAPD markers. An RFLP marker, MWG938, and an RAPD marker, OPAH5(545C), were tightly associated with Rsp2 at a distance of 0 cM. Five DArT markers spanning the short arm of 1H surrounded Rsp3 at a distance of 2.3 and 5.8 cM, while two RAPD markers-OPBA12(314C) (2.4 cM) in coupling and OPB17(451R) (3.5 cM) in repulsion-flanked Rsp3. Molecular marker data associated with Rsp2 and Rsp3 indicated that the two genes are closely linked on chromosome 1HS. A total of 17 of 154 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) tested were associated with Rsp genes on chromosome 1H and 3H, and they were also integrated into genetic linkage maps of the three F(2) Robust populations. Knowledge about the map position of Rsp genes on barley chromosomes will be useful for breeding for SSLB resistance in barley and eventual gene cloning. PMID:18944370

Lee, S H; Neate, S M

2007-02-01

382

Use of molecular markers to study the effects of environmental impacts on genetic diversity in brown bullhead (Ameirus nebulosus) populations.  

PubMed

Conservation biology needs sound biological information in order to maintain biological diversity in the face of the current rate of loss. An important component of the information needed is the level of genetic diversity within and between populations, especially for those species faced with exposure to environmental stressors. We applied multilocus DNA profile analysis (highly variable number tandem repeats [HVNTR] and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA [RAPD] techniques) and allozyme analysis to test whether individuals from historically degraded sites display levels of genetic diversity different from individuals taken from reference sites. Four Lake Erie tributaries, two impacted and two reference sites, were the sources of brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) samples. Pairwise comparison of the sampled populations demonstrated an association of decreased genetic diversity with exposure of brown bullhead to stressors using both RAPD and HVNTR analysis. PMID:11699785

Silbiger, R N; Leonard, A C; Dimsoski, P; Foré, S; Guttman, S I; Roth, A C; Gordon, D A; Wessendarp, T; Toth, G P; Smith, M K

2001-11-01

383

Functional markers and a ‘systemic strategy’: convergency between plant breeding, plant nutrition and molecular biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research perspectives towards sustainable plant production through plant breeding on abiotic stress tolerance require interdisciplinary competence. The present paper wants to strengthen awareness of important activities or current insights in plant breeding, plant nutrition and molecular biology to facilitate approximation of the disciplines and to direct efforts in molecular biology early in development towards application. As a consequence of recent

Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt

2005-01-01

384

Applications of molecular markers and DNA sequences in identifying fungal pathogens of cool season grain legumes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Molecular techniques have now been widely applied in many disciplines of biological sciences including fungal identification in microbial ecology and plant pathology. In plant pathology, it is now common to use molecular techniques to identify and study plant pathogens of many agronomic and horticul...

385

A Life Marker Chip for the Specific Molecular Identification of Life Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Specific Molecular Identification of Life Experiment (SMILE) represents the first in-situ attempt to search for a range of molecules in the Martian environment associated with extinct\\/extant life or potential life processes. SMILE will measure specific molecules using electrical and optical transduction techniques in three science subsystems, one of which a molecular receptor array is the subject of this paper.

M. R. Sims; D. C. Cullen; N. P. Bannister; W. D. Grant; R. Jones

2004-01-01

386

Identification of the IFITM Family as a New Molecular Marker in Human Colorectal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the expression profiles of intestinal adenomas from a new murine familial adenomatous polyposis model (Apc#14\\/+) using suppression subtractive hybridization to identify novel diagnostic markers of colorectal carcinogenesis. We identified 18 candidate genes having increased expression levels in the adenoma. Subsequent Northern blotting, real- time reverse transcription-PCR, and in situ hybridization analysis confirmed their induction in B-catenin-activated epithelial cells

Pauline Andreu; Sabine Colnot; Cecile Godard; Pierre Laurent-Puig; Dominique Lamarque; Axel Kahn; Christine Perret; Beatrice Romagnolo

2006-01-01

387

Molecular phylogeny of the genus Buteo (Aves: Accipitridae) based on mitochondrial marker sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA sequences of the mitochondrial nd6 gene and the non-repetitive part of the pseudo-control region (?CR) were isolated from 101 individuals to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among all buzzards of the genus Buteo and other buteonine genera. Comparisons of the two marker sequences indicate that the ?CR evolved two times faster than the nd6 gene. The ?CR proved to be

Martin J. Riesing; Luise Kruckenhauser; Anita Gamauf; Elisabeth Haring

2003-01-01

388

Protein based molecular markers provide reliable means to understand prokaryotic phylogeny and support Darwinian mode of evolution  

PubMed Central

The analyses of genome sequences have led to the proposal that lateral gene transfers (LGTs) among prokaryotes are so widespread that they disguise the interrelationships among these organisms. This has led to questioning of whether the Darwinian model of evolution is applicable to prokaryotic organisms. In this review, we discuss the usefulness of taxon-specific molecular markers such as conserved signature indels (CSIs) and conserved signature proteins (CSPs) for understanding the evolutionary relationships among prokaryotes and to assess the influence of LGTs on prokaryotic evolution. The analyses of genomic sequences have identified large numbers of CSIs and CSPs that are unique properties of different groups of prokaryotes ranging from phylum to genus levels. The species distribution patterns of these molecular signatures strongly support a tree-like vertical inheritance of the genes containing these molecular signatures that is consistent with phylogenetic trees. Recent detailed studies in this regard on the Thermotogae and Archaea, which are reviewed here, have identified large numbers of CSIs and CSPs that are specific for the species from these two taxa and a number of their major clades. The genetic changes responsible for these CSIs (and CSPs) initially likely occurred in the common ancestors of these taxa and then vertically transferred to various descendants. Although some CSIs and CSPs in unrelated groups of prokaryotes were identified, their small numbers and random occurrence has no apparent influence on the consistent tree-like branching pattern emerging from other markers. These results provide evidence that although LGT is an important evolutionary force, it does not mask the tree-like branching pattern of prokaryotes or understanding of their evolutionary relationships. The identified CSIs and CSPs also provide novel and highly specific means for identification of different groups of microbes and for taxonomical and biochemical studies. PMID:22919687

Bhandari, Vaibhav; Naushad, Hafiz S.; Gupta, Radhey S.

2012-01-01

389

Generation of expressed sequence tags under cadmium stress for gene discovery and development of molecular markers in chickpea.  

PubMed

Chickpea is the world's third most important legume crop and belongs to Fabaceae family but suffered from severe yield loss due to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Development of modern genomic tools such as molecular markers and identification of resistant genes associated with these stresses facilitate improvement in chickpea breeding towards abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, 1597 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated from a cDNA library of variety Pusa 1105 root tissue after cadmium (Cd) treatment. Assembly of ESTs resulted in a total of 914 unigenes of which putative homology was obtained for 38.8 % of unigenes after BLASTX search. In terms of species distribution, majority of sequences found similarity with Medicago truncatula followed by Glycine max, Vitis vinifera and Populus trichocarpa and Pisum sativum sequences. Functional annotation was assigned using Blast2Go, and the Gene Ontology (GO) terms were categorized into biological process, molecular function and cellular component. Approximately 10.83 % of unigenes were assigned at least one GO term. Moreover, in the distribution of transcripts into various biological pathways, 20 of the annotated transcripts were assigned to ten pathways in KEGG database. A majority of the genes were found to be involved in sulphur and nitrogen metabolism. In the quantitative real-time PCR analysis, five of the transcription factors and three of the transporter genes were found to be highly expressed after Cd treatment. Besides, the utility of ESTs was demonstrated by exploiting them for the development of 83 genic molecular markers including EST-simple sequence repeats and intron targeted polymorphism that would assist in tagging of genes related to metal stress for future prospects. PMID:24414095

Gaur, Rashmi; Bhatia, Sabhyata; Gupta, Meetu

2014-07-01

390

RAPD and Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequence Analyses Reveal Zea nicaraguensis as a Section Luxuriantes Species Close to Zea luxurians  

PubMed Central

Genetic relationship of a newly discovered teosinte from Nicaragua, Zea nicaraguensis with waterlogging tolerance, was determined based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA using 14 accessions from Zea species. RAPD analysis showed that a total of 5,303 fragments were produced by 136 random decamer primers, of which 84.86% bands were polymorphic. RAPD-based UPGMA analysis demonstrated that the genus Zea can be divided into section Luxuriantes including Zea diploperennis, Zea luxurians, Zea perennis and Zea nicaraguensis, and section Zea including Zea mays ssp. mexicana, Zea mays ssp. parviglumis, Zea mays ssp. huehuetenangensis and Zea mays ssp. mays. ITS sequence analysis showed the lengths of the entire ITS region of the 14 taxa in Zea varied from 597 to 605 bp. The average GC content was 67.8%. In addition to the insertion/deletions, 78 variable sites were recorded in the total ITS region with 47 in ITS1, 5 in 5.8S, and 26 in ITS2. Sequences of these taxa were analyzed with neighbor-joining (NJ) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods to construct the phylogenetic trees, selecting Tripsacum dactyloides L. as the outgroup. The phylogenetic relationships of Zea species inferred from the ITS sequences are highly concordant with the RAPD evidence that resolved two major subgenus clades. Both RAPD and ITS sequence analyses indicate that Zea nicaraguensis is more closely related to Zea luxurians than the other teosintes and cultivated maize, which should be regarded as a section Luxuriantes species. PMID:21525982

Wang, Pei; Lu, Yanli; Zheng, Mingmin; Rong, Tingzhao; Tang, Qilin

2011-01-01

391

Improving the reliability of molecular sexing of birds using a W-specific marker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular techniques for identifying sex of birds utilize length differences between CHD-Z and CHD-W introns, but in some cases these methods can lead to sexing errors. Here we show that an additional W-specific primer can be used in conjunction with a pre-existing sexing primer pair to dramatically improve the reliability of molecular sexing methods. We illustrate the approach with American

DAIZABURO SHIZUKA; BRUCE E. LYON

2008-01-01

392

Highly variable microsatellite markers for the fungal and algal symbionts of the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria and challenges in developing biont-specific molecular markers for fungal associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of highly variable markers for the partners of a fungal symbiosis enables the integrated investigation of ecological and evolutionary processes at the symbiotic level. In this article we analyze the specificity of the first and to date only microsatellite markers that had been developed for an epiphytic lichen (Lobaria pulmonaria). We used DNA extracts from cultures of the

Ivo Widmer; Francesco Dal Grande; Carolina Cornejo; Christoph Scheidegger

2010-01-01

393

Detection by RAPD-PCR of polymorphism in populations of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) collected on four host plants from Iran.  

PubMed

The sweetpotato whitefly, Bernisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hom: Aleyrodidae) is a major pest of field crops, vegetables and ornamentals in Iran. In this study, the infested leaves of cucumber (Cucurnis sativus L.) zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with whitefly nymphs and pupae were collected from Iran, and were transferred to the laboratory. The newly emerged males and females of each population were released separately into a large cage set on cotton plants. Experiments were carried out in a growth chamber on cotton, (Varamin 76 variety) at 24+/-20C, 55+/-3% RH and 16:8 h (L:D) photoperiod. The adults of every collected population after emergency were reared in the large cages (40x50x70) containing pots of cotton plants. In this study five decamer primers were used in the amplification reactions. All the primers produced polymorphisms. Totally, 71 RAPD markers were found. The amplified DNA fragments were 200 to 3000 bp. The Jaccards and Nies similarity coefficient and Euclidian distances were used to generate a dendrogram based on unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA). The clusters based on RAPD markers correlate fairly well with classification scheme based on biological traits. This study suggested that RAPD can be useful technique to study DNA polymorphism in Bemisia tabaci. PMID:17385530

Samih, M A; Izadi, H; Mahdian, K

2006-01-01

394

Prediction of body mass index in mice using dense molecular markers and a regularized neural network.  

PubMed

Bayesian regularization of artificial neural networks (BRANNs) were used to predict body mass index (BMI) in mice using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Data from 1896 animals with both phenotypic and genotypic (12 320 loci) information were used for the analysis. Missing genotypes were imputed based on estimated allelic frequencies, with no attempt to reconstruct haplotypes based on family information or linkage disequilibrium between markers. A feed-forward multilayer perceptron network consisting of a single output layer and one hidden layer was used. Training of the neural network was done using the Bayesian regularized backpropagation algorithm. When the number of neurons in the hidden layer was increased, the number of effective parameters, ?, increased up to a point and stabilized thereafter. A model with five neurons in the hidden layer produced a value of ? that saturated the data. In terms of predictive ability, a network with five neurons in the hidden layer attained the smallest error and highest correlation in the test data although differences among networks were negligible. Using inherent weight information of BRANN with different number of neurons in the hidden layer, it was observed that 17 SNPs had a larger impact on the network, indicating their possible relevance in prediction of BMI. It is concluded that BRANN may be at least as useful as other methods for high-dimensional genome-enabled prediction, with the advantage of its potential ability of capturing non-linear relationships, which may be useful in the study of quantitative traits under complex gene action. PMID:21481292

Okut, Hayrettin; Gianola, Daniel; Rosa, Guilherme J M; Weigel, Kent A

2011-06-01

395

Molecular markers distinguishing supragranular and infragranular layers in the human prefrontal cortex.  

PubMed

The human neocortex is organized into six layers that are differentiated by the size and packing density of their constituent neurons. The gene products that guide the establishment of this lamination have been studied extensively, but the gene expression gradients present across the layers of the adult human neocortex are mostly unknown. As the supragranular (SG) and infragranular (IG) layers of the human prefrontal cortex (PFC) differ in their connectivity and developmental time course, we hypothesized that the SG and IG layers will show distinct differences in their transcriptomes. To test this prediction, we used laser capture microdissection coupled with DNA microarray transcriptome profiling. Sixty-nine genes exhibited robust and highly consistent expression differences between the SG and IG layers. For six selected markers, in addition to validating the microarray findings, in situ hybridization revealed a complex, subpopulation-specific neuronal distribution. The markers we identified are likely to be related to the functional differences between the SG and IG layers of the human PFC and can be used for assessing alterations in structure and function of this cortical region in human brain disorders. PMID:17432970

Arion, Dominique; Unger, Travis; Lewis, David A; Mirnics, Károly

2007-03-01

396

Diagnostic/prognostic molecular cytogenetic follow-up applied in satellited marker cases  

SciTech Connect

Special caution needs to be exercised in offering a good prognosis in Prader-Willi probe negative 15-derived marker cases, since it is clear that phenotypic effects can still be associated with the apparent presence of proximal sequences. We have had two postnatal cases in this category, one which was inherited from an unaffected paternal (non-mosaic) carrier, possibly demonstrating imprinting effects. Familial studies are continuing in this case. Although the D22/S9 locus appears diagnostic of cateye syndrome (CES), the dual specificity of the 14/22 centromeric probe leaves the possibility of a poor prognosis 14 derivation when the CES probe is negative. Therefore, it is imperative that proximal long arm 13, 14, 21 and more proximal 15 FISH probes be implemented so that a phenotypically correlated database may indicate the proper FISH probes necessary for accurate prognosis. Bisatellited markers is which a bipartite centromeric probe signal was found were considered to be higher risk than those with the single signal in counseling.

Papenhausen, P.R.; Anderson, S.

1994-09-01

397

Molecular Diversity Assessment Using Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) Markers in Vicia faba L.  

PubMed Central

Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and relationship among 58 faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes. Fourteen SRAP primer combinations amplified a total of 1036 differently sized well-resolved peaks (fragments), of which all were polymorphic with a 0.96 PIC value and discriminated all of the 58 faba bean genotypes. An average pairwise similarity of 21% was revealed among the genotypes ranging from 2% to 65%. At a similarity of 28%, UPGMA clustered the genotypes into three main groups comprising 78% of the genotypes. The local landraces and most of the Egyptian genotypes in addition to the Sudan genotypes were grouped in the first main cluster. The advanced breeding lines were scattered in the second and third main clusters with breeding lines from the ICARDA and genotypes introduced from Egypt. At a similarity of 47%, all the genotypes formed separated clusters with the exceptions of Hassawi 1 and Hassawi 2. Group analysis of the genotypes according to their geographic origin and type showed that the landraces were grouped according to their origin, while others were grouped according to their seed type. To our knowledge, this is the first application of SRAP markers for the assessment of genetic diversity in faba bean. Such information will be useful to determine optimal breeding strategies to allow continued progress in faba bean breeding. PMID:23211669

Alghamdi, Salem S.; Al-Faifi, Sulieman A.; Migdadi, Hussein M.; Khan, Muhammad Altaf; El-Harty, Ehab H.; Ammar, Megahed H.

2012-01-01

398

Distribution and localization of microsatellites in the Perigord black truffle genome and identification of new molecular markers.  

PubMed

The level of genetic diversity and genetic structure in the Perigord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad.) has been debated for several years, mainly due to the lack of appropriate genetic markers. Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are important for the genome organisation, phenotypic diversity and are one of the most popular molecular markers. In this study, we surveyed the T. melanosporum genome (1) to characterise its SSR pattern; (2) to compare it with SSR patterns found in 48 other fungal and three oomycetes genomes and (3) to identify new polymorphic SSR markers for population genetics. The T. melanosporum genome is rich in SSRs with 22,425 SSRs with mono-nucleotides being the most frequent motifs. SSRs were found in all genomic regions although they are more frequent in non-coding regions (introns and intergenic regions). Sixty out of 135 PCR-amplified mono-, di-, tri-, tetra, penta, and hexa-nucleotides were polymorphic (44%) within black truffle populations and 27 were randomly selected and analysed on 139 T. melanosporum isolates from France, Italy and Spain. The number of alleles varied from 2 to 18 and the expected heterozygosity from 0.124 to 0.815. One hundred and thirty-two different multilocus genotypes out of the 139 T. melanosporum isolates were identified and the genotypic diversity was high (0.999). Polymorphic SSRs were found in UTR regulatory regions of fruiting bodies and ectomycorrhiza regulated genes, suggesting that they may play a role in phenotypic variation. In conclusion, SSRs developed in this study were highly polymorphic and our results showed that T. melanosporum is a species with an important genetic diversity, which is in agreement with its recently uncovered heterothallic mating system. PMID:20965267

Murat, C; Riccioni, C; Belfiori, B; Cichocki, N; Labbé, J; Morin, E; Tisserant, E; Paolocci, F; Rubini, A; Martin, F

2011-06-01

399

De novo transcriptome analysis of Hevea brasiliensis tissues by RNA-seq and screening for molecular markers  

PubMed Central

Background The rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, is a species native to the Brazilian Amazon region and it supplies almost all the world’s natural rubber, a strategic raw material for a variety of products. One of the major challenges for developing rubber tree plantations is adapting the plant to biotic and abiotic stress. Transcriptome analysis is one of the main approaches for identifying the complete set of active genes in a cell or tissue for a specific developmental stage or physiological condition. Results Here, we report on the sequencing, assembling, annotation and screening for molecular markers from a pool of H. brasiliensis tissues. A total of 17,166 contigs were successfully annotated. Then, 2,191 Single Nucleotide Variation (SNV) and 1.397 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) loci were discriminated from the sequences. From 306 putative, mainly non-synonymous SNVs located in CDS sequences, 191 were checked for their ability to characterize 23 Hevea genotypes by an allele-specific amplification technology. For 172 (90%), the nucleotide variation at the predicted genomic location was confirmed, thus validating the different steps from sequencing to the in silico detection of the SNVs. Conclusions This is the first study of the H. brasiliensis transcriptome, covering a wide range of tissues and organs, leading to the production of the first developed SNP markers. This process could be amplified to a larger set of in silico detected SNVs in expressed genes in order to increase the marker density in available and future genetic maps. The results obtained in this study will contribute to the H. brasiliensis genetic breeding program focused on improving of disease resistance and latex yield. PMID:24670056

2014-01-01

400

Molecular Phylogeny of a tick, Ixodes granulatus (Acari: Ixodidae) based on cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) marker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification of a local species of tick, Ixodes granulatus from the family Ixodidae is essential because it has potential to be vector for spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsia and tick thypus. The aim of this study is to portray the relationships among several populations of I. granulatus collected from different species of animal hosts and localities in Peninsular Malaysia. Polymerase Chain Reaction was conducted by amplifying mitochondrial DNA marker, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences from 15 individual ticks that attached to five different hosts caught from three different localities. Confirmation of the species identity was accomplished using BLAST program. Neighbor-joining (NJ) and Maximum Parsimony (MP) tree based on COI sequences were constructed by using PAUP 4.0b10 to identify the relationship among species. The result of this study showed a high genetic heterogeneity between I. granulatus and other species of the same genus (7.2-23.7%). Furthermore, a low intraspecific variation was observed among the species of I. granulatus collected from different localities (0-3.7%). This study produced the first establishment of molecular marker for clarifying genetic species variation and diversity of local I. granulatus tick which contribute to the control of tick-borne infections.

Lah, Ernieenor Faraliana Che; Yaakop, Salmah; Ahamad, Mariana; George, Ernna; Nor, Shukor Md

2014-09-01

401

A molecular marker associated with low-temperature induction of dormancy in red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea).  

PubMed

Dormancy induction in temperate deciduous plants is thought to be regulated by short photoperiods, but low temperature has been shown to eliminate the short photoperiod requirement in northern ecotypes. An F2 population (191 plants) red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea L.) derived from a polycross of an F1 population produced from reciprocal crosses of the parental clonal ecotypes, Northwest Territories (NWT, 62 degrees N) and Utah (42 degrees N), was examined to identify molecular markers of temperature-induced endodormancy. Dormancy induction curves were generated for each individual in the F2 population and a standard point prior to vegetative maturity (i-VM) was inferred from the change in slope of the dormancy acquisition curve. Under Saskatoon, Saskatchewan field conditions (52 degrees N), the NWT ecotype entered i-VM on average 5-6 weeks before the Utah ecotype. Two sub-populations of the F2 population were distinguishable based on VM acquisition on exposure to low temperature but not to short photoperiods. A sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was developed that correctly (> 92%) identified individual plants within the F2 subpopulation that were responsive to low-temperature induction of VM. Timing of bud break was strongly associated with the timing of VM in the geographical ecotypes but not in the F2 population, indicating that these are separate traits under genetic control. PMID:17241980

Svendsen, Erl; Wilen, Ron; Stevenson, Robert; Liu, Rensong; Tanino, Karen K

2007-03-01

402

Association of molecular markers in Plasmodium falciparum crt and mdr1 with in vitro chloroquine resistance: a Philippine study.  

PubMed

Specific mutations in the pfcrt and pfmdr1 genes have been reported to be associated with chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria parasites worldwide. These genetic markers are considered to be useful tools for the elucidation of several aspects of the epidemiology of drug resistant malaria. In this study, Plasmodium falciparum isolates from three distinct areas of the Philippines were analyzed for drug-resistance-associated genetic mutations, and their association with the in vitro chloroquine (CQ) response. Two novel pfcrt 72-76 allelic types, CVMDT and SVMDT, were detected. The frequency of the pfcrt K76T mutation in the isolates that were successfully tested for in vitro CQ susceptibility was found to be 100% in Kalinga, 80% in Palawan, and 87% in Mindanao. The frequency of the pfmdr1 N86Y mutation was 39% in Kalinga, 35% in Palawan, and 93% in Mindanao isolates. No mutations were found at positions 1042 and 1246 of pfmdr1. However, there were no significant associations found between polymorphisms in these genes and in vitro CQ susceptibility. The results of this study indicate that mutations in pfcrt and pfmdr1 are not predictive of in vitro CQ resistance in Philippine isolates and may therefore not be suitable as molecular markers for surveillance. PMID:19567229

Hatabu, Toshimitsu; Iwagami, Moritoshi; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; Taguchi, Nao; Escueta, Aleyla D; Villacorte, Elena A; Rivera, Pilarita T; Kano, Shigeyuki

2009-06-01

403

Developing genome-wide microsatellite markers of bamboo and their applications on molecular marker assisted taxonomy for accessions in the genus Phyllostachys.  

PubMed

Morphology-based taxonomy via exiguously reproductive organ has severely limitation on bamboo taxonomy, mainly owing to infrequent and unpredictable flowering events of bamboo. Here, we present the first genome-wide analysis and application of microsatellites based on the genome of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) to assist bamboo taxonomy. Of identified 127,593 microsatellite repeat-motifs, the primers of 1,451 microsatellites were designed and 1,098 markers were physically mapped on the genome of moso bamboo. A total of 917 markers were successfully validated in 9 accessions with ~39.8% polymorphic potential. Retrieved from validated microsatellite markers, 23 markers were selected for polymorphic analysis among 78 accessions and 64 alleles were detected with an average of 2.78 alleles per primers. The cluster result indicated the majority of the accessions were consistent with their current taxonomic classification, confirming the suitability and effectiveness of the developed microsatellite markers. The variations of microsatellite marker in different species were confirmed by sequencing and in silico comparative genome mapping were investigated. Lastly, a bamboo microsatellites database (http://www.bamboogdb.org/ssr) was implemented to browse and search large information of bamboo microsatellites. Consequently, our results of microsatellite marker development are valuable for assisting bamboo taxonomy and investigating genomic studies in bamboo and related grass species. PMID:25620112

Zhao, Hansheng; Yang, Li; Peng, Zhenhua; Sun, Huayu; Yue, Xianghua; Lou, Yongfeng; Dong, Lili; Wang, Lili; Gao, Zhimin

2015-01-01

404

Developing genome-wide microsatellite markers of bamboo and their applications on molecular marker assisted taxonomy for accessions in the genus Phyllostachys  

PubMed Central

Morphology-based taxonomy via exiguously reproductive organ has severely limitation on bamboo taxonomy, mainly owing to infrequent and unpredictable flowering events of bamboo. Here, we present the first genome-wide analysis and application of microsatellites based on the genome of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) to assist bamboo taxonomy. Of identified 127,593 microsatellite repeat-motifs, the primers of 1,451 microsatellites were designed and 1,098 markers were physically mapped on the genome of moso bamboo. A total of 917 markers were successfully validated in 9 accessions with ~39.8% polymorphic potential. Retrieved from validated microsatellite markers, 23 markers were selected for polymorphic analysis among 78 accessions and 64 alleles were detected with an average of 2.78 alleles per primers. The cluster result indicated the majority of the accessions were consistent with their current taxonomic classification, confirming the suitability and effectiveness of the developed microsatellite markers. The variations of microsatellite marker in different species were confirmed by sequencing and in silico comparative genome mapping were investigated. Lastly, a bamboo microsatellites database (http://www.bamboogdb.org/ssr) was implemented to browse and search large information of bamboo microsatellites. Consequently, our results of microsatellite marker development are valuable for assisting bamboo taxonomy and investigating genomic studies in bamboo and related grass species. PMID:25620112

Zhao, Hansheng; Yang, Li; Peng, Zhenhua; Sun, Huayu; Yue, Xianghua; Lou, Yongfeng; Dong, Lili; Wang, Lili; Gao, Zhimin

2015-01-01

405

Molecular identification and phylogenetic relationship of green algae, Spirogyra ellipsospora (Chlorophyta) using ISSR and rbcL markers  

PubMed Central

Spirogyra is found in a wide range of habitats, including small stagnant water bodies, rivers, and streams. Spirogyra ellipsospora is common in northern Thailand. Species identification of the Spirogyra species based only on morphological characteristics can be difficult. A reliable and accurate method is required to evaluate genetic variations. This study aims to apply molecular approaches for the identification of S. ellipsospora using microsatellites and rbcL markers. Based on DNA sequencing, the rbcL gene was sequenced and the data was analyzed using the BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) program in the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) database. The sequence of S. ellipsospora from this study revealed definitive identity matches in the range of 99% for the consensus sequences of S. ellipsospora. The 10 primers of ISSR could be amplified by 92 amplification fragments. The DNA fragments and the rbcL sequence data grouped the Spirogyra specimens into two distinct clusters. PMID:25313288

Wongsawad, Pheravut; Peerapornpisal, Yuwadee

2014-01-01

406

Molecular epidemiology and virulence markers of Salmonella Infantis isolated over 25 years in São Paulo State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Infection of humans and animals caused by Salmonella is a major public health problem worldwide. Among the more than 2500 serovars, S. Infantis has been one of the 15 most isolated serovars in the world. Despite its clinical importance, little is known about the molecular characteristics of S. Infantis strains from Brazil. The aims of this study were to type S. Infantis isolates of this country and to assess their pathogenic potential. The molecular epidemiology of 35 S. Infantis strains, isolated from human sources (25) and food items (10) between 1984 and 2009 in São Paulo State, Brazil, were investigated using ERIC-PCR, PFGE and MLST. Furthermore, the presence of some virulence markers from Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) SPI-1 and SPI-2 and from the virulence plasmid was assessed by PCR. Using ERIC-PCR, 34 S. Infantis strains exhibited a high genetic similarity (? 93.7%) and using PFGE, 32 strains exhibited a similarity ? 80.6%. Additionally, MLST showed a high clonal similarity among strains that all presented the same ST32. Thirty-two isolates under investigation contained the virulence markers invA, sopB, sopD, sipA, sipD, ssaR, sifA, flgK, fljB and flgL. In conclusion, the S. Infantis strains studied were genetically similar, suggesting that a prevalent subtype has been causing disease and food contamination during a 25year period in São Paulo State, an important metropolitan region in Brazil. Furthermore, the contamination between strains from food items and sick humans indicates that better control measures for S. Infantis may be needed in this country. PMID:23860124

Almeida, Fernanda; Pitondo-Silva, André; Oliveira, Maria Aparecida; Falcão, Juliana Pfrimer

2013-10-01

407

Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) transcriptome sequencing: molecular marker development and comparative studies  

PubMed Central

Background Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) is a minor legume crop characterized by its high seed protein content. Although grown in several temperate countries, its orphan condition has limited the generation of genomic tools to aid breeding efforts to improve yield and nutritional quality. In this study, we report the construction of 454-expresed sequence tag (EST) libraries, carried out comparative studies between L. luteus and model legume species, developed a comprehensive set of EST-simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and validated their utility on diversity studies and transferability to related species. Results Two runs of 454 pyrosequencing yielded 205?Mb and 530?Mb of sequence data for L1 (young leaves, buds and flowers) and L2 (immature seeds) EST- libraries. A combined assembly (L1L2) yielded 71,655 contigs with an average contig length of 632 nucleotides. L1L2 contigs were clustered into 55,309 isotigs. 38,200 isotigs translated into proteins and 8,741 of them were full length. Around 57% of L. luteus sequences had significant similarity with at least one sequence of Medicago, Lotus, Arabidopsis, or Glycine, and 40.17% showed positive matches with all of these species. L. luteus isotigs were also screened for the presence of SSR sequences. A total of 2,572 isotigs contained at least one EST-SSR, with a frequency of one SSR per 17.75 kbp. Empirical evaluation of the EST-SSR candidate markers resulted in 222 polymorphic EST-SSRs. Two hundred and fifty four (65.7%) and 113 (30%) SSR primer pairs were able to amplify fragments from L. hispanicus and L. mutabilis DNA, respectively. Fifty polymorphic EST-SSRs were used to genotype a sample of 64?L. luteus accessions. Neighbor-joining distance analysis detected the existence of several clusters among L. luteus accessions, strongly suggesting the existence of population subdivisions. However, no clear clustering patterns followed the accession’s origin. Conclusion L. luteus deep transcriptome sequencing will facilitate the further development of genomic tools and lupin germplasm. Massive sequencing of cDNA libraries will continue to produce raw materials for gene discovery, identification of polymorphisms (SNPs, EST-SSRs, INDELs, etc.) for marker development, anchoring sequences for genome comparisons and putative gene candidates for QTL detection. PMID:22920992

2012-01-01

408

Sequence characterization, in silico mapping and cytosine methylation analysis of markers linked to apospory in Paspalum notatum.  

PubMed

In previous studies we reported the identification of several AFLP, RAPD and RFLP molecular markers linked to apospory in Paspalum notatum. The objective of this work was to sequence these markers, obtain their flanking regions by chromosome walking and perform an in silico mapping analysis in rice and maize. The methylation status of two apospory-related sequences was also assessed using methylation-sensitive RFLP experiments. Fourteen molecular markers were analyzed and several protein-coding sequences were identified. Copy number estimates and RFLP linkage analysis showed that the sequence PnMAI3 displayed 2-4 copies per genome and linkage to apospory. Extension of this marker by chromosome walking revealed an additional protein-coding sequence mapping in silico in the apospory-syntenic regions of rice and maize. Approximately 5 kb corresponding to different markers were characterized through the global sequencing procedure. A more refined analysis based on sequence information indicated synteny with segments of chromosomes 2 and 12 of rice and chromosomes 3 and 5 of maize. Two loci associated with apomixis locus were tested in methylation-sensitive RFLP experiments using genomic DNA extracted from leaves. Although both target sequences were methylated no methylation polymorphisms associated with the mode of reproduction were detected. PMID:23271945

Podio, Maricel; Rodríguez, María P; Felitti, Silvina; Stein, Juliana; Martínez, Eric J; Siena, Lorena A; Quarin, Camilo L; Pessino, Silvina C; Ortiz, Juan Pablo A

2012-12-01

409

Parasitoids, predators and PCR: the use of diagnostic molecular markers in biological control of Arthropods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revolutionized the field of diagnostics, and today it has routine applications in medical, veterinary, forensic and botanical sciences. The fields of biological control and insect pest management have generally been slow to adopt PCR-based diagnostics in comparison with other fields of science. However, there has been increasing interest in the use of molecular diagnostic tools

T. D. Gariepy; U. Kuhlmann; C. Gillott; M. Erlandson

2007-01-01

410

Oranges and lemons: clues to the taxonomy of Citrus from molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Go into any grocery store and one is confronted with an array of Citrus fruit: oranges, grapefruit, mandarins (tangerines), lemons and limes. This is rich bounty for the shopper, but taxonomists are perplexed as to how to classify the various kinds of Citrus that have existed since antiquity. Now, thanks to new genetic and molecular biological techniques, the relationships between

Gloria A. Moore

2001-01-01

411

Molecular subclassification of kidney tumors and the discovery of new diagnostic markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed the expression profiles of 70 kidney tumors of different histological subtypes to determine if these subgroups can be distinguished by their gene expression profiles, and to gain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying each subtype. In all, 39 clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCC), seven primary and one metastatic papillary RCC, six granular RCC from old classification, five

Masayuki Takahashi; Ximing J Yang; Jun Sugimura; Jesper Backdahl; Maria Tretiakova; Chao-Nan Qian; Steven G Gray; Robert Knapp; John Anema; Richard Kahnoski; David Nicol; Nicholas J Vogelzang; Kyle A Furge; Hiroomi Kanayama; Susumu Kagawa; Bin Tean Teh

2003-01-01

412

Applicability of molecular markers to determine parasitic infection origins in the animal trade: a case study from Sarcoptes mites in wildebeest.  

PubMed

The development of non-manipulative molecular tools to determine the origin of parasite infections in the animal trade (if infected before their export or import) is of great interest worldwide for both the animal trade industry and for animal welfare. Molecular tools have a wide range of applications, including forensic identification, wildlife preservation and conservation, veterinary public health protection, and food safety. Nonetheless, genetic markers were not reported to detect the source of infection in the animal trade. In this study we tested the applicability of molecular tools to detect the origin of Sarcoptes mite infection of wildebeest imported by the United Arab Emirate (UAE) from Tanzania. Using one multiplex of seven microsatellite markers and control samples from UAE, Kenya and Italy, we demonstrated the usefulness of the multiplex STR-typing as a molecular tool of pivotal interest to help commercialist, authorities, and conservationists, to identify the geographical origin of parasitic infections. PMID:21814832

Alasaad, Samer; Schuster, Rolf K; Gakuya, Francis; Theneyan, Mohamed; Jowers, Michael J; Maione, Sandra; Min, Annarita Molinar; Soriguer, Ramón C; Rossi, Luca

2012-09-01

413

Molecular cloning and characterisation of the RESA gene, a marker of genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

To identity immunodiagnostic antigen genes, a Plasmodium falciparum (Dd2 clone) expression library was screened using human immune sera. The ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA) was isolated: this antigen of the resistant clone presents repeat tandem sequences like the 3D7 clone, albeit in different numbers. RESA has been studied as a marker of genetic diversity, with different sizes being observed in different isolates and clones of Plasmodium falciparum. The native protein was localised in cultures by western-blot and immuno-transmission electron microscopy. The antigenicity of RESA was evaluated by ELISA, using the carboxy-terminal repeat region as antigen. The assay’s sensitivity and specificity were 78.2 and 94% respectively. PMID:19816792

Moyano, Eva M.; González, Luis Miguel; Cuevas, Laureano; Perez-Pastrana, Esperanza; Santa-Maria, Ysmael

2009-01-01

414

ADM3, TFF3 and LGALS3 are discriminative molecular markers in fine-needle aspiration biopsies of benign and malignant thyroid tumours  

PubMed Central

Background: Previously, we reported a six-marker gene set, which allowed a molecular discrimination of benign and malignant thyroid tumours. Now, we evaluated these markers in fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) in a prospective, independent series of thyroid tumours with proven histological outcome. Methods: Quantitative RT–PCR was performed (ADM3, HGD1, LGALS3, PLAB, TFF3, TG) in the needle wash-out of 156 FNAB of follicular adenoma (FA), adenomatous nodules, follicular and papillary thyroid cancers (TC) and normal thyroid tissues (NT). Results: Significant expression differences were found for TFF3, HGD1, ADM3 and LGALS3 in FNAB of TC compared with benign thyroid nodules and NT. Using two-marker gene sets, a specific FNAB distinction of benign and malignant tumours was achieved with negative predictive values (NPV) up to 0.78 and positive predictive values (PPV) up to 0.84. Two FNAB marker gene combinations (ADM3/TFF3; ADM3/ACTB) allowed the distinction of FA and malignant follicular neoplasia with NPV up to 0.94 and PPV up to 0.86. Conclusion: We demonstrate that molecular FNAB diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid tumours including follicular neoplasia is possible with recently identified marker gene combinations. We propose multi-centre FNAB studies on these markers to bring this promising diagnostic tool closer to clinical practice. PMID:22223087

Karger, S; Krause, K; Gutknecht, M; Schierle, K; Graf, D; Steinert, F; Dralle, H; Führer, D

2012-01-01

415

Meloidogyne virulence locus molecular marker for characterization of selected mi-virulent populations of Meloidogyne spp. is correlated with several genera of betaproteobacteria.  

PubMed

Resistance to root-knot nematodes in tomato is conferred by the Mi resistance gene to the three most important species of Meloidogyne: M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Nevertheless, the Mi gene is unable to inhibit the reproduction of selected and naturally Mi-virulent populations of root-knot nematodes. As pathogenicity assays are time consuming, molecular markers were developed for the easy identification of Mi-virulent populations of Meloidogyne. The sequence characterized amplified region-Meloidogyne virulence locus (MVC) molecular marker is reported to differentiate Mi-avirulent and naturally Mi-virulent from selected Mi-virulent populations. This marker was used to compare acquired virulence in populations of M. javanica from Spain. The original populations used to develop the MVC marker were included as control for reference. Results showed that this marker did not amplify genomic DNA extracted from single juveniles or females of any of the populations tested either from Spain or Japan. In silico analyses performed with the recently published complete genome of M. incognita, indicated that the MVC marker is not correlated to a MVC or to any eukaryotic organism but to several betaproteobacteria genus from the family Comamonadaceae. PMID:20955082

Cortada, Laura; Sakai, Hiromichi; Verdejo-Lucas, Soledad; Mizukubo, Takayuki

2011-04-01

416

Uses of molecular markers for understanding modern and historical ecosystems (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on current and historical population sizes and movements is important for understanding many aspects of ecosystem ecology such as responses to climate change. Such information can be surprisingly difficult to acquire, but can be estimated from clues contained in an organism’s DNA. Recent revolutions in molecular genetics, including direct sequencing and efficient mutation-detection methods, enable extraction of sequence information from even very small or ancient specimens. Furthermore, theoretical advances such as coalescent theory and molecular assignments are providing powerful tools to unlock secrets about changes in numbers, distributions and movements. Combination of these approaches with other types of data promises to provide especially useful insights into modern and paleoecosystems. I will provide examples of these applications from recent studies in ornithology.

Friesen, V. L.

2010-12-01

417

Molecular phylogeny of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars from Saudi Arabia by DNA fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity among 13 different cultivars of date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) of Saudi Arabia was studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The screening of 140 RAPD primers allowed selection of 37 primers which revealed polymorphism, and the results were reproducible. All 13 genotypes were distinguishable by their unique banding patterns produced by 37 selected primers. Cluster

N. S. Al-Khalifah; E. Askari

2003-01-01

418

Carbohydrate microarrays for the recognition of cross-reactive molecular markers of microbes and host cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe here the development of a carbohydrate-based microarray to extend the scope of biomedical research on carbohydrate-mediated molecular recognition and anti-infection responses. We have demonstrated that microbial polysaccharides can be immobilized on a surface-modified glass slide without chemical conjugation. With this procedure, a large repertoire of microbial antigens (?20,000 spots) can be patterned on a single micro-glass slide, reaching

Shaoyi Liu; Brian J. Trummer; Chao Deng; Aili Wang; Denong Wang

2002-01-01

419

A centennial record of anthropogenic impacts and extreme weather events in southwestern Taiwan: Evidence from sedimentary molecular markers in coastal margin  

SciTech Connect

A 100-year history of human and natural disturbances in southwestern Taiwan was reconstructed using a suite of molecular markers in four dated sediment cores from the upper slope region off the Gaoping River mouth. Trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) tracked Taiwan's industrialization/urbanization starting in the 1970s, and the enactment of environmental regulatory policies thereafter.

Kuo, Li-Jung; Lee, Chon-Lin; Louchouarn, Patrick; Huh, Chih-An; Liu, James T.; Chen, Jian-Cheng; Lee, Kun-Je

2014-09-15

420

Diagnostic value of molecular markers for Lr genes and characterization of leaf rust resistance of German winter wheat cultivars with regard to the stability of vertical resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding for resistance is an efficient strategy to manage wheat leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina f. sp. tritici. However, a prerequisite for the directed use of Lr genes in breeding and the detection of new races virulent to these Lr genes is a detailed knowledge on Lr genes present in wheat cultivars. Therefore, respective molecular markers for 18 Lr

Albrecht Serfling; Ilona Krämer; Volker Lind; Edgar Schliephake; Frank Ordon

421

Molecular Characterization and Population Structure of the Macaw Palm, Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae), Ex Situ Germplasm Collection Using Microsatellites Markers.  

PubMed

The Acrocomia aculeata is one of the most promising plants for sustainable production of renewable energy. In order to understand patterns of the distribution of the allelic diversity of A. aculeata ex situ germplasm collection, the present study investigated the hypothesis that the genetic variability of the accessions may match their geographical origin. A genotypic analysis of 77 A. aculeata accessions was conducted with 6 simple sequence repeat markers. A high degree of molecular diversity among the accessions was found, with an average of 9 alleles per locus and a polymorphic information content with a mean of 0.76. A total of 4 clusters was identified by the Bayesian analysis of population structure. The highest subpopulation diversity was identified in Pop1, mainly formed by accessions from State of Mato Grosso do Sul. The populations Pop2A, Pop2B, and Pop2C, all from the State of Minas Gerais, showed high genetic variability as determined by a higher F st, and a wide genetic variance, which were identified within and among the population by analysis of molecular variance. Based on our results and on Vavilov's theory on crop origins, one possible diversity center for A. aculeata is proposed to be in a region in southeast Brazil. PMID:25425677

Lanes, Eder C M; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Kuki, Kacilda N; Nick, Carlos; Freitas, Renata D

2015-01-01

422

Molecular analysis of the Pleistocene history of Saxifraga oppositifolia in the Alps.  

PubMed

A recent circumpolar survey of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) haplotypes identified Pleistocene glacial refugia for the Arctic-Alpine Saxifraga oppositifolia in the Arctic and, potentially, at more southern latitudes. However, evidence for glacial refugia within the ice sheet covering northern Europe during the last glacial period was not detected either with cpDNA or in another study of S. oppositifolia that surveyed random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) variation. If any genotypes survived in such refugia, they must have been swamped by massive postglacial immigration of periglacial genotypes. The present study tested whether it is possible to reconstruct the Pleistocene history of S. oppositifolia in the European Alps using molecular methods. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of cpDNA of S. oppositifolia, partly sampled from potential nunatak areas, detected two common European haplotypes throughout the Alps, while three populations harboured two additional, rare haplotypes. RAPD analysis confirmed the results of former studies on S. oppositifolia; high within, but low among population genetic variation and no particular geographical patterning. Some Alpine populations were not perfectly nested in this common gene pool and contained private RAPD markers, high molecular variance or rare cpDNA haplotypes, indicating that the species could possibly have survived on ice-free mountain tops (nunataks) in some parts of the Alps during the last glaciation. However, the overall lack of a geographical genetic pattern suggests that there was massive immigration of cpDNA and RAPD genotypes by seed and pollen flow during postglacial times. Thus, the glacial history of S. oppositifolia in the Alps appears to resemble closely that suggested previously for the species in northern Europe. PMID:12144661

Holderegger, R; Stehlik, I; Abbott, R J

2002-08-01

423

Associations among cytoplasmic molecular markers, gender, and components of fitness in Silene vulgaris, a gynodioecious plant.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that the dynamics of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic markers used in studies of plant populations could be influenced by natural selection acting elsewhere in the genome. This could be particularly true in gynodioecious plants if cpDNA or mtDNA genetic markers are in gametic disequilibrium with genes responsible for sex expression. In order to investigate this possibility, a natural population of the gynodioecious plant Silene vulgaris was used to study associations among mtDNA haplotype, cpDNA haplotype, sex and some components of fitness through seed. Individuals were sampled for mtDNA and cpDNA haplotype as determined using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods, sex (female or hermaphrodite), fruit number, fruit set, seeds/fruit and seed germination. The sex of surviving germinating seeds was also noted. All individuals in the population fell into one of two cytoplasmic categories, designated haplotypes f and g by a unique electrophoretic signature in both the mtDNA and cpDNA. The subset of the population carrying haplotype g included a significantly higher proportion of females when compared with the sex ratio of the subset carrying the f haplotype. Haplotype g had a significantly higher fitness when measured by fruit number, fruit set and seeds/fruit, whereas haplotype f had significantly higher fitness when measured by seed germination. Offspring of individuals carrying haplotype g included a significantly greater proportion of females when compared with offspring of individuals carrying the f haplotype. Other studies of gynodioecious plants have shown that females generally have higher fitness through seed than hermaphrodites, but in this study not all fitness differences between haplotypes could be predicted from differences in haplotype-specific sex ratio alone. Rather, some differences in haplotype-specific fitness were due to differences in fitness between individuals of the same sex, but carrying different haplotypes. The results are discussed with regard to the potential for hitchhiking selection to influence the dynamics of the noncoding regions used to designate the cpDNA and mtDNA haplotypes. PMID:12675832

McCauley, D E; Olson, M S

2003-03-01

424

HYDRANGEA SSR MARKERS FOR CULTIVAR IDENTIFICATION AND HYBRID VERIFICATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

RAPD, AFLP, and ISSR markers have been used for cultivar and species identification within the genus Hydrangea. Genetic diversity estimates have also been based on DNA sequence data and genome size variation. Despite their advantages, all of these methods have limited usefulness in a large scale b...

425

RAPD of controlled crosses and clones from the field suggests that hybrids are rare in the Salix alba–Salix fragilis complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polyploid Salix alba–Salix fragilis hybrid complex is rather difficult to study when using only morphological characters. Most of the features have a low diagnostic value for unambiguously identifying the hybrids, introgression patterns and population structures, though morphological traits have proved to be useful in making a hybrid index. Morphology and molecular variation from RAPDs were investigated in several case

Ludwig Triest; Bart de Greef; Ruth de Bondt; Jos van Slycken

2000-01-01

426

Identification and typing of Malassezia yeasts using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP Tm), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three molecular tools, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLPTm), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, were explored for their usefulness to identify isolates of Malassezia yeasts. All seven species could be separated by AFLP and DGGE. Using AFLP, four genotypes could be distinguished within M. furfur. AFLP genotype 4 contained only isolates from deep human

Bart Theelen; Massimiliano Silvestri; Eveline Guého; Alex van Belkum; Teun Boekhout

2001-01-01

427

Molecular characterization of Syrian date palm cultivars using plasmid-like DNA markers.  

PubMed

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the most important domesticated fruit trees in the Near East and North African countries. This tree has been, for several decades, in serious threat of being completely destroyed by the "Bayoud" disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis. In this study, 18 Syrian date palm cultivars and four male trees were analyzed according to the identity of mitochondrial plasmid-like DNAs. A PCR strategy that employs plasmid-like DNAs-specific primer pair was used. These primers amplify a product of either 373-bp or 265-bp that corresponds to the S-(Bayoud-susceptible) or the R-plasmid (Bayoud-resistant), respectively. Generated data revealed that only six cultivars ('Medjool', 'Ashrasi', 'Gish Rabi', 'Khineze', and yellow- and red-'Kabkab') have the S-plasmid, suggesting their susceptibility to the fusariosis, while the remaining 12 cultivars and the four male trees contain the R-plasmid, suggesting their resistance to the fusariosis. The PCR process applied here has been proved efficient for the rapid screening for the presence of the S and R DNAs in Syrian date palm. PCR markers developed in this study could be useful for the screening of date palm lines growing in the field. The availability of such diagnostic tool for plasmid characterization in date palm would also be of great importance in establishing propagation and breeding programs of date palm in Syria. PMID:22568006

Haider, N; Nabulsi, I

2012-02-01

428

Identification of the IFITM family as a new molecular marker in human colorectal tumors.  

PubMed

We analyzed the expression profiles of intestinal adenomas from a new murine familial adenomatous polyposis model (Apc(delta14/+)) using suppression subtractive hybridization to identify novel diagnostic markers of colorectal carcinogenesis. We identified 18 candidate genes having increased expression levels in the adenoma. Subsequent Northern blotting, real-time reverse transcription-PCR, and in situ hybridization analysis confirmed their induction in beta-catenin-activated epithelial cells of murine adenomas. We showed that most of the genes also have altered expression levels in human colonic adenomas and carcinomas. We focused on the IFITM genes that encode IFN-inducible transmembrane proteins. Serial analyses of gene expression levels revealed high levels of expression in early and late intestinal neoplasm in both mice and humans. Using a conditional mouse model of Apc inactivation and a human colon carcinoma cell line, we showed that IFITM gene expression is rapidly induced after activation of the beta-catenin signaling. Using a large-scale analysis of human tumors, we showed that IFITM gene expression is significantly up-regulated specifically in colorectal tumors and thus may be a useful diagnostic tool in these tumors. PMID:16488993

Andreu, Pauline; Colnot, Sabine; Godard, Cécile; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Lamarque, Dominique; Kahn, Axel; Perret, Christine; Romagnolo, Béatrice

2006-02-15

429

Phenotypic screening and molecular analysis of blast resistance in fragrant rice for marker assisted selection.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to identify blast-resistant fragrant genotypes for the development of a durable blast-resistant rice variety during years 2012-2013. The results indicate that out of 140 test materials including 114 fragrant germplasms, 25 differential varieties (DVs) harbouring 23 blast-resistant genes, only 16 fragrant rice germplasms showed comparatively better performance against a virulent isolate of blast disease. The reaction pattern of single-spore isolate of Magnaporthe oryzae to differential varieties showed that Pish, Pi9, Pita-2 and Pita are the effective blast-resistant genes against the tested blast isolates in Bangladesh. The DNA markers profiles of selected 16 rice germplasms indicated that genotype Chinigura contained Pish, Pi9 and Pita genes; on the other hand, both BRRI dhan50 and Bawaibhog contained Pish and Pita genes in their genetic background. Genotypes Jirakatari, BR5, and Gopalbhog possessed Pish gene, while Uknimodhu, Deshikatari, Radhunipagol, Kalijira (3), Chinikanai each contained the Pita gene only. There are some materials that did not contain any target gene(s) in their genetic background, but proved resistant in pathogenicity tests. This information provided valuable genetic information for breeders to develop durable blast-resistant fragrant or aromatic rice varieties in Bangladesh. PMID:24841958

Khan, Mohammad Ashik Iqbal; Sen, Partha Pratim; Bhuiyan, Rejwan; Kabir, Enamul; Chowdhury, Abul Kashem; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Ali, Ansar; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

2014-05-01

430

Distribution of Mytilus taxa in European coastal areas as inferred from molecular markers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The genetic constitution of mussels ( Mytilus spp.) was studied by means of three nuclear (Me 15/16, EF-bis, ITS) and one mtDNA (ND2-COIII) marker on a large European scale. In addition to a sharp cline between Atlantic and Mediterranean M. galloprovincialis, we observed a clear genetic distinction between the Black Sea and Mediterranean populations and a higher incidence of M. trossulus than reported so far in northern European populations. The frequency of M. galloprovincialis nuclear alleles was high along the Iberian Peninsula and decreased abruptly along the French coasts with a high frequency of M. edulis alleles in the Bay of Biscay, The Netherlands, Germany, Iceland, Barents and White Seas, and with little evidence of introgression between the two taxa. M. trossulus alleles were observed in the Baltic Sea and Danish Straits as expected. In addition, occurrence of M. trossulus alleles in cold waters of Iceland, Barents Sea and White Sea is reported for the first time.

Kijewski, T.; ?mietanka, B.; Zbawicka, M.; Gosling, E.; Hummel, H.; Wenne, R.

2011-02-01

431

Resistance genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and their identification with molecular markers.  

PubMed

Current information on barley resistance genes available from scientific papers and on-line databases is summarised. The recent literature contains information on 107 major resistance genes (R genes) against fungal pathogens (excluding powdery mildew), pathogenic viruses and aphids identified in Hordeum vulgare accessions. The highest number of resistance genes was identified against Puccinia hordei, Rhynchosporium secalis, and the viruses BaYMV and BaMMV, with 17, 14 and 13 genes respectively. There is still a lot of confusion regarding symbols for R genes against powdery mildew. Among the 23 loci described to date, two regions Mla and Mlo comprise approximately 31 and 25 alleles. Over 50 R genes have already been localised and over 30 mapped on 7 barley chromosomes. Four barley R genes have been cloned recently: Mlo, Rpg1, Mla1 and Mla6, and their structures (sequences) are available. The paper presents a catalogue of barley resistance gene symbols, their chromosomalocation and the list of available DNA markers useful in characterising cultivars and breeding accessions. PMID:12923305

Che?kowski, Jerzy; Tyrka, Miros?aw; Sobkiewicz, Andrzej

2003-01-01

432

Retrotransposon-Based Molecular Markers for Analysis of Genetic Diversity within the Genus Linum  

PubMed Central

SSAP method was used to study the genetic diversity of 22 Linum species from sections Linum, Adenolinum, Dasylinum, Stellerolinum, and 46 flax cultivars. All the studied flax varieties were distinguished using SSAP for retrotransposons FL9 and FL11. Thus, the validity of SSAP method was demonstrated for flax marking, identification of accessions in genebank collections, and control during propagation of flax varieties. Polymorphism of Fl1a, Fl1b, and Cassandra insertions were very low in flax varieties, but these retrotransposons were successfully used for the investigation of Linum species. Species clusterization based on SSAP markers was in concordance with their taxonomic division into sections Dasylinum, Stellerolinum, Adenolinum, and Linum. All species of sect. Adenolinum clustered apart from species of sect. Linum. The data confirmed the accuracy of the separation in these sections. Members of section Linum are not as closely related as members of other sections, so taxonomic revision of this section is desirable. L. usitatissimum accessions genetically distant from modern flax cultivars were revealed in our work. These accessions are of utmost interest for flax breeding and introduction of new useful traits into flax cultivars. The chromosome localization of Cassandra retrotransposon in Linum species was determined. PMID:25243121

Melnikova, Nataliya V.; Kudryavtseva, Anna V.; Zelenin, Alexander V.; Lakunina, Valentina A.; Yurkevich, Olga Yu.; Speranskaya, Anna S.; Dmitriev, Alexey A.; Krinitsina, Anastasia A.; Belenikin, Maxim S.; Uroshlev, Leonid A.; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V.; Sadritdinova, Asiya F.; Koroban, Nadezda V.; Amosova, Alexandra V.; Samatadze, Tatiana E.; Guzenko, Elena V.; Lemesh, Valentina A.; Savilova, Anastasya M.; Rachinskaia, Olga A.; Kishlyan, Natalya V.; Rozhmina, Tatiana A.; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L.; Muravenko, Olga V.

2014-01-01

433

A genetic linkage map of papaya based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic linkage map of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was constructed using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and a F2 population derived