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1

Fruit plant germplasm characterisation using molecular markers generated in RAPD and ISSR-PCR.  

PubMed

The genotypes of the strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa), apple (Malus domestica) and Ribes species (R. nigrum, R. rubrum and R. glossularia), maintained in our Institute's collection and used in breeding programs, were screened for DNA markers. Twenty primers for RAPD (among 60 tested) and seven for ISSR (among 10 tested) were chosen as creating polymorphic DNA bands differentiating the investigated genotypes. Based on those identity markers, the genetic distance between genotypes was determined, and their relatedness was estimated. In many cases, both RAPD- and ISSR-based genetic similarity confirmed relatedness connected with biological origin and with the place where the cultivar was developed. However, some diversity connected with the technique used for molecular marker generation was observed. Generally, the similarity values based on ISSR data were higher than those based on RAPD. Parallel study using two data sets seems to enable a reduction in the number of potential mistakes connected with each method's, technical limitations and ensures more precise relatedness determination. PMID:12378239

Korbin, Ma?gorzata; Kuras, Anita; Zurawicz, Edward

2002-01-01

2

Isolation of molecular markers for tomato ( L. esculentum ) using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new DNA polymorphism assay was developed in 1990 that is based on the amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of random DNA segments, using single primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequence. The amplified DNA fragments, referred to as RAPD markers, were shown to be highly useful in the construction of genetic maps (“RAPD mapping”). We have now adapted the

R. M. Klein-Lankhorst; A. Vermunt; R. Weide; T. Liharska; P. Zabel

1991-01-01

3

Patterns of inheritance with RAPD molecular markers reveal novel types of polymorphism in the honey bee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to generate random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) from honey bee DNA samples in order to follow the patterns of inheritance of RAPD markers in a haplodiploid insect. The genomic DNA samples from two parental bees, a haploid drone and a diploid queen, were screened for polymorphism with 68 different tennucleotide primers of random

Greg J. Hunt; Robert E. Page

1992-01-01

4

Identification of Verbena officinalis based on ITS sequence analysis and RAPD-derived molecular markers.  

PubMed

Verbenae herba is a widely used drug and consists of the aerial parts of Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae). Until now, the identification has been performed based on morphological and phytochemical analyses, which are not reliable enough to distinguish Verbena officinalis from other relevant species of the genus Verbena. Hence, impurities and adulterants, negatively influencing the therapeutic effect of the drug, may remain undetected. In an attempt to generate an accurate authentication method we used two different DNA-based approaches: comparison of ITS sequences and molecular markers (RAPD). Both approaches generally enabled discrimination of V. officinalis from the rest of the genus despite the intraspecific variation existing within V. officinalis. The application of the two independent methods, supporting each other, increases the security of identification. For better reproducibility and faster analysis, however, a SCAR marker and primers for HRM were derived from the RAPD results. The SCAR marker could distinguish V. officinalis from all other verbena species except its closest relative V. hastata, while discrimination of V. officinalis even from V. hastata was unproblematic with HRM. PMID:19350481

Ruzicka, Joana; Lukas, Brigitte; Merza, Lina; Göhler, Irina; Abel, Gudrun; Popp, Michael; Novak, Johannes

2009-09-01

5

A genetic map of Asparagus officinalis based on integrated RFLP, RAPD and AFLP molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated genetic map of the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis L. has been constructed on the basis of RFLP, RAPD, AFLP and isoenzyme markers. The segregation analysis of the polymorphic\\u000a markers was carried out on the progeny of five different crosses between male and female doubled-haploid clones generated\\u000a by anther culture. A total of 274 markers have been organized to

A. Spada; E. Caporali; G. Marziani; P. Portaluppi; F. M. Restivo; F. Tassi; A. Falavigna

1998-01-01

6

Molecular Characterization of Selected Local and Exotic Cattle Using RAPD Marker  

PubMed Central

In order to develop specific genetic markers and determine the genetic diversity of Bangladeshi native cattle (Pabna, Red Chittagong) and exotic breeds (Sahiwal), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed using 12 primers. Genomic DNA was extracted from 20 cattle (local and exotic) blood samples and extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Among the random primers three were matched and found to be polymorphic. Genetic relations between cattle’s were determined by RAPD polymorphisms from a total of 66.67%. Statistical analysis of the data, estimating the genetic distances between cattle and sketching the cluster trees were estimated by using MEGA 5.05 software. Comparatively highest genetic distance (0.834) was found between RCC-82 and SL-623. The lowest genetic distance (0.031) was observed between M-1222 and M-5730. The genetic diversity of Red Chittagong and Sahiwal cattle was relatively higher for a prescribed breed. Adequate diversity in performance and adaptability can be exploited from the study results for actual improvement accruing to conservation and development of indigenous cattle resources. PMID:25049622

Khatun, M. Mahfuza; Hossain, Khondoker Moazzem; Mahbubur Rahman, S. M.

2012-01-01

7

Studies on the genetic variation of the green unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae) obtained from different geographical locations using ISSR and RAPD molecular marker.  

PubMed

Haematococcus pluvialis (Flotow) is a unicellular green alga, which is considered to be the best astaxanthin-producing organism. Molecular markers are suitable tools for the purpose of finding out genetic variations in organisms; however there have been no studies conducted on ISSR or RAPD molecular markers for this organism. The DNA of 10 different strains of H. pluvialis (four strains from Iran, two strains from Finland, one strain from Switzerland and three strains from the USA) was extracted. A genetic similarity study was carried out using 14 ISSR and 12 RAPD primers. Moreover, the molecular weights of the bands produced ranged from 0.14 to 3.4 Kb. The PCA and dendrogram clustered the H. pluvialis strains into various groups according to their geographical origin. The lowest genetic similarity was between the Iran2 and USA2 strains (0.08) and the highest genetic similarity was between Finland1 and Finland2 (0.64). The maximum numbers of bands produced by the ISSR and RAPD primers were 35 and 6 bands, respectively. The results showed that ISSR and RAPD markers are useful for genetic diversity studies of Haematococcus as they showed geographical discrimination. PMID:21441863

Mostafa, Noroozi; Omar, Hishamuddin; Tan, Soon Guan; Napis, Suhaimi

2011-01-01

8

The use of RAPD markers in Hordeum phylogeny.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic relationships among 39 wild Hordeum species, subspecies, and cultivated barley were investigated using RAPD markers as discriminating characters. Seventy-six RAPD fragments were generated using 12 single decameric primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequences. Amplification reactions resulted in fragments ranging in length between 200 and 2000 bp. Clearly resolved bands were scored for their presence or absence in a binary matrix. Amplified products were treated as independent characters to generate a phenogram using the NTSYS-PC package. Tree topology was generally found to be consistent with those based on morphological treatments. However, a few species like H. erectifolium, H. jubatum and, to a lesser extent, H. bulbosum occupied a position different from previous classifications. The results demonstrated that RAPD technology represents a useful and reliable tool for detecting polymorphism for phylogenetic studies. Key words : RAPD analysis, molecular markers, phylogenetic studies, Hordeum species, barley. PMID:18469924

Marillia, E F; Scoles, G J

1996-08-01

9

Genetic diversity of Prunus rootstocks analyzed by RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used RAPD markers to characterize Prunus rootstocks from different species, both commercial, and selected clones from the breeding program at Aula Dei Experimental\\u000a Station (Zaragoza, Spain). Molecular markers were used to study the genetic variation among different species, and within\\u000a species. Forty one genotypes were used in this study. They included P. amygdalo-persica, and P. persica P. davidiana

A. M. Casas; E. Igartua; G. Balaguer; M. A. Moreno

1999-01-01

10

Screening and Characterization of RAPD Markers in Viscerotropic Leishmania Parasites  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is mainly due to the Leishmania donovani complex. VL is endemic in many countries worldwide including East Africa and the Mediterranean region where the epidemiology is complex. Taxonomy of these pathogens is under controversy but there is a correlation between their genetic diversity and geographical origin. With steady increase in genome knowledge, RAPD is still a useful approach to identify and characterize novel DNA markers. Our aim was to identify and characterize polymorphic DNA markers in VL Leishmania parasites in diverse geographic regions using RAPD in order to constitute a pool of PCR targets having the potential to differentiate among the VL parasites. 100 different oligonucleotide decamers having arbitrary DNA sequences were screened for reproducible amplification and a selection of 28 was used to amplify DNA from 12 L. donovani, L. archibaldi and L. infantum strains having diverse origins. A total of 155 bands were amplified of which 60.65% appeared polymorphic. 7 out of 28 primers provided monomorphic patterns. Phenetic analysis allowed clustering the parasites according to their geographical origin. Differentially amplified bands were selected, among them 22 RAPD products were successfully cloned and sequenced. Bioinformatic analysis allowed mapping of the markers and sequences and priming sites analysis. This study was complemented with Southern-blot to confirm assignment of markers to the kDNA. The bioinformatic analysis identified 16 nuclear and 3 minicircle markers. Analysis of these markers highlighted polymorphisms at RAPD priming sites with mainly 5? end transversions, and presence of inter– and intra– taxonomic complex sequence and microsatellites variations; a bias in transitions over transversions and indels between the different sequences compared is observed, which is however less marked between L. infantum and L. donovani. The study delivers a pool of well-documented polymorphic DNA markers, to develop molecular diagnostics assays to characterize and differentiate VL causing agents. PMID:25313833

Mkada-Driss, Imen; Talbi, Chiraz; Guerbouj, Souheila; Driss, Mehdi; Elamine, Elwaleed M.; Cupolillo, Elisa; Mukhtar, Moawia M.; Guizani, Ikram

2014-01-01

11

Utility of RAPD markers in identifying genetic linkages to genes of economic interest in peach.  

PubMed

The identification of molecular markers linked to economically important traits for use in crop improvement is very important in long-lived perennial species. Three-hundred-and-sixty RAPD primers were used with bulked segregant analysis to identify markers linked to loci of specific interest in peach [(Prunus persica) L. Batch] and peach x almond [(Prunus dulcis) Batch] crosses. The traits analyzed included flesh color, adhesion, and texture; pollen fertility; plant stature; and three isozyme loci. The Mendelian behavior of the RAPD loci was established, and RAPD markers were mapped relative to the loci controlling flesh color, adhesion, and texture, and the isozyme loci Mdh-1, 6Pgd-2 and Aat-1, as well as the existing RFLP genetic linkage map constructed previously using a peach x almond F2 population. This technique has facilitated rapid identification of RAPD and RFLP markers that are linked to the traits under study. Loci controlling these traits mapped predominantly to linkage groups 2 and 3 of the peach genetic linkage map. Linkages to genes with both dominant and co-dominant alleles were identified, but linkages to dominant genes were more difficult to find. In several crosses, RAPD marker bands proved to be allelic. One co-dominant RAPD formed a heteroduplex band in heterozygous individuals and in mixtures of alternate homozygotes. The Mendelian behavior of the RAPD loci studied was established and the results suggest that RAPD markers will be useful for plant improvement in peach. PMID:24162426

Warburton, M L; Becerra-Velásquez, V L; Goffreda, J C; Bliss, F A

1996-10-01

12

Molecular phylogeny of mangroves V. Analysis of genome relationships in mangrove species using RAPD and RFLP markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA from pooled leaf samples of 11 true major mangrove, three true minor mangrove, two mangrove associate, two mangrove parasite,\\u000a three terrestrial and one cultivated species were isolated for the present study. In total, 198 random amplified polymorphic\\u000a DNAs (RAPDs) and 180 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) loci were scored by using ten primers and 14 enzyme-probe\\u000a combinations respectively. The

M. Parani; M. Lakshmi; P. Senthilkumar; Nivedita Ram; Ajay Parida

1998-01-01

13

A genetic linkage map of crested wheatgrass based on AFLP and RAPD markers.  

PubMed

Using a population of 105 interspecific F(2) hybrids derived from a cross between Agropyron mongolicum Keng and Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. 'Fairway' as a mapping population, a genetic linkage map of crested wheatgrass was constructed based on AFLP and RAPD molecular markers. A total of 175 markers, including 152 AFLP and 23 RAPD markers, were ordered in seven linkage groups. The map distance was 416 cM, with a mean distance of 2.47 cM between markers. The number of markers ranged from 13 to 46 in each linkage group and the length of groups ranged from 18 to 104 cM. The research found that 30 out of 175 molecular markers showed segregation distortion, accounting for 17% of all markers. This is the first genetic linkage map of crested wheatgrass. This map will facilitate gene localization, cloning, and molecular marker-assisted selection in the future. PMID:22462407

Yu, Xiaoxia; Li, Xiaolei; Ma, Yanhong; Yu, Zhuo; Li, Zaozhe

2012-03-30

14

Molecular markers derived from RAPD, SCAR, and the conserved 18S rDNA sequences for classification and identification in Pyrus pyrifolia and P . communis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generated RAPD, SCAR, and conserved 18S rDNA markers for classifying and identifying cultivars of Pyrus pyrifolia (Japanese pear) and P. communis (European pear). PCR amplification with selected specific primers—LCH327UP and LCH327DOWN—was performed using DNA extracted from 25 P. pyrifolia and P. communis cultivars. The 1,380-bp fragment was amplified from P. communis cvs. Beurre Giffard, Cascade, Conference, Clapp’s Favorite, Packhams Triumph,

G. P. Lee; C. H. Lee; C. S. Kim

2004-01-01

15

Development of a second generation linkage map for almond using RAPD and SSR markers.  

PubMed

Fifty-four RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers and 6 SSRs (simple sequence repeats) were included in a molecular marker map with 120 RFLPs (restriction fragment length polymorphisms) and 7 isozyme genes previously constructed using the offspring of a cross between the almond (Prunus amygdalus) cultivars 'Ferragnès' and 'Tuono'. Only highly reproducible RAPDs segregating 1:1 were used. To identify these markers, a total of 325 primers were screened, from which 41 produced RAPDs useful for mapping. Polymorphism was detected in six of the eight Prunus SSRs (simple sequence repeats) studied, thus enabling these to be mapped. All markers were placed on the 8 linkage groups previously identified. The number of new markers included in the map of 'Ferragnès' was 33 for a total of 126, and 30 in the map of 'Tuono' for a total of 99. The sizes of the maps of 'Ferragnès' (415 cM) and 'Tuono' (416 cM) were similar, representing a 5% increase over the maps constructed solely with isozymes and RFLPs. The estimated total size of the almond map was of 457 cM. Some markers were placed in zones with low density of markers and others in the extreme of linkage groups. The use of RAPD markers to complete genetic maps constructed with transferable markers is discussed. PMID:10984177

Joobeur, T; Periam, N; de Vicente, M C; King, G J; Arús, P

2000-08-01

16

Comparison of RAPD and RFLP genetic markers in determining genetic similarity among Brassica oleracea L. genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic similarity among 45 Brassica Oleracea genotypes was compared using two molecular markers, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). The genotypes included 37 broccolis (var. italica), five cauliflowers (var. botrytis) and three cabbages (var. capitata) which represented a wide range of commercially-available germplasm, and included open-pollinated cultivars, commercial hybrids, and inbred parents of hybrid cultivars.

J. B. dos Santos; J. Nienhuis; P. Skroch; J. Tivang; M. K. Slocum

1994-01-01

17

Analysis of genetic diversity and phylogeny in Saccharum and related genera using RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular diversity in Saccharum complex was studied using 195 RAPD markers generated by 12 random primers. Among the Saccharum species, S. officinarum showed a low level of genetic diversity while S. sinense was found to be more diverse. Six taxonomical groups were clearly resolved in the cluster analysis. S. officinarum, S. robustum, S. spontaneum and Erianthus spp. formed discrete groups.

N. Vijayan Nair; Suresh Nair; T. V. Sreenivasan; Madan Mohan

1999-01-01

18

Diversity among populations of switchgrass based on RAPD markers  

SciTech Connect

Information on the amount of genetic diversity in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is necessary to enhance the effectiveness of breeding programs and germplasm conservation efforts. This study characterized and assessed genetic diversity by means of RAPD markers among 14 populations representing upland and lowland switchgrass ecotypes. Forty-five of 128 primers produced polymorphic markers among sets of genomic DNA pooled from individual genotypes of each population. Five primers were selected to amplify a total of 91 polymorphic loci among genotypes. The RAPD markers were scored for presence or absence of bands to generate distance matrices for cluster analysis. Overall similarity was 65% among population compared to 81% within populations. Blackwell and Caddo were the most similar populations (78%) based on RAPD markers, whereas Alamo and Forestburg were the most divergent (53%). Cluster analysis clearly segregated populations into two main groups (putatively based on ecotype) and united individual genotypes within a population into discrete groups within the larger clusters. Although the relationship between ploidy level and ecotype remained unclear, RAPD profiles can be used to identify switchgrass populations and may be useful in predicting relationship between experimental germplasm sources and released populations. 50 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Gunter, L.E.; Tuskan, G.A.; Wullschleger, S.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-07-01

19

Identification of broccoli and cauliflower cultivars with RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers generated by 4 arbitrary 10-mer primers, discriminated 14 broccoli and 12 cauliflower cultivars (Brassica oleracea L.) by banding profiles. The size of the amplified DNA fragments ranged from 300 to 2600 base pairs. Twenty-eight percent of the markers were fixed in both broccoli and cauliflower, whereas 12.5% were specific to either crop. The rest

Jinguo Hu; Carlos F. Quiros

1991-01-01

20

Evaluation of RFLP and RAPD markers in a comparison of Brassica napus breeding lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

RFLP and RAPD markers were evaluated and compared for their ability to determine genetic relationships in a set of three B. napus breeding lines. Using a total of 50 RFLP and 92 RAPD markers, the relatedness between the lines was determined. In total, the RFLP and the RAPD analysis revealed more than 500 and 400 bands, respectively. The relative frequencies

C. Halldén; N.-O. Nilsson; I. M. Rading; T. Säll

1994-01-01

21

Genetic diversity in natural populations of Jacaranda decurrens Cham. determined using RAPD and AFLP markers  

PubMed Central

Jacaranda decurrens (Bignoniaceae) is an endemic species of the Cerrado with validated antitumoral activity. The genetic diversity of six populations of J. decurrens located in the State of São Paulo was determined in this study by using molecular markers for randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Following optimization of the amplification reaction, 10 selected primers generated 78 reproducible RAPD fragments that were mostly (69.2%) polymorphic. Two hundred and five reproducible AFLP fragments were generated by using four selected primer combinations; 46.3% of these fragments were polymorphic, indicating a considerable level of genetic diversity. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) using these two groups of markers indicated that variability was strongly structured amongst populations. The unweighted pair group method with arithmatic mean (UPGMA) and Pearson's correlation coefficient (RAPD -0.16, p = 0.2082; AFLP 0.37, p = 0.1006) between genetic matrices and geographic distances suggested that the population structure followed an island model in which a single population of infinite size gave rise to the current populations of J. decurrens, independently of their spatial position. The results of this study indicate that RAPD and AFLP markers were similarly efficient in measuring the genetic variability amongst natural populations of J. decurrens. These data may be useful for developing strategies for the preservation of this medicinal species in the Cerrado. PMID:21637428

2010-01-01

22

RAPD-SCAR marker and genetic relationship analysis of three Demodex species (Acari: Demodicidae).  

PubMed

For a long time, classification of Demodex mites has been mainly based on their hosts and phenotype characteristics. The study was the first to conduct molecular identification and genetic relationship analysis for six isolates of three Demodex species by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Totally, 239 DNA fragments were amplified from six Demodex isolates with 10 random primers in RAPD, of which 165 were polymorphic. Using a single primer, at least five fragments and at most 40 in the six isolates were amplified, whereas within a single isolate, a range of 35-49 fragments were amplified. DNA fingerprints of primers CZ 1-9 revealed intra- and interspecies difference in six Demodex isolates, whereas primer CZ 10 only revealed interspecies difference. The genetic distance and dendrogram showed the intraspecific genetic distances were closer than the interspecific genetic distances. The interspecific genetic distances of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex canis (0.7931-0.8140) were shorter than that of Demodex brevis and D. canis (0.8182-0.8987). The RAPD-SCAR marker displayed primer CZ 10 could be applied to identify the three Demodex species. The 479-bp fragment was specific for D. brevis, and the 261-bp fragment was specific for D. canis. The conclusion was that the RAPD-SCAR multi-marker was effective in molecular identification of three Demodex species. The genetic relationship between D. folliculorum and D. canis was nearer than that between D. folliculorum and D. brevis. PMID:22205351

Zhao, Ya-E; Wu, Li-Ping

2012-06-01

23

The genetic structure of tetraploid Avena: a comparison of isozyme and RAPD markers.  

PubMed

Isozymes were the first widely used molecular markers in plant population analysis. They yielded valuable information on the amount and the structure of genetic variability. DNA technology has provided new types of markers based on DNA sequence, which make it possible to study polymorphisms in a much greater proportion of the genome. This is the reason why the use of isozymes is less popular nowadays. This effect would be justified if all markers provided the same type of information on polymorphism and genetic relationships among populations; otherwise, it would be necessary to use different markers to obtain the complete picture of the genetic structure of populations and species. In this study, we compared data of isozyme and RAPD markers in the populations of two tetraploid species of wild oats: Avena barbata populations collected in Argentina, and Avena murphyi populations collected in Spain and Morocco. The samples were evaluated for 9 isozymatic systems and 10 primers. The structure of genetic variability was studied using Nei's method, and the relationships between populations were estimated using Hedrick and Jaccard's similarities for isozymes and RAPDs, respectively. As expected, RAPDs were more polymorphic than isozymes, but the information obtained from both markers was weakly correlated. The various reasons for this observation are discussed, but our conclusion is that in order to study the structure of genetic variability, several types of markers should be used. PMID:12378251

Benchacho, Mohammed; Guma, Rosana; Pérez De La Vega, Marcelino; García, Pedro

2002-01-01

24

Molecular analysis of silver crucian carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) clones by SCAR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers specific for one, two or three clones have been identified from five gynogenetic clones of silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) using RAPD markers developed earlier. In this study, three RAPD markers (RA1-PA, RA2-EF and RA4-D) produced by Opj-1, and two RAPD DNA fragments (RA3-PAD and RA5-D) produced by Opj-7, were selected

Li Zhou; Yang Wang; Jian-Fang Gui

2001-01-01

25

Genetic diversity among elite Bulgarian barley varieties evaluated by RFLP and RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation among five elite winter barley cultivars (H. vulgare L.) currently grown in Bulgaria was assessed at the molecular level using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)\\u000a and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The present study sampled RFLPs in four well characterized multigene\\u000a families in barley: the seed storage protein loci; the 18S, 5.8S and 26S ribosomal DNA loci;

Elena Todorovska; Adelina Trifonova; Atanas Atanassov

2003-01-01

26

Template mixing: a method of enhancing detection and interpretation of codominant RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten codominant RAPD markers, ranging in size from about 300 to about 1350 bp, were identified in mapping populations of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.). A distinguishing feature of all ten markers, and perhaps of codominant RAPD markers in general, was the presence in heterozygous individuals of a non-parental, heteroduplex band migrating more slowly than

T. M. Davis; H. Yu; K. M. Haigis; P. J. McGowan

1995-01-01

27

Identification of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker for differentiating male from female and sporophytic thalli of Gracilaria changii (Rhodophyta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been limited reports on molecular sex markers for macroalgae. We report the use of random amplified polymorphic\\u000a DNA analysis (RAPD) to identify molecular sex markers for Gracilaria changii (Xia et Abbott) Abbott, Zhang et Xia. Two DNA extraction methods were used: a modified CTAB and phenol-chloroform combination\\u000a method and the DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The CTAB and phenol-chloroform

M. C. Sim; P. E. Lim; S. Y. Gan; S. M. Phang

2007-01-01

28

Genetic relationships between Lolium (Poaceae) species revealed by RAPD markers.  

PubMed

The genus Lolium is one of the most important groupings of temperate forage grasses, including about eight recognized species that are native to some temperate and subtropical regions of the northern hemisphere. We examined genetic relationships among 18 accessions representing all Lolium species using RAPD markers. Among 50 random primers that we screened, 13 gave reproducible amplification banding patterns. Each of these 13 primers generated 19-43 scorable fragments. A total of 367 RAPD fragments were detected, of which 95.9% were polymorphic across all the Lolium accessions. Dice's coefficient of dissimilarity ranged from 0.016 to 0.622, which is indicative of substantial genetic variations in these Lolium accessions. A neighbor-joining cluster analysis, with bootstrap permutation, produced an unrooted dendrogram, which grouped 18 accessions into two main clades, supporting high bootstrap values (98 and 96%). The first clade included the self-pollinated species, L. persicum, L. temulentum, L. remotum, and L. subulatum. The cross-pollinated species, i.e., L. multiflorum, L. perenne, L. rigidum, and L. canariense, composed the second clade, in which L. canariense formed a distinct subclade, indicating its higher genetic separation from other allogamous species. The value of r = 0.97 in the Mantel test for cophenetic correlation applied to the cluster analysis indicated the high degree of fit of the accessions to a group. A principal coordinate analysis, whose first three coordinates explained 72.6% of the variation, showed similar groupings as in the cluster analysis. The genetic relationships estimated by the polymorphism of RAPD markers are basically in agreement with those previously inferred with other genetic markers. PMID:23546973

Ma, X; Gu, X-Y; Chen, T-T; Chen, S-Y; Huang, L-K; Zhang, X-Q

2013-01-01

29

Molecular characterization and RAPD analysis of Juniperus species from Iran.  

PubMed

The genus Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae), an aromatic evergreen plant, consists of up to 68 species around the world. We classified five species of Juniperus found in Iran using molecular markers to provide a means for molecular identification of Iranian species. Plants were collected (three samples of each species) from two different provinces of Iran (Golestan and East Azarbayejan). The DNA was extracted from the leaves using a Qiagen Dneasy Plant Mini Kit. Amplification was performed using 18 ten-mer RAPD primers. Genetic distances were estimated based on 187 RAPD bands to construct a dendrogram by means of unweighted pair group method of arithmetic means. It was found that J. communis and J. oblonga were differentiated from the other species. Genetic distance values ranged from 0.19 (J. communis and J. oblonga) to 0.68 (J. communis and J. excelsa). Juniperus foetidissima was found to be most similar to J. sabina. Juniperus excelsa subspecies excelsa and J. excelsa subspecies polycarpos formed a distinct group. PMID:21710457

Kasaian, J; Behravan, J; Hassany, M; Emami, S A; Shahriari, F; Khayyat, M H

2011-01-01

30

Molecular markers applied to plant tissue culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The last decade has witnessed successful applications of plant tissue culture techniques in several crops. During that same\\u000a period, studies in plant molecular genetics have also grown exponentially. Molecular markers (isozymes, RFLPs, and PCR-based\\u000a markers such as RAPDs) are now used to study many of the current limitations of tissue culture. They have been used to investigate\\u000a mechanisms that underlie

Sylvie Cloutier; Benoit S. Landry

1994-01-01

31

Linkage map of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, based on RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A linkage map was constructed for the honey bee based on the segregation of 365 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers in haploid male progeny of a single female bee. The X locus for sex determination and genes for black body color and malate dehydrogenase were mapped to separate linkage groups. RAPD markers were very efficient for mapping, with an

Greg J. Hunt; Robert E. Page

1995-01-01

32

[The polymorphism of proteins, RAPD-PCR and ISSR-PCR markers in European and American bison and cattle].  

PubMed

The comparative analysis of genetic differentiations between three species of Bovinae--Bos taurus, Bison bonasus, Bison bison with the use of different types of molecular-genetic markers--genetical-biochemical (35 loci) and DNA markers (RAPD-PCR, ISSR-PCR) was carried out. It was shown, that the evaluation of interspecies genetic interrelations was connected more with the determined molecular-genetic markers (loci), included in analysis, than with the marker's belonging to certain type (protein polymorphism, variability of DNA repeat distributions). PMID:10707408

Glazko, V I; Dyman', T N; Tarasiuk, S I; Dubin, A V

1999-01-01

33

Analysis of genetic heterogeneity among five gynogenetic clones of silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch, based on detection of RAPD molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gynogenetic silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio, is a unique model system for studying evolutionary genetics and selective breeding, owing to its specific genetic background and reproductive modes. Five gynogenetic clones were analyzed by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, using 30 10-nucleotide-long primers. Twenty-six primers produced well-amplified DNA fragments with reproducible banding patterns, and 24 primers were

L. Zhou; Y. Wang; J. F. Gui

2000-01-01

34

Evaluation of RAPD markers for taxonomic relationships in some aquatic species of Utricularia L. (Lentibulariaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to assess relationship across nine aquatic species of Utricularia. The highest numbers of RAPD bands were detected in Utricularia bremii and U. intermedia. The highest genetic similarity was observed between U. australis and U. dimorphantha; between U. australis and U. vulgaris; and between U. dimorphantha and U. macrorhiza indicating that these species

Mohammad Oliur Rahman

2006-01-01

35

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers readily distinguish cryptic mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae: Anopheles )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was examined as a potential tool to differen- tiate cryptic mosquito species. It proved to be a quick, effective means of finding genetic markers to separate two laboratory populations of morphologically indis- tinguishable African malaria vectors, Anopheles gam- biae and An. arabiensis. In an initial screening of fifty- seven RAPD primers, 377

R. C. Wilkerson; T. J. Parsons; D. G. Albright; T. A. Klein; M. J. Braun

1993-01-01

36

RAPD markers reveal polymorphism among some Iranian pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study RAPD markers were used to determine the diversity level among 24 Iranian pomegranate genotypes. One hundred decamer random primers were used for PCR reactions, among which 16 showed reliable polymorphic patterns. These primers produced 178 bands, of which 102 were polymorphic. Cluster analysis of the genotypes was performed based on data from polymorphic RAPD bands, using Jaccard's

A. Sarkhosh; Z. Zamani; R. Fatahi; A. Ebadi

2006-01-01

37

Genetic diversity and identification of cymbidium cultivars as measured by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA from thirty-six cymbidium cultivars was examined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the efficiency of\\u000a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers in identifying cultivars and determining levels of genetic variability.\\u000a A total of 132 RAPD markers, 78% of which were polymorphic, were produced from 15 10mer arbitrary primers. All the cultivars\\u000a were distinguishable when a number of primers

P. Obara-Okeyo; S. Kako

1998-01-01

38

Genetic and geographic variation of bulbous barley ( Hordeum bulbosum L.) assessed by RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic relationships among 21 barley accessions (17 of bulbous barley H. bulbosum L. and 4 of cultivated barley (H. vulgare L.) collected from different part of Turkey were investigated using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Eleven informative\\u000a primers amplified 111 markers of which 98 (89.8%) were polymorphic. A dendogram was constructed using the UPGMA method based\\u000a on the RAPD markers.

A. Okumus; F. Uzun

2007-01-01

39

Genetic structure and inter-generic relationship of closed colony of laboratory rodents based on RAPD markers.  

PubMed

Molecular genetic analysis was performed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) on three commonly used laboratory bred rodent genera viz. mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus) and guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) as sampled from the breeding colony maintained at the Animal Facility, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow. In this study, 60 samples, 20 from each genus, were analyzed for evaluation of genetic structure of rodent stocks based on polymorphic bands using RAPD markers. Thirty five random primers were assessed for RAPD analysis. Out of 35, only 20 primers generated a total of 56.88 % polymorphic bands among mice, rats and guinea pigs. The results revealed significantly variant and distinct fingerprint patterns specific to each of the genus. Within-genera analysis, the highest (89.0 %) amount of genetic homogeneity was observed in mice samples and the least (79.3 %) were observed in guinea pig samples. The amount of genetic homogeneity was observed very high within all genera. The average genetic diversity index observed was low (0.045) for mice and high (0.094) for guinea pigs. The inter-generic distances were maximum (0.8775) between mice and guinea pigs; and the minimum (0.5143) between rats and mice. The study proved that the RAPD markers are useful as genetic markers for assessment of genetic structure as well as inter-generic variability assessments. PMID:25074272

Kumar, Mahadeo; Kumar, Sharad

2014-11-01

40

Detection of Low Genetic Variation in a Critically Endangered Chinese Pine, Pinus squamata , Using RAPD and ISSR Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

With only 32 individuals in the northeastern corner of Yunnan Province, China, Pinus squamata is one of the most endangered conifers in the world. Using two classes of molecular markers, RAPD and ISSR, its very low\\u000a genetic variation was revealed. Shannon's index of phenotypic diversity (I) was 0.030, the mean effective number of alleles per locus (Ae) was 1.032, the

Zhi-Yong Zhang; Yong-Yan Chen; De-Zhu Li

2005-01-01

41

Characterization of the USDA Poa pratensis collection usingRAPD markers and agronomic descriptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of germplasm collections is critical to assesscollection diversity and enhance utilization. A Poapratensis L. germplasm collection of 228 accessionsrepresenting 26 countries, along with 17 commercial check cultivars,was characterized using 86 random amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD) markers and 17 agronomic descriptors. The Dicesimilarity coefficient used for RAPD data ranged from 0.56 to 0.95and average Euclidean distance used for agronomic data ranged

R. C. Johnson; W. J. Johnston; C. T. Golob; M. C. Nelson; R. J. Soreng

2002-01-01

42

Reproducibility of the differential amplification between leaf and root DNAs in soybean revealed by RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to determine whether such markers can be employed for detecting genomic\\u000a modification during plant development or under certain stress environments. Pairwise comparisons in RAPD patterns of leaf\\u000a and root DNA amplifications were studied for 11 soybean accessions representing different origins. Hydroponic culture was\\u000a used for the ease of harvesting roots. From a total

Long-Fang Oliver Chen; Hsiao-Ying Kuo; Mei-Hwei Chen; Kun-Nan Lai; Shu-Chen Grace Chen

1997-01-01

43

Molecular DNA Markers in Phylogeny and Systematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review considers data on the use of the main evolutionary markers (ribosomal, mitochondrial, and RAPD markers; dispersed and tandem repeats). Some circumstances impending analysis of these data are discussed.

V. V. Grechko

2002-01-01

44

Genetic variation analysis in the genus Lathyrus using RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

RAPD analysis was applied to five species belonging to the genusLathyrus (Fabaceae): L.sativus, L.cicera, L.ochrus, L.sylvestris and L.latifolius. All the species under study belong to thesection Lathyrus except L.ochrus which is in section Clymenum.Nine populations representing these species were used and ten random10-mer primers were sampled. A total of 129 amplification products,ranging in size from 0.3 to 3 Kb, were

N. Chtourou-Ghorbel; B. Lauga; N. Ben Brahim; D. Combes; M. Marrakchi

2002-01-01

45

Identification and characterization of RAPD markers inferring genetic relationships among Pine species.  

PubMed

Total genomic DNAs were extracted from several populations of pine species and amplified using oligonucleotides of random sequences. Polymorphism in random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers was high and sufficient in distinguishing each of the species. Genetic relationships among eight pine species (Pinus sylvestris, Pinus strobus, Pinus rigida, Pinus resinosa, Pinus nigra, Pinus contorta, Pinus monticola, and Pinus banksiana) from different provenances were analyzed. The degree of band sharing was used to evaluate genetic distance between species and to construct a phylogenetic tree. In general, the dendrogram corroborated the description of relationships based on morphological characteristics and crossability, but also provided new insights into pine taxonomy. RAPD markers specific to some pine species were cloned and sequenced. PCR amplifications using pairs of designed specific primers revealed that all the cloned sequences were likely genus specific because they were not found in spruce or larch. True species-specific sequences were identified using designed primers flanking cloned RAPD fragments. The analysis of RAPD fragment sequences confirmed the genetic relationships among species. A 2281-bp RAPD band called PI-Mt-Stb-23 from P. strobus was used as a probe in restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and produced distinct banding patterns for each species examined, consistent with the highly polymorphic character of DNA-fingerprinting probes. PMID:11908668

Nkongolo, K K; Michael, P; Gratton, W S

2002-02-01

46

Identification of RAPD markers linked to the rust ( Uromyces fabae ) resistance gene in pea ( Pisum sativum )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two RAPD markers linked to gene for resistance (assayed as pustule number cm?2 leaf area) to rust [Uromyces fabae (Pers.) de Bary] in pea (Pisum sativum L.) were identified using a mapping population of 31 BC1F1 [HUVP 1 (HUVP 1 × FC 1] plants, FC 1 being the resistant parent. The analysis of genetics of rust resistance was based on

S. Vijayalakshmi; Kusum Yadav; Chanda Kushwaha; S. B. Sarode; C. P. Srivastava; Ramesh Chand; B. D. Singh

2005-01-01

47

Genetic linkage mapping in peach using morphological, RFLP and RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed a genetic linkage map of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] consisting of RFLP, RAPD and morphological markers, based on 71 F2 individuals derived from the self-fertilization of four F1 individuals of a cross between ‘New Jersey Pillar’ and KV 77119. This progeny, designated as the West Virginia (WV) family, segregates for genes controlling canopy shape, fruit flesh

S. Rajapakse; L. E. Belthoff; G. He; A. E. Estager; R. Scorza; I. Verde; R. E. Ballard; W. V. Baird; A. Callahan; R. Monet; A. G. Abbott

1995-01-01

48

A phylogenetic analysis of Pisum based on morphological characters, and allozyme and RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cladistic analyses of 17 wild and cultivated pea taxa were performed using morphological characters, and allozyme and RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers. Both branch-and-bound and bootstrap searches produced cladograms that confirmed the close relationships among the wild species and cultivars of Pisum proposed by a variety of systematic studies. Intraspecific rankings were supported for northern P. humile, southern P.

B. K. Hoey; K. R. Crowe; V. M. Jones; N. O. Polans

1996-01-01

49

A male and hermaphrodite specific RAPD marker for papaya ( Carica papaya L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to determine the sex of a dioecious species, Carica papaya L., with three sex types, male, female and hermaphrodite. A 450 bp marker fragment, named PSDM(Papaya Sex Determination Marker),\\u000a exists in all male and hermaphrodite plants but not in the female plants so far analyzed. The DNA sequence of PSDM exhibited

N. Urasaki; M. Tokumoto; K. Tarora; Y. Ban; T. Kayano; H. Tanaka; H. Oku; I. Chinen; R. Terauchi

2002-01-01

50

Assessment of diversity in Harpagophytum with RAPD and ISSR markers provides evidence of introgression.  

PubMed

The genus Harpagophytum has two species: H. procumbens which is an important medicinal plant in southern Africa, and H. zeyheri. Genetic diversity in 96 samples, obtained by germinating seeds collected from Botswana, was assessed using six inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and 10 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. These DNA markers yielded a total of 138 polymorphic bands. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.06 to 0.39 for ISSR primers, and from 0.09 to 0.43 for RAPD primers. Jaccard's similarity coefficients were highest when seedlings derived from the same fruit capsule were compared, while seedlings from different fruits on the same plant had intermediate values. The lowest values were recorded among seedlings from different plants. These results were consistent with an outcrossing breeding system in Harpagophytum. Analysis of molecular variance revealed significant differentiation (P < 0.01) between taxonomic units within Harpagophytum. About 39% of the variability occurred between the two species, H. procumbens and H. zeyheri. Plants with an intermediate morphology, i.e. putative hybrids (PH), showed 21% differentiation when compared with H. procumbens ssp. procumbens (PP), and 19% when compared with H. procumbens ssp. transvaalense (PT) or with H. zeyheri (ZZ). In addition, a deviating variant of PT was identified, here termed 'procumbens new variety' (PN). PN showed only 9% differentiation when compared with PT, 22% when compared with PP or with PH, and 41% when compared with ZZ. Considerable differentiation between the two Harpagophytum species was revealed also by a cluster analysis. Introgression was, however, suggested by the intermediate position of the putative hybrid plants in a principal component analysis while inter-specific gene flow was shown by a Bayesian genetic structure analysis. PMID:25363276

Muzila, Mbaki; Werlemark, Gun; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Sehic, Jasna; Fatih, Moneim; Setshogo, Moffat; Mpoloka, Wata; Nybom, Hilde

2014-10-01

51

Genetic diversity in Kenyan populations of Acacia senegal (L.) willd revealed by combined RAPD and ISSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acacia senegal belongs to the subgenus, Aculeiferum. It is an African arid and semi arid zone multipurpose tree species, highly valued for gum arabic production, agroforestry and desertification control besides other multiple uses. Genetic variation and resulting variable groupings were assessed using combined RAPD+ISSR markers within and among four Kenyan populations of A. senegal. Using 10 RAPD and 5 ISSR

Chiveu Chemulanga Josiah; Dangasuk Otto George; Omunyin Michael Eleazar; Wachira Francis Nyamu

2008-01-01

52

Invasion and spreading of Cabomba caroliniana revealed by RAPD markers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applying randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), the genetic variation of Cabomba caroliniana Gray (cabomba or fanwort), a new alien plant in China, was analyzed in this paper. Total 143 bands, including 47 polymorphic bands, were amplified from 23 primers in 20 samples. The sampling distance was large, but its genetic diversity was low. The main results were that: (1) Cabomba, which grew and dispersed mainly in fragment, was an abundant and dominant species in freshwater, and its main dispersal mechanism was vegetative reproduction (2) Cabomba was originally introduced into China as an aquarium submerged plant. Somehow, those discarded cabomba became invasive species in the areas of Hangzhou, Shanghai, and Meicheng, and other places. (3) Although the level of genetic diversity in cabomba was low, their rapid dispersion and propagation could seriously harm to local aquatic community. Therefore, specific measure should be used to control cabomba from uncontrolled spreading and damage to local vegetation communities.

Jin, Xiaofeng; Ding, Bingyang; Gao, Shuqin; Jiang, Weimei

2005-12-01

53

Genetic linkage maps of white birches ( Betula platyphylla Suk. and B. pendula Roth) based on RAPD and AFLP markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pseudo-testcross mapping strategy was used in combination with the random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) and amplified\\u000a fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genotyping methods to develop two moderately dense genetic linkage maps for Betula platyphylla Suk. (Asian white birch) and B. pendula Roth (European white birch). Eighty F1 progenies were screened with 291 RAPD markers and 451 AFLP markers. We selected

Tingbo Jiang; Boru Zhou; Fuling Gao; Baozhu Guo

2011-01-01

54

MOLECULAR MARKERS IN WILD TURKEY  

E-print Network

and conservation of wildlife species. In the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), these markers have been used, hybridization, Meleagris gallopavo, micro- satellite, mitochondrial, molecular marker, population, subspecies

Latch, Emily K.

55

Analysis of phylogenetic relationships in the genus Solanum (Solanaceae) as revealed by RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic relationships and genetic variation were examined in the genus Solanum based on the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Genetic distances were estimated for 42 accessions from five\\u000a subgenera [Archaesolanum, Minon (Syn. Brevantherum), Leptostemonum, Potatoe, and Solanum]. This investigation provided new information and reinforced some suggestions from previous phylogenetic studies. Analysis\\u000a with random markers from the total genome clearly

P. Poczai; J. Taller; I. Szabó

2008-01-01

56

Analysis of genetic diversity in Agave tequilana var. Azul using RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

By federal law in Mexico, A. tequilana Weber var. Azul is the only variety of agave permitted for the production of any tequila. Our objective was to assay levels\\u000a of genetic variation in field populations of A. tequilana var. Azul using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Ten plants were collected from each of four different\\u000a fields, with two fields

Katia Gil Vega; Mario González Chavira; Octavio Martínez de la Vega; June Simpson; George Vandemark

2001-01-01

57

Genome-specific repetitive DNA and RAPD markers for genome identification in Elymus and Hordelymus.  

PubMed

We have developed RFLP and RAPD markers specific for the genomes involved in the evolution of Elymus species, i.e., the St, Y, H, P, and W genomes. Two P genome specific repetitive DNA sequences, pAgc1 (350 bp) and pAgc30 (458 bp), and three W genome specific sequences, pAuv3 (221 bp), pAuv7 (200 bp), and pAuv13 (207 bp), were isolated from the genomes of Agropyron cristatum and Australopyrum velutinum, respectively. Attempts to find Y genome specific sequences were not successful. Primary-structure analysis demonstrated that pAgc1 (P genome) and pAgc30 (P genome) share 81% similarity over a 227-bp stretch. The three W genome specific sequences were also highly homologous. Sequence comparison analysis revealed no homology to sequences in the EMBL-GenBank databases. Three to four genome-specific RAPD markers were found for each of the five genomes. Genome-specific bands were cloned and demonstrated to be mainly low-copy sequences present in various Triticeae species. The RFLP and RAPD markers obtained, together with the previously described H and St genome specific clones pHch2 and pP1Taq2.5 and the Ns genome specific RAPD markers were used to investigate the genomic composition of a few Elymus species and Hordelymus europaeus, whose genome formulas were unknown. Our results demonstrate that only three of eight Elymus species examined (the tetraploid species Elymus grandis and the hexaploid species Elymus caesifolius and Elymus borianus) really belong to Elymus. PMID:9549065

Svitashev, S; Bryngelsson, T; Li, X; Wang, R R

1998-02-01

58

RAPD markers linked to a clubroot-resistance locus in Brassica rapa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linkage of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers with resistance genes to clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor.)\\u000a in Brassica rapa L. was studied in a doubled haploid (DH population obtained by microspore culture. Thirty-six DH lines were\\u000a obtained from F1 plants from a cross between susceptible ‘Homei P09’ and resistant ‘Siloga S2’ plants. ‘Homei P09’ was a DH line obtained\\u000a by

Yasuhisa Kuginuki; Hidetoshi Ajisaka; Mamiko Yui; Hiroaki Yoshikawa; Ken-ichi Hida; Masashi Hirai

1997-01-01

59

Identification and confirmation of molecular markers and orange flesh color associated with major QTL for high beta-carotene content in muskmelon  

E-print Network

-carotene content, flesh color, and flesh color intensity. Bulk segregent analysis was used with RAPD markers to identify molecular markers associated with high beta-carotene content. Flesh color and flesh color intensity both had significant relationships with beta...

Napier, Alexandra Bamberger

2009-05-15

60

Development of linkage map in F2 population of selected parents with respect to Macrophomina phaseolina resistance trait using screened polymorphic RAPD and developed SCAR markers of jute  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two molecular markers (RAPD and simple sequence repeat (SSR)) were applied on 12 Corchorus capsularis jute samples. Two of them were Macrophomina phaseolina-resistant and the remaining eight were M. phaseolina-susceptible accessions. Eleven SSR primer combinations out of 18 gave the polymorphic results between M. phaseolina-resistant and -susceptible accessions. Five pairs of sequence characterised amplified region (SCAR) primers designated as SCP-4,

J. I. Mir; A. Roy; S. K. Ghosh; P. G. Karmakar

2011-01-01

61

Development of SCARs by direct sequencing of RAPD products: a practical tool for the introgression and marker-assisted selection of wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

RAPD markers generated by mixtures of two different primers were developed for octoploid × Tritordeum (amphiploid Hordeum\\u000a chilense × Triticum aestivum) and its parents. Addition lines were used to identify 21 specific RAPD markers for the H. chilense\\u000a chromosomes detectable in a wheat background. Ten RAPD bands were selected and eight of them were converted into dominant\\u000a SCAR markers by direct

Pilar Hernández; Antonio Martín; Gabriel Dorado

1999-01-01

62

Evaluation of genetic variability and distances among five Iranian native chicken populations using RAPD markers.  

PubMed

Genetic variability was studied on five Iranian native chicken populations using Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA (RAPD) markers. The purpose of this study was for the analysis of variation within and between Iranian native chicken populations and for the reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree for these populations using the RAPD marker assay. The populations surveyed were from five provinces including Mazandaran (MZD), Isfahan (ISF), Yazd (YZD), Fars (FRS) and West Azerbaijan (WAZ). On the base of results of this study, the FRS and MZD populations had the highest genetic distance (0.182) and the FRS and ISF populations the lowest one (0.066). The YZD and MZD populations had the highest (0.208) and lowest (0.156) within-population genetic diversity. The phylogenetic tree was reconstructed on UPGMA method and showed two main separated groups. The ISF and FRS populations were first clustered into one group and, then, were clustered into a larger group with YZD and WAZ. Another consists MZD population was clustered separately from this group. This study showed that RAPD technique is an useful tool for evaluation of genetic variation among domesticated animals. PMID:19803121

Dehghanzadeh, H; Mirhoseini, S Z; Romanov, M N; Ghorbani, A

2009-06-01

63

Genetic Diversity and Taxonomic Implication of Cordyceps sinensis as Revealed by RAPD Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markersare used to investigate genetic variation andevolutionary relationships of 29 samples of Cordycepssinensis from different geographical populations on theQinghai–Tibet plateau. Out of 137 RAPDbands scored, 100 are polymorphic. A correlation isrevealed between geographical distance and geneticdistance. The molecular phylogenetic tree suggests thatthe 29 samples are divided into three notableclusters, corresponding to the geographical populations,i.e., the

Yongjiu Chen; Ya-Ping Zhang; Yuexiong Yang; Darong Yang

1999-01-01

64

Combined Assessment of Genetic Variability in Populations of Brown Trout ( Salmo trutta L.) Based on Allozymes, Microsatellites, and RAPD Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Genetic variability within and among four Spanish natural populations of Salmo trutta L. was evaluated on the basis of 25 enzyme loci, 3 microsatellite loci, and 9 randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs).\\u000a A total of 21 allelic markers were found, 12 of which were reported by microsatellites, whereas enzyme and RAPD accounted\\u000a only for 6 and 3, respectively. Genetic

M. E. Cagigas; E. Vazquez; G. Blanco; J. A. Sánchez

1999-01-01

65

Linkage map of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, based on RAPD markers  

SciTech Connect

A linkage map was constructed for the honey bee based on the segregation of 365 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers in haploid male progeny of a single female bee. The X locus for sex determination and genes for black body color and malate dehydrogenase were mapped to separate linkage groups. RAPD markers were very efficient for mapping, with an average of about 2.8 loci mapped for each 10-nucleotide primer that was used in polymerase chain reactions. The mean interval size between markers on the map was 9.1 cM. The map covered 3110 cM of linked markers on 26 linkage groups. We estimate the total genome size to be {approximately}3450 cM. The size of the map indicated a very high recombination rate for the honey bee. The relationship of physical to genetic distance was estimated at 52 kb/cM, suggesting that map-based cloning of genes will be feasible for this species. 71 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Hunt, G.J.; Page, R.E. Jr. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1995-03-01

66

Genetic diversity of Cosmos species revealed by RAPD and ISSR markers.  

PubMed

The genus Cosmos is native of America and is constituted by 34 species; 28 of them are endemic of Mexico. The cosmos are used as a nematicide, antimalarial, and antioxidative agent. The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity among 7 cosmos species based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequences repeats (ISSR) markers. With RAPD markers, the obtained polymorphism was 91.7 % and the genetic diversity was 0.33, whereas these values were 65.6%, and 0.22 from ISSR markers, respectively, indicating the presence of high genetic diversity among the Cosmos species that were analyzed. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrograms that were obtained with both markers were notably similar, revealing 2 clusters and indicating a clear genetic differentiation among the Cosmos species that were assessed. The first cluster comprised the species Cosmos sulphureus, Cosmos pacificus, and Cosmos diversifolius, while the second cluster included the species Cosmos purpureus, Cosmos crithmifolius, Cosmos bipinnatus, and Cosmos parviflorus. Besides this, the Cosmos species were clustered according to their collection sites. The Mantel test corroborates the correlation between the genetic distance and the geographic altitude of each Cosmos species. The results suggest that it is necessary to preserve the Cosmos species in their natural habitat in addition to the germoplasm collection for ex situ conservation. PMID:24338421

Rodríguez-Bernal, A; Piña-Escutia, J L; Vázquez-García, L M; Arzate-Fernández, A M

2013-01-01

67

A genetic linkage map of lentil (Lens sp.) based on RAPD and AFLP markers using recombinant inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic linkage map of Lens sp. was constructed with 177 markers (89 RAPD, 79 AFLP, six RFLP and three morphological markers) using 86 recombinant inbred\\u000a lines (F6:8) obtained from a partially interspecific cross. The map covered 1073?cM of the lentil genome with an average distance of\\u000a 6.0?cM between adjacent markers. Previously mapped RFLP markers were used as anchor probes.

I. Eujayl; M. Baum; W. Powell; W. Erskine; E. Pehu

1998-01-01

68

Testing Taxonomic and Biogeographical Relationships in a Narrow Mediterranean Endemic Complex (Hippocrepis balearica) using RAPD Markers  

PubMed Central

Analyses of RAPD profiles from 17 populations of the Hippocrepis balearica complex revealed a highly structured geographic pattern, not only among continental–insular areas but also within the eastern Balearic islands. In marked contrast to previous morphometric results, a clear separation between continental and insular samples was found, and intermediates between H. balearica and H. valentina samples were not detected. Molecular data indicated that western and eastern Balearic populations of the complex (H. grosii and H. balearica) were more closely related to each other than to continental populations (H. valentina). Multivariate analyses of the RAPD data clearly indicated that the similarities between continental and eastern Balearic samples of the H. balearica complex recovered by morphometric methods are due either to parallel evolution or to retention of plesiomorphic features. PMID:12096744

ROSSELLÓ, JOSEP A.; CEBRIÁN, M. CARMEN; MAYOL, MARIA

2002-01-01

69

A synteny map of the horse genome comprised of 240 microsatellite and RAPD markers.  

PubMed

To generate a domestic horse genome map we integrated synteny information for markers screened on a somatic cell hybrid (SCH) panel with published information for markers physically assigned to chromosomes. The mouse-horse SCH panel was established by fusing pSV2neo transformed primary horse fibroblasts to either RAG or LMTk mouse cells, followed by G418 antibiotic selection. For each of the 108 cell lines of the panel, we defined the presence or absence of 240 genetic markers by PCR, including 58 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and 182 microsatellites. Thirty-three syntenic groups were defined, comprised of two to 26 markers with correlation coefficient (r) values ranging from 0.70 to 1.0. Based on significant correlation values with physically mapped microsatellite (type II) or gene (type I) markers, 22 syntenic groups were assigned to horse chromosomes (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 30, X and Y). The other 11 syntenic groups were provisionally assigned to the remaining chromosomes based on information provided by heterologous species painting probes and work in progress with type I markers. PMID:10050277

Shiue, Y L; Bickel, L A; Caetano, A R; Millon, L V; Clark, R S; Eggleston, M L; Michelmore, R; Bailey, E; Guérin, G; Godard, S; Mickelson, J R; Valberg, S J; Murray, J D; Bowling, A T

1999-02-01

70

Efficient identification of ornamental peach cultivars using RAPD markers with a manual cultivar identification diagram strategy.  

PubMed

One of the most important uses of DNA markers is cultivar identification. However, no DNA fingerprint analysis strategy is available for making DNA markers helpful in practical plant cultivar identification, especially for the identification of a large number of cultivars. We developed a manual cultivar identification diagram strategy for efficient identification of plant cultivars, from which a cultivar identification diagram (CID) of genotyped plant individuals can be constructed manually. This CID could be used as a reference for quick identification of plant cultivars of interest. We used 11-mer RAPD primers to amplify DNA samples of 32 ornamental peach genotypes; all the cultivars were well distinguished by fingerprints from 6 primers. The utility of this CID was verified by identification of three randomly chosen groups of cultivars among the 32 ones that we selected. This CID generated will be useful for the identification of commercially important ornamental peach cultivars. PMID:24446285

Han, J; Wang, W Y; Leng, X P; Guo, L; Yu, M L; Jiang, W B; Ma, R J

2014-01-01

71

Identification of RAPD markers linked to a black leaf spot resistance gene in Chinese elm.  

PubMed

Black leaf spot (Stegophora ulmea) is a common foliage disease on Chinese (Ulmus parvifolia) and Siberian elms (U. pumila), two species which have been widely used as sources of Dutch-elm disease-resistance genes for interspecific elm hybrids. A dominant gene controlling resistance to black leaf spot was identified in a population derived from self-pollination of a single U. parvifolia tree. Using RAPD markers, in combination with bulked segregant analysis, we have identified three markers linked to this resistance gene. A survey of Chinese-elm hybrids revealed that the same gene is likely to confer a high level of resistance to black leaf spot in interspecific elm hybrids, although other genetic factors may also be involved in the determination of a disease phenotype. PMID:24173064

Benet, H; Guries, R P; Boury, S; Smalley, E B

1995-06-01

72

Effect of Pollination Timing on the Rate of Apomictic Reproduction Revealed by RAPD Markers in Paspalum notatum  

PubMed Central

Progeny tests employing molecular markers allow the identification of individuals originated by sexual means among the offspring of a facultative apomict. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the pollination timing on the proportion of sexually formed individuals in progenies of a facultative apomictic Paspalum notatum genotype. Progeny families of approx. 30 plants each were generated at five different pollination times: 1–3 d pre?anthesis; at anthesis; and 2, 4 and 6 d post?anthesis. Cytoembryological analyses indicated that approx. 17 % of the ovules carried a meiotic cytologically reduced embryo sac in florets formed simultaneously with those used for crosses. The parental plants and the five F1 families were analysed using RAPD molecular markers. Ninety?five oligonucleotides were assayed on the progenitors in order to search for male?specific bands. Eight primers presenting clear polymorphic bands were selected for use in the progeny tests. The proportion of sexually produced progeny reached 3·4 % before anthesis and 20 % at anthesis, while pollination after anthesis generated only maternal plants. A second progeny of 97 plants obtained from pollination at anthesis produced 16 off?type plants (16·5 %), of which only one was a BIII hybrid (2n + n). Our results indicate that pollination at anthesis allows the greatest potential for sexuality to be expressed in this facultative apomictic genotype. When pollination is delayed as soon as 2 d after anthesis, only the aposporous sacs develop endosperm through pseudogamy to set seed. PMID:12099347

ESPINOZA, F.; PESSINO, S. C.; QUARÍN, C. L.; VALLE, E. M.

2002-01-01

73

RGA- and RAPD-derived SCAR markers for a Brassica B-genome introgression conferring resistance to blackleg in oilseed rape.  

PubMed

An introgression derived from the B genome of Brassica juncea in spring-type oilseed rape (B. napus) conferring recessively inherited cotyledon resistance against several pathotypes of the blackleg fungus Leptosphaeria maculans was mapped using PCR-based molecular markers. Resistance-associated B-genome-specific randomly amplified (RAPD) and resistance gene analog (RGA) DNA polymorphisms were converted into three sequence-specific markers (SCARs; B5-1520, C5-1000, RGALm). The flanking sequence of the RGALm locus was determined by genomic walking, leading to a 1,610-bp EcoRV fragment which showed extensive homology to known and putative resistance genes of a cluster on Arabidopsis chromosome 5. Partial sequence analysis of the genomic RAPD segment OPC-05-1700 revealed strong homology to the gibberellin 2-oxidase gene of Arabidopsis. The SCAR markers were analyzed in two segregating populations and were found to be linked in coupling to each other, and in repulsion to the resistance locus. In both populations, markers deviated significantly from a monogenic 3:1 segregation ratio, with plants lacking the markers being more frequent than expected. Although the mode of introgression is yet unknown, the recombinant individuals observed among susceptible progeny suggest homeology between the B-genome-specific segment and its B. napus counterpart. This would offer prospects for reducing the size of the introgression and further fine mapping of the resistance locus. PMID:15887037

Saal, B; Struss, D

2005-07-01

74

Detection and genetic distance of resistant populations of Pseudosuccinea columella (Mollusca: Lymnaeidae) to Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda: Digenea) using RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve natural populations of Pseudosuccinea columella snails, sampled in the western and central regions of Cuba, were analyzed using the RAPD-PCR technique to screen for resistance to Fasciola hepatica. Ten OPA primers previously shown to produce marker bands for resistance and susceptibility were tested. A new population of P. columella (El Azufre, Pinar del R??o) exhibited the amplification patterns of

Aymé Fernandez Calienes; Jorge Fraga; Jean-Pierre Pointier; Mary Yong; Jorge Sanchez; Christine Coustau; Alfredo Gutiérrez; André Théron

2004-01-01

75

Genetic insight into Mediterranean chukar (Alectoris chukar, Galliformes) populations inferred from mitochondrial DNA and RAPD markers.  

PubMed

The chukar (Alectoris chukar, Galliformes) is one of the most important game birds as it is widely distributed and hunted over the whole of its range. The aim of this work was to assess the genetic differentiation as well as the possible presence of hybrid specimens in A. chukar populations from Italy, Greece and Cyprus. To provide phylogenetic context, conspecific, allopatric specimens from Israel, Georgia, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Mongolia, China and USA were compared. Sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Control Region supplied information on the ancestry of A. chukar populations, whereas Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting was used to assess whether hybridization had occurred. The Italian population was found to be an inter-specific mixture of A. chukar and A. rufa (i.e., the red-legged partridge) mtDNA lineages, whereas the representatives from Greece and Cyprus showed only the A. chukar maternal line. RAPD markers revealed introgression with A. rufa genes in the Italian population, whereas no A. chukar x A. rufa hybrid specimens were detected in the eastern Mediterranean populations. The genetic data obtained from the Italian A. chukar population as well as from a few Greek specimens pointed against their Mediterranean kinship, suggesting relationships with A. chukar subspecies from the easternmost part of the Asian continent. PMID:17286187

Barbanera, Filippo; Guerrini, Monica; Hadjigerou, Pantelis; Panayides, Panicos; Sokos, Christos; Wilkinson, Peter; Khan, Aleem A; Khan, Bakht Y; Cappelli, Fabio; Dini, Fernando

2007-11-01

76

A new strategy for identification of currant (Ribes nigrum L.) cultivars using RAPD markers.  

PubMed

We developed a new approach using RAPD fingerprints to distinguish 37 currant cultivars from northeastern China based on optimization of RAPD by choosing 11 nucleotide primers and strict screening PCR annealing temperature. We found that the manual cultivar identification diagram (MCID) approach clearly developed fingerprints from 8 different primers that were useful for cultivar identification; a cultivar identification diagram (CID) was readily constructed. This CID allows efficient currant cultivar identification, providing information to separate all the currant cultivars from each other, based on the detail polymorphic bands from the corresponding primers, which were marked in the correct positions on the currant CID. According to the CID, 10 currant cultivars in 5 groups were randomly selected for the referable and workable identification of this strategy. The results proved the workability and efficiency of the MCID method, facilitating the identification of fruit cultivars with DNA markers. This MCID approach will be useful for early identification of seedlings in the nursery industry and protection of cultivar rights. PMID:23913385

Huo, J; Yang, G; Zhang, Y; Li, F

2013-01-01

77

Molecular genetic differentiation of avian Escherichia coli by RAPD-PCR  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli is one of the most important bacterial avian pathogens and a common inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract of animals. Most pathogenic E. coli can not be differentiated biochemically or by classic microbiologic methods. Molecular typing methods, particularly PCR, facilitated epidemiological and ecological studies of bacteria. Here we describe the application of a random amplified polymorphic DNA- polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) for molecular genetic differentiation of E. coli isolates in Iran. In this study 58 E. coli isolates including 4 standard strains, 3 food originated isolates, 33 avian isolates, 8 isolates form diarrheic calves and 10 isolates from unweaned diarrheic lambs were analyzed by RAPD-PCR using primer 1247(5/-AAG AGC CCG T-3/). The RAPD analysis showed that these isolates could be grouped into 33 RAPD types and avian isolates were discriminated into 29 genotypes. It was shown that the primer could not differentiate E. coli isolated from lambs. Discriminatory index for entire isolates was 0.912 and for avian isolates was 0.990. We concluded that RAPD-PCR can be used as a method for molecular differentiation of E. coli isolates. PMID:24031252

Salehi, Taghi Zahraei; Madani, Seyed Ahmad; Karimi, Vahid; Khazaeli, Fatemeh Arab

2008-01-01

78

Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) for chickpea Fusarium oxysporum wilt resistant genotypes using PCR based molecular markers.  

PubMed

The exploration of genetically superior accessions is the key source of germplasm conservation and potential breeding material for the future. To meet the demand of better yielding chickpea cultivars in Pakistan the present study was organized to select more stable and resistant lines from indigenous as well as exotic chickpea germplasm obtained from Plant Genetic Resource Institute (PGRI), National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. For the identification and evaluation of chickpea wilt resistant lines against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Schlechtends), the germplasm was tested in the field for the selection of wilt resistant lines and the PCR based molecular markers were investigated to use Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) for selection of the desirable cultivars. In field trial, 70 % accessions were resistant to wilt disease, while the remaining 30 % have shown susceptibility to the disease. A total of 5 RAPD and 15 SSR markers were screened for molecular based characterization of wilt response. The data of molecular markers were scored by the presence (1) and absence (0) of allele and subjected to statistical analysis. The analysis was based on coefficient of molecular similarity using UPGMA and sorted the germplasm into two groups based on disease response. Among the total used RAPD/SSR primers, only TA194 SSR marker showed linkage to wilt resistant locus at 85 % probability. The linkage of a marker was reconfirmed by receiver operating characteristic curve. The use of the sorted wilt resistant genotypes through SSR marker TA194 can make available ample prospect in MAS breeding for yield improvement of the crop in Pakistan. PMID:25017202

Ahmad, Zakia; Mumtaz, Abdul Samad; Ghafoor, Abdul; Ali, Amjad; Nisar, Mohammad

2014-10-01

79

Detection and genetic distance of resistant populations of Pseudosuccinea columella (Mollusca: Lymnaeidae) to Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda: Digenea) using RAPD markers.  

PubMed

Twelve natural populations of Pseudosuccinea columella snails, sampled in the western and central regions of Cuba, were analyzed using the RAPD-PCR technique to screen for resistance to Fasciola hepatica. Ten OPA primers previously shown to produce marker bands for resistance and susceptibility were tested. A new population of P. columella (El Azufre, Pinar del Río) exhibited the amplification patterns of resistant snails, and its resistant status was confirmed after experimental exposure to miracidia. No genetic variability was detected across or within the susceptible isolates. Similarly, the novel resistant isolate displayed an RAPD profile identical to the profile of two other isolates previously identified as resistant to F. hepatica. However, clear differences in RAPD banding patterns and genetic distance were observed between resistant and susceptible isolates. PMID:15301979

Calienes, Aymé Fernandez; Fraga, Jorge; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Yong, Mary; Sanchez, Jorge; Coustau, Christine; Gutiérrez, Alfredo; Théron, André

2004-09-01

80

Assessment of genetic diversity in Trigonella foenum-graecum and Trigonella caerulea using ISSR and RAPD markers  

PubMed Central

Background Various species of genus Trigonella are important from medical and culinary aspect. Among these, Trigonella foenum-graecum is commonly grown as a vegetable. This anti-diabetic herb can lower blood glucose and cholesterol levels. Another species, Trigonella caerulea is used as food in the form of young seedlings. This herb is also used in cheese making. However, little is known about the genetic variation present in these species. In this report we describe the use of ISSR and RAPD markers to study genetic diversity in both, Trigonella foenum-graecum and Trigonella caerulea. Results Seventeen accessions of Trigonella foenum-graecum and nine accessions of Trigonella caerulea representing various countries were analyzed using ISSR and RAPD markers. Genetic diversity parameters (average number of alleles per polymorphic locus, percent polymorphism, average heterozygosity and marker index) were calculated for ISSR, RAPD and ISSR+RAPD approaches in both the species. Dendrograms were constructed using UPGMA algorithm based on the similarity index values for both Trigonella foenum-graecum and Trigonella caerulea. The UPGMA analysis showed that plants from different geographical regions were distributed in different groups in both the species. In Trigonella foenum-graecum accessions from Pakistan and Afghanistan were grouped together in one cluster but accessions from India and Nepal were grouped together in another cluster. However, in both the species accessions from Turkey did not group together and fell in different clusters. Conclusions Based on genetic similarity indices, higher diversity was observed in Trigonella caerulea as compared to Trigonella foenum-graecum. The genetic similarity matrices generated by ISSR and RAPD markers in both species were highly correlated (r = 0.78 at p = 0.001 for Trigonella foenum-graecum and r = 0.98 at p = 0.001 for Trigonella caerulea) indicating congruence between these two systems. Implications of these observations in the analysis of genetic diversity and in supporting the possible Center of Origin and/or Diversity for Trigonella are discussed. PMID:15285785

Dangi, Rakhee S; Lagu, Meena D; Choudhary, Lal B; Ranjekar, Prabhakar K; Gupta, Vidya S

2004-01-01

81

A molecular marker-based linkage map of diploid bananas ( Musa acuminata )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partial molecular linkage map of the Musa acuminata diploid genome is presented. This map is based on 58 RFLP, four isozyme and 28 RAPD markers segregating in an F2 population of 92 individuals. A total of 90 loci was detected, 77 of which were placed on 15 linkage groups while 13 segregated independently. Segregation distortions were shown by 36%

S. Fauré; J. L. Noyer; J. P. Horry; F. Bakry; C. Lanaud; D. Go?zalez de León

1993-01-01

82

Identification and localization of molecular markers linked to the Lr 9 leaf rust resistance gene of wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-isogenic lines (NILs) for the leaf rust resistance gene Lr9 were screened for polymorphisms at the molecular level. RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) primers as well as RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers were used. Out of 395 RAPD primers tested, three showed polymorphisms between NILs, i.e., an additional band was found in resistant lines. One of these polymorphic bands

G. Schachermayr; H. Siedler; M. D. Gale; H. Winzeler; M. Winzeler; B. Keller

1994-01-01

83

Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of two closely related northeast China Vicia species revealed with RAPD and ISSR markers.  

PubMed

RAPD and ISSR analyses revealed genetic diversity and relationships among 11 populations of two closely related northeast China Vicia species, Vicia ramuliflora and V. unijuga. Both methods yielded similar and complementary results, showing high genetic diversity. Vicia ramuliflora had 100% polymorphic loci in both RAPD and ISSR, and V. unijuga had 100% polymorphic loci for RAPD and 98.96% for ISSR. Genetic differentiation was moderate among populations of each species. Genetic variation was distributed mainly within populations for the two species. The high level of gene flow was important for the allocation of genetic variation. The UPGMA dendrogram and principal coordinates analysis at the level of individuals and populations showed that V. ramuliflora and V. unijuga were more closely related than either of them was to the outgroup species, V. cracca. The small molecular variance of V. ramuliflora and V. unijuga supports the conclusion that these two species had a common ancestor. PMID:20039118

Han, Ying; Wang, Hao-You

2010-06-01

84

Identification of specific molecular markers linked to the rust resistance gene M4 in flax  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify molecular markers linked to the flax rust-resistance gene M4, RAPD analysis of NM4 (a near-isogenic line containing the M4 gene) and the recurrent parent Bison was performed using 540 decamer primers. The primer OPA18 amplified a specific fragment,\\u000a OPA18432, in the NM4 line. The OPA18432 marker was found to be closely linked to the M4 gene, with a

T. Y. Bo; J. J. Ma; J. X. Chen; T. Y. Miao; W. X. Zhai

2008-01-01

85

Analysis of genetic diversity through AFLP, SAMPL, ISSR and RAPD markers in Tribulus terrestris , a medicinal herb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tribulus terrestris is well known for its medicinal importance in curing urino-genital disorders. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP),\\u000a selective amplification of microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and randomly amplified\\u000a polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used for the first time for the detection of genetic polymorphism in this medicinal herb\\u000a from samples collected from various geographical regions of

Maryam Sarwat; S. Das; P. S. Srivastava

2008-01-01

86

Evaluation of genetically modified sugarcane lines carrying Cry 1AC gene using molecular marker techniques.  

PubMed

Five genetically modified insect resistant sugarcane lines harboring the Bt Cry 1AC gene to produce insecticidal proteins were compared with non-transgenic control by using three types of molecular marker techniques namely, RAPD, ISSR and AFLP. These techniques were applied on transgenic and non-transgenic plants to investigate the genetic variations, which may appear in sugarcane clones. This variation might demonstrate the genomic changes associated with the transformation process, which could change important molecular basis of various biological phenomena. Genetic variations were screened using 22 different RAPD primers, 10 ISSR primers and 13 AFLP primer combinations. Analysis of RAPD and ISSR banding patterns gave no exclusive evidence for genetic variations. Meanwhile, the percentage of polymorphic bands was 0.45% in each of RAPD and ISSR, while the polymorphism generated by AFLP analysis was 1.8%. The maximum percentage of polymorphic bands was 1.4%, 1.1% and 5.5% in RAPD, ISSR and AFLP, respectively. These results demonstrate that most transgenic lines showed genomic homogeneity and verified minor genomic changes. Dendrograms revealing the relationships among the transgenic and control plants were developed from the data of each of the three marker types. PMID:23549345

Ismail, Roba M

2013-01-01

87

Genetic diversity in potato field populations of Thanatephorus cucumeris AG-3, revealed by ITS polymorphism and RAPD markers.  

PubMed

DNA sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to survey genetic variability in relation to agronomic and regional factors among 60 isolates of Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorph Rhizoctonia solani) collected from lesions on potato stems or sclerotia of potato tubers. Based on comparative sequence analysis it was shown that all isolates belonged to anastomosis group 3 subgroup Potato Type (AG-3 PT). ITS1 sequence polymorphisms were found within 45 of the 60 isolates showing that different types of the ITS-region are present in individual isolates. Cloning and sequence analysis of the ITS1 region from three selected isolates with sequence polymorphism showed that two different ITS1-types were present in each isolate. RAPD analysis identified 51 RAPD-phenotypes among the 60 investigated isolates indicating a high level of diversity within the subgroup AG-3 PT. Putative clonal isolates with identical RAPD- and ITS1-types were identified within fields, and in one case the same phenotype was found in two different fields separated by several hundred kilometers. Population subdivision analysis based on phenotypic as well as genotypic diversities showed differentiation among populations from different fields when isolates were sampled from tubers, indicating restricted gene flow among soil populations. Low differentiation was seen among field populations sampled from stems, indicating that gene flow is taking place. The population structure was not influenced by the previous crop in the rotation nor by the two cultivars 'Sava' and 'Bintje'. PMID:15000234

Justesen, Annemarie Fejer; Yohalem, David; Bay, Anne; Nicolaisen, Mogens

2003-11-01

88

Genetic diversity of spineless Cereus jamacaru accessions using morphological and molecular markers.  

PubMed

This is the first study to examine the genetic diversity of mandacaru cactus (Cereus jamacaru P. DC.). Plants of spineless mandacaru are commonly found in gardens and parks of urban areas in northeastern Brazil. In addition to exploring their ornamental potential, morphological, and genetic characterization may contribute to the development of plant materials that can be used as a source of macromolecules of potential economic interest. The goal of this study was to estimate the genetic variability of spineless mandacaru accessions using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers, and to characterize their morphology. Ten samples of newly emitted shoots with differentiated areolas and ribs were collected from each accession from the Cactaceous Germplasm Collection of Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, in Fortaleza, CE. Shoot shape and aspects of spine primordia (presence, location, grouping, and size of spines) were evaluated. The morphological analysis showed that the spineless mandacaru presented spine primordia. Twenty-six RAPD and 15 ISSR primers were polymorphic. A total of 262 markers were obtained, 129 of which were polymorphic. The average polymorphism of ISSR markers was higher than that of RAPD markers. The dendrograms for both analyses showed differentiation between accessions. Nevertheless, the molecular markers detected higher levels of diversity and a different pattern of diversity than those found using morphological markers. The molecular results revealed significant genetic variability both within and between groups. PMID:24222234

Oliveira, F I C; Bordallo, P N; Castro, A C R; Correia, D

2013-01-01

89

The use of RAPD markers to distinguish among juniper and cedar cultivars  

E-print Network

. and Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. (Cupressaceae) were subjected to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis Huang Abstract: Two species of Chamaecyparis and six cultivars each of Juniperus chinensis L Juni- perus scopulorum Sarg. (Cupressaceae) respectivement, à l'analyse RAPD, à l'aide de sept amorces

Hsiang, Tom

90

Evaluation of genetic diversity among Chinese Pleurotus eryngii cultivars by combined RAPD/ISSR marker.  

PubMed

Pleurotus eryngii (DC. Ex. Fr.) Quél is a rare precious edible fungus which belongs to the family Pleurotaceae. This mushroom has highly nutritional, pharmaceutical, economic and ecological values. In the present study, combined randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)/inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) was used to assess the genetic diversity of P. eryngii strains cultivated in China. For the RAPD and ISSR analyses, 404 and 392 polymorphic bands were obtained from 32 P. eryngii strains using 28 and 24 selected primers, respectively. A combined RAPD/ISSR dendrogram grouped the 32 strains into five clades with coefficient of 0.770. The comparison of RAPD and ISSR was also elucidated in the present study. The results of our study obtained by combined RAPD/ISSR analysis contributed to a better understanding of the genetic relationships among the P. eryngii strains and provide orientation for the strain improvement of P. eryngii species. PMID:22760248

Wang, Shouxian; Yin, Yonggang; Liu, Yu; Xu, Feng

2012-10-01

91

[Discrimination of interspecific hybrids in natural populations of Amur sturgeon fishes using multilocus RAPD-PCR markers].  

PubMed

RAPD-PCR analysis of 46 individuals of sturgeons from Amur River has been carried out. Genetic status of Amur sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii Brandt, 1869 and kaluga Huso dauricus Georgi, 1775 native populations has been estimated. Genetic evidences of hybrid origin for two phenotypical hybrids were obtained; estimations of genetic distances between species and hybrids appeared to be at interspecific level. The exact test for differentiation of populations (Exact test) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis were estimated to be the most effective for species and hybrid discrimination, respectively. According to data obtained populations of sturgeon fishes which inhabit Amur River maintained an essential level of genetic variability; the presence of hybrids is regarded as one of risk factors. Multilocus RAPD-PCR markers admit as the convenient and reliable tool for genetic monitoring of Amur River sturgeons to preserve their gene pool. PMID:19140442

Chelomina, G N; Rozhkovan, K V; Ivanov, S A

2008-01-01

92

Identification of a RAPD marker linked to the oat stem rust gene Pg3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of identifying molecular markers linked to disease resistance genes in oats was investigated utilizing random primers in conjunction with polymerase chain reaction technology. A pair of near-isogenic oat lines were screened for polymorphic DNA fragments linked to the stem rust resistance gene Pg3. Two primers were identified which amplified DNA fragments that were polymorphic between the lines analyzed.

G. A. Penner; J. Chong; M. Lévesque-Lemay; S. J. Molnar; G. Fedak

1993-01-01

93

Genetic diversity of bitter gourd ( Momordica charantia L.) genotypes revealed by RAPD markers and agronomic traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bitter gourd or bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is considered as minor cucurbitaceous vegetable in spite of having considerable nutritional and medicinal properties. Although some reports on genetic diversity based on morphological characterization are available, no work has been conducted to estimate genetic diversity using molecular markers in this crop. In the present study, 38 genotypes of M. charantia including

S. S. Dey; A. K. Singh; D. Chandel; T. K. Behera

2006-01-01

94

The use of RAPD markers to distinguish among juniper and cedar cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Two species of Chamaecyparis,and six cultivars each of Juniperus chinensis L. and Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. (Cupressaceae) were,subjected to random,amplified polymorphic,DNA (RAPD) analysis using seven primers. Un- weighted,pair group method,with averages (UPGMA) and principal component,analyses of genetic distances between cultivars showed,that 42 polymorphic,RAPD bands could distinguish among,all cultivars and properly group them,by species and genera. Where the origin of a

Tom Hsiang; Junbin Huang

2000-01-01

95

Assessing Genetic Diversity of Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) Populations from China by RAPD Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity and differentiation of nine populations of Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) from China were evaluated using RAPD. Of 47 clear and repeatable RAPD bands, 46 were polymorphic (overall polymorphism = 97.9%). A ranged from 1.57 to 1.83 with a mean of 1.75. Mean He was 0.3159 (0.2429–0.3603). The Shannon index ranged from 0.3432 to 0.5119 with a mean of

Xiao-Xia Fan; Lang Shen; Xin Zhang; Xiao-Yong Chen; Cheng-Xin Fu

2004-01-01

96

Conservation genetics of endangered Brasenia schreberi based on RAPD and AFLP markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brasenia schreberi J.F. Gmelin is a declared endangered species found in the lakes and ponds of South Korea. For planning its conservation strategy,\\u000a we examined the genetic diversity within and among six populations, using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified\\u000a fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Polymorphisms were more frequently detected per loci with AFLP (69.3%) than RAPD (36.8%).\\u000a High genetic

Changkyun Kim; Hye Ryun Na; Hong-Keun Choi

2008-01-01

97

Development of AFLP and RAPD markers linked to a locus associated with twisted growth in corkscrew willow (Salix matsudana 'Tortuosa').  

PubMed

Salix matsudana Koidz. cultivar 'Tortuosa' (corkscrew willow) is characterized by extensive stem bending and curling of leaves. To investigate the genetic basis of this trait, controlled crosses were made between a corkscrew female (S. matsudana 'Tortuosa') and a straight-stemmed, wild-type male (Salix alba L. Clone 99010). Seventy-seven seedlings from this family (ID 99270) were grown in the field for phenotypic observation. Among the progeny, 39 had straight stems and leaves and 38 had bent stems and curled leaves, suggesting that a dominant allele at a single locus controls this phenotype. As a first step in characterizing the locus, we searched for amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to the tortuosa allele using bulked segregant analysis. Samples of DNA from 10 corkscrew individuals were combined to produce a corkscrew pool, and DNA from 10 straight progeny was combined to make a wild-type pool. Sixty-four AFLP primer combinations and 640 RAPD primers were screened to identify marker bands amplified from the corkscrew parent and progeny pool, but not from the wild-type parent or progeny pool. An AFLP marker and a RAPD marker linked to and flanking the tortuosa locus were placed on a preliminary linkage map constructed based on segregation among the 77 progeny. Sectioning and analysis of shoot tips revealed that the corkscrew phenotype is associated with vascular cell collapse, smaller cell size in regions near the cambium and less developed phloem fibers than in wild-type progeny. Identification of a gene associated with this trait could lead to greater understanding of the control of normal stem development in woody plants. PMID:17669747

Lin, Juan; Gunter, Lee E; Harding, Scott A; Kopp, Richard F; McCord, Rachel P; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Tuskan, Gerald A; Smart, Lawrence B

2007-11-01

98

Genetic diversity and population structure of yellow camellia (Camellia nitidissima) in China as revealed by RAPD and AFLP markers.  

PubMed

Camellia nitidissima, a rare plant but a useful genetic resource for commercial cultivation of ornamental camellias, is distributed in a narrow region of South China and North Vietnam. In this study, RAPD and AFLP markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of six natural populations of C. nitidissima from Guangxi in South China. Twenty RAPD primers amplified 183 bands, of which 143 bands were polymorphic, and 8 AFLP primer pairs produced 502 bands, of which 364 were polymorphic. Independent as well as combined analyses of the cluster analyses of the RAPD and AFLP fragments showed that the six populations could be classified into two major genetic groups corresponding to the Nanning and Fangcheng areas. The Mantel test revealed significant correlation between the genetic and geographic distances of C. nitidissima populations (r = 0.953, p = 0.036). AMOVA analysis allowed the partitioning of the genetic variation between groups (36.09%), among populations within groups (25.78%), and within populations (38.14%). An understanding of both the genetic diversity and the population structure of C. nitidissima in China can also provide insight into the conservation and management of this endangered species. PMID:17109218

Tang, Shaoqing; Bin, Xiaoyun; Wang, Li; Zhong, Yang

2006-10-01

99

Genetic stability of micropropagated almond plantlets, as assessed by RAPD and ISSR markers.  

PubMed

Almond shoots produced by axillary branching from clone VII derived from a seedling of cultivar Boa Casta were evaluated for somaclonal variation using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) analysis. To verify genetic stability we compared RAPD and ISSR patterns of plantlets obtained after 4 and 6 years of in vitro multiplication. A total of 64 RAPD and 10 ISSR primers gave 326 distinct and reproducible band classes, monomorphic across all 22 plantlets analysed. Thus, a total of 7,172 bands were generated, exhibiting homogeneous RAPD and ISSR patterns for the plantlets tested. These results suggest that the culture conditions used for axillary branching proliferation are appropriate for clonal propagation of almond clone VII, as they do not seem to interfere with the integrity of the regenerated plantlets. These results allowed us to establish the use of axillary branching plantlets (mother-plants) as internal controls for the analysis of somaclonal variation of shoots regenerated from other in vitro culture processes performed with clone VII (adventitious regeneration, regeneration from meristem culture, virus sanitation programs and genetic engineering). PMID:15372197

Martins, M; Sarmento, D; Oliveira, M M

2004-12-01

100

Molecular marker-based characterization in candidate plus trees of Pongamia pinnata, a potential biodiesel legume  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Pongamia pinnata, a legume tree, has many traditional uses and is a potential biodiesel plant. Despite its importance and the availability of appropriate molecular genetic tools, the full potential of Pongamia is yet to be realized. The objective of this study was to assess genetic diversity among 10 systematically characterized candidate plus trees (CPTs) of P. pinnata from North Guwahati. Methodology The application and informativeness of polymerase chain reaction-based molecular markers [random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)] to assess the genetic variability and relatedness among 10 CPTs of P. pinnata were investigated. Principal results Polymorphism rates of 10.48, 10.08 and 100 % were achieved using 18 RAPD, 12 ISSR and 4 AFLP primer combinations, respectively. Polymorphic information content (PIC) varied in the range 0.33–0.49, 0.18–0.49 and 0.26–0.34 for RAPD, ISSR and AFLP markers, respectively, whereas the corresponding average marker index (MI) values for the above markers were 7.48, 6.69 and 30.75. Based on Nei's gene diversity and Shannon's information index, inter-population diversity (hsp) was highest when compared with intra-population diversity (hpop) and the gene flow (Nm) ranged from a moderate value of 0.607 to a high value of 6.287 for the three DNA markers. Clustering of individuals was not similar when RAPD- and ISSR-derived dendrogram analyses were compared with that of AFLP. The Mantel test cophenetic correlation coefficient was higher for AFLP (r = 0.98) than for ISSR (r = 0.73) and RAPD (r = 0.84). Molecular markers discriminated the individuals efficiently and generated a high similarity in dendrogram topologies derived using unweighted pair-group arithmetic average, although some differences were observed. The three-dimensional scaling by principal coordinate analysis supported the result of clustering. Conclusions Comparing the results obtained with the three DNA markers, AFLP indicated higher efficiency for estimating the levels of genetic diversity and proved to be reliable for fingerprinting, mapping and diversity studies in Pongamia in view of their suitability for energy production purposes. PMID:22476075

Kesari, Vigya; Madurai Sathyanarayana, Vinod; Parida, Ajay; Rangan, Latha

2010-01-01

101

Inheritance of plant regeneration from maize ( Zea mays L.) shoot meristem cultures derived from germinated seeds and the identification of associated RAPD and SSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inheritance of shoot regeneration through shoot-tip meristem culture derived from maize seedling was evaluated, and the markers (RAPD and SSR) associated with this regeneration character were identified both in a group of North American maize inbreds and a crossing population. A discrete distribution of percent regeneration and no. of shoots per explant was observed in the inbred group and

W. Li; G. Sun; J. Liu; P. Masilamany; J. H. Taylor; W. Yan; K. J. Kasha; K. P. Pauls

2004-01-01

102

Copyright 0 1995 by the Genetics Society of America Linkage Map of the Honey Bee, APis meZZijkra, Based on RAPD Markers  

E-print Network

Copyright 0 1995 by the Genetics Society of America Linkage Map of the Honey Bee, APis me, 1994 ABSTRACT A linkage map was constructedfor the honey bee based on the segregationof 365 random linkage groups.RAPD markers werevery efficient for mapping,with an averageof about2.8loci mapped for each

Hunt, Greg

103

Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationships of Two Closely Related Northeast China Vicia Species Revealed with RAPD and ISSR Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

RAPD and ISSR analyses revealed genetic diversity and relationships among 11 populations of two closely related northeast\\u000a China Vicia species, Vicia ramuliflora and V. unijuga. Both methods yielded similar and complementary results, showing high genetic diversity. Vicia ramuliflora had 100% polymorphic loci in both RAPD and ISSR, and V. unijuga had 100% polymorphic loci for RAPD and 98.96% for ISSR.

Ying Han; Hao-You Wang

2010-01-01

104

MOLECULAR MARKER ANALYSIS OF DEARS SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Source apportionment based on organic molecular markers provides a promising approach for meeting the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) objective of comparing source contributions between community air monitoring stations and various neighborhoods. Source appor...

105

(ISEA) MOLECULAR MARKER ANALYSIS OF DEARS SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Source apportionment based on organic molecular markers provides a promising approach for meeting the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) objective of comparing source contributions between community air monitoring stations and various neighborhoods. Source appor...

106

Genetic differences between wild and hatchery populations of Diplodus sargus and D. vulgaris inferred from RAPD markers: implications for production and restocking programs design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restocking and stock enhancement programs are now recognized as an important tool for the management of fishery resources.\\u000a It is important, however, to have an adequate knowledge on the genetic population structure of both the released stock and\\u000a the wild population before carrying out such programs. In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were\\u000a applied to assess genetic

J. C. Pereira; P. G. Lino; A. Leitão; S. Joaquim; R. Chaves; P. Pousãao-Ferreira; H. Guedes-Pinto; M. Neves dos Santos

2010-01-01

107

Species-diagnostic markers in Larix spp. based on RAPDs and nuclear, cpDNA, and mtDNA gene sequences, and their phylogenetic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic markers from the nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes were developed to distinguish unambiguously among\\u000a four larch species [Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch, Larix decidua (Mill.), Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Sarg., and Larix sibirica (Ledeb.)] used in intensive forestry in eastern North America. Nine random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fragments had\\u000a good diagnostic value, and 3 out of 12 nuclear

Marie-Claude Gros-Louis; Jean Bousquet; Luc E. Pâques; Nathalie Isabel

2005-01-01

108

Identification and characterization of RAPD-SCAR markers linked to glyphosate-susceptible and -resistant biotypes of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.  

PubMed

Eleusine indica is one of the most common weed species found in agricultural land worldwide. Although herbicide-glyphosate provides good control of the weed, its frequent uses has led to abundant reported cases of resistance. Hence, the development of genetic markers for quick detection of glyphosate-resistance in E. indica population is imperative for the control and management of the weed. In this study, a total of 14 specific random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were identified and two of the markers, namely S4R727 and S26R6976 were further sequence characterized. Sequence alignment revealed that marker S4R727 showing a 12-bp nucleotides deletion in resistant biotypes, while marker S26R6976 contained a 167-bp nucleotides insertion in the resistant biotypes. Based on these sequence differences, three pairs of new sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers were developed. The specificity of these primer pairs were further validated with genomic DNA extracted from ten individual plants of one glyphosate-susceptible and five glyphosate-resistant (R2, R4, R6, R8 and R11) populations. The resulting RAPD-SCAR markers provided the basis for assessing genetic diversity between glyphosate-susceptible and -resistant E. indica biotypes, as well for the identification of genetic locus link to glyphosate-resistance event in the species. PMID:24374894

Cha, Thye San; Anne-Marie, Kaben; Chuah, Tse Seng

2014-02-01

109

Assessment of genetic diversity and relationships among Egyptian mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivers grown in Suez Canal and Sinai region using RAPD markers.  

PubMed

DNA-based RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA) markers have been used extensively to study genetic diversity and relationships in a number of fruit crops. In this study, 10 (7 commercial mango cultivars and 3 accessions) mango genotypes traditionally grown in Suez Canal and Sinai region of Egypt, were selected to assess genetic diversity and relatedness. Total genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to RAPD analysis using 30 arbitrary 10-mer primers. Of these, eleven primers were selected which gave 92 clear and bright fragments. A total of 72 polymorphic RAPD bands were detected out of 92 bands, generating 78% polymorphisms. The mean PIC values scores for all loci were of 0.85. This reflects a high level of discriminatory power of a marker and most of these primers produced unique band pattern for each cultivar. A dendrogram based on Nei's Genetic distance co-efficient implied a moderate degree of genetic diversity among the cultivars used for experimentation, with some differences. The hybrid which had derived from cultivar as female parent was placed together. In the cluster, the cultivars and accessions formed separate groups according to bearing habit and type of embryo and the members in each group were very closely linked. Cluster analysis clearly showed two main groups, the first consisting of indigenous to the Delta of Egypt cultivars and the second consisting of indigenous to the Suez Canal and Sinai region. From the analysis of results, it appears the majority of mango cultivars originated from a local mango genepool and were domesticated later. The results indicated the potential of RAPD markers for the identification and management of mango germplasm for breeding purposes. PMID:24783778

Mansour, Hassan; Mekki, Laila E; Hussein, Mohammed A

2014-01-01

110

Assessment of genetic relationships among sexual and asexual forms of Allium cepa using morphological traits and RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species Allium cepa includes two major crops on the basis of morphological traits and typical reproduction mode: sexually reproduced biennial onions and vegetatively propagated perennial shallots which rarely flower. In addition, the seed-propagated shallot, a recently released variety with intermediate phenotype for life history, has been described and used by breeders. A joint analysis using molecular markers (random amplified

Maud Le Thierry D'Ennequin; Olivier Panaud; Thierry Robert; Agnès Ricroch

1997-01-01

111

A Pseudoautosomal Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Marker for the Sex Chromosomes of Silene dioica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The segregation pattern of an 810-bp random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) band in the F1 and backcross generations of a Silene dioica (L.) Clairv. family provides evidence that this molecular marker is located in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of the X and Y chromosomes. The marker was found through a combination of bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and RAPD techniques. Recombination

Veronica S. Di Stilio; Richard V. Kesseli; David L. Mulcahy

1998-01-01

112

Molecular markers in pediatric neuro-oncology  

PubMed Central

Pediatric molecular neuro-oncology is a fast developing field. A multitude of molecular profiling studies in recent years has unveiled a number of genetic abnormalities unique to pediatric brain tumors. It has now become clear that brain tumors that arise in children have distinct pathogenesis and biology, compared with their adult counterparts, even for those with indistinguishable histopathology. Some of the molecular features are so specific to a particular type of tumors, such as the presence of the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion gene for pilocytic astrocytomas or SMARCB1 mutations for atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, that they could practically serve as a diagnostic marker on their own. Expression profiling has resolved the existence of 4 molecular subgroups in medulloblastomas, which positively translated into improved prognostication for the patients. The currently available molecular markers, however, do not cover all tumors even within a single tumor entity. The molecular pathogenesis of a large number of pediatric brain tumors is still unaccounted for, and the hierarchy of tumors is likely to be more complex and intricate than currently acknowledged. One of the main tasks of future molecular analyses in pediatric neuro-oncology, including the ongoing genome sequencing efforts, is to elucidate the biological basis of those orphan tumors. The ultimate goal of molecular diagnostics is to accurately predict the clinical and biological behavior of any tumor by means of their molecular characteristics, which is hoped to eventually pave the way for individualized treatment. PMID:23095836

Ichimura, Koichi; Nishikawa, Ryo; Matsutani, Masao

2012-01-01

113

Molecular characterization of intra-population variability of Jatropha curcas L. using DNA based molecular markers.  

PubMed

Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) has acquired a great importance as a renewable source of energy with a number of environmental benefits. Very few attempts were made to understand the extent of genetic diversity of J. curcas germplasm. In the present study, efforts were made to analyze the genetic diversity among the elite germplasms of J. curcas, selected on the basis of their performance in field using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR). The plants were selected on the basis of height, canopy circumference, number of seeds per fruit, weight of 100 seeds, seed yield in grams per plant and oil content. Out of 250 RAPD (with 26 primers), 822 AFLP (with 17 primers) and 19 SSR band classes, 141, 346 and 7 were found to be polymorphic, respectively. The percentage polymorphism among the selected germplasms using RAPD, AFLP and SSR was found to be 56.43, 57.9, and 36.84, respectively. The Jaccard's similarity coefficient was found 0.91, 0.90 and 0.91 through RAPD, AFLP and SSR marker systems, respectively. Principle component analysis (PCA) and dendrogarm analysis of genetic relationship among the germplasm using RAPD, AFLP and SSR data showed a good correlation for individual markers. The germplasm JCC-11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 whose yield found to be high were clustered together in dendrogram and PCA analysis though JCC11 is geographically distinct from others. In overall analysis JCC6 (in RAPD), JCC8 (in AFLP) and JCC 6 and JCC10 (in SSR) were found genetically diverse. Characterization of geographically distinct and genetically diverse germplasms with varied yield characters is an important step in marker assisted selection (MAS) and it can be useful for breeding programs and QTL mapping. PMID:21915629

Mastan, Shaik G; Sudheer, Pamidimarri D V N; Rahman, H; Ghosh, A; Rathore, Mangal S; Ravi Prakash, Ch; Chikara, J

2012-04-01

114

Prognostic molecular markers in early breast cancer  

PubMed Central

A multitude of molecules involved in breast cancer biology have been studied as potential prognostic markers. In the present review we discuss the role of established molecular markers, as well as potential applications of emerging new technologies. Those molecules used routinely to make treatment decisions in patients with early-stage breast cancer include markers of proliferation (e.g. Ki-67), hormone receptors, and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Tumor markers shown to have prognostic value but not used routinely include cyclin D1 and cyclin E, urokinase-like plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor, and cathepsin D. The level of evidence for other molecular markers is lower, in part because most studies were retrospective and not adequately powered, making their findings unsuitable for choosing treatments for individual patients. Gene microarrays have been successfuly used to classify breast cancers into subtypes with specific gene expression profiles and to evaluate prognosis. RT-PCR has also been used to evaluate expression of multiple genes in archival tissue. Proteomics technologies are in development. PMID:15084231

Esteva, Francisco J; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N

2004-01-01

115

Assessment of genetic variation in lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) using protease inhibitor activities and RAPD markers.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to identify and characterize lucerne lines resistance to weevil infestation. After three years of field screening for resistance to weevil infestation, 13 lines of lucerne were selected to assess the genotypic variations for lucerne weevil (Hypera postica Gyll.) at biochemical and molecular levels. Total phenols varied from 0.15 to 0.91 mg g (DM) in these genotypes. The highest trypsin (11.11 unit mg(-1) protein) and chymotrypsin (93.0 unit mg(-1) protein) inhibitors activities were recorded in G-1-02 and B-4-03 lines respectively, whereas highest alpha-amylases inhibitor activity (14.2 unit mg(-1) protein) in C-6-01. Zymogram patterns for trypsin inhibitor activity showed quantitative variations among the lines. In total 262 DNA fragments were generated when 45 deca-mer random primers were employed. Genetic variation in terms of genetic distance ranged from 0.65 to 0.85. Sequential Agglomerative Hierarchical and Nested (SAHN) clustering using the Un-weighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean (UPGMA) algorithm yielded two clusters (cluster I and II) which converged at 72% similarity level. Cluster I contained most of the lines having low level of weevil infestation. High bootstrap values (>40) indicated the significance of nodes embodied in these two clusters. However, SDS-PAGE analysis of the leaf proteins of these 13 lines showed no major variations except minor difference in the protein bands of molecular weights between 14 to 20 kD. PMID:22319869

Chandra, Amaresh; Pandey, Krishna Chandra

2011-09-01

116

Molecular tools for marker-assisted breeding of buffelgrass  

E-print Network

The increasing availability of molecular tools is facilitating marker-assisted selection (MAS) in plant improvement programs. The objectives of this research were to: 1) populate the framework buffelgrass genome map with additional molecular markers...

Jessup, Russell William

2005-11-01

117

DISPERSAL PATTERN OF BLACK-BILLED MAGPIES (PICA HUDSONIA) MEASURED BY MOLECULAR GENETIC (RAPD) ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black-billed Magpies (Pica hudsonia) are a relatively sedentary corvid, with greater dispersal of females than males. To genetically confirm that dispersal pattern, 29 reproductively active adults were captured over two years and were scored for primer-spe- cific random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) bands (53 polymorphic bands in 1996 and 104 in 1997). In both years, we captured more previously banded

XIAO-HONG WANGAND; Charles H. Trost

2001-01-01

118

GENETIC VARIATION AT ALLOZYME AND RAPD MARKERS IN PINUS LONGAEVA (PINACEAE) OF THE WHITE MOUNTAINS ,C ALIFORNIA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared genetic diversity estimated from allozymes and from random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs) in a sample of 210 Great Basin bristlecone pines (Pinus longaeva Bailey) from three groves in the White Mountains, California, USA. The White Mountains are the most westerly extension of bristlecone pine and home to the oldest known living trees. We assayed two forks of each

SEOK-WOO LEE; F. T HOMAS LEDIG; DAVID R. JOHNSON

119

Identification of Molecular Genetic Markers in Pyrenophora teres f. teres Associated with Low Virulence on 'Harbin' Barley.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Two isolates of the barley net blotch pathogen (Pyrenophora teres f. teres), one possessing high virulence (0-1) and the other possessing low virulence (15A) on the barley cultivar Harbin, were crossed and the progeny of the mating were isolated. Conidia from cultures of the parent and progeny isolates were used as inoculum to determine the inheritance of virulence in the pathogen. Of the 82 progeny tested, 42 exhibited high virulence and 40 exhibited low virulence on 'Harbin' barley. The data support a model in which a single, major gene controls virulence in P. teres f. teres on this barley cultivar (1:1 ratio; chi(2) = 0.05, P = 0.83). Preparations of DNA were made from parental and progeny isolates, and the DNA was subjected to the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique in a search for molecular genetic markers associated with the virulence phenotype. Five RAPD markers were obtained that were associated in coupling with low virulence. The data indicate that the RAPD technique can be used to tag genetic determinants for virulence in P. teres f. teres. PMID:18944793

Weiland, J J; Steffenson, B J; Cartwright, R D; Webster, R K

1999-02-01

120

Application of RAPD for molecular characterization of plant species of medicinal value from an arid environment.  

PubMed

The use of highly discriminatory methods for the identification and characterization of genotypes is essential for plant protection and appropriate use. We utilized the RAPD method for the genetic fingerprinting of 11 plant species of desert origin (seven with known medicinal value). Andrachne telephioides, Zilla spinosa, Caylusea hexagyna, Achillea fragrantissima, Lycium shawii, Moricandia sinaica, Rumex vesicarius, Bassia eriophora, Zygophyllum propinquum subsp migahidii, Withania somnifera, and Sonchus oleraceus were collected from various areas of Saudi Arabia. The five primers used were able to amplify the DNA from all the plant species. The amplified products of the RAPD profiles ranged from 307 to 1772 bp. A total of 164 bands were observed for 11 plant species, using five primers. The number of well-defined and major bands for a single plant species for a single primer ranged from 1 to 10. The highest pair-wise similarities (0.32) were observed between A. fragrantissima and L. shawii, when five primers were combined. The lowest similarities (0) were observed between A. telephioides and Z. spinosa; Z. spinosa and B. eriophora; B. eriophora and Z. propinquum. In conclusion, the RAPD method successfully discriminates among all the plant species, therefore providing an easy and rapid tool for identification, conservation and sustainable use of these plants. PMID:21064026

Arif, I A; Bakir, M A; Khan, H A; Al Farhan, A H; Al Homaidan, A A; Bahkali, A H; Al Sadoon, M; Shobrak, M

2010-01-01

121

Effect of radiation on regeneration of Chinese narcissus and analysis of genetic variation with AFLP and RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our study was to establish an efficient in vitro propagation protocol for Chinese narcissus (Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis) to obtain variants of this species using ?-radiation treatment and evaluate the effectiveness of this system for variant\\u000a induction using amplification fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis.\\u000a Various doses (5–100 Gy) of gamma rays were

Gang Lu; Xiaoying Zhang; Yijing Zou; Qingcheng Zou; Xun Xiang; Jiashu Cao

2007-01-01

122

Strong genetic differentiation among east Atlantic populations of the sword razor shell ( Ensis siliqua) assessed with mtDNA and RAPD markers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sword razor shell Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758) is a bivalve with a high commercial value being appreciated in fresh and processed markets. However, the genetic studies carried out in populations of E. siliqua are scarce. In this work, the genetic variability and differentiation of the sword razor shell was assessed using PCR-RFLPs of a fragment of the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene and random amplified polymorphic loci (RAPD) in nine localities from Ireland, Spain, and Portugal. In the 314 individuals examined for the mitochondrial fragment, 12 composite haplotypes were observed; meanwhile, a unique phenotype was observed for each of the 242 individuals analyzed with 61 RAPD loci. Two of the mitochondrial composite haplotypes accounted for the majority of individuals (89.81%) and showed a remarkably disjoint distribution between Irish and Iberian samples, with the exception of Aveiro which exhibited as the most frequent haplotype the same found in Ireland. The level of variability observed for each sample was generally correlated with both types of markers and the results obtained suggest the existence of a strong population differentiation between Irish and Iberian localities, except for the Portuguese sample from Aveiro which is surprisingly closer to Irish individuals, although it is probably highly differentiated.

Arias, Alberto; Fernández-Moreno, Mercedes; Fernández-Tajes, Juan; Gaspar, Miguel B.; Méndez, Josefina

2011-03-01

123

Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers: A potential resource for studies in plant molecular biology(1.).  

PubMed

In the past few decades, many investigations in the field of plant biology have employed selectively neutral, multilocus, dominant markers such as inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to address hypotheses at lower taxonomic levels. More recently, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers have been developed, which are used to amplify coding regions of DNA with primers targeting open reading frames. These markers have proven to be robust and highly variable, on par with AFLP, and are attained through a significantly less technically demanding process. SRAP markers have been used primarily for agronomic and horticultural purposes, developing quantitative trait loci in advanced hybrids and assessing genetic diversity of large germplasm collections. Here, we suggest that SRAP markers should be employed for research addressing hypotheses in plant systematics, biogeography, conservation, ecology, and beyond. We provide an overview of the SRAP literature to date, review descriptive statistics of SRAP markers in a subset of 171 publications, and present relevant case studies to demonstrate the applicability of SRAP markers to the diverse field of plant biology. Results of these selected works indicate that SRAP markers have the potential to enhance the current suite of molecular tools in a diversity of fields by providing an easy-to-use, highly variable marker with inherent biological significance. PMID:25202637

Robarts, Daniel W H; Wolfe, Andrea D

2014-07-01

124

The role of molecular markers and marker assisted selection in breeding for organic agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant geneticists consider molecular marker assisted selection a useful additional tool in plant breeding programs to make\\u000a selection more efficient. Standards for organic agriculture do not exclude the use of molecular markers as such, however for\\u000a the organic sector the appropriateness of molecular markers is not self-evident and is often debated. Organic and low-input\\u000a farming conditions require breeding for robust

E. T. Lammerts van Bueren; G. Backes; H. de Vriend; H. Østergård

2010-01-01

125

Molecular Marker Systems for Oenothera Genetics  

PubMed Central

The genus Oenothera has an outstanding scientific tradition. It has been a model for studying aspects of chromosome evolution and speciation, including the impact of plastid nuclear co-evolution. A large collection of strains analyzed during a century of experimental work and unique genetic possibilities allow the exchange of genetically definable plastids, individual or multiple chromosomes, and/or entire haploid genomes (Renner complexes) between species. However, molecular genetic approaches for the genus are largely lacking. In this study, we describe the development of efficient PCR-based marker systems for both the nuclear genome and the plastome. They allow distinguishing individual chromosomes, Renner complexes, plastomes, and subplastomes. We demonstrate their application by monitoring interspecific exchanges of genomes, chromosome pairs, and/or plastids during crossing programs, e.g., to produce plastome–genome incompatible hybrids. Using an appropriate partial permanent translocation heterozygous hybrid, linkage group 7 of the molecular map could be assigned to chromosome 9·8 of the classical Oenothera map. Finally, we provide the first direct molecular evidence that homologous recombination and free segregation of chromosomes in permanent translocation heterozygous strains is suppressed. PMID:18791241

Rauwolf, Uwe; Golczyk, Hieronim; Meurer, Jorg; Herrmann, Reinhold G.; Greiner, Stephan

2008-01-01

126

Analysis of molecular markers associated with powdery mildew resistance genes in peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch)xPrunus davidiana hybrids.  

PubMed

A progeny of 77 hybrids issued from a cross between two heterozygous Prunus, peach [P. persica (L.) Batsch] (variety 'Summergrand') and a related species, P. davidiana (clone 1908), was analysed for powdery mildew resistance in five independent experiments. This population was also analysed for its genotype with isoenzyme and RAPD markers in order to map the genes responsible for resistance. A genetic linkage map was generated for each parent. The 'Summergrand' linkage map is composed of only four linkage groups including 15 RAPD markers and covering 83.1 centiMorgans (cM) of the peach nuclear genome, whereas the P. davidiana linkage map contains 84 RAPD markers and one isoenzyme assigned to ten linkage groups and covering 536 cM. Significant associations between molecular markers and powdery mildew resistance were found in each parent. For P. davidiana, one major QTL with a very strong effect and five other QTLs with minor effects were located in different linkage groups. For 'Summergrand', three QTLs for powdery mildew resistance, with minor effects, were also detected. Consequently, evidence is given here that the powdery mildew resistance of P. davidiana clone 1908 and P. persica variety 'Summergrand' is not a monogenic character but is controlled by at least one major gene and several minor genes. PMID:24162425

Dirlewanger, E; Pascal, T; Zuger, C; Kervella, J

1996-10-01

127

Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Several molecular and cellular markers of genotoxicity were adapted for measurement in the Medaka (Oryzias latipes), and were used to describe the effects of treatment of the organism with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). NO{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts were detected, and a slight statistically significant, increase in DNA strand breaks was observed. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to high levels of DEN induced alkyltransferase activity which enzymatically removes any O{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts but does not result in strand breaks or hypomethylation of the DNA such as might be expected from excision repair of chemically modified DNA. Following a five week continuous DEN exposure with 100 percent renewal of DEN-water every third day, the F values (DNA double strandedness) increased considerably and to similar extent in fish exposed to 25, 50, and 100 ppM DEN. This has been observed also in medaka exposed to BaP.

Shugart, L.R.; D'Surney, S.J.; Gettys-Hull, C.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.

1991-12-15

128

Micropropagtion of Terminalia bellerica from nodal explants of mature tree and assessment of genetic fidelity using ISSR and RAPD markers.  

PubMed

The present study reports an efficient in vitro micropropagation protocol for a medicinally important tree, Terminalia bellerica Roxb. from nodal segments of a 30 years old tree. Nodal segments taken from the mature tree in March-April and cultured on half strength MS medium gave the best shoot bud proliferation response. Combinations of serial transfer technique (ST) and incorporation of antioxidants (AO) [polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVP (50 mg l(-1))?+?ascorbic acid (100 mg l(-1))?+?citric acid (10 mg l(-1))] in the culture medium aided to minimize browning and improve explant survival during shoot bud induction. Highest multiplication of shoots was achieved on medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine (BA, 8.8 ?M) and ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA, 2.6 ?M) in addition to antioxidants. Shoot elongation was obtained on MS medium containing BA (4.4 ?M)?+?phloroglucinol (PG, 3.9 ?M). Elongated shoots were transferred to half strength MS medium containing indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, 2.5 ?M) for root development. The acclimatization of plantlets was carried out under greenhouse conditions. The genetic fidelity of the regenerated plants was checked using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Comparison of the bands among the regenerants and mother plant confirmed true-to-type clonal plants. PMID:25320474

Dangi, Bhawna; Khurana-Kaul, Varsha; Kothari, S L; Kachhwaha, Sumita

2014-10-01

129

Obtaining 5S rDNA molecular markers for native and invasive Cichla populations (Perciformes – Cichlidae), in Brazil  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT. The 5S rDNA gene is informative and has high conservation rates along the eukaryotic genome, having unique hereditary characteristics. Molecular studies with the 5S rDNA gene have been carried out with several groups, including some species of fish, aiming at solving phylogenetic relationship problems, ancestral patterns and genetic diversity among groups in natural populations. Species of the Cichla genus, introduced in the upper Paraná river basin, present some genetic polymorphisms detected by RAPD and SPAR analyses. These species have been intercrossing and forming viable hybrids, with greater genetic variability. The objective of this work was to standardize the amplification methodology for the non-transcribed regions of 5S rDNA multigenic family of Cichla, and to obtain specific markers for parent species that could also be identified in the hybrids. Sixty-five specimens of Cichla collected from the upper Paraná river and Amazon basins were analyzed. Although molecular markers that could be useful in the identification of hybrids were not obtained, genetic molecular 5S rDNA species-specific markers for Cichla temensis that can be employed to identify of this species, as well population markers that can be useful in population genetic variability studies, were obtained.

Viviane Fátima De Oliveira; Ra Valéria De Oliveira; Alberto José Prioli; Sônia Maria; Alves Pinto Prioli

130

Low Genetic Differentiation of and Close Evolutionary Relationships between Anas platyrhynchos and Anas poecilorhyncha : RAPD–PCR Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using RAPD–PCR, we examined genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in two groups of river ducks: Anas platyrhynchos, A. poecilorhyncha, A. streperaand A. crecca, A. formosa, A. querquedula. Molecular taxon-specific markers were found for teals (A. crecca, A. formosa, A. querquedula) and gadwall (A. strepera). Each of the species examined was shown to exhibit high genetic diversity. The mean levels of

I. V. Kulikova; G. N. Chelomina; Yu. N. Zhuravlev

2003-01-01

131

Biochemical and molecular markers for investigating the mode of reproduction in the facultative apomict Poa pratensis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isozymes and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used for precocious identification of non-maternal plants in progenies of the facultative apomict Poa pratensis. Four progenies obtained from controlled crosses that showed different degrees of apomixis on isozyme analysis of phospho-gluco-isomerases, esterases and peroxidases were chosen for RAPD analysis to generate genomic fingerprints using species-specific primers. At an advanced vegetative

A. Mazzucato; G. Barcaccia; M. Pezzotti; M. Falcinelli

1995-01-01

132

Genetic analysis of Pinus strobus and Pinus monticola populations from Canada using ISSR and RAPD markers: development of genome-specific SCAR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pinus is the largest genus of conifers, containing over 100 species and is also the most widespread genus in the Northern Hemisphere.\\u000a Pinus monticola and P. strobus are two closely related and economically important species in Canada. Morphological and allometric characteristics have been\\u000a used to assess genetic variation within these two species but these markers are not reliable due to

M. S. Mehes; K. K. Nkongolo; P. Michael

2007-01-01

133

Molecular markers in bladder cancer: a critical appraisal.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of both primary and recurrent bladder tumors currently relies upon the urine cytology and cystoscopy. Neither of these diagnostic tools is completely accurate. Prognostication of bladder cancer is largely based on pathologic tumor grade and stage. Over the past 2 decades, there is accumulating evidence that like many other cancers, bladder cancer, too, has a distinct molecular signature that separates it from other cancers and normal bladder tissue. Bladder tumors of different grades and stages even possess unique, and specific genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Although recognition of several of these molecular alterations is possible by analyzing tumor tissue, urine, and serum samples, few if any of these "molecular markers" for bladder cancer are widely used in clinical practice. These markers include some that can be applied during the diagnostic work-up of symptoms (e.g., hematuria), those under surveillance for recurrence of superficial disease and forecasting long-term prognosis, or response to chemotherapy. In this review of molecular markers for bladder cancer, effectiveness of markers in each of these categories that are identifiable in the urine of patients with bladder cancer was examined. Many of the diagnostic markers appear to hold an advantage over urine cytology in terms of sensitivity, especially for the detection of low-grade superficial tumors. However, most markers tend to be less specific than cytology, yielding more false-positives. This result is more commonly observed in patients with concurrent bladder inflammation or other benign bladder conditions. Although there are several candidate markers for assessing prognosis or response to chemotherapy, studies of large patient populations are lacking. Further studies involving larger numbers of patients are required to determine their accuracy and widespread applicability in guiding treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:16818187

Konety, Badrinath R

2006-01-01

134

Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of the small aquarium fish, Japanese Medaka, as a predictor of potential genotoxicity following exposure to carcinogens. This will be accomplished by quantitatively investigating the early molecular events associated with genotoxicity of various tissues of Medaka subsequent to exposure of the organism to several known carcinogens, such as diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

McCarthy, J.F.

1990-04-01

135

Molecular markers linked to white rust resistance in mustard Brassica juncea  

Microsoft Academic Search

White rust, caused by Albugo candida (Pers.) Kuntze, is an economically important disease of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. and Coss mustard, particularly in India. The most efficient and cost-effective way of protecting mustard plants\\u000a from white rust disease is through genetic resistance. The objective of this study was to identify RAPD markers for white\\u000a rust resistance in an F1-derived doubled-haploid

K. V. Prabhu; D. J. Somers; G. Rakow; R. K. Gugel

1998-01-01

136

The use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for studies of genetic variation in populations of Coccinella septempunctata in Belgium.  

PubMed

The movement and dispersion of Coccinella septempunctata and its efficacy as aphid control agent over large areas is not really understood because of the difficulty in identifying the origins of predators. To quantify the genetic diversity within the species and monitor the spatial foraging, populations were sampled from Belgium and analysed for RAPD DNA variation. Twenty decamer primers generated more than hundred polymorphic RAPD bands and pairwise distances were calculated between populations according to Nei and Li, then used to construct a radial neighbour-joining dendrogram and examine intra- and inter-population variance coefficients, by analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA). This study shows that while a number of factors can complicate the use and interpretation of RAPD fragments as genetic markers, RAPD analysis can be a valuable technique for studies of intra-specific genetic variation in C. septempunctata. PMID:12696422

Haubruge, Eric; Vanlerberghe-Masutti, Flavie; Collignon, Pierre; Francis, Frédéric

2002-01-01

137

Evaluation of genetic homogeneity in tissue culture regenerates of Jatropha curcas L. using flow cytometer and DNA-based molecular markers.  

PubMed

The present investigation aimed to evaluate the reliability of in vitro propagation methods for elite genotypes of Jatropha curcas L., that maintain genetic integrity of tissue culture (TC) regenerates among two regeneration systems developed through direct shoot bud regeneration using nodal/apical shoot segments (protocol-A) and in vitro-derived leaves (protocol-B) as explants. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR), simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers, and flow cytometery (FCM) were employed to evaluate genetic homogeneity in TC-regenerates at different passages of subcultures. RAPD markers showed genetic homogeneity in fifth-generation TC-regenerates of both protocols. ISSR markers showed genetic stability of leaf regenerates (protocol-B) at 10th generation. FCM analysis of TC-regenerates at 10th generation in protocol-B and at 20th generation in both protocols, showed stability of ploidy level. SSR assessment of TC-regenerates at 20th generation in both protocols confirmed genetic homogeneity. The results confirmed the genetic stability of the TC-regenerates and demonstrated the reliability of the regeneration systems developed so far using explants of two different origins, for large-scale multiplication of elite genotypes of Jatropha. PMID:24078186

Rathore, Mangal S; Yadav, P; Mastan, Shaik G; Prakash, Ch R; Singh, A; Agarwal, Pradeep K

2014-01-01

138

Prognostically Important Molecular Markers in Cytogenetically Normal Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical outcomes. Emerging data has identified molecular markers that provide additional prognostic information to better classify these patients into those with a more favorable prognosis and those with an unfavorable prognosis who may require more aggressive or investigational therapies. Markers such as mutations in nucleophosmin 1 gene and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha gene have been associated with a more favorable prognosis in CN-AML. In contrast, FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 mutations, partial tandem duplication of mixed-lineage leukemia gene and overexpression of brain and acute leukemia, cytoplasmic gene are associated with inferior clinical outcomes. In this article, the authors discuss the classical clinical features of AML and the importance of cytogenetics that predict prognosis in AML. They review the best-described molecular markers in CN-AML and their significance to clinical decision making in CN-AML. PMID:21522052

Lin, Tara L.; Smith, B. Douglas

2014-01-01

139

RESEARCH ARTICLE Uncloaking a cryptic, threatened rail with molecular markers  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Uncloaking a cryptic, threatened rail with molecular markers: origins Black Rail lives under dense marsh vegetation, is rarely observed, flies weakly and has a highly disjunct distribution. The largest population of rails is found in 8­10 large wetlands in San Francisco Bay

Beissinger, Steven R.

140

Development of molecular markers linked to the 'Fiesta' linkage group 7 major QTL for fire blight resistance and their application for marker-assisted selection.  

PubMed

A fire blight resistance QTL explaining 34.3%-46.6% of the phenotypic variation was recently identified on linkage group 7 of apple cultivar 'Fiesta' (F7). However, markers flanking this QTL were AFLP and RAPD markers unsuitable for marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two RAPD markers bracketing the QTL have been transformed into SCAR (sequence-characterized amplified region) markers, and an SSR marker specific for the region was developed. Pedigree analysis of 'Fiesta' with these markers enabled tracking of the F7 QTL allele back to 'Cox's Orange Pippin'. Stability of the effect of this QTL allele in different backgrounds was analyzed by inoculating progeny plants of a cross between 'Milwa', a susceptible cultivar, and '1217', a moderately resistant cultivar, and a set of cultivars that carry or lack the allele conferring increased fire blight resistance. Progenies and cultivars that carried both markers were significantly more resistant than those that did not carry both markers, indicating high stability of the F7 QTL allele in different backgrounds. This stability and the availability of reproducible markers bracketing the QTL make this locus promising for use in MAS. PMID:17632578

Khan, Muhammad A; Durel, Charles-Eric; Duffy, Brion; Drouet, Damien; Kellerhals, Markus; Gessler, Cesare; Patocchi, Andrea

2007-06-01

141

Prospects of molecular markers in Fusarium species diversity.  

PubMed

Recent developments in genomics have opened up for newer opportunities to study the diversity and classification of fungi. The genus Fusarium contains many plant pathogens that attack diverse agricultural crops. Fusarium spp. are not only pathogenic to plants but are also known as toxin producers that negatively affect animal and human health. The identification of Fusarium species still remains one of the most critical issues in fungal taxonomy, given that the number of species recognized in the genus has been constantly changing in the last century due to the different taxonomic systems. This review focuses of various molecular-based techniques employed to study the diversity of Fusarium species causing diseases in major food crops. An introduction of fusarial diseases and their mycotoxins and molecular-marker-based methods for detection introduce the concept of marker application. Various well-known molecular techniques such as random amplified polymorphic DNA, amplification fragment length polymorphism, etc. to more modern ones such as DNA microarrays, DNA barcoding, and pyrosequencing and their application form the core of the review. Target regions in the genome which can be potential candidates for generation of probes and their use in phylogeny of Fusarium spp. are also presented. The concluding part emphasizes the value of molecular markers for assessing genetic variability and reveals that molecular tools are indispensable for providing information not only of one Fusarium species but on whole fungal community. This will be of extreme value for diagnosticians and researchers concerned with fungal biology, ecology, and genetics. PMID:21494869

Chandra, Nayaka S; Wulff, E G; Udayashankar, A C; Nandini, B P; Niranjana, S R; Mortensen, C N; Prakash, H S

2011-06-01

142

Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 22:79-88 (2000) Occurrence of Kabatina juniperi in Ontario and genetic analysis using RAPD markers  

E-print Network

of Juniperus scopulorum did not reveal host specialization. Among 49 isolates sampled from two adjacent rows of J. scopulorum `Grey Gleam', there were 36 different RAPD haplotypes. Genetic diversity analysis. juniperi. Kabatina juniperi is known to infect major juniper species, including Juniperus virginiana L., J

Hsiang, Tom

143

Genetic distances revealed by morphological characters, isozymes, proteins and RAPD markers and their relationships with hybrid performance in oilseed rape ( Brassica napus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic distances (GDs) based on morphological characters, isozymes and storage proteins, and random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPD) were used to predict the performance and heterosis of crosses in oilseed rape ( Brassica napus L.). Six male-sterile lines carrying the widely used Shaan2A cytoplasm were crossed with five restorer lines to produce 30 F 1 hybrids. These 30 hybrids and their

C. Y. Yu; S. W. Hu; H. X. Zhao; A. G. Guo; G. L. Sun

2005-01-01

144

Genetic variability evaluation in a Moroccan collection of barley, Hordeum vulgare L., by means of storage proteins and RAPDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic variation existing in a set of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landrace samples recently collected in Morocco was estimated. Two kinds of genetic markers, seed storage proteins (hordeins) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), were used. Only six out of 31 landraces were subjected to RAPD analysis. Both kinds of markers, RAPD and storage proteins, yielded similar results, showing

EL-Habib Dakir; María-Luisa Ruiz; Pedro García; Marcelino Pérez de la Vega

2002-01-01

145

Reviewing and Updating the Major Molecular Markers for Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Stem cells (SC) are able to self-renew and to differentiate into many types of committed cells, making SCs interesting for cellular therapy. However, the pool of SCs in vivo and in vitro consists of a mix of cells at several stages of differentiation, making it difficult to obtain a homogeneous population of SCs for research. Therefore, it is important to isolate and characterize unambiguous molecular markers that can be applied to SCs. Here, we review classical and new candidate molecular markers that have been established to show a molecular profile for human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The commonly cited markers for embryonic ESCs are Nanog, Oct-4, Sox-2, Rex-1, Dnmt3b, Lin-28, Tdgf1, FoxD3, Tert, Utf-1, Gal, Cx43, Gdf3, Gtcm1, Terf1, Terf2, Lefty A, and Lefty B. MSCs are primarily identified by the expression of CD13, CD29, CD44, CD49e, CD54, CD71, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD106, CD166, and HLA-ABC and lack CD14, CD31, CD34, CD45, CD62E, CD62L, CD62P, and HLA-DR expression. HSCs are mainly isolated based on the expression of CD34, but the combination of this marker with CD133 and CD90, together with a lack of CD38 and other lineage markers, provides the most homogeneous pool of SCs. Here, we present new and alternative markers for SCs, along with microRNA profiles, for these cells. PMID:23336433

Calloni, Raquel; Cordero, Elvira Alicia Aparicio; Henriques, Joao Antonio Pegas

2013-01-01

146

Predictive markers in bladder cancer: Do we have molecular markers ready for clinical use?  

PubMed

Abstract Bladder cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease. Approximately 75% of patients present with non-muscle-invasive BC (NMIBC), which has a high recurrence rate and a low but unpredictable progression rate. Conversely, patients with muscle-invasive BC (MIBC) are at high risk for progression and cancer-specific mortality, but, again, disease behavior is unpredictable. To date, risk assessment for tumor recurrence and progression is based on clinico-pathological factors only. A risk assessment calculator that is based on several such parameters is available for NMIBC, but it has been reported to have potential flaws. In the last two decades, great effort has been made to evaluate the prognostic and predictive role of several molecular markers in MIBC and, even more so, in NMIBC, where the need for more precise risk stratification is urgently needed. This review addresses current evidence for the role of several molecular markers easily assessable by immunohistochemical techniques in prognosticating/predicting the outcome of NMIBC and MIBC. To date, because of divergent results among the many studies, no molecular marker has yet entered routine clinical practice; however, some of them (e.g., p53, pRb, p21, and survivin) have proved their predictive value in studies that included a homogeneous patient population on standardized treatment, and, therefore, are probably ready for clinical validation on a larger scale. Even more interesting is the possibility of constructing multimarker panels that could be used in routine clinical practice, as all these markers can easily be evaluated by immunohistochemistry on routine surgical pathology specimens. The molecular markers described herein hold promise for becoming widely available and cost-effective tools for reliable risk assessment, which would represent a great advancement in counseling patients, in selecting them for neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatments, and in determining their eligibility for clinical trials. PMID:25036341

Sanguedolce, Francesca; Bufo, Pantaleo; Carrieri, Giuseppe; Cormio, Luigi

2014-10-01

147

Genetic diversity in apricot cultivars based on AFLP markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of cultivars used as genitors in apricot breeding programs aimed at introducing sharka resistance were examined by AFLP\\u000a molecular marker analysis. The markers obtained indicated that apricot cultivars resistant to sharka were related to the European\\u000a cultivars, but they potentially share a common ancestor donor of sharka outside of the European group. Segregation of AFLP\\u000a and RAPD markers

M. A. Hurtado; A. Westman; E. Beck; G. A. Abbott; G. Llácer; M. L. Badenes

2002-01-01

148

A consensus linkage map for molecular markers and Quantitative Trait Loci associated with economically important traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.)  

PubMed Central

Background A number of molecular marker linkage maps have been developed for melon (Cucumis melo L.) over the last two decades. However, these maps were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making comparative analysis among maps difficult. In order to solve this problem, a consensus genetic map in melon was constructed using primarily highly transferable anchor markers that have broad potential use for mapping, synteny, and comparative quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, increasing breeding effectiveness and efficiency via marker-assisted selection (MAS). Results Under the framework of the International Cucurbit Genomics Initiative (ICuGI, http://www.icugi.org), an integrated genetic map has been constructed by merging data from eight independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines. The consensus map spans 1150 cM across the 12 melon linkage groups and is composed of 1592 markers (640 SSRs, 330 SNPs, 252 AFLPs, 239 RFLPs, 89 RAPDs, 15 IMAs, 16 indels and 11 morphological traits) with a mean marker density of 0.72 cM/marker. One hundred and ninety-six of these markers (157 SSRs, 32 SNPs, 6 indels and 1 RAPD) were newly developed, mapped or provided by industry representatives as released markers, including 27 SNPs and 5 indels from genes involved in the organic acid metabolism and transport, and 58 EST-SSRs. Additionally, 85 of 822 SSR markers contributed by Syngenta Seeds were included in the integrated map. In addition, 370 QTL controlling 62 traits from 18 previously reported mapping experiments using genetically diverse parental genotypes were also integrated into the consensus map. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in separate studies mapped to similar genomic positions. For example, independently identified QTL controlling fruit shape were mapped on similar genomic positions, suggesting that such QTL are possibly responsible for the phenotypic variability observed for this trait in a broad array of melon germplasm. Conclusions Even though relatively unsaturated genetic maps in a diverse set of melon market types have been published, the integrated saturated map presented herein should be considered the initial reference map for melon. Most of the mapped markers contained in the reference map are polymorphic in diverse collection of germplasm, and thus are potentially transferrable to a broad array of genetic experimentation (e.g., integration of physical and genetic maps, colinearity analysis, map-based gene cloning, epistasis dissection, and marker-assisted selection). PMID:21797998

2011-01-01

149

Prognostication in MF: from CBC to cytogenetics to molecular markers.  

PubMed

Myelofibrosis (MF) is a clonal stem cell disorder characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis and extramedullary hematopoiesis leading to progressive bone marrow failure, severe anemia, constitutional symptoms, hepatosplenomegaly, and thrombosis. MF can arise following a history of polycythemia vera (PV) or essential thrombocythemia (ET), or can present de novo as primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The disease course is variable with median survival ranging from months to years. Clinical and biological features such as advanced age, leukocytosis, anemia, transfusion dependence, and elevated inflammatory markers can impact prognosis in patients with PMF. Cytogenetic abnormalities and molecular markers such as JAK2 V617F, ASXL1, and CALR mutations have also been identified as prognostic variables. Several different scoring systems have been developed based on these prognostic factors. In this review, we will discuss the clinical, biological, molecular, and cytogenetic prognostic factors that have been identified in PMF, and the current prognostic models that have been developed to guide treatment decisions. PMID:25189726

Zhou, Amy; Oh, Stephen T

2014-06-01

150

Histopathologic and Molecular Markers of Prognosis and Response to Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The routine pathologic evaluation of breast cancer must yield the histopathologic subtype, precise measurements of tumor size,\\u000a and information regarding surgical margin status and lymph node status. Accurate determination of histopathologic or nuclear\\u000a grade provides valuable additional prognostic information. Three molecular markers are routinely assessed to assist with treatment\\u000a selection: estrogen and progesterone receptors are measured to determine eligibility for

Lajos Pusztai; W. Fraser Symmans

151

Molecular markers for wheat leaf rust resistance gene Lr41  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks., is an important foliar disease of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. Pyramiding several major rust-resistance genes into one adapted cultivar is one strategy for obtaining more\\u000a durable resistance. Molecular markers linked to these genes are essential tools for gene pyramiding. The rust-resistance gene\\u000a Lr41 from T.\\u000a tauschii has been introgressed into chromosome

Xiaochun Sun; Guihua Bai; Brett F. Carver

2009-01-01

152

Molecular Markers, Natural History, and Conservation of Marine Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Molecular genetic techniques have found broad utility in modern marine ecology, and applications continue to grow. Databases of DNA sequences now permit nonexperts to identify eggs and larval stages of many marine animals that were previously mysteries. Molecular identifications of field-collected organisms and tissues are used to help assess population connectivity, investigate marine food webs, and identify marketed commodities. Advances in technology already include prototype development of in situ robotic instrumentation for sampling and molecular identification of animal larvae. Studies of population connectivity, once limited to a few gene loci, are slowly giving way to new genomic arrays of markers and high-throughput methodologies for scoring genotypes. Population genetic theory is providing new computational techniques to assess patterns of population structure, estimate effective population sizes, and infer aspects of demographic history. In this article I review a subset of recent work in this growing area of molecular marine ecology.

Ronald Burton (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego;Marine Biology Research Division)

2009-11-01

153

Molecular Ecology (1993)2,315-326 The analysis of paternity and maternity in the marine  

E-print Network

Molecular Ecology (1993)2,315-326 The analysis of paternity and maternity in the marine hydrozoan Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)markers D. R. LEVITAN and R. K genetic markers. The ideal genetic assay would (1)employ highly polymorphic genetic markers

Grosberg, Rick

154

RAPD and SCAR markers linked to the Ma1 root-knot nematode resistance gene in Myrobalan plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehr.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Myrobalan plum (Prunus cerasifera) is a self-incompatible species in which the clones P.2175, P.1079 and P.2980 are highly resistant to all root-knot nematodes\\u000a (RKN), Meloidogyne spp. Each clone bears a single major dominant gene, designated Ma1, Ma2 and Ma3 respectively, that controls a high and wide-spectrum resistance. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and random amplified polymorphic\\u000a DNA (RAPD) analysis were

A. C. Lecouls; M. J. Rubio-Cabetas; J. C. Minot; R. Voisin; A. Bonnet; G. Salesses; E. Dirlewanger; D. Esmenjaud

1999-01-01

155

A contribution to characterisation of genetic variation in some natural Polish populations of Elymus repens (L.) Gould and Elymus hispidus (Opiz) Melderis (Poaceae) as revealed by RAPD markers.  

PubMed

To determine the relative importance of clonal growth and sexual reproduction, the Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was used to study genetic diversity and clonal structure of six populations of Elymus repens and four populations of Elymus hispidus from Poland. These outbreeding species are virtually self-sterile and form widely spreading and long-lived rhizomes. Using 12 primers, a total of 150 unambiguous RAPD fragments were amplified and scored. Results of AMOVA showed no significant genetic distinction between morphologically distinguished varieties of E. repens and E. hispidus. E. repens had slightly higher intra-specific genetic polymorphism than E. hispidus; the percentage of polymorphic bands per population ranged from 38 to 49 and from 19 to 38 respectively. Clonal diversity measured using the Simpson diversity index (D) indicated different contributions of clonal reproduction in particular populations of E. repens (D: 0.20-0.72). Populations of E. hispidus were dominated by one or a few clones, which were generally restricted to a single population (D: 0.00-0.22). RAPD revealed that most genetic diversity resided within populations of the two studied species, suggesting that, despite their clonal character, propagation by seeds contributes considerably to reproduction of E. repens and E. hispidus. PMID:19689785

Szczepaniak, M; Bieniek, W; Boro?, P; Szklarczyk, M; Mizianty, M

2009-09-01

156

Study Of Genetic Diversity Between Grasspea Landraces Using Morphological And Molecular Marker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grass pea is a beneficial crop to Iran since it has some major advantageous such as high grain and forage quality, high drought tolerance and medium level of salinity tolerance and a good native germplasm variation which accessible for breeding programs. This study was carried out to evaluate morphological traits of the grass pea landraces using a randomized complete block design with 3 replications at Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology. To evaluate genetic diversity of 14 grass pea landraces from various locations in Iran were investigated using 32 RAPD & ISJ primers at Biocenter of University of Zabol. Analysis of variance indicated a highly significant differences among 14 grass pea landrace for the morphological traits. Average of polymorphism percentage of RAPD primer was 73.9%. Among used primer, 12 random primers showed polymorphism and a total of 56 different bands were observed in the genotypes. Jafar-abad and Sar-chahan genotypes with similarity coefficient of 66% and Khoram-abad 2 and Khoram-abad 7 genotypes with similarity coefficient of 3% were the most related and the most distinct genotypes, respectively. Fourteen primers out of 17 semi random primers produced 70 polymorphic bands which included 56% of the total 126 produced bands. Genetic relatedness among population was investigated using Jacard coefficient and unweighted pair group mean analysis (UPGMA) algorithm. The result of this research verified possibility of use of RAPD & ISJ markers for estimation of genetic diversity, management of genetic resources and determination of repetitive accessions in grass pea.

Sedehi, Abbasali Vahabi; Lotfi, Asefeh; Solooki, Mahmood

2008-01-01

157

Fasciola hepatica: identification of molecular markers for resistant and susceptible Pseudosuccinea columella snail hosts.  

PubMed

Protein electrophoresis, RAPD-PCR and nuclear rDNA ITS sequencing were performed to search for genetic differences between Pseudosuccinea columella snails susceptible and resistant to Fasciola hepatica infection. Of the 21 enzymatic loci analyzed in both populations, none of them exhibited neither within- or between-group variation. Such an absence of enzyme polymorphism support the hypothesis of selfing as the "prevalent" mating system for this hermaphroditic species. Conversely, the RAPD profiles displayed clear differences between susceptible and resistant isolates for 17 of the 26 primers tested while no within-group variation was detected. rDNA ITS sequence analysis from snails of each isolates showed only two bases that differed between groups accounting for a 0.17% of variation confirming that susceptible and resistant snails belong to the same species. This is the first time that a genetic variation using RAPD markers is demonstrated between susceptible and resistant lymnaeid snails vis-a-vis of F. hepatica infection in absence of experimental selection. PMID:14990314

Gutiérrez, Alfredo; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Fraga, Jorge; Jobet, Edouard; Modat, Sylvain; Pérez, R T; Yong, Mary; Sanchez, J; Loker, Eric S; Théron, André

2003-01-01

158

Discriminating ability of molecular markers and morphological characterization in the establishment of genetic relationships in cultivated genotypes of almond and related wild species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total 23 morphological traits, 19 AFLP-primer combinations, 80 RAPD primers and 32 SSR primer pair were used to compare\\u000a the informativeness and efficiency of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)\\u000a and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in establishing genetic relationships among 29 almond cultivars and three related\\u000a wild species. SSRs presented a high level of

Karim Sorkheh; Behrouz Shiran; Soghra Kiani; Nazanin Amirbakhtiar; Sadegh Mousavi; Vahid Rouhi; Shahram Mohammady-D; Thomas M. Gradziel; Lyudmyla V. Malysheva-Otto; Pedro Martínez-Gómez

2009-01-01

159

[Genetic polymorphism of bluegrass cultivars detected by RAPDs].  

PubMed

Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) is a hardy, persistent forage and turf grass adapted to a wide range of soils and climates. Its ever-increasing adoption in highly cared-for sports fields has attracted the attention of many seed companies. However in the past, the breeding of elite varieties was often hampered by the extreme complexity of the genome. The polymorphism is important for broading the genetic basis and may be exploited for application of heterosis. The genetic relationship of 16 bluegrass cultivars, including 15 accessions Kentucky bluegrass cultivars and 1 entries Canada bluegrass (Poa compressa L.) cultivar from different breeding company were analyzed using 25 RAPD markers. 25 RAPD primers generated 218 bands, of which 196 bands (89.91%) were polymorphism. It showed that the Canada Bluegrass was separated from other Kentucky Bluegrass and genetic polymorphism in the Kentucky Bluegrass cultivars was low, the genetic similarity among the cultivars fell between 66%-98%. Dendrogram obtained using these molecular markers were partly in agreement with their separated morphologic character. Cultivars from the same company were not clustered in one group. PMID:16120587

Ning, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Zai-Jun; Jin, Cheng-Zan; Zhu, Ying-Guo

2005-07-01

160

Molecular markers that predict response to colon cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Progress in the treatment of colon cancer depends on the development of target-based molecules built on an improved understanding of the molecular biology of the disease. Defining end points for chemotherapy resistance is needed as drug resistance develops quickly and patients demonstrate variation in response to chemotherapy. Many techniques that measure a marker's preponderance have been developed including biochemical, immunohistochemical, genomics, proteomics or a combination thereof. However, standardization of these techniques that measure either genes or their protein products is urgently needed. This article reviews several markers (TS,TP, DPD, FT, EGFR, VEGF, CD44v6, TRAIL, microsatellite instability, allelic deletions, oncogenes and suppressor genes [c-myc, Ki-Ras, p53, p21, Topo I, Topo IIalpha, Fos, hMLH1, Bcl-2/Bax and MDR1], MDR-related proteins [Pgp, MRP and LRP], genomic polymorphisms [XPD, ERCC1, GSTP1 and TS 3 -UTR] and COX-;2) that influence DNA metabolism, DNA damage, programmed cell death, the immune or vascular system, or lead to mutations. When combined together and tested by newly developed genomic and proteomic approaches, many of these markers provide a more sensitive indicative predictor of response than when evaluated separately or by older biochemical, immunohistologic or morphologic methods. A global approach involving the simultaneous testing of several predictive multimarkers will provide critical information for improving chemotherapy to alleviate suffering from this disease. PMID:15934813

Ahmed, Farid E

2005-05-01

161

Choosing the right molecular genetic markers for studying biodiversity: from molecular evolution to practical aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of molecular genetic markers (MGMs) has become widespread among evolutionary biologists, and the methods of analysis\\u000a of genetic data improve rapidly, yet an organized framework in which scientists can work is lacking. Elements of molecular\\u000a evolution are summarized to explain the origin of variation at the DNA level, its measures, and the relationships linking\\u000a genetic variability to the

Chenuil Anne

2006-01-01

162

A molecular marker of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria.  

PubMed

Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives in southeast Asia threatens malaria control and elimination activities worldwide. To monitor the spread of artemisinin resistance, a molecular marker is urgently needed. Here, using whole-genome sequencing of an artemisinin-resistant parasite line from Africa and clinical parasite isolates from Cambodia, we associate mutations in the PF3D7_1343700 kelch propeller domain ('K13-propeller') with artemisinin resistance in vitro and in vivo. Mutant K13-propeller alleles cluster in Cambodian provinces where resistance is prevalent, and the increasing frequency of a dominant mutant K13-propeller allele correlates with the recent spread of resistance in western Cambodia. Strong correlations between the presence of a mutant allele, in vitro parasite survival rates and in vivo parasite clearance rates indicate that K13-propeller mutations are important determinants of artemisinin resistance. K13-propeller polymorphism constitutes a useful molecular marker for large-scale surveillance efforts to contain artemisinin resistance in the Greater Mekong Subregion and prevent its global spread. PMID:24352242

Ariey, Frédéric; Witkowski, Benoit; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Beghain, Johann; Langlois, Anne-Claire; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Duru, Valentine; Bouchier, Christiane; Ma, Laurence; Lim, Pharath; Leang, Rithea; Duong, Socheat; Sreng, Sokunthea; Suon, Seila; Chuor, Char Meng; Bout, Denis Mey; Ménard, Sandie; Rogers, William O; Genton, Blaise; Fandeur, Thierry; Miotto, Olivo; Ringwald, Pascal; Le Bras, Jacques; Berry, Antoine; Barale, Jean-Christophe; Fairhurst, Rick M; Benoit-Vical, Françoise; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Ménard, Didier

2014-01-01

163

Genetic diversity within and among Lepidium draba populations from Eastern Anatolia based on RAPD analysis.  

PubMed

Genetic variation and structure of six natural populations of Lepidium draba L. from Eastern Anatolia were assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. For RAPD analysis, 12 primers generated 218 reproducible bands across the six populations analyzed, of which 73 bands (33.3%) were polymorphic. The mean Nei's gene diversity value for all six populations was 0.1771. Shannon's information index varied with population (0.2278-0.3082), averaging 0.2608. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that genetic diversity was greater within populations (58.66%) than among populations (30.68%). In addition, the variation between groups was 10.33%. The genetic differentiation among populations (G (ST)) was 0.3210, indicating that most genetic diversity occurs within populations. Gene flow (Nm) was low, at only 0.5288. PMID:20496111

Aksakal, Ozkan; Sunar, Serap; Kaya, Yusuf; Agar, Guleray

2010-08-01

164

Molecular Marker Applications in Oat (Avena Sativa L.) Breeding and Germplasm Diagnostics .  

E-print Network

??The ability to identify germplasm and select traits accurately is fundamental to successful plant breeding. Pedigrees and molecular markers facilitate these processes; however misleading experimental… (more)

Benazir Katarina, Marquez

2014-01-01

165

Breeding for ?-glucan content in elite North American oat (Avena sativa L.) using molecular markers.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation explored genomewide association study (GWAS) and conducted actual breeding program in oat using different selection methods to identify molecular markers and improve beta-glucan… (more)

Asoro, Franco Garcia

2012-01-01

166

Advances in Carcinogenic Metal Toxicity and Potential Molecular Markers  

PubMed Central

Metal compounds such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, mercury, and nickel are classified as carcinogens affecting human health through occupational and environmental exposure. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in tumor formation are not well clarified. Interference of metal homeostasis may result in oxidative stress which represents an imbalance between production of free radicals and the system’s ability to readily detoxify reactive intermediates. This event consequently causes DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, protein modification, and possibly symptomatic effects for various diseases including cancer. This review discusses predominant modes of action and numerous molecular markers. Attention is paid to metal-induced generation of free radicals, the phenomenon of oxidative stress, damage to DNA, lipid, and proteins, responsive signal transduction pathways with major roles in cell growth and development, and roles of antioxidant enzymatic and DNA repair systems. Interaction of non-enzymatic antioxidants (carotenoids, flavonoids, glutathione, selenium, vitamin C, vitamin E, and others) with cellular oxidative stress markers (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) as well as certain regulatory factors, including AP-1, NF-?B, Ref-1, and p53 is also reviewed. Dysregulation of protective pathways, including cellular antioxidant network against free radicals as well as DNA repair deficiency is related to oncogenic stimulation. These observations provide evidence that emerging oxidative stress-responsive regulatory factors and DNA repair proteins are putative predictive factors for tumor initiation and progression. PMID:22272150

Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Seo, Young Rok

2011-01-01

167

New models and molecular markers in evaluation of developmental toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Mammalian and non-mammalian embryos and embryonic stem cells may be used as models in mechanistic studies and in testing embryotoxicity of compounds. In addition to conventional culture methods, genetic modifications and use of molecular markers offer significant advantages in mechanistic studies as well as in developing new test methods for embryotoxicity. Zebrafish model has been used for a long time and at present several applications are available. It is an easy vertebral non-mammalian model, whose genome is largely known and several genetic modifications are easily constructed to study gene expression or knocked down genes. Fluorescent marker proteins can be used also in zebrafish to indicate gene activation in transgenic models. Chemical genetics approach has been developed using zebrafish model. This is a new approach to screen small molecules that regulate signaling pathways. Embryonic stem cells have been used in mechanistic studies and mouse embryonic stem cell test has been validated to study embryotoxicity in vitro. This method has been improved using quantitative measurements of molecular endpoints by real-time RT-PCR or fluorescent activated cell sorting methods (FACS). Methods facilitating differentiation to several different cell types are available. We have studied preimplantation mouse embryos as a possible model for in vitro testing. In this method, superovulated and in vivo fertilized preimplantation embryos were collected at morula stage and cultured up to blastocysts. The mouse preimplantation culture test was improved by quantitative gene expression measurement using two-step real-time RT-PCR methods. New endpoints improve the tests of in vitro embryotoxicity because subjective assessments are replaced by objective measurements. In addition, automation is possible and less time is needed for analysis. Thus, high throughput screening will come possible to test large numbers of compounds.

Huuskonen, Hannele [National Product Control Agency for Welfare and Health, Chemicals Department, STTV c/o National Public Health Institute, P.O. Box 95, FIN-70701 Kuopio (Finland)]. E-mail: hannele.huuskonen@sttv.fi

2005-09-01

168

RAPD Analysis of Genetic Variation in Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation between wild barley lines (Hordeum murinum, Hordeum bulbosum and Hordeum vulgare spontaneum) orig- inated from Turkey were investigated comparatively at the molecular level with the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Leaf DNAs extracted from different barley lines were amplified with randomly chosen primers in a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Rates of polymorphisms between the 23 lines were

Gülruh ALBAYRAK; Nermin GÖZÜKIRMIZI

1999-01-01

169

PATTERNS OF GENETIC ARCHITECTURE FOR LIFE-HISTORY TRAITS AND MOLECULAR MARKERS IN A SUBDIVIDED SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the utility and limitations of molecular markers for predicting the evolutionary potential of natural populations is important for both evolutionary and conservation genetics. To address this issue, the distribution of genetic variation for quantitative traits and molecular markers is estimated within and among 14 permanent lake populations of Daphnia pulicaria representing two regional groups from Oregon. Estimates of population

Kendall K. Morgan; Justin Hicks; Ken Spitze; Leigh Latta; Michael E. Pfrender; Casse S. Weaver; Marco Ottone; Michael Lynch

2001-01-01

170

Molecular Markers for Discrimination of Benign and Malignant Follicular Thyroid Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify molecular markers useful for the diagnostic discrimination of benign and malignant follicular thyroid tumors. Methods: A panel of thyroid tumors was characterized with expression profiling using cDNA microarrays. A robust algorithm for gene selection was developed to identify molecular markers useful for the classification of heterogeneous tumor classes. The study included tumor tissue specimens from 10 patients

Mårten Fryknäs; Ulrika Wickenberg-Bolin; Hanna Göransson; Mats G. Gustafsson; Theodoros Foukakis; Jia-Jing Lee; Ulf Landegren; Anders Höög; Catharina Larsson; Lars Grimelius; Göran Wallin; Ulf Pettersson; Anders Isaksson

2006-01-01

171

Molecular Evolution and Diversity inBacillus anthracisas Detected by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus anthraciscauses anthrax and represents one of the most molecularly monomorphic bacteria known. We have used AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) DNA markers to analyze 78 B. anthracis isolates and six relatedBacillusspecies for molecular variation. AFLP markers are extremely sensitive to even small sequence variation, using PCR and high-resolution electrophoresis to examine restriction fragments. Using this approach, we examined ca.

PAUL KEIM; ABDULAHI KALIF; JAMES SCHUPP; KAREN HILL; STEVEN E. TRAVIS; KARA RICHMOND; DEBRA M. ADAIR; MARTIN HUGH-JONES; CHERYL R. KUSKE; ANDPAUL JACKSON

1997-01-01

172

Protein Molecular Markers for Herbal Natures of Six Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a new method of using molecular markers to study the material base of the herbal nature of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs. The feasibility of using the all-electric ion chromatography to select the appropriate protein molecular markers for studying the herbal nature of TCM herbs is also discussed. In the study, the chromatographic peaks of the total

Wang Hou-wei; Dou Yan-ling; Tian Jing-zhen; Wang Zhen-guo

2008-01-01

173

Molecular Markers and Selection for Complex Traits in Plants: Learning from the Last 20 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mid-1980s, the development of abundant molecular markers, appropriate statistical pro- cedures, and user-friendly computer software that implemented these statistical procedures permitted the detection of molecular markers associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL) for complex traits. Marker-assisted selection was then proposed as a means of exploiting mark- ers linked to QTL to develop improved cultivars. But while thousands of

Rex Bernardo

2008-01-01

174

RAPD Analysis for Determination of Components in Herbal Medicine  

PubMed Central

In this study, the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) technique was employed for determination of the components in an Ayurvedic herbal prescription, Rasayana Churna. One-hundred-and-twenty decamer oligonucleotide primers were screened in the RAPD analysis to identify three Ayurvedic medicines, dried stem of Tinospora cordifolia, dried fruit of Emblica officinalis and dried fruit of Tribulus terestris, the Ayurvedic prescription. Primer OPC-6 simultaneously generated three distinct amplicons, each specific to one component. The marker with 600 bp is specific to Tinospora cordifolia; the marker 500 bp is specific to Emblica officinalis and the remaining marker >1000 bp was present in Tribulus terestris. Presence of three herbal medicines was determined when RAPD reaction with OPC-6 was performed. The technique was proved to contribute to the identification of components in Ayurvedic herbal preparation and thus helping to serve as a complementary tool for quality control. PMID:18227927

Dhalwal, K.; Mahadik, K. R.; Joshi, K. S.; Patwardhan, B. K.

2007-01-01

175

Soybean seed lipoxygenase genes: molecular characterization and development of molecular marker assays.  

PubMed

Soybean seeds contain three lipoxygenase (Lox) enzymes that are controlled by separate genes, Lox1, Lox2 and Lox3. Lipoxygenases play a role in the development of unpleasant flavors in foods containing soybean by oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Null alleles for all three enzymes have been identified, lox1, lox2 and lox3, and are known to be inherited as simple recessive alleles. Previous studies determined that a missense mutation rendered Lox2 inactive; however, the genetic cause of either lox1 or lox3 mutation was not known. The objectives of this study were the molecular characterization of both lox1 and lox3 mutant alleles and the development of molecular markers to accelerate breeding for Lox-free soybean varieties. We identified two independent mutant alleles as the genetic causes of the lack of Lox1 in seeds of two lox1 mutant soybean lines. Similarly, a mutant allele that truncates Lox3 in a lox3 mutant soybean line was identified. Molecular markers were designed and confirmed to distinguish mutant, wild type, and heterozygous individuals for Lox1, Lox2 and Lox3 genes. Genotype and Lox phenotype analysis showed a perfect association between the inheritance of homozygous lox mutant alleles and the lack of Lox activity. Molecular characterization of a seed-lipoxygenase-free soybean line led to the discovery that an induced recombination event within the Lox1 gene was responsible for breaking the tight linkage in repulsion phase between mutant alleles at the Lox1 and Lox2 loci. The molecular resources developed in this work should accelerate the inclusion of the lipoxygenase-free trait in soybean varieties. PMID:20058147

Lenis, Julian M; Gillman, Jason D; Lee, Jeong Dong; Shannon, J Grover; Bilyeu, Kristin D

2010-04-01

176

[Molecular markers in the diagnostics and therapy of urothelial cancer].  

PubMed

Many clinical decisions in the management of bladder cancer would benefit from better and reliable knowledge of individual prognosis. Marker for urothelial cancer can principally be measured in blood, urine and transurethrally resected tissue. In recent years new markers have been identified by new technologies and this opens exiting avenues. Since no single marker gives a clear Yes-or-no prognostic answer but always only a measure of probability, the use of marker systems has so far not gained widespread clinical applications. This will likely change in future. PMID:20959953

Protzel, C; Hakenberg, O W

2010-11-01

177

58th Annual Symposium on Fundamental Cancer Research Discovery, Validation, and Integration of Molecular Markers and Molecular Imaging: Towards Implementation into Clinical Practice  

Cancer.gov

Print This Page 58th Annual Symposium on Fundamental Cancer Research Discovery, Validation, and Integration of Molecular Markers and Molecular Imaging: Towards Implementation into Clinical Practice News & Events

178

Genetic characterization of Salix alba L. and Salix fragilis L. by means of different PCR-derived marker systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salix alba L. and Salix fragilis L. are two closely related willow species whose phenotypic features, showing a large and continuous variation, have a low diagnostic value for identifying pure species and interspecific hybrids. In this paper, the effectiveness of different multilocus PCR-based molecular markers, such as I-SSRs, RAPDs and AFLPs in detecting genetic polymorphisms able to discriminate the two

S. Meneghetti; G. Barcaccia; P. Paiero; M. Lucchin

2007-01-01

179

[Cloning and analyzing of the female-specific marker in the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis L].  

PubMed

Sex-linked molecular markers are being obtained, which would be essential to be used in the screening of different sex of dioecious plants at the seedling stage. Furthermore, it is important in cloning the gene related to the sex. In this study the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was employed with the objective to find markers linked to sex determination in Asparagus. A total of 100 primers were tested with the same PCR cycling procedure. A female-associated fragment with a length of about 867bp was generated with S12 primer. The fragment was cloned and sequenced, showing it is abundant in AT and contains 2 shorter open reading frames. In order to convert the RAPD marker into SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions) marker, 24bp specific primers were constructed and used for PCR amplifying. The female-linked dominant SCAR marker was obtained, which would be efficient to identify the different sex of Asparagus officinalis L. PMID:16944605

Lu, Long Dou; Li, Rui Li; Gao, Wu Jun; Deng, Chuan Liang; Wang, Lian Jun

2006-06-01

180

Genetic diversity analysis of Chrysopidae family (Insecta, Neuroptera) via molecular markers.  

PubMed

In entomology, improvement of molecular methods would be beneficial tools for accurate identification and detecting the genetic diversity of insect species to discover a corroborative evidence for the traditional classification based on morphology. The aim of this study was focused on RAPD-PCR method for distinguishing the genetic diversity between eight species of Chrysopidae family. In current research, many specimens were collected in different locations of Tehran province (Iran), between them 24 specimens were identified. The wing venation, male genitalia and other morphological characters were used for identification and also the sexing of species was recognized with study of external genitalia. Then, the DNA was extracted with CTAB method. The RAPD-PCR method was carried out with twenty random primers. The agarose gel electrophoresis was used for separation of the PCR products. Based on electrophoresis results, 133 bands were amplified and between them, 126 bands were poly-morph and others were mono-morph. Also, among the applied primers, the primers OPA02 with 19 bands and OPA03 with 8 bands were amplified the maximum and minimum of bands, respectively. The results showed that 80.35 and 73.21 % of genetic similarity existed between Chrysopa pallens-Chrysopa dubitans, and between the Chrysoperla kolthoffi and Chrysoperla carnea, respectively. The minimum (45.53 %) of genetic similarity was observed between C. kolthoffi and C. dubitans, and the maximum (0.80 %) was seen between C. pallens and C. dubitans. PMID:24973885

Yari, Kheirollah; Mirmoayedi, Alinaghi; Marami, Marzieh; Kazemi, Elham; Kahrizi, Danial

2014-09-01

181

Molecular markers in prostate cancer. Part II: potential roles in management  

PubMed Central

Predicting treatment responses in advanced prostate cancer (PCa) currently centres on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics and on being able to visualize measurable changes in imaging modalities. New molecular markers have emerged as potential diagnostic and prognostic indicators; these were summarized in Part I of this review in the Asian Journal of Andrology. A number of molecular markers are now being used to enhance PCa imaging and staging. However, management options for advanced and hormone-resistant PCa (HRPC) are limited and additional therapeutic options are needed. Molecular markers have been proposed as potential therapeutic targets using gene therapy and immunomodulation. Additionally, markers identified in early PCa and precursor lesions may offer novel targets for chemoprevention and vaccine development. This review summarizes the current advances regarding the roles of these markers in the management of PCa. PMID:19050689

Agrawal, Sachin; Patil, Krishnaji P.; Dunsmuir, William D.

2009-01-01

182

Molecular marker suggests rapid changes of sex-determining mechanisms in Australian dragon lizards  

E-print Network

Molecular marker suggests rapid changes of sex-determining mechanisms in Australian dragon lizards and W microchromosomes of the Australian central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) to chromosomes of 12

Canberra, University of

183

Molecular Markers Show How Pollen and Seed Dispersal Affect Population Genetic  

E-print Network

485 Molecular Markers Show How Pollen and Seed Dispersal Affect Population Genetic Structure of fragmentation and decreased population sizes is reduced genetic diversity as populations become increasingly. Earlier studies indicated biochemical differentiation of central coast populations from those of Northern

Standiford, Richard B.

184

SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHILADELPHIA, PA  

EPA Science Inventory

Organic molecular markers were measured in airborne particulate matter (PM10) from the City of Philadelphia North Broad Street air quality monitoring site to identify the seasonal abundances of key tracer compounds together with their dominant sources. Daily PM10...

185

Quantitative changes in cytological molecular markers during primary medical treatment of breast cancer: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To quantify the changes in biological molecular markers during primary medical treatment in patients with operable breast cancer and to assess their possible relationship with response to treatment.

A. Makris; T. J. Powles; D. C. Allred; S. E. Ashley; P. A. Trott; M. G. Ormerod; M. Dowsett

1999-01-01

186

A review on SNP and other types of molecular markers and their use in animal genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last ten years, the use of molecular markers, revealing polymorphism at the DNA level, has been playing an increasing part in animal genetics studies. Amongst others, the microsatellite DNA marker has been the most widely used, due to its easy use by simple PCR, followed by a denaturing gel electrophoresis for allele size determination, and to the high

Alain Vignal; Denis Milan; Magali SanCristobal; André Eggen

2002-01-01

187

Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants  

PubMed Central

In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops.

Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

2014-01-01

188

Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants.  

PubMed

In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops. PMID:25320561

Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

2014-09-01

189

Mapping quantitative trait loci using molecular marker linkage maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-density restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and allozyme linkage maps have been developed in several plant species. These maps make it technically feasible to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) using methods based on flanking marker genetic models. In this paper, we describe flanking marker models for doubled haploid (DH), recombinant inbred (RI), backcross (BC), F1 testcross (F1TC), DH testcross (DHTC),

S. J. Knapp; W. C. Bridges; D. Birkes

1990-01-01

190

Genetic Diversity and Differentiation of Colletotrichum spp. Isolates Associated with Leguminosae Using Multigene Loci, RAPD and ISSR.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity and differentiation of 50 Colletotrichum spp. isolates from legume crops studied through multigene loci, RAPD and ISSR analysis. DNA sequence comparisons by six genes (ITS, ACT, Tub2, CHS-1, GAPDH, and HIS3) verified species identity of C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporiodes and identity C. capsici as a synonym of C. truncatum. Based on the matrix distance analysis of multigene sequences, the Colletotrichum species showed diverse degrees of intera and interspecific divergence (0.0 to 1.4%) and (15.5-19.9), respectively. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis clustered Colletotrichum spp. isolates into 3 well-defined clades, representing three distinct species; C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides. The ISSR and RAPD and cluster analysis exhibited a high degree of variability among different isolates and permitted the grouping of isolates of Colletotrichum spp. into three distinct clusters. Distinct populations of Colletotrichum spp. isolates were genetically in accordance with host specificity and inconsistent with geographical origins. The large population of C. truncatum showed greater amounts of genetic diversity than smaller populations of C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides species. Results of ISSR and RAPD markers were congruent, but the effective maker ratio and the number of private alleles were greater in ISSR markers. PMID:25288981

Mahmodi, Farshid; Kadir, J B; Puteh, A; Pourdad, S S; Nasehi, A; Soleimani, N

2014-03-01

191

Genetic Diversity and Differentiation of Colletotrichum spp. Isolates Associated with Leguminosae Using Multigene Loci, RAPD and ISSR  

PubMed Central

Genetic diversity and differentiation of 50 Colletotrichum spp. isolates from legume crops studied through multigene loci, RAPD and ISSR analysis. DNA sequence comparisons by six genes (ITS, ACT, Tub2, CHS-1, GAPDH, and HIS3) verified species identity of C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporiodes and identity C. capsici as a synonym of C. truncatum. Based on the matrix distance analysis of multigene sequences, the Colletotrichum species showed diverse degrees of intera and interspecific divergence (0.0 to 1.4%) and (15.5–19.9), respectively. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis clustered Colletotrichum spp. isolates into 3 well-defined clades, representing three distinct species; C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides. The ISSR and RAPD and cluster analysis exhibited a high degree of variability among different isolates and permitted the grouping of isolates of Colletotrichum spp. into three distinct clusters. Distinct populations of Colletotrichum spp. isolates were genetically in accordance with host specificity and inconsistent with geographical origins. The large population of C. truncatum showed greater amounts of genetic diversity than smaller populations of C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides species. Results of ISSR and RAPD markers were congruent, but the effective maker ratio and the number of private alleles were greater in ISSR markers. PMID:25288981

Mahmodi, Farshid; Kadir, J. B.; Puteh, A.; Pourdad, S. S.; Nasehi, A.; Soleimani, N.

2014-01-01

192

New sequence-tagged site molecular markers for identification of sex in Distichlis spicata.  

PubMed

Sex-linked molecular markers have become valuable tools for understanding sex ratio evolution and sex-specific physiology in pre-reproductive plants. To develop new accurate methods for sexing Distichlis spicata juveniles and nonflowering individuals, we converted a random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction marker that co-segregated with the female phenotype into a set of sequence-tagged site markers. We tested the marker pair on known males and females from populations in Oregon and California. A single band was obtained for all female samples but never for males. PMID:21564910

Eppley, Sarah M; O'Quinn, Robin; Brown, Anna L

2009-09-01

193

Advances in the Use of Molecular Markers for Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Organic Aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, there has been significant effort directed at measuring particle-phase organic compounds in air pollution emission sources and in the atmosphere. A subset of these organic compounds are relatively unique to the emissions from specific air pollution source categories and are believed to be stable enough in the atmosphere to be used as source tracers. To date, studies have been conducted in North America, Asia and Europe in both remote and urbanized locations that have used these organic compound tracers, also called molecular markers, for source attribution studies. The major short-comings of these studies are the uncertainties associated with developing site and season specific molecular marker source profiles and the absence of source fingerprints for secondary organic aerosol. Recent advances in molecular marker chemical analysis methods has lead to two key advances for molecular marker source apportionment efforts: 1) sufficiently large data sets of molecular marker measures have been generated that now allow multivariate receptor models to be used in parallel with chemical mass balance (CMB) models, and 2) compounds that are believed to be predominately associated with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) have been identified and can be routinely analyzed in organic aerosol samples. Given these advances, data sets have been generated that can be used to apportion atmospheric organic aerosols to both primary and secondary organic aerosols without the use of source profiles. Background on molecular markers will be presented along with recent organic aerosol source apportionment results that were obtained using multivariate receptor models to analyze molecular marker data sets obtained in the Midwestern United States. These data sets include a daily time series of molecular marker concentration data from the Midwest Supersite in East St. Louis that spans two years and a monthly average tracer data for a year that were simultaneously obtained in St. Louis, Chicago, Detroit, Indianapolis, Cincinnati, and Bondville. The results of these studies will be presented along with a comparison of the molecular marker source profiles derived from a multivariate receptor models and source testing activities. Such analyses provide insight into the atmospheric stability of these molecular markers and their uniqueness to source categories.

Schauer, J. J.; Sheesley, R. J.; Jaeckels, J. M.

2006-12-01

194

A pseudoautosomal random amplified polymorphic DNA marker for the sex chromosomes of Silene dioica.  

PubMed

The segregation pattern of an 810-bp random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) band in the F1 and backcross generations of a Silene dioica (L.) Clairv. family provides evidence that this molecular marker is located in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of the X and Y chromosomes. The marker was found through a combination of bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and RAPD techniques. Recombination rates between this pseudoautosomal marker and the differentiating portion of the Y chromosome are 15% in both generations. Alternative explanations involving nondisjunction or autosomal inheritance are presented and discussed. Chromosome counts provide evidence against the nondisjunction hypothesis, and probability calculations argue against the possibility of autosomal inheritance. This constitutes the first report of a pseudoautosomal DNA marker for plant sex chromosomes. PMID:9691057

Di Stilio, V S; Kesseli, R V; Mulcahy, D L

1998-08-01

195

Population Genetics Study of Anopheles Darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia Based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Markers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The genetic variation and population structure of three populations of Anopheles darlingi from Colombia were studied using random amplified polymorphic markers (RAPDs) and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers (AFLPs). Six RAPD primers produced 4...

F. Garcia, G. Gallego, M. F. Suarez, R. Gonzalez, R. Wilkerson

2007-01-01

196

Markers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dry erase whiteboards come with toxic dry erase markers and toxic cleaning products. Dry erase markers labeled "nontoxic" are not free of toxic chemicals and can cause health problems. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental health hazards; moreover, schools commonly have problems with indoor air pollution, as they are more densely…

Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

2011-01-01

197

Applications and Implications of Neutral versus Non-neutral Markers in Molecular Ecology  

PubMed Central

The field of molecular ecology has expanded enormously in the past two decades, largely because of the growing ease with which neutral molecular genetic data can be obtained from virtually any taxonomic group. However, there is also a growing awareness that neutral molecular data can provide only partial insight into parameters such as genetic diversity, local adaptation, evolutionary potential, effective population size, and taxonomic designations. Here we review some of the applications of neutral versus adaptive markers in molecular ecology, discuss some of the advantages that can be obtained by supplementing studies of molecular ecology with data from non-neutral molecular markers, and summarize new methods that are enabling researchers to generate data from genes that are under selection. PMID:21747718

Kirk, Heather; Freeland, Joanna R.

2011-01-01

198

Relative efficiency of morphological characters and molecular markers in the establishment of an apricot core collection.  

PubMed

In order to optimize the management of genetic resources, in most cases a representative sample of the germplasm collections needs to be developed. The establishment of a core collection is thus of major importance either to minimize the cost associated with the management of the associated germplasm or to apply analysis onto representative bases. In order to select a representative core collection among the Tunisian apricot germplasm of 110 accessions large, the Maximization strategy algorithm was used. This algorithm was shown to be the most convenient when using both morphological traits and molecular markers. Three core collections based on morphological characters, molecular markers or the combined data were compared. Our data indicate that both the molecular and the morphological markers have to be considered to obtain a core collection that represents the global diversity of the 110 accessions. Using this method, a subset of 34 selected accessions was found to represent accurately the 110 accessions present in the whole collection (75 to 100% for the morphological characters and 97% of the molecular markers). These results show that the combination of molecular and morphological markers is an efficient way to characterize the apricot core collection and provides an exhaustive coverage for the analyzed diversity on morphological and genetic bases. PMID:23121327

Krichen, L; Audergon, J M; Trifi-Farah, N

2012-10-01

199

Molecular diversity among Saccharum, Erianthus, Sorghum, Zea and their hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic relationship of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) with three other related genera viz.,Erianthus, Zea andSorghum and their 12 intergeneric hybrids was studied using 250 RAPD markers.S.officinarum andErianthus, though belonging to the same sub tribe, showed strong molecular differentiation between them. The phenogram based on these\\u000a markers showed thatErianthus andSorghum are almost equidistantly placed fromSaccharum officinarum while maize was found to

N. V. Nair; A. Selvi; T. V. Sreenivasan; K. N. Pushpalatha; Sheji Mary

2005-01-01

200

Molecular and cellular markers of toxicity in the Japanese Medaka @  

SciTech Connect

The Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes) has been recommended for use as a model organism to detect carcinogenic, teratogenic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic compounds in aquatic systems. Because a long latent period often occurs between initial contact with deleterious chemicals and subsequent expression of the pathology, we are investigating early biologically-relevant responses that can be used as genotoxicity markers of exposure and effect. This project focuses on the development of genotoxic bioassays and experimental protocols for exposing Japanese Medaka to genotoxic compounds. 21 refs., 8 figs, 2 tabs.

Shugart, L.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; D'Surney, S.J.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hull, C.G.

1990-01-01

201

Molecular markers in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules.  

PubMed

An indeterminate thyroid nodule cytology result occurs about every sixth fine-needle aspiration. These indeterminate nodules harbor a 24% risk of malignancy (ROM); too high to ignore, but driving surgery where most nodules are benign. Molecular diagnostics have emerged to ideally avoid surgery when appropriate, and to trigger the correct therapeutic surgery when indicated, as opposed to an incomplete diagnostic surgery. No current molecular test offers both high sensitivity and high specificity. A molecular diagnostic test with high sensitivity (e.g. Afirma Gene Expression Classifier sensitivity 90%) offers a high Negative Predictive Value when the ROM is relatively low, such as < 30%. Only such tests can "rule-out" cancer. In this setting, a molecularly benign result suggests the same ROM as that of operated cytologically benign nodules (~6%). Thus, clinical observation can replace diagnostic surgery; increasing quality of life and decreasing medical costs. However, its low specificity cannot "rule-in" cancer as a suspicious result has a Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of ~40%, perhaps too low to routinely reflex to definitive cancer surgery. Conversely, high specificity tests (BRAF, RAS, PPAR/PAX-8, RET/PTC, PTEN) offer high PPV results, and only these tests can "rule-in" cancer. Here a positive molecular result warrants definitive therapeutic surgery. However, their low sensitivity cannot "rule-out" cancer and a negative molecular result cannot dissuade diagnostic surgery; limiting their cost-effectiveness. Whether or not there is a useful and cost-effective role to sequentially combine these approaches, or to modify existing approaches, is under investigation. PMID:23525286

Ward, Laura S; Kloos, Richard T

2013-03-01

202

Molecular markers in bladder cancer: A critical appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of both primary and recurrent bladder tumors currently relies upon the urine cytology and cystoscopy. Neither of these diagnostic tools is completely accurate. Prognostication of bladder cancer is largely based on pathologic tumor grade and stage. Over the past 2 decades, there is accumulating evidence that like many other cancers, bladder cancer, too, has a distinct molecular signature

Badrinath R. Konety

2006-01-01

203

Molecular imaging of rheumatoid arthritis: emerging markers, tools, and techniques  

PubMed Central

Early diagnosis and effective monitoring of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are important for a positive outcome. Instant treatment often results in faster reduction of inflammation and, as a consequence, less structural damage. Anatomical imaging techniques have been in use for a long time, facilitating diagnosis and monitoring of RA. However, mere imaging of anatomical structures provides little information on the processes preceding changes in synovial tissue, cartilage, and bone. Molecular imaging might facilitate more effective diagnosis and monitoring in addition to providing new information on the disease pathogenesis. A limiting factor in the development of new molecular imaging techniques is the availability of suitable probes. Here, we review which cells and molecules can be targeted in the RA joint and discuss the advances that have been made in imaging of arthritis with a focus on such molecular targets as folate receptor, F4/80, macrophage mannose receptor, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, phosphatidylserine, and matrix metalloproteinases. In addition, we discuss a new tool that is being introduced in the field, namely the use of nanobodies as tracers. Finally, we describe additional molecules displaying specific features in joint inflammation and propose these as potential new molecular imaging targets, more specifically receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B and its ligand, chemokine receptors, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, ?V?3 integrin, P2X7 receptor, suppression of tumorigenicity 2, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein, and osteoclast-stimulatory transmembrane protein. PMID:25099015

2014-01-01

204

Designing a SCAR molecular marker for monitoring Trichoderma cf. harzianum in experimental communities* #  

PubMed Central

Several species of the fungal genus Trichoderma establish biological interactions with various micro- and macro-organisms. Some of these interactions are relevant in ecological terms and in biotechnological applications, such as biocontrol, where Trichoderma could be considered as an invasive species that colonizes a recipient community. The success of this invasion depends on multiple factors, which can be assayed using experimental communities as study models. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a species-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker to monitor the colonization and growth of T. cf. harzianum when it invades experimental communities. For this study, 16 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers of 10-mer were used to generate polymorphic patterns, one of which generated a band present only in strains of T. cf. harzianum. This band was cloned, sequenced, and five primers of 20–23 mer were designed. Primer pairs 2F2/2R2 and 2F2/2R3 successfully and specifically amplified fragments of 278 and 448 bp from the T. cf. harzianum BpT10a strain DNA, respectively. Both primer pairs were also tested against the DNA from 14 strains of T. cf. harzianum and several strains of different fungal genera as specificity controls. Only the DNA from the strains of T. cf. harzianum was successfully amplified. Moreover, primer pair 2F2/2R2 was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using fungal DNA mixtures and DNA extracted from fungal experimental communities as templates. T. cf. harzianum was detectable even when as few as 100 copies of the SCAR marker were available or even when its population represented only 0.1% of the whole community. PMID:25367789

Perez, Gabriel; Verdejo, Valentina; Gondim-Porto, Clarissa; Orlando, Julieta; Caru, Margarita

2014-01-01

205

Designing a SCAR molecular marker for monitoring Trichoderma cf. harzianum in experimental communities.  

PubMed

Several species of the fungal genus Trichoderma establish biological interactions with various micro- and macro-organisms. Some of these interactions are relevant in ecological terms and in biotechnological applications, such as biocontrol, where Trichoderma could be considered as an invasive species that colonizes a recipient community. The success of this invasion depends on multiple factors, which can be assayed using experimental communities as study models. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a species-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker to monitor the colonization and growth of T. cf. harzianum when it invades experimental communities. For this study, 16 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers of 10-mer were used to generate polymorphic patterns, one of which generated a band present only in strains of T. cf. harzianum. This band was cloned, sequenced, and five primers of 20-23 mer were designed. Primer pairs 2F2/2R2 and 2F2/2R3 successfully and specifically amplified fragments of 278 and 448 bp from the T. cf. harzianum BpT10a strain DNA, respectively. Both primer pairs were also tested against the DNA from 14 strains of T. cf. harzianum and several strains of different fungal genera as specificity controls. Only the DNA from the strains of T. cf. harzianum was successfully amplified. Moreover, primer pair 2F2/2R2 was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using fungal DNA mixtures and DNA extracted from fungal experimental communities as templates. T. cf. harzianum was detectable even when as few as 100 copies of the SCAR marker were available or even when its population represented only 0.1% of the whole community. PMID:25367789

Pérez, Gabriel; Verdejo, Valentina; Gondim-Porto, Clarissa; Orlando, Julieta; Carú, Margarita

2014-11-01

206

Construction of a genetic linkage map in tetraploid species using molecular markers.  

PubMed Central

This article presents methodology for the construction of a linkage map in an autotetraploid species, using either codominant or dominant molecular markers scored on two parents and their full-sib progeny. The steps of the analysis are as follows: identification of parental genotypes from the parental and offspring phenotypes; testing for independent segregation of markers; partition of markers into linkage groups using cluster analysis; maximum-likelihood estimation of the phase, recombination frequency, and LOD score for all pairs of markers in the same linkage group using the EM algorithm; ordering the markers and estimating distances between them; and reconstructing their linkage phases. The information from different marker configurations about the recombination frequency is examined and found to vary considerably, depending on the number of different alleles, the number of alleles shared by the parents, and the phase of the markers. The methods are applied to a simulated data set and to a small set of SSR and AFLP markers scored in a full-sib population of tetraploid potato. PMID:11238421

Luo, Z W; Hackett, C A; Bradshaw, J E; McNicol, J W; Milbourne, D

2001-01-01

207

Comparison of RAPD, AFLP, and EF-1? Sequences for the Phylogenetic Analysis of Fusarium oxysporum and Its formae speciales in Korea  

PubMed Central

Although Fursarium oxysporum causes diseases in economically important plant hosts, identification of F. oxysporum formae speciales has been difficult due to confusing phenotypic classification systems. To resolve these complexity, we evaluated genetic relationship of nine formae speciales of F. oxysporum with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1?) gene. In addition, the correlation between mycotoxin content of fusaric acid and isolates based on molecular marker data was evaluated using the modified Mantel's test. According to these result, these fusaric acid-producing strains could not identify clearly, and independent of geographic locations and host specificities. However, in the identification of F. oxysporum formae speciales, especially, AFLP analysis showed a higher discriminatory power than that of a the RAPD and EF-1? analyses, all three techniques were able to detect genetic variability among F. oxysporum formae speciales in this study. PMID:24039470

Park, Jae-Min; Kim, Gi-Young; Lee, Song-Jin; Kim, Mun-Ok; Huh, Man-Kyu; Lee, Tae-Ho

2006-01-01

208

A general mixture model for mapping quantitative trait loci by using molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a segregating population a quantitative trait may be considered to follow a mixture of (normal) distributions, the mixing proportions being based on Mendelian segregation rules. A general and flexible mixture model is proposed for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) by using molecular markers. A method is discribed to fit the model to data. The model makes it possible to

R. C. Jansen

1992-01-01

209

Detecting Molecular Signatures of Life on Mars: the Life Marker Chip (lmc) Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the rise of interest in planetary exploration and the emergence of Astrobiology as a promising field of research have lead to a number of programmes aiming to develop sensitive instruments for the detection of the molecular signatures of life in extreme environments. An antibody assay-based life detection instrument, the Life Marker Chip (LMC), is currently under development

Mariliza Derveni

2010-01-01

210

Analysis of genetic diversity in Ganoderma population with a novel molecular marker SRAP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic marker technology designed to detect naturally occurring polymorphisms at the DNA level had become an invaluable and revolutionizing tool for both applied and basic studies of fungi. To eliminate the confusion on the taxonomy of Ganoderma strains, in this study, a collection of 31 accessions representative of morphotypes and some unclassified types was used for analyzing molecular diversity using

Shu-Jing Sun; Wei Gao; Shu-Qian Lin; Jian Zhu; Bao-Gui Xie; Zhi-Bin Lin

2006-01-01

211

Molecular marker analysis of Salmonella typhimurium from surface waters, humans, and animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonella contamination of North Sea water was detected for the first time in 1988 in Germany during routine examinations of bathing areas. Since then, subsequent isolations along the coast have been reported regularly. To define the source of contamination, strains isolated from seawater and rivers were studied by molecular marker methods. Their properties were compared with those of strains originating

I. Graeber; M. A. Montenegro; C. Bunge; U. Boettcher; H. Tobias; E. A. Heinemeyer; R. Helmuth

1995-01-01

212

Molecular Markers and Cotton Genetic Improvement: Current Status and Future Prospects  

PubMed Central

Narrow genetic base and complex allotetraploid genome of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is stimulating efforts to avail required polymorphism for marker based breeding. The availability of draft genome sequence of G. raimondii and G. arboreum and next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies facilitated the development of high-throughput marker technologies in cotton. The concepts of genetic diversity, QTL mapping, and marker assisted selection (MAS) are evolving into more efficient concepts of linkage disequilibrium, association mapping, and genomic selection, respectively. The objective of the current review is to analyze the pace of evolution in the molecular marker technologies in cotton during the last ten years into the following four areas: (i) comparative analysis of low- and high-throughput marker technologies available in cotton, (ii) genetic diversity in the available wild and improved gene pools of cotton, (iii) identification of the genomic regions within cotton genome underlying economic traits, and (iv) marker based selection methodologies. Moreover, the applications of marker technologies to enhance the breeding efficiency in cotton are also summarized. Aforementioned genomic technologies and the integration of several other omics resources are expected to enhance the cotton productivity and meet the global fiber quantity and quality demands.

Malik, Waqas; Iqbal, Muhammad Zaffar; Ali Khan, Asif; Qayyum, Abdul; Ali Abid, Muhammad; Noor, Etrat; Qadir Ahmad, Muhammad; Hasan Abbasi, Ghulam

2014-01-01

213

Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity. [Oryzias latipes  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of the Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes) as a predictor of genotoxicity following exposure to carcinogens. The early molecular events associated with genotoxicity in Medaka tissues following exposure to known carcinogens will be investigated. The primary endpoint for most small fish carcinogenesis studies is histopathogenic identification of a neoplastic lesion. Such lesions usually occur in the liver, and histogenesis of liver neoplasms in fish is similar to that in rodents. Because of the latent period between initial contact with chemical agents in the environmental and subsequent expression of deleterious effects, development of sensitive assays for detection and estimating early exposure is needed. Carcinogen-induced DNA damage will be assessed as a possible measure of severity of exposure, correlated with activation of liver enzymes. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Shugart, L.R.

1991-04-01

214

Molecular Markers of Influenza B Lineages and Clades  

PubMed Central

Co-circulation of two influenza B virus lineages, B/Yamagata and B/Victoria, has been recognized since the late 1980s. The assessment of the prevalent lineage and the group of viruses in circulation is of importance in order to decide on the vaccine composition and evaluate its efficacy. The molecular characterization of influenza B viruses in circulation has been the aim of this study; this was approached by identifying and locating nucleotide substitutions in the influenza B virus hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), specific for the lineage and/or clade. By the alignment of 3456 sequences from the influenza GISAID EpiFlu database, a high number of lineage- and group-specific nucleotide positions have been observed in the HA gene, but not in the NA gene. Additionally, an RT-PCR method has been developed, applicable directly to clinical specimens, which amplifies a short HA region that includes a group of unique molecular signatures. Twenty eight influenza B virus-positive respiratory specimens, collected in Tuscany in the seasons 2012–2013 and 2013–2014, were analyzed. The results revealed two clearly distinguishable patterns: one, more frequent, was characterized by all of the nucleotide changes associated with the B/Yamagata lineage (in most cases of Group 2), whereas the other exhibited all of the changes associated with the B/Victoria lineage. It can be concluded that the analysis of this short HA sequence can permit a rapid, highly sensitive determination of influenza B virus lineages and clades. PMID:25412364

Arvia, Rosaria; Corcioli, Fabiana; Pierucci, Federica; Azzi, Alberta

2014-01-01

215

Separation of DNA for molecular markers analysis from leaves of the Vitis vinifera.  

PubMed

In the present study, three DNA extraction procedures were examined to determine which might yield DNA from Grape leaves suitable for molecular analysis for RAPD, SSR. AFLP and etc analysis. The three methods examined were: the miniprep procedure and the modified CTAB for difficult species and protocol CTAB. Only the modified CTAB method consistently yielded DNA suitable for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification, regardless of plant growing conditions or leaf age. The quality and quantity of extracted genomic DNA gained from these methods are deliberated by means UV biophotometer, electrophoresis in 1.2% agarose gel and PCR. In this regard, application chosen for young and mature leaves, the most value of qualified DNA, is extracted from fully expanded leave when PVP was added to the extraction buffer. This same procedure also yielded PCR-amplifiable DNA from various other perennial, woody species and from other fruit species such as apple (Malus domestica), cherry (Prunus avium), peach (Prunuspersica), plum (Prunus domestica). DNA yield from this procedure is high (up to 1 mg g(-1) of leaf tissue). DNA is completely digestible with restriction endonucleases and amplifiable in the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). PMID:18817243

Nazhad, Nafiseh Rigi; Solouki, Mahmood

2008-06-01

216

Genetic Diversity Within and Among Lepidium draba Populations from Eastern Anatolia Based on RAPD Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation and structure of six natural populations of Lepidium draba L. from Eastern Anatolia were assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. For RAPD analysis, 12 primers\\u000a generated 218 reproducible bands across the six populations analyzed, of which 73 bands (33.3%) were polymorphic. The mean\\u000a Nei’s gene diversity value for all six populations was 0.1771. Shannon’s information index

Ozkan Aksakal; Serap Sunar; Yusuf Kaya; Guleray Agar

2010-01-01

217

Intestinal microflora molecular markers of spleen-deficient rats and evaluation of traditional Chinese drugs  

PubMed Central

AIM: To find a rapid and efficient analysis method of gastrointestinal microflora in Pi-deficient (spleen-deficient) rats and to evaluate traditional Chinese drugs. METHODS: Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) based assay was performed to examine changes of intestinal microflora in two Pi-deficienct animal models and to evaluate the efficacy of four traditional Chinese drugs as well as a probiotic recipe and another therapy in Pi-deficient rats. RESULTS: A molecular marker was identified for Pi-deficiency in rats. The pharmacodynamic evaluation system, including identified molecular markers (net integral area and abundance of DNA bands), Shannon’s index for diversity of intestinal microflora, and Sorenson’s pairwise similarity coefficient, was established. The four major clinical recipes of traditional Chinese drugs for Pi-deficiency in rats, especially at their medium dose (equivalence to the clinical dose), produced more pronounced recovery activities in Pi-deficient rats, while higher doses of these recipes did not show a better therapeutic effect but some toxic effects such as perturbation deterioration of intestinal microflora. CONCLUSION: Both fingerprint analysis and identified marker can show Pi-deficiency in rats and its difference after treatment. The identified molecular marker may be applied in screening for the active compounds both in relative traditional Chinese drugs and in pharmacodynamic study of Pi-deficiency in rats. PMID:19437561

Peng, Ying; Wang, Zhuo; Lu, Yuan; Wu, Chun-Fu; Yang, Jing-Yu; Li, Xiao-Bo

2009-01-01

218

Anthropogenic Molecular Markers: Tools to Identify the Sources and Transport Pathways of Pollutants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The activities of modern civilization have released to the oceans a wide variety of both mobilized natural compounds and synthetic compounds not found prior to modern times. Many of these compounds provide a means of identifying sources of inputs and pathways of movement of chemicals through oceanic ecosystems and serve as molecular markers of human activities. A coastal ocean (Tokyo Bay) and a deep ocean (Deep Water Dump Site 106 in the Western North Atlantic Ocean) example are presented. In the deep ocean study, the correlation between potential sewage marker, i.e. linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations indicates a contribution of sewage sludge PCBs to the dump site sediments.

Takada, H.; Satoh, F.; Bothner, M. H.; Tripp, B. W.; Johnson, C. G.; Farrington, J. W.

1997-01-01

219

Prognostic Histopathological and Molecular Markers on Prostate Cancer Needle-Biopsies: A Review  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is diverse in clinical presentation, histopathological tumor growth patterns, and survival. Therefore, individual assessment of a tumor's aggressive potential is crucial for clinical decision-making in men with prostate cancer. To date a large number of prognostic markers for prostate cancer have been described, most of them based on radical prostatectomy specimens. However, in order to affect clinical decision-making, validation of respective markers in pretreatment diagnostic needle-biopsies is essential. Here, we discuss established and promising histopathological and molecular parameters in diagnostic needle-biopsies. PMID:25243131

Hoogland, A. Marije; Kweldam, Charlotte F.; van Leenders, Geert J. L. H.

2014-01-01

220

A suite of molecular markers for identifying species, detecting introgression and describing population structure in spadefoot toads (Spea spp.).  

PubMed

Two congeneric species of spadefoot toad, Spea multiplicata and Spea bombifrons, have been the focus of hybridization studies since the 1970s. Because complex hybrids are not readily distinguished phenotypically, genetic markers are needed to identify introgressed individuals. We therefore developed a set of molecular markers (amplified fragment length polymorphism, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and single nucleotide polymorphism) for identifying pure-species, F1 hybrids and more complex introgressed types. To do so, we tested a series of markers across both species and known hybrids using populations in both allopatry and sympatry. We retained those markers that differentiated the two pure-species and also consistently identified known species hybrids. These markers are well suited for identifying hybrids between these species. Moreover, those markers that show variation within each species can be used in conjunction with existing molecular markers in studies of population structure and gene flow. PMID:22564443

Pfennig, Karin S; Allenby, Ashley; Martin, Ryan A; Monroy, Anaïs; Jones, Corbin D

2012-09-01

221

Saffron is a monomorphic species as revealed by RAPD, ISSR and microsatellite analyses  

PubMed Central

Background Saffron (Crocus sativus) is considered the world's most expensive spice. Used mainly as a colorant for foodstuffs, it is highly appreciated for its aromatic and flavouring properties. Since no molecular markers for this species have been found in the literature, the objective of this study was to determine whether phenotypical differences found in C. sativus were supported by molecular analyses. Findings Thirty primers from Operon Technologies were used in random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, forty eight primers were screened using intersimple sequence repeats (ISSR) method and fifteen primers derived from a microsatellites library flanking sequences with repeat motifs were assayed in forty three isolates of C. sativus from eleven different countries and a C. kotschyanus isolate was used as outgroup. No polymorphic bands were detected in any of the accessions combining the different approaches used in this study. Conclusion According to our findings, all accessions appear identical clones, not only because morphological characters but also at a molecular level. These data strongly suggested that C. sativus is a monomorphic species. Thus, genome sequencing is needed to find molecular markers for saffron. PMID:19772674

Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Castillo-Lopez, Raquel; Gomez-Gomez, Lourdes; Ahrazem, Oussama

2009-01-01

222

Genetic variability of Brazilian isolates of Alternaria alternata detected by AFLP and RAPD techniques  

PubMed Central

The Alternaria brown spot (ABS) is a disease caused in tangerine plants and its hybrids by the fungus Alternaria alternata f. sp. citri which has been found in Brazil since 2001. Due to the recent occurrence in Brazilian orchards, the epidemiology and genetic variability of this pathogen is still an issue to be addressed. Here it is presented a survey about the genetic variability of this fungus by the characterization of twenty four pathogenic isolates of A. alternata f. sp. citri from citrus plants and four endophytic isolates from mango (one Alternaria tenuissima and three Alternaria arborescens). The application of two molecular markers Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) had revealed the isolates clustering in distinct groups when fingerprintings were analyzed by Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Despite the better assessment of the genetic variability through the AFLP, significant modifications in clusters components were not observed, and only slight shifts in the positioning of isolates LRS 39/3 and 25M were observed in PCA plots. Furthermore, in both analyses, only the isolates from lemon plants revealed to be clustered, differently from the absence of clustering for other hosts or plant tissues. Summarizing, both RAPD and AFLP analyses were both efficient to detect the genetic variability within the population of the pathogenic fungus Alternaria spp., supplying information on the genetic variability of this species as a basis for further studies aiming the disease control. PMID:24031413

Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Pietrobon, Vivian Cristina; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Romao, Aline Silva; Sposito, Marcel Bellato; Araujo, Welington Luiz

2009-01-01

223

Genetic linkage map of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] using morphological and molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic linkage map of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batch] was constructed in order to identify molecular markers linked to economically important agronomic traits that\\u000a would be particularly useful for long-lived perennial species. An intraspecific F2 population was generated from self-pollinating a single F1 plant from a cross between a flat non-acid peach, ‘Ferjalou Jalousia’ and an acid round nectarine

E. Dirlewanger; V. Pronier; C. Parvery; C. Rothan; A. Guye; R. Monet

1998-01-01

224

Isolation of a non-urea-producing sake yeast strain carrying a discriminable molecular marker.  

PubMed

In the fermentation industry, the traceability of microorganisms during the process is important to ensure safety and efficacy. Ethyl carbamate, a group-2A carcinogen, is produced from ethanol and urea during the storage of food/alcoholic beverages. We isolated non-urea-producing sake yeast car1 mutants carrying a discriminable molecular marker, and demonstrated, by the use of PCR assays, that these mutants are useful for traceability analysis and identification during the sake brewing process. PMID:24317072

Kuribayashi, Takashi; Tamura, Hiroyasu; Sato, Keigo; Nabekura, Yoshihito; Aoki, Toshio; Anzawa, Yoshihiko; Katsumata, Kazuaki; Ohdaira, Shunji; Yamashita, Susumu; Kume, Kazunori; Kaneoke, Mitsuoki; Watanabe, Ken-Ichi; Hirata, Dai

2013-01-01

225

Forensic soil DNA analysis using high-throughput sequencing: A comparison of four molecular markers.  

PubMed

Soil analysis, such as mineralogy, geophysics, texture and colour, are commonly used in forensic casework to link a suspect to a crime scene. However, DNA analysis can also be applied to characterise the vast diversity of organisms present in soils. DNA metabarcoding and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) now offer a means to improve discrimination between forensic soil samples by identifying individual taxa and exploring non-culturable microbial species. Here, we compare the small-scale reproducibility and resolution of four molecular markers targeting different taxa (bacterial 16S rRNA, eukaryotic18S rRNA, plant trnL intron and fungal internal transcribed spacer I (ITS1) rDNA) to distinguish two sample sites. We also assess the background DNA level associated with each marker and examine the effects of filtering Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) detected in extraction blank controls. From this study, we show that non-bacterial taxa in soil, particularly fungi, can provide the greatest resolution between the sites, whereas plant markers may be problematic for forensic discrimination. ITS and 18S markers exhibit reliable amplification, and both show high discriminatory power with low background DNA levels. The 16S rRNA marker showed comparable discriminatory power post filtering; however, presented the highest level of background DNA. The discriminatory power of all markers was increased by applying OTU filtering steps, with the greatest improvement observed by the removal of any sequences detected in extraction blanks. This study demonstrates the potential use of multiple DNA markers for forensic soil analysis using HTS, and identifies some of the standardisation and evaluation steps necessary before this technique can be applied in casework. PMID:25151602

Young, Jennifer M; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

2014-11-01

226

Biological pathways, candidate genes and molecular markers associated with quality-of-life domains: an update  

PubMed Central

Background There is compelling evidence of a genetic foundation of patient-reported QOL. Given the rapid development of substantial scientific advances in this area of research, the current paper updates and extends reviews published in 2010. Objectives The objective is to provide an updated overview of the biological pathways, candidate genes and molecular markers involved in fatigue, pain, negative (depressed mood) and positive (well-being/happiness) emotional functioning, social functioning, and overall QOL. Methods We followed a purposeful search algorithm of existing literature to capture empirical papers investigating the relationship between biological pathways and molecular markers and the identified QOL domains. Results Multiple major pathways are involved in each QOL domain. The inflammatory pathway has the strongest evidence as a controlling mechanism underlying fatigue. Inflammation and neurotransmission are key processes involved in pain perception and the COMT gene is associated with multiple sorts of pain. The neurotransmitter and neuroplasticity theories have the strongest evidence for their relationship with depression. Oxytocin-related genes and genes involved in the serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways play a role in social functioning. Inflammatory pathways, via cytokines, also play an important role in overall QOL. Conclusions Whereas the current findings need future experiments and replication efforts, they will provide researchers supportive background information when embarking on studies relating candidate genes and/or molecular markers to QOL domains. The ultimate goal of this area of research is to enhance patients’ QOL. PMID:24604075

Sprangers, Mirjam A.G.; Thong, Melissa S.Y.; Bartels, Meike; Barsevick, Andrea; Ordonana, Juan; Shi, Qiuling; Wang, Xin Shelley; Klepstad, Pal; Wierenga, Eddy A.; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Sloan, Jeff A.

2014-01-01

227

Transferability of molecular markers from major legumes to Lathyrus spp. for their application in mapping and diversity studies.  

PubMed

Lathyrus cicera L. (chickling pea) and L. sativus L. (grass pea) have great potential among grain legumes due to their adaptability to inauspicious environments, high protein content and resistance to serious diseases. Nevertheless, due to its past underused, further activities are required to exploit this potential and to capitalise on the advances in molecular biology that enable improved Lathyrus spp. breeding programmes. In this study we evaluated the transferability of molecular markers developed for closely related legume species to Lathyrus spp. (Medicago truncatula, pea, lentil, faba bean and lupin) and tested the application of those new molecular tools on Lathyrus mapping and diversity studies. Genomic and expressed sequence tag microsatellite, intron-targeted amplified polymorphic, resistance gene analogue and defence-related gene markers were tested. In total 128 (27.7 %) and 132 (28.6 %) molecular markers were successfully cross-amplified, respectively in L. cicera and L. sativus. In total, the efficiency of transferability from genomic microsatellites was 5 %, and from gene-based markers, 55 %. For L. cicera, three cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers and one derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence marker based on the cross-amplified markers were also developed. Nine of those molecular markers were suitable for mapping in a L. cicera recombinant inbred line population. From the 17 molecular markers tested for diversity analysis, six (35 %) in L. cicera and seven (41 %) in L. sativus were polymorphic and discriminate well all the L. sativus accessions. Additionally, L. cicera accessions were clearly distinguished from L. sativus accessions. This work revealed a high number of transferable molecular markers to be used in current genomic studies in Lathyrus spp. Although their usefulness was higher on diversity studies, they represent the first steps for future comparative mapping involving these species. PMID:24203465

Almeida, Nuno Felipe; Trindade Leitão, Susana; Caminero, Constantino; Torres, Ana Maria; Rubiales, Diego; Vaz Patto, Maria Carlota

2014-01-01

228

Molecular markers based on LTR retrotransposons BARE - 1 and Jeli uncover different strata of evolutionary relationships in diploid wheats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular markers based on retrotransposon insertions are widely used for various applications including phylogenetic analysis.\\u000a Multiple cases were described where retrotransposon-based markers, namely sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP),\\u000a were superior to other marker types in resolving the phylogenetic relationships due to their higher variability and informativeness.\\u000a However, the patterns of evolutionary relationships revealed by SSAP may be dependent on the underlying

Fedor A. KonovalovNikolay; Nikolay P. Goncharov; Svetlana Goryunova; Aleksandra Shaturova; Tatyana Proshlyakova; Alexander Kudryavtsev

2010-01-01

229

Morphological versus molecular markers to describe variability in Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa (Cupressaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Juniperus excelsa M.-Bieb. is a major forest element in the mountains of the eastern part of Mediterranean and sub-Mediterranean regions. This study comprises the first morphological investigation covering a large part of the geographical range of J. excelsa and aims to verify the congruency between the morphological results and molecular results of a previous study. Methodology We studied 14 populations sampled from Greece, Cyprus, Ukraine, Turkey and Lebanon, 11 of which have previously been investigated using molecular markers. Three hundred and ninety-four individuals of J. excelsa were examined using nine biometric features characterizing cones, seeds and shoots, and eight derived ratios. Statistical analyses were conducted in order to evaluate the intra- and inter-population morphological variability. Principal results The level of intra-population variability observed did not show any geographical trends. The total variation mostly depended on the ratios of cone diameter/seed width and seed width/seed length. The discrimination analysis, the Ward agglomeration method and barrier analysis results showed a separation of the sampled populations into three main clusters. These results confirmed, in part, the geographical differentiation revealed by molecular markers with a lower level of differentiation and a less clear geographical pattern. The most differentiated populations using both markers corresponded to old, isolated populations in the high altitudes of Lebanon (>2000 m). Moreover, a separation of the northern Turkish population from the southern Turkish populations was observed using both markers. Conclusions Morphological variation together with genetic and biogeographic studies make an effective tool for detecting relict plant populations and also populations subjected to more intensive selection. PMID:22822421

Douaihy, Bouchra; Sobierajska, Karolina; Jasinska, Anna Katarzyna; Boratynska, Krystyna; Ok, Tolga; Romo, Angel; Machon, Nathalie; Didukh, Yakiv; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda; Boratynski, Adam

2012-01-01

230

Screening of rice landraces for salinity tolerance at seedling stage through morphological and molecular markers.  

PubMed

The present investigation was carried out to evaluate 33 rice landrace genotypes for assessment of their salt tolerance at seedling stage. Growth parameters like root length, shoot length and plant biomass were measured after 12 days of exposure to six different levels of saline solution (with electrical conductivity of 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 or 14 dS m (-1)). Genotypes showing significant interaction and differential response towards salinity were assessed at molecular level using 11 simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, linked with salt tolerance quantitative trait loci. Shoot length, root length and plant biomass at seedling stage decreased with increasing salinity. However, relative salt tolerance in terms of these three parameters varied among genotypes. Out of the 11 SSR markers RM8094, RM336 and RM8046, the most competent descriptors to screen the salt tolerant genotypes with higher polymorphic information content coupled with higher marker index value, significantly distinguished the salt tolerant genotypes. Combining morphological and molecular assessment, four lanraces viz. Gheus, Ghunsi, Kuthiahara and Sholerpona were considered as true salt tolerant genotypes which may contribute in greater way in the development of salt tolerant genotypes in rice. PMID:25320465

Ali, Md Nasim; Yeasmin, Lucina; Gantait, Saikat; Goswami, Rupak; Chakraborty, Somsubhra

2014-10-01

231

[Genetic singularity coefficients of common vetch Vicia sativa L. accessions determined with molecular markers].  

PubMed

Organization and practical application of ex situ collections require estimation of genetic differences between numerous accessions of local cultivars and field weed forms collected from the same ecological and geographical region and similar in their morphophysiological characteristics. A mathematical algorithm for estimating the degree of genetic singularity of a specimen in the system of local gene pool determined with the help of molecular markers is described. The utility of this algorithm is demonstrated by the example of classification of 677 common vetch accessions from the collection of the Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry from 11 ecological-geographic regions of Russia analyzed using AFLP. The proposed classification of accessions is the result of processing the AFLP data by weighting the marker traits based on their frequency in particular regions. This allowed each accession to be characterized according to the ratio of rare and frequent alleles as a genetic singularity coefficient. The proposed method is appropriate for any types of molecular markers. A practical result of its application is the classification of accessions using a five-point score scale, which can be added to descriptors of certificate databases and used for optimization of the work with collections. PMID:19137734

Potokina, E K; Aleksandrova, T G

2008-11-01

232

Molecular and protein markers for clinical decision making in breast cancer: today and tomorrow.  

PubMed

In early breast cancer (eBC), established clinicopathological factors are not sufficient for clinical decision making particularly regarding adjuvant chemotherapy since substantial over- or undertreatment may occur. Thus, novel protein- and molecular markers have been put forward as decision aids. Since these potential prognosis and/or predictive tests differ substantially regarding their methodology, analytical and clinical validation, this review attempts to summarize the essential facts for clinicians. This review focuses on those markers which are the most advanced so far in their development towards routine clinical application, i.e. two protein markers (i.e. uPA/PAI-1 and IHC4) and six molecular multigene tests (i.e. Mammaprint®, Oncotype DX®, PAM50, Endopredict®, the 97-gene genomic grade, and 76 gene Rotterdam signatures). Next to methodological aspects, we summarized the clinical evidences, in particular the main prospective clinical trials which have already been fully recruited (i.e. MINDACT, TAILORx, WSG PLAN B) or are still ongoing (i.e. RxPONDER/SWOG S1007, WSG-ADAPT). Last but not least, this review points out the key elements for clinicians to select one test among the wide panel of proposed assays, for a specific population of patients in term of level of evidence, analytical and clinical validity as well as cost effectiveness. PMID:24138841

Harbeck, Nadia; Sotlar, Karl; Wuerstlein, Rachel; Doisneau-Sixou, Sophie

2014-04-01

233

Identification of novel molecular markers through transcriptomic analysis in human fetal and adult corneal endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

The corneal endothelium is composed of a monolayer of corneal endothelial cells (CECs), which is essential for maintaining corneal transparency. To better characterize CECs in different developmental stages, we profiled mRNA transcriptomes in human fetal and adult corneal endothelium with the goal to identify novel molecular markers in these cells. By comparing CECs with 12 other tissue types, we identified 245 and 284 signature genes that are highly expressed in fetal and adult CECs, respectively. Functionally, these genes are enriched in pathways characteristic of CECs, including inorganic anion transmembrane transporter, extracellular matrix structural constituent and cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor activity. Importantly, several of these genes are disease target genes in hereditary corneal dystrophies, consistent with their functional significance in CEC physiology. We also identified stage-specific markers associated with CEC development, such as specific members in the transforming growth factor beta and Wnt signaling pathways only expressed in fetal, but not in adult CECs. Lastly, by the immunohistochemistry of ocular tissues, we demonstrated the unique protein localization for Wnt5a, S100A4, S100A6 and IER3, the four novel markers for fetal and adult CECs. The identification of a new panel of stage-specific markers for CECs would be very useful for characterizing CECs derived from stem cells or ex vivo expansion for cell replacement therapy. GEO accession number: GSE41616. PMID:23257286

Chen, Yinyin; Huang, Kevin; Nakatsu, Martin N.; Xue, Zhigang; Deng, Sophie X.; Fan, Guoping

2013-01-01

234

The molecular marker-based comparison of Azotobacter spp. populations isolated from industrial soils of Cracow-Nowa Huta steelworks (southern Poland) and the adjacent agricultural soils.  

PubMed

The occurrence of Azotobacter spp., which has beneficial effects on plant development, is related to various soil properties, such as pH and fertility. This study evaluated the prevalence of Azotobacter spp. in industrial (H) and agricultural soils (P) in Nowa Huta, Cracow and determined the phenotypic and genetic diversity of these bacteria. The examined bacteria were present in 40% of H and in 50% of P soils. Taxonomic identification of the bacterial isolates indicated the presence of three species--A. salinestris, A. chroococcum and A. vinelandii. The genetic diversity, determined using two fingerprinting methods--Random Analysis of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Rep-PCR (BOX) revealed high level of population diversity. In AMOVA analysis most of diversity was attributed to within-population variation (76-85%), and only 3.78-6.18% was associated with among-group H and P variation. Global test of differences revealed distinct population structure within bacterial strains isolated from H and P areas only for BOX markers (Fst = 0.05732, P = 0.00275). Phenetic analyses: UPGMA and DCA better discriminated H and P groups based on RAPD data. Both BOX and RAPD methods provided an insight into the genetic complexity of Azotobacter spp. variation in soils of different land-use types. PMID:24798904

Lenart-Boro?, Anna M; Wolny-Ko?adka, Katarzyna A; Boro?, Piotr M; Mitka, Józef R

2014-01-01

235

RAPD and SSR Polymorphisms in Mutant Lines of Transgenic Wheat Mediated by Low Energy Ion Beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of markers-random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat DNA (SSR)-have been used to characterize the genetic diversity among nine mutant lines of transgenic wheat intermediated by low energy ion beam and their four receptor cultivars. The objectives of this study were to analyze RAPD-based and SSR-based genetic variance among transgenic wheat lines and with their receptors, and to find specific genetic markers of special traits of transgenic wheat lines. 170 RAPD primers were amplified to 733 fragments in all the experimental materials. There were 121 polymorphic fragments out of the 733 fragments with a ratio of polymorphic fragments of 16.5%. 29 SSR primer pairs were amplified to 83 fragments in all the experiment materials. There were 57 polymorphic fragments out of the 83 fragments with a ratio of polymorphic fragments of 68.7%. The dendrograms were prepared based on a genetic distance matrix using the UPGMA (Unweighted Pair-group Method with Arithmetic averaging) algorithm, which corresponded well to the results of the wheat pedigree analysis and separated the 13 genotypes into four groups. Association analysis between RAPD and SSR markers with the special traits of transgenic wheat mutant lines discovered that three RAPD markers, s1, opt-16, and f14, were significantly associated with the muticate trait, while three SSR markers, Rht8 (Xgwm261), Rht-B1b, and Rht-D1b, highly associated with the dwarf trait. These markers will be useful for marker-assistant breeding and can be used as candidate markers for further gene mapping and cloning.

Wang, Tiegu; Huang, Qunce; Feng, Weisen

2007-10-01

236

Genetic diversity of Phytophthora sojae isolates in Heilongjiang Province in China assessed by RAPD and EST-SSR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and EST-SSR markers were used to estimate the genetic relationship among thirty-nine P.sojae isolates from three locations in Heilongjiang Province, and nine isolates from Ohio in America were made as reference strains. 10 of 50 RAPD primers and 5 of 33 EST-SSR were polymorphic across 48 P.sojae isolates. Similarity values among P.sojae isolates were from 49% to 82% based on the RAPD data. The similarities based on EST-SSR markers ranged from 47% to 85%. The genetic diversity revealed by EST-SSR marker analysis was higher than that obtained from RAPD. The similarity matrices for the SSR data and the RAPD data were moderately correlated (r = 0.47). Genetic similarity coefficients were also relatively lower, which demonstrated complicated genetic background within each location. The high similarity values range revealed the ability of RAPD/EST-SSR markers to distinguish even among morphological similar phytophthora.

Wu, J. J.; Xu, P. F.; Liu, L. J.; Wang, J. S.; Lin, W. G.; Zhang, S. Z.; Wei, L.

237

DEVELOPING MOLECULAR GENETIC MAPS First molecular marker map: humans (Botstein et al., 1980)  

E-print Network

. #12;Molecular Mapping 2 ii. Recombinant inbred lines (RI) formed by single seed descent from each F2 of linkage disequilibrium, facilitating mapping. An F1 population from the cross of two inbred lines segregation due to genomic rearrangements. c. Ideally inbred lines--often not possible with outcrossed species

Bhattacharyya, Madan Kumar

238

Molecular Markers Predict Distant Metastases After Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Rectal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The outcomes of adjuvant chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer are nonuniform among patients with matching prognostic factors. We explored the role of molecular markers for predicting the outcome of adjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The study included 68 patients with stages II to III rectal adenocarcinoma who were treated with total mesorectal excision and adjuvant chemoradiation. Chemotherapy based on 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin was intravenously administered each month for 6-12 cycles. Radiation therapy consisted of 54 Gy delivered in 30 fractions. Immunostaining of surgical specimens for COX-2, EGFR, VEGF, thymidine synthase (TS), and Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) was performed. Results: The median follow-up was 65 months. Eight locoregional (11.8%) and 13 distant (19.1%) recurrences occurred. Five-year locoregional failure-free survival (LRFFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates for all patients were 83.9%, 78.7%, 66.7%, and 73.8%, respectively. LRFFS was not correlated with TNM stage, surgical margin, or any of the molecular markers. VEGF overexpression was significantly correlated with decreased DMFS (P=.045), while RKIP-positive results were correlated with increased DMFS (P=.025). In multivariate analyses, positive findings for COX-2 (COX-2+) and VEGF (VEGF+) and negative findings for RKIP (RKIP-) were independent prognostic factors for DMFS, DFS, and OS (P=.035, .014, and .007 for DMFS; .021, .010, and <.0001 for DFS; and .004, .012, and .001 for OS). The combination of both COX-2+ and VEGF+ (COX-2+/VEGF+) showed a strong correlation with decreased DFS (P=.007), and the combinations of RKIP+/COX-2- and RKIP+/VEGF- showed strong correlations with improved DFS compared with the rest of the patients (P=.001 and <.0001, respectively). Conclusions: Molecular markers can be valuable in predicting treatment outcome of adjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer patients.

Kim, Jun Won; Kim, Yong Bae [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jun Jeong [Department of Pathology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Pathology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koom, Woong Sub [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hoguen [Department of Pathology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Pathology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam-Kyu [Department of Surgery, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Surgery, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Joong Bae [Department of Medical Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ikjae; Cho, Jae Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Keum, Ki Chang, E-mail: kckeum@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-12-01

239

Mitochondrial Telomeres as Molecular Markers for Identification of the Opportunistic Yeast Pathogen Candida parapsilosis  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have demonstrated that a large number of organisms carry linear mitochondrial DNA molecules possessing specialized telomeric structures at their ends. Based on this specific structural feature of linear mitochondrial genomes, we have developed an approach for identification of the opportunistic yeast pathogen Candida parapsilosis. The strategy for identification of C. parapsilosis strains is based on PCR amplification of specific DNA sequences derived from the mitochondrial telomere region. This assay is complemented by immunodetection of a protein component of mitochondrial telomeres. The results demonstrate that mitochondrial telomeres represent specific molecular markers with potential applications in yeast diagnostics and taxonomy. PMID:11923346

Nosek, Jozef; Tomaska, L'ubomir; Rycovska, Adriana; Fukuhara, Hiroshi

2002-01-01

240

Towards high-throughput molecular detection of Plasmodium: new approaches and molecular markers  

PubMed Central

Background Several strategies are currently deployed in many countries in the tropics to strengthen malaria control toward malaria elimination. To measure the impact of any intervention, there is a need to detect malaria properly. Mostly, decisions still rely on microscopy diagnosis. But sensitive diagnosis tools enabling to deal with a large number of samples are needed. The molecular detection approach offers a much higher sensitivity, and the flexibility to be automated and upgraded. Methods Two new molecular methods were developed: dot18S, a Plasmodium-specific nested PCR based on the 18S rRNA gene followed by dot-blot detection of species by using species-specific probes and CYTB, a Plasmodium-specific nested PCR based on cytochrome b gene followed by species detection using SNP analysis. The results were compared to those obtained with microscopic examination and the "standard" 18S rRNA gene based nested PCR using species specific primers. 337 samples were diagnosed. Results Compared to the microscopy the three molecular methods were more sensitive, greatly increasing the estimated prevalence of Plasmodium infection, including P. malariae and P. ovale. A high rate of mixed infections was uncovered with about one third of the villagers infected with more than one malaria parasite species. Dot18S and CYTB sensitivity outranged the "standard" nested PCR method, CYTB being the most sensitive. As a consequence, compared to the "standard" nested PCR method for the detection of Plasmodium spp., the sensitivity of dot18S and CYTB was respectively 95.3% and 97.3%. Consistent detection of Plasmodium spp. by the three molecular methods was obtained for 83% of tested isolates. Contradictory results were mostly related to detection of Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale in mixed infections, due to an "all-or-none" detection effect at low-level parasitaemia. Conclusion A large reservoir of asymptomatic infections was uncovered using the molecular methods. Dot18S and CYTB, the new methods reported herein are highly sensitive, allow parasite DNA extraction as well as genus- and species-specific diagnosis of several hundreds of samples, and are amenable to high-throughput scaling up for larger sample sizes. Such methods provide novel information on malaria prevalence and epidemiology and are suited for active malaria detection. The usefulness of such sensitive malaria diagnosis tools, especially in low endemic areas where eradication plans are now on-going, is discussed in this paper. PMID:19402894

Steenkeste, Nicolas; Incardona, Sandra; Chy, Sophy; Duval, Linda; Ekala, Marie-Therese; Lim, Pharath; Hewitt, Sean; Sochantha, Tho; Socheat, Doung; Rogier, Christophe; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Fandeur, Thierry; Ariey, Frederic

2009-01-01

241

Molecular markers to predict clinical outcome and radiation induced toxicity in lung cancer  

PubMed Central

The elucidation of driver mutations involved in the molecular pathogenesis of cancer has led to a surge in the application of novel targeted therapeutics in lung cancer. Novel oncologic research continues to lead investigators towards targeting personalized tumor characteristics rather than applying targeted therapy to broad patient populations. Several driver genes, in particular epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ALK fusions, are the earliest to have made their way into clinical trials. The avant-garde role of genomic profiling has led to important clinical challenges when adapting current standard treatments to personalized oncologic care. This new frontier of medicine requires newer biomarkers for toxicity that will identify patients at risk, as well as, new molecular markers to predict and assess clinical outcomes. Thus far, several signature genes have been developed to predict outcome as well as genetic factors related to inflammation to predict toxicity. PMID:24688783

Zaorsky, Nicholas G.; Witek, Matthew; Lu, Bo

2014-01-01

242

Oligodendrocyte lineage genes (OLIG) as molecular markers for human glial brain tumors  

PubMed Central

The most common primary tumors of the human brain are thought to be of glial cell origin. However, glial cell neoplasms cannot be fully classified by cellular morphology or with conventional markers for astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, or their progenitors. Recent insights into central nervous system tumorigenesis suggest that novel molecular markers might be found among factors that have roles in glial development. Oligodendrocyte lineage genes (Olig1/2) encode basic helix–loop–helix transcription factors. In the rodent central nervous system, they are expressed exclusively in oligodendrocytes and oligodendrocyte progenitors, and Olig1 can promote formation of an chondroitin sulfate proteoglycon-positive glial progenitor. Here we show that human OLIG genes are expressed strongly in oligodendroglioma, contrasting absent or low expression in astrocytoma. Our data provide evidence that neoplastic cells of oligodendroglioma resemble oligodendrocytes or their progenitor cells and may derive from cells of this lineage. They further suggest the diagnostic potential of OLIG markers to augment identification of oligodendroglial tumors. PMID:11526205

Lu, Q. Richard; Park, John K.; Noll, Elizabeth; Chan, Jennifer A.; Alberta, John; Yuk, Dongin; Alzamora, M. Garcia; Louis, David N.; Stiles, Charles D.; Rowitch, David H.; Black, Peter M.

2001-01-01

243

Molecular characterization of Anthurium genotypes by using DNA fingerprinting and SPAR markers.  

PubMed

We characterized single primer amplification reaction (SPAR) molecular markers from 20 genotypes of Anthurium andraeanum Lind., including 3 from commercial varieties and 17 from 2 communities in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Twenty-four SPAR, consisting of 7 random amplified polymorphic DNA and 17 inter-simple sequence repeat markers were used to estimate the genetic diversity of 20 Anthurium accessions. The set of SPAR markers generated 288 bands and showed an average polymorphism percentage of 93.39%, ranging from 71.43 to 100%. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of the random amplified polymorphic DNA primers averaged 0.364 and ranged from 0.258 to 0.490. Primer OPF 06 showed the lowest PIC, while OPAM 14 was the highest. The average PIC of the inter-simple sequence repeat primers was 0.299, with values ranging from 0.196 to 0.401. Primer UBC 845 had the lowest PIC (0.196), while primer UCB 810 had the highest (0.401). By using the complement of Jaccard's similarity index and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering, 5 clusters were formed with a cophenetic correlation coefficient of 0.8093, indicating an acceptable clustering consistency. However, no genotype clustering patterns agreed with the morphological data. The Anthurium genotypes investigated in this study are a germplasm source for conservational research and may be used in improvement programs for this species. PMID:25062412

Souza Neto, J D; Soares, T C B; Motta, L B; Cabral, P D S; Silva, J A

2014-01-01

244

Molecular Markers Allow to Remove Introgressed Genetic Background: A Simulation Study  

PubMed Central

The maintenance of genetically differentiated populations can be important for several reasons (whether for wild species or domestic breeds of economic interest). When those populations are introgressed by foreign individuals, methods to eliminate the exogenous alleles can be implemented to recover the native genetic background. This study used computer simulations to explore the usefulness of several molecular based diagnostic approaches to recover of a native population after suffering an introgression event where some exogenous alleles were admixed for a few generations. To remove the exogenous alleles, different types of molecular markers were used in order to decide which of the available individuals contributed descendants to next generation and their number of offspring. Recovery was most efficient using diagnostic markers (i.e., with private alleles) and least efficient when using alleles present in both native and exogenous populations at different frequencies. The increased inbreeding was a side-effect of the management strategy. Both values (% of native alleles and inbreeding) were largely dependent on the amount of exogenous individuals entering the population and the number of generations of admixture that occurred prior to management. PMID:23152901

Amador, Carmen; Toro, Miguel Angel; Fernandez, Jesus

2012-01-01

245

Expression of Neuroendocrine Markers in Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background. Carcinomas of the breast with neuroendocrine features are incorporated in the World Health Organization classification since 2003 and include well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas/small cell carcinomas, and invasive breast carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation. Neuroendocrine differentiation is known to be more common in certain low-grade histologic special types and has been shown to mainly cluster to the molecular (intrinsic) luminal A subtype. Methods. We analyzed the frequency of neuroendocrine differentiation in different molecular subtypes of breast carcinomas of no histologic special type using immunohistochemical stains with specific neuroendocrine markers (chromogranin A and synaptophysin). Results. We found neuroendocrine differentiation in 20% of luminal B-like carcinomas using current WHO criteria (at least 50% of tumor cells positive for synaptophysin or chromogranin A). In contrast, no neuroendocrine differentiation was seen in luminal A-like, HER2 amplified and triple-negative carcinomas. Breast carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation presented with advanced stage disease and showed aggressive behavior. Conclusions. We conclude that neuroendocrine differentiation is more common than assumed in poorly differentiated luminal B-like carcinomas. Use of specific neuroendocrine markers is thus encouraged in this subtype to enhance detection of neuroendocrine differentiation and hence characterize the biological and therapeutic relevance of this finding in future studies. PMID:24701575

Wachter, David L.; Hartmann, Arndt; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Alexander; Bayer, Christian M.; Agaimy, Abbas

2014-01-01

246

Management of endocrine disease: clinicopathological classification and molecular markers of pituitary tumours for personalized therapeutic strategies.  

PubMed

Pituitary tumours, the most frequent intracranial tumour, are historically considered benign. However, various pieces of clinical evidence and recent advances in pathological and molecular analyses suggest the need to consider these tumours as more than an endocrinological disease, despite the low incidence of metastasis. Recently, we proposed a new prognostic clinicopathological classification of these pituitary tumours, according to the tumour size (micro, macro and giant), type (prolactin, GH, FSH/LH, ACTH and TSH) and grade (grade 1a, non-invasive; 1b, non-invasive and proliferative; 2a, invasive; 2b, invasive and proliferative and 3, metastatic). In addition to this classification, numerous molecular prognostic markers have been identified, allowing a better characterisation of tumour behaviour and prognosis. Moreover, clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated that pituitary tumours could be treated by some chemotherapeutic drugs or new targeted therapies. Our improved classification of these tumours should now allow the identification of prognosis markers and help the clinician to propose personalised therapies to selected patients presenting tumours with a high risk of recurrence. PMID:24431196

Raverot, Gerald; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Trouillas, Jacqueline

2014-04-01

247

Identification of Leaf Rust Resistance Genes in Selected Egyptian Wheat Cultivars by Molecular Markers  

PubMed Central

Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks., is a common and widespread disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Egypt. Host resistance is the most economical, effective, and ecologically sustainable method of controlling the disease. Molecular markers help to determine leaf rust resistance genes (Lr genes). The objective of this study was to identify Lr genes in fifteen wheat cultivars from Egypt. Ten genes, Lr13, Lr19, Lr24, Lr26, Lr34, Lr35 Lr36, Lr37, Lr39, and Lr46, were detected in fifteen wheat cultivars using various molecular markers. The most frequently occurring genes in fifteen Egyptian wheat cultivars were Lr13, Lr24, Lr34, and Lr36 identified in all the cultivars used, followed by Lr26 and Lr35 (93%), Lr39 (66%), Lr37 (53%), and Lr46 (26.6%) of the cultivars, and finally Lr19 was present in 33.3% of cultivars. It is concluded that there was a good variation in Lr genes carried by wheat cultivars commercially grown in Egypt. Therefore, strategies for deploying resistance genes to prolong effective disease resistance are suggested to control wheat leaf rust disease. PMID:24511291

Imbaby, I. A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Hassan, M. E. M.; Abd-El-Aziz, A. R. M.

2014-01-01

248

Transcriptome profiling and molecular marker discovery in red pepper, Capsicum annuum L. TF68.  

PubMed

Transcriptome from high throughput sequencing-by-synthesis is a good resource of molecular markers. In this study, we present utility of massively parallel sequencing by synthesis for profiling the transcriptome of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. TF68) using 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing. Through the generation of approximately 30.63 megabases (Mb) of expressed sequence tag (EST) data with the average length of 375 base pairs (bp), 9,818 contigs and 23,712 singletons were obtained by raw reads assembly. Using BLAST alignment against NCBI non-redundant and a UniProt protein database, 30% of the tentative consensus sequences were assigned to specific function annotation, while 24% returned alignments of unknown function, leaving up to 46% with no alignment. Functional classification using FunCat revealed that sequences with putative known function were distributed cross 18 categories. All unigenes have an approximately equal distribution on chromosomes by aligning with tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) pseudomolecules. Furthermore, 1,536 high quality single nucleotide discrepancies were discovered using the Bukang mature fruit cDNA collection (dbEST ID: 23667) as a reference. Moreover, 758 simple sequence repeat (SSR) motif loci were mined from 614 contigs, from which 572 primer sets were designed. The SSR motifs corresponded to di- and tri- nucleotide motifs (27.03 and 61.92%, respectively). These molecular markers may be of great value for application in linkage mapping and association mapping research. PMID:21706160

Lu, Fu-Hao; Cho, Myeong-Cheoul; Park, Yong-Jin

2012-03-01

249

Multigene assays and molecular markers in breast cancer: systematic review of health economic analyses.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and is associated with a significant clinical and economic burden. Multigene assays and molecular markers represent an opportunity to direct chemotherapy only to patients likely to have significant benefit. This systematic review examines published health economic analyses to assess the support for adjuvant therapy decision making. Literature searches of PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and congress databases were carried out to identify economic evaluations of multigene assays and molecular markers published between 2002 and 2012. After screening and data extraction, study quality was assessed using the Quality of Health Economic Studies instrument. The review identified 29 publications that reported evaluations of two assays: Oncotype DX(®) and MammaPrint. Studies of both tests provided evidence that their routine use was cost saving or cost-effective versus conventional approaches. Benefits were driven by optimal allocation of adjuvant chemotherapy and reduction in chemotherapy utilization. Findings were sensitive to variation in the frequency of chemotherapy prescription, chemotherapy costs, and patients' risk profiles. Evidence suggests that multigene assays are likely cost saving or cost-effective relative to current approaches to adjuvant therapy. They should benefit decision making in early-stage breast cancer in a variety of settings worldwide. PMID:23722312

Rouzier, Roman; Pronzato, Paolo; Chéreau, Elisabeth; Carlson, Josh; Hunt, Barnaby; Valentine, William J

2013-06-01

250

Evaluation of hydrogenated resin acids as molecular markers for tire-wear debris in urban environments.  

PubMed

To propose new molecular markers for tire-wear emissions, four dihydroresin acids, that is, 8-isopimaren-18-oic acid (I), 8-pimaren-18-oic acid (II), 13?(H)-abieten-18-oic acid (III), and 13?(H)-abiet-8-en-18-oic acid (IV), were identified and investigated for source specificities, distributions, and environmental stabilities. The absence of I-IV in natural sources and the linear correlations between dihydroresin acids with different skeletons in tires and in environmental samples demonstrated that I-IV are specific markers for synthetic rubbers. The ratio of III + IV to the sum of III + IV plus abietic acid showed the resin acids distribution between different environmental compartments receiving contributions from traffic and natural sources. The physicochemical properties and results of photolysis experiments suggested that I-IV can set lower limits for tire-wear contributions to environmental loads of particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with molecular weight ?202. By comparing III + IV concentrations or (III+IV)/pyrene or (III+IV)/benzo[a]pyrene ratios in tires and those in environmental matrices, the contributions of tire-wear emissions to PM, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene were estimated to be 0.68 ± 0.54%, 6.9 ± 4.8%, and 0.37 ± 0.18% in roadside PM and 0.83 ± 0.21%, 0.88 ± 0.52%, and 0.08 ± 0.06% in rooftop PM. PMID:22008013

Kumata, Hidetoshi; Mori, Mika; Takahashi, Sho; Takamiya, Shohei; Tsuzuki, Mikio; Uchida, Tatsuya; Fujiwara, Kitao

2011-12-01

251

Status of potential PfATP6 molecular markers for artemisinin resistance in Suriname  

PubMed Central

Background Polymorphisms within the PfATP6 gene have been indicated as potential molecular markers for artemisinin efficacy. Since 2004, the use of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) was introduced as first-line treatment of the uncomplicated malaria cases in Suriname. The aim of this research was to determine changes in Suriname in the status of the polymorphic markers in the PfATP6 gene before and after the adoption of the ACT-regimen, particularly of the S769N mutation, which was reported to be associated with in vitro Artemether resistance in the neighboring country French Guiana. Methods The PfATP6 gene from Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Suriname was investigated in 28 samples using PCR amplification and restriction enzyme analysis, to assess and determine the prevalence of potentially interesting single nucleotide polymorphisms. The polymorphisms [L263E; A623E; S769N], which may be associated with the artemisinin resistant phenotype were characterized in parasites from three endemic regions before and after the adoption of the ACT-regimen. In addition, the status of these molecular markers was compared in paired P. falciparum isolates from patients with recurring malaria after controlled ACT. Results All the investigated samples exhibit the wild-type genotype at all three positions; L263, A623, S769. Conclusion All investigated isolates before and after the adoption of the ACT-regimen and independent of endemic region harbored the wild-type genotype for the three investigated polymorphisms. The study revealed that decreased artemisinin susceptibility could occur independent from PfATP6 mutations, challenging the assumption that artemisinin resistance is associated with these mutations in the PfATP6 gene. PMID:22966810

2012-01-01

252

Variability and structure of natural populations of Hordelymus europaeus (L.) Jess. ex Harz and Leymus arenarius (L.) Hochst. as revealed by morphology and DNA markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven populations of Hordelymus europaeus and four populations of Leymus arenarius from Poland were subjected to examination of 36 morphological characters. This study showed that both species are relatively\\u000a uniform and that morphological variation of their populations represents a continuum. Of those, three populations of either\\u000a species were selected for analysis with molecular markersRAPDs and AFLPs. These populations

M. Mizianty; L. Frey; W. Bieniek; P. Boro?; M. Szklarczyk

2007-01-01

253

Fasciola hepatica: identification of molecular markers for resistant and susceptible Pseudosuccinea columella snail hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein electrophoresis, RAPD-PCR and nuclear rDNA ITS sequencing were performed to search for genetic differences between Pseudosuccinea columella snails susceptible and resistant to Fasciola hepatica infection. Of the 21 enzymatic loci analyzed in both populations, none of them exhibited neither within- or between-group variation. Such an absence of enzyme polymorphism support the hypothesis of selfing as the “prevalent” mating system

Alfredo Gutiérrez; Jean-Pierre Pointier; Jorge Fraga; Edouard Jobet; Sylvain Modat; R. T Pérez; Mary Yong; J Sanchez; Eric S Loker; André Théron

2003-01-01

254

The use of random amplified polymorphic DNA markers in wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation was made of the use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) as a genetic marker system in wheat. Reproducible amplification products were obtained from varietal, homozygous single chromosome recombinant line and wheat\\/alien addition line genomic DNA with selected primers and rigorously optimized reaction conditions. Factors influencing the RAPD patterns are DNA concentration, Mg2+ concentration, polymerase concentration and denaturing

K. M. Devos; M. D. Gale

1992-01-01

255

[Low genetic differentiation and close evolutionary connection between Anas platyrhynchos and Anas poecilorhyncha: data from RAPD-PCR analysis].  

PubMed

Using RAPD-PCR, we examined genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in two groups of river ducks: Anas platyrhynchos, A. poecilorhyncha, A. strepera and A. crecca, A. formosa, A. querquedula. Molecular taxon-specific markers were found for teals (A. crecca, A. formosa, A. querquedula) and gadwall (A. strepera). Each of the species examined was shown to exhibit high genetic diversity. The mean levels of intraspecific genetic polymorphism in the groups of mallards (P = 77%) and teals (P = 74.5%) were approximately equal whereas the mean interspecific genetic distances in teals were significantly higher than in mallards (D = 0.432 and D = 0.336, respectively). The levels of interspecific genetic differentiation in the species groups were also different. The genetic distances between the teal species and between gadwall and mallards were equal to 0.668-0.971 while the genetic distance between mallard A. platyrhynchos and spot-billed duck A. poecilorhyncha was 0.401, which slightly exceeds the intraspecific values for mallards (0.356-0.377). The RAPD patterns for this species pair showed high variability and a lack of fixed differences. This was adequately reflected on both intra- and interspecific differences and on phylogenetic constructions in which the morphological species did not form their own clusters but were intermixed. In contrast to mallards, the other species, which showed high genetic variability, were reliably separated in phenogenetic and phylogenetic reconstructions. The possible explanations of the low genetic differentiation of A. platyrhynchos and A. poecilorhyncha are discussed. PMID:14658340

Kulikova, I V; Chelomina, G N; Zhuravlev, Iu N

2003-10-01

256

Apportioning black carbon to sources using highly time-resolved ambient measurements of organic molecular markers in Pittsburgh  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present highly time-resolved measurements of organic molecular markers in downtown Pittsburgh, which are used to investigate sources contributing to atmospheric aerosols in the area. Two-hour average concentrations of condensed-phase and semivolatile organic species were measured using a Thermal Desorption Aerosol GC\\/MS (TAG). Concentrations for mobile source markers like hopanes had regular diurnal and day-of-week patterns. Pairing high time-resolved measurements

Andrew T. Lambe; Jennifer M. Logue; Nathan M. Kreisberg; Susanne V. Hering; David R. Worton; Allen H. Goldstein; Neil M. Donahue; Allen L. Robinson

2009-01-01

257

Molecular markers of anti-malarial drug resistance in Lahj Governorate, Yemen: baseline data and implications  

PubMed Central

Background This is an investigation of anti-malarial molecular markers coupled with a therapeutic efficacy test of chloroquine (CQ) against falciparum malaria in an area of unstable malaria in Lahj Governorate, Yemen. The study was aimed at assessment of therapeutic response to CQ and elucidation of baseline information on molecular markers for Plasmodium falciparum resistance against CQ and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP). Methods Between 2002 and 2003 the field test was conducted according to the standard WHO protocol to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of CQ in 124 patients with falciparum malaria in an endemic area in Lahj Governorate in Yemen. Blood samples collected during this study were analysed for P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene (pfcrt)-76 polymorphisms, mutation pfcrt-S163R and the antifolate resistance-associated mutations dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr)-C59R and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps)-K540E. Direct DNA sequencing of the pfcrt gene from three representative field samples was carried out after DNA amplification of the 13 exons of the pfcrt gene. Results Treatment failure was detected in 61% of the 122 cases that completed the 14-day follow-up. The prevalence of mutant pfcrt T76 was 98% in 112 amplified pre-treatment samples. The presence of pfcrt T76 was poorly predictive of in vivo CQ resistance (PPV = 61.8%, 95% CI = 52.7-70.9). The prevalence of dhfr Arg-59 mutation in 99 amplified samples was 5%, while the dhps Glu-540 was not detected in any of 119 amplified samples. Sequencing the pfcrt gene confirmed that Yemeni CQ resistant P. falciparum carry the old world (Asian and African) CQ resistant haplotype CVIETSESI at positions 72,73,74,75,76,220,271, 326 and 371. Conclusion This is the first study to report baseline information on the characteristics and implications of anti-malarial drug resistance markers in Yemen. It is also the first report of the haplotype associated with CQR P. falciparum parasites from Yemen. Mutant pfcrtT76 is highly prevalent but it is a poor predictor of treatment failure in the study population. The prevalence of mutation dhfrArg59 is suggestive of emerging resistance to SP, which is currently a component of the recommended combination treatment of falciparum malaria in Yemen. More studies on these markers are recommended for surveillance of resistance in the study area. PMID:21854642

2011-01-01

258

Y chromosome specific markers and the evolution of dioecy in the genus Silene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex determination in plants has been most thoroughly investigated in Silene latifolia, a dioecious species possessing heteromorphic sex chromosomes. We have identified several new Y chromosome linked RAPD markers and converted these to more reliable sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers by cloning the RAPD fragments and developing longer primers. Of the primer pairs for seven SCARs, five amplify a

Y. Hi Zhang; Veronica S. Stilio; Farah Rehman; Amy Avery; David Mulcahy; Rick Kesseli

1998-01-01

259

Phylogeography and molecular diversity analysis of Jatropha curcas L. and the dispersal route revealed by RAPD, AFLP and nrDNA-ITS analysis.  

PubMed

Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) has acquired a great importance as a renewable source of energy with a number of environmental benefits. Very few attempts were made to understand the extent of genetic diversity and its distribution. This study was aimed to study the diversity and deduce the phylogeography of Jatropha curcas L. which is said to be the most primitive species of the genus Jatropha. Here we studied the intraspecific genetic diversity of the species distributed in different parts of the globe. The study also focused to understand the molecular diversity at reported probable center of origin (Mexico), and to reveal the dispersal route to other regions based on random amplified polymorphic DNA, amplified fragment length polymorphism and nrDNA-ITS sequences data. The overall genetic diversity of J. curcas found in the present study was narrow. The highest genetic diversity was observed in the germplasm collected from Mexico and supports the earlier hypothesis based on morphological data and natural distribution, it is the center for origin of the species. Least genetic diversity found in the Indian germplasm and clustering results revealed that the species was introduced simultaneously by two distinct germplasm and subsequently distributed in different parts of India. The present molecular data further revealed that J. curcas might have spread from the center of the origin to Cape Verde, than to Spain, Portuguese to other neighboring countries and simultaneously to Africa. The molecular evidence supports the Burkill et al. (A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula, Governments of Malaysia and Singapore by the Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1966) view of Portuguese might have introduced the species to India. The clustering pattern suggests that the distribution was interfered by human activity. PMID:24469734

Sudheer Pamidimarri, D V N; Reddy, Muppala P

2014-05-01

260

Multi-marker Solid Tumor Panels Using Next-generation Sequencing to Direct Molecularly Targeted Therapies  

PubMed Central

In contemporary oncology practices there is an increasing emphasis on concurrent evaluation of multiple genomic alterations within the biological pathways driving tumorigenesis. At the foundation of this paradigm shift are several commercially available tumor panels using next-generation sequencing to develop a more complete molecular blueprint of the tumor. Ideally, these would be used to identify clinically actionable variants that can be matched with available molecularly targeted therapy, regardless of the tumor site or histology. Currently, there is little information available on the post-analytic processes unique to next-generation sequencing platforms used by the companies offering these tests. Additionally, evidence of clinical validity showing an association between the genetic markers curated in these tests with treatment response to approved molecularly targeted therapies is lacking across all solid-tumor types. To date, there is no published data of improved outcomes when using the commercially available tests to guide treatment decisions. The uniqueness of these tests from other genomic applications used to guide clinical treatment decisions lie in the sequencing platforms used to generate large amounts of genomic data, which have their own related issues regarding analytic and clinical validity, necessary precursors to the evaluation of clinical utility. The generation and interpretation of these data will require new evidentiary standards for establishing not only clinical utility, but also analytical and clinical validity for this emerging paradigm in oncology practice. PMID:24904755

Marrone, Michael; Filipski, Kelly K; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Schully, Sheri D; Freedman, Andrew N

2014-01-01

261

Improving the reliability of molecular sexing of birds using a W-specific marker.  

PubMed

Molecular techniques for identifying sex of birds utilize length differences between CHD-Z and CHD-W introns, but in some cases these methods can lead to sexing errors. Here we show that an additional W-specific primer can be used in conjunction with a pre-existing sexing primer pair to dramatically improve the reliability of molecular sexing methods. We illustrate the approach with American coots (Fulica americana), a species with CHD-Z polymorphism that could not be accurately sexed using traditional methods. We developed a reverse primer GWR2 designed to sit within the intron of the W chromosome and amplify a distinctively small DNA fragment that serves as a W-specific marker. Analysis of known-sex individuals indicates that this W-specific primer provides an efficient and reliable protocol to identify the sex of F. americana. The development of such sex-specific primers will likely increase the reliability of molecular sexing methods in other birds as well. Comparisons between CHD-Z alleles of coots and common moorhens (Gallinula chloropus) revealed that CHD-Z polymorphism evolved separately in these two closely related species. We discuss the implications of repeated evolution of CHD-Z polymorphisms among birds. PMID:21586012

Shizuka, Daizaburo; Lyon, Bruce E

2008-11-01

262

IL-32 is a molecular marker of a host defense network in human tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is a leading cause of infectious disease–related death worldwide; however, only 10% of people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis develop disease. Factors that contribute to protection could prove to be promising targets for M. tuberculosis therapies. Analysis of peripheral blood gene expression profiles of active tuberculosis patients has identified correlates of risk for disease or pathogenesis. We sought to identify potential human candidate markers of host defense by studying gene expression profiles of macrophages, cells that, upon infection by M. tuberculosis, can mount an antimicrobial response. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis revealed an association between the cytokine interleukin-32 (IL-32) and the vitamin D antimicrobial pathway in a network of interferon-?– and IL-15–induced “defense response” genes. IL-32 induced the vitamin D–dependent antimicrobial peptides cathelicidin and DEFB4 and to generate antimicrobial activity in vitro, dependent on the presence of adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D. In addition, the IL-15–induced defense response macrophage gene network was integrated with ranked pairwise comparisons of gene expression from five different clinical data sets of latent compared with active tuberculosis or healthy controls and a coexpression network derived from gene expression in patients with tuberculosis undergoing chemotherapy. Together, these analyses identified eight common genes, including IL-32, as molecular markers of latent tuberculosis and the IL-15–induced gene network. As maintaining M. tuberculosis in a latent state and preventing transition to active disease may represent a form of host resistance, these results identify IL-32 as one functional marker and potential correlate of protection against active tuberculosis. PMID:25143364

Montoya, Dennis; Inkeles, Megan S.; Liu, Phillip T.; Realegeno, Susan; Teles, Rosane M. B.; Vaidya, Poorva; Munoz, Marcos A.; Schenk, Mirjam; Swindell, William R.; Chun, Rene; Zavala, Kathryn; Hewison, Martin; Adams, John S.; Horvath, Steve; Pellegrini, Matteo; Bloom, Barry R.; Modlin, Robert L.

2014-01-01

263

Identification and characterization of high-molecular-weight glutenin genes in Polish triticale cultivars by PCR-based DNA markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular markers were used to identify the allele\\/gene composition of complex lociGlu-A1 andGlu-B1 of high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits in triticale cultivars. Forty-six Polish cultivars of both winter and spring\\u000a triticale were analysed with 7 PCR-based markers. Amplified DNA fragments of HMW gluteninGlu-1 genes were separated by agarose slab-gel electrophoresis. Differences between all 3 alleles at the locusGlu-A1 [Glu-A1a (encoding Ax1),1b

Boles?aw P. Salmanowicz; Monika Dylewicz

2007-01-01

264

Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity. Final report, September 15, 1988--September 14, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Several molecular and cellular markers of genotoxicity were adapted for measurement in the Medaka (Oryzias latipes), and were used to describe the effects of treatment of the organism with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). NO{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts were detected, and a slight statistically significant, increase in DNA strand breaks was observed. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to high levels of DEN induced alkyltransferase activity which enzymatically removes any O{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts but does not result in strand breaks or hypomethylation of the DNA such as might be expected from excision repair of chemically modified DNA. Following a five week continuous DEN exposure with 100 percent renewal of DEN-water every third day, the F values (DNA double strandedness) increased considerably and to similar extent in fish exposed to 25, 50, and 100 ppM DEN. This has been observed also in medaka exposed to BaP.

Shugart, L.R.; D`Surney, S.J.; Gettys-Hull, C.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.

1991-12-15

265

A multi-marker molecular signature approach for treatment-specific subgroup identification with survival outcomes.  

PubMed

Delivering on the promise of personalized medicine has become a focus of the pharmaceutical industry as the era of the blockbuster drug is fading. Central to realizing this promise is the need for improved analytical strategies for effectively integrating information across various biological assays (for example, copy number variation and targeted protein expression) toward identification of a treatment-specific subgroup-identifying the right patients. We propose a novel combination of elastic net followed by a maximal ?(2) and semiparametric bootstrap. The combined approaches are presented in a two-stage strategy that estimates patient-specific multi-marker molecular signatures (MMMS) to identify and directly test for a biomarker-driven subgroup with enhanced treatment effect. This flexible strategy provides for incorporation of business-specific needs, such as confining the search space to a subgroup size that is commercially viable, ultimately resulting in actionable information for use in empirically based decision making. PMID:24637498

Li, L; Guennel, T; Marshall, S; Cheung, L W-K

2014-10-01

266

Identification of the sources of primary organic aerosols at urban schools: a molecular marker approach.  

PubMed

Children are particularly susceptible to air pollution and schools are examples of urban microenvironments that can account for a large portion of children's exposure to airborne particles. Thus this paper aimed to determine the sources of primary airborne particles that children are exposed to at school by analyzing selected organic molecular markers at 11 urban schools in Brisbane, Australia. Positive matrix factorization analysis identified four sources at the schools: vehicle emissions, biomass burning, meat cooking and plant wax emissions accounting for 45%, 29%, 16% and 7%, of the organic carbon respectively. Biomass burning peaked in winter due to prescribed burning of bushland around Brisbane. Overall, the results indicated that both local (traffic) and regional (biomass burning) sources of primary organic aerosols influence the levels of ambient particles that children are exposed at the schools. These results have implications for potential control strategies for mitigating exposure at schools. PMID:24842381

Crilley, Leigh R; Qadir, Raeed M; Ayoko, Godwin A; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Orasche, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf; Morawska, Lidia

2014-08-01

267

Molecular marker analysis as a guide to the sources of fine organic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

The molecular composition of fine particulate (D{sub p} {ge} 2 {mu}m) organic aerosol emissions from the most important sources in the Los Angeles area has been determined. Likewise, ambient concentration patterns for more than 80 single organic compounds have been measured at four urban sites (West Los Angeles, Downtown Los Angeles, Pasadena, and Rubidoux) and at one remote offshore site (San Nicolas Island). It has been found that cholesterol serves as a marker compound for emissions from charbroilers and other meat cooking operations. Vehicular exhaust being emitted from diesel and gasoline powered engines can be traced in the Los Angeles atmosphere using fossil petroleum marker compounds such as steranes and pentacyclic triterpanes (e.g., hopanes). Biogenic fine particle emission sources such as plant fragments abraded from leaf surfaces by wind and weather can be traced in the urban atmosphere. Using distinct and specific source organic tracers or assemblages of organic compounds characteristic for the sources considered it is possible to estimate the influence of different source types at any urban site where atmospheric data are available.

Rogge, W.F.; Cass, G.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Hildemann, L.M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Mazurek, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Simoneit, B.R.T. [College of Oceanography, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States) Environmental Geochemistry Group

1992-07-01

268

Identification and authentication of Rosa species through development of species-specific SCAR marker(s).  

PubMed

Roses (Rosa indica) belong to one of the most crucial groups of plants in the floriculture industry. Rosa species have special fragrances of interest to the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. The genetic diversity of plants based on morphological characteristics is difficult to measure under natural conditions due to the influence of environmental factors, which is why a reliable fingerprinting method was developed to overcome this problem. The development of molecular markers will enable the identification of Rosa species. In the present study, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was done on four Rosa species, Rosa gruss-an-teplitz (Surkha), Rosa bourboniana, Rosa centifolia, and Rosa damascena. A polymorphic RAPD fragment of 391 bp was detected in R. bourboniana, which was cloned, purified, sequenced, and used to design a pair of species-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers (forward and reverse). These SCAR primers were used to amplify the specific regions of the rose genome. These PCR amplifications with specific primers are less sensitive to reaction conditions, and due to their high reproducibility, these species-specific SCAR primers can be used for marker-assisted selection and identification of Rosa species. PMID:24938705

Bashir, K M I; Awan, F S; Khan, I A; Khan, A I; Usman, M

2014-01-01

269

Altered Expression of Retinal Molecular Markers in the Canine RPE65 Model of Leber Congenital Amaurosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a group of childhood-onset retinal diseases characterized by severe visual impairment or blindness. One form is caused by mutations in the RPE65 gene, which encodes the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) isomerase. In this study, the retinal structure and expression of molecular markers for different retinal cell types were characterized, and differences between control and RPE65 mutant dogs during the temporal evolution of the disease were analyzed. Methods. Retinas from normal and mutant dogs of different ages were examined by immunofluorescence with a panel of 16 different antibodies. Results. Cones and rods were preserved in the mutant retinas, and the number of cones was normal. However, there was altered expression of cone arrestin and delocalization of rod opsin. The ON bipolar cells showed sprouting of the dendritic arbors toward the outer nuclear layer (ONL) and retraction of their axons in the inner nuclear layer (INL). A decreased expression of GABA, and an increased expression of intermediate filament glial markers was also found in the mutant retinas. These changes were more evident in the adult than the young mutant retinas. Conclusions. The structure of the retina is well preserved in the mutant retina, but several molecular changes take place in photoreceptors and in bipolar and amacrine cells. Some of these changes are structural, whereas others reflect a change in localization of the examined proteins. This study provides new information that can be applied to the interpretation of outcomes of retinal gene therapy in animal models and humans. PMID:20671290

Hernandez, Maria; Pearce-Kelling, Susan E.; Rodriguez, F. David; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Vecino, Elena

2010-01-01

270

A population genetics study of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia based on random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction and amplified fragment lenght polymorphism markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic variation and population structure of three populations of Anopheles darlingi from Colombia were studied using random amplified polymorphic markers (RAPDs) and amplified fragment length polymor- phism markers (AFLPs). Six RAPD primers produced 46 polymorphic fragments, while two AFLP primer com- binations produced 197 polymorphic fragments from 71 DNA samples. Both of the evaluated genetic markers showed the presence

Ranulfo González; Richard Wilkerson; Marco Fidel Suárez; Felipe García; Gerardo Gallego; Heiber Cárdenas; Carmen Elisa Posso; Myriam Cristina Duque

2007-01-01

271

Inheritance and RAPD tagging of multiple genes for resistance to net blotch in barley.  

PubMed

A doubled haploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) population that was created from a cross between cultivars 'Léger' and 'CI 9831' was characterized by RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers for resistance to isolate WRS857 of Pyrenophora teres Drechs. f. sp. maculata Smedeg., the causal agent of the spot form of net blotch. Resistance, which initially appeared to be conferred by a single gene from the approximate 1:1 (resistant : susceptible) segregation ratio of the doubled-haploid (DH) progeny, was found to be associated with three different genomic regions by RAPD analysis. Of 500 RAPD random primers that were screened against the parents, 195 revealed polymorphic bands, seven showed an association to the resistance in bulks, and these seven markers were mapped to three unlinked genomic regions. Two of these regions, one of which was mapped to chromosome 2, have major resistance genes. The third region has some homology to the chromosome 2 region. This study demonstrates the simultaneous location of markers for more than one gene governing a trait by using RAPD and bulked segregant analysis (BSA). PMID:10791809

Molnar, S J; James, L E; Kasha, K J

2000-04-01

272

Isolation of molecular markers for salt stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Characterization of many osmotic stress-induced genes has greatly contributed to the understanding of the physiological responses of plant cells to osmotic stress at the molecular level. In this study we constructed a subtraction library and generated 15 salt stress-inducible ESTs from this library to use as molecular markers that reflect the cellular responses to salt stress responses in Arabidopsis. The sequence analysis showed that 5 salt stress-inducible ESTs were identical to previously identified genes in Arabidopsis, 6 cDNAs were homologous to known genes found in plants as well as yeast, and 4 cDNAs were new genes. To confirm that expression of these clones are induced by salt stress, we carried out Northern blot analysis. When we examined for 15 cDNA clones, they were indeed induced by NaCl treatment. The induction level was variable among these genes ranging from approximately 2-fold to more than 50-fold. Also, Northern blot analysis revealed that these genes can be divided into three different induction patterns: early induction, late induction, and continuous induction. PMID:9339905

Pih, K T; Jang, H J; Kang, S G; Piao, H L; Hwang, I

1997-08-31

273

Morphological and molecular evidence for hybridization and introgression in a willow (Salix) hybrid zone.  

PubMed

Hybrid zones provide biologists with the opportunity to examine genetic and ecological interactions between differentiated populations. Accurate identification of hybrid genealogies is considered a necessary prerequisite to understanding observed patterns of hybridization-related phenomena. We analysed molecular and morphological data from individuals in a hybrid zone between two species of willows (Salix sericea Marshall and S. eriocephala Michaux) and report the use of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), chloroplast DNA (cpDNA), and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) markers, as well as vegetative morphology and foliar chemistry data to identify individuals in terms of hybrid genealogy and to infer the direction and extent of backcrossing and introgression within the hybrid zone. A novel version of a maximum likelihood estimate approach (developed for this study) was used to calculate hybrid index scores from RAPD marker data; this method produced results similar to those obtained using traditional arithmetic methods. Distribution of rDNA, cpDNA, and chemistry data were examined within the graphical context of RAPD-based hybrid index score histograms and principal component analyses (PCA) on RAPD and morphology data. Seven of the 21 plants classified as S. eriocephala in the field were possible introgressants. Another plant presented an unequivocal example of backcrossed S. sericea chemistry and RAPD markers. Inter- and intraspecific chloroplast diversity found within the hybrid zone suggests both historic introgression (perhaps in a glacial refugium), and contemporary hybridization. Patterns of inheritance and expression within the hybrid zone suggest that morphological characters are often not expressed in a simple additive fashion, and problems associated with both morphological and molecular data are considered. PMID:10652072

Hardig, T M; Brunsfeld, S J; Fritz, R S; Morgan, M; Orians, C M

2000-01-01

274

USING CARBOHYDRATES AS MOLECULAR MARKERS TO DETERMINE THE CONTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURAL SOIL TO AMBIENT FINE AND COURSE PM  

EPA Science Inventory

Project research optimized the quantification technique for carbohydrates that also allows quantification of other non-polar molecular markers based on using an isotopically labeled internal standard (D-glucose-1,2,3,4,5,6,6-d7) to monitor extraction efficiency, extraction usi...

275

Use of 16S rRNA and rpoB Genes as Molecular Markers for Microbial Ecology Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several characteristics of the 16S rRNA gene, such as its essential function, ubiquity, and evolutionary properties, have allowed it to become the most commonly used molecular marker in microbial ecology. However, one fact that has been overlooked is that multiple copies of this gene are often present in a given bacterium. These intragenomic copies can differ in sequence, leading to

Rebecca J. Case; Yan Boucher; Ingela Dahllof; Carola Holmstrom; W. Ford Doolittle; Staffan Kjelleberg

2007-01-01

276

Transmission of the apomictic mode of reproduction in Pennisetum : co-inheritance of the trait and molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apomixis, asexual reproduction through seed, is an obligate mode of reproduction in several species from the genus Pennisetum. Transfer of apomixis to sexual, cultivated pearl millet (P. glaucum) from a wild species P. squamulatum has resulted in an obligate apomictic backcross line with a low, but unknown number, of chromosomes from the wild species. Molecular markers (restriction fragment length polymorphisms

P. Ozias-Akins; E. L. Lubbers; W. W. Hanna; J. W. McNay

1993-01-01

277

Identification of Genetic Factors Contributing to Heterosis in a Hybrid From Two Elite Maize Inbred Lines Using Molecular Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of molecular markers to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting agriculturally important traits has become a key approach in plant genetics-both for understanding the genetic basis of these traits and to help design novel plant improvement programs. In the study reported here, we mapped QTLs (and evaluated their phenotypic effects) associated with seven major traits (including grain yield)

Charles W. Stuber; Stephen E. Lincoln; David W. Wolff; Tim Helentjarisn; Eric S. Lander

278

Congruent Climate?Related Genecological Responses from Molecular Markers and Quantitative Traits for Western White Pine (Pinus monticola)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of molecular and quantitative genetic data demonstrate the existence of congruent climate?related patterns in western white pine (Pinus monticola). Two independent studies allowed comparisons of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers with quantitative variation in adaptive traits. Principal component analyses were conducted on seedling traits in common gardens collected from 58 sites; principal coordinate analyses were conducted on AFLP

2009-01-01

279

Assessing the germplasm of Laminaria (phaeophyceae) with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eighteen gametophytes including L. japonica, L. ochotensis and L. longissima, were verified with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Eighteen ten-base primers were chosen from 100 primers selected for final amplification test. Among the total of 205 bands amplified, 181 (88.3%) were polymorphic. The genetic distance among different strains ranged from 0.072 to 0.391. The dendrogram constructed by unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic (UPGMA) method showed that the female and male gametophytes of the same cell lines could be grouped in pairs respectively. It indicated that RAPD analysis could be used not only to distinguish different strains of Laminaria, but also to distinguish male and female gametophyte within the same cell lines. There is ambiguous systematic relationship if judged merely by the present data. It seems that the use of RAPD marker is limited to elucidation of the phylogenetic relationship among the species of Laminaria.

He, Yingjun; Zou, Yuping; Wang, Xiaodong; Zheng, Zhiguo; Zhang, Daming; Duan, Delin

2003-06-01

280

The development of 7E chromosome-specific molecular markers for Thinopyrum elongatum based on SLAF-seq technology.  

PubMed

Thinopyrum elongatum is an important relative of wheat, it is favored by many researchers for the disease resistant genes that exist in its E genome. Some studies have showed that the 7E chromosome of Th. elongatum contains resistance genes related to Fusarium head blight and wheat rust. Therefore, developing 7E chromosome-specific molecular markers linked to resistance genes will provide an important tool for exploring and using the resistant genes of Th. elongatum. In addition, it would greatly contribute in the effort to cultivate disease-resistant wheat varieties. Featured in high throughput, high-accuracy and low-cost, SLAF-seq technology has been widely used in molecular breeding, system evolution, and germplasm resource detection. Based on SLAF-seq, 518 specific fragments on the 7E chromosome of Th. elongatum were successfully amplified. A total of 135 primers were designed according to 135 randomly selected fragments, and 89 specific molecular markers of Th. elongatum were developed, with efficiencies up to 65.9%. These markers were all detected in a variety of materials, and they are all proved to be specific and stable. These markers can be used not only for detecting the 7E chromosome of Th. elongatum but also for providing an important theoretical and practical basis for wheat breeding by marker-assisted selection (MAS). This paper reports the first application of SLAF-seq technology with a high success rate in developing specific molecular markers for Th. elongatum, providing a strong case for the application of this new technology. PMID:23762296

Chen, Shiqiang; Huang, Zefeng; Dai, Yi; Qin, Shuwen; Gao, Yingying; Zhang, Lulu; Gao, Yong; Chen, Jianmin

2013-01-01

281

Genotoxic effect of cadmium in okra seedlings: comparative investigation with population parameters and molecular markers.  

PubMed

Plants are considered as good bioindicators because of their significant role in food chain transfer. They are also easy to grow, adaptable to environmental stresses and can be used for assaying a range of environmental conditions in different habitats. Thus, many plant species have been used as bioindicators. In order to evaluate the genotoxic effect of cadmium, okra (Abelmoschus esculontus L.) seedlings were treated with different concentrations (30, 60, 120 mg I(-1)) of cadmium and investigated for their population parameters such as inhibition of root growth; total soluble protein content, dry weight and also the impact of metal on the genetic material by RAPD analysis. Root growth and total soluble protein content in okra seedlings were reduced with increased Cd concentrations. RAPD analysis indicated formation of new bands mostly at 60 and 120 mg I(-1) Cd treatments. Altered DNA band patterns and population parameters after Cd treatments suggest that okra could be used as an indicator to reveal the effects of genotoxic agents. PMID:24555326

Aydin, Semra Soydam; Basaran, Esin; Cansaran-Duman, Demet; Aras, Sümer

2013-11-01

282

Molecular analysis of East Anatolian traditional plum and cherry accessions using SSR markers.  

PubMed

We conducted SSR analyses of 59 accessions, including 29 traditional plum (Prunus domestica), 24 sweet cherry (Prunus avium), and 1 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) selected from East Anatolian gene sources and 3 plum and 2 cherry reference accessions for molecular characterization and investigation of genetic relationships. Eight SSR loci [1 developed from the apricot (UDAp-404), 4 from the peach (UDP96-010, UDP96-001, UDP96-019, Pchgms1) and 3 from the cherry (UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31) genome] for plum accessions and 9 SSR loci [5 developed from the cherry (PS12A02, UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31, UCD-CH21), 3 from the peach (Pchgms1, UDP96-001, UDP96-005) and 1 from the plum (CPSCT010) genome] for cherry accessions were used for genetic identification. A total of 66 and 65 alleles were obtained in the genetic analyses of 31 plum and 28 cherry accessions, respectively. The number of alleles revealed by SSR analysis ranged from 4 to 14 alleles per locus, with a mean value of 8.25 in plum accessions, and from 5 to 10 alleles per locus with a mean value of 7.2 in cherry accessions. Only one case of synonym was identified among the cherry accessions, while no case of synonym was observed among the plum accessions. Genomic SSR markers used in discrimination of plum and cherry accessions showed high cross-species transferability in the Prunus genus. Because of their appreciable polymorphism and cross species transferability, the SSR markers that we evaluated in this study will be useful for studies involving fingerprinting of cherry and plum cultivars. PMID:24301792

Öz, M H; Vurgun, H; Bakir, M; Büyük, ?; Yüksel, C; Ünlü, H M; Çukadar, K; Karado?an, B; Köse, Ö; Ergül, A

2013-01-01

283

Genetic rearrangements of six wheat-agropyron cristatum 6P addition lines revealed by molecular markers.  

PubMed

Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n?=?4x?=?28, PPPP) not only is cultivated as pasture fodder but also could provide many desirable genes for wheat improvement. It is critical to obtain common wheat-A. cristatum alien disomic addition lines to locate the desired genes on the P genome chromosomes. Comparative analysis of the homoeologous relationships between the P genome chromosome and wheat genome chromosomes is a key step in transferring different desirable genes into common wheat and producing the desired alien translocation line while compensating for the loss of wheat chromatin. In this study, six common wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition lines were produced and analyzed by phenotypic examination, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), SSR markers from the ABD genomes and STS markers from the P genome. Comparative maps, six in total, were generated and demonstrated that all six addition lines belonged to homoeologous group 6. However, chromosome 6P had undergone obvious rearrangements in different addition lines compared with the wheat chromosome, indicating that to obtain a genetic compensating alien translocation line, one should recombine alien chromosomal regions with homoeologous wheat chromosomes. Indeed, these addition lines were classified into four types based on the comparative mapping: 6PI, 6PII, 6PIII, and 6PIV. The different types of chromosome 6P possessed different desirable genes. For example, the 6PI type, containing three addition lines, carried genes conferring high numbers of kernels per spike and resistance to powdery mildew, important traits for wheat improvement. These results may prove valuable for promoting the development of conventional chromosome engineering techniques toward molecular chromosome engineering. PMID:24595330

Han, Haiming; Bai, Li; Su, Junji; Zhang, Jinpeng; Song, Liqiang; Gao, Ainong; Yang, Xinming; Li, Xiuquan; Liu, Weihua; Li, Lihui

2014-01-01

284

Genetic Rearrangements of Six Wheat-Agropyron cristatum 6P Addition Lines Revealed by Molecular Markers  

PubMed Central

Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n?=?4x?=?28, PPPP) not only is cultivated as pasture fodder but also could provide many desirable genes for wheat improvement. It is critical to obtain common wheat–A. cristatum alien disomic addition lines to locate the desired genes on the P genome chromosomes. Comparative analysis of the homoeologous relationships between the P genome chromosome and wheat genome chromosomes is a key step in transferring different desirable genes into common wheat and producing the desired alien translocation line while compensating for the loss of wheat chromatin. In this study, six common wheat–A. cristatum disomic addition lines were produced and analyzed by phenotypic examination, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), SSR markers from the ABD genomes and STS markers from the P genome. Comparative maps, six in total, were generated and demonstrated that all six addition lines belonged to homoeologous group 6. However, chromosome 6P had undergone obvious rearrangements in different addition lines compared with the wheat chromosome, indicating that to obtain a genetic compensating alien translocation line, one should recombine alien chromosomal regions with homoeologous wheat chromosomes. Indeed, these addition lines were classified into four types based on the comparative mapping: 6PI, 6PII, 6PIII, and 6PIV. The different types of chromosome 6P possessed different desirable genes. For example, the 6PI type, containing three addition lines, carried genes conferring high numbers of kernels per spike and resistance to powdery mildew, important traits for wheat improvement. These results may prove valuable for promoting the development of conventional chromosome engineering techniques toward molecular chromosome engineering. PMID:24595330

Su, Junji; Zhang, Jinpeng; Song, Liqiang; Gao, Ainong; Yang, Xinming; Li, Xiuquan; Liu, Weihua; Li, Lihui

2014-01-01

285

Development of Specific Sequence-Characterized Amplified Region Markers for Detecting Histoplasma capsulatum in Clinical and Environmental Samples  

PubMed Central

Sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers, generated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, were developed to detect Histoplasma capsulatum selectively in clinical and environmental samples. A 1,200-bp RAPD-PCR-specific band produced with the 1281-1283 primers was cloned, sequenced, and used to design two SCAR markers, 1281-1283220 and 1281-1283230. The specificity of these markers was confirmed by Southern hybridization. To evaluate the relevance of the SCAR markers for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis, another molecular marker (M antigen probe) was used for comparison. To validate 1281-1283220 and 1281-1283230 as new tools for the identification of H. capsulatum, the specificity and sensitivity of these markers were assessed for the detection of the pathogen in 36 clinical (17 humans, as well as 9 experimentally and 10 naturally infected nonhuman mammals) and 20 environmental (10 contaminated soil and 10 guano) samples. Although the two SCAR markers and the M antigen probe identified H. capsulatum isolates from different geographic origins in America, the 1281-1283220 SCAR marker was the most specific and detected the pathogen in all samples tested. In contrast, the 1281-1283230 SCAR marker and the M antigen probe also amplified DNA from Aspergillus niger and Cryptococcus neoformans, respectively. Both SCAR markers detected as little as 0.001 ng of H. capsulatum DNA, while the M antigen probe detected 0.5 ng of fungal DNA. The SCAR markers revealed the fungal presence better than the M antigen probe in contaminated soil and guano samples. Based on our results, the 1281-1283220 marker can be used to detect and identify H. capsulatum in samples from different sources. PMID:22189121

Frías De León, María Guadalupe; Arenas López, Gabina; Taylor, Maria Lucia; Acosta Altamirano, Gustavo

2012-01-01

286

RAPD of controlled crosses and clones from the field suggests that hybrids are rare in the Salix alba-Salix fragilis complex.  

PubMed

The polyploid Salix alba-Salix fragilis hybrid complex is rather difficult to study when using only morphological characters. Most of the features have a low diagnostic value for unambiguously identifying the hybrids, introgression patterns and population structures, though morphological traits have proved to be useful in making a hybrid index. Morphology and molecular variation from RAPDs were investigated in several case studies on willows from Belgium. A thorough screening of full-sib progenies of interspecific controlled crosses was made to select homologous amplification products. The selected amplified products proved to be useful in a principal coordinate analysis for the estimation of variability of hybrid progenies. On the basis of genetic similarities and ordination analysis, a method for the identification of clones in the field was established using presumed pure species and presumed introgressants. The chosen reference clones were checked against additional European samples of putative pure species to ensure the reliability of the method beyond a regional scale. The RAPDs suggested that both species have kept their gene pools well separated and that hybridization actually does not seem to be a dominating process. The observation that molecular markers do not always follow the morphological traits or allozyme data is discussed. PMID:10849080

Triest, L; De Greef, B; De Bondt, R; Van Slycken, J

2000-05-01

287

A Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Marker Specific for the Bacillus cereus Group Is Diagnostic for Bacillus anthracis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming to develop a DNA marker specific for Bacillus anthracis and able to discriminate this species from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides, we applied the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting technique to a collection of 101 strains of the genus Bacillus, including 61 strains of the B. cereus group. An 838-bp RAPD marker (SG-850) specific for B.

DANIELE DAFFONCHIO; SARA BORIN; GIUSEPPE FROVA; ROMINA GALLO; ELENA MORI; RENATO FANI; CLAUDIA SORLINI

1999-01-01

288

Genetic Relationships among Orobanche Species as Revealed by RAPD Analysis  

PubMed Central

RAPD markers were used to study variation among 20 taxa in the genus Orobanche: O. alba, O. amethystea, O. arenaria, O. ballotae, O. cernua, O. clausonis, O. cumana, O. crenata, O. densiflora, O. foetida, O. foetida var. broteri, O. gracilis, O. haenseleri, O. hederae, O. latisquama, O. mutelii, O. nana, O. ramosa, O. rapum?genistae and O. santolinae. A total of 202 amplification products generated with five arbitrary RAPD primers was obtained and species?specific markers were identified. The estimated Jaccard’s differences between the species varied between 0 and 0·864. The pattern of interspecific variation obtained is in general agreement with previous taxonomic studies based on morphology, and the partition into two different sections (Trionychon and Orobanche) is generally clear. However, the position in the dendrogram of O. clausonis did not fit this classification since it clustered with members of section Trionychon. Within this section, O. arenaria was relatively isolated from the other members of the section: O. mutelii, O. nana and O. ramosa. Within section Orobanche, all O. ramosa populations showed a similar amplification pattern, whereas differences among O. crenata populations growing on different hosts were found. Orobanche foetida and O. densiflora clustered together, supporting the morphological and cytological similarities and the host preferences of these species. PMID:12714362

ROMÁN, B.; ALFARO, C.; TORRES, A. M.; MORENO, M. T.; SATOVIC, Z.; PUJADAS, A.; RUBIALES, D.

2003-01-01

289

Development of a novel and efficient strategy for practical identification of Pyrus spp (Rosaceae) cultivars using RAPD fingerprints.  

PubMed

Accurate and reliable cultivar identification of crop species is essential to guarantee plant material identity for purposes of registration, cultivar protection and production. To facilitate identification of plant cultivars, we developed a novel strategy for efficient recording of DNA molecular fingerprints in genotyped plant individuals. These fingerprints can be used as efficient referential information for quick plant identification. We made a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker analysis of 68 pear cultivars. All pear genotypes could be distinguished by a combination of eight 11-mer primers. The efficiency of the method was further verified by correct identification of four cultivars randomly chosen from the initial 68. The advantages of this identification include use of fewer primers and ease of cultivar separation by the corresponding primers marked on the cultivar identification diagram. The cultivar identification diagram can efficiently serve for pear cultivar identification by readily providing the information needed to separate cultivars. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most efficient strategy for identification of plant varieties using DNA markers; it could be employed for the development of the pear industry and for the utilization of DNA markers to identify other plant species. PMID:21644210

Lin, J; Wang, X C; Chang, Y H; Fang, J G

2011-01-01

290

Superior sensitivity of novel molecular imaging probe: simultaneously targeting two types of endothelial injury markers  

PubMed Central

The need remains great for early diagnosis of diseases. The special structure of the eye provides a unique opportunity for noninvasive light-based imaging of fundus vasculature. To detect endothelial injury at the early and reversible stage of adhesion molecule up-regulation, we generated novel imaging agents that target two distinct types of endothelial molecules, a mediator of rolling, P-selectin, and one that mediates firm adhesion, ICAM-1. Interactions of these double-conjugated fluorescent microspheres (MSs) in retinal or choroidal microvasculature were visualized in live animals by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. The new imaging agents showed significantly higher sensitivity for detection of endothelial injury than singly conjugated MSs (rPSGL-1- or ?-ICAM-1-conjugated), both in terms of rolling (P<0.01) and firm adhesion (P<0.01). The rolling flux of ?-ICAM-1-conjugated MSs did not differ in EIU animals, whereas double-conjugated MSs showed significantly higher rolling flux (P<0.01), revealing that ICAM-1 in vivo supports rolling, once MS interaction with the endothelium is initiated. Double-conjugated MSs specifically detected firmly adhering leukocytes (P<0.01), allowing in vivo quantification of immune response. Antiinflammatory treatment with dexamethasone led to reduced leukocyte accumulation (P<0.01) as well as MS interaction (P<0.01), which suggests that treatment success and resolution of inflammation is quantitatively reflected with this molecular imaging approach. This work introduces novel imaging agents for noninvasive detection of endothelial injury in vivo. Our approach may be developed further to diagnose human disease at a much earlier stage than currently possible.—Sun, D., Nakao, S., Xie, F., Zandi, S., Schering, A., Hafezi-Moghadam, A. Superior sensitivity of novel molecular imaging probe: simultaneously targeting two types of endothelial injury markers. PMID:20103715

Sun, Dawei; Nakao, Shintaro; Xie, Fang; Zandi, Souska; Schering, Alexander; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali

2010-01-01

291

Glutamine synthetase sequence evolution in the mycobacteria and their use as molecular markers for Actinobacteria speciation  

PubMed Central

Background Although the gene encoding for glutamine synthetase (glnA) is essential in several organisms, multiple glnA copies have been identified in bacterial genomes such as those of the phylum Actinobacteria, notably the mycobacterial species. Intriguingly, previous reports have shown that only one copy (glnA1) is essential for growth in M. tuberculosis, while the other copies (glnA2, glnA3 and glnA4) are not. Results In this report it is shown that the glnA1 and glnA2 encoded glutamine synthetase sequences were inherited from an Actinobacteria ancestor, while the glnA4 and glnA3 encoded GS sequences were sequentially acquired during Actinobacteria speciation. The glutamine synthetase sequences encoded by glnA4 and glnA3 are undergoing reductive evolution in the mycobacteria, whilst those encoded by glnA1 and glnA2 are more conserved. Conclusion Different selective pressures by the ecological niche that the organisms occupy may influence the sequence evolution of glnA1 and glnA2 and thereby affecting phylogenies based on the protein sequences they encode. The findings in this report may impact the use of similar sequences as molecular markers, as well as shed some light on the evolution of glutamine synthetase in the mycobacteria. PMID:19245690

Hayward, Don; van Helden, Paul D; Wiid, Ian JF

2009-01-01

292

Tumor Heterogeneity: Mechanisms and Bases for a Reliable Application of Molecular Marker Design  

PubMed Central

Tumor heterogeneity is a confusing finding in the assessment of neoplasms, potentially resulting in inaccurate diagnostic, prognostic and predictive tests. This tumor heterogeneity is not always a random and unpredictable phenomenon, whose knowledge helps designing better tests. The biologic reasons for this intratumoral heterogeneity would then be important to understand both the natural history of neoplasms and the selection of test samples for reliable analysis. The main factors contributing to intratumoral heterogeneity inducing gene abnormalities or modifying its expression include: the gradient ischemic level within neoplasms, the action of tumor microenvironment (bidirectional interaction between tumor cells and stroma), mechanisms of intercellular transference of genetic information (exosomes), and differential mechanisms of sequence-independent modifications of genetic material and proteins. The intratumoral heterogeneity is at the origin of tumor progression and it is also the byproduct of the selection process during progression. Any analysis of heterogeneity mechanisms must be integrated within the process of segregation of genetic changes in tumor cells during the clonal expansion and progression of neoplasms. The evaluation of these mechanisms must also consider the redundancy and pleiotropism of molecular pathways, for which appropriate surrogate markers would support the presence or not of heterogeneous genetics and the main mechanisms responsible. This knowledge would constitute a solid scientific background for future therapeutic planning. PMID:22408433

Diaz-Cano, Salvador J.

2012-01-01

293

Genetic Introgression and Species Boundary of Two Geographically Overlapping Pine Species Revealed by Molecular Markers  

PubMed Central

Gene introgression and hybrid barriers have long been a major focus of studies of geographically overlapping species. Two pine species, Pinus massoniana and P. hwangshanensis, are frequently observed growing adjacent to each other, where they overlap in a narrow hybrid zone. As a consequence, these species constitute an ideal system for studying genetic introgression and reproductive barriers between naturally hybridizing, adjacently distributed species. In this study, we sampled 270 pine trees along an elevation gradient in Anhui Province, China and analyzed these samples using EST-SSR markers. The molecular data revealed that direct gene flow between the two species was fairly low, and that the majority of gene introgression was intermediated by backcrossing. On the basis of empirical observation, the on-site distribution of pines was divided into a P. massoniana zone, a hybrid zone, and a P. hwangshanensis zone. STRUCTURE analysis revealed the existence of a distinct species boundary between the two pine species. The genetic boundary of the hybrid zone, on the other hand, was indistinct owing to intensive backcrossing with parental species. Compared with P. massoniana, P. hwangshanensis was found to backcross with the hybrids more intensively, consistent with the observation that morphological and anatomical characteristics of trees in the contact zone were biased towards P. hwangshanensis. The introgression ability of amplified alleles varied across species, with some being completely blocked from interspecific introgression. Our study has provided a living example to help explain the persistence of adjacently distributed species coexisting with their interfertile hybrids. PMID:24977711

Dai, Xiaogang; Xu, Jin; Li, Shuxian; Yin, Tongming

2014-01-01

294

Molecular marker analysis of hypoploid regenerants from cultures of barley x Canada wild rye.  

PubMed

Canada wild rye (CWR, Elymus canadensis L., 2n = 4x = 28) is a potential source of genes for disease resistance and environmental tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L., 2n = 2x = 14). Tissue cultures were initiated from immature inflorescences of CWR x 'Betzes' barley hybrids to promote CWR introgression into barley through possible tissue culture induced chromosome breakage and exchange. Among the plants regenerated, some were missing one (2n = 20) or part of one (2n = 20 + telo) chromosome. The objective of this study was to identify the missing chromosome or chromosome arm in these regenerants through the analysis of molecular (RFLP) markers that previously had been mapped in barley. Forty-six hypoploid regenerants that traced to 30 separate explants obtained from 10 interspecific hybrid plants were evaluated. DNA was digested with the restriction enzyme HindIII, Southern blotted, and probed with 39 genomic and cDNA barley clones that identified sequences polymorphic between barley and CWR. Eight of these probes identified band loss patterns that separated the regenerants into two groups. One group, all with barley cytoplasm, were missing a CWR chromosome homoeologous to barley chromosome 3; a second group, all with CWR cytoplasm, were missing a CWR chromosome homoelogous to barley chromosome 7. These results indicated that chromosome elimination in culture was not random. The two cytoplasm groups were further differentiated by probes that identified band shifts. These band shifts were caused by differences in DNA methylation. Key words : Hordeum vulgare, aneuploidy, Elymus canadensis, tissue culture. PMID:18469900

Dahleen, L S

1996-04-01

295

Current Status of Molecular Markers for Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly lethal malignancy with near 100% mortality. This is in part due to the fact that most patients present with metastatic or locally advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. Significantly, in nearly 95% of PC patients there is neither an associated family history of PC nor of diseases known to be associated with an increased risk of PC. These groups of patients who comprise the bulk of PC cases are termed as “sporadic PC” in contrast to the familial PC cases that comprise only about 5% of all PCs. Given the insidious onset of the malignancy and its extreme resistance to chemo and radiotherapy, an abundance of research in recent years has focused on identifying biomarkers for the early detection of PC, specifically aiming at the sporadic PC cohort. However, while several studies have established that asymptomatic individuals with a positive family history of PC and those with certain heritable syndromes are candidates for PC screening, the role of screening in identifying sporadic PC is still an unsettled question. The present review attempts to assess this critical question by investigating the recent advances made in molecular markers with potential use in the early diagnosis of sporadic PC- the largest cohort of PC cases worldwide. It also outlines a novel yet simple risk-factor based stratification system that could be potentially employed by clinicians to identify those individuals who at an elevated-risk for the development of sporadic PC and therefore candidates for screening. PMID:20888394

Chakraborty, Subhankar; Baine, Michael J.; Sasson, Aaron R.; Batra, Surinder K.

2010-01-01

296

Molecular markers and imaging tools to identify malignant potential in Barrett's esophagus.  

PubMed

Due to its rapidly rising incidence and high mortality, esophageal adenocarcinoma is a major public health concern, particularly in Western countries. The steps involved in the progression from its predisposing condition, gastroesophageal reflux disease, to its premalignant disorder, Barrett's esophagus, and to cancer, are incompletely understood. Current screening and surveillance methods are limited by the lack of population-wide utility, incomplete sampling of standard biopsies, and subjectivity of evaluation. Advances in endoscopic ablation have raised the hope of effective therapy for eradication of high-risk Barrett's lesions, but improvements are needed in determining when to apply this treatment and how to follow patients clinically. Researchers have evaluated numerous potential molecular biomarkers with the goal of detecting dysplasia, with varying degrees of success. The combination of biomarker panels with epidemiologic risk factors to yield clinical risk scoring systems is promising. New approaches to sample tissue may also be combined with these biomarkers for less invasive screening and surveillance. The development of novel endoscopic imaging tools in recent years has the potential to markedly improve detection of small foci of dysplasia in vivo. Current and future efforts will aim to determine the combination of markers and imaging modalities that will most effectively improve the rate of early detection of high-risk lesions in Barrett's esophagus. PMID:25400987

Bennett, Michael; Mashimo, Hiroshi

2014-11-15

297

Molecular markers and imaging tools to identify malignant potential in Barrett's esophagus  

PubMed Central

Due to its rapidly rising incidence and high mortality, esophageal adenocarcinoma is a major public health concern, particularly in Western countries. The steps involved in the progression from its predisposing condition, gastroesophageal reflux disease, to its premalignant disorder, Barrett’s esophagus, and to cancer, are incompletely understood. Current screening and surveillance methods are limited by the lack of population-wide utility, incomplete sampling of standard biopsies, and subjectivity of evaluation. Advances in endoscopic ablation have raised the hope of effective therapy for eradication of high-risk Barrett’s lesions, but improvements are needed in determining when to apply this treatment and how to follow patients clinically. Researchers have evaluated numerous potential molecular biomarkers with the goal of detecting dysplasia, with varying degrees of success. The combination of biomarker panels with epidemiologic risk factors to yield clinical risk scoring systems is promising. New approaches to sample tissue may also be combined with these biomarkers for less invasive screening and surveillance. The development of novel endoscopic imaging tools in recent years has the potential to markedly improve detection of small foci of dysplasia in vivo. Current and future efforts will aim to determine the combination of markers and imaging modalities that will most effectively improve the rate of early detection of high-risk lesions in Barrett’s esophagus.

Bennett, Michael; Mashimo, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

298

Gene Expression Profiles in Cells of Peripheral Blood Identify New Molecular Markers of Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Blood leukocytes play a major role in mediating local and systemic inflammation during acute pancreatitis. We hypothesize that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in circulation exhibit unique changes in gene expression, and could provide a “reporter” function that reflects the inflammatory response in pancreas of acute pancreatitis. Methods To determine specific changes in blood leukocytes during acute pancreatitis, we studied gene transcription profile of in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in a rat model of experimental pancreatitis (sodium taurocholate). Normal rats, saline controls and a model of septic shock were used as a controls. cRNA obtained from PBMC of each group (n = 3) were applied to Affymetrix rat genome DNA Gene Chip Arrays. Results From the 8,799 rat genes analyzed, 140 genes showed unique significant changes in their expression in PBMC during the acute phase of pancreatitis, but not in sepsis. Among the 140 genes, 57 were upregulated, while 69 were downregulated. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor, prostaglandin E2 receptor and phospholipase D1 are among the top upregulated genes. Others include genes involved in G protein-coupled receptor and TGF-?-mediated signaling pathways, while genes associated with apoptosis, glucocorticoid receptors and even the cholecystokinin receptor are downregulated. Conclusions Microarray analysis in transcriptional profiling of PBMC showed that genes that are uniquely related to molecular and pancreatic function display differential expression in acute pancreatitis. Profiling genes obtained from an easily accessible source during severe pancreatitis may identify surrogate markers for disease severity. PMID:18347268

Bluth, Martin; Lin, Yin-yao; Zhang, Hong; Viterbo, Dominick; Zenilman, Michael

2009-01-01

299

Intraspecific chromosomal and genetic polymorphism in Brassica napus L. detected by cytogenetic and molecular markers.  

PubMed

The application of DNA intercalator 9-aminoacridine allowed us to increase the resolution of chromosome C-banding and DAPI-banding patterns and to investigate chromosomal polymorphism in karyotypes of seven spring and six winter rape varieties. It was shown that the pericentromeric and intercalary C-bands of most of the chromosomes in spring rape were smaller in size and less polymorphic than those of winter rape. More 26S and 5S rDNA sites were found in the winter rape karyotypes than the spring varieties. Separate or colocalized 26S and 5S rDNA sites were revealed on chromosomes 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 14, 15, 16 and 18. Intervarietal and intravarietal polymorphism of the number and chromosomal localization of rDNA sites were detected. The generalized idiogram of chromosomes of 13 Brassica napus varieties with account of all possibilities of C-banding patterns as well as localization of 26S and 5S rDNA sites were constructed. Polymorphism of the examined molecular and cytogenetic markers as well as the heterozygosis level of FAE1.1 gene controlling erucic acid synthesis in rapeseed was higher in the winter varieties than in the spring ones. The obtained data were in a atisfactory agreement with increased tolerance to environmental stress conditions of winter rape. PMID:24840830

Amosova, Alexandra V; Zemtsova, Lyudmila V; Grushetskaya, Zoya E; Samatadze, Tatiana E; Mozgova, Galina V; Pilyuk, Yadviga E; Volovik, Valentina T; Melnikova, Natalia V; Zelenin, Alexandr V; Lemesh, Valentina A; Muravenko, Olga V

2014-04-01

300

Molecular markers for identifying a new selected variety of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective breeding of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during the last decade has produced new varieties exhibiting high growth rates and disease resistance. However, the identification of new varieties of shrimps from their phenotypic characters is difficult. This study introduces a new approach for identifying varieties of shrimps using molecular markers of microsatellites and mitochondrial control region sequences. The method was employed to identify a new selected variety, Kehai No. 1 (KH-1), from three representative stocks (control group): Zhengda; Tongwei; and a stock collected from Fujian Province, which is now cultured in mainland China. By pooled genotyping of KH-1 and the control group, five microsatellites showing differences between KH-1 and the control group were screened out. Individual genotyping data confirmed the results from pooled genotyping. The genotyping data for the five microsatellites were applied to the assignment analysis of the KH-1 group and the control group using the partial Bayesian assignment method in GENECLASS2. By sequencing the mitochondrial control regions of individuals from the KH-1 and control group, four haplotypes were observed in the KH-1 group, whereas 14 haplotypes were obtained in the control group. By combining the microsatellite assignment analysis with mitochondrial control region analysis, the average accuracy of identification of individuals in the KH-1 group and control group reached 89%. The five selected microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control region sequences were highly polymorphic and could be used to distinguish new selected varieties of L. vannamei from other populations cultured in China.

Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Jingwen; Li, Fuhua; Huang, Hao; Li, Yijun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-10-01

301

Molecular Linkage Mapping and Marker-Trait Associations with NlRPT, a Downy Mildew Resistance Gene in Nicotiana langsdorffii  

PubMed Central

Nicotiana langsdorffii is one of two species of Nicotiana known to express an incompatible interaction with the oomycete Peronospora tabacina, the causal agent of tobacco blue mold disease. We previously showed that incompatibility is due to the hypersensitive response (HR), and plants expressing the HR are resistant to P. tabacina at all stages of growth. Resistance is due to a single dominant gene in N. langsdorffii accession S-4-4 that we have named NlRPT. In further characterizing this unique host-pathogen interaction, NlRPT has been placed on a preliminary genetic map of the N. langsdorffii genome. Allelic scores for five classes of DNA markers were determined for 90 progeny of a “modified backcross” involving two N. langsdorffii inbred lines and the related species N. forgetiana. All markers had an expected segregation ratio of 1:1, and were scored in a common format. The map was constructed with JoinMap 3.0, and loci showing excessive transmission distortion were removed. The linkage map consists of 266 molecular marker loci defined by 217 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), 26 simple-sequence repeats (SSRs), 10 conserved orthologous sequence markers, nine inter-simple sequence repeat markers, and four target region amplification polymorphism markers arranged in 12 linkage groups with a combined length of 1062?cM. NlRPT is located on linkage group three, flanked by four AFLP markers and one SSR. Regions of skewed segregation were detected on LGs 1, 5, and 9. Markers developed for N. langsdorffii are potentially useful genetic tools for other species in Nicotiana section Alatae, as well as in N. benthamiana. We also investigated whether AFLPs could be used to infer genetic relationships within N. langsdorffii and related species from section Alatae. A phenetic analysis of the AFLP data showed that there are two main lineages within N. langsdorffii, and that both contain populations expressing dominant resistance to P. tabacina. PMID:22936937

Zhang, Shouan; Gao, Muqiang; Zaitlin, David

2012-01-01

302

A linkage map of sweet cherry based on RAPD analysis of a microspore-derived callus culture population.  

PubMed

A partial linkage map was constructed for the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivar Emperor Francis from a population of 56 microspore-derived callus culture individuals. The callus cultures were genotyped for two allozymes and 90 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers using 79 random decanucleotide DNA primers and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eighty-nine markers mapped to 10 linkage groups totaling 503.3 cM. DNA blot and hybridization analysis using five cloned RAPDs as probes demonstrated that one of the decanucleotide primers amplified a region of the Emperor Francis genome containing a unique sequence, whereas the other four decanucleotide primers amplified regions of the Emperor Francis genome containing repeated sequences. The five cloned RAPD probes also recognized putative homologous regions in ground cherry, P.fruticosa Pall., and sour cherry, P. cerasus L., a naturally occurring allopolyploid between P.fruticosa and P.avium. PMID:8683097

Stockinger, E J; Mulinix, C A; Long, C M; Brettin, T S; Iezzoni, A F

1996-01-01

303

Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Chukar Partridge ( Alectoris chukar ) Populations in Khorasan-e-Razavi Province of Iran by RAPD-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

RAPD markers were used to investigate population genetic parameters of an endangered partridge, Alectoris chukar, in four areas of Iran, as a part of a genetic conservation program. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic similarity\\u000a among these populations. Blood samples from 75 birds were used for DNA extraction and RAPD-PCR analysis of 67 loci, with 28

Hassan Abbasi; Mojtaba Tahmoorespour; Mohammad R. Nassiri; Shahrokh Ghovvati

2010-01-01

304

Comparative assessment of variation in the USA Arachis pintoi (Krap. and Greg.) germplasm collection using RAPD profiling and tissue culture regeneration ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arachis pintoi accessions were used to study genetic diversity using RAPD markers. Concurrently, two tissue culture protocols were evaluated\\u000a for organogenesis and the capacity to generate somaclonal variation. Data were collected on callus growth, callus weight gain,\\u000a and number of regenerated plants. Robust RAPD profiles were obtained and eight primers amplified 100 different bands with\\u000a 98% polymorphisms. The proportion of

Marcelo Ayres Carvalho; Kenneth H. Quesenberry; Maria Gallo

2010-01-01

305

A sex-associated sequence identified by RAPD screening in gynogenetic individuals of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).  

PubMed

Understanding the genetic basis of sex determination mechanisms is essential for improving the productivity of farmed aquaculture fish species like turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). In culture conditions turbot males grow slower than females starting from eight months post-hatch, and this differential growth rate is maintained until sexual maturation is reached, being mature females almost twice as big as males of the same age. The goal of this study was to identify sex-specific DNA markers in turbot using comparative random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) profiles in males and females to get new insights of the genetic architecture related to sex determination. In order to do this, we analyzed 540 commercial 10-mer RAPD primers in male and female pools of a gynogenetic family because of its higher inbreeding, which facilitates the detection of associations across the genome. Two sex-linked RAPD markers were identified in the female pool and one in the male pool. After the analysis of the three markers on individual samples of each pool and also in unrelated individuals, only one RAPD showed significant association with females. This marker was isolated, cloned and sequenced, containing two sequences, a microsatellite (SEX01) and a minisatellite (SEX02), which were mapped in the turbot reference map. From this map position, through a comparative mapping approach, we identified Foxl2, a relevant gene related to initial steps of sex differentiation, and Wnt4, a gene related with ovarian development, close to the microsatellite and minisatellite markers, respectively. The position of Foxl2 and Wnt4 was confirmed by linkage mapping in the reference turbot map. PMID:24415295

Vale, Luis; Dieguez, Rebeca; Sánchez, Laura; Martínez, Paulino; Viñas, Ana

2014-03-01

306

Use of RAPD for the study of diversity within plant germplasm collections.  

PubMed

As part of the development of a molecular toolkit for the study of diversity within large plant germplasm collections, RAPD technology has been applied to accessions of rice (Oryza sativa) obtained from the major world collection held at IRRI (the International Rice Research Institute) which supplies germplasm to breeders. Methods for the speedy extraction of DNA representative of a rice accession, its amplification by PCR to reveal reproducible products, and the analysis of the banding data using numerical techniques have been established. The biological meaningfulness of RAPD data has also been demonstrated by reference to previous work on classification and crossability. PMID:7706109

Virk, P S; Ford-Lloyd, B V; Jackson, M T; Newbury, H J

1995-02-01

307

Molecular Mapping and Marker-Assisted Selection of Genes for Septoria Speckled Leaf Blotch Resistance in Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zhong, S., Toubia-Rahme, H., Steffenson, B. J., and Smith, K. P. 2006. Molecular mapping and marker-assisted selection of genes for Septoria speckled leaf blotch resistance in barley. Phytopathology 96:993-999. Septoria speckled leaf blotch (SSLB), caused by Septoria passerinii, has emerged as one of the most important foliar diseases of barley in the Upper Midwest region of the United States. To

Shaobin Zhong; Hala Toubia-Rahme; Brian J. Steffenson; Kevin P. Smith

2006-01-01

308

A conservative region of the mercuric reductase gene (mera) as a molecular marker of bacterial mercury resistance  

PubMed Central

The most common bacterial mercury resistance mechanism is based on the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg0, which is dependent of the mercuric reductase enzyme (MerA) activity. The use of a 431 bp fragment of a conservative region of the mercuric reductase (merA) gene was applied as a molecular marker of this mechanism, allowing the identification of mercury resistant bacterial strains. PMID:24031221

Sotero-Martins, Adriana; de Jesus, Michele Silva; Lacerda, Michele; Moreira, Josino Costa; Filgueiras, Ana Luzia Lauria; Barrocas, Paulo Rubens Guimaraes

2008-01-01

309

Temporal trends of molecular markers associated with artemether-lumefantrine tolerance\\/resistance in Bagamoyo district, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Development and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) constitutes a major threat to recent global malaria control achievements. Surveillance of molecular markers could act as an early warning system of ACT-resistance before clinical treatment failures are apparent. The aim of this study was to analyse temporal trends of established genotypes associated with artemether-lumefantrine tolerance\\/resistance before

M. Malmberg; B. Ngasala; P. E. Ferreira; E. Larsson; I. Jovel; A. Hjalmarsson; M. Petzold; Z. Premji; J. P. Gil; A. Bjorkman; A. Martensson

2013-01-01

310

Cytotoxic effect of eugenol on the expression of molecular markers related to the osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytotoxic effect of eugenol on the expression of molecular markers related to the osteogenic differentiation of human\\u000a dental pulp cells such as collagen synthesis and the expression of two osteogenesis-related genes, alkaline phosphatase (ALP)\\u000a and bone sialoprotein (BSP), was studied using human dental pulp cells (D824 cells). Cellular growth and survival were decreased\\u000a by treatment of cells with eugenol

Masanori Anpo; Kumiko Shirayama; Takeki Tsutsui

311

Simplified protocol for DNA extraction and amplification of 2 molecular markers to detect and type Giardia duodenalis.  

PubMed

We evaluated the ability of 3 kits: QIAmp® DNA stool mini kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany), PureLink PCR Purification®, and PureLink™ Genomic DNA® (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) for DNA extraction, and of 2 molecular markers (heat shock protein [HSP] and ?-giardin genes) for detection and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis stool samples. The detection and typing limits of the markers were determined by the DNA concentration of trophozoites and cysts and were tested in 26 clinical samples. Of the 3 kits tested, the PureLink PCR Purification gave the best results when tested with clinical samples with low, intermediate, and high numbers of cysts. The DNA extracted from trophozoites and cysts was diluted successively in 1:2 ratios until it was no longer possible to observe the amplified product in polyacrylamide gel. Similarly, a suspension of cysts was diluted until no cysts were observed, and then the DNA was extracted. The amount of DNA of trophozoites and cysts for the typing of the parasite was smaller for the HSP marker than for ?-giardin. Combined use of both markers allowed us to detect DNA of Giardia in parasitologically positive samples in a higher percentage (75%) than the results obtained for each marker and in 1 parasitologically negative sample, indicating that this combination increased the potential to accurately detect and genotype this parasite. We also concluded that the HSP marker has a higher limit of detection and typing than the ?-giardin marker and that the DNA extraction method tested for G. duodenalis is simpler and more efficient than those that are currently in use and can be applied on a large scale. PMID:24207076

Uda-Shimoda, Carla Fernanda; Colli, Cristiane Maria; Pavanelli, Mariana Felgueira; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia

2014-01-01

312

Subtracted Diversity Array Identifies Novel Molecular Markers Including Retrotransposons for Fingerprinting Echinacea Species  

PubMed Central

Echinacea, native to the Canadian prairies and the prairie states of the United States, has a long tradition as a folk medicine for the Native Americans. Currently, Echinacea are among the top 10 selling herbal medicines in the U.S. and Europe, due to increasing popularity for the treatment of common cold and ability to stimulate the immune system. However, the genetic relationship within the species of this genus is unclear, making the authentication of the species used for the medicinal industry more difficult. We report the construction of a novel Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA) for Echinacea species and demonstrate the potential of this array for isolating highly polymorphic sequences. In order to selectively isolate Echinacea-specific sequences, a Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) was performed between a pool of twenty-four Echinacea genotypes and a pool of other angiosperms and non-angiosperms. A total of 283 subtracted genomic DNA (gDNA) fragments were amplified and arrayed. Twenty-seven Echinacea genotypes including four that were not used in the array construction could be successfully discriminated. Interestingly, unknown samples of E. paradoxa and E. purpurea could be unambiguously identified from the cluster analysis. Furthermore, this Echinacea-specific SDA was also able to isolate highly polymorphic retrotransposon sequences. Five out of the eleven most discriminatory features matched to known retrotransposons. This is the first time retrotransposon sequences have been used to fingerprint Echinacea, highlighting the potential of retrotransposons as based molecular markers useful for fingerprinting and studying diversity patterns in Echinacea. PMID:23940565

Olarte, Alexandra; Mantri, Nitin; Nugent, Gregory; Pang, Edwin C. K.

2013-01-01

313

Molecular markers of yolk sac fry development in nine families of lake trout.  

PubMed

Salmonids in certain areas of North America and northern Europe suffer from reproductive disturbances manifested through the death of yolk sac fry. These disturbances are referred to as early mortality syndrome (EMS) in the Great Lakes region and M74 in the Baltic Sea. Both of these syndromes have been associated with reduced concentrations of thiamine in affected females and their eggs. However, large variations in signs and mortality, both within and between the individual syndromes, have been reported. Yolk sac fry mortality (M74) in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar has been shown to be associated with reduced DNA binding of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1 (HIF-1), reduced production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein, decreased capillary density, and down-regulation of adult-type globin gene transcription (which is responsible for the protein part of adult hemoglobin). One of the main effects of all of these changes is reduced oxygen transport to the tissues of affected fry. In this study, the developmental patterns of HIF-1 DNA binding, VEGF protein expression, and adult-type globin gene transcription were analyzed in nine family groups of Lake Michigan lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. The results indicate that HIF-1 DNA binding and globin gene transcription increase from hatch to the end of yolk sac stage. Interindividual and between-family biological variations were detected, especially in VEGF protein expression and globin gene transcription. Our results demonstrate the possibility of using these molecular markers in investigating the etiology of EMS and making comparisons between the mechanisms of different salmonid yolk sac fry mortalities. PMID:20218502

Vuori, Kristiina A; Paavilainen, Tiia; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Czesny, Sergiusz; Rinchard, Jacques

2009-12-01

314

Molecular markers indicate different dynamics of leaves and roots during litter decomposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Up to now there is only a poor understanding of the sources contributing to organic carbon in forest soils, especially the contribution of leaves and roots. Studies of the last 2 decades have shown that methods like pyrolysis and CuO oxidation are suitable tools to trace back the main contributors of organic matter in water, sediments and soils. Lignin derived monomers, extractable lipids, cutin and suberin derived compounds have been used frequently for identification of plant material. However, for the selection of suitable biomarker the decomposition patterns and stability of these compounds are of high importance but they are only poorly understood. In this study we focused on following questions: (I) Which compounds are characteristic to identify certain plant parts and plant species? (II) How stable are these compounds during the first 3 years of litter decomposition? We studied the chemical composition of samples from a 3-year litterbag decomposition experiment with roots and leaves of spruce, pine and birch which was done in Finland. Additionally to mass loss, carbon and nitrogen contents, free lipids were extracted; by alkaline hydrolysis non extractable lipids were gained. The extracts were analyzed afterwards by GC-MS, the insoluble residues were analyzed by curie-point Pyrolysis GC-MS. In addition to the identification and quantification of a variety of different compounds and compound ratios we used statistical classification methods to get deeper insights into the patterns of leaf and root-derived biomarkers during litter decomposition. The mass loss was largely different between the litter species and we always observed larger mass loss for leaf-derived litter in comparison to root derived litter. This trend was also observed by molecular analysis. The increase of the ratio of vanillic acid to vanillin was correlated to the mass loss of the samples over time. This shows that the degree of decomposition of plant material was linked with the degree of lignin degradation. Preliminary results show, that we were able to distinguish the different species and plant parts using various approaches, e.g., abundance and patterns of different substances and different ratios of compounds. The polyesters suberin and cutin were particularly useful to differentiate between roots and leaves. We conclude that knowledge of the decomposition patterns of molecular markers will largely improve the identification power of organic matter sources in soils.

Altmann, Jens; Jansen, Boris; Palviainen, Marjo; Kalbitz, Karsten

2010-05-01

315

The potential of hypoxia markers as target for breast molecular imaging - a systematic review and meta-analysis of human marker expression  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular imaging of breast cancer is a promising emerging technology, potentially able to improve clinical care. Valid imaging targets for molecular imaging tracer development are membrane-bound hypoxia-related proteins, expressed when tumor growth outpaces neo-angiogenesis. We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of such hypoxia marker expression rates in human breast cancer to evaluate their potential as clinically relevant molecular imaging targets. Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles describing membrane-bound proteins that are related to hypoxia inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?), the key regulator of the hypoxia response. We extracted expression rates of carbonic anhydrase-IX (CAIX), glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1), C-X-C chemokine receptor type-4 (CXCR4), or insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) in human breast disease, evaluated by immunohistochemistry. We pooled study results using random-effects models and applied meta-regression to identify associations with clinicopathological variables. Results Of 1,705 identified articles, 117 matched our selection criteria, totaling 30,216 immunohistochemistry results. We found substantial between-study variability in expression rates. Invasive cancer showed pooled expression rates of 35% for CAIX (95% confidence interval (CI): 26-46%), 51% for GLUT1 (CI: 40-61%), 46% for CXCR4 (CI: 33-59%), and 46% for IGF1R (CI: 35-70%). Expression rates increased with tumor grade for GLUT1, CAIX, and CXCR4 (all p < 0.001), but decreased for IGF1R (p < 0.001). GLUT1 showed the highest expression rate in grade III cancers with 58% (45-69%). CXCR4 showed the highest expression rate in small T1 tumors with 48% (CI: 28-69%), but associations with size were only significant for CAIX (p < 0.001; positive association) and IGF1R (p = 0.047; negative association). Although based on few studies, CAIX, GLUT1, and CXCR4 showed profound lower expression rates in normal breast tissue and benign breast disease (p < 0.001), and high rates in carcinoma in situ. Invasive lobular carcinoma consistently showed lower expression rates (p < 0.001). Conclusions Our results support the potential of hypoxia-related markers as breast cancer molecular imaging targets. Although specificity is promising, combining targets would be necessary for optimal sensitivity. These data could help guide the choice of imaging targets for tracer development depending on the envisioned clinical application. PMID:24206539

2013-01-01

316

Relationships among some cornelian cherry genotypes ( Cornus mas L.) based on RAPD analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey is an important producer of cornelian cherries (Cornus mas L.), especially in northern Anatolia. Seed propagation and long-term human selection has given rise to a great diversity\\u000a of trees. Twenty-six cornelian cherry genotypes (CC1–CC26) from the Coruh Valley in northern Anatolia were evaluated for genetic\\u000a relationships by using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, based on 56 decamer random

Sezai Ercisli; Emine Orhan; Ahmet Esitken; Nalan Yildirim; Guleray Agar

2008-01-01

317

Genet. Res., Camb. (1999), 73, pp. 217224. With 4 figures. Printed in the United Kingdom # 1999 Cambridge University Press Targeted identification of markers linked to malaria and  

E-print Network

A. KASSNER Department of Animal Health and Biomedical Sciences, 1655 Linden Dri e, Uni ersity towards the map-based cloning of the associated genes are limited by the availability of genetic markers-positive RAPD fragments were cloned and evaluated as RFLP markers. Of the 62 RAPD\\RFLP fragments examined, 10

Severson, David

318

Linkage mapping of sbm-1 , a gene conferring resistance to pea seed-borne mosaic virus, using molecular markers in Pisum sativum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The location of sbm-1 on the Pisum sativum genetic map was determined by linkage analysis with eight syntenic molecular markers. Analysis of the progeny of two crosses confirmed that sbm-1 is on chromosome 6 and permitted a more detailed map of this chromosome to be constructed. The inclusion of Fed-1 and Prx-3 among the markers facilitated the comparison of our

G. M. Timmerman; T. J. Frew; A. L. Miller; N. F. Weeden; W. A. Jermyn

1993-01-01

319

Construction of cytoplasmic molecular markers distinguishing Danio rerio from Gobiocypris rarus at high identity domains based on MP-PCR strategy and Sybr Green I detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

To distinguish the cytoplasm of Danio rerio from that of Gobiocypris rarus, we cloned G. rarus COXI and constructed cytoplasmic molecular markers at the high identity domains of COXI by mutated primer PCR (MP-PCR for short). Then Sybr Green I was used to detect the single amplicon. As a result, we succeeded in getting the cytoplasmic molecular\\u000a markers, G.M COXI

De-Sheng Pei; Yong-Hua Sun; Zuo-Yan Zhu

2008-01-01

320

Emerging concepts in biomarker discovery; The US-Japan workshop on immunological molecular markers in oncology  

PubMed Central

Supported by the Office of International Affairs, National Cancer Institute (NCI), the "US-Japan Workshop on Immunological Biomarkers in Oncology" was held in March 2009. The workshop was related to a task force launched by the International Society for the Biological Therapy of Cancer (iSBTc) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to identify strategies for biomarker discovery and validation in the field of biotherapy. The effort will culminate on October 28th 2009 in the "iSBTc-FDA-NCI Workshop on Prognostic and Predictive Immunologic Biomarkers in Cancer", which will be held in Washington DC in association with the Annual Meeting. The purposes of the US-Japan workshop were a) to discuss novel approaches to enhance the discovery of predictive and/or prognostic markers in cancer immunotherapy; b) to define the state of the science in biomarker discovery and validation. The participation of Japanese and US scientists provided the opportunity to identify shared or discordant themes across the distinct immune genetic background and the diverse prevalence of disease between the two Nations. Converging concepts were identified: enhanced knowledge of interferon-related pathways was found to be central to the understanding of immune-mediated tissue-specific destruction (TSD) of which tumor rejection is a representative facet. Although the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) likely mediates the inflammatory process leading to tumor rejection, it is insufficient by itself and the associated mechanisms need to be identified. It is likely that adaptive immune responses play a broader role in tumor rejection than those strictly related to their antigen-specificity; likely, their primary role is to trigger an acute and tissue-specific inflammatory response at the tumor site that leads to rejection upon recruitment of additional innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. Other candidate systemic and/or tissue-specific biomarkers were recognized that might be added to the list of known entities applicable in immunotherapy trials. The need for a systematic approach to biomarker discovery that takes advantage of powerful high-throughput technologies was recognized; it was clear from the current state of the science that immunotherapy is still in a discovery phase and only a few of the current biomarkers warrant extensive validation. It was, finally, clear that, while current technologies have almost limitless potential, inadequate study design, limited standardization and cross-validation among laboratories and suboptimal comparability of data remain major road blocks. The institution of an interactive consortium for high throughput molecular monitoring of clinical trials with voluntary participation might provide cost-effective solutions. PMID:19534815

Tahara, Hideaki; Sato, Marimo; Thurin, Magdalena; Wang, Ena; Butterfield, Lisa H; Disis, Mary L; Fox, Bernard A; Lee, Peter P; Khleif, Samir N; Wigginton, Jon M; Ambs, Stefan; Akutsu, Yasunori; Chaussabel, Damien; Doki, Yuichiro; Eremin, Oleg; Fridman, Wolf Herve; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Imai, Kohzoh; Jacobson, James; Jinushi, Masahisa; Kanamoto, Akira; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed; Kato, Kazunori; Kawakami, Yutaka; Kirkwood, John M; Kleen, Thomas O; Lehmann, Paul V; Liotta, Lance; Lotze, Michael T; Maio, Michele; Malyguine, Anatoli; Masucci, Giuseppe; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Mayrand-Chung, Shawmarie; Nakamura, Kiminori; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Palucka, A Karolina; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Pos, Zoltan; Ribas, Antoni; Rivoltini, Licia; Sato, Noriyuki; Shiku, Hiroshi; Slingluff, Craig L; Streicher, Howard; Stroncek, David F; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Toyota, Minoru; Wada, Hisashi; Wu, Xifeng; Wulfkuhle, Julia; Yaguchi, Tomonori; Zeskind, Benjamin; Zhao, Yingdong; Zocca, Mai-Britt; Marincola, Francesco M

2009-01-01

321

Molecular Marker Approach on Characterizing and Quantifying Charcoal in Environmental Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon (BC) is widely distributed in natural environments including soils, sediments, freshwater, seawater and the atmosphere. It is produced mostly from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and vegetation. In recent years, increasing attention has been given to BC due to its potential influence in many biogeochemical processes. In the environment, BC exists as a continuum ranging from partly charred plant materials, charcoal residues to highly condensed soot and graphite particles. The heterogeneous nature of black carbon means that BC is always operationally-defined, highlighting the need for standard methods that support data comparisons. Unlike soot and graphite that can be quantified with well-established methods, it is difficult to directly quantify charcoal in geologic media due to its chemical and physical heterogeneity. Most of the available charcoal quantification methods detect unknown fractions of the BC continuum. To specifically identify and quantify charcoal in soils and sediments, we adopted and validated an innovative molecular marker approach that quantifies levoglucosan, a pyrogenic derivative of cellulose, as a proxy of charcoal. Levoglucosan is source-specific, stable and is able to be detected at low concentrations using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). In the present study, two different plant species, honey mesquite and cordgrass, were selected as the raw materials to synthesize charcoals. The lab-synthesize charcoals were made under control conditions to eliminate the high heterogeneity often found in natural charcoals. The effects of two major combustion factors, temperature and duration, on the yield of levoglucosan were characterized in the lab-synthesize charcoals. Our results showed that significant levoglucosan production in the two types of charcoal was restricted to relatively low combustion temperatures (150-350 degree C). The combustion duration did not cause significant differences in the yield of levoglucosan in the two charcoals. Interestingly, the low temperature charcoals are undetectable by the acid dichromate oxidation method, a popular soot/charcoal analytical approach. Our study demonstrates that levoglucosan can serve as a proxy of low temperature charcoals that are undetectable using other BC methods. Moreover, our study highlights the limitations of the common BC quantification methods to characterize the entire BC continuum.

Kuo, L.; Herbert, B. E.; Louchouarn, P.

2006-12-01

322

Emerging concepts in biomarker discovery; the US-Japan Workshop on Immunological Molecular Markers in Oncology.  

PubMed

Supported by the Office of International Affairs, National Cancer Institute (NCI), the "US-Japan Workshop on Immunological Biomarkers in Oncology" was held in March 2009. The workshop was related to a task force launched by the International Society for the Biological Therapy of Cancer (iSBTc) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to identify strategies for biomarker discovery and validation in the field of biotherapy. The effort will culminate on October 28th 2009 in the "iSBTc-FDA-NCI Workshop on Prognostic and Predictive Immunologic Biomarkers in Cancer", which will be held in Washington DC in association with the Annual Meeting. The purposes of the US-Japan workshop were a) to discuss novel approaches to enhance the discovery of predictive and/or prognostic markers in cancer immunotherapy; b) to define the state of the science in biomarker discovery and validation. The participation of Japanese and US scientists provided the opportunity to identify shared or discordant themes across the distinct immune genetic background and the diverse prevalence of disease between the two Nations. Converging concepts were identified: enhanced knowledge of interferon-related pathways was found to be central to the understanding of immune-mediated tissue-specific destruction (TSD) of which tumor rejection is a representative facet. Although the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) likely mediates the inflammatory process leading to tumor rejection, it is insufficient by itself and the associated mechanisms need to be identified. It is likely that adaptive immune responses play a broader role in tumor rejection than those strictly related to their antigen-specificity; likely, their primary role is to trigger an acute and tissue-specific inflammatory response at the tumor site that leads to rejection upon recruitment of additional innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. Other candidate systemic and/or tissue-specific biomarkers were recognized that might be added to the list of known entities applicable in immunotherapy trials. The need for a systematic approach to biomarker discovery that takes advantage of powerful high-throughput technologies was recognized; it was clear from the current state of the science that immunotherapy is still in a discovery phase and only a few of the current biomarkers warrant extensive validation. It was, finally, clear that, while current technologies have almost limitless potential, inadequate study design, limited standardization and cross-validation among laboratories and suboptimal comparability of data remain major road blocks. The institution of an interactive consortium for high throughput molecular monitoring of clinical trials with voluntary participation might provide cost-effective solutions. PMID:19534815

Tahara, Hideaki; Sato, Marimo; Thurin, Magdalena; Wang, Ena; Butterfield, Lisa H; Disis, Mary L; Fox, Bernard A; Lee, Peter P; Khleif, Samir N; Wigginton, Jon M; Ambs, Stefan; Akutsu, Yasunori; Chaussabel, Damien; Doki, Yuichiro; Eremin, Oleg; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Imai, Kohzoh; Jacobson, James; Jinushi, Masahisa; Kanamoto, Akira; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed; Kato, Kazunori; Kawakami, Yutaka; Kirkwood, John M; Kleen, Thomas O; Lehmann, Paul V; Liotta, Lance; Lotze, Michael T; Maio, Michele; Malyguine, Anatoli; Masucci, Giuseppe; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Mayrand-Chung, Shawmarie; Nakamura, Kiminori; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Palucka, A Karolina; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Pos, Zoltan; Ribas, Antoni; Rivoltini, Licia; Sato, Noriyuki; Shiku, Hiroshi; Slingluff, Craig L; Streicher, Howard; Stroncek, David F; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Toyota, Minoru; Wada, Hisashi; Wu, Xifeng; Wulfkuhle, Julia; Yaguchi, Tomonori; Zeskind, Benjamin; Zhao, Yingdong; Zocca, Mai-Britt; Marincola, Francesco M

2009-01-01

323

Semi-volatile organic compounds as molecular markers for atmospheric and ecosystem transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs) as molecular markers to identify the contributions of regional and long-range atmospheric transport, as well as current and historic sources, and contaminant deposition in remote ecosystems of the Western U.S. was investigated. Trans-Pacific air masses influenced by Siberian biomass burning events had elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the historic use pesticides dieldrin and alpha-HCH, while air masses influenced by regional fires in the Pacific Northwestern U.S. had enhanced concentrations of PAHs and the current-use pesticides dacthal and endosulfan. This suggests that previously deposited SOCs, such as pesticides, revolatilize to the atmosphere during forest fires. In addition, forest soils collected from a burned area in the Pacific Northwestern U.S. had significantly lower SOC concentrations (34 to 100 %) than soils collected from an unburned area separated only by a two lane road. This confirms that SOCs re-volatilize and/or degrade from soils and vegetation during the burning process. The chiral signatures of alpha-HCH in air masses at three sites in the Pacific Northwestern U.S. indicated that the boundary layer has a non-racemic alpha-HCH signature likely due to re-volatilization of alpha-HCH from the Pacific Ocean and that the free troposphere is a source of racemic alpha-HCH. Racemic alpha-HCH was also associated with Asian and trans-Pacific air masses. Racemic cis and trans-chlordane in Pacific Northwestern U.S. air masses indicated that U.S. urban areas continue to be a source of chlordane to the atmosphere. The deposition of non-racemic alpha-HCH in seasonal snowpack in continental Western U.S. national park high elevation ecosystems reflected regional transport, while the high latitude, Alaskan national parks were influenced by long-range atmospheric transport of racemic alpha-HCH. The chiral signature of alpha-HCH in fish collected from high elevation and high latitude ecosystems in Western U.S. national parks reflected the chiral signature of the seasonal snowpack in the lake catchment. This indicates that the fish in these ecosystems do not enantioselectively biotransform alpha-HCH. Racemic cis-chlordane was measured in seasonal snowpack and lake sediments in Sequoia National Park due to the high population density surrounding the park and the past use of chlordane as a termiticide in urban areas. Non-racemic cis-chlordane was measured in sediment collected from Rocky Mountain National Park because this park receives chlordane due to re-volatilization from regional agricultural soil.

Genualdi, Susan

324

A high-density molecular map for ryegrass (Lolium perenne) using AFLP markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

AFLP markers have been successfully employed for the development of a high-density linkage map of ryegrass (Lolium\\u000a perenne L.) using a progeny set of 95 plants from a testcross involving a doubled-haploid tester. This genetic map covered 930 cM\\u000a in seven linkage groups and was based on 463 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers using 17 primer pairs,\\u000a three isozymes

P. F. Bert; G. Charmet; P. Sourdille; M. D. Hayward; F. Balfourier

1999-01-01

325

Characterization of the Miiuy Croaker (Miichthys miiuy) Transcriptome and Development of Immune-Relevant Genes and Molecular Markers  

PubMed Central

Background The miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy) is an important species of marine fish that supports capture fisheries and aquaculture. At present commercial scale aquaculture of this species is limited due to diseases caused by pathogens and parasites which restrict production and limit commercial value. The lack of transcriptomic and genomic information for the miiuy croaker limits the ability of researchers to study the pathogenesis and immune system of this species. In this study we constructed a cDNA library from liver, spleen and kidney which was sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing to enable gene discovery and molecular marker development. Principal Findings In our study, a total of 69,071 unigenes with an average length of 572 bp were obtained. Of these, 45,676 (66.13%) were successfully annotated in public databases. The unigenes were also annotated with Gene Ontology, Clusters of Orthologous Groups and KEGG pathways. Additionally, 498 immune-relevant genes were identified and classified. Furthermore, 14,885 putative simple sequence repeats (cSSRs) and 8,510 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified from the 69,071 unigenes. Conclusion The miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy) transcriptome data provides a large resource to identify new genes involved in many processes including those involved in the response to pathogens and diseases. Furthermore, the thousands of potential cSSR and SNP markers found in this study are important resources with respect to future development of molecular marker assisted breeding programs for the miiuy croaker. PMID:24714210

Che, Rongbo; Sun, Yueyan; Sun, Dianqiao; Xu, Tianjun

2014-01-01

326

Applications of DNA genetic markers to the study of plant growth and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA genetic markers, such as restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPDs), are powerful tools for studying the genetics of plant growth and development. DNA markers are defined sequences of DNA that can be used in traditional linkage mapping. Using DNA marker technology, scientists can uncover relationships between cloned cDNA sequences and classically characterized genes.

Nevin Dale Young

1993-01-01

327

Identification of Single-Copy Orthologous Genes between Physalis and Solanum lycopersicum and Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Physalis Using Molecular Markers  

PubMed Central

The genus Physalis includes a number of commercially important edible and ornamental species. Its high nutritional value and potential medicinal properties leads to the increased commercial interest in the products of this genus worldwide. However, lack of molecular markers prevents the detailed study of genetics and phylogeny in Physalis, which limits the progress of breeding. In the present study, we compared the DNA sequences between Physalis and tomato, and attempted to analyze genetic diversity in Physalis using tomato markers. Blasting 23180 DNA sequences derived from Physalis against the International Tomato Annotation Group (ITAG) Release2.3 Predicted CDS (SL2.40) discovered 3356 single-copy orthologous genes between them. A total of 38 accessions from at least six species of Physalis were subjected to genetic diversity analysis using 97 tomato markers and 25 SSR markers derived from P. peruviana. Majority (73.2%) of tomato markers could amplify DNA fragments from at least one accession of Physalis. Diversity in Physalis at molecular level was also detected. The average Nei’s genetic distance between accessions was 0.3806 with a range of 0.2865 to 0.7091. These results indicated Physalis and tomato had similarity at both molecular marker and DNA sequence levels. Therefore, the molecular markers developed in tomato can be used in genetic study in Physalis. PMID:23166835

Wei, Jingli; Hu, Xiaorong; Yang, Jingjing; Yang, Wencai

2012-01-01

328

Transcript Profiling and Identification of Molecular Markers for Early Microspore Embryogenesis in Brassica napus1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Isolated microspores of Brassica napus are developmentally programmed to form gametes; however, microspores can be reprogrammed through stress treatments to undergo appropriate divisions and form embryos. We are interested in the identification and isolation of factors and genes associated with the induction and establishment of embryogenesis in isolated microspores. Standard and normalized cDNA libraries, as well as subtractive cDNA libraries, were constructed from freshly isolated microspores (0 h) and microspores cultured for 3, 5, or 7 d under embryogenesis-inducing conditions. Library comparison tools were used to identify shifts in metabolism across this time course. Detailed expressed sequence tag analyses of 3 and 5 d cultures indicate that most sequences are related to pollen-specific genes. However, semiquantitative and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses at the initial stages of embryo induction also reveal expression of embryogenesis-related genes such as BABYBOOM1, LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), and LEC2 as early as 2 to 3 d of microspore culture. Sequencing results suggest that embryogenesis is clearly established in a subset of the microspores by 7 d of culture and that this time point is optimal for isolation of embryo-specific expressed sequence tags such as ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3, ATS1, LEC1, LEC2, and FUSCA3. Following extensive polymerase chain reaction-based expression profiling, 16 genes were identified as unequivocal molecular markers for microspore embryogenesis in B. napus. These molecular marker genes also show expression during zygotic embryogenesis, underscoring the common developmental pathways that function in zygotic and gametic embryogenesis. The quantitative expression values of several of these molecular marker genes are shown to be predictive of embryogenic potential in B. napus cultivars (e.g. ‘Topas’ DH4079, ‘Allons,’ ‘Westar,’ ‘Garrison’). PMID:17384168

Malik, Meghna R.; Wang, Feng; Dirpaul, Joan M.; Zhou, Ning; Polowick, Patricia L.; Ferrie, Alison M.R.; Krochko, Joan E.

2007-01-01

329

A biological and molecular characterization of some Egyptian barley genotypes which are resistant to net blotch disease.  

PubMed

A survey for resistance against net blotch disease (caused by Pyrenophora teres) was performed on some Egyptian barley landraces and some selected resistance and susceptible standard German barley genotypes. The results indicated that most of the Egyptian barley landraces are extremely resistant to the disease. Molecular analysis using RAPD and AFLP showed unique banding profiles for the different genotypes, and specific AFLP markers for the Egyptian genotypes were identified. The effectiveness of RAPD and AFLP for identifying different barley genotypes of different origins and with different reactions against P. teres was discussed. The results of the biological evaluation and molecular characterization done in this study can be seen as the starting point needed to identify the valuable net blotch resistant Egyptian barley germplasm at both the phenotype and genotype levels and draw the attention of breeders and banks of natural plant genetic resources towards this valuable yet neglected germplasm. PMID:16010292

Saker, Mahmoud M

2005-01-01

330

Intensive Linkage Mapping in a Wasp (Bracon Hebetor) and a Mosquito (Aedes Aegypti) with Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism Analysis of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers  

PubMed Central

The use of random amplified polymorphic DNA from the polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) allows efficient construction of saturated linkage maps. However, when analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, most RAPD-PCR markers segregate as dominant alleles, reducing the amount of linkage information obtained. We describe the use of single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of RAPD markers to generate linkage maps in a haplodiploid parasitic wasp Bracon (Habrobracon) hebetor and a diploid mosquito, Aedes aegypti. RAPD-SSCP analysis revealed segregation of codominant alleles at markers that appeared to segregate as dominant (band presence/band absence) markers or appeared invariant on agarose gels. Our SSCP protocol uses silver staining to detect DNA fractionated on large thin polyacrylamide gels and reveals more polymorphic markers than agarose gel electrophoresis. In B. hebetor, 79 markers were mapped with 12 RAPD primers in six weeks; in A. aegypti, 94 markers were mapped with 10 RAPD primers in five weeks. Forty-five percent of markers segregated as codominant loci in B. hebetor, while 11% segregated as codominant loci in A. aegypti. SSCP analysis of RAPD-PCR markers offers a rapid and inexpensive means of constructing intensive linkage maps of many species. PMID:8844159

Antolin, M. F.; Bosio, C. F.; Cotton, J.; Sweeney, W.; Strand, M. R.; Black-IV, W. C.

1996-01-01

331

Genetic Stock Identification of Steelhead in the Columbia River Basin: An Evaluation of Different Molecular Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein genetic markers (allozymes) have been used during the last decade in a genetic stock identification (GSI) program by state and federal management agencies to monitor stocks of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Columbia River basin. In this paper we report new data for five microsatellite and three intron loci from 32 steelhead populations in the three upriver evolutionarily significant

Gary A. Winans; Melanie M. Paquin; Donald M. Van Doornik; Bruce M. Baker; Perry Thornton; Dan Rawding; Anne Marshall; Paul Moran; Steven Kalinowski

2004-01-01

332

Evaluation of radiation risk: cytogenetic and molecular markers of low-dose radiation effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

For last 15 years, we have investigated low-dose radiation genetic effects on human populations affected by the Chernobyl accident. Cytogenetic longitudinal investigations showed that radiation markers for cleanup workers remained at an elevated level and had a trend to grow up with time. A dynamic profile of the amount of aberrations confirms that this group has symptoms of the genomic

Sergey Melnov; Pavel Marozik; Tatiana Drozd

333

Use of molecular markers in breeding for soluble solids content in tomato — a re-examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through earlier breeding efforts, portions of the genome of the wild species Lycopersicon chmielewskii have been introgressed into the cultivated tomato (Rick 1974). These introgressed chromosomal segments have been reported to increase soluble solids in fruit of certain tomato varieties (Rick 1974). Recently, two of the introgressed segments have been identified with RFLP markers and tested for effects on soluble

S. D. Tanksley; J. Hewitt

1988-01-01

334

Molecular markers reveal only two mud crab species of genus scylla (brachyura: portunidae) in Indian coastal waters.  

PubMed

The taxonomic ambiguity of the Indian mud crab (genus Scylla de Hann 1833) is still a cause of concern as several papers have been published with misleading identification. This is the first attempt to resolve the taxonomic uncertainty of the mud crab commonly available in Indian coastal waters using molecular genetic markers (ITS-1 and sequencing of COI gene) combined with traditional morphometry. Additionally, we developed a PCR method by which Indian mud crab species can be identified rapidly and effectively. The results clearly indicate that the green morph of the Indian mud crab is Scylla serrata and the brown morph is S. olivacea. The S. serrata commonly mentioned in the literature from India is S. olivacea; the S. tranquebarica noted by many Indian researchers should belong to S. serrata. Caution should be taken when interpreting or implementing the biological, molecular, and aquaculture data in the literature. PMID:24699826

Mandal, Anup; Varkey, Mathews; Sobhanan, Sobha Pindaniyil; Mani, Anjali Kottayil; Gopalakrishnan, Achamveetil; Kumaran, Ganesh; Sethuramalingam, Arulraj; Srinivasan, Pandiarajan; Samraj, Yohannan Chellema Thampi

2014-08-01

335

Rose germplasm identification and analysis with RAPD markers  

E-print Network

819 Yue-yue-fen?1 R1931 Yue-yue-fen?2 R94003 Yue-yue-fen?3 R94004 R, x odorata (Andr. ) Sweet. R57 1 R banhsiae Ait. 9 banksiae R1416 lutea?1 R215 lutea?2 R1814 lutescens?4 R1 225 normalis?1 R1 121 normalis?2 R1 429 white R110 Lady Banks R... 819 Yue-yue-fen?1 R1931 Yue-yue-fen?2 R94003 Yue-yue-fen?3 R94004 R, x odorata (Andr. ) Sweet. R57 1 R banhsiae Ait. 9 banksiae R1416 lutea?1 R215 lutea?2 R1814 lutescens?4 R1 225 normalis?1 R1 121 normalis?2 R1 429 white R110 Lady Banks R...

Jan, Chih-Hui

2012-06-07

336

A Life Marker Chip for the Specific Molecular Identification of Life Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Specific Molecular Identification of Life Experiment (SMILE) represents the first in-situ attempt to search for a range of molecules in the Martian environment associated with extinct\\/extant life or potential life processes. SMILE will measure specific molecules using electrical and optical transduction techniques in three science subsystems, one of which a molecular receptor array is the subject of this paper.

M. R. Sims; D. C. Cullen; N. P. Bannister; W. D. Grant; R. Jones

2004-01-01

337

A potential species-specific molecular marker suggests interspecific hybridization between sibling species Littorina arcana and L. saxatilis (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda) in natural populations.  

PubMed

Three sister species of rough periwinkles, viz. Littorina saxatilis (Olivi 1792), L. arcana (Hannaford Ellis 1978) and L. compressa (Jeffreys 1865) from the Barents Sea (Russia), the White Sea (Russia) and the Norwegian Sea (Norway) were studied. The identification of two sibling species L. saxatilis and L. arcana is often difficult as both species have extremely similar shell morphology and reproductive systems. Only mature females can be unambiguously distinguished, with a jelly gland present in female L. arcana, but which is replaced by a brood pouch containing developing embryos in L. saxatilis. No clear-cut diagnostic features have been found to discriminate between males or juveniles of the two species. The very first diagnostic DNA marker (DNA fragment A2.8, 271 bp length) for L. arcana and L. saxatilis separation was developed. The marker was derived from apparently species-specific L. arcana DNA fragments obtained via Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. This fragment was cloned and sequenced, whereupon specific primers were designed and the amplification was surveyed in a large number of morphologically well-identified females of both species. Subsequently, the specific DNA marker was used for the identification of male L. arcana and partners in copulating pairs. In this way, we obtained evidence of possible interspecific hybridization between the sibling species L. arcana and L. saxatilis living in sympatry in natural populations: the presence of A2.8 fragment in 12% of morphologically well identified L. saxatilis females and its absence in 14% of morphologically well identified L. arcana females. The A2.8 fragment never amplified in L. saxatilis from sites without L. arcana. The A2.8 fragment did not amplify in L. compressa, not even in microsympatric populations, and we did not observe interspecific copulations between L. arcana and L. compressa. PMID:19690967

Mikhailova, Natalia A; Gracheva, Yulia A; Backeljau, Thierry; Granovitch, Andrey I

2009-12-01

338

A reference consensus genetic map for molecular markers and economically important traits in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the earliest domesticated crops from the Near East. Today this legume is a key protein feed and food worldwide and continues to serve an important role in culinary traditions throughout Middle East, Mediterranean region, China and Ethiopia. Adapted to a wide range of soil types, the main faba bean breeding objectives are to improve yield, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, seed quality and other agronomic traits. Genomic approaches aimed at enhancing faba bean breeding programs require high-quality genetic linkage maps to facilitate quantitative trait locus analysis and gene tagging for use in a marker-assisted selection. The objective of this study was to construct a reference consensus map in faba bean by joining the information from the most relevant maps reported so far in this crop. Results A combination of two approaches, increasing the number of anchor loci in diverse mapping populations and joining the corresponding genetic maps, was used to develop a reference consensus map in faba bean. The map was constructed from three main recombinant inbreed populations derived from four parental lines, incorporates 729 markers and is based on 69 common loci. It spans 4,602 cM with a range from 323 to 1041 loci in six main linkage groups or chromosomes, and an average marker density of one locus every 6 cM. Locus order is generally well maintained between the consensus map and the individual maps. Conclusion We have constructed a reliable and fairly dense consensus genetic linkage map that will serve as a basis for genomic approaches in faba bean research and breeding. The core map contains a larger number of markers than any previous individual map, covers existing gaps and achieves a wider coverage of the large faba bean genome as a whole. This tool can be used as a reference resource for studies in different genetic backgrounds, and provides a framework for transferring genetic information when using different marker technologies. Combined with syntenic approaches, the consensus map will increase marker density in selected genomic regions and will be useful for future faba bean molecular breeding applications. PMID:24377374

2013-01-01

339

Dipeptidase 1: a candidate tumor-specific molecular marker in colorectal carcinoma.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify tumor-specific markers for the detection of rare disseminated colorectal tumor cells in peripheral venous blood and in intra-peritoneal saline lavage samples collected before and after resection of colorectal tumors. Using cDNA micro-array screening, we found dipeptidase 1 (DPEP1) to be highly expressed in colon tumors compared to matched normal mucosa. Relative reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR showed that DPEP1 was over-expressed by >/=2 fold in colon tumor compared to normal colonic mucosal tissue in 56/68 (82%) patients. Using immunobead RT-PCR, a technique that first enriches for epithelial cells, we found DPEP1 positive cells in intra-peritoneal lavage and venous blood samples from 15/38 (39%) colorectal cancer cases. This is the first report of DPEP1 as a marker for disseminated colon tumor cells. PMID:15145522

McIver, C M; Lloyd, J M; Hewett, P J; Hardingham, J E

2004-06-01

340

Identification of the IFITM Family as a New Molecular Marker in Human Colorectal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the expression profiles of intestinal adenomas from a new murine familial adenomatous polyposis model (Apc#14\\/+) using suppression subtractive hybridization to identify novel diagnostic markers of colorectal carcinogenesis. We identified 18 candidate genes having increased expression levels in the adenoma. Subsequent Northern blotting, real- time reverse transcription-PCR, and in situ hybridization analysis confirmed their induction in B-catenin-activated epithelial cells

Pauline Andreu; Sabine Colnot; Cecile Godard; Pierre Laurent-Puig; Dominique Lamarque; Axel Kahn; Christine Perret; Beatrice Romagnolo

2006-01-01

341

Self-fertilization in brooding hermaphroditic Caribbean corals: Evidence from molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of self-fertilization in natural populations of hermaphroditic marine invertebrates has seldom been documented. This is in contrast to plant systems where studies of self-fertilization dominate plant mating system literature. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers were used to assess rates of natural self-fertilization in two common hermaphroditic Caribbean corals from the Florida Keys, Favia fragum and Porites astreoides. Rates

Daniel A. Brazeau; Daniel F. Gleason; Michael E. Morgan

1998-01-01

342

Using morphological diagnosis and molecular markers to assess the clonal fidelity of micropropagated Echinacea purpurea regenerants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both morphological characteristics and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to validate the genetic\\u000a fidelity of 1 080 field-grown Echinacea purpurea plants regenerated from leaf explants of donor T5-9. Morphological diagnosis revealed that 1 067 out of 1 080 regenerants\\u000a were normal, while 13 regenerants were aberrant. AFLP analysis was further performed to assess DNA variations among donor,

S. J. Chuang; C. L. Chen; J. J. Chen; J. M. Sung

2010-01-01

343

Research review: DNA polymerases as molecular markers of the regenerating capacity of hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocyte regeneration has been widely investigated, with the mitotic index and the incorporation of [3H]thymidine being used as regeneration markers. We focused on the induction of DNA replication enzymes, particularly DNA polymerases\\u000a (pol) ?, ?, and ?. Using rat models, we have shown that the activity of pol ? in crude liver extract well represents the regenerating\\u000a capacity of hepatocytes.

Eiji Takeuchi; Yuji Nimura; Shin-ichi Mizuno; Hideaki Suzuki; Shinsuke Iyomasa; Masaki Terasaki; Hiroshi Kuriki; Keiko Tamiya-Koizumi; Shonen Yoshida

1997-01-01

344

Molecular phylogeny of the genus Buteo (Aves: Accipitridae) based on mitochondrial marker sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA sequences of the mitochondrial nd6 gene and the non-repetitive part of the pseudo-control region (?CR) were isolated from 101 individuals to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among all buzzards of the genus Buteo and other buteonine genera. Comparisons of the two marker sequences indicate that the ?CR evolved two times faster than the nd6 gene. The ?CR proved to be

Martin J. Riesing; Luise Kruckenhauser; Anita Gamauf; Elisabeth Haring

2003-01-01

345

Relationships among fourteen species of Satureja growing wild in Iran detected with molecular markers.  

PubMed

The genus Satureja is an important plant with a number of aromatic and medicinal properties. In this research, the relative efficiencies of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and selectively amplified microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL) were used to detect genetic relationships among 14 species of Satureja, growing wild in Iran. Eleven AFLP and 14 SAMPL primer combinations produced 999 and 1142 scorable bands, respectively, all of the fragments of which were found to be polymorphic. The average genetic similarity values based on Jaccard's coefficient were 0.24 and 0.21 for AFLP and SAMPL, respectively, indicating considerable distance and diversity in the studied germplasm. The correlation coefficients were statistically significant between both marker systems (r = 0.89). UPGMA derived from the combined binary data matrices of both markers depicted genetic distinctions among the studied species and clustered them into two main clusters and several groups. S. edmondi showed the maximum distance from other species and was placed into a single main cluster, while the maximum similarity was obtained between S. rechingeri and S. khuzistanica. Our results indicate that both marker systems are suitable for differentiating individuals and species of this genus. PMID:24548629

Hadian, J; Khadivi-Khub, A

2014-09-01

346

Improving the reliability of molecular sexing of birds using a W-specific marker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular techniques for identifying sex of birds utilize length differences between CHD-Z and CHD-W introns, but in some cases these methods can lead to sexing errors. Here we show that an additional W-specific primer can be used in conjunction with a pre-existing sexing primer pair to dramatically improve the reliability of molecular sexing methods. We illustrate the approach with American

DAIZABURO SHIZUKA; BRUCE E. LYON

2008-01-01

347

Use of RAPD analyses to estimate population genetic parameters in the alfalfa leaf-cutting bee, Megachile rotundata.  

PubMed

RAPD analyses were performed on five geographically isolated populations of Megachile rotundata. We used haploid males of the alfalfa leaf-cutting bee, M. rotundata, to overcome the limitation of the dominance of RAPD markers in the determination of population genetic parameters. Sixteen primers gave rise to 130 polymorphic and 31 monomorphic bands. The unbiased estimators calculated in this study include within- and between-population heterozygosity, nucleotide divergence, and genetic distance. The genetic diversity (H = 0.32-0.35) was found to be about 10 times that of previous estimates (H = 0.033) based on allozyme data. Contrary to the data obtained at the protein level, our results suggest that Hymenoptera do not have a lower level of genetic variability at the DNA level compared with other insect species. Regardless of the different assumptions underlying the calculation of heterozygosity, divergence, and genetic distance, all five populations showed a parallel interrelationship for the three parameters. We conclude that RAPD markers are a convenient tool to estimate population genetic variation in haploid M. rotundata and that with an adequate sample size the technique is applicable to the evaluation of divergence in diploid populations. Key words : Megachile rotundata, RAPD, heterozygosity, genetic distance, nucleotide divergence. PMID:18469925

Lu, R; Rank, G H

1996-08-01

348

Protein based molecular markers provide reliable means to understand prokaryotic phylogeny and support Darwinian mode of evolution  

PubMed Central

The analyses of genome sequences have led to the proposal that lateral gene transfers (LGTs) among prokaryotes are so widespread that they disguise the interrelationships among these organisms. This has led to questioning of whether the Darwinian model of evolution is applicable to prokaryotic organisms. In this review, we discuss the usefulness of taxon-specific molecular markers such as conserved signature indels (CSIs) and conserved signature proteins (CSPs) for understanding the evolutionary relationships among prokaryotes and to assess the influence of LGTs on prokaryotic evolution. The analyses of genomic sequences have identified large numbers of CSIs and CSPs that are unique properties of different groups of prokaryotes ranging from phylum to genus levels. The species distribution patterns of these molecular signatures strongly support a tree-like vertical inheritance of the genes containing these molecular signatures that is consistent with phylogenetic trees. Recent detailed studies in this regard on the Thermotogae and Archaea, which are reviewed here, have identified large numbers of CSIs and CSPs that are specific for the species from these two taxa and a number of their major clades. The genetic changes responsible for these CSIs (and CSPs) initially likely occurred in the common ancestors of these taxa and then vertically transferred to various descendants. Although some CSIs and CSPs in unrelated groups of prokaryotes were identified, their small numbers and random occurrence has no apparent influence on the consistent tree-like branching pattern emerging from other markers. These results provide evidence that although LGT is an important evolutionary force, it does not mask the tree-like branching pattern of prokaryotes or understanding of their evolutionary relationships. The identified CSIs and CSPs also provide novel and highly specific means for identification of different groups of microbes and for taxonomical and biochemical studies. PMID:22919687

Bhandari, Vaibhav; Naushad, Hafiz S.; Gupta, Radhey S.

2012-01-01

349

Identification and mapping of molecular markers linked to rust resistance genes located on chromosome 1RS of rye using wheat-rye translocation lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short arm of rye (Secale cereale) chromosome 1 has been widely used in breeding programs to incorporate new disease resistance genes into wheat. Using wheat-rye translocation and recombinant lines, molecular markers were isolated and mapped within chromosomal regions of 1RS carrying rust resistance genes Lr26, Sr31, Yr9 from 'Petkus' and SrR from 'Imperial' rye. RFLP markers previously mapped to

R. Mago; W. Spielmeyer; G. Lawrence; E. Lagudah; J. Ellis; A. Pryor

2002-01-01

350

Development of two new molecular markers specific to cytoplasmic male sterility in tuber mustard ( Brassica juncea var. tumida Tsen et Lee)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel and stable cytoplasmic male sterility CMS line of tuber mustard has been bred by subsequent backcrosses for 10 years.\\u000a Two specific markers atpA and orf220 were cloned and partially characterized in our previous study (Zhang et al. 2003). In this study, two new molecular markers, orf256 and orf305\\/orf324, have been isolated and identified. The orf256 gene size was found to

Xiao-lin Yu; Qiu-bin Xiao; Jia-shu Cao; Zhu-jun Chen; Yutaka Hirata

2009-01-01

351

Molekulare Marker in der Insektengenetik  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular markers in insect genetics. Invention of PCR revolutionized the field of molecular biology in the early 1990ies. Since then, a vast amount of genetic marker systems was introduced and led to the formation of the field of molecular ecology. For the phylogeneticist not primary involved in molecular methods it became difficult to decide which of the many marker systems

W. ARTHOFER

352

Hybridization in staminate and pistillate Salix alba and S. fragilis (Salicaceae): morphology versus RAPDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?The polyploid Salix alba–Salix fragilis hybrid complex is rather difficult to study when using only morphological characters. Most of the characters have a low diagnostic\\u000a value for unambiguously identifying the hybrids, introgression patterns and population structures. Morphology and molecular\\u000a variation determined with random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) were investigated in a set of staminate and pistillate\\u000a willows from Belgium. A

L. Triest

2001-01-01

353

Shape-shifting corals: Molecular markers show morphology is evolutionarily plastic in Porites  

PubMed Central

Background Corals are notoriously difficult to identify at the species-level due to few diagnostic characters and variable skeletal morphology. This 'coral species problem' is an impediment to understanding the evolution and biodiversity of this important and threatened group of organisms. We examined the evolution of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and mitochondrial markers (COI, putative control region) in Porites, one of the most taxonomically challenging and ecologically important genera of reef-building corals. Results Nuclear and mitochondrial markers were congruent, clearly resolving many traditionally recognized species; however, branching and mounding varieties were genetically indistinguishable within at least two clades, and specimens matching the description of 'Porites lutea' sorted into three genetically divergent groups. Corallite-level features were generally concordant with genetic groups, although hyper-variability in one group (Clade I) overlapped and obscured several others, and Synarea (previously thought to be a separate subgenus) was closely related to congeners despite its unique morphology. Scanning electron microscopy revealed subtle differences between genetic groups that may have been overlooked previously as taxonomic characters. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the coral skeleton can be remarkably evolutionarily plastic, which may explain some taxonomic difficulties, and obscure underlying patterns of endemism and diversity. PMID:19239678

Forsman, Zac H; Barshis, Daniel J; Hunter, Cynthia L; Toonen, Robert J

2009-01-01

354

Prediction of body mass index in mice using dense molecular markers and a regularized neural network.  

PubMed

Bayesian regularization of artificial neural networks (BRANNs) were used to predict body mass index (BMI) in mice using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Data from 1896 animals with both phenotypic and genotypic (12 320 loci) information were used for the analysis. Missing genotypes were imputed based on estimated allelic frequencies, with no attempt to reconstruct haplotypes based on family information or linkage disequilibrium between markers. A feed-forward multilayer perceptron network consisting of a single output layer and one hidden layer was used. Training of the neural network was done using the Bayesian regularized backpropagation algorithm. When the number of neurons in the hidden layer was increased, the number of effective parameters, ?, increased up to a point and stabilized thereafter. A model with five neurons in the hidden layer produced a value of ? that saturated the data. In terms of predictive ability, a network with five neurons in the hidden layer attained the smallest error and highest correlation in the test data although differences among networks were negligible. Using inherent weight information of BRANN with different number of neurons in the hidden layer, it was observed that 17 SNPs had a larger impact on the network, indicating their possible relevance in prediction of BMI. It is concluded that BRANN may be at least as useful as other methods for high-dimensional genome-enabled prediction, with the advantage of its potential ability of capturing non-linear relationships, which may be useful in the study of quantitative traits under complex gene action. PMID:21481292

Okut, Hayrettin; Gianola, Daniel; Rosa, Guilherme J M; Weigel, Kent A

2011-06-01

355

Distribution and localization of microsatellites in the Perigord black truffle genome and identification of new molecular markers.  

PubMed

The level of genetic diversity and genetic structure in the Perigord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad.) has been debated for several years, mainly due to the lack of appropriate genetic markers. Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are important for the genome organisation, phenotypic diversity and are one of the most popular molecular markers. In this study, we surveyed the T. melanosporum genome (1) to characterise its SSR pattern; (2) to compare it with SSR patterns found in 48 other fungal and three oomycetes genomes and (3) to identify new polymorphic SSR markers for population genetics. The T. melanosporum genome is rich in SSRs with 22,425 SSRs with mono-nucleotides being the most frequent motifs. SSRs were found in all genomic regions although they are more frequent in non-coding regions (introns and intergenic regions). Sixty out of 135 PCR-amplified mono-, di-, tri-, tetra, penta, and hexa-nucleotides were polymorphic (44%) within black truffle populations and 27 were randomly selected and analysed on 139 T. melanosporum isolates from France, Italy and Spain. The number of alleles varied from 2 to 18 and the expected heterozygosity from 0.124 to 0.815. One hundred and thirty-two different multilocus genotypes out of the 139 T. melanosporum isolates were identified and the genotypic diversity was high (0.999). Polymorphic SSRs were found in UTR regulatory regions of fruiting bodies and ectomycorrhiza regulated genes, suggesting that they may play a role in phenotypic variation. In conclusion, SSRs developed in this study were highly polymorphic and our results showed that T. melanosporum is a species with an important genetic diversity, which is in agreement with its recently uncovered heterothallic mating system. PMID:20965267

Murat, C; Riccioni, C; Belfiori, B; Cichocki, N; Labbé, J; Morin, E; Tisserant, E; Paolocci, F; Rubini, A; Martin, F

2011-06-01

356

De novo transcriptome analysis of Hevea brasiliensis tissues by RNA-seq and screening for molecular markers  

PubMed Central

Background The rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, is a species native to the Brazilian Amazon region and it supplies almost all the world’s natural rubber, a strategic raw material for a variety of products. One of the major challenges for developing rubber tree plantations is adapting the plant to biotic and abiotic stress. Transcriptome analysis is one of the main approaches for identifying the complete set of active genes in a cell or tissue for a specific developmental stage or physiological condition. Results Here, we report on the sequencing, assembling, annotation and screening for molecular markers from a pool of H. brasiliensis tissues. A total of 17,166 contigs were successfully annotated. Then, 2,191 Single Nucleotide Variation (SNV) and 1.397 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) loci were discriminated from the sequences. From 306 putative, mainly non-synonymous SNVs located in CDS sequences, 191 were checked for their ability to characterize 23 Hevea genotypes by an allele-specific amplification technology. For 172 (90%), the nucleotide variation at the predicted genomic location was confirmed, thus validating the different steps from sequencing to the in silico detection of the SNVs. Conclusions This is the first study of the H. brasiliensis transcriptome, covering a wide range of tissues and organs, leading to the production of the first developed SNP markers. This process could be amplified to a larger set of in silico detected SNVs in expressed genes in order to increase the marker density in available and future genetic maps. The results obtained in this study will contribute to the H. brasiliensis genetic breeding program focused on improving of disease resistance and latex yield. PMID:24670056

2014-01-01

357

Aberrant promoter CpG methylation as a molecular marker for disease monitoring in natural killer cell lymphomas.  

PubMed

Natural killer (NK) cell lymphomas lack suitable clonal markers for tumour cell detection, making the monitoring of minimal residual lymphoma difficult. Aberrant promoter CpG methylation occurs frequently in NK cell lymphomas. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of aberrant methylation as a surrogate tumour marker. Twenty-five primary tumours and 105 serial biopsies taken at various time points after treatment were examined using a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) for a panel of genes, comprising p73, p16, hMLH1, RARbeta and p15, previously shown to be methylated in NK cell lymphomas. All samples underwent independent morphological examination, supplemented by immunostaining for CD56 and in-situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr-virus-encoded RNA. Primary tumours showed the frequent methylation of the genes p73 (92%), p16 (71%), hMLH1 (61%), RARbeta (56%) and p15 (48%). MSP results in serial post-treatment biopsies were correlated with clinicopathological findings. Results were concordant in 89 follow-up samples (18 samples, histology positive/MSP positive; 71 samples, histology negative/MSP negative) and discordant in 16. Fifteen samples were histology negative/MSP positive, and tumour involvement was subsequently confirmed (positive re-biopsies or relapses at the same sites), indicating that MSP was more sensitive for minimal lymphoma detection. One sample was histology positive/MSP negative; a subsequent histological review and continuous clinical remission of the patient did not support tumour involvement. Our findings suggest that MSP for aberrantly methylated genes is a potentially valuable molecular marker for detecting either residual or relapsed disease in NK cell lymphoma patients. PMID:12823347

Siu, Lisa L P; Chan, John K C; Wong, Kit F; Choy, Carolyn; Kwong, Yok L

2003-07-01

358

Markers of hemostatic system activation during treatment of deep vein thrombosis with subcutaneous unfractionated or low-molecular weight heparin.  

PubMed

Prothrombin fragments (F1+2), thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT) and D-dimers, markers of hemostatic system activation, were measured in 59 consecutive patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Patients were randomly treated either with subcutaneous unfractionated heparin (UH) administered in two to three subcutaneous doses adjusted to activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) or with low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (dalteparin) administered in a fixed dose of 200 IU/kg body weight in one subcutaneous injection daily. Before treatment, F1+2, TAT and D-dimer were above the cut-off level in 27/59 (46%), 34/59 (58%) and all (100%) patients, respectively. Significant associations were observed between F1+2 and TAT (r=.66, P<.001), TAT and D-dimer (r=.36, P<.005) and F1+2 and D-dimer (r=.30, P<.050). On the third day of treatment, F1+2 and TAT significantly decreased to reference values in almost all patients (in 64/66 determinations of both F1+2 and TAT) and remained low on the seventh day of treatment. Compared to pretreatment values, a nonsignificant decrease of D-dimer was noted in both groups, but all values remained above the cut-off value. When markers of hemostatic system activation in the UH and LMWH groups were compared, no significant differences were observed. It was concluded that subcutaneous UH in an APTT-adjusted dose and subcutaneous LMWH in a once-daily weight-adjusted dose controlled these markers of hemostatic system activation in a similar manner. PMID:11927130

Peternel, Polona; Terbizan, Martina; Tratar, Gregor; Bozic, Mojca; Horvat, Dunja; Salobir, Barbara; Stegnar, Mojca

2002-02-01

359

Molecular markers for biodiversity analysis of wildlife animals: a brief review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los marcadores moleculares constituyen unas herramientas indispensables para determinar la variación genética y la biodiversidad con un alto grado de precisión y reproductibilidad. Dichos marcadores se clasifican principalmente en dos tipos: marcadores mitocondriales y nucleares. Los marcadores de DNA mitocondrial, que se utilizan mucho, son en orden decreciente de secuencias conservadas ADNr 12S < ADNr 16S < citocromo b <

I. A. Arif; H. A. Khan

2009-01-01

360

Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) transcriptome sequencing: molecular marker development and comparative studies  

PubMed Central

Background Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) is a minor legume crop characterized by its high seed protein content. Although grown in several temperate countries, its orphan condition has limited the generation of genomic tools to aid breeding efforts to improve yield and nutritional quality. In this study, we report the construction of 454-expresed sequence tag (EST) libraries, carried out comparative studies between L. luteus and model legume species, developed a comprehensive set of EST-simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and validated their utility on diversity studies and transferability to related species. Results Two runs of 454 pyrosequencing yielded 205?Mb and 530?Mb of sequence data for L1 (young leaves, buds and flowers) and L2 (immature seeds) EST- libraries. A combined assembly (L1L2) yielded 71,655 contigs with an average contig length of 632 nucleotides. L1L2 contigs were clustered into 55,309 isotigs. 38,200 isotigs translated into proteins and 8,741 of them were full length. Around 57% of L. luteus sequences had significant similarity with at least one sequence of Medicago, Lotus, Arabidopsis, or Glycine, and 40.17% showed positive matches with all of these species. L. luteus isotigs were also screened for the presence of SSR sequences. A total of 2,572 isotigs contained at least one EST-SSR, with a frequency of one SSR per 17.75 kbp. Empirical evaluation of the EST-SSR candidate markers resulted in 222 polymorphic EST-SSRs. Two hundred and fifty four (65.7%) and 113 (30%) SSR primer pairs were able to amplify fragments from L. hispanicus and L. mutabilis DNA, respectively. Fifty polymorphic EST-SSRs were used to genotype a sample of 64?L. luteus accessions. Neighbor-joining distance analysis detected the existence of several clusters among L. luteus accessions, strongly suggesting the existence of population subdivisions. However, no clear clustering patterns followed the accession’s origin. Conclusion L. luteus deep transcriptome sequencing will facilitate the further development of genomic tools and lupin germplasm. Massive sequencing of cDNA libraries will continue to produce raw materials for gene discovery, identification of polymorphisms (SNPs, EST-SSRs, INDELs, etc.) for marker development, anchoring sequences for genome comparisons and putative gene candidates for QTL detection. PMID:22920992

2012-01-01

361

Molecular identification and phylogenetic relationship of green algae, Spirogyra ellipsospora (Chlorophyta) using ISSR and rbcL markers  

PubMed Central

Spirogyra is found in a wide range of habitats, including small stagnant water bodies, rivers, and streams. Spirogyra ellipsospora is common in northern Thailand. Species identification of the Spirogyra species based only on morphological characteristics can be difficult. A reliable and accurate method is required to evaluate genetic variations. This study aims to apply molecular approaches for the identification of S. ellipsospora using microsatellites and rbcL markers. Based on DNA sequencing, the rbcL gene was sequenced and the data was analyzed using the BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) program in the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) database. The sequence of S. ellipsospora from this study revealed definitive identity matches in the range of 99% for the consensus sequences of S. ellipsospora. The 10 primers of ISSR could be amplified by 92 amplification fragments. The DNA fragments and the rbcL sequence data grouped the Spirogyra specimens into two distinct clusters.

Wongsawad, Pheravut; Peerapornpisal, Yuwadee

2014-01-01

362

Molecular identification and phylogenetic relationship of green algae, Spirogyra ellipsospora (Chlorophyta) using ISSR and rbcL markers.  

PubMed

Spirogyra is found in a wide range of habitats, including small stagnant water bodies, rivers, and streams. Spirogyra ellipsospora is common in northern Thailand. Species identification of the Spirogyra species based only on morphological characteristics can be difficult. A reliable and accurate method is required to evaluate genetic variations. This study aims to apply molecular approaches for the identification of S. ellipsospora using microsatellites and rbcL markers. Based on DNA sequencing, the rbcL gene was sequenced and the data was analyzed using the BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) program in the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) database. The sequence of S. ellipsospora from this study revealed definitive identity matches in the range of 99% for the consensus sequences of S. ellipsospora. The 10 primers of ISSR could be amplified by 92 amplification fragments. The DNA fragments and the rbcL sequence data grouped the Spirogyra specimens into two distinct clusters. PMID:25313288

Wongsawad, Pheravut; Peerapornpisal, Yuwadee

2014-11-01

363

[Genetic diversity of Dactylis glomerata germplasm resources detected by Inter-simple Sequence Repeats (ISSRS) molecular markers].  

PubMed

Inter-simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) molecular markers were used to detect the genetic diversity among 50 materials of Dactylis glomerata collected from China and other countries. Twelve primers produced 101 polymorphic bands, averaged 8.41 bands each primer pair. The average percentage of polymorpgic bands was 86.3.8%, and the range of GS (define) was 0.6116-0.9290, indicating a rich genetic diversity of D. glomerata. Based on the cluster and principal component analyses on the genetic characteristics, D. glomerata could be divided into 5 groups according to the nearest phylogenetic relationship. In most cases, accessions from the same continent were classified into the same group, the accessions from China and the United States belong to the different groups, respectively, indicating the geographical distribution of genetic diversity of D. glomerata. The present paper also discussed collection and conservation of germplasm resources in D. glomerata. PMID:16963418

Zeng, Bing; Zhang, Xin-Quan; Fan, Yan; Lan, Ying; Ma, Xiao; Peng, Yan; Liu, Wei

2006-09-01

364

A computational procedure for functional characterization of potential marker genes from molecular data: Alzheimer's as a case study  

PubMed Central

Background A molecular characterization of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the key to the identification of altered gene sets that lead to AD progression. We rely on the assumption that candidate marker genes for a given disease belong to specific pathogenic pathways, and we aim at unveiling those pathways stable across tissues, treatments and measurement systems. In this context, we analyzed three heterogeneous datasets, two microarray gene expression sets and one protein abundance set, applying a recently proposed feature selection method based on regularization. Results For each dataset we identified a signature that was successively evaluated both from the computational and functional characterization viewpoints, estimating the classification error and retrieving the most relevant biological knowledge from different repositories. Each signature includes genes already known to be related to AD and genes that are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis or in the disease progression. The integrated analysis revealed a meaningful overlap at the functional level. Conclusions The identification of three gene signatures showing a relevant overlap of pathways and ontologies, increases the likelihood of finding potential marker genes for AD. PMID:21726470

2011-01-01

365

Molecular Phylogeny of a tick, Ixodes granulatus (Acari: Ixodidae) based on cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) marker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification of a local species of tick, Ixodes granulatus from the family Ixodidae is essential because it has potential to be vector for spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsia and tick thypus. The aim of this study is to portray the relationships among several populations of I. granulatus collected from different species of animal hosts and localities in Peninsular Malaysia. Polymerase Chain Reaction was conducted by amplifying mitochondrial DNA marker, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences from 15 individual ticks that attached to five different hosts caught from three different localities. Confirmation of the species identity was accomplished using BLAST program. Neighbor-joining (NJ) and Maximum Parsimony (MP) tree based on COI sequences were constructed by using PAUP 4.0b10 to identify the relationship among species. The result of this study showed a high genetic heterogeneity between I. granulatus and other species of the same genus (7.2-23.7%). Furthermore, a low intraspecific variation was observed among the species of I. granulatus collected from different localities (0-3.7%). This study produced the first establishment of molecular marker for clarifying genetic species variation and diversity of local I. granulatus tick which contribute to the control of tick-borne infections.

Lah, Ernieenor Faraliana Che; Yaakop, Salmah; Ahamad, Mariana; George, Ernna; Nor, Shukor Md

2014-09-01

366

Molecular characterization of a gender-linked DNA marker and a related gene in Mercurialis annua L.  

PubMed

The dioecious Mercurialis annua L. was used as a model plant to study some aspects of the molecular basis of sex determination in plants. We report in this paper the characterization of a previously identified male specific DNA marker, OPB01-1562, from diploid dioecious M. annua. The marker co-segregated with male sex in the progeny of hormonally feminized males. Sequence analysis showed the presence of approximately 0.6 kb retrotransposon-like sequence at its 3' end. Homologous sequences were isolated from diploid female, hexaploid male and monoecious plants. These sequences contained RNaseH and integrase domains of reverse transcriptase and were most similar to pineapple retrotransposon dea1, hence were named M. annua retrotransposon-like sequences (MARL-1 to MARL-5). A 771 bp fragment isolated from a diploid female, named fem771, was homologous to the 5' end of OPB01-1562. Results from DNA blot hybridization suggested OPB01-1562 and fem771 to be from the same locus and MARL-1 from a different one. RNA blot hybridization with OPB01-1562 and MARL-1 detected an approximately 2.8 kb transcript which was expressed strongly in stems and flowers of females but not males. This transcript was named M. annua female expressed (Mafex). Sex linkage of OPB01-1562 and expression of Mafex detected by OPB01-1562 strongly suggested Mafex to be a candidate gene involved in sex determination in M. annua. PMID:16049676

Khadka, Deepak Kumar; Nejidat, Ali; Tal, Moshe; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi

2005-12-01

367

Sib-parentage testing using molecular markers when parents are unknown.  

PubMed

The formulae for computing the so-called Sib Index using codominant alleles for (1) full-sib and (2) half-sib parentage are given. Hypothesis testing is based on the distribution of conditional likelihood ratio or Bayes' factor. Thresholds for rejecting the null hypothesis and P-values were obtained in function of the number of alleles and their frequency distributions. Simulations showed that a relatively low number of marker systems (e.g. 20) are enough to accept the hypothesis of sib parentage with a reasonable power for usual significance levels, but that a higher number would be necessary if full-sib against half-sib parentage is the contrast to be carried out. The effect of sampling variation on the allele frequencies on power calculations is also analysed. PMID:12354145

García, D; Carleos, C; Parra, D; Cañón, J

2002-10-01

368

The detection of pfcrt and pfmdr1 point mutations as molecular markers of chloroquine drug resistance, Pahang, Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is still a public health problem in Malaysia with chloroquine (CQ) being the first-line drug in the treatment policy of uncomplicated malaria. There is a scarcity in information about the magnitude of Plasmodium falciparum CQ resistance. This study aims to investigate the presence of single point mutations in the P. falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter gene (pfcrt) at codons 76, 271, 326, 356 and 371 and in P. falciparum multi-drug resistance-1 gene (pfmdr1) at codons 86 and 1246, as molecular markers of CQ resistance. Methods A total of 75 P. falciparum blood samples were collected from different districts of Pahang state, Malaysia. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in pfcrt gene (codons 76, 271, 326, 356 and 371) and pfmdr1 gene (codons 86 and 1246) were analysed by using mutation-specific nested PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods. Results Mutations of pfcrt K76T and pfcrt R371I were the most prevalent among pfcrt gene mutations reported by this study; 52% and 77%, respectively. Other codons of the pfcrt gene and the positions 86 and 1246 of the pfmdr1 gene were found mostly of wild type. Significant associations of pfcrt K76T, pfcrt N326S and pfcrt I356T mutations with parasitaemia were also reported. Conclusion The high existence of mutant pfcrt T76 may indicate the low susceptibility of P. falciparum isolates to CQ in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings of this study establish baseline data on the molecular markers of P. falciparum CQ resistance, which may help in the surveillance of drug resistance in Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:22853645

2012-01-01

369

Genetic Profiling of the Plasmodium falciparum Population Using Antigenic Molecular Markers  

PubMed Central

About 50% of malaria infections in India are attributed to Plasmodium falciparum but relatively little is known about the genetic structure of the parasite populations. The molecular genotyping of the parasite populations by merozoite surface protein (msp1 and msp2) and glutamate-rich protein (glurp) genes identifies the existing parasite population in the regions which help in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the parasite's drive for survival. This study reveals the genetic profile of the parasite population in selected regions across the country with varying degree of endemicity among them. We also report the prevalence of Pfcrt mutations in this parasite population to evaluate the pattern of drug resistance development in them.

Gupta, Purva; Khan, Haris; Raza, Adil; Yadavendu, Veena; Bhatt, R. M.; Singh, Vineeta

2014-01-01

370

Carbohydrate microarrays for the recognition of cross-reactive molecular markers of microbes and host cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe here the development of a carbohydrate-based microarray to extend the scope of biomedical research on carbohydrate-mediated molecular recognition and anti-infection responses. We have demonstrated that microbial polysaccharides can be immobilized on a surface-modified glass slide without chemical conjugation. With this procedure, a large repertoire of microbial antigens (?20,000 spots) can be patterned on a single micro-glass slide, reaching

Shaoyi Liu; Brian J. Trummer; Chao Deng; Aili Wang; Denong Wang

2002-01-01

371

Oranges and lemons: clues to the taxonomy of Citrus from molecular markers.  

PubMed

Go into any grocery store and one is confronted with an array of Citrus fruit: oranges, grapefruit, mandarins (tangerines), lemons and limes. This is rich bounty for the shopper, but taxonomists are perplexed as to how to classify the various kinds of Citrus that have existed since antiquity. Now, thanks to new genetic and molecular biological techniques, the relationships between these fruit are being unraveled and show that there are probably only three true species. PMID:11525837

Moore, G A

2001-09-01

372

Development of a molecular linkage map of pearl millet integrating DArT and SSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pearl millet is an important component of food security in the semi-arid tropics and is assuming greater importance in the\\u000a context of changing climate and increasing demand for highly nutritious food and feed. Molecular tools have been developed\\u000a and applied for pearl millet on a limited scale. However, the existing tool kit needs to be strengthened further for its routine

A. Supriya; S. Senthilvel; T. Nepolean; K. Eshwar; V. Rajaram; R. Shaw; C. T. Hash; A. Kilian; R. C. Yadav; M. L. Narasu

2011-01-01

373

Predictive molecular markers in metastases to the central nervous system: recent advances and future avenues.  

PubMed

Metastases to the central nervous system (CNS) are common in several cancer types. For most primary tumors that commonly metastasize to the CNS, molecular biomarker analyses are recommended in the clinical setting for selection of appropriate targeted therapies. Therapeutic efficacy of some of these agents has been documented in patients with brain metastases, and molecular testing of CNS metastases should be considered in the clinical setting. Here, we summarize the clinically relevant biomarker tests that should be considered in neurosurgical specimens based on the current recommendations of the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) or the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) for the most relevant primary tumor types: lung cancer (EGFR mutations, ALK rearrangement, BRAF mutations), breast cancer (HER2 amplification, steroid receptor overexpression), melanoma (BRAF mutations), and colorectal cancer (RAS mutations). Furthermore, we discuss emerging therapeutic targets including novel oncogenic alterations (ROS1 rearrangements, FGFR1 amplifications, CMET amplifications, and others) and molecular features of the tumor microenvironment (including immune-checkpoint molecules such as CTLA4 and PD-1/PD-L1). We also discuss the potential role of advanced biomarker tests such as next-generation sequencing and "liquid biopsies" for patients with CNS metastases. PMID:25287912

Berghoff, Anna Sophie; Bartsch, Rupert; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Streubel, Berthold; Birner, Peter; Kros, Johan M; Brastianos, Priscilla K; von Deimling, Andreas; Preusser, Matthias

2014-12-01

374

Applicability of molecular markers to determine parasitic infection origins in the animal trade: a case study from Sarcoptes mites in wildebeest.  

PubMed

The development of non-manipulative molecular tools to determine the origin of parasite infections in the animal trade (if infected before their export or import) is of great interest worldwide for both the animal trade industry and for animal welfare. Molecular tools have a wide range of applications, including forensic identification, wildlife preservation and conservation, veterinary public health protection, and food safety. Nonetheless, genetic markers were not reported to detect the source of infection in the animal trade. In this study we tested the applicability of molecular tools to detect the origin of Sarcoptes mite infection of wildebeest imported by the United Arab Emirate (UAE) from Tanzania. Using one multiplex of seven microsatellite markers and control samples from UAE, Kenya and Italy, we demonstrated the usefulness of the multiplex STR-typing as a molecular tool of pivotal interest to help commercialist, authorities, and conservationists, to identify the geographical origin of parasitic infections. PMID:21814832

Alasaad, Samer; Schuster, Rolf K; Gakuya, Francis; Theneyan, Mohamed; Jowers, Michael J; Maione, Sandra; Min, Annarita Molinar; Soriguer, Ramón C; Rossi, Luca

2012-09-01

375

Associations among cytoplasmic molecular markers, gender, and components of fitness in Silene vulgaris, a gynodioecious plant.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that the dynamics of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic markers used in studies of plant populations could be influenced by natural selection acting elsewhere in the genome. This could be particularly true in gynodioecious plants if cpDNA or mtDNA genetic markers are in gametic disequilibrium with genes responsible for sex expression. In order to investigate this possibility, a natural population of the gynodioecious plant Silene vulgaris was used to study associations among mtDNA haplotype, cpDNA haplotype, sex and some components of fitness through seed. Individuals were sampled for mtDNA and cpDNA haplotype as determined using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods, sex (female or hermaphrodite), fruit number, fruit set, seeds/fruit and seed germination. The sex of surviving germinating seeds was also noted. All individuals in the population fell into one of two cytoplasmic categories, designated haplotypes f and g by a unique electrophoretic signature in both the mtDNA and cpDNA. The subset of the population carrying haplotype g included a significantly higher proportion of females when compared with the sex ratio of the subset carrying the f haplotype. Haplotype g had a significantly higher fitness when measured by fruit number, fruit set and seeds/fruit, whereas haplotype f had significantly higher fitness when measured by seed germination. Offspring of individuals carrying haplotype g included a significantly greater proportion of females when compared with offspring of individuals carrying the f haplotype. Other studies of gynodioecious plants have shown that females generally have higher fitness through seed than hermaphrodites, but in this study not all fitness differences between haplotypes could be predicted from differences in haplotype-specific sex ratio alone. Rather, some differences in haplotype-specific fitness were due to differences in fitness between individuals of the same sex, but carrying different haplotypes. The results are discussed with regard to the potential for hitchhiking selection to influence the dynamics of the noncoding regions used to designate the cpDNA and mtDNA haplotypes. PMID:12675832

McCauley, D E; Olson, M S

2003-03-01

376

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) detection of dwarf off-types inmicropropagated Cavendish (Musa spp. AAA) bananas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A RAPD marker specific to the dwarf off-type (hereafter known as dwarf) from micropropagation of Cavendish banana (Musa spp. AAA) cultivars New Guinea Cavendish and Williams was identified following an analysis of 57 normal (true-to-type) and 59 dwarf plants generated from several different micropropagation events. Sixty-six random decamer primers were used in the initial screen, of which 19 (28.8%) revealed

Olivia P. Damasco; Glenn C. Graham; Robert J. Henry; Steve W. Adkins; Mike K. Smith; Ian D Godwin

1996-01-01

377

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) detection of dwarf off-types in micropropagated Cavendish ( Musa spp. AAA) bananas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A RAPD marker specific to the dwarf off-type (hereafter known as dwarf) from micropropagation of Cavendish banana (Musa spp. AAA) cultivars New Guinea Cavendish and Williams was identified following an analysis of 57 normal (true-to-type) and 59 dwarf plants generated from several different micropropagation events. Sixty-six random decamer primers were used in the initial screen, of which 19 (28.8%)

Olivia P. Damasco; Glenn C. Graham; Robert J. Henry; Steve W. Adkins; Mike K. Smiths; Ian D. Godwin

1996-01-01

378

Expanding Character Sampling for Ciliate Phylogenetic Inference Using Mitochondrial SSU-rDNA as a Molecular Marker  

PubMed Central

Molecular systematics of ciliates, particularly at deep nodes, has largely focused on increasing taxon sampling using the nuclear small subunit rDNA (nSSU-rDNA) locus. These previous analyses have generally been congruent with morphologically-based classifications, although there is extensive non-monophyly at many levels. However, caution is needed in interpreting these results as nSSU-rDNA is just a single molecular marker. Here the mitochondrial small subunit rDNA (mtSSU-rDNA) is evaluated for deep ciliate nodes using the Colpodea as an example. Overall, well-supported nodes in the mtSSU-rDNA and concatenated topologies are well supported in the nSSU-rDNA topology; e.g., the non-monophyly of the Cyrtolophosidida. The two moderately-to well-supported incongruences between the loci are the placement of the Sorogenida and Colpoda aspera. Our analyses of mtSSU-rDNA support the conclusion, originally derived from nSSU-rDNA, that the morphological characters used in taxonomic circumscriptions of the Colpodea represent a mixture of ancestral and derived states. This demonstration of the efficacy of the mtSSU-rDNA will enable phylogenetic reconstructions of deep nodes in the ciliate tree of life to move from a single-locus to a multi-locus approach. PMID:20708960

Dunthorn, Micah; Foissner, Wilhelm; Katz, Laura A.

2012-01-01

379

The evolving role of molecular markers in the diagnosis and management of diffuse glioma.  

PubMed

While the classification of diffuse gliomas has relied on the examination of morphologic features supplemented with techniques such as immunohistochemistry, there is an increasing recognition of substantial biologic diversity within morphologically defined entities. High-throughput technologies, in particular studies that integrate genome-wide data from diverse molecular platforms, increasingly identify the existence of robust and distinct glioma subtypes. While treatment advances and improvement of outcomes for patients with diffuse glioma have been modest, there may be benefit to integrate findings from biologic studies into clinical practice to enhance the precision of treatment for these diseases. Recent examples such as the identification of mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 as an early genetic event that is predominantly in lower-grade gliomas (grades 2 and 3) underscore the importance of molecular discovery leading to the ability to develop subclassifications with prognostic and potentially therapeutic implications. In contrast, glioblastoma (grade 4), the most common and aggressive glioma, typically arises without IDH mutation, supporting the need for different therapeutic approaches. Additional genomic and epigenomic signatures are generally nonoverlapping between IDH-mutant and IDH wild-type diffuse glioma, and despite comparable histopathology, IDH-mutant gliomas can be considered as biologically distinct from IDH wild-type gliomas. In this CCR Focus article, we highlight and summarize the current understanding of recent molecular findings and the relationships of these findings to clinical trials and clinical management. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Discoveries, Challenges, and Progress in Primary Brain Tumors." Clin Cancer Res; 20(22); 5601-11. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25398843

Huse, Jason T; Aldape, Kenneth D

2014-11-15

380

Molecular markers reveal infestation dynamics of the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) within apartment buildings.  

PubMed

The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has experienced an extraordinary global resurgence in recent years, the reasons for which remain poorly understood. Once considered a pest of lower socioeconomic classes, bed bugs are now found extensively across all residential settings, with widespread infestations established in multiapartment buildings. Within such buildings, understanding the population genetic structure and patterns of dispersal may prove critical to the development of effective control strategies. Here, we describe the development of 24 high-resolution microsatellite markers through next generation 454 pyrosequencing and their application to elucidate infestation dynamics within three multistory apartment buildings in the United States. Results reveal contrasting characteristics potentially representative of geographic or locale differences. In Raleigh, NC, an infestation within an apartment building seemed to have started from a single introduction followed by extensive spread. In Jersey City, NJ, two or more introductions followed by spread are evident in two buildings. Populations within single apartments in all buildings were characterized by high levels of relatedness and low levels of diversity, indicative of foundation from small, genetically depauperate propagules. Regardless of the number of unique introductions, genetic data indicate that spread within buildings is extensive, supporting both active and human-mediated dispersal within and between adjacent rooms or apartments spanning multiple floors. PMID:22679860

Booth, Warren; Saenz, Virna L; Santangelo, Richard G; Wang, Changlu; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L

2012-05-01

381

Distribution of Mytilus taxa in European coastal areas as inferred from molecular markers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The genetic constitution of mussels ( Mytilus spp.) was studied by means of three nuclear (Me 15/16, EF-bis, ITS) and one mtDNA (ND2-COIII) marker on a large European scale. In addition to a sharp cline between Atlantic and Mediterranean M. galloprovincialis, we observed a clear genetic distinction between the Black Sea and Mediterranean populations and a higher incidence of M. trossulus than reported so far in northern European populations. The frequency of M. galloprovincialis nuclear alleles was high along the Iberian Peninsula and decreased abruptly along the French coasts with a high frequency of M. edulis alleles in the Bay of Biscay, The Netherlands, Germany, Iceland, Barents and White Seas, and with little evidence of introgression between the two taxa. M. trossulus alleles were observed in the Baltic Sea and Danish Straits as expected. In addition, occurrence of M. trossulus alleles in cold waters of Iceland, Barents Sea and White Sea is reported for the first time.

Kijewski, T.; ?mietanka, B.; Zbawicka, M.; Gosling, E.; Hummel, H.; Wenne, R.

2011-02-01

382

Molecular Insight of Putative Pathogenicity Markers with ESBL Genes and Lipopolysaccharide in Laribacter hongkongensis.  

PubMed

Laribacter hongkongensis is an emerging bacterial pathogen causing gastroenteritis and traveller's diarrhoea. However, pathogenicity of L. hongkongensis has not yet been properly understood. We therefore, investigated putative pathogenicity markers like elt, est, stx1, stx2, eae, eaf, EAgg, bfpA, Int I, Int II, Int III and cnf respectively in strains received from Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong University. Above genes were commonly found among pathogenic member genera of Enterobacteriaceae-causing diarrhoea. Received strains were confirmed microbiologically and by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing. Cultivability was examined using 23 different commercially available microbial growth media followed by antibiotic susceptibility test, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extraction and raising antisera in rabbit against heat-killed L. hongkongensis. Moreover, Escherichia coli classification genes chuA, yjaA, TspE4 and extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) genes like TEM, SHV, OXA, CTXM, CTXM1 and CTXM9 were also examined by PCR assay. Results showed the possession of eae, bfpA, Int and CTXM9 respectively for putative virulence. Furthermore, purity of extracted LPS was confirmed by HPLC, and raised serum was found useful in diagnosis of LPS; bacterium thus can be employed for immunodiagnostics. PMID:25154369

Raja, Krishna M; Ghosh, Asit Ranjan

2014-11-01

383

Identification of Molecular Markers Linked to a Pyrenophora teres Avirulence Gene.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Genetic control of avirulence in the net blotch pathogen, Pyrenophora teres, was investigated. To establish an appropriate study system, a collection of 10 net form (P. teres f. teres) and spot form (P. teres f. maculata) isolates were evaluated on a set of eight barley lines to identify two isolates with differential virulence on an individual host line. Two net form isolates, WRS 1906, exhibiting avirulence on the cv. Heartland, and WRS 1607, exhibiting high virulence, were mated and 67 progeny were isolated and phenotyped for reaction on Heartland. The population segregated in a 1:1 ratio, 34 avirulent to 33 virulent (chi(2) = 0.0, P = 1.0), indicating single gene control of WRS 1906 avirulence on Heartland. Bulked segregant analysis was used to identify six amplified fragment length polymorphism markers closely linked to the avirulence gene (Avr(Heartland)). This work provides evidence that the P. teres-barley pathosystem conforms to the gene-for-gene model and represents an initial step toward map-based cloning of this gene. PMID:18943933

Beattie, Aaron D; Scoles, Graham J; Rossnagel, Brian G

2007-07-01

384

Molecular detection of virulence genes as markers in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from urinary tract infections  

PubMed Central

Catheter associated urinary tract infections by P. aeruginosa are related to variety of complications. Quorum sensing and related circuitry guard its virulence potential. Though P. aeruginosa accounts for an appreciable amount of virulence factors, this organism is highly unstable phenotypically. Thus, genotyping of clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa is of utmost importance for understanding the epidemiology of infection. This may contribute towards development of immunotherapeutic approaches against this multi drug resistant pathogen. Moreover, no epidemiological study has been reported yet on uroisolates of P. aeruginosa. Thus this study was planned to obtain information regarding presence, distribution and rate of occurrence of quorum sensing and some associated virulence genes at genetic level. The profiling of quorum sensing genes lasI, lasR, rhlI, rhlR and virulence genes like toxA, aprA, rhlAB, plcH, lasB and fliC of twelve strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from patients with UTIs was done by direct PCR. The results showed variable distribution of quorum sensing genes and virulence genes. Their percentage occurrence may be specifically associated with different levels of intrinsic virulence and pathogenicity in urinary tract. Such information can help in identifying these virulence genes as useful diagnostic markers for clinical P. aeruginosa strains isolated from UTIs. PMID:25379131

Sabharwal, Neha; Dhall, Shriya; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

2014-01-01

385

Retrotransposon-Based Molecular Markers for Analysis of Genetic Diversity within the Genus Linum  

PubMed Central

SSAP method was used to study the genetic diversity of 22 Linum species from sections Linum, Adenolinum, Dasylinum, Stellerolinum, and 46 flax cultivars. All the studied flax varieties were distinguished using SSAP for retrotransposons FL9 and FL11. Thus, the validity of SSAP method was demonstrated for flax marking, identification of accessions in genebank collections, and control during propagation of flax varieties. Polymorphism of Fl1a, Fl1b, and Cassandra insertions were very low in flax varieties, but these retrotransposons were successfully used for the investigation of Linum species. Species clusterization based on SSAP markers was in concordance with their taxonomic division into sections Dasylinum, Stellerolinum, Adenolinum, and Linum. All species of sect. Adenolinum clustered apart from species of sect. Linum. The data confirmed the accuracy of the separation in these sections. Members of section Linum are not as closely related as members of other sections, so taxonomic revision of this section is desirable. L. usitatissimum accessions genetically distant from modern flax cultivars were revealed in our work. These accessions are of utmost interest for flax breeding and introduction of new useful traits into flax cultivars. The chromosome localization of Cassandra retrotransposon in Linum species was determined.

Melnikova, Nataliya V.; Kudryavtseva, Anna V.; Zelenin, Alexander V.; Lakunina, Valentina A.; Yurkevich, Olga Yu.; Speranskaya, Anna S.; Dmitriev, Alexey A.; Krinitsina, Anastasia A.; Belenikin, Maxim S.; Uroshlev, Leonid A.; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V.; Sadritdinova, Asiya F.; Koroban, Nadezda V.; Amosova, Alexandra V.; Samatadze, Tatiana E.; Guzenko, Elena V.; Lemesh, Valentina A.; Savilova, Anastasya M.; Rachinskaia, Olga A.; Kishlyan, Natalya V.; Rozhmina, Tatiana A.; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L.; Muravenko, Olga V.

2014-01-01

386

Echinococcus granulosus tegumental enzymes as in vitro markers of pharmacological damage: a biochemical and molecular approach.  

PubMed

Cystic echinococcosis is a chronic, complex, and neglected disease. Novel therapeutical tools are needed to optimize human treatment. A number of compounds have been investigated, either using in vitro cultured parasites and/or applying in vivo rodent models. Although some of these compounds showed promising activities in vitro, and to some extent also in the rodent models, they have not been translated into clinical applications. Membrane enzyme activities in culture supernatants of treated protoscoleces with calcium modulator drugs and anthelmintic drugs were measured and provided an indication of compound efficacy. This work describes for the first time the detection of alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase and acetylcholinesterase activities in supernatants of in vitro treated Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces. Marked differences on the enzymatic activities in supernatants from drug treated cultures were detected. We demonstrated that those genes that show the highest degree of conservation when compared to orthologs, are constitutively and highly expressed in protoscoleces and metacestodes. Due to high sensibility and the lack of activity in supernatants of intact protoscoleces, gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase is proposed as the ideal viability marker during in vitro pharmacological studies against E. granulosus protoscoleces. PMID:22609954

Cumino, Andrea C; Nicolao, M Celeste; Loos, Julia A; Denegri, Guillermo; Elissondo, M Celina

2012-12-01

387

[Inheritance analysis and molecular marker selection of genes for wheat spindle streak mosaic disease resistance].  

PubMed

Three wheat spindle streak mosaic viruses (WSSMV) resistant cultivars ('Yining Xiaomai', 'Xu87-633', and 'Xifeng') and one susceptible cultivar ('Zhen9523') were used as parents of 3 crosses in this experiment. WSSMV resistance of the parents, F1, and F2 was evaluated under field condition. Based on the segregation ratios of resistant and susceptible plants in F, and F2 populations, it was deduced that the resistance to WSSMV was dominant and the inheritable factors controlling WSSMV resistance were encoded by the nuclear genome. WSSMV resistances in 'Yining Xiaomai' and 'Xifeng' were controlled by two pairs of alleles, which showed complementary effects. However the resistance in 'Xu-87633' was controlled by a single dominant gene. 266 pairs of SSR primers located on 21 wheat chromosomes were used for polymorphic analysis of the two resistant and the susceptible parents 'Yining Xiaomai' and 'Zhen9523', and 108 of them amplified polymorphic DNA products. By Bulk Segregant Analysis of resistant and susceptible pools, one pair of primer located on chromosome arm 2DS, Xgwm261, were found being linked to WSSMV resistance. The 224 F2 individuals were then amplified with marker Xgwm261. The statistic genetic distance between Xgwm261 and the resistance locus was calculated to be 22.9 cM using the software Mapmaker 3.0. PMID:16078742

Zhang, Qing-Ping; Wang, Xiu-E; Wang, Yao-Nan; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Hai-Yan; Wang, Su-Ling; Chen, Pei-Du

2005-07-01

388

Retrotransposon-Based Molecular Markers for Analysis of Genetic Diversity within the Genus Linum.  

PubMed

SSAP method was used to study the genetic diversity of 22 Linum species from sections Linum, Adenolinum, Dasylinum, Stellerolinum, and 46 flax cultivars. All the studied flax varieties were distinguished using SSAP for retrotransposons FL9 and FL11. Thus, the validity of SSAP method was demonstrated for flax marking, identification of accessions in genebank collections, and control during propagation of flax varieties. Polymorphism of Fl1a, Fl1b, and Cassandra insertions were very low in flax varieties, but these retrotransposons were successfully used for the investigation of Linum species. Species clusterization based on SSAP markers was in concordance with their taxonomic division into sections Dasylinum, Stellerolinum, Adenolinum, and Linum. All species of sect. Adenolinum clustered apart from species of sect. Linum. The data confirmed the accuracy of the separation in these sections. Members of section Linum are not as closely related as members of other sections, so taxonomic revision of this section is desirable. L. usitatissimum accessions genetically distant from modern flax cultivars were revealed in our work. These accessions are of utmost interest for flax breeding and introduction of new useful traits into flax cultivars. The chromosome localization of Cassandra retrotransposon in Linum species was determined. PMID:25243121

Melnikova, Nataliya V; Kudryavtseva, Anna V; Zelenin, Alexander V; Lakunina, Valentina A; Yurkevich, Olga Yu; Speranskaya, Anna S; Dmitriev, Alexey A; Krinitsina, Anastasia A; Belenikin, Maxim S; Uroshlev, Leonid A; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V; Sadritdinova, Asiya F; Koroban, Nadezda V; Amosova, Alexandra V; Samatadze, Tatiana E; Guzenko, Elena V; Lemesh, Valentina A; Savilova, Anastasya M; Rachinskaia, Olga A; Kishlyan, Natalya V; Rozhmina, Tatiana A; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Muravenko, Olga V

2014-01-01

389

Molecular characterization and differentiation of five horse breeds raised in Algeria using polymorphic microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

In this study, genetic analyses of diversity and differentiation were performed on five horse breeds raised in Algeria (Barb, Arab-Barb, Arabian, Thoroughbred and French Trotter). All microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic in all the breeds. A total of 123 alleles from 14 microsatellite loci were detected in 201 horses. The average number of alleles per locus was the highest in the Arab-Barb horses (7.86) and lowest in the thoroughbred breed (5.71), whereas the observed and expected heterozygosities per breed ranged from 0.71 (Thoroughbred) to 0.752 (Barb) and 0.71 (Thoroughbred) to 0.77 (Arab-Barb), respectively. The genetic differentiation between the breeds was significant (p < 0.01) based on the infinitesimal model (FST ). Three different approaches for evaluating the genetic relationships were applied. Genetic distances, the factorial correspondence analysis and structure analysis showed that a significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the native horse populations and the other breeds. The Barb and Arab-Barb breeds seem to be the most genetically related and support the decision to consider the breeds as same population. PMID:24834806

Berber, N; Gaouar, S; Leroy, G; Kdidi, S; Tabet Aouel, N; Saïdi Mehtar, N

2014-10-01

390

Mechanisms and potential molecular markers of early response to combination epigenetic therapy in patients with myeloid malignancies.  

PubMed

Combination epigenetic treatment (EGT) utilizing DNA methyl transferase inhibitors (DNMTi) and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) may be more efficacious than single agent treatment in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The molecular mechanisms behind the potential clinical efficacy of combination EGT treatment are incompletely understood and the frequently lengthy EGT regimes required to determine clinical response have generated a significant demand for early molecular markers of treatment response. Our study aimed to identify the effect of combination azacitidine (AZA) and panobinostat (LBH589) on expression levels of a panel of genes implicated in the pathogenesis of high-risk MDS or AML in HL-60 cells. We also characterized gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMCs) from patients in a recently reported phase Ib/II clinical trial using the combination of AZA and LBH589 and correlated these findings with clinical response to treatment. In vitro analysis demonstrated increased expression of caspase-3, Nor-1, NUR77, p15INK4B and p21WAF1/CIP1 and decreased expression of Bcl?xL in HL-60 cells treated with combination EGT. Analysis of patient samples prior to treatment demonstrated a significant reduction in NUR77 and p21WAF1/CIP1 expression compared to healthy controls. NUR77 and p21WAF1/CIP1 levels were similar between treatment non?responders and responders at screening. Early post first cycle treatment (day 25) analysis demonstrated a significant increase in expression of both NUR77, and p21WAF1/CIP1. A significant increase in NUR77, and p21WAF1/CIP1 together with a trend to increase in p15INK4B first cycle expression was observed in treatment responders compared to non-responders. In summary, combination AZA and LBH589 epigenetic treatment is associated with in vitro and in vivo modulation of genes implicated in the pathogenesis of MDS/AML. Early expression of NUR77 and p21WAF1/CIP1 correlated with clinical response to combination EGT suggesting investigation for potential use as molecular markers of early treatment response may be warranted. PMID:25051119

Liu, H B; Urbanavicius, D; Tan, P; Spencer, A; Dear, A E

2014-10-01

391

Temporal trends of molecular markers associated with artemether-lumefantrine tolerance/resistance in Bagamoyo district, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Development and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) constitutes a major threat to recent global malaria control achievements. Surveillance of molecular markers could act as an early warning system of ACT-resistance before clinical treatment failures are apparent. The aim of this study was to analyse temporal trends of established genotypes associated with artemether-lumefantrine tolerance/resistance before and after its deployment as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Tanzania 2006. Methods Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) N86Y, Y184F, D1246Y and P. falciparum chloroquine transporter gene (pfcrt) K76T were analysed from dried blood spots collected during six consecutive studies from children with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Fukayosi village, Bagamoyo District, Tanzania, between 2004–2011. Results There was a statistically significant yearly increase of pfmdr1 N86, 184F, D1246 and pfcrt K76 between 2006–2011 from 14% to 61% (yearly OR = 1.38 [95% CI 1.25-1.52] p < 0.0001), 14% to 35% (OR = 1.17 [95% CI 1.07-1.30] p = 0.001), 54% to 85% (OR = 1.21 [95% CI 1.03-1.42] p = 0.016) and 49% to 85% (OR = 1.33 [95% CI 1.17-1.51] p < 0.0001), respectively. Unlike for the pfmdr1 SNP, a significant increase of pfcrt K76 was observed already between 2004–2006, from 26% to 49% (OR = 1.68 [95% CI 1.17-2.40] p = 0.005). From 2006 to 2011 the pfmdr1 NFD haplotype increased from 10% to 37% (OR = 1.25 [95% CI 1.12-1.39] p < 0.0001), whereas the YYY haplotype decreased from 31% to 6% (OR = 0.73 [95% CI 0.56-0.98] p = 0.018). All 390 successfully analysed samples had one copy of the pfmdr1 gene. Conclusion The temporal selection of molecular markers associated with artemether-lumefantrine tolerance/resistance may represent an early warning sign of impaired future drug efficacy. This calls for stringent surveillance of artemether-lumefantrine efficacy in Tanzania and emphasizes the importance of molecular surveillance as a complement to standard in vivo trials. PMID:23506218

2013-01-01

392

Validity of the bear tapeworm Diphyllobothrium ursi (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae) based on morphological and molecular markers.  

PubMed

The bear tapeworm Diphyllobothrium ursi is described based upon the morphology of adult tapeworms recovered from the brown bear (Ursus arctos middendorffi) and larval plerocercoids found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) from Kodiak Island in Alaska in 1952. However, in 1987 D. ursi was synonymized with Diphyllobothrium dendriticum, and the taxonomic relationship between both species has not subsequently been revised. In this study mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) sequences of holotype and paratype D. ursi specimens that had been preserved in a formalin-acetic acid-alcohol solution since the time the species was initially described approximately 60 yr ago were analyzed. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the cox1 sequences revealed that D. ursi is more closely related to D. dendriticum than it is to Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense and Diphyllobothrium latum. In addition to molecular evidence, differences in the life cycle and ecology of the larval plerocercoids between D. ursi and D. dendriticum also suggest that D. ursi is a distinct species, separate from D. dendriticum and D. nihonkaiense, and also possibly from D. latum . PMID:22663179

Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Muto, Maki; Yamada, Minoru; Arizono, Naoki; Rausch, Robert L

2012-12-01

393

Comparative protein profiles: potential molecular markers from spermatozoa of Acipenseriformes (Chondrostei, Pisces).  

PubMed

Sturgeon and paddlefish (Acipenseriformes), the source of roe consumed as caviar, are a unique and commercially valuable group of ancient fishes. In this study, comparative proteomics was used to analyze protein profiles of spermatozoa from five sturgeon species and one paddlefish: Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii), sterlet (A. ruthenus), Russian sturgeon (A. gueldenstaedtii), starry sturgeon (A. stellatus), beluga (Huso huso), and Mississippi paddlefish (Polyodon spathula). Protein profiles of spermatozoa were determined by isoelectric focusing and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) high-resolution gels. The peptides, previously selected by 2-DE analysis as potentially species-specific, were obtained by "in-gel" tryptic digestion, followed by matrix-associated laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Among the 23 protein spots selected, 14 were identified as isoforms of enolase B present in all species, but with different isoelectric points or molecular mass. Exceptions were A. ruthenus and H. huso, species with a close phylogenetic relationship. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was detected exclusively in P. spathula. Phosphoglycerate kinase was detected only in A. ruthenus and H. huso, and 3 additional proteins (fructose bisphosphate aldolase A-2, glycogen phosphorylase type IV and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) were found exclusively in A. gueldenstaedtii and H. huso. This study points to the application of proteomics for differential characterization and comparative studies of acipenseriform species at the molecular level. PMID:20869341

Li, Ping; Hulak, Martin; Rodina, Marek; Sulc, Miroslav; Li, Zhi-Hua; Linhart, Otomar

2010-12-01

394

Molecular characterization of the Andean blackberry, Rubus glaucus, using SSR markers.  

PubMed

The species Rubus glaucus, also known as the Andean or "Castilla" blackberry, is one of nine edible species of this genus that grow naturally in Central and South America. In Colombia, this species is the most important of all Rubus species for agricultural and commercial purposes. We used 20 SSRs developed for other Rubus species to characterize 44 Colombian R. glaucus genotypes, collected from eight different departments, and to look for molecular differences between thornless and thorny cultivated blackberries. Eighty-two bands were obtained from 28 loci. The genotypes were classified into eight populations, corresponding to collection sites. The mean number of polymorphic alleles per locus in all populations and genotypes ranged from 1.857 to 2.393. Samples collected from Valle del Cauca, Quindío, Caldas, and Risaralda departments had the highest heterozygosity values. The finding of exclusive bands from R. glaucus genotypes from Valle del Cauca, Quindío, and Caldas demonstrates genetic and molecular differentiation between thorny and thornless Andean blackberries. PMID:22370934

Marulanda, M; López, A M; Uribe, M

2012-01-01

395

Distinctive mitochondrial genome of Calanoid copepod Calanus sinicus with multiple large non-coding regions and reshuffled gene order: Useful molecular markers for phylogenetic and population studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Copepods are highly diverse and abundant, resulting in extensive ecological radiation in marine ecosystems. Calanus sinicus dominates continental shelf waters in the northwest Pacific Ocean and plays an important role in the local ecosystem by linking primary production to higher trophic levels. A lack of effective molecular markers has hindered phylogenetic and population genetic studies concerning copepods. As they

Wang Minxiao; Sun Song; Li Chaolun; Shen Xin

2011-01-01

396

New insights into family relationships within the avian superfamily Sylvioidea (Passeriformes) based on seven molecular markers  

PubMed Central

Background The circumscription of the avian superfamily Sylvioidea is a matter of long ongoing debate. While the overall inclusiveness has now been mostly agreed on and 20 families recognised, the phylogenetic relationships among the families are largely unknown. We here present a phylogenetic hypothesis for Sylvioidea based on one mitochondrial and six nuclear markers, in total ~6.3 kbp, for 79 ingroup species representing all currently recognised families and some species with uncertain affinities, making this the most comprehensive analysis of this taxon. Results The resolution, especially of the deeper nodes, is much improved compared to previous studies. However, many relationships among families remain uncertain and are in need of verification. Most families themselves are very well supported based on the total data set and also by indels. Our data do not support the inclusion of Hylia in Cettiidae, but do not strongly reject a close relationship with Cettiidae either. The genera Scotocerca and Erythrocercus are closely related to Cettiidae, but separated by relatively long internodes. The families Paridae, Remizidae and Stenostiridae clustered among the outgroup taxa and not within Sylvioidea. Conclusions Although the phylogenetic position of Hylia is uncertain, we tentatively support the recognition of the family Hyliidae Bannerman, 1923 for this genus and Pholidornis. We propose new family names for the genera Scotocerca and Erythrocercus, Scotocercidae and Erythrocercidae, respectively, rather than including these in Cettiidae, and we formally propose the name Macrosphenidae, which has been in informal use for some time. We recommend that Paridae, Remizidae and Stenostiridae are not included in Sylvioidea. We also briefly discuss the problems of providing a morphological diagnosis when proposing a new family-group name (or genus-group name) based on a clade. PMID:22920688

2012-01-01

397

Molecular contributions to conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent advances in molecular technology have opened a new chapter in species conservation efforts, as well as population biology. DNA sequencing, MHC (major histocompatibility complex), minisatellite, microsatellite, and RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) procedures allow for identification of parentage, more distant relatives, founders to new populations, unidentified individuals, population structure, effective population size, population-specific markers, etc. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplification of mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, ribosomal DNA, chloroplast DNA, and other systems provide for more sophisticated analyses of metapopulation structure, hybridization events, and delineation of species, subspecies, and races, all of which aid in setting species recovery priorities. Each technique can be powerful in its own right but is most credible when used in conjunction with other molecular techniques and, most importantly, with ecological and demographic data collected from the field. Surprisingly few taxa of concern have been assayed with any molecular technique. Thus, rather than showcasing exhaustive details from a few well-known examples, this paper attempts to present a broad range of cases in which molecular techniques have been used to provide insight into conservation efforts.

Haig, Susan M.

1998-01-01

398

Most frequent molecular and immunohistochemical markers present in selected types of brain tumors.  

PubMed

Tumors of brain tissue and meninges create a heterogeneous group with various biological behavior, therapy management and differing prognosis. Some of these do not require treatment, some can be cured by surgery and some are rapidly fatal despite treatment. Despite huge progress in tumor research, innovations in diagnostic tools and therapy, prognosis remains, in case of malignant tumor types, very serious. There has been an increased understanding of molecular abnormalities occurring in primary brain tumors. Genome-wide analyses of tumors have improved the knowledge in tumor biology. The aim of the research is to explain the oncogenesis features thus leading to the use of new therapeutic modalities in order to prolong survival rate of patients and at the same time providing satisfactory life quality. This article offers a short review of the basic genetic alterations present with some histological types of brain tumors. PMID:24968406

Richterová, Romana; Jure?eková, Jana; Evinová, Andrea; Kolarovszki, Branislav; Ben?o, Martin; De Riggo, Július; Sutovský, Juraj; Mahmood, Silvia; Ra?ay, Peter; Dobrota, Dušan

2014-01-01

399

The Transferrin Receptor: A Potential Molecular Imaging Marker for Human Cancer1  

PubMed Central

Abstract Noninvasive imaging of differences between the molecular properties of cancer and normal tissue has the potential to enhance the detection of tumors. Because overexpression of endogenous transferrin receptor (TfR) has been qualitatively described for various cancers and is presumably due to malignant transformation of cells, TfR may represent a suitable target for application of molecular imaging technologies to increase detection of smaller tumors. In the work reported here, investigation into the biology of this receptor using electron microscopy has demonstrated that iron oxide particles targeted to TfR are internalized and accumulate in lysosomal vesicles within cells. Biochemical analysis of the interaction of imaging probes with cells overexpressing the TfR demonstrated that the extent of accumulation, and therefore probe efficacy, is dependent on the nature of the chemical cross-link between transferrin and the iron oxide particle. These data were utilized to design and synthesize an improved imaging probe. Experiments demonstrate that the novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probe is sensitive enough to detect small differences in endogenous TfR expression in human cancer cell lines. Quantitative measurement of TfR overexpression in a panel of 27 human breast cancer patients demonstrated that 74% of patient cancer tissues overexpressed the TfR and that the sensitivity of the new imaging agent was suitable to detect TfR overexpression in greater than 40% of these cases. Based on a biochemical and cell biological approach, these studies have resulted in the synthesis and development of an improved MRI probe with the best in vitro and in vivo imaging properties reported to date. PMID:14965443

Hogemann-Savellano, Dagmar; Bos, Erik; Blondet, Cyrille; Sato, Fuminori; Abe, Tatsuya; Josephson, Lee; Weissleder, Ralph; Gaudet, Justin; Sgroi, Dennis; Peters, Peter J.; Basilion, James P.

2003-01-01

400

Molecular marker and stable carbon isotope analyses of carbonaceous Ambassador uranium ores of Mulga Rock in Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mulga Rock is a multi-element deposit containing uranium hosted by Eocene peats and lignites deposited in inset valleys incised into Permian rocks of the Gunbarrel Basin and Precambrian rocks of the Yilgarn Craton and Albany-Fraser Orogen. Uranium readily adsorbs onto minerals or phytoclasts to form organo-uranyl complexes. This is important in pre-concentrating uranium in this relatively young ore deposit with rare uraninite [UO2] and coffinite [U(SiO4)1-x(OH)4x], more commonly amorphous and sub-micron uranium-bearing particulates. Organic geochemical and compound-specific stable carbon isotope analyses were conducted to identify possible associations of molecular markers with uranium accumulation and to recognize effect(s) of ionizing radiation on molecular markers. Samples were collected from the Ambassador deposit containing low (<200 ppm) to high (>2000 ppm) uranium concentrations. The bulk rock C/N ratios of 82 to 153, Rock-Eval pyrolysis yields of 316 to 577 mg hydrocarbon/g TOC (Hydrogen Index, HI) and 70 to 102 mg CO2/g TOC (Oxygen Index, OI) are consistent with a terrigenous and predominantly vascular plant OM source deposited in a complex shallow water system, ranging from lacustrine to deltaic, swampy wetland and even shallow lake settings as proposed by previous workers. Organic solvent extracts were separated into saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, ketone, and a combined free fatty acid and alcohol fraction. The molecular profiles appear to vary with uranium concentration. In samples with relatively low uranium concentrations, long-chain n-alkanes, alcohols and fatty acids derived from epicuticular plant waxes dominate. The n-alkane distributions (C27 to C31) reveal an odd/even preference (Carbon Preference Index, CPI=1.5) indicative of extant lipids. Average ?13C of -27 to -29 ‰ for long-chain n-alkanes is consistent with a predominant C3 plant source. Samples with relatively higher uranium concentrations contain mostly intermediate-length n-alkanes, ketones, alcohols, and fatty acids (C20 to C24) with no preferential distribution (CPI~1). Intermediate length n-alkanes have modest carbon isotope enrichment compared to long-chain n-alkanes. These shorter-chain hydrocarbons are interpreted to represent alteration products. The diversity and relative abundance of ketones in highly mineralised Mulga Rock peats and lignites are not consistent with aerobic and diagenetic degradation of terrigenous OM in oxic environments. Moreover, molecular changes cannot be associated with thermal breakdown due to the low maturity of the deposits. It is possible that the association of high uranium concentrations and potential radiolysis resulted in the oxidation of alcohol functional groups into aldehydes and ketones and breakdown of highly aliphatic macromolecules (i.e. spores, pollen, cuticles, and algal cysts). These phytoclasts are usually considered to be recalcitrant as they evolved to withstand chemical and physical degradation. Previous petrographic analyses show that spores, pollen and wood fragments are preferentially enriched in uranium. Their molecular compositions are feasible sources of short- to intermediate-length n-alkanes that dominate the mineralised peats and lignites.

Jaraula, C.; Schwark, L.; Moreau, X.; Grice, K.; Bagas, L.

2013-12-01

401

Molecular systematics and phylogeography of the tribe Myonycterini (Mammalia, Pteropodidae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear markers.  

PubMed

The tribe Myonycterini comprises five fruit bat species of the family Pteropodidae, which are endemic to tropical Africa. Previous studies have produced conflicting results about their interspecific relationships. Here, we performed a comparative phylogeographic analysis based on 148 complete cytochrome b gene sequences from the three species distributed in West Africa and Central Africa (Myonycteris torquata, Lissonycteris angolensis and Megaloglossus woermanni). In addition, we investigated phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Myonycterini, using a matrix including 29 terminal taxa and 7235 nucleotide characters, corresponding to an alignment of two mitochondrial genes and seven nuclear introns. Our phylogenetic analyses confirmed that the genus Megaloglossus belongs to the tribe Myonycterini. Further, the genus Rousettus is paraphyletic, with R. lanosus, sometimes placed in the genus Stenonycteris, being the sister-group of the tribes Myonycterini and Epomophorini. Our phylogeographic results showed that populations of Myonycteris torquata and Megaloglossus woermanni from the Upper Guinea Forest are highly divergent from those of the Congo Basin Forest. Based on our molecular data, we recommended several taxonomic changes. First, Stenonycteris should be recognized as a separate genus from Rousettus and composed of S. lanosus. This genus should be elevated to a new tribe, Stenonycterini, within the subfamily Epomophorinae. This result shows that the evolution of lingual echolocation was more complicated than previously accepted. Second, the genus Lissonycteris is synonymised with Myonycteris. Third, the populations from West Africa formerly included in Myonycteris torquata and Megaloglossus woermanni are now placed in two distinct species, respectively, Myonycteris leptodon and Megaloglossus azagnyi sp. nov. Our molecular dating estimates show that the three phases of taxonomic diversification detected within the tribe Myonycterini can be related to three distinct decreases in tree cover vegetation, at 6.5-6, 2.7-2.5, and 1.8-1.6Ma. Our results suggest that the high nucleotide distance between Ebolavirus Côte d'Ivoire and Ebolavirus Zaire can be correlated with the Plio/Pleistocene divergence between their putative reservoir host species, i.e., Myonycteris leptodon and Myonycteris torquata, respectively. PMID:23063885

Nesi, Nicolas; Kadjo, Blaise; Pourrut, Xavier; Leroy, Eric; Pongombo Shongo, Célestin; Cruaud, Corinne; Hassanin, Alexandre

2013-01-01

402

Detection of self-incompatible oilseed rape plants (Brassica napus L.) based on molecular markers for identification of the class I S haplotype.  

PubMed

The selection of desirable genotypes with recessive characteristics, such as self-incompatible plants, is often difficult or even impossible and represents a crucial barrier in accelerating the breeding process. Molecular approaches and selection based on molecular markers can allow breeders to overcome this limitation. The use of self-incompatibility is an alternative in hybrid breeding of oilseed rape. Unfortunately, stable self-incompatibility is recessive and phenotype-based selection is very difficult and time-consuming. The development of reliable molecular markers for detecting desirable plants with functional self-incompatible genes is of great importance for breeders and allows selection at early stages of plant growth. Because most of these reliable molecular markers are based on discrimination of class I S-locus genes that are present in self-compatible plants, there is a need to use an internal control in order to detect possible PCR inhibition that gives false results during genotyping. In this study, 269 double haploid F2 oilseed rape plants obtained by microspore embryogenesis were used to verify the applicability of an improved PCR assay based on the detection of the class I SLG gene along with an internal control. Comparative analysis of the PCR genotyping results vs. S phenotype analysis confirmed the applicability of this molecular approach in hybrid breeding programs. This approach allows accurate detection of self-incompatible plants via a different amplification profile. PMID:25249779

Havlícková, Lenka; Jozová, Eva; Klíma, Miroslav; Kucera, Vratislav; Curn, Vladislav

2014-09-01

403

Molecular Classification of Prostate Cancer Progression: Foundation for Marker driven-Treatment of Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Recently, many therapeutic agents for prostate cancer (PCa) have been approved that target the androgen receptor and/or the prostate tumor microenvironment. Each of these therapies has modestly increased patient survival. However, if a better understanding as to when in the course of PCa progression specific therapies should be applied, and what biomarkers would indicate when resistance arises, survival due to these therapies would almost certainly improve. Thus, applying the armamentarium of therapeutic agents in the right sequences in the right combination at the right time is a major goal in prostate cancer treatment. For this to occur, an understanding of prostate cancer evolution during progression is required. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of PCa progression, but challenge the prevailing view by proposing a new model of PCa progression, with the goal of improving biologic classification and treatment strategies. We use this model to discuss how integrating clinical and basic understanding of PCa will lead to better implementation of molecularly-targeted therapeutics and improve patient survival. PMID:23811619

Logothetis, Christopher J; Gallick, Gary E.; Maity, Sankar N.; Kim, Jeri; Aparicio, Ana; Efstathiou, Eleni; Lin, Sue-Hwa

2014-01-01

404

Molecular markers to predict outcome to antiangiogenic therapies in colorectal cancer: current evidence and future perspectives.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis is a universal requirement for the growth of solid tumours beyond the limits of oxygen diffusion from the existing vasculature. The expression and function of proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors are altered in solid malignancies to drive net neoangiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been confirmed in several clinical trials as an important therapeutic target in colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. However, given that the efficacy of antiangiogenic agents appears to be limited to a subset of patients, the identification of who will obtain the greater benefit from this therapy or suffer from specific toxicities and when or for how long they should be administered in the treatment algorithm are major open questions for clinicians and challenges for present and future research. Current evidence indicates some predictive value for particular circulating measures, such as an increase in VEGF, a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) or circulating endothelial cells, tissue biomarkers, microvessel density, KRAS and BRAF gene mutations or polymorphisms affecting components of the VEGF pathway. Many questions relating to these and other surrogate biomarkers, however, remain unanswered and their clinical usefulness has yet to be proven. This review will focus on the present status of knowledge and future perspectives for developing molecular tools to foresee and monitor antiangiogenic therapy activity in CRC patients. PMID:23510598

Custodio, Ana; Barriuso, Jorge; de Castro, Javier; Martínez-Marín, Virginia; Moreno, Víctor; Rodríguez-Salas, Nuria; Feliu, Jaime

2013-12-01

405

[Studies of polymorphisms of Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans using RAPD].  

PubMed

Random amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD) was used in analyzing the polymorphisms of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans from seven different places. Of the 20 primers, four could generate reproducible RAPD profiles, and each one produced 1 approximately 9 bands. The similarity coefficients obtained from profiles generated by four primers among Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans were about 44% approximately 83%. PMID:15626671

He, Zhi-Guo; Hu, Yue-Hua; Hu, Wei-Xin; Zhong, Hui; Xu, Jing; Zhu, Min

2004-01-01

406

The Effect of Unsaturated Fatty Acids on Molecular Markers of Cholesterol Homeostasis in THP-1 Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Background Macrophages derived foam cells are key factors in the maladaptive immune and inflammatory response. Objectives The study of the cholesterol homeostasis and the molecular factor involved in these cells is very important in understanding the process of atherosclerosis and the mechanisms that prevent its occurrence. Materials and Methods This experimental study investigated the effects of c9, t11-Conjugated Linoleic Acid (c9, t11-CLA). Alpha Linolenic Acid (LA), and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) on the PPAR? and ACAT1 mRNA expression by Real time PCR and cholesterol homeostasis in THP-1 macrophages derived foam cells. Results Incubation of CLA, LA, EPA, and synthetic ligands did not prevent increasing the cellular total cholesterol (TC). Free cholesterol (FC) is increased by Sandoz58-035 (P = 0.024) and decreased by fatty acids and Wy14643 (Pirinixic acid) (P = 0.035). The pattern of distribution of %EC is similar to the EC pattern distribution. The ACAT1 mRNA expression was significantly increased by EPA (P = 0.009), but c9, t11- CLA, LA, Wy14643, and Sandoz58-035 had no significant effect on the mRNA level of ACAT1 expression compared to DMSO(Dimethyl sulfoxide). Discussions In comparison to the control of Wy14643, Sandoz58-035, c9 and t11-CLA, EPA increased the PPAR? mRNA levels (P = 0.024, P = 0.041, P = 0.043, and P = 0.004, respectively), even though, LA had no significant effect on the PPAR? mRNA expression (P = 0.489). Conclusions Variations in the chemical structure of fatty acids can affect their physiological function. PMID:24396573

Zavar Reza, Javad; Nahangi, Hossein; Mansouri, Reza; Dehghani, Ali; Mojarrad, Majid; Fathi, Mohammad; Nikzamir, Abdolrahim; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed

2013-01-01

407

Population typing of the causal agent of cassava bacterial blight in the Eastern Plains of Colombia using two types of molecular markers  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular typing of pathogen populations is an important tool for the development of effective strategies for disease control. Diverse molecular markers have been used to characterize populations of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam), the main bacterial pathogen of cassava. Recently, diversity and population dynamics of Xam in the Colombian Caribbean coast were estimated using AFLPs, where populations were found to be dynamic, diverse and with haplotypes unstable across time. Aiming to examine the current state of pathogen populations located in the Colombian Eastern Plains, we also used AFLP markers and we evaluated the usefulness of Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTRs) as new molecular markers for the study of Xam populations. Results The population analyses showed that AFLP and VNTR provide a detailed and congruent description of Xam populations from the Colombian Eastern Plains. These two typing strategies clearly separated strains from the Colombian Eastern Plains into distinct populations probably because of geographical distance. Although the majority of analyses were congruent between typing markers, fewer VNTRs were needed to detect a higher number of genetic populations of the pathogen as well as a higher ge